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Sample records for jupiter library consortium

  1. Academic Library Consortium in Jordan: An Evaluation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mustafa H.; Suleiman, Raid Jameel

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Due to the current financial and managerial difficulties that are encountered by libraries in public universities in Jordan and the geographical diffusion of these academic institutions, the idea of establishing a consortium was proposed by the Council of Higher Education to combine these libraries. This article reviews the reality of…

  2. China Academic Library and Information System: An Academic Library Consortium in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Longji; Chen, Ling; Zhang, Hongyang

    2000-01-01

    Describes CALIS (China Academic Library and Information System), a nationwide academic library consortium funded primarily by the Chinese government to serve multiple resource-sharing functions among the participating libraries, including online searching, interlibrary loan, document delivery, and coordinated purchasing and cataloging, by…

  3. Consortium Building and Licensing by University Libraries in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex C. Klugkist

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available There are 13 university libraries in the Netherlands. Together with the Royal Library in The Hague and the Royal Dutch Academy of Sciences in Amsterdam they form an association, the Association UKB. The UKB is a voluntary association with no formal legal basis. It is a platform for discussing and developing joint policy in the area of scientific information provision and services in the Netherlands. Her main interests include designing a national information infrastructure, organising loans between libraries, developing digital information services, granting consortium-related licenses, agreeing on pricing policies with respect to publishers, co-ordinating collection development and shared cataloguing and indexing. The UKB co-operates closely with PICA, a Dutch corporation for library automation and information, which was founded by a number of Dutch libraries and is now merged with OCLC. Especially in the field of licensing, the UKB has taken a number of important actions over the last few years: For example, it was on the UKB’s initiative that various licensing deals with information providers were concluded. This paper deals with the results achieved so far and reviews some of the experienced successes and problems.

  4. Jupiter

    CERN Document Server

    Penne, Barbra

    2017-01-01

    Our solar system's largest planet is huge enough that all of the system's other planets could fit inside it. Although Jupiter has been known since ancient times, scientists are still learning exciting new information about the planet and its satellites today. In fact, several of its moons are now believed to have oceans below their icy surfaces. Chapters focus on topics such as Jupiter's orbit and rotation, rings, atmosphere, and moons, as well as on the space missions that have helped us get a closer look at the planet and its moons over the past decades.

  5. Consortium Building and Licensing by University Libraries in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klugkist, Alex C.

    2002-01-01

    There are 13 university libraries in the Netherlands. Together with the Royal Library in The Hague and the Royal Dutch Academy of Sciences in Amsterdam they form an association, the Association UKB. The UKB is a voluntary association with no formal legal basis. It is a platform for discussing and de

  6. Choosing on Online Integrated Library System: A Consortium Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryciw-Wing, Carol A.

    1992-01-01

    A consortia of Rhode Island academic libraries used several research methods--checklists, vendor matrix, vendor demonstrations, dial-up access, on-site visits, and telephone conversations with representatives--to evaluate integrated library systems for purchase. With the help of private funding, INNOPAC was purchased and implemented. (EA)

  7. Consortium Building and Licensing by University Libraries in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klugkist, Alex C.

    2002-01-01

    There are 13 university libraries in the Netherlands. Together with the Royal Library in The Hague and the Royal Dutch Academy of Sciences in Amsterdam they form an association, the Association UKB. The UKB is a voluntary association with no formal legal basis. It is a platform for discussing and de

  8. Consortia for Engineering, Science and Technology Libraries in India: A Case Study of INDEST Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, S. K.; Deshpande, N. J.

    2007-10-01

    The present scenario of the INDEST Consortium among engineering, science and technology (including astronomy and astrophysics) libraries in India is discussed. The Indian National Digital Library in Engineering Sciences & Technology (INDEST) Consortium is a major initiative of the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India. The INDEST Consortium provides access to 16 full text e-resources and 7 bibliographic databases for 166 institutions as members who are taking advantage of cost effective access to premier resources in engineering, science and technology, including astronomy and astrophysics. Member institutions can access over 6500 e-journals from 1092 publishers. Out of these, over 150 e-journals are exclusively for the astronomy and physics community. The current study also presents a comparative analysis of the key features of nine major services, viz. ACM Digital Library, ASCE Journals, ASME Journals, EBSCO Databases (Business Source Premier), Elsevier's Science Direct, Emerald Full Text, IEEE/IEE Electronic Library Online (IEL), ProQuest ABI/INFORM and Springer Verlag's Link. In this paper, the limitations of this consortium are also discussed.

  9. The Arizona Universities Library Consortium patron-driven e-book model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne Richardson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Building on Arizona State University's patron-driven acquisitions (PDA initiative in 2009, the Arizona Universities Library Consortium, in partnership with the Ingram Content Group, created a cooperative patron-driven model to acquire electronic books (e-books. The model provides the opportunity for faculty and students at the universities governed by the Arizona Board of Regents (ABOR to access a core of e-books made accessible through resource discovery services and online catalogs. These books are available for significantly less than a single ABOR university would expend for the same materials. The patron-driven model described is one of many evolving models in digital scholarship, and, although the Arizona Universities Library Consortium reports a successful experience, patron-driven models pose questions to stakeholders in the academic publishing industry.

  10. A Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter for the EJSM mission: the JGO assessment phase study by the Thales Alenia Space consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncy, Joel; Couzin, Patrice; Mercier, Manuel; Boschetti, Demis

    2010-05-01

    ESA and NASA have undertaken advanced studies of a common mission to Jupiter's system, EJSM (Europa Jupiter System Mission). This mission comprises two spacecrafts launched independently in 2020 and reaching the system in 2026. This is a one-in-a-generation opportunity for Europe to contribute significantly to the science of this part of the Solar System, and as such, all efforts shall subsequently be made to maximize the scientific return without jeopardizing the technical and programmatic feasibility of the mission. A sub-glacial ocean on Europa and potentially two others on Ganymede and Callisto, the monitoring of Io's volcanic activity, the upper atmosphere of Jupiter, its rings, its tens of irregular moons, the tides, the magnetic fields of Jupiter and Ganymede and the behaviour of the plasma, the list of science objectives is not only impressive but also generates enthusiasm in the mission. In this NASA-ESA joint mission, NASA will take charge of both Io and Europa with the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO). Europe will get a fascinating share with the Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO), which will achieve the close study of the two largest and outermost Galilean moons Ganymede and Callisto and in addition, at-a-distance, the observation of the other targets mentioned above. ESA has awarded three industrial contracts for an assessment phase of JGO. As leader of one of the consortia, Thales Alenia Space is proud to present in this poster its achievements on this exciting mission. The requirements are discussed and the mission drivers identified. The main trades and the resulting architecture are recalled, along with the main selection drivers. The major system interrelated trades have covered the launcher and propulsion type, the number of regulated phases, the strategy for communications and science timeline, the need for HGA pointing, the sizing and configuration of the Solar Array, the accommodation of external appendages, the accommodation of the payload, the

  11. Jupiter Laser Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Jupiter Laser Facility is an institutional user facility in the Physical and Life Sciences Directorate at LLNL. The facility is designed to provide a high degree...

  12. A strategy for providing electronic library services to members of the AGATE Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. Garth

    1995-01-01

    they become available. An recommendation to NASA Headquarters should be made to establish a logically central access to all of the NASA Technical Libraries, to make these resources available both to all NASA employees and to the AGATE Consortium.

  13. 图书馆联盟环境下的开放存取发展策略%Development Strategies of Open Access under the Library Consortium Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘贵玉

    2012-01-01

    开放存取能够降低图书馆联盟信息资源建设的成本,拓展图书馆联盟的合作项目,提升图书馆联盟的影响力。同时,图书馆联盟能够为开放存取的发展提供组织和管理的保障及资源、经费、技术、人才的支持,因此在图书馆联盟环境下开展开放存取具有一定的可行性。图书馆联盟应依托联盟平台对内宣传开放存取,采取激励机制提升成员馆开放存取的参与度,利用联盟合作加强开放存取的资源整合,通过实践完善联盟层面的开放存取政策,借助联盟优势推进开放存取技术研究。%Open Access could reduce the construction cost of information resources of library consortia,expand the cooperation project of library consortia,and enhance the influence of library consortia.Meanwhile,library consortia could provide organization and management guarantees,supports of funding,technology and human resources for the development of Open Access.Thus,it is feasible to develop Open Access under the library consortium environment.Library consortia should rely on the library consortium platform to publicize Open Access in interior,enhance the participation of member libraries through incentive mechanisms,strengthen the integration of Open Access resources through the consortium cooperation,perfect Open Access policy in practice,and promote technology research with the help of advantages of library consortia.

  14. Analysis on the Leading Role of University Libraries in the Regional Library Consortium%高校图书馆在区域图书馆联合体中的引领作用探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹志梅

    2012-01-01

    图书馆行业的"条块"现象一直是不同系统图书馆之间的天然屏障,在区域图书馆联合体建设中,没有图书馆愿意主动牵头,致使区域图书馆联合体建设举步维艰。高校图书馆具有资源、人力、经费、环境等方面的优势,应充分发挥其在区域图书馆联合体中的引领作用,推进区域图书馆联合体建设的进程。%The separation phenomenon in the industry of libraries is always the natural barrier.In the process of constructing regional library consortia,there are few libraries prefer to lead constructing actively,which results in constructing regional library consortia difficulty.University libraries have some obvious advantages in literature resources,human resources,funds and circumstance,and so on.The university library should play the leading role in constructing the regional library consortium actively,in order to advance the progress of constructing the regional library consortium.

  15. 图书馆联盟云计算服务平台的设计与实现——吉林省图书馆联盟云计算服务平台建设实践%Design and Implementation of Library Consortium Cloud Computing Services Platform - the Practice of Jilin Province Library Consortium Cloud Computing Services Platform Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘万国; 隋会民; 张静鹏

    2012-01-01

    文章基于吉林省图书馆联盟云计算服务平台建设的实践,阐述了图书馆联盟云计算服务平台的建设目标、平台的构成,分析了知识发现与获取、书刊管理、数字资产管理、云存储、学习与研究等云服务子平台的构建技术路线和功能,探讨了联盟云计算服务平台的底层技术架构,论述了图书馆联盟云计算服务平台的社会意义.%Based on the practice of cloud computing service platform construction of Jilin Province Library Consortium, the article elaborates the composition of platform and the goal of Jilin Province Library Consortium cloud computing service platform construction. This article analyzes the knowledge discovery and delivery, books management, digital asset management, Cloud Storage, learning and research, cloud services sub-platform building technical route and function. This article discusses Consortium cloud computing service platform bottom technical architecture, and elaborates the library Consortium cloud computing service platform of social significance.

  16. From vision to reality--managing change in the provision of library and information services to nurses, midwives, health visitors and PAMs: (professions allied to medicine) a case study of the North Thames experience with the Inner London Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godbolt, S; Williamson, J; Wilson, A

    1997-06-01

    One of the North Thames' pioneering consortia, the Inner London Consortium (ILC) is a complex body which includes NHS Trusts with teaching hospital university connections, community-based Trusts and general hospital acute Trusts. Within the consortium there are 12,000 trained nurses, midwives, health visitors and other professional staff working in the professions allied to medicine (PAMs), all of whom require access to and provision of appropriate library information services. In 1994, taking into account experiences elsewhere in the Region and nationally, it became clear that library issues were complex and would become acute with the move of nursing libraries from ILC Trust sites over a very short timescale. A report on the issues commissioned by the Consortium recommended that a library project, which built on existing NHS Trust PGMDE funded library resources and moved these to a multidisciplinary base to serve the consortium membership, be implemented. The objective of providing access to library information services for nurses and PAMs was achieved. Successes that emerged from the implementation included: The registration in Trust libraries of almost 12 000 new members within the initial 6-month monitoring period. The development of service level agreements and standards for the delivery of services to these new user groups. This paper describes the processes behind these significant and complex changes.

  17. Quality of Online Chat Reference Answers Differ between Local and Consortium Library Staff: Providing Consortium Staff with More Local Information Can Mitigate these Differences. A Review of: Meert, D.L., & Given, L.M. (2009. Measuring quality in chat reference consortia: A comparative analysis of responses to users’ queries.” College & Research Libraries, 70(1, 71‐84.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Newton Miller

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To evaluate the quality of answers from a 24/7 online chat reference service by comparing the responses given by local and consortia library staff using in‐house reference standards, and by assessing whether or not the questions were answered in real time.Design – Comparative analysis of online chat reference transcripts.Setting – Large academic library in Alberta, Canada.Subjects – A total of online chat reference transcripts from the first year of consortium service were analyzed for this study. Of these, 252 were answered by local library staff and 226 from consortia (non‐local library staff.Methods – A stratified random sample of 1,402 transcripts were collected from the first year of consortium service (beginning of October to end of April. This method was then applied monthly, resulting in a sample size of 478 transcripts. In the first part of the study, responses were coded within the transcripts with a “yes” or “no” label to determine if they met the standards set by the local university library’s reference management. Reference transaction standards included questions regarding whether or not correct information or instructions were given and if not, whether the user was referred to an authoritative source for the correct information. The second part of the study coded transcripts with a “yes” or “no” designation as to whether the user received an answer from the staff member in “real time” and if not, was further analyzed to determine why the user did not receive a real‐time response. Each transcript was coded as reflecting one of four “question categories” that included library user information, request for instruction, request for academic information, and miscellaneous/non‐library questions.Main Results – When all question types were integrated, analysis revealed that local library staff met reference transaction standards 94% of the time. Consortia staff met these same

  18. Jupiter Eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for high resolution image of Nature Cover Detailed analysis of two continent-sized storms that erupted in Jupiter's atmosphere in March 2007 shows that Jupiter's internal heat plays a significant role in generating atmospheric disturbances. Understanding these outbreaks could be the key to unlock the mysteries buried in the deep Jovian atmosphere, say astronomers. This visible-light image is from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope taken on May 11, 2007. It shows the turbulent pattern generated by the two plumes on the upper left part of Jupiter. Understanding these phenomena is important for Earth's meteorology where storms are present everywhere and jet streams dominate the atmospheric circulation. Jupiter is a natural laboratory where atmospheric scientists study the nature and interplay of the intense jets and severe atmospheric phenomena. According to the analysis, the bright plumes were storm systems triggered in Jupiter's deep water clouds that moved upward in the atmosphere vi gorously and injected a fresh mixture of ammonia ice and water about 20 miles (30 kilometers) above the visible clouds. The storms moved in the peak of a jet stream in Jupiter's atmosphere at 375 miles per hour (600 kilometers per hour). Models of the disturbance indicate that the jet stream extends deep in the buried atmosphere of Jupiter, more than 60 miles (approximately100 kilometers) below the cloud tops where most sunlight is absorbed.

  19. 从共享到共有:学术图书馆云存储联盟研究%From Sharing to Co-owning:Academic Library Cloud Storage Consortium Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘华; 许新巧

    2014-01-01

    This paper attempts to define the structure and framework of academic library cloud storage consortium.The au-thors analyze the opportunities for academic libraries which cloud-computing is bringing basing on some American cloud storage consortium cases and propose that China academic libraries should accelerate the building of academic library cloud storage consorti-um based on cloud-computing.%探讨学术馆藏云存储联盟的结构和操作框架,并以美国学术图书馆云存储联盟为案例,分析研究云存储联盟给学术图书馆带来的机遇,指出云存储联盟将促进云图书馆的建设,中国学术图书馆应利用云技术,加快建设本国的云存储联盟。

  20. rosuvastatin (JUPITER)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge; Ridker, Paul M; MacFadyen, Jean G;

    2009-01-01

    were calculated across a range of end points, timeframes, and subgroups using data from Justification for the Use of statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin (JUPITER), a randomized evaluation of rosuvastatin 20 mg versus placebo conducted among 17 802 apparently healthy men...... infarction, stroke, revascularization, or death, the 5-year NNT within JUPITER was 20 (95% CI, 14 to 34). All subgroups had 5-year NNT values for this end point below 50; as examples, 5-year NNT values were 17 for men and 31 for women, 21 for whites and 19 for nonwhites, 18 for those with body mass index 300...

  1. Est16, a New Esterase Isolated from a Metagenomic Library of a Microbial Consortium Specializing in Diesel Oil Degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rangel Pereira

    Full Text Available Lipolytic enzymes have attracted attention from a global market because they show enormous biotechnological potential for applications such as detergent production, leather processing, cosmetics production, and use in perfumes and biodiesel. Due to the intense demand for biocatalysts, a metagenomic approach provides methods of identifying new enzymes. In this study, an esterase designated as Est16 was selected from 4224 clones of a fosmid metagenomic library, revealing an 87% amino acid identity with an esterase/lipase (accession number ADM63076.1 from an uncultured bacterium. Phylogenetic studies showed that the enzyme belongs to family V of bacterial lipolytic enzymes and has sequence and structural similarities with an aryl-esterase from Pseudomonas fluorescens and a patented Anti-Kazlauskas lipase (patent number US20050153404. The protein was expressed and purified as a highly soluble, thermally stable enzyme that showed a preference for basic pH. Est16 exhibited activity toward a wide range of substrates and the highest catalytic efficiency against p-nitrophenyl butyrate and p-nitrophenyl valerate. Est16 also showed tolerance to the presence of organic solvents, detergents and metals. Based on molecular modeling, we showed that the large alpha-beta domain is conserved in the patented enzymes but not the substrate pocket. Here, it was demonstrated that a metagenomic approach is suitable for discovering the lipolytic enzyme diversity and that Est16 has the biotechnological potential for use in industrial processes.

  2. A Study of Psychological Contract Problems of Librarians in Library Consortium%图书馆联盟馆员的心理契约问题研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡芬琴; 詹庆东

    2016-01-01

    针对当前仅靠联盟契约难以有效规范和约束图书馆联盟馆员的问题,文章将心理学中“心理契约”相关理论引入图书馆联盟研究领域,探究联盟馆员的心理契约问题,辅助管理联盟馆员。基于图书馆联盟馆员的特性,对联盟馆员心理契约的类型、维度及其影响因素进行分析,最后给出构建图书馆联盟馆员良好心理契约的相关策略与建议,以期从心理精神层面积极有效地引导联盟馆员开展工作。%〔Abstract〕 In view of the dififcult to effectively manage alliance librarian only by union contracts, the paper explores the psychological contract issues of alliance librarians to help organization management. Based on the characteristics of alliance librarian, the paper makes use of psychological contract theories in psychology to study the contents, the constructs and the inlfuenced factors of psychological contract between the librarians and library consortium, and puts forward some management countermeasures to develop a good psychological contract, actively guide the effective work of alliance librarians from the psychological level.

  3. 近10年我国图书馆联盟发展现状与对策研究%Research on the Current Situation and Countermeasures of the Library Consortium Development in China in the Past Decade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟伟; 周伟

    2012-01-01

    Through analysis on the distribution of core journals, citation frequency and download frequency, keywords, quantitative analysis of levels of papers about library consortia published in the 1999-2011, it finds that most papers about library consortia are published in core journals, technical application researches are less than theoretical researches, and so on. Therefore, our library consortia should continue to seek the government support, implement the knowledge management actively, set up the special consortium management board as soon as possible, improve the level of information communication between member libraries, create a positive, healthy and unified consortium culture, in order to enhance the quality and overall strength of libraries and information institutions.%通过对1999—2011年发表的图书馆联盟的相关论文进行核心期刊分布、被引频次和下载频次、关键词、研究层次定量分析发现:图书馆联盟的相关论文多发表于图书情报学专业的核心期刊,技术应用研究少于理论研究,等等。因此,我国图书馆联盟应继续寻求政府的支持,积极实施知识管理,尽快成立专门的联盟管理理事会,提高各成员馆间的信息交流水平,营造积极、健康和统一的联盟文化,以提升我国图书情报机构信息服务的质量和综合实力。

  4. Which Factors Influence the Willingness to Pay for Electronic Library Services? A Study of the Portuguese Electronic Scientific Information Consortium B-On1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Luiza Baptista; Pires, Cesaltina

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the factors that influence the value for the users of the Portuguese electronic scientific information consortium b-on (Biblioteca do Conhecimento Online). We used the contingent valuation method based on a willingness to pay scenario to estimate the value that each user is willing to pay. Data were collected through an…

  5. The meteorology of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, A. P.

    1976-01-01

    From the point of view of meteorology the most important differences between Jupiter and the earth are related to the fact that Jupiter has an appreciable internal energy source and probably lacks a solid surface. The composition and vertical structure of the Jovian atmosphere is considered along with the composition of Jovian cloud particles, turbulence in Jupiter's atmosphere, data on the horizontal structure and motions of the atmosphere, and questions related to the longevity of Jupiter's clouds. Attention is given to the barotropic characteristics of Jupiter's atmosphere, the radiation balance in the atmosphere of the earth and of Jupiter, and studies of the Great Red Spot.

  6. A Research on the Construction of the Network Information Platform of the Consortium of Libraries in Jilin%吉林省图书馆联盟网络信息平台建设研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王战林; 曾思颖; 刘译阳

    2011-01-01

    Based on the purpose of the Consortium of Libraries in Jilin(CLJ) and the characteristics of the CLJ digital service platform and its future trends,this article puts forward the principle,the function and the feasibility program about the construction of%本文从吉林省图书馆联盟的宗旨出发,结合数字服务平台的特点和未来发展趋势,提出了吉林省图书馆联盟网络信息平台建设的原则、功能和平台建设的可行性方案。

  7. Public Relations in Special Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Hollace Ann; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This theme issue includes 11 articles on public relations (PR) in special libraries. Highlights include PR at the Special Libraries Association (SLA); sources for marketing research for libraries; developing a library image; sample PR releases; brand strategies for libraries; case studies; publicizing a consortium; and a bibliography of pertinent…

  8. 美国佛罗里达州坦帕湾图书馆联盟发展探析%Analysis of the USA Florida Tampa Bay Library Consortium Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宁; 孙慧明

    2015-01-01

    坦帕湾图书馆联盟是美国佛罗里达州文化教育事业的重要组成部分。它为成员馆搭建继续教育、在线研讨等方面的服务交流平台,为图书馆用户提供馆际互借、实时咨询、视频制作等多种人性化服务内容。此外,联盟的管理体制、战略规划、信息公开等方面也值得学习借鉴。%Tampa Bay Library Consortium is one of the most important cultural service organizations in Florida, United States of America. TBLC sets up a service platform including continuing education, webinars and outreach for its members. It also provides users with interlibrary loan, virtual consulting, video production and other personalized services. Besides, its management system,strategic plan and other projects are worthy of reference to our library consortia.

  9. Jupiter System Observer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senske, Dave; Kwok, Johnny

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the proposed mission for the Jupiter System Observer. The presentation also includes overviews of the mission timeline, science goals, and spacecraftspecifications for the satellite.

  10. Voyage to Jupiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, David; Samz, Jane

    This publication illustrates the features of Jupiter and its family of satellites pictured by the Pioneer and the Voyager missions. Chapters included are: (1) "The Jovian System" (describing the history of astronomy); (2) "Pioneers to Jupiter" (outlining the Pioneer Mission); (3) "The Voyager Mission"; (4)…

  11. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  12. Jupiter Environment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Erick J.; Monahue, Kenneth M.; Biehl, James P.; Kokorowski, Michael; Ngalande, Cedrick,; Boedeker, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    The Jupiter Environment Tool (JET) is a custom UI plug-in for STK that provides an interface to Jupiter environment models for visualization and analysis. Users can visualize the different magnetic field models of Jupiter through various rendering methods, which are fully integrated within STK s 3D Window. This allows users to take snapshots and make animations of their scenarios with magnetic field visualizations. Analytical data can be accessed in the form of custom vectors. Given these custom vectors, users have access to magnetic field data in custom reports, graphs, access constraints, coverage analysis, and anywhere else vectors are used within STK.

  13. Moons around Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) took this photo of Jupiter at 20:42:01 UTC on January 9, 2007, when the spacecraft was 80 million kilometers (49.6 million miles) from the giant planet. The volcanic moon Io is to the left of the planet; the shadow of the icy moon Ganymede moves across Jupiter's northern hemisphere. Ganymede's average orbit distance from Jupiter is about 1 million kilometers (620,000 miles); Io's is 422,000 kilometers (262,000 miles). Both Io and Ganymede are larger than Earth's moon; Ganymede is larger than the planet Mercury.

  14. Inferno on Jupiter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸葛勤

    1994-01-01

    The initial sketchy reports began filtering into the U. S. by E-maillate Saturday afternoon. First a Spanish observatory announced that it hadspotted a plume of gas billowing up from the edge of Jupiter. Then a

  15. Jupiter's Dynamic Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, M. F.; Bunce, E. J.; Kronberg, E. A.; Jackman, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Jupiter's magnetosphere is a highly dynamic environment. Hundreds of reconnection events have been identified in Jupiter's magnetotail through analysis of magnetic field and particle measurements collected by the Galileo spacecraft. Quasi-periodic behavior, suggestive of reconnection, has been intermittently observed on a ~2-3 day time scale in several data sets, including magnetic field dipolarizations, flow bursts, auroral polar dawn spots, and the hectometric radio emission. In this paper we review the present state of knowledge of Jovian magnetospheric dynamics. Throughout the discussion, we highlight similarities and differences to Saturn's magnetosphere. For example, recent analysis of plasmoid signatures at both Jupiter and Saturn has established the role of tail reconnection in the overall mass and flux transport in the outer planet magnetospheres. The results for both Jupiter and Saturn suggest that the observed mass loss rate due to tail reconnection and plasmoid release is insufficient to account for the mass input rate from the moons Io and Enceladus, respectively. We also present new analysis in which we use the Michigan mSWiM propagated solar wind MHD model to estimate the solar wind conditions upstream of Jupiter. This information allows us to determine whether reconnection events occur preferentially during certain solar wind conditions, or whether there is evidence that the solar wind modulates the quasi-periodicity seen in the field dipolarizations and flow bursts.

  16. Radiogenomics Consortium (RGC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Radiogenomics Consortium's hypothesis is that a cancer patient's likelihood of developing toxicity to radiation therapy is influenced by common genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs).

  17. Jupiter - friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, J.; Jones, B. W.

    2007-08-01

    Throughout both popular science and academia, there is a pervasive belief that Jupiter has acted as a celestial shield, reducing the impact rate on the Earth, and making the planet a significantly more conducive site for the evolution and survival of life. This old idea has, however, undergone little detailed scrutiny. In the first of a series of studies aimed at a better understanding of this idea, we examine the variation in the impact rate on the Earth which results from bodies moving inwards from the Edgeworth- Kuiper belt as a function of the mass of a giant planet in Jupiter's orbit. The results are not entirely what would be expected under the "Jupiter Shield" paradigm.

  18. Sharpening Up Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    New image-correction technique delivers sharpest whole-planet ground-based picture ever A record two-hour observation of Jupiter using a superior technique to remove atmospheric blur has produced the sharpest whole-planet picture ever taken from the ground. The series of 265 snapshots obtained with the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator (MAD) prototype instrument mounted on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) reveal changes in Jupiter's smog-like haze, probably in response to a planet-wide upheaval more than a year ago. Sharpening Up Jupiter ESO PR Photo 33/08 Sharpening Up Jupiter Being able to correct wide field images for atmospheric distortions has been the dream of scientists and engineers for decades. The new images of Jupiter prove the value of the advanced technology used by MAD, which uses two or more guide stars instead of one as references to remove the blur caused by atmospheric turbulence over a field of view thirty times larger than existing techniques [1]. "This type of adaptive optics has a big advantage for looking at large objects, such as planets, star clusters or nebulae," says lead researcher Franck Marchis, from UC Berkeley and the SETI Institute in Mountain View, California, USA. "While regular adaptive optics provides excellent correction in a small field of view, MAD provides good correction over a larger area of sky. And in fact, were it not for MAD, we would not have been able to perform these amazing observations." MAD allowed the researchers to observe Jupiter for almost two hours on 16 and 17 August 2008, a record duration, according to the observing team. Conventional adaptive optics systems using a single Jupiter moon as reference cannot monitor Jupiter for so long because the moon moves too far from the planet. The Hubble Space Telescope cannot observe Jupiter continuously for more than about 50 minutes, because its view is regularly blocked by the Earth during Hubble's 96-minute orbit. Using MAD, ESO astronomer Paola Amico

  19. Understanding Jupiter's Interior

    CERN Document Server

    Militzer, Burkhard; Wahl, Sean M; Hubbard, William

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of how models of giant planet interiors are constructed. We review measurements from past space missions that provide constraints for the interior structure of Jupiter. We discuss typical three-layer interior models that consist of a dense central core and an inner metallic and an outer molecular hydrogen-helium layer. These models rely heavily on experiments, analytical theory, and first-principle computer simulations of hydrogen and helium to understand their behavior up to the extreme pressures ~10 Mbar and temperatures ~10,000 K. We review the various equations of state used in Jupiter models and compare them with shock wave experiments. We discuss the possibility of helium rain, core erosion and double diffusive convection may have important consequences for the structure and evolution of giant planets. In July 2016 the Juno spacecraft entered orbit around Jupiter, promising high-precision measurements of the gravitational field that will allow us to test our understandi...

  20. Jupiter's Rings: Sharpest View

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The New Horizons spacecraft took the best images of Jupiter's charcoal-black rings as it approached and then looked back at Jupiter. The top image was taken on approach, showing three well-defined lanes of gravel- to boulder-sized material composing the bulk of the rings, as well as lesser amounts of material between the rings. New Horizons snapped the lower image after it had passed Jupiter on February 28, 2007, and looked back in a direction toward the sun. The image is sharply focused, though it appears fuzzy due to the cloud of dust-sized particles enveloping the rings. The dust is brightly illuminated in the same way the dust on a dirty windshield lights up when you drive toward a 'low' sun. The narrow rings are confined in their orbits by small 'shepherding' moons.

  1. A Preliminary Jupiter Model

    CERN Document Server

    Hubbard, W B

    2016-01-01

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen-helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses, and a hydrogen-helium-rich envelope with...

  2. A Preliminary Jupiter Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, W. B.; Militzer, B.

    2016-03-01

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen-helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen-helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity.

  3. Jupiter's Big Bang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kim A.

    1994-01-01

    Collision of a comet with Jupiter beginning July 16, 1994 will be observed by astronomers worldwide, with computerized information relayed to a center at the University of Maryland, financed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and National Science Foundation. Geologists and paleontologists also hope to learn more about earth's…

  4. Radiation belts of jupiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansberry, K G; White, R S

    1973-12-07

    Predictions of Jupiter's electron and proton radiation belts are based mainly on decimeter observations of 1966 and 1968. Extensive calculations modeling radial diffusion of particles inward from the solar wind and electron synchrotron radiation are used to relate the predictions and observations.

  5. A Transiting Jupiter Analog

    CERN Document Server

    Kipping, David M; Henze, Chris; Teachey, Alex; Isaacson, Howard T; Petigura, Erik A; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Buchhave, Lars A; Chen, Jingjing; Bryson, Steve T; Sandford, Emily

    2016-01-01

    Decadal-long radial velocity surveys have recently started to discover analogs to the most influential planet of our solar system, Jupiter. Detecting and characterizing these worlds is expected to shape our understanding of our uniqueness in the cosmos. Despite the great successes of recent transit surveys, Jupiter analogs represent a terra incognita, owing to the strong intrinsic bias of this method against long orbital periods. We here report on the first validated transiting Jupiter analog, Kepler-167e (KOI-490.02), discovered using Kepler archival photometry orbiting the K4-dwarf KIC-3239945. With a radius of $(0.91\\pm0.02)$ $R_{\\mathrm{Jup}}$, a low orbital eccentricity ($0.06_{-0.04}^{+0.10}$) and an equilibrium temperature of $(131\\pm3)$ K, Kepler-167e bears many of the basic hallmarks of Jupiter. Kepler-167e is accompanied by three Super-Earths on compact orbits, which we also validate, leaving a large cavity of transiting worlds around the habitable-zone. With two transits and continuous photometric ...

  6. Polarized Light from Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    These images taken through the wide angle camera near closest approach in the deep near-infrared methane band, combined with filters which sense electromagnetic radiation of orthogonal polarization, show that the light from the poles is polarized. That is, the poles appear bright in one image, and dark in the other. Polarized light is most readily scattered by aerosols. These images indicate that the aerosol particles at Jupiter's poles are small and likely consist of aggregates of even smaller particles, whereas the particles at the equator and covering the Great Red Spot are larger. Images like these will allow scientists to ascertain the distribution, size and shape of aerosols, and consequently, the distribution of heat, in Jupiter's atmosphere.

  7. Jupiter's Water Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, R. T.

    2004-01-01

    When the twin Voyager spacecraft cruised past Jupiter in 1979, they did more than rewrite the textbooks on the giant planet. Their cameras also unveiled the astounding diversity of the four planet-size moons of ice and stone known as the Galilean satellites. The Voyagers revealed the cratered countenance of Callisto, the valleys and ridges of Ganymede, the cracked face of Europa, and the spewing volcanoes of Io. But it would take a spacecraft named for Italian scientist Galileo, who discovered the moons in 1610, to reveal the true complexity of these worlds and to begin to divulge their interior secrets. Incredibly, the Galileo data strongly suggest that Jupiter's three large icy moons (all but rocky Io) hide interior oceans.

  8. A PRELIMINARY JUPITER MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, W. B. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Militzer, B. [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2016-03-20

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen–helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen–helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity.

  9. Jupiter's Grand Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batygin, Konstantin

    2017-06-01

    The statistics of extrasolar planetary systems indicate that the default mode of planetary formation generates planets with orbital periods shorter than 100 days, and masses substantially exceeding that of the Earth. When viewed in this context, the Solar System, which contains no planets interior to Mercury's 88-day orbit, is unusual. Extra-solar planetary detection surveys also suggest that planets with masses and periods broadly similar to Jupiter's are somewhat uncommon, with occurrence fraction of less than ~ 10%. In this talk, I will present calculations which show that a popular formation scenario for Jupiter and Saturn, in which Jupiter migrates inward from a > 5AU to a ˜ 1.5 AU and then reverses direction, can explain the low overall mass of the Solar System's terrestrial planets, as well as the absence of planets with a 10 - 100 km planetesimals into low- order mean-motion resonances, shepherding of order 10 Earth masses of this material into the a ˜ 1 AU region while exciting substantial orbital eccentricity (e ˜ 0.2 - 0.4). We argue that under these conditions, a collisional cascade will ensue, generating a planetesimal disk that would have flushed any preexisting short-period super-Earth-like planets into the Sun. In this scenario, the Solar System's terrestrial planets formed from gas-starved mass-depleted debris that remained after the primary period of dynamical evolution.

  10. Voyager picture of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Voyager 1 took this picture of the planet Jupiter on Saturday, Jan. 6, the first in its three-month-long, close-up investigation of the largest planet. The spacecraft, flying toward a March 5 closest approach, was 35.8 million miles (57.6 million kilometers) from Jupiter and 371.7 million miles (598.2 million kilometers) from Earth when the picture was taken. As the Voyager cameras begin their meteorological surveillance of Jupiter, they reveal a dynamic atmosphere with more convective structure than had previously been thought. While the smallest atmospheric features seen in this picture are still as large as 600 miles (1,000 kilometers) across, Voyager will be able to detect individual storm systems as small as 3 miles (5 kilometers) at closest approach. The Great Red Spot can be seen near the limb at the far right. Most of the other features are too small to be seen in terrestrial telescopes. This picture was transmitted to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory through the Deep Space Network's tracking station at Madrid, Spain. The Voyager Project is managed for NASA by Caltech's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  11. The BADER Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    officials and UD Alumni. Senators Coons and Carper and Representative Carney also attended. Dr. Stanhope travelled to Capitol Hill to visit the...offices of Senators Coons (D-DE) and Carper (D-DE). The briefing meetings resulted in plans for a spring BADER Consortium event on the Hill and a visit...Spaulding Rehabilitation Hospital Davis, Samuel, PhD BADER Consortium Affiliate Naval Medical Center Portsmouth (NMCP) de Lateur, Barbara J., MD, MS

  12. Voyager 2 Jupiter Eruption Movie

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This movie records an eruptive event in the southern hemisphere of Jupiter over a period of 8 Jupiter days. Prior to the event, an undistinguished oval cloud mass cruised through the turbulent atmosphere. The eruption occurs over avery short time at the very center of the cloud. The white eruptive material is swirled about by the internal wind patterns of the cloud. As a result of the eruption, the cloud then becomes a type of feature seen elsewhere on Jupiter known as 'spaghetti bowls'.As Voyager 2 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 8 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). These images were acquired in the Violet filter around May 6, 1979. The spacecraft was about 50 million kilometers from Jupiter at that time.This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  13. 国外图书馆联盟的电子书 PDA 模式研究--以美国奥比斯级联联盟为例%Research on PDA Model of E -Book in Foreign Library Consortiums---The Orbis Cascade Alliance E -Books PDA Pilot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖利香

    2015-01-01

    介绍了国外图书馆联盟电子书 PDA 的概况,以美国奥比斯级联联盟的电子书 PDA 项目为例,阐述了其资金的来源、书商的选择、电子书的定价和触发购买机制、项目评估以及面临的挑战,以对我国图书馆联盟电子书 PDA 的实施提供有益的借鉴。%This paper described the general situation of patron driven acquisition of E -books in foreign li-brary consortiums.Taking the e -books PDA project of the Orbis Cascade Alliance as an example,the author ex-pounded its source of funding,selection of vendors,pricing and trigger purchase mechanism for e -books ,evaluation and unforeseen challenges,in hope of providing beneficial reference for the implementation of e -book PDA in domes-tic library consortiums.

  14. Jupiter small satellite montage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    A montage of images of the small inner moons of Jupiter from the camera onboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft shows the best views obtained of these moons during Galileo's 11th orbit around the giant planet in November 1997. At that point, Galileo was completing its first two years in Jupiter orbit--known as the Galileo 'prime mission'--and was about to embark on a successful two-year extension, called the Galileo Europa Mission. The top two images show the moon Thebe. Thebe rotates by approximately 50 degrees between the time these two images were taken, so that the same prominent impact crater is seen in both views; this crater, which has been given the provisional name Zethus, is near the point on Thebe that faces permanently away from Jupiter. The next two images show the moon Amalthea; they were taken with the Sun directly behind the observer, an alignment that emphasizes patterns of intrinsically bright or dark surface material. The third image from the top is a view of Amalthea's leading side, the side of the moon that 'leads' as Amalthea moves in its orbit around Jupiter. This image looks 'noisy' because it was obtained serendipitously during an observation of the Jovian satellite Io (Amalthea and Io shared the same camera frame but the image was exposed for bright Io rather than for the much darker Amalthea). The fourth image from the top emphasizes prominent 'spots' of relatively bright material that are located near the point on Amalthea that faces permanently away from Jupiter. The bottom image is a view of the tiny moon Metis. In all the images, north is approximately up, and the moons are shown in their correct relative sizes. The images are, from top to bottom: Thebe taken on November 7, 1997 at a range of 504,000 kilometers (about 313,000 miles); Thebe on November 7, 1997 at a range of 548,000 kilometers (about 340,000 miles); Amalthea on November 6, 1997 at a range of about 650,000 kilometers (about 404,000 miles); Amalthea on November 7, 1997 at a

  15. A Day on Jupiter (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This 'movie' strings 11 images of Jupiter captured by the New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) on January 9, 2007, when the spacecraft was about 80 million kilometers (49.6 million miles) from the giant planet. The sequence covers a full 10-hour rotation of Jupiter, during which the moons Ganymede and Io -- as well as the shadows they cast on Jupiter -- move across the camera's field of view.

  16. Jupiter: Lord of the Planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, William

    1984-01-01

    Presents a chapter from an introductory college-level astronomy textbook in which full-color photographs and numerous diagrams highlight an extensive description of the planet Jupiter. Topics include Jupiter's geology, rotation, magnetic field, atmosphere (including clouds and winds), and the Great Red Spot. (DH)

  17. Small Friends of Hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Luis Ernesto; Johnson, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Hot Jupiters are Jupiter-sized gas giant exoplanets that closely orbit their host star in periods of about 10 days or less. Early models hypothesized that these exoplanets formed away from the star, then over time drifted to their characteristically closer locations. However, new theories predict that Hot Jupiters form at their close proximity during the process of core accretion (Batygin et al. 2015). In fact, a super-Earth and a Neptune-sized exoplanet have already been detected in the Hot Jupiter-hosting star WASP-47 (Becker et al. 2015). We will present our analysis of radial velocity time series plots to determine whether low-mass, short-period planets have been previously overlooked in systems of stars which host Hot Jupiters.The SAO REU program is funded in part by the National Science Foundation REU and Department of Defense ASSURE programs under NSF Grant no. 1262851.

  18. Warm Jupiters are less lonely than hot Jupiters: close neighbours

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Chelsea X; Triaud, Amaury H M J

    2016-01-01

    Exploiting the Kepler transit data, we uncover a dramatic distinction in the prevalence of sub-Jovian companions, between systems that contain hot Jupiters (periods inward of 10 days) and those that host warm Jupiters (periods between 10 and 200 days). Hot Jupiters as a whole, with the singular exception of WASP-47b, do not have any detectable inner or outer planetary companions (with periods inward of 50 days and sizes down to $2 R_{\\rm Earth}$). Restricting ourselves to inner companions, our limits reach down to $1 R_{\\rm Earth}$. In stark contrast, half of the warm Jupiters are closely flanked by small companions. Statistically, the companion fractions for hot and warm Jupiters are mutually exclusive, in particular in regard to inner companions. The high companion fraction of warm Jupiters also yields clue to their formation. The warm Jupiters that have close-by siblings should have low orbital eccentricities and low mutual inclinations. The orbital configurations of these systems are reminiscent of those ...

  19. MARIAN: Flexible Interoperability for Federated Digital Libraries

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Federated digital libraries are composed of distributed autonomous (heterogeneous) information services but provide users with a transparent, integrated view of collected information respecting different information sources' autonomy. In this paper we discuss a federated system for the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations (NDLTD), an international consortium of universities, libraries, and other supporting institutions focused on electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs). Th...

  20. [Activity of NTDs Drug-discovery Research Consortium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namatame, Ichiji

    2016-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are an extremely important issue facing global health care. To improve "access to health" where people are unable to access adequate medical care due to poverty and weak healthcare systems, we have established two consortiums: the NTD drug discovery research consortium, and the pediatric praziquantel consortium. The NTD drug discovery research consortium, which involves six institutions from industry, government, and academia, as well as an international non-profit organization, is committed to developing anti-protozoan active compounds for three NTDs (Leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, and African sleeping sickness). Each participating institute will contribute their efforts to accomplish the following: selection of drug targets based on information technology, and drug discovery by three different approaches (in silico drug discovery, "fragment evolution" which is a unique drug designing method of Astellas Pharma, and phenotypic screening with Astellas' compound library). The consortium has established a brand new database (Integrated Neglected Tropical Disease Database; iNTRODB), and has selected target proteins for the in silico and fragment evolution drug discovery approaches. Thus far, we have identified a number of promising compounds that inhibit the target protein, and we are currently trying to improve the anti-protozoan activity of these compounds. The pediatric praziquantel consortium was founded in July 2012 to develop and register a new praziquantel pediatric formulation for the treatment of schistosomiasis. Astellas Pharma has been a core member in this consortium since its establishment, and has provided expertise and technology in the area of pediatric formulation development and clinical development.

  1. Collaborative Print Repositories: A Case Study of Library Directors' Views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskell, Cathy; Soutter, Jennifer; Oldenburg, Kristina

    2010-01-01

    Surveys library directors in the Ontario Council of University Libraries consortium regarding weeding, last copy print archiving, and the role of the consortium. Responses reveal divergent opinions but an answer lies in partnerships. Cost remains an over-riding factor and the uncertainty of future budgets make commitment to long-term planning…

  2. Jupiter's Moons: Family Portrait

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This montage shows the best views of Jupiter's four large and diverse 'Galilean' satellites as seen by the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) on the New Horizons spacecraft during its flyby of Jupiter in late February 2007. The four moons are, from left to right: Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. The images have been scaled to represent the true relative sizes of the four moons and are arranged in their order from Jupiter. Io, 3,640 kilometers (2,260 miles) in diameter, was imaged at 03:50 Universal Time on February 28 from a range of 2.7 million kilometers (1.7 million miles). The original image scale was 13 kilometers per pixel, and the image is centered at Io coordinates 6 degrees south, 22 degrees west. Io is notable for its active volcanism, which New Horizons has studied extensively. Europa, 3,120 kilometers (1,938 miles) in diameter, was imaged at 01:28 Universal Time on February 28 from a range of 3 million kilometers (1.8 million miles). The original image scale was 15 kilometers per pixel, and the image is centered at Europa coordinates 6 degrees south, 347 degrees west. Europa's smooth, icy surface likely conceals an ocean of liquid water. New Horizons obtained data on Europa's surface composition and imaged subtle surface features, and analysis of these data may provide new information about the ocean and the icy shell that covers it. New Horizons spied Ganymede, 5,262 kilometers (3,268 miles) in diameter, at 10:01 Universal Time on February 27 from 3.5 million kilometers (2.2 million miles) away. The original scale was 17 kilometers per pixel, and the image is centered at Ganymede coordinates 6 degrees south, 38 degrees west. Ganymede, the largest moon in the solar system, has a dirty ice surface cut by fractures and peppered by impact craters. New Horizons' infrared observations may provide insight into the composition of the moon's surface and interior. Callisto, 4,820 kilometers (2,995 miles) in diameter, was imaged at 03:50 Universal Time on

  3. Northern Belt of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A four-panel frame shows a section of Jupiter's north equatorial belt viewed by NASA's Cassini spacecraft at four different wavelengths, and a separate reference frame shows the location of the belt on the planet.A fascinating aspect of the images in the four-panel frame is the small bright spot in the center of each. The images come from different layers of the atmosphere, so the spot appears to be a storm penetrating upward through several layers. This may in fact be a 'monster' thunderstorm, penetrating all the way into the stratosphere, as do some summer thunderstorms in the midwestern United States. These images were taken on Nov. 27, 2000, at a resolution of 192 kilometers (119 miles) per pixel. They have been contrast-enhanced to highlight features in the atmosphere.The top panel of the four-panel frame is an image taken in a near-infrared wavelength at which the gases in Jupiter's atmosphere are relatively non-absorbing. Sunlight can penetrate deeply into the atmosphere at this wavelength and be reflected back out, providing a view of an underlying region of the atmosphere, the lower troposphere.The second panel was taken in the blue portion of wavelengths detected by the human eye. At these wavelengths, gases in the atmosphere scatter a modest amount of sunlight, so the clouds we see tend to be at somewhat higher altitudes than in the top panel.The third panel shows near-infrared reflected sunlight at a wavelength where the gas methane, an important constituent of Jupiter's atmosphere, absorbs strongly. Dark places are regions without high-level clouds and consequently large amounts of methane accessible to sunlight. Bright regions are locations with high clouds in the upper troposphere shielding the methane below.The bottom panel was taken in the ultraviolet. At these very short wavelengths, the clear atmosphere scatters sunlight, and hazes in the stratosphere, above the troposphere, absorb sunlight. That

  4. Simon Marius vs. Galileo: Who First Saw Moons of Jupiter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Van Helden, Albert

    2016-10-01

    In his almanac for 1612 and book Mundus Iovalis of 1614, Simon Marius in Germany reported his discovery of moons around Jupiter, which he started writing down in late 1609 in the Julian calendar, which translated to 8 January 1610 in the Gregorian calendar in use by Galileo in Italy. Is Marius to be believed? Galileo certainly did not. But a Dutch jury of experts about three hundred years later reported that they validated the claim that Marius independently discovered the moons of Jupiter one day after Galileo first both saw and wrote down his discovery! There is no doubt that the names Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto came from Marius (to whom they were suggested by Kepler). See JMP's Journal for the History of Astronomy article, 46(2), 218-234 (2015).Marius wrote that he had been observing the moons around Jupiter since November 1609 (Julian), using a neighboring nobleman's telescope, which would mean that he actually saw the Jupiter satellites first (though publish or perish). Whether this feat was technically possible comes down to discussions of the capabilities of telescopes in the early 17th century.The quadricentennial of Marius's book was celebrated in Nuremberg with a symposium that is now in press in German with an English translation expected. One of us (AVH) has recently prepared a complete English translation of Marius's book, superseding the partial translation made 100 years ago. There is no evidence that, whether he saw what we now call the Galilean satellites first or not, Marius appreciated their cosmological significance the way that Galileo soon did. And Marius was certainly the first to publish tables of the moons of Jupiter.We thank the Chapin Library of Williams College and the Huntington Library for assistance with first editions of Marius's 1614 book, and we thank Pierre Leich of the Simon Marius Gesellschaft for his consultations.

  5. Jupiter Clouds in Depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 619 nm [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 727 nm [figure removed for brevity, see original site] 890 nmImages from NASA's Cassini spacecraft using three different filters reveal cloud structures and movements at different depths in the atmosphere around Jupiter's south pole.Cassini's cameras come equipped with filters that sample three wavelengths where methane gas absorbs light. These are in the red at 619 nanometer (nm) wavelength and in the near-infrared at 727 nm and 890 nm. Absorption in the 619 nm filter is weak. It is stronger in the 727 nm band and very strong in the 890 nm band where 90 percent of the light is absorbed by methane gas. Light in the weakest band can penetrate the deepest into Jupiter's atmosphere. It is sensitive to the amount of cloud and haze down to the pressure of the water cloud, which lies at a depth where pressure is about 6 times the atmospheric pressure at sea level on the Earth). Light in the strongest methane band is absorbed at high altitude and is sensitive only to the ammonia cloud level and higher (pressures less than about one-half of Earth's atmospheric pressure) and the middle methane band is sensitive to the ammonia and ammonium hydrosulfide cloud layers as deep as two times Earth's atmospheric pressure.The images shown here demonstrate the power of these filters in studies of cloud stratigraphy. The images cover latitudes from about 15 degrees north at the top down to the southern polar region at the bottom. The left and middle images are ratios, the image in the methane filter divided by the image at a nearby wavelength outside the methane band. Using ratios emphasizes where contrast is due to methane absorption and not to other factors, such as the absorptive properties of the cloud particles, which influence contrast at all wavelengths.The most prominent feature seen in all three filters is the polar stratospheric haze that makes Jupiter bright near the pole

  6. Kansas Wind Energy Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenbacher, Don [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2015-12-31

    This project addresses both fundamental and applied research problems that will help with problems defined by the DOE “20% Wind by 2030 Report”. In particular, this work focuses on increasing the capacity of small or community wind generation capabilities that would be operated in a distributed generation approach. A consortium (KWEC – Kansas Wind Energy Consortium) of researchers from Kansas State University and Wichita State University aims to dramatically increase the penetration of wind energy via distributed wind power generation. We believe distributed generation through wind power will play a critical role in the ability to reach and extend the renewable energy production targets set by the Department of Energy. KWEC aims to find technical and economic solutions to enable widespread implementation of distributed renewable energy resources that would apply to wind.

  7. Jupiter Eruptions Captured in Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for high resolution image of Nature Cover Detailed analysis of two continent-sized storms that erupted in Jupiter's atmosphere in March 2007 shows that Jupiter's internal heat plays a significant role in generating atmospheric disturbances. Understanding these outbreaks could be the key to unlock the mysteries buried in the deep Jovian atmosphere, say astronomers. This infrared image shows two bright plume eruptions obtained by the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility on April 5, 2007. Understanding these phenomena is important for Earth's meteorology where storms are present everywhere and jet streams dominate the atmospheric circulation. Jupiter is a natural laboratory where atmospheric scientists study the nature and interplay of the intense jets and severe atmospheric phenomena. According to the analysis, the bright plumes were storm systems triggered in Jupiter's deep water clouds that moved upward in the atmosphere vigorously and injected a fresh mixture of ammonia ice and water about 20 miles (30 kilometers) above the visible clouds. The storms moved in the peak of a jet stream in Jupiter's atmosphere at 375 miles per hour (600 kilometers per hour). Models of the disturbance indicate that the jet stream extends deep in the buried atmosphere of Jupiter, more than 60 miles (approximately100 kilometers) below the cloud tops where most sunlight is absorbed.

  8. Japanese mission plan for Jupiter system: The Jupiter magnetospheric orbiter and the Trojan asteroid explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, S.; Fujimoto, M.; Yano, H.; Takashima, T.; Kasaba, Y.; Takahashi, Y.; Kimura, J.; Funase, R.; Mori, O.; Tsuda, Y.; Campagnola, S.; Kawakatsu, Y.

    2011-10-01

    In the future Jupiter system study, Coordinated observation of Jovian magnetosphere is one of the important targets of the mission in addition to icy satellites, atmosphere, and interior of Jupiter. JAXA will take a role on the magnetosphere spinner JMO (Jupiter Magnetospheric Orbiter), in addition to JGO (Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter) by ESA and JEO (Jupiter Europa Orbiter) by NASA. We will combine JMO with a proposed solar sail mission of JAXA for Jupiter and one of Trojan asteroids. Since Trojan asteroids could be representing raw solid materials of Jupiter or at least outer solar system bodies, involvement of Trojan observation should enhance the quality of Jupiter system exploration.

  9. Jupiter's moon Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This picture shows a special color reconstruction of one of the erupting volcanos on Io discovered by Voyager 1 during its encounter with Jupiter on the 4th and 5th of March. The picture was taken March 4 about 5:00 p.m. from a range of about half a million kilometers showing an eruption region on the horizon. This method of color analysis allows scientists to combine data from four pictures, taken in ultraviolet, blue, green and orange light. In this picture one can see the strong change in color of the erupting plume. The region that is brighter in ultraviolet light (blue in this image) is much more extensive than the denser, bright yellow region near the center of the eruption. Scientists will use data of this type to study the amount of gas and dust in the eruption and the size of dust particles. Preliminary analysis suggests that the bright ultraviolet part of the cloud may be due to scattered light from very fine particles (the same effect which makes smoke appear bluish).

  10. Jupiter's Hot, Mushy Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    Jupiter's moon Io is the most volcanically active body in the Solar System. Observations by instruments on the Galileo spacecraft and on telescopes atop Mauna Kea in Hawai'i indicate that lava flows on Io are surprisingly hot, over 1200 oC and possibly as much as 1300 oC; a few areas might have lava flows as hot as 1500 oC. Such high temperatures imply that the lava flows are composed of rock that formed by a very large amount of melting of Io's mantle. This has led Laszlo Keszthelyi and Alfred S. McEwen of the University of Arizona and me to reawaken an old hypothesis that suggests that the interior of Io is a partially-molten mush of crystals and magma. The idea, which had fallen out of favor for a decade or two, explains high-temperature hot spots, mountains, calderas, and volcanic plains on Io. If correct, Io gives us an opportunity to study processes that operate in huge, global magma systems, which scientists believe were important during the early history of the Moon and Earth, and possibly other planetary bodies as well. Though far from proven, the idea that Io has a ocean of mushy magma beneath its crust can be tested with measurements by future spacecraft.

  11. Nursing Faculty Collaborate with Embedded Librarians to Serve Online Graduate Students in a Consortium Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillot, Ladonna; Stahr, Beth; Meeker, Bonnie Juve'

    2010-01-01

    Nursing and library faculty face many information literacy challenges when graduate nursing programs migrate to online course delivery. The authors describe a collaborative model for providing cost-effective online library services to new graduate students in a three-university consortium. The embedded librarian service links a health sciences…

  12. Types of Hot Jupiter Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisikalo, Dmitry V.; Kaygorodov, Pavel V.; Ionov, Dmitry E.; Shematovich, Valery I.

    Hot Jupiters, i.e. exoplanet gas giants, having masses comparable to the mass of Jupiter and semimajor axes shorter than 0.1 AU, are a unique class of objects. Since they are so close to the host stars, their atmospheres form and evolve under the action of very active gas dynamical processes caused by the gravitational field and irradiation of the host star. As a matter of fact, the atmospheres of several of these planets fill their Roche lobes , which results in a powerful outflow of material from the planet towards the host star. The energy budget of this process is so important that it almost solely governs the evolution of hot Jupiters gaseous envelopes. Based on the years of experience in the simulations of gas dynamics in mass-exchanging close binary stars, we have investigated specific features of hot Jupiters atmospheres. The analytical estimates and results of 3D numerical simulations, discussed in this Chapter, show that the gaseous envelopes around hot Jupiters may be significantly non-spherical and, at the same time, stationary and long-lived. These results are of fundamental importance for the interpretation of observational data.

  13. Jupiter and Saturn Rotation Periods

    CERN Document Server

    Helled, Ravit; Anderson, John D

    2009-01-01

    Anderson & Schubert (2007, Science,317,1384) proposed that Saturn's rotation period can be ascertained by minimizing the dynamic heights of the 100 mbar isosurface with respect to the geoid; they derived a rotation period of 10h 32m 35s. We investigate the same approach for Jupiter to see if the Jovian rotation period is predicted by minimizing the dynamical heights of its isobaric (1 bar pressure level) surface using zonal wind data. A rotation period of 9h 54m 29s is found. Further, we investigate the minimization method by fitting Pioneer and Voyager occultation radii for both Jupiter and Saturn. Rotation periods of 9h 55m 30s and 10h 32m 35s are found to minimize the dynamical heights for Jupiter and Saturn, respectively. Though there is no dynamical principle requiring the minimization of the dynamical heights of an isobaric surface, the successful application of the method to Jupiter lends support to its relevance for Saturn. We derive Jupiter and Saturn rotation periods using equilibrium theory in ...

  14. Jupiter Laser Facility - COMET Laser

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — COMET has 4 beam configurations with uncompressed pulse lengths from 500 ps to 6 ns, compressed pulses to 0.5 ps, and beam energies up to 20 J. COMET can fire every...

  15. The Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maunsell John HR

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract As the Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium (NPRC ends its first year, it is worth looking back to see how the experiment has worked. In order to encourage dissemination of the details outlined in this Editorial, it will also be published in other journals in the Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium.

  16. The Europa Jupiter System Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, A. R.; Clark, K.; Erd, C.; Pappalardo, R.; Greeley, R. R.; Blanc, M.; Lebreton, J.; van Houten, T.

    2009-05-01

    Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) will be an international mission that will achieve Decadal Survey and Cosmic Vision goals. NASA and ESA have concluded a joint study of a mission to Europa, Ganymede and the Jupiter system with orbiters developed by NASA and ESA; contributions by JAXA are also possible. The baseline EJSM architecture consists of two primary elements operating in the Jovian system: the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). The JEO mission has been selected by NASA as the next Flagship mission to the out solar system. JEO and JGO would execute an intricately choreographed exploration of the Jupiter System before settling into orbit around Europa and Ganymede, respectively. JEO and JGO would carry eleven and ten complementary instruments, respectively, to monitor dynamic phenomena (such as Io's volcanoes and Jupiter's atmosphere), map the Jovian magnetosphere and its interactions with the Galilean satellites, and characterize water oceans beneath the ice shells of Europa and Ganymede. EJSM will fully addresses high priority science objectives identified by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Decadal Survey and ESA's Cosmic Vision for exploration of the outer solar system. The Decadal Survey recommended a Europa Orbiter as the highest priority outer planet flagship mission and also identified Ganymede as a highly desirable mission target. EJSM would uniquely address several of the central themes of ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme, through its in-depth exploration of the Jupiter system and its evolution from origin to habitability. EJSM will investigate the potential habitability of the active ocean-bearing moons Europa and Ganymede, detailing the geophysical, compositional, geological and external processes that affect these icy worlds. EJSM would also explore Io and Callisto, Jupiter's atmosphere, and the Jovian magnetosphere. By understanding the Jupiter system and unraveling its history, the

  17. Hawaii Space Grant Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Luke P.

    2005-01-01

    The Hawai'i Space Grant Consortium is composed of ten institutions of higher learning including the University of Hawai'i at Manoa, the University of Hawai'i at Hilo, the University of Guam, and seven Community Colleges spread over the 4 main Hawaiian islands. Geographic separation is not the only obstacle that we face as a Consortium. Hawai'i has been mired in an economic downturn due to a lack of tourism for almost all of the period (2001 - 2004) covered by this report, although hotel occupancy rates and real estate sales have sky-rocketed in the last year. Our challenges have been many including providing quality educational opportunities in the face of shrinking State and Federal budgets, encouraging science and technology course instruction at the K-12 level in a public school system that is becoming less focused on high technology and more focused on developing basic reading and math skills, and assembling community college programs with instructors who are expected to teach more classes for the same salary. Motivated people can overcome these problems. Fortunately, the Hawai'i Space Grant Consortium (HSGC) consists of a group of highly motivated and talented individuals who have not only overcome these obstacles, but have excelled with the Program. We fill a critical need within the State of Hawai'i to provide our children with opportunities to pursue their dreams of becoming the next generation of NASA astronauts, engineers, and explorers. Our strength lies not only in our diligent and creative HSGC advisory board, but also with Hawai'i's teachers, students, parents, and industry executives who are willing to invest their time, effort, and resources into Hawai'i's future. Our operational philosophy is to FACE the Future, meaning that we will facilitate, administer, catalyze, and educate in order to achieve our objective of creating a highly technically capable workforce both here in Hawai'i and for NASA. In addition to administering to programs and

  18. Understanding library impacts on student learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Rodriguez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the Library with the Lead Pipe is pleased to welcome guest author Derek Rodriguez. Derek serves as a Program Officer with the Triangle Research Libraries Network where he supports collaborative technology initiatives within the consortium and is project manager for the TRLN Endeca Project. He is a Doctoral candidate at the School of Information [...

  19. Cooperative Microform Publishing: The Law Library Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Jerry

    1983-01-01

    Discussion of the Hawaii-based Law Library Microform Consortium (LLMC), a nonprofit interlibrary cooperative microfiche project involving several hundred American and foreign law libraries, outlines LLMC's history, organizational structure, operations, publishing record, marketing efforts, and prospects for the future. (EJS)

  20. IPD-Work consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivimäki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Virtanen, Marianna

    2015-01-01

    to advance research on associations between work-related psychosocial risk factors and health; (ii) demonstrate as unfounded Choi et al's assertion that IPD-Work has underestimated associations between job strain and health endpoints; these include the dichotomous measurement of job strain, potential......Established in 2008 and comprising over 60 researchers, the IPD-Work (individual-participant data meta-analysis in working populations) consortium is a collaborative research project that uses pre-defined meta-analyses of individual-participant data from multiple cohort studies representing a range......-Work's findings have also generated disagreement as they challenge the importance of job strain as a major target for coronary heart disease (CHD) prevention, this is reflected in the critical discussion paper by Choi et al (1). In this invited reply to Choi et al, we aim to (i) describe how IPD-Work seeks...

  1. The Genomic Standards Consortium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawn Field

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A vast and rich body of information has grown up as a result of the world's enthusiasm for 'omics technologies. Finding ways to describe and make available this information that maximise its usefulness has become a major effort across the 'omics world. At the heart of this effort is the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC, an open-membership organization that drives community-based standardization activities, Here we provide a short history of the GSC, provide an overview of its range of current activities, and make a call for the scientific community to join forces to improve the quality and quantity of contextual information about our public collections of genomes, metagenomes, and marker gene sequences.

  2. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Morrison

    2005-09-14

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2005 through June 30, 2005. During this time period efforts were directed toward (1) GSTC administration changes, (2) participating in the American Gas Association Operations Conference and Biennial Exhibition, (3) issuing a Request for Proposals (RFP) for proposal solicitation for funding, and (4) organizing the proposal selection meeting.

  3. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-06-30

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of April 1, 2007 through June 30, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: (1) Organizing and hosting the 2007 GSTC Spring Meeting; (2) Identifying the 2007 GSTC projects, issuing award or declination letters, and begin drafting subcontracts; (3) 2007 project mentoring teams identified; (4) New NETL Project Manager; (5) Preliminary planning for the 2007 GSTC Fall Meeting; (6) Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC project final reports; and (7) Outreach and communications.

  4. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2007-03-31

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is crucial in meeting the needs of these new markets. To address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created - the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January1, 2007 through March 31, 2007. Key activities during this time period included: {lg_bullet} Drafting and distributing the 2007 RFP; {lg_bullet} Identifying and securing a meeting site for the GSTC 2007 Spring Proposal Meeting; {lg_bullet} Scheduling and participating in two (2) project mentoring conference calls; {lg_bullet} Conducting elections for four Executive Council seats; {lg_bullet} Collecting and compiling the 2005 GSTC Final Project Reports; and {lg_bullet} Outreach and communications.

  5. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel L. Morrison; Sharon L. Elder

    2006-05-10

    Gas storage is a critical element in the natural gas industry. Producers, transmission and distribution companies, marketers, and end users all benefit directly from the load balancing function of storage. The unbundling process has fundamentally changed the way storage is used and valued. As an unbundled service, the value of storage is being recovered at rates that reflect its value. Moreover, the marketplace has differentiated between various types of storage services, and has increasingly rewarded flexibility, safety, and reliability. The size of the natural gas market has increased and is projected to continue to increase towards 30 trillion cubic feet (TCF) over the next 10 to 15 years. Much of this increase is projected to come from electric generation, particularly peaking units. Gas storage, particularly the flexible services that are most suited to electric loads, is critical in meeting the needs of these new markets. In order to address the gas storage needs of the natural gas industry, an industry-driven consortium was created--the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC). The objective of the GSTC is to provide a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance operational flexibility and deliverability of the Nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. This report addresses the activities for the quarterly period of January 1, 2006 through March 31, 2006. Activities during this time period were: (1) Organize and host the 2006 Spring Meeting in San Diego, CA on February 21-22, 2006; (2) Award 8 projects for co-funding by GSTC for 2006; (3) New members recruitment; and (4) Improving communications.

  6. Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, Stephen [EWI, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by EWI while under contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the management and operation of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium (NFC). The NFC was established by EWI to independently develop, evaluate, and deploy fabrication approaches and data that support the re-establishment of the U.S. nuclear industry: ensuring that the supply chain will be competitive on a global stage, enabling more cost-effective and reliable nuclear power in a carbon constrained environment. The NFC provided a forum for member original equipment manufactures (OEM), fabricators, manufacturers, and materials suppliers to effectively engage with each other and rebuild the capacity of this supply chain by : Identifying and removing impediments to the implementation of new construction and fabrication techniques and approaches for nuclear equipment, including system components and nuclear plants. Providing and facilitating detailed scientific-based studies on new approaches and technologies that will have positive impacts on the cost of building of nuclear plants. Analyzing and disseminating information about future nuclear fabrication technologies and how they could impact the North American and the International Nuclear Marketplace. Facilitating dialog and initiate alignment among fabricators, owners, trade associations, and government agencies. Supporting industry in helping to create a larger qualified nuclear supplier network. Acting as an unbiased technology resource to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate new manufacturing technologies. Creating welder and inspector training programs to help enable the necessary workforce for the upcoming construction work. Serving as a focal point for technology, policy, and politically interested parties to share ideas and concepts associated with fabrication across the nuclear industry. The report the objectives and summaries of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

  7. Super-Eccentric Migrating Jupiters

    CERN Document Server

    Socrates, Aristotle; Dong, Subo; Tremaine, Scott

    2011-01-01

    An important class of formation theories for hot Jupiters involves the excitation of extreme orbital eccentricity (e=0.99 or even larger) followed by tidal dissipation at periastron passage that eventually circularizes the planetary orbit at a period less than 10 days. In a steady state, this mechanism requires the existence of a significant population of super-eccentric (e>0.9) migrating Jupiters with long orbital periods and periastron distances of only a few stellar radii. For these super-eccentric planets, the periastron is fixed due to conservation of orbital angular momentum and the energy dissipated per orbit is constant, implying that the rate of change in semi-major axis a is \\dot a \\propto a^0.5 and consequently the number distribution satisfies dN/dlog a\\propto a^0.5. If this formation process produces most hot Jupiters, Kepler should detect several super-eccentric migrating progenitors of hot Jupiters, allowing for a test of high-eccentricity migration scenarios.

  8. SUPER-ECCENTRIC MIGRATING JUPITERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socrates, Aristotle; Katz, Boaz; Dong Subo; Tremaine, Scott [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2012-05-10

    An important class of formation theories for hot Jupiters involves the excitation of extreme orbital eccentricity (e = 0.99 or even larger) followed by tidal dissipation at periastron passage that eventually circularizes the planetary orbit at a period less than 10 days. In a steady state, this mechanism requires the existence of a significant population of super-eccentric (e > 0.9) migrating Jupiters with long orbital periods and periastron distances of only a few stellar radii. For these super-eccentric planets, the periastron is fixed due to conservation of orbital angular momentum and the energy dissipated per orbit is constant, implying that the rate of change in semi-major axis a is a-dot {proportional_to}a{sup 1/2} and consequently the number distribution satisfies dN/d log a{proportional_to}a{sup 1/2}. If this formation process produces most hot Jupiters, Kepler should detect several super-eccentric migrating progenitors of hot Jupiters, allowing for a test of high-eccentricity migration scenarios.

  9. Jupiter: Cosmic Jekyll and Hyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazier, Kevin R

    2016-01-01

    It has been widely reported that Jupiter has a profound role in shielding the terrestrial planets from comet impacts in the Solar System, and that a jovian planet is a requirement for the evolution of life on Earth. To evaluate whether jovians, in fact, shield habitable planets from impacts (a phenomenon often referred to as the "Jupiter as shield" concept), this study simulated the evolution of 10,000 particles in each of the jovian inter-planet gaps for the cases of full-mass and embryo planets for up to 100 My. The results of these simulations predict a number of phenomena that not only discount the "Jupiter as shield" concept, they also predict that in a Solar System like ours, large gas giants like Saturn and Jupiter had a different, and potentially even more important, role in the evolution of life on our planet by delivering the volatile-laden material required for the formation of life. The simulations illustrate that, although all particles occupied "non-life threatening" orbits at their onset of the simulations, a significant fraction of the 30,000 particles evolved into Earth-crossing orbits. A comparison of multiple runs with different planetary configurations revealed that Jupiter was responsible for the vast majority of the encounters that "kicked" outer planet material into the terrestrial planet region, and that Saturn assisted in the process far more than has previously been acknowledged. Jupiter also tends to "fix" the aphelion of planetesimals at its orbit irrespective of their initial starting zones, which has the effect of slowing their passages through the inner Solar System, and thus potentially improving the odds of accretion of cometary material by terrestrial planets. As expected, the simulations indicate that the full-mass planets perturb many objects into the deep outer Solar System, or eject them entirely; however, planetary embryos also did this with surprising efficiency. Finally, the simulations predict that Jupiter's capacity to

  10. Featured Image: Mapping Jupiter with Hubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-07-01

    Zonal wind profile for Jupiter, describing the speed and direction of its winds at each latitude. [Simon et al. 2015]This global map of Jupiters surface (click for the full view!) was generated by the Hubble Outer Planet Atmospheres Legacy (OPAL) program, which aims to createnew yearly global maps for each of the outer planets. Presented in a study led by Amy Simon (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center), the map above is the first generated for Jupiter in the first year of the OPAL campaign. It provides a detailed look at Jupiters atmospheric structure including the Great Red Spot and allowed the authors to measure the speed and direction of the wind across Jupiters latitudes, constructing an updated zonal wind profile for Jupiter.In contrast to this study, the Juno mission (which will be captured into Jupiters orbit today after a 5-year journey to Jupiter!) will be focusing more on the features below Jupiters surface, studying its deep atmosphere and winds. Some of Junos primary goals are to learn about Jupiters composition, gravitational field, magnetic field, and polar magnetosphere. You can follow along with the NASATV livestream as Juno arrives at Jupiter tonight; orbit insertion coverage starts at 10:30 EDT.CitationAmy A. Simon et al 2015 ApJ 812 55. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/812/1/55

  11. Io in Front of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Jupiter's four largest satellites, including Io, the golden ornament in front of Jupiter in this image from NASA's Cassini spacecraft, have fascinated Earthlings ever since Galileo Galilei discovered them in 1610 in one of his first astronomical uses of the telescope.Images from Cassini that will be released over the next several days capture each of the four Galilean satellites in their orbits around the giant planet.This true-color composite frame, made from narrow angle images taken on Dec. 12, 2000, captures Io and its shadow in transit against the disk of Jupiter. The distance of the spacecraft from Jupiter was 19.5 million kilometers (12.1 million miles). The image scale is 117 kilometers (73 miles) per pixel.The entire body of Io, about the size of Earth's Moon, is periodically flexed as it speeds around Jupiter and feels, as a result of its non-circular orbit, the periodically changing gravitational pull of the planet. The heat arising in Io's interior from this continual flexure makes it the most volcanically active body in the solar system, with more than 100 active volcanoes. The white and reddish colors on its surface are due to the presence of different sulfurous materials. The black areas are silicate rocks.Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  12. Gas Storage Technology Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joel Morrison; Elizabeth Wood; Barbara Robuck

    2010-09-30

    The EMS Energy Institute at The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) has managed the Gas Storage Technology Consortium (GSTC) since its inception in 2003. The GSTC infrastructure provided a means to accomplish industry-driven research and development designed to enhance the operational flexibility and deliverability of the nation's gas storage system, and provide a cost-effective, safe, and reliable supply of natural gas to meet domestic demand. The GSTC received base funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Oil & Natural Gas Supply Program. The GSTC base funds were highly leveraged with industry funding for individual projects. Since its inception, the GSTC has engaged 67 members. The GSTC membership base was diverse, coming from 19 states, the District of Columbia, and Canada. The membership was comprised of natural gas storage field operators, service companies, industry consultants, industry trade organizations, and academia. The GSTC organized and hosted a total of 18 meetings since 2003. Of these, 8 meetings were held to review, discuss, and select proposals submitted for funding consideration. The GSTC reviewed a total of 75 proposals and committed co-funding to support 31 industry-driven projects. The GSTC committed co-funding to 41.3% of the proposals that it received and reviewed. The 31 projects had a total project value of $6,203,071 of which the GSTC committed $3,205,978 in co-funding. The committed GSTC project funding represented an average program cost share of 51.7%. Project applicants provided an average program cost share of 48.3%. In addition to the GSTC co-funding, the consortium provided the domestic natural gas storage industry with a technology transfer and outreach infrastructure. The technology transfer and outreach were conducted by having project mentoring teams and a GSTC website, and by working closely with the Pipeline Research Council International (PRCI) to

  13. High Latitude Mottling on Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The familiar banded appearance of Jupiter at low and middle latitudes gradually gives way to a more mottled appearance at high latitudes in this striking true color image taken Dec. 13, 2000, by NASA's Cassini spacecraft.The intricate structures seen in the polar region are clouds of different chemical composition, height and thickness. Clouds are organized by winds, and the mottled appearance in the polar regions suggests more vortex-type motion and winds of less vigor at higher latitudes.The cause of this difference is not understood. One possible contributor is that the horizontal component of the Coriolis force, which arises from the planet's rotation and is responsible for curving the trajectories of ocean currents and winds on Earth, has its greatest effect at high latitudes and vanishes at the equator. This tends to create small, intense vortices at high latitudes on Jupiter. Another possibility may lie in that fact that Jupiter overall emits nearly as much of its own heat as it absorbs from the Sun, and this internal heat flux is very likely greater at the poles. This condition could lead to enhanced convection at the poles and more vortex-type structures. Further analysis of Cassini images, including analysis of sequences taken over a span of time, should help us understand the cause of equator-to-pole differences in cloud organization and evolution.By the time this picture was taken, Cassini had reached close enough to Jupiter to allow the spacecraft to return images with more detail than what's possible with the planetary camera on NASA's Earth-orbiting Hubble Space Telescope. The resolution here is 114 kilometers (71 miles) per pixel. This contrast-enhanced, edge-sharpened frame was composited from images take at different wavelengths with Cassini's narrow-angle camera, from a distance of 19 million kilometers (11.8 million miles). The spacecraft was in almost a direct line between the Sun and Jupiter, so the solar illumination on Jupiter is almost full

  14. The International Human Epigenome Consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stunnenberg, Hendrik G; Hirst, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The International Human Epigenome Consortium (IHEC) coordinates the generation of a catalog of high-resolution reference epigenomes of major primary human cell types. The studies now presented (see the Cell Press IHEC web portal at http://www.cell.com/consortium/IHEC) highlight the coordinated ac...... achievements of IHEC teams to gather and interpret comprehensive epigenomic datasets to gain insights in the epigenetic control of cell states relevant for human health and disease. PAPERCLIP.......The International Human Epigenome Consortium (IHEC) coordinates the generation of a catalog of high-resolution reference epigenomes of major primary human cell types. The studies now presented (see the Cell Press IHEC web portal at http://www.cell.com/consortium/IHEC) highlight the coordinated...

  15. Atlantic Coast Environmental Indicators Consortium

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — n 2000, the US EPA granted authority to establish up to five Estuarine Indicator Research Programs. These Programs were designed to identify, evaluate, recommend and...

  16. The Pittsburgh Breast Cancer Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Protein Autovac in Patients with Brest Cancer CPharmexa). This trial was initiated in June 2003. The PBCC accrued 5 of the planned 11 patients. This...AD_________________ Award Number: DAMD17-01-1-0374 TITLE: The Pittsburgh Breast Cancer Consortium...3. DATES COVERED 1 AUG 2001 - 31 JUL 2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Pittsburgh Breast Cancer Consortium 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  17. A fireball in Jupiter's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, A. F.; Duxbury, T. C.

    1981-01-01

    One fireball was photographed during two encounters with Jupiter. Its total luminosity was 120,000 0 mag s (at standard range 100 km). If the luminous efficiency proposed by Cook et al. (1981) for slip flow of a meteoroid in its own vapors is employed, an estimated mass of 11 kg is obtained. A rough absolute magnitude is -12.5. If it is noted that the search was conducted for a total of 223 s during two exposures, a number density near Jupiter of 10 to the -28th/cu cm is estimated for masses of meteoroids of 3 kg and greater. This value is about a factor of six smaller than a rough upper limit reached from an extrapolation from terrestrial observations of meteors and comets.

  18. Thermometric Soots on Hot Jupiters?

    CERN Document Server

    Zahnle, K; Fortney, J J

    2009-01-01

    We use a 1D thermochemical and photochemical kinetics model to predict that the stratospheric chemistry of hot Jupiters should change dramatically as temperature drops from 1200 to 1000 K. At 1200 K methane is too unstable to reach the stratosphere in significant quantities, while thermal decomposition of water is a strong source of OH radicals that oxidize any hydrocarbons that do form to CO and CO$_2$. At 1000 K methane, although very reactive, survives long enough to reach the lower stratosphere, and the greater stability of water coupled with efficient scavenging of OH by H$_2$ raise the effective C/O ratio in the reacting gases above unity. Reduced products such as ethylene, acetylene, and hydrogen cyanide become abundant; such conditions favor polymerization and possible formation of PAHs and soots. Although low temperature is the most important factor favoring hydrocarbons in hot Jupiters, higher rates of vertical mixing and generally lower metallicities also favor organic synthesis. The peculiar prope...

  19. "A Library They Deserve": The Baltimore Elementary and Middle School Library Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Steven B.; Davis, Marcia H.; Connolly, Faith

    2014-01-01

    The Harry and Jeanette Weinberg Foundation has partnered with Baltimore Education Research Consortium (BERC) to complete a series of reports examining the implementation and impact of the Baltimore Elementary and Middle School Library Project (Library Project). This report on the first year of the project examines the experiences of the…

  20. A Study of Jupiter Trojans

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Ola

    2012-01-01

    Jupiter Trojan asteroid dynamics have been studied for a long time but it is only within the last decades that the known population has become large enough to make other studies meaningful. In four articles I have been scratching the surface of the unknown Trojan knowledge space. Paper I presents photometric observations confirming a larger variety in surface redness for the smaller Trojans compared to the larger ones, in line with the groups in the outer main asteroid belt. However, the larg...

  1. Two Moons Meet over Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This beautiful image of the crescents of volcanic Io and more sedate Europa was snapped by New Horizons' color Multispectral Visual Imaging Camera (MVIC) at 10:34 UT on March 2, 2007, about two days after New Horizons made its closest approach to Jupiter. The picture was one of a handful of the Jupiter system that New Horizons took primarily for their artistic, rather than scientific value. This particular scene was suggested by space enthusiast Richard Hendricks of Austin, Texas, in response to an Internet request by New Horizons scientists for evocative, artistic imaging opportunities at Jupiter. This image was taken from a range of 4.6 million kilometers (2.8 million miles) from Io and 3.8 million kilometers (2.4 million miles) from Europa. Although the moons appear close in this view, a gulf of 790,000 kilometers (490,000 miles) separates them. The night side of Io is illuminated here by light reflected from Jupiter, which is out of the frame to the right. Europa's night side is completely dark, in contrast to Io, because that side of Europa faces away from Jupiter. Here, Io steals the show with its beautiful display of volcanic activity. Three volcanic plumes are visible. Most conspicuous is the enormous 300-kilometer (190-mile) -high plume from the Tvashtar volcano at the 11 o'clock position on Io's disk. Two much smaller plumes are barely visible: one from the volcano Prometheus, at the 9 o'clock position on the edge of Io's disk, and one from the volcano Amirani, seen between Prometheus and Tvashtar along Io's terminator (the line dividing day and night). The plumes appear blue because of the scattering of light by tiny dust particles ejected by the volcanoes, similar to the blue appearance of smoke. In addition, the contrasting red glow of hot lava can be seen at the source of the Tvashtar plume. The images are centered at 1 degree north, 60 degrees west on Io, and 0 degrees north, 149 degrees west on Europa. The color in this image was generated using

  2. Juno at Jupiter: Mission and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Scott

    2016-07-01

    The Juno mission is the second mission in NASA's New Frontiers program. Launched in August 2011, Juno arrives at Jupiter in July 2016. Juno science goals include the study of Jupiter's origin, interior structure, deep atmosphere, aurora and magnetosphere. Jupiter's formation is fundamental to the evolution of our solar system and to the distribution of volatiles early in the solar system's history. Juno's measurements of the abundance of Oxygen and Nitrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere, and the detailed maps of Jupiter's gravity and magnetic field structure will constrain theories of early planetary development. Juno's orbit around Jupiter is a polar elliptical orbit with perijove approximately 5000 km above the visible cloud tops. The payload consists of a set of microwave antennas for deep sounding, magnetometers, gravity radio science, low and high energy charged particle detectors, electric and magnetic field radio and plasma wave experiment, ultraviolet imaging spectrograph, infrared imager and a visible camera. The Juno design enables the first detailed investigation of Jupiter's interior structure, and deep atmosphere as well as the first in depth exploration of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere. The Juno mission design, science goals, and measurements related to the atmosphere of Jupiter will be presented.

  3. The EJSM Jupiter-Ganymede Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, M.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Stankov, A.; Greeley, R.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Fujimoto, M.

    2008-09-01

    The Europa-Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), currently subject of a joint study by NASA, ESA and JAXA, would combine a fleet of three satellites in order to investigate in depth many questions related to the Jupiter System. These investigations are essential for our understanding of the emergence and evolution of habitable worlds, not only within the Solar System, but also for extrasolar planet investigations. Scientific targets of EJSM focus on Europa and Ganymede as a key pair of Galilean satellites, to address the questions on their habitability, formation, and internal structure, as well as the coupling with the whole Jovian system: Jupiter's atmosphere and interior, magnetosphere and magnetodisk.. In combination with a Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO that would be provided by NASA) and a Jupiter Magnetospheric Orbiter (JMO that would be provided by JAXA), ESA is studying a Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). The mission scenario includes a launch in 2020 with a transfer time to Jupiter of ~6 years. After the orbit insertion around Jupiter, a first phase (~2 years) will be devoted to Jupiter system and Callisto studies, with multiple flybys of Callisto planned at low altitude (~200 km), followed by a Ganymede orbit insertion and extensive study of Ganymede (~1 year). In depth comparative study of inner (Io and Europe) and outer (Ganymede and Callisto) satellites with combined payload of JEO and JGO will address the question of the geologic relative evolution of the satellites. On JGO, the transport phenomena in the magnetosphere of Jupiter will be studied in combination with JMO, and the Ganymede magnetosphere will be observed in situ. Jupiter atmosphere investigations on JGO will focus on coupling phenomena between troposphere, stratosphere and mesosphere, the stratospheric composition and the question of thermospheric heating.

  4. Warm Jupiters Are Less Lonely than Hot Jupiters: Close Neighbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chelsea; Wu, Yanqin; Triaud, Amaury H. M. J.

    2016-07-01

    Exploiting the Kepler transit data, we uncover a dramatic distinction in the prevalence of sub-Jovian companions between systems that contain hot Jupiters (HJs) (periods inward of 10 days) and those that host warm Jupiters (WJs) (periods between 10 and 200 days). HJs, with the singular exception of WASP-47b, do not have any detectable inner or outer planetary companions (with periods inward of 50 days and sizes down to 2 R Earth). Restricting ourselves to inner companions, our limits reach down to 1 R Earth. In stark contrast, half of the WJs are closely flanked by small companions. Statistically, the companion fractions for hot and WJs are mutually exclusive, particularly in regard to inner companions. The high companion fraction of WJs also yields clues to their formation. The WJs that have close-by siblings should have low orbital eccentricities and low mutual inclinations. The orbital configurations of these systems are reminiscent of those of the low-mass close-in planetary systems abundantly discovered by the Kepler mission. This, and other arguments, lead us to propose that these WJs are formed in situ. There are indications that there may be a second population of WJs with different characteristics. In this picture, WASP-47b could be regarded as the extending tail of the in situ WJs into the HJ region and does not represent the generic formation route for HJs.

  5. The ocean sampling day consortium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopf, Anna; Bicak, Mesude; Kottmann, Renzo

    2015-01-01

    Ocean Sampling Day was initiated by the EU-funded Micro B3 (Marine Microbial Biodiversity, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology) project to obtain a snapshot of the marine microbial biodiversity and function of the world’s oceans. It is a simultaneous global mega-sequencing campaign aiming to generate...... the largest standardized microbial data set in a single day. This will be achievable only through the coordinated efforts of an Ocean Sampling Day Consortium, supportive partnerships and networks between sites. This commentary outlines the establishment, function and aims of the Consortium and describes our...

  6. Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Ziemkiewicz; Tamara Vandivort; Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Y. Paul Chugh; James Hower

    2008-08-31

    The Combustion Byproducts Recycling Consortium (CBRC) program was developed as a focused program to remove and/or minimize the barriers for effective management of over 123 million tons of coal combustion byproducts (CCBs) annually generated in the USA. At the time of launching the CBRC in 1998, about 25% of CCBs were beneficially utilized while the remaining was disposed in on-site or off-site landfills. During the ten (10) year tenure of CBRC (1998-2008), after a critical review, 52 projects were funded nationwide. By region, the East, Midwest, and West had 21, 18, and 13 projects funded, respectively. Almost all projects were cooperative projects involving industry, government, and academia. The CBRC projects, to a large extent, successfully addressed the problems of large-scale utilization of CCBs. A few projects, such as the two Eastern Region projects that addressed the use of fly ash in foundry applications, might be thought of as a somewhat smaller application in comparison to construction and agricultural uses, but as a novel niche use, they set the stage to draw interest that fly ash substitution for Portland cement might not attract. With consideration of the large increase in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in response to EPA regulations, agricultural uses of FGD gypsum hold promise for large-scale uses of a product currently directed to the (currently stagnant) home construction market. Outstanding achievements of the program are: (1) The CBRC successfully enhanced professional expertise in the area of CCBs throughout the nation. The enhanced capacity continues to provide technology and information transfer expertise to industry and regulatory agencies. (2) Several technologies were developed that can be used immediately. These include: (a) Use of CCBs for road base and sub-base applications; (b) full-depth, in situ stabilization of gravel roads or highway/pavement construction recycled materials; and (c) fired bricks containing up to 30%-40% F

  7. Libraries in Finland Establish Consortia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esko Häkli

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available I will discuss the development of organized consortia, which are based on a charter or a written contract. I will also deal with some issues related to the organization of the consortia. I would already here like to stress, that if a consortium wants to achieve results it, in addition to a charter or a contract, also needs an executive body that carries out the work and makes sure that the plans and decisions are not only prepared but also put into practice. One of the main weaknesses of many cooperative arrangements between libraries has been the absence of a common executive not only taking care of the practicalities but also safeguarding the continuity. A committee can never fulfill the tasks of an executive body because running a consortium successfully requires much more effort than what is normally anticipated. In Finland the National Library has been given the task to enhance the cooperation between the research libraries of the country and to support their consortia . According to the National Library Strategy (adopted in November 1999 the Library is functioning as a common resource of the country’s research libraries. In this capacity it has been instrumental in creating the comprehensive consortia described below and is also responsible for running their daily business. It is possible that an arrangement of this kind is more typical for a small country than for a bigger one.

  8. The Capture of Jupiter Trojans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morbidelli, A.; Nesvorny, D.; Vokrouhlicky, D.

    2013-09-01

    The origin of Jupiter Trojans remained mysterious for decades. Particularly, it was difficult to explain the excitation of the inclinations of the Trojan population [1]. In 2005, Morbidelli et al. [2] proposed a scenario of capture from the trans-Neptunian disk, in the framework of the so-called "Nice model" [3,4]. This scenario explained in a natural way the observed orbital distribution of Trojans. The Nice model, however, evolved in the years, in order to satisfy an increasingly large number of constraints. It now appears that the dynamical evolution of the giant planets was different from that envisioned in [2]. Here, we assess again the process of capture of Trojans within this new evolution. We show that (6-8)×10 - 7 of the original trans-Neptunian planetesimals are captured in the Trojan region, with an orbital distribution consistent with the one observed. Relative to [2], the new capture mechanism has the potential of explaining the asymmetry between the L4 and L5 populations. Moreover, the resulting population of Trojans is consistent with that of the Irregular Satellites of Jupiter, which are captured in the same process; a few bodies from the main asteroid belt could also be captured in the Trojan cloud.

  9. Longitudinal Variations in Jupiter's Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Gierasch, P. J.; Tierney, G.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term studies of Jupiter's zonal wind field revealed temporal variations on the order of 20 to 40 m/s at many latitudes, greater than the typical data uncertainties of 1 to 10 m/s. No definitive periodicities were evident, however, though some latitudinally-confined signals did appear at periods relevant to the Quasi- Quadrennial Oscillation (Simon-Miller & Gierasch, Icarus, in press). As the QQO appears, from vertical temperature profiles, to propagate downward, it is unclear why a signal is not more obvious, unless other processes dominate over possibly weaker forcing from the QQO. An additional complication is that zonal wind profiles represent an average over some particular set of longitudes for an image pair and most data sets do not offer global wind coverage. Lien avoiding known features, such as the large anticyclonic vortices especially prevalent in the south, there can be distinct variations in longitude. We present results on the full wind field from Voyager and Cassini data, showing apparent longitudinal variations of up to 60 m/s or more. These are particularly obvious near disruptions such as the South Equatorial Disturbance, even when the feature itself is not clearly visible. These two dates represent very different states of the planet for comparison: Voyagers 1 & 2 flew by Jupiter shortly after a global upheaval, while many regions were in a disturbed state, while the Cassini view is typical of a more quiescent period present during much of the 1990s and early 2000s.

  10. Jupiter's magnetosphere and radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, C. F.; Coroniti, F. V.

    1979-01-01

    Radioastronomy and Pioneer data reveal the Jovian magnetosphere as a rotating magnetized source of relativistic particles and radio emission, comparable to astrophysical cosmic ray and radio sources, such as pulsars. According to Pioneer data, the magnetic field in the outer magnetosphere is radially extended into a highly time variable disk-shaped configuration which differs fundamentally from the earth's magnetosphere. The outer disk region, and the energetic particles confined in it, are modulated by Jupiter's 10 hr rotation period. The entire outer magnetosphere appears to change drastically on time scales of a few days to a week. In addition to its known modulation of the Jovian decametric radio bursts, Io was found to absorb some radiation belt particles and to accelerate others, and most importantly, to be a source of neutral atoms, and by inference, a heavy ion plasma which may significantly affect the hydrodynamic flow in the magnetosphere. Another important Pioneer finding is that the Jovian outer magnetosphere generates, or permits to escape, fluxes of relativistic electrons of such intensities that Jupiter may be regarded as the dominant source of 1 to 30 MeV cosmic ray electrons in the heliosphere.

  11. Atmospheric Escape from Hot Jupiters

    CERN Document Server

    Murray-Clay, Ruth; Murray, Norman

    2008-01-01

    Photoionization heating from UV radiation incident on the atmospheres of hot Jupiters may drive planetary mass loss. We construct a model of escape that includes realistic heating and cooling, ionization balance, tidal gravity, and pressure confinement by the host star wind. We show that mass loss takes the form of a hydrodynamic ("Parker") wind, emitted from the planet's dayside during lulls in the stellar wind. When dayside winds are suppressed by the confining action of the stellar wind, nightside winds might pick up if there is sufficient horizontal transport of heat. A hot Jupiter loses mass at maximum rates of ~2 x 10^12 g/s during its host star's pre-main-sequence phase and ~2 x10^10 g/s during the star's main sequence lifetime, for total maximum losses of ~0.06% and ~0.6% of the planet's mass, respectively. For UV fluxes F_UV < 10^4 erg/cm^2/s, the mass loss rate is approximately energy-limited and is proportional to F_UV^0.9. For larger UV fluxes, such as those typical of T Tauri stars, radiative ...

  12. The Statewide Energy Consortium: A California Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, G. Cleve; Giacosie, Robert V.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the formation and organization of a statewide energy consortium consisting of faculty from 19 campuses of the California State University and Colleges system. Also describes three major consortium activities and reasons for its success. (SK)

  13. The Statewide Energy Consortium: A California Concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, G. Cleve; Giacosie, Robert V.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the formation and organization of a statewide energy consortium consisting of faculty from 19 campuses of the California State University and Colleges system. Also describes three major consortium activities and reasons for its success. (SK)

  14. Engineering a Solution to Jupiter Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Karla; Magner, Thomas; Lisano, Michael; Pappalardo, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) would be an international mission with the overall theme of investigating the emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. Its goals are to (1) explore Europa to investigate its habitability, (2) characterize Ganymede as a planetary object including its potential habitability and (3) explore the Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants. NASA and ESA have concluded a detailed joint study of a mission to Europa, Ganymede, and the Jupiter system with conceptual orbiters developed by NASA and ESA. The baseline EJSM architecture consists of two primary elements operating simultaneously in the Jovian system: the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). JEO and JGO would execute an intricately choreographed exploration of the Jupiter System before settling into orbit around Europa and Ganymede, respectively. EJSM would directly address themes concerning the origin and evolution of satellite systems and water-rich environments in icy satellites. The potential habitability of the ocean-bearing moons Europa and Ganymede would be investigated, by characterizing the geophysical, compositional, geological, and external processes that affect these icy worlds. EJSM would also investigate Io and Callisto, Jupiter's atmosphere, and the Jovian magnetosphere. By understanding the Jupiter system and unraveling its history, the formation and evolution of gas giant planets and their satellites would be better known. Most importantly, EJSM would shed new light on the potential for the emergence of life in the celestial neighborhood and beyond. The EJSM baseline architecture would provide opportunities for coordinated synergistic observations by JEO and JGO of the Jupiter and Ganymede magnetospheres, the volcanoes and torus of Io, the atmosphere of Jupiter, and comparative planetology of icy satellites. Each spacecraft would conduct both synergistic dual-spacecraft investigations and stand

  15. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  16. Library Purchasing Consortia in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ball

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of library purchasing consortia across the United Kingdom is uneven and sector-dependent. Only higher education libraries show a well developed regional infrastructure of purchasing consortia covering virtually all eligible libraries. While there are clear sectoral disparities amongst the library purchasing consortia surveyed, the size of consortium expenditure seems to determine whether procurement professionals are involved. Thus in those whose spend consistently exceeds European Commission guidelines’ thresholds, the involvement of purchasing professionals is much more likely, and also crucial to the successful navigation of such procedures.

  17. Strong Langmuir turbulence at Jupiter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.

    1992-01-01

    Langmuir wave packets with short scale lengths less than an approximately equal to 100 lambda e have been observed in Jupiter's foreshock. Theoretical constraints on the electric fields and scale sizes of collapsing wave packets are summarized, extended and placed in a form suitable for easy comparison with Voyager and Ulysses data. The published data are reviewed and possible instrumental underestimation of fields discussed. New upper limits for the fields of the published wave packets are estimated. Wave packets formed at the nucleation scale from the observed large-scale fields cannot collapse because they are disrupted before collapse occurs. The published wave packets are quantitatively inconsistent with strong turbulence collapse. Strict constraints exist for more intense wave packets to be able to collapse: E greater than or approximately equals to 1-8 mV/m for scales less than or approximately equal to 100 lambda e. Means for testing these conclusions using Voyager and Ulysses data are suggested.

  18. Overview of Juno Results at Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Scott; Connerney, Jack; Levin, Steve

    2017-04-01

    Juno is the first mission to investigate Jupiter using a close polar orbit. The Juno science goals include the study of Jupiter interior composition and structure, deep atmosphere and its polar magnetosphere. All orbits have peri-jove at approximately 5000 km above Jupiter's visible cloud tops. The payload consists of a set of microwave antennas for deep sounding, magnetometers, gravity radio science, low and high energy charged particle detectors, plasma wave antennas, ultraviolet imaging spectrograph, infrared imager and spectrometer and a visible camera. The Juno mission design, an overview of the early science results from Juno, and a description of the collaborative Earth based campaign will be presented.

  19. Juno's first glimpse of Jupiter's complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Scott; Levin, Steven; Bagenal, Fran

    2017-08-01

    Preliminary results from NASA's Juno mission are presented in this special issue of Geophysical Research Letters. The data were gathered by nine scientific instruments as the Juno spacecraft approached Jupiter on the dawn flank, was inserted into Jupiter orbit on 4 July 2016, and made the first polar passes close to the planet. The first results hint that Jupiter may not have a distinct core, indicate puzzling deep atmospheric convection, and reveal complex small-scale structure in the magnetic field and auroral processes that are distinctly different from those at Earth.

  20. New Views of Jupiter's Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J. A.

    1998-09-01

    Jupiter's rings are the archetype of ethereal planetary rings (very-low optical-depth bands containing micron-sized "dust"). As a result of much improved observations by Galileo (Ockert-Bell* -- most citations are et al. and Icarus in press* or this meeting) and Keck (de Pater*), we now understand the nature of such rings. The ring has three components: a 104 km-thick toroidal halo (1.4-1.7 RJ; normal optical depth t = 10-6), a thin main ring (1.7-1.8 RJ; t = 10-6), and a pair of exterior gossamer rings (1.8-3.5RJ; t = 10-7). The main ring has patchy ( 20-30 percent) brightness. The ring is reddish and its particles satisfy a -2.5 differential power-law size distribution. Because particle lifetimes are brief, the rings must be continually regenerated, by collisions into parent bodies, which may be unseen or may be the known small ring-moons (Thomas*, Simonelli). The gossamer ring seems to be collisional ejecta derived from the ring-moons Amalthea and Thebe, and evolving inward by Poynting-Robertson drag (Burns). The particles drift through many electromagnetic resonances, clustering around synchronous orbit, which produce jumps in the particles' inclinations (Hamilton). The main ring is probably debris from Adrastea and Metis, which orbit in the equatorial plane. The halo particles are driven vertically by electromagnetic forces, which may be resonant (Schaffer & Burns) or not (Horanyi & Cravens). When halo orbits become highly distorted, particles are lost into Jupiter. Similar faint rings may be attendant to all small, close-in satellites (Showalter).

  1. Corn in consortium with forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássia Maria de Paula Garcia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The basic premises for sustainable agricultural development with focus on rural producers are reducing the costs of production and aggregation of values through the use crop-livestock system (CLS throughout the year. The CLS is based on the consortium of grain crops, especially corn with tropical forages, mainly of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The study aimed to evaluate the grain yield of irrigated corn crop intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum and Urochloa. The experiment was conducted at the Fazenda de Ensino, Pesquisa e Extensão – FEPE  of the Faculdade de Engenharia - UNESP, Ilha Solteira in an Oxisol in savannah conditions and in the autumn winter of 2009. The experimental area was irrigated by a center pivot and had a history of no-tillage system for 8 years. The corn hybrid used was simple DKB 390 YG at distances of 0.90 m. The seeds of grasses were sown in 0.34 m spacing in the amount of 5 kg ha-1, they were mixed with fertilizer minutes before sowing  and placed in a compartment fertilizer seeder and fertilizers were mechanically deposited in the soil at a depth of 0.03 m. The experimental design used was a randomized block with four replications and five treatments: Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CTD of the corn; Panicum maximum cv. Mombaça sown during the nitrogen fertilization (CMD of the corn; Urochloa brizantha cv. Xaraés sown during the occasion of nitrogen fertilization (CBD of the corn; Urochloa ruziziensis cv. Comumsown during the nitrogen fertilization (CRD of the corn and single corn (control. The production components of corn: plant population per hectare (PlPo, number of ears per hectare (NE ha-1, number of rows per ear (NRE, number of kernels per row on the cob (NKR, number of grain in the ear (NGE and mass of 100 grains (M100G were not influenced by consortium with forage. Comparing grain yield (GY single corn and maize intercropped with forage of the genus Panicum

  2. Book by Book, College Libraries Pool Their Collected Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Eric

    2006-01-01

    The Orbis Cascade Alliance is a consortium of 35 college libraries in Washington State and Oregon which allows the libraries to pool their resources in pursuit of what librarians call collaborative collection development. In its scope and diversity, Orbis Cascade is unusual among groups of colleges that collaboratively buy and share books, with…

  3. Indian Consortia Models: FORSA Libraries' Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Y. M.; Birdie, C.; Bawdekar, N.; Barve, S.; Anilkumar, N.

    2007-10-01

    With increases in prices of journals, shrinking library budgets and cuts in subscriptions to journals over the years, there has been a big challenge facing Indian library professionals to cope with the proliferation of electronic information resources. There have been sporadic efforts by different groups of libraries in forming consortia at different levels. The types of consortia identified are generally based on various models evolved in India in a variety of forms depending upon the participants' affiliations and funding sources. Indian astronomy library professionals have formed a group called Forum for Resource Sharing in Astronomy and Astrophysics (FORSA), which falls under `Open Consortia', wherein participants are affiliated to different government departments. This is a model where professionals willingly come forward and actively support consortia formation; thereby everyone benefits. As such, FORSA has realized four consortia, viz. Nature Online Consortium; Indian Astrophysics Consortium for physics/astronomy journals of Springer/Kluwer; Consortium for Scientific American Online Archive (EBSCO); and Open Consortium for Lecture Notes in Physics (Springer), which are discussed briefly.

  4. The AGTSR consortium: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fant, D.B.; Golan, L.P. [Clemson Univ., SC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Advanced Gas Turbine Systems Research (AGTSR) program is a collaborative University-Industry R&D Consortium that is managed and administered by the South Carolina Energy R&D Center. AGTSR is a nationwide consortium dedicated to advancing land-based gas turbine systems for improving future power generation capability. It directly supports the technology-research arm of the ATS program and targets industry-defined research needs in the areas of combustion, heat transfer, materials, aerodynamics, controls, alternative fuels, and advanced cycles. The consortium is organized to enhance U.S. competitiveness through close collaboration with universities, government, and industry at the R&D level. AGTSR is just finishing its third year of operation and is sponsored by the U.S. DOE - Morgantown Energy Technology Center. The program is scheduled to continue past the year 2000. At present, there are 78 performing member universities representing 36 states, and six cost-sharing U.S. gas turbine corporations. Three RFP`s have been announced and the fourth RFP is expected to be released in December, 1995. There are 31 research subcontracts underway at performing member universities. AGTSR has also organized three workshops, two in combustion and one in heat transfer. A materials workshop is in planning and is scheduled for February, 1996. An industrial internship program was initiated this past summer, with one intern positioned at each of the sponsoring companies. The AGTSR consortium nurtures close industry-university-government collaboration to enhance synergism and the transition of research results, accelerate and promote evolutionary-revolutionary R&D, and strives to keep a prominent U.S. industry strong and on top well into the 21st century. This paper will present the objectives and benefits of the AGTSR program, progress achieved to date, and future planned activity in fiscal year 1996.

  5. John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nall, Marsha

    2004-01-01

    The John Glenn Biomedical Engineering Consortium is an inter-institutional research and technology development, beginning with ten projects in FY02 that are aimed at applying GRC expertise in fluid physics and sensor development with local biomedical expertise to mitigate the risks of space flight on the health, safety, and performance of astronauts. It is anticipated that several new technologies will be developed that are applicable to both medical needs in space and on earth.

  6. Astronomers find distant planet like Jupiter

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Astronomers searching for planetary systems like our solar system have found a planet similar to Jupiter orbiting a nearby star similar to our Sun, about 90 light-years from Earth, according to researchers (1/2 page).

  7. Kepler constraints on planets near hot Jupiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab; Ragozzine, Darin; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; /UC, Santa Cruz, Astron. Astrophys.; Carter, Joshua A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Ford, Eric B.; /Florida U.; Holman, Matthew J.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Rowe, Jason F.; /NASA, Ames; Welsh, William F.; /San Diego State U., Astron. Dept.; Borucki, William J.; /NASA, Ames; Boss, Alan P.; /Carnegie Inst., Wash., D.C., DTM; Ciardi, David R.; /Caltech /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.

    2012-05-01

    We present the results of a search for planetary companions orbiting near hot Jupiter planet candidates (Jupiter-size candidates with orbital periods near 3 d) identified in the Kepler data through its sixth quarter of science operations. Special emphasis is given to companions between the 2:1 interior and exterior mean-motion resonances. A photometric transit search excludes companions with sizes ranging from roughly two-thirds to five times the size of the Earth, depending upon the noise properties of the target star. A search for dynamically induced deviations from a constant period (transit timing variations) also shows no significant signals. In contrast, comparison studies of warm Jupiters (with slightly larger orbits) and hot Neptune-size candidates do exhibit signatures of additional companions with these same tests. These differences between hot Jupiters and other planetary systems denote a distinctly different formation or dynamical history.

  8. Analysis of JUPITER experiment in ZPPR-9

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1980-09-15

    Information and data from the ZPPR-9 reactor JUPITER experiment are presented concerning a general description of data and methods; criticality; reaction rate ratio and reaction rate distribution; Doppler and sample reactivity worth; sodium void worth; and control rod worth.

  9. Kepler constraints on planets near hot Jupiters

    CERN Document Server

    Steffen, Jason H; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Carter, Joshua A; Ford, Eric B; Holman, Matthew J; Rowe, Jason F; Welsh, William F; Borucki, William J; Boss, Alan P; Ciardi, David R; Quinn, Samuel N

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a search for planetary companions orbiting near hot Jupiter planet candidates (Jupiter-size candidates with orbital periods near 3 days) identified in the Kepler data through its sixth quarter of science operations. Special emphasis is given to companions between the 2:1 interior and exterior mean-motion resonances. A photometric transit search excludes companions with sizes ranging from roughly 2/3 to 5 times the size of the Earth, depending upon the noise properties of the target star. A search for dynamically induced deviations from a constant period (transit timing variations or TTVs) also shows no significant signals. In contrast, comparison studies of warm Jupiters (with slightly larger orbits) and hot Neptune-size candidates do exhibit signatures of additional companions with these same tests. These differences between hot Jupiters and other planetary systems denote a distinctly different formation or dynamical history.

  10. Far infrared spectrophotometry of Jupiter and Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, E. F.; Goorvitch, D.; Simpson, J. P.; Strecker, D. W.

    1978-01-01

    Infrared spectral measurements of Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn were obtained from 100 to 470 kaysers and, by taking Mars as a calibration source, brightness temperatures of Jupiter and Saturn were determined with approximately 5 kayser resolution. Internal luminosities were determined from the data and are reported to be approximately 8 times 10 to the minus tenth power of the sun's luminosity for Jupiter and approximately 3.6 times 10 to the minus tenth power of the sun's luminosity for Saturn. Comparison of data with spectra predicted by models suggests the need for an opacity source in addition to gaseous hydrogen and ammonia to help explain Jupiter's observed spectrum in the vicinity of 250 kaysers.

  11. Jupiter Great Red Spot and White Ovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This photo of Jupiter was taken by Voyager 1 on March 1, 1979. The spacecraft was 3 million miles (5 million kilometers) from Jupiter at the time. The photo shows Jupiter's Great Red Spot (upper right) and the turbulent region immediately to the west. At the middle right of the frame is one of several white ovals seen on Jupiter from Earth. The structure in every feature here is far better than has ever been seen from any telescopic observations. The Red Spot and the white oval both reveal intricate and involved structure. The smallest details that can be seen in this photo are about 55 miles (95 kilometers) across. JPL manages and controls the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  12. Tidal Response of Preliminary Jupiter Model

    CERN Document Server

    Wahl, Sean M; Militzer, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    In anticipation of improved observational data for Jupiter's gravitational field from the Juno spacecraft, we predict the static tidal response for a variety of Jupiter interior models based on ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen-helium mixtures. We calculate hydrostatic-equilibrium gravity terms using the non-perturbative concentric Maclaurin Spheroid (CMS) method that eliminates lengthy expansions used in the theory of figures. Our method captures terms arising from the coupled tidal and rotational perturbations, which we find to be important for a rapidly-rotating planet like Jupiter. Our predicted static tidal Love number $k_2 = 0.5900$ is $\\sim$10\\% larger than previous estimates. The value is, as expected, highly correlated with the zonal harmonic coefficient $J_2$, and is thus nearly constant when plausible changes are made to interior structure while holding $J_2$ fixed at the observed value. We note that the predicted static $k_2$ might change due to Jupiter's dynamical response to the Galilea...

  13. Kepler constraints on planets near hot Jupiters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Jason H; Ragozzine, Darin; Fabrycky, Daniel C; Carter, Joshua A; Ford, Eric B; Holman, Matthew J; Rowe, Jason F; Welsh, William F; Borucki, William J; Boss, Alan P; Ciardi, David R; Quinn, Samuel N

    2012-05-22

    We present the results of a search for planetary companions orbiting near hot Jupiter planet candidates (Jupiter-size candidates with orbital periods near 3 d) identified in the Kepler data through its sixth quarter of science operations. Special emphasis is given to companions between the 21 interior and exterior mean-motion resonances. A photometric transit search excludes companions with sizes ranging from roughly two-thirds to five times the size of the Earth, depending upon the noise properties of the target star. A search for dynamically induced deviations from a constant period (transit timing variations) also shows no significant signals. In contrast, comparison studies of warm Jupiters (with slightly larger orbits) and hot Neptune-size candidates do exhibit signatures of additional companions with these same tests. These differences between hot Jupiters and other planetary systems denote a distinctly different formation or dynamical history.

  14. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  15. Voyager-Jupiter radio science data papers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, G. S.; Wood, G. E.

    1980-01-01

    The reduction and interpretation of the radio science data from the Voyager 1 and 2 encounters of the planet Jupiter and its satellites resulted in the preparation of several papers for publication in the special Voyager-Jupiter issue of the Journal of Geophysical Research. The radio science and tracking systems of the Deep Space Network provide the data which makes this research possible. This article lists submitted papers by title, with their authors and with abstracts of their contents.

  16. Jupiter's Radiation Belts: Can Pioneer 10 Survive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, W N; Birmingham, T J; Mead, G D

    1973-12-07

    Model calculations of Jupiter's electron and proton radiation belts indicate that the Galilean satellites can reduce particle fluxes in certain regions of the inner magnetosphere by as much as six orders of magnitude. Average fluxes should be reduced by a factor of 100 or more along the Pioneer 10 trajectory through the heart of Jupiter's radiation belts in early December. This may be enough to prevent serious radiation damage to the spacecraft.

  17. Tidal Response of Preliminary Jupiter Model

    OpenAIRE

    Wahl, Sean M; Hubbard, Willam B.; Militzer, Burkhard

    2016-01-01

    In anticipation of improved observational data for Jupiter's gravitational field from the Juno spacecraft, we predict the static tidal response for a variety of Jupiter interior models based on ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen-helium mixtures. We calculate hydrostatic-equilibrium gravity terms using the non-perturbative concentric Maclaurin Spheroid (CMS) method that eliminates lengthy expansions used in the theory of figures. Our method captures terms arising from the coupled tidal...

  18. The Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter : An ESA Contribution to the Europa-Jupiter System Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drossart, Pierre; Blanc, M.; Lebreton, J. P.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Greeley, R.; Fujimoto, M.; EJSM/Jupiter Science Definition Team

    2008-09-01

    In the framework of an outer planets mission, under study after the NASA-Juno mission, the Europa-Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) would combine a fleet of up to three satellites in order to investigate in depth many questions related to the Jupiter System. These investigations are essential for our understanding of the emergence and evolution of habitable worlds, not only within the Solar System, but also for extrasolar planets investigations. Scientific targets of EJSM will focus on Europa and Ganymede as a key pair of Galilean satellites, to address the questions on their habitability, formation, and internal structure, as well as the coupling with the whole Jovian system : Jupiter's atmosphere and interior, magnetosphere and magnetodisk. .In combination with a Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO likely provided by NASA) and a Jupiter Magnetospheric Orbiter (JMO likely provided by JAXA), ESA is studying a Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). The mission scenario includes a direct launch in 2020 with a transfer time to Jupiter of 6 years. After the orbit insertion around Jupiter, a first phase ( 2 years) will be devoted to Jupiter system and Callisto studies, with multiple flybys of Callisto planned at low altitude ( 200 km), followed by a Ganymede orbit insertion and extensive study of Ganymede ( 1 year). In-depth comparative study of inner (Io and Europa) and outer (Ganymede and Callisto) satellites with combined payload of JEO and JGO will address the question of the relative geological evolution of the satellites. On JGO, the transport phenomena in the magnetosphere of Jupiter will be studied in combination with JMO, and the Ganymede magnetosphere will be observed in situ. Jupiter atmosphere investigations on JGO will focus on coupling phenomena between troposphere, stratosphere and mesosphere, the stratospheric composition and the question of thermospheric heating.

  19. Barrow's Living Room: How a Tribal College Library Connects Communities across the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Erin

    2015-01-01

    More than just storerooms of information, tribal college libraries are gathering spaces that bring people together. The Tuzzy Consortium Library at IIisagvik College builds community by providing services and programs that reflect the values of Alaska's North Slope Iñupiaq people. The college library collaborates with different organizations to…

  20. Coordinators for health science libraries in the Midwest Health Science Library Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtum, E A; McKloskey, J; Mahan, R

    1977-01-01

    In the summer of 1973 one resource library in each of the six states of the Midwest Health Science Library Network received funding from the National Library of Medicine to hire a coordinator for health science libraries. The development of the role of coordinator is examined and evaluated. The coordinators have proved valuable in the areas of consortium formation, basic unit development, communication facilitation, and program initiation. The function of the coordinators in the extensive planning effort now being undertaken by the network and the future need for the coordinator positions are discussed. PMID:843649

  1. Using Jupiter's Synchrotron Radiation as a Probe into Jupiter's Inner Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, S. J.; Gulkis, S.; Klein, M. J.; Thorne, R. M.

    1995-01-01

    The Jovian decimetric emission is caused by the combined emission of synchrotron radiation originating from the relativistic electrons trapped in Jupiter's 'Van Allen radiation belts' and thermal emission from the planet's atmosphere. Synchrotron radiation characteristics and variations (which provides insight into the physical properties of Jupiter's inner radiation belts) will be amplified and discussed.

  2. Temporal Variations in Jupiter's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Chanover, N. J.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Hammel, H. B.; dePater, I.; Noll, K.; Wong, M.; Clarke, J.; Sanchez-Levega, A.; Orton, G. S.; Gonzaga, S.

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, Jupiter has undergone many atmospheric changes from storms turning red to global. cloud upheavals, and most recently, a cornet or asteroid impact. Yet, on top of these seemingly random changes events there are also periodic phenomena, analogous to observed Earth and Saturn atmospheric oscillations. We will present 15 years of Hubble data, from 1994 to 2009, to show how the equatorial tropospheric cloud deck and winds have varied over that time, focusing on the F953N, F41 ON and F255W filters. These filters give leverage on wind speeds plus cloud opacity, cloud height and tropospheric haze thickness, and stratospheric haze, respectively. The wind data consistently show a periodic oscillation near 7-8 S latitude. We will discuss the potential for variations with longitude and cloud height, within the calibration limits of those filters. Finally, we will discuss the role that large atmospheric events, such as the impacts in 1994 and 2009, and the global upheaval of 2007, have on temporal studies, This work was supported by a grant from the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program. HST observational support was provided by NASA through grants from Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under contract NAS5-26555.

  3. The possible contamination of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Joe

    1988-01-01

    The Galileo probe, though at present its future is uncertain, would, if not sterilized, represent a good chance of contaminating Jupiter. Most scientists opposed to sterilizing the probe argue that to order the probe sterilized would be the death of the project, since sterilization would entail a reconstruction of the probe, and there are not enough funds to accomplish this. These scientists, however, are ignoring a relatively simple and inexpensive alternative to the traditional heat sterilization method. The main threat of contamination comes from Galileo's exterior surfaces: the shell of the probe and its parachute. The probe innermost components would not represent a threat since the probe is sealed. In light of the fact that only the exterior of Galileo would have to be sterilized, heat would not have to be used as a method of sterilization. Instead, various gas mixtures could be sprayed entirely over the probe and its parachute, gases which would kill any and all bacteria. This idea is more thoroughly examined.

  4. Jupiter's radiation belts and atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pater, I.; Dames, H. A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Maps and stripscans of the radio emission from Jupiter were made during the Pioneer 10 flyby in December 1973 at wavelengths of 6 cm, 21 cm, and 50 cm using the Westerbork telescope in the Netherlands. With this instrument the disk of the planet was resolved at 6 and 21 cm. The pictures are averaged over 15 deg of Jovian longitude. At 21 cm the stripscans clearly show the existence of a 'hot region' in the radiation belts at a System III longitude (1965.0) of 255 + or - 10 deg. Its flux is about 9% of the total nonthermal flux, and it has a volume emissivity enhanced by a factor of about 1.6 with respect to the general radiation belts. The temperature of the thermal disk at 21 cm appears to be 290 + or - 20 K. This is likely due to a high ammonia mixing ratio in the atmosphere, a factor of 4-5 larger than the expected solar value of 0.00015.

  5. Hot Jupiters and cool stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villaver, Eva; Mustill, Alexander J. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Módulo 8, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Livio, Mario [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Siess, Lionel, E-mail: eva.villaver@uam.es [Institut d' Astronomie et d' Astrophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2014-10-10

    Close-in planets are in jeopardy, as their host stars evolve off the main sequence (MS) to the subgiant and red giant phases. In this paper, we explore the influences of the stellar mass (in the range 1.5-2 M {sub ☉}), mass-loss prescription, planet mass (from Neptune up to 10 Jupiter masses), and eccentricity on the orbital evolution of planets as their parent stars evolve to become subgiants and red giants. We find that planet engulfment along the red giant branch is not very sensitive to the stellar mass or mass-loss rates adopted in the calculations, but quite sensitive to the planetary mass. The range of initial separations for planet engulfment increases with decreasing mass-loss rates or stellar masses and increasing planetary masses. Regarding the planet's orbital eccentricity, we find that as the star evolves into the red giant phase, stellar tides start to dominate over planetary tides. As a consequence, a transient population of moderately eccentric close-in Jovian planets is created that otherwise would have been expected to be absent from MS stars. We find that very eccentric and distant planets do not experience much eccentricity decay, and that planet engulfment is primarily determined by the pericenter distance and the maximum stellar radius.

  6. Library Automation

    OpenAIRE

    Dhakne, B. N.; Giri, V. V.; Waghmode, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    New technologies library provides several new materials, media and mode of storing and communicating the information. Library Automation reduces the drudgery of repeated manual efforts in library routine. By use of library automation collection, Storage, Administration, Processing, Preservation and communication etc.

  7. Consortium for Health and Military Performance (CHAMP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center's work addresses a wide scope of trauma exposure from the consequences of combat, operations other than war, terrorism, natural and humanmade disasters,...

  8. A 'Moving' Jupiter Global Map (Animation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) on New Horizons has acquired six global maps of Jupiter as the spacecraft approaches the giant planet for a close encounter at the end of February. The high-resolution camera acquired each of six observation 'sets' as a series of individual pictures taken one hour apart, covering a full 10-hour rotation of Jupiter. The LORRI team at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) reduced the sets to form six individual maps in a simple rectangular projection. These six maps were then combined to make the movie. The table below shows the dates and the ranges from Jupiter at which these six sets of observations were acquired. Even for the latest set of images taken January 21-22, from 60.5 million kilometers (37.6 million miles), New Horizons was still farther from Jupiter than the average distance of Mercury from the Sun. At that distance from Jupiter, a single LORRI picture resolution element amounts to 300 kilometers (186 miles) on Jupiter. Many features seen in Jupiter's atmosphere are giant storm clouds. The Little Red Spot, which LORRI will image close-up on February 27, is the target-like feature located near 30 degrees South and 230 degrees West; this storm is larger than the Earth. The even larger Great Red Spot is seen near 20 degrees South and 320 degrees West. The counterclockwise rotation of the clouds within the Great Red Spot can be seen. The westward drift of the Great Red Spot is easily seen in the movie, as is the slower drift, in the opposite direction, of the Little Red Spot. The storms of Jupiter are not fixed in location relative to each other or relative to any solid surface below, because Jupiter is a fluid planet without a solid surface. Also, dramatic changes are seen in the series of bright plume-like clouds encircling the planet between 0 and 10 degrees North. Scientists believe these result from an enormous atmospheric wave with rising air, rich in ammonia that condenses to form

  9. Detection and analysis of Jupiter's decametric micropulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebo, G. R.

    1972-01-01

    The occurrence of Jupiter's decametric radio emission can be correlated with the central meridian longitude of Jupiter as if the active regions were radio transmitters placed at fixed longitudes on its surface. These active regions are commonly called sources and are labelled Source A, Jovian longitude = 200 deg, Source B = 100 deg and Source C =300 deg. These sources are not always active. However, they can be turned-on if Jupiter's innermost Galilean moon, Io, is in the right phase. In fact, if Io is found 90 deg from superior geocentric conjunction (maximum eastern elongation) and if source B is simultaneously on the central meridian, source B radiation is almost guaranteed, whereas source C radiation is highly likely when Io is found 240 deg from superior geocentric conjunction. Source A radiation is largely independent of Io's position. Interestingly, the Io-related radio storms contain unusually rapid events that can only be properly studied using wide-band techniques.

  10. Radiation-Hydrodynamics of Hot Jupiter Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Menou, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    Radiative transfer in planetary atmospheres is usually treated in the static limit, i.e., neglecting atmospheric motions. We argue that hot Jupiter atmospheres, with possibly fast (sonic) wind speeds, may require a more strongly coupled treatment, formally in the regime of radiation-hydrodynamics. To lowest order in v/c, relativistic Doppler shifts distort line profiles along optical paths with finite wind velocity gradients. This leads to flow-dependent deviations in the effective emission and absorption properties of the atmospheric medium. Evaluating the overall impact of these distortions on the radiative structure of a dynamic atmosphere is non-trivial. We present transmissivity and systematic equivalent width excess calculations which suggest possibly important consequences for radiation transport in hot Jupiter atmospheres. If winds are fast and bulk Doppler shifts are indeed important for the global radiative balance, accurate modeling and reliable data interpretation for hot Jupiter atmospheres may p...

  11. Capture of Trojans by Jumping Jupiter

    CERN Document Server

    Nesvorny, David; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    Jupiter Trojans are thought to be survivors of a much larger population of planetesimals that existed in the planetary region when planets formed. They can provide important constraints on the mass and properties of the planetesimal disk, and its dispersal during planet migration. Here we tested a possibility that the Trojans were captured during the early dynamical instability among the outer planets (aka the Nice model), when the semimajor axis of Jupiter was changing as a result of scattering encounters with an ice giant. The capture occurs in this model when Jupiter's orbit and its Lagrange points become radially displaced in a scattering event and fall into a region populated by planetesimals (that previously evolved from their natal transplanetary disk to ~5 AU during the instability). Our numerical simulations of the new capture model, hereafter jump capture, satisfactorily reproduce the orbital distribution of the Trojans and their total mass. The jump capture is potentially capable of explaining the ...

  12. Principal components analysis of Jupiter VIMS spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellucci, G.; Formisano, V.; D'Aversa, E.; Brown, R.H.; Baines, K.H.; Bibring, J.-P.; Buratti, B.J.; Capaccioni, F.; Cerroni, P.; Clark, R.N.; Coradini, A.; Cruikshank, D.P.; Drossart, P.; Jaumann, R.; Langevin, Y.; Matson, D.L.; McCord, T.B.; Mennella, V.; Nelson, R.M.; Nicholson, P.D.; Sicardy, B.; Sotin, Christophe; Chamberlain, M.C.; Hansen, G.; Hibbits, K.; Showalter, M.; Filacchione, G.

    2004-01-01

    During Cassini - Jupiter flyby occurred in December 2000, Visual-Infrared mapping spectrometer (VIMS) instrument took several image cubes of Jupiter at different phase angles and distances. We have analysed the spectral images acquired by the VIMS visual channel by means of a principal component analysis technique (PCA). The original data set consists of 96 spectral images in the 0.35-1.05 ??m wavelength range. The product of the analysis are new PC bands, which contain all the spectral variance of the original data. These new components have been used to produce a map of Jupiter made of seven coherent spectral classes. The map confirms previously published work done on the Great Red Spot by using NIMS data. Some other new findings, presently under investigation, are presented. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  13. Jupiter's Great Red Spot and White Ovals

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    This photo of Jupiter was taken by Voyager 1 on the evening of March 1, 1979, from a distance of 2.7 million miles (4.3 million kilometers). The photo shows Jupiter's Great Red Spot (top) and one of the white ovals than can be seen in Jupiter's atmosphere from Earth. The white ovals were seen to form in 1939, and 1940, and have remained more or less constant ever since. None of the structure and detail evident in these features have ever been seen from Earth. The Great Red Spot is three times as large as Earth. Also evident in the picture is a great deal of atmospheric detail that will require further study for interpretation. The smallest details that can be seen in this picture are about 45 miles (80 kilometers across. JPL manages and controls the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  14. Capture of Irregular Satellites at Jupiter

    CERN Document Server

    Nesvorny, D; Deienno, R

    2014-01-01

    The irregular satellites of outer planets are thought to have been captured from heliocentric orbits. The exact nature of the capture process, however, remains uncertain. We examine the possibility that irregular satellites were captured from the planetesimal disk during the early Solar System instability when encounters between the outer planets occurred (Nesvorny, Vokrouhlicky & Morbidelli 2007, AJ 133; hereafter NVM07). NVM07 already showed that the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus and Neptune were plausibly captured during planetary encounters. Here we find that the current instability models present favorable conditions for capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter as well, mainly because Jupiter undergoes a phase of close encounters with an ice giant. We show that the orbital distribution of bodies captured during planetary encounters provides a good match to the observed distribution of irregular satellites at Jupiter. The capture efficiency for each particle in the original transplanetary d...

  15. Introduction to Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Introduction The Neuroscience Peer Review Consortium is an alliance of neuroscience journals that have agreed to accept manuscript reviews from other members of the Consortium.Its goals are to support efficient and thorough peer review of original research in neuroscience, speed the publication of research reports, and reduce the burden on peer reviewers.

  16. Culture-dependent and -independent approaches establish the complexity of a PAH-degrading microbial consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinas, M.; Sabate, J.; Solanas, A.M. [Barcelona Univ., Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Microbiology; Guasp, C.; Lalucat, J. [Illes Balears Univ., Palma de Mallorca (Spain). Dept. of Biology

    2005-11-15

    Microbial consortia are used in the decontamination of polluted environmental sites. A microbial consortium obtained by batch enrichment culture is a closed system with controlled conditions in which micro-organisms with a potentially high growth rate are selected and become dominant. The aim of this study was to identify the members of consortium AM, in which earlier batch enrichment work had shown high biodegradation rates of the aromatic fraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). The AM consortium was obtained by sequential enrichment in liquid culture with a PAH mixture of 3- and 4- ringed PAHs as the sole source of carbon and energy. The consortium was examined using a triple approach method based on various cultivation strategies, denaturing gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) and the screening of 16S and 18S rRNA gene clone libraries. Eleven different sequences by culture-dependent techniques and 7 by both DGGE and clone libraries were obtained, yielding 19 different microbial components. Proteobacteria were the dominant group, representing 83 per cent of the total, while the Cytophaga-Flexibactor-Bacteroides group (CFB) was 11 per cent, and Ascomycota fungi were 6 per cent. It was determined that {beta}-Proteobacteria were predominant in the DGGE and clone library methods, whereas they were a minority in culturable strains. The highest diversity and number of noncoincident sequences was achieved by the cultivation method that showed members of the {alpha},{beta}, and {gamma}-Proteobacteria, CFB bacterial group, and Ascomycota fungi. Only 6 of the 11 strains isolated showed PAH-degrading capability. The bacterial strain (AMS7) and the fungal strain (AMF1) achieved the greatest PAH depletion. Results indicated that polyphasic assessment is necessary for a proper understanding of the composition of a microbial consortium. It was concluded that microbial consortia are more complex than previously realized. 54 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  17. Thermal tides on a hot Jupiter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh H.-F.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Following the linear analysis laid out by Gu & Ogilvie 2009 (hereafter GO09, we investigate the dynamical response of a non-synchronized hot Jupiter to stellar irradiation. Besides the internal and Rossby waves considered by GO09, we study the Kelvin waves excited by the diurnal Fourier harmonic of the prograde stellar irradiation. We also present a 2-dimensional plot of internal waves excited by the semi-diurnal component of the stellar irradiation and postulate that thermal bulges may arise in a hot Jupiter. Whether our postulation is valid and is consistent with the recent results from Arras & Socrates (2009b requires further investigation.

  18. Jupiter after Pioneer - A progress report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonough, T. R.

    1974-01-01

    In December 1973, Pioneer 10 became the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of Jupiter. The spacecraft passed through the Jovian magnetosphere in two weeks and sent back more than 300 pictures of the big planet. Measurements were conducted of EM fields, energetic particles, and micrometeoroids. Radio occultations observed are discussed along with observations in the infrared and ultraviolet range, magnetic measurements, questions of trajectory analysis, and data obtained with the aid of a plasma analyzer. Pioneer 10 has confirmed as inescapable the fact that Jupiter radiates more energy than it receives from the sun.

  19. Radiation belts of jupiter: a second look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillius, R W; McIlwain, C E; Mogro-Campero, A

    1975-05-02

    The outbound leg of the Pioneer 11 Jupiter flyby explored a region farther from the equator than that traversed by Pioneer 10, and the new data require modification or augmentation of the magnetodisk model based on the Pioneer 10 flyby. The inner moons of Jupiter are sinks of energetic particles and sometimes sources. A large spike of particles was found near lo. Multiple peaks occurred in the particle fluxes near closest approach to the planet; this structure may be accounted for by a complex magnetic field configuration. The decrease in proton flux observed near minimum altitude on the Pioneer 10 flyby appears attributable to particle absorption by Amalthea.

  20. HUBBLE PROVIDES COMPLETE VIEW OF JUPITER'S AURORAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has captured a complete view of Jupiter's northern and southern auroras. Images taken in ultraviolet light by the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) show both auroras, the oval- shaped objects in the inset photos. While the Hubble telescope has obtained images of Jupiter's northern and southern lights since 1990, the new STIS instrument is 10 times more sensitive than earlier cameras. This allows for short exposures, reducing the blurring of the image caused by Jupiter's rotation and providing two to five times higher resolution than earlier cameras. The resolution in these images is sufficient to show the 'curtain' of auroral light extending several hundred miles above Jupiter's limb (edge). Images of Earth's auroral curtains, taken from the space shuttle, have a similar appearance. Jupiter's auroral images are superimposed on a Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 image of the entire planet. The auroras are brilliant curtains of light in Jupiter's upper atmosphere. Jovian auroral storms, like Earth's, develop when electrically charged particles trapped in the magnetic field surrounding the planet spiral inward at high energies toward the north and south magnetic poles. When these particles hit the upper atmosphere, they excite atoms and molecules there, causing them to glow (the same process acting in street lights). The electrons that strike Earth's atmosphere come from the sun, and the auroral lights remain concentrated above the night sky in response to the 'solar wind,' as Earth rotates underneath. Earth's auroras exhibit storms that extend to lower latitudes in response to solar activity, which can be easily seen from the northern U. S. But Jupiter's auroras are caused by particles spewed out by volcanoes on Io, one of Jupiter's moons. These charged particles are then magnetically trapped and begin to rotate with Jupiter, producing ovals of auroral light centered on Jupiter's magnetic poles in both the day and night skies

  1. Extreme Environments Technologies for Probes to Venus and Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balint, Tibor S.; Kolawa, Elizabeth A.; Peterson, Craig E.; Cutts, James A.; Belz, Andrea P.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the technologies that are used to mitigate extreme environments for probes at Venus and Jupiter. The contents include: 1) Extreme environments at Venus and Jupiter; 2) In-situ missions to Venus and Jupiter (past/present/future); and 3) Approaches to mitigate conditions of extreme environments for probes with systems architectures and technologies.

  2. On the influence of the plasma generated by comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 on Jupiter`s magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stabile, F.; Zimbardo, G. [Arcavacata di Rende, Cosenza, Univ. della Calabria (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica

    1997-11-01

    The impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter has created a variety of magnetospheric plasmas which were detected by their electromagnetic emissions. By means of the Dessler-Parker-Sckopke relation we estimate the perturbation of Jupiter`s magnetic field. It appears that the produced plasma may explain the observed decrease of UV lines in Io`s torus.

  3. Library Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Computing, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Special supplement to "Library Journal" and "School Library Journal" covers topics of interest to school, public, academic, and special libraries planning for automation: microcomputer use, readings in automation, online searching, databases of microcomputer software, public access to microcomputers, circulation, creating a…

  4. Digital Libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Papy, Fabrice

    2008-01-01

    Of vital interest to all librarians and information specialists, this book presents all aspects of the effects of digitization of today's and tomorrow's libraries. From social to technical issues, Digital Libraries includes chapters on the growth of the role of librarian, the reader experience, cataloging, search engines, OPAC, law, ergonomic studies, and the future of libraries.

  5. Biomedical Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizer, Irwin H.

    1978-01-01

    Biomedical libraries are discussed as a distinct and specialized group of special libraries and their unique services and user interactions are described. The move toward professional standards, as evidenced by the Medical Library Association's new certification program, and the current state of development for a new section of IFLA established…

  6. PSF subtraction to search for distant Jupiters with SPITZER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameau, Julien; Artigau, Etienne; Baron, Frédérique; Lafrenière, David; Doyon, Rene; Malo, Lison; Naud, Marie-Eve; Delorme, Philippe; Janson, Markus; Albert, Loic; Gagné, Jonathan; Beichman, Charles

    2015-12-01

    In the course of the search for extrasolar planets, a focus has been made towards rocky planets very close (within few AUs) to their parent stars. However, planetary systems might host gas giants as well, possibly at larger separation from the central star. Direct imaging is the only technique able to probe the outer part of planetary systems. With the advent of the new generation of planet finders like GPI and SPHERE, extrasolar systems are now studied at the solar system scale. Nevertheless, very extended planetary systems do exist and have been found (Gu Ps, AB Pic b, etc.). They are easier to detect and characterize. They are also excellent proxy for close-in gas giants that are detected from the ground. These planets have no equivalent in our solar system and their origin remain a matter of speculation. In this sense, studying planetary systems from its innermost to its outermost part is therefore mandatory to have a clear understanding of its architecture, hence hints of its formation and evolution. We are carrying out a space-based survey using SPITZER to search for distant companions around a well-characterized sample of 120 young and nearby stars. We designed an observing strategy that allows building a very homogeneous PSF library. With this library, we perform a PSF subtraction to search for planets from 10’’ down to 1’’. In this poster, I will present the library, the different algorithms used to subtract the PSF, and the promising detection sensitivity that we are able to reach with this survey. This project to search for the most extreme planetary systems is unique in the exoplanet community. It is also the only realistic mean of directly imaging and subsequently obtaining spectroscopy of young Saturn or Jupiter mass planets in the JWST-era.

  7. JUPITER PROJECT - MERGING INVERSE PROBLEM FORMULATION TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The JUPITER (Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability) project seeks to enhance and build on the technology and momentum behind two of the most popular sensitivity analysis, data assessment, calibration, and uncertainty analysis programs used in envi...

  8. Dramatic Change in Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Rogers, J. H.; Orton, G. S.; de Pater, I.; Asay-Davis, X.; Carlson, R. W.; Marcus, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) is one of its most distinct and enduring features, having been continuously observed since the 1800's. It currently spans the smallest latitude and longitude size ever recorded. Here we show analyses of 2014 Hubble spectral imaging data to study the color, structure and internal dynamics of this long-live storm.

  9. Towards Chemical Constraints on Hot Jupiter Migration

    CERN Document Server

    Madhusudhan, Nikku; Kennedy, Grant M

    2014-01-01

    The origin of hot Jupiters -- gas giant exoplanets orbiting very close to their host stars -- is a long-standing puzzle. Planet formation theories suggest that such planets are unlikely to have formed in-situ but instead may have formed at large orbital separations beyond the snow line and migrated inward to their present orbits. Two competing hypotheses suggest that the planets migrated either through interaction with the protoplanetary disk during their formation, or by disk-free mechanisms such as gravitational interactions with a third body. Observations of eccentricities and spin-orbit misalignments of hot Jupiter systems have been unable to differentiate between the two hypotheses. In the present work, we suggest that chemical depletions in hot Jupiter atmospheres might be able to constrain their migration mechanisms. We find that sub-solar carbon and oxygen abundances in Jovian-mass hot Jupiters around Sun-like stars are hard to explain by disk migration. Instead, such abundances are more readily expla...

  10. Jupiter as a Giant Cosmic Ray Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Rimmer, Paul B; Helling, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    We explore the feasibility of using the atmosphere of Jupiter to detect Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR's). The large surface area of Jupiter allows us to probe cosmic rays of higher energies than previously accessible. Cosmic ray extensive air showers in Jupiter's atmosphere could in principle be detected by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi observatory. In order to be observed, these air showers would need to be oriented toward the Earth, and would need to occur sufficiently high in the atmosphere that the gamma rays can penetrate. We demonstrate that, under these assumptions, Jupiter provides an effective cosmic ray "detector" area of $3.3 \\times 10^7$ km$^2$. We predict that Fermi-LAT should be able to detect events of energy $>10^{21}$ eV with fluence $10^{-7}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ at a rate of about one per month. The observed number of air showers may provide an indirect measure of the flux of cosmic rays $\\gtrsim 10^{20}$ eV. Extensive air showers also produce a synchrotron signature that may ...

  11. The Origin of Retrograde Hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naoz, Smadar; Farr, W.; Lithwick, Y.; Rasio, F.; Teyssandier, J.

    2011-09-01

    The search for extra-solar planets has led to the surprising discovery of many Jupiter-like planets in very close proximity to their host star, the so-called ``hot Jupiters'' (HJ). Even more surprisingly, many of these HJs have orbits that are eccentric or highly inclined with respect to the equator of the star, and some (about 25%) even orbiting counter to the spin direction of the star. This poses a unique challenge to all planet formation models. We show that secular interactions between Jupiter-like planet and another perturber in the system can easily produce retrograde HJ orbits. We show that in the frame of work of secular hierarchical triple system (the so-called Kozai mechanism) the inner orbit's angular momentum component parallel to the total angular momentum (i.e., the z-component of the inner orbit angular momentum) need not be constant. In fact, it can even change sign, leading to a retrograde orbit. A brief excursion to very high eccentricity during the chaotic evolution of the inner orbit allows planet-star tidal interactions to rapidly circularize that orbit, decoupling the planets and forming a retrograde hot Jupiter. We estimate the relative frequencies of retrograde orbits and counter to the stellar spin orbits using Monte Carlo simulations, and find that the they are consistent with the observations. The high observed incidence of planets orbiting counter to the stellar spin direction may suggest that planet--planet secular interactions are an important part of their dynamical history.

  12. Hot Jupiters and Super-Earths

    CERN Document Server

    Mustill, Alexander James; Johansen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    We explore the role of dynamics in shaping planetary system multiplicities, focussing on two particular problems. (1) We propose that the lack of close-in super-Earths in hot Jupiter systems is a signature of the migration history of the hot Jupiters and helps to discriminate between different mechanisms of migration. We present N-body simulations of dynamical migration scenarios where proto-hot Jupiters are excited to high eccentricities prior to tidal circularisation and orbital decay. We show that in this scenario, the eccentric giant planet typically destroys planets in the inner system, in agreement with the observed lack of close super-Earth companions to hot Jupiters. (2) We explore the role of the dynamics of outer systems in affecting the multiplicities of close-in systems such as those discovered by Kepler. We consider specifically the effects of planet--planet scattering and Kozai perturbations on an exterior giant planet on the architecture of the inner system, and evaluate the ability of such sce...

  13. Europa--Jupiter's Icy Ocean Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowes, L.

    1999-01-01

    Europa is a puzzle. The sixth largest moon in our solar system, Europa confounds and intrigues scientists. Few bodies in the solar system have attracted as much scientific attention as this moon of Jupiter because of its possible subsurface ocean of water. The more we learn about this icy moon, the more questions we have.

  14. JunoCam's Imaging of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Glenn; Hansen, Candice; Momary, Thomas; Caplinger, Michael; Ravine, Michael; Atreya, Sushil; Ingersoll, Andrew; Bolton, Scott; Rogers, John; Eichstaedt, Gerald

    2017-04-01

    Juno's visible imager, JunoCam, is a wide-angle camera (58° field of view) with 4 color filters: red, green and blue (RGB) and methane at 889 nm, designed for optimal imaging of Jupiter's poles. Juno's elliptical polar orbit offers unique views of Jupiter's polar regions with spatial scales as good as 50 km/pixel. At closest approach ("perijove") the images have spatial scale down to ˜3 km/pixel. As a push-frame imager on a rotating spacecraft, JunoCam uses time-delayed integration to take advantage of the spacecraft spin to extend integration time to increase signal. Images of Jupiter's poles reveal a largely uncharted region of Jupiter, as nearly all earlier spacecraft except Pioneer 11 have orbited or flown by close to the equatorial plane. Poleward of 64-68° planetocentric latitude, Jupiter's familiar east-west banded structure breaks down. Several types of discrete features appear on a darker, bluish-cast background. Clusters of circular cyclonic spirals are found immediately around the north and south poles. Oval-shaped features are also present, ranging in size down to JunoCam's resolution limits. The largest and brightest features usually have chaotic shapes; animations over ˜1 hour can reveal cyclonic motion in them. Narrow linear features traverse tens of degrees of longitude and are not confined in latitude. JunoCam also detected optically thin clouds or hazes that are illuminated beyond the nightside ˜1-bar terminator; one of these detected at Perijove lay some 3 scale heights above the main cloud deck. Tests have been made to detect the aurora and lightning. Most close-up images of Jupiter have been acquired at lower latitudes within 2 hours of closest approach. These images aid in understanding the data collected by other instruments on Juno that probe deeper in the atmosphere. When Jupiter was too close to the sun for ground-based observers to collect data between perijoves 1 and 2, JunoCam took a sequence of routine images to monitor large

  15. The Long Road to Becoming a “Consortium of Swiss University Libraries”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Neubauer

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Although the idea that co-operative licensing of electronically researchable information products would bring positive benefits for academic libraries has probably been grasped by libraries in general, what is often lacking is a highperformance infrastructure, which would ensure its complicated management and extend the consortium in the medium term. This leads to the conclusion that the benefits of consortium-based solutions are relatively easy to present and would easily be accepted by those „affected“. On the other hand, the concrete workload often falls upon a few enthusiastic librarians. Up to a few months ago, the situation in Switzerland was no different, whereby in this country, the complex underlying political conditions made the situation particularly difficult for academic libraries. In the meantime, a consortium has managed to establish itself on a national level and the first products licenced in co-operation are in use. The following exposition gives a brief introduction to Switzerland’s specific situation and also sketches the basic structures of this co-operation model.

  16. Jupiter internal structure: the effect of different equations of state

    CERN Document Server

    Miguel, Yamila; Fayon, Lucile

    2016-01-01

    Heavy elements, even though its smaller constituent, are crucial to understand Jupiter formation history. Interior models are used to determine the amount of heavy elements in Jupiter interior, nevertheless this range is still subject to degeneracies due to uncertainties in the equations of state. Prior to Juno mission data arrival, we present Jupiter optimized calculations exploring the effect of different model parameters in the determination of Jupiter's core and heavy element's mass. We perform comparisons between equations of state published recently. The interior model of Jupiter is calculated from the equations of hydrostatic equilibrium, mass and energy conservation, and energy transport. The mass of the core and heavy elements is adjusted to match Jupiter's observational constrains radius and gravitational moments. We show that the determination of Jupiter interior structure is tied to the estimation of its gravitational moments and the accuracy of equations of state of hydrogen, helium and heavy ele...

  17. The EJSM Jupiter-Europa Orbiter: Mission Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, R. T.; Clark, K.; Greeley, R.; Hendrix, A. R.; Tan-Wang, G.; Lock, R.; van Houten, T.; Ludwinski, J.; Petropoulis, A.; Jun, I.; Boldt, J.; Kinnison, J.

    2008-09-01

    Missions to explore Europa have been imagined ever since the Voyager mission first suggested that Europa was geologically very young. Subsequently, Galileo supplied fascinating new insights into that satellite's secrets. The Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) would be the NASA-led portion of the Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), an international mission with orbiters developed by NASA, ESA and possibly JAXA. JEO would address key components of the complete EJSM science objectives and would be designed to function alone or in conjunction with the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter and JAXA-led Jupiter Magnetospheric Orbiter. The JEO mission concept uses a single orbiter flight system which would travel to Jupiter to perform a multi-year study of the Jupiter system and Europa, including 2.5-3 years of Jupiter system science and a comprehensive Europa orbit phase of upt ot a year. This abstract describes the design concept of this mission.

  18. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium (InterLymph)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A consortium designed to enhance collaboration among epidemiologists studying lymphoma, to provide a forum for the exchange of research ideas, and to create a framework for collaborating on analyses that pool data from multiple studies

  19. NASA Space Radiation Transport Code Development Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Lawrence W

    2005-01-01

    Recently, NASA established a consortium involving the University of Tennessee (lead institution), the University of Houston, Roanoke College and various government and national laboratories, to accelerate the development of a standard set of radiation transport computer codes for NASA human exploration applications. This effort involves further improvements of the Monte Carlo codes HETC and FLUKA and the deterministic code HZETRN, including developing nuclear reaction databases necessary to extend the Monte Carlo codes to carry out heavy ion transport, and extending HZETRN to three dimensions. The improved codes will be validated by comparing predictions with measured laboratory transport data, provided by an experimental measurements consortium, and measurements in the upper atmosphere on the balloon-borne Deep Space Test Bed (DSTB). In this paper, we present an overview of the consortium members and the current status and future plans of consortium efforts to meet the research goals and objectives of this extensive undertaking.

  20. International Radical Cystectomy Consortium: A way forward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Johar Raza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC is an emerging operative alternative to open surgery for the management of invasive bladder cancer. Studies from single institutions provide limited data due to the small number of patients. In order to better understand the related outcomes, a world-wide consortium was established in 2006 of patients undergoing RARC, called the International Robotic Cystectomy Consortium (IRCC. Thus far, the IRCC has reported its findings on various areas of operative interest and continues to expand its capacity to include other operative modalities and transform it into the International Radical Cystectomy Consortium. This article summarizes the findings of the IRCC and highlights the future direction of the consortium.

  1. The LBNL/JSU/AGMUS Science Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This report discusses the 11 year of accomplishments of the science consortium of minority graduates from Jackson State University and Ana G. Mendez University at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  2. Three spacecraft observe Jupiter's glowing polar regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The aurorae on Jupiter are like the Aurorae Borealis and Australis on the Earth, although visible only by ultraviolet light. They flicker in a similar way in response to variations in the solar wind of charged particles blowing from the Sun. While Galileo monitored the changing environment of particles and magnetism in Jupiter's vicinity, IUE recorded surprisingly large and rapid variations in the overall strength of the auroral activity. IUE's main 45-centimetre telescope did not supply images,but broke up the ultraviolet rays into spectra, like invisible rainbows, from which astrophysicists could deduce chemical compositions, motions and temperatures in the cosmic objects under examination. In the case of Jupiter's aurorae, the strongest emission came from activated hydrogen atoms at a wavelength of 1216 angstroms. The Hubble Space Telescope's contributions to the International Jupiter Watch included images showing variations in the form of the aurorae, and "close-up" spectra of parts of the auroral ovals. Astronomers will compare the flickering aurorae on Jupiter with concurrent monitoring of the Sun and the solar wind by the ESA-NASA SOHO spacecraft and several satellites of the Interagency Solar-Terrestrial Programme. It is notable that changes in auroral intensity by a factor of two or three occurred during the 1996 observational period, even though the Sun was in an exceptionally quiet phase, with very few sunspots. In principle, a watch on Jupiter's aurorae could become a valuable means of checking the long-range effects of solar activity, which also has important consequences for the Earth. The situation at Jupiter is quite different from the Earth's, with the moons strongly influencing the planet's space environment. But with Hubble busy with other work, any such Jupiter-monitoring programme will have to await a new ultraviolet space observatory. IUE observed Jupiter intensively in 1979-80 in conjunction with the visits of NASA's Voyager spacecraft, and

  3. Gene Ontology Consortium: going forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Gene Ontology (GO; http://www.geneontology.org) is a community-based bioinformatics resource that supplies information about gene product function using ontologies to represent biological knowledge. Here we describe improvements and expansions to several branches of the ontology, as well as updates that have allowed us to more efficiently disseminate the GO and capture feedback from the research community. The Gene Ontology Consortium (GOC) has expanded areas of the ontology such as cilia-related terms, cell-cycle terms and multicellular organism processes. We have also implemented new tools for generating ontology terms based on a set of logical rules making use of templates, and we have made efforts to increase our use of logical definitions. The GOC has a new and improved web site summarizing new developments and documentation, serving as a portal to GO data. Users can perform GO enrichment analysis, and search the GO for terms, annotations to gene products, and associated metadata across multiple species using the all-new AmiGO 2 browser. We encourage and welcome the input of the research community in all biological areas in our continued effort to improve the Gene Ontology. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Gene Ontology Consortium: going forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The Gene Ontology (GO; http://www.geneontology.org) is a community-based bioinformatics resource that supplies information about gene product function using ontologies to represent biological knowledge. Here we describe improvements and expansions to several branches of the ontology, as well as updates that have allowed us to more efficiently disseminate the GO and capture feedback from the research community. The Gene Ontology Consortium (GOC) has expanded areas of the ontology such as cilia-related terms, cell-cycle terms and multicellular organism processes. We have also implemented new tools for generating ontology terms based on a set of logical rules making use of templates, and we have made efforts to increase our use of logical definitions. The GOC has a new and improved web site summarizing new developments and documentation, serving as a portal to GO data. Users can perform GO enrichment analysis, and search the GO for terms, annotations to gene products, and associated metadata across multiple species using the all-new AmiGO 2 browser. We encourage and welcome the input of the research community in all biological areas in our continued effort to improve the Gene Ontology. PMID:25428369

  5. Warm Jupiters from Secular Planet–Planet Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovich, Cristobal; Tremaine, Scott

    2016-10-01

    Most warm Jupiters (gas-giant planets with 0.1 {{au}}≲ a≲ 1 au) have pericenter distances that are too large for significant orbital migration by tidal friction. We study the possibility that the warm Jupiters are undergoing secular eccentricity oscillations excited by an outer companion (a planet or star) in an eccentric and/or mutually inclined orbit. In this model, the warm Jupiters migrate periodically, in the high-eccentricity phase of the oscillation, but are typically observed at lower eccentricities. We show that in this model the steady-state eccentricity distribution of the warm Jupiters is approximately flat, which is consistent with the observed distribution if we restrict the sample to warm Jupiters with detected outer planetary companions. The eccentricity distribution of warm Jupiters without companions exhibits a peak at e≲ 0.2 that must be explained by a different formation mechanism. Based on a population synthesis study, we find that high-eccentricity migration excited by an outer planetary companion (1) can account for ∼ 20 % of the warm Jupiters and most of the warm Jupiters with e≳ 0.4; and (2) can produce most of the observed population of hot Jupiters, with a semimajor axis distribution that matches the observations, but fails to account adequately for ∼ 60 % of hot Jupiters with projected obliquities ≲ 20^\\circ . Thus ∼ 20 % of the warm Jupiters and ∼ 60 % of the hot Jupiters can be produced by high-eccentricity migration. We also provide predictions for the expected mutual inclinations and spin-orbit angles of the planetary systems with hot and warm Jupiters produced by high-eccentricity migration.

  6. Library Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh locations including address, coordinates, phone number, square footage, and standard operating hours.

  7. Europa Planetary Protection for Juno Jupiter Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Douglas E.; Abelson, Robert D.; Johannesen, Jennie R.; Lam, Try; McAlpine, William J.; Newlin, Laura E.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's Juno mission launched in 2011 and will explore the Jupiter system starting in 2016. Juno's suite of instruments is designed to investigate the atmosphere, gravitational fields, magnetic fields, and auroral regions. Its low perijove polar orbit will allow it to explore portions of the Jovian environment never before visited. While the Juno mission is not orbiting or flying close to Europa or the other Galilean satellites, planetary protection requirements for avoiding the contamination of Europa have been taken into account in the Juno mission design.The science mission is designed to conclude with a deorbit burn that disposes of the spacecraft in Jupiter's atmosphere. Compliance with planetary protection requirements is verified through a set of analyses including analysis of initial bioburden, analysis of the effect of bioburden reduction due to the space and Jovian radiation environments, probabilistic risk assessment of successful deorbit, Monte-Carlo orbit propagation, and bioburden reduction in the event of impact with an icy body.

  8. Jumping Jupiter can explain Mercury's orbit

    CERN Document Server

    Roig, Fernando; DeSouza, Sandro Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    The orbit of Mercury has large values of eccentricity and inclination that cannot be easily explained if this planet formed on a circular and coplanar orbit. Here, we study the evolution of Mercury's orbit during the instability related to the migration of the giant planets in the framework of the jumping Jupiter model. We found that some instability models are able to produce the correct values of Mercury's eccentricity and inclination, provided that relativistic effects are included in the precession of Mercury's perihelion. The orbital excitation is driven by the fast change of the normal oscillation modes of the system corresponding to the perihelion precession of Jupiter (for the eccentricity), and the nodal regression of Uranus (for the inclination).

  9. The EJSM Jupiter Europa Orbiter: Planning Payload

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, R. T.; Clark, K.; Greeley, R.; Hendrix, A. R.; Boldt, J.; Tan-Wang, G.; Lock, R.; van Houten, T.; Ludwinski, J.

    2008-09-01

    In the decade since the first return of Europa data by the Galileo spacecraft, the scientific understanding of Europa has greatly matured leading to the formulation of sophisticated new science objectives to be addressed through the acquisition of new data. The Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) is one component of the proposed multi-spacecraft Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) designed to obtain data in support of these new science objectives. The JEO planning payload, while notional, is used to quantify engineering aspects of the mission and spacecraft design, and operational scenarios required to obtain the data necessary to meet the science objectives. The instruments were defined to understand the viability of an approach to meet the measurement objectives, perform in the radiation environment and meet the planetary protection requirements. The actual instrument suite would ultimately be the result of an Announcement of Opportunity (AO) selection process carried out by NASA.

  10. Radiation Environment for the Jupiter Europa Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Insoo

    2008-09-01

    One of the major challenges for the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) mission would be that the spacecraft should be designed to survive an intense radiation environment expected at Jupiter and Europa. The proper definition of the radiation environments is the important first step, because it could affect almost every aspects of mission and spacecraft design. These include optimizing the trajectory to minimize radiation exposure, determining mission lifetime, selecting parts, materials, detectors and sensors, shielding design, etc. The radiation environments generated for the 2008 JEO study will be covered, emphasizing the radiation environment mainly responsible for the total ionizing dose (TID) and displacement damage dose (DDD). The latest models developed at JPL will be used to generate the TID and DDD environments. Finally, the major radiation issues will be summarized, and a mitigation plan will be discussed.

  11. The Escaping Upper Atmospheres of Hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Eric; Jones, Gabrielle; Uribe, Ana; Carson, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Hot Jupiters are massive gaseous planets which orbit closely to their parent star. The strong stellar irradiation at these small orbital separations causes the temperature of the upper atmosphere of the planet to rise. This can cause the planet's atmosphere to escape into space, creating an exoplanet outflow. We ascertained which factors determine the presence and structure of these outflows by creating one dimensional simulations of the density, pressure, velocity, optical depth, and neutral fraction of hot Jupiter atmospheres. This was done for planets of masses and radii ranging from 0.5-1.5 Mj and 0.5-1.5 Rj. We found the outflow rate to be highest for a planet of 0.5 Mj and 1.5 Rj at 5.3×10-14 Mj/Yr. We also found that the higher the escape velocity, the lower the chance of the planet having an outflow.

  12. Bringing Research Libraries into Europeana: Establishing a Library-Domain Aggregator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally Chambers

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Europeana's future strategy requires a domain-level aggregator of library content, positioned alongside other domain aggregators for museums, archives and audio-visual collections. To enable this, LIBER (Association of European Research Libraries, CENL (Conference of European National Librarians and CERL (Consortium of European Research Libraries have joined forces to submit the ‘Europeana Libraries’ project proposal to the European Commission in the context of the CIP-ICT PSP-2010-4 ‘Digital Libraries’ programme in early Summer 2010. This paper outlines the vision of the ‘Europeana Libraries’ project, which will enable The European Library to become the library-domain aggregator for Europeana.

  13. America's Star Libraries: Top-Rated Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Keith Curry; Lyons, Ray

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service 2009, Round 2, identifies 258 "star" libraries. Created by Keith Curry Lance and Ray Lyons and based on 2007 data from the IMLS, it rates 7,268 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three stars. All included libraries,…

  14. America's Star Libraries: Top-Rated Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Keith Curry; Lyons, Ray

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service 2009, Round 2, identifies 258 "star" libraries. Created by Keith Curry Lance and Ray Lyons and based on 2007 data from the IMLS, it rates 7,268 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three stars. All included libraries,…

  15. Secular orbital evolution of Jupiter family comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, H.; Gabryszewski, R.; Wajer, P.; Wiśniowski, T.; Wójcikowski, K.; Szutowicz, S.; Valsecchi, G. B.; Morbidelli, A.

    2017-02-01

    Context. The issue of the long term dynamics of Jupiter family comets (JFCs) involves uncertain assumptions about the physical evolution and lifetimes of these comets. Contrary to what is often assumed, real effects of secular dynamics cannot be excluded and therefore merit investigation. Aims: We use a random sample of late heavy bombardment cometary projectiles to study the long-term dynamics of JFCs by a Monte Carlo approach. In a steady-state picture of the Jupiter family, we investigate the orbital distribution of JFCs, including rarely visited domains like retrograde orbits or orbits within the outer parts of the asteroid main belt. Methods: We integrate 100 000 objects over a maximum of 100 000 orbital revolutions including the Sun, a comet, and four giant planets. Considering the steady-state number of JFCs to be proportional to the total time spent in the respective orbital domain, we derive the capture rate based on observed JFCs with small perihelia and large nuclei. We consider a purely dynamical model and one where the nuclei are eroded by ice sublimation. Results: The JFC inclination distribution is incompatible with our erosional model. This may imply that a new type of comet evolution model is necessary. Considering that comets may live for a long time, we show that JFCs can evolve into retrograde orbits as well as asteroidal orbits in the outer main belt or Cybele regions. The steady-state capture rate into the Jupiter family is consistent with 1 × 109 scattered disk objects with diameters D > 2 km. Conclusions: Our excited scattered disk makes it difficult to explain the JFC inclination distribution, unless the physical evolution of JFCs is more intricate than assumed in standard, erosional models. Independent of this, the population size of the Jupiter family is consistent with a relatively low-mass scattered disk.

  16. Modelling of Jupiter's Innermost Radiation Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalov, J. D.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    In order to understand better source and loss processes for energetic trapped protons near Jupiter, a modification of de Pater and Goertz' finite difference diffusion calculations for Jovian equatorial energetic electrons is made to apply to the case of protons inside the orbit of Metis. Explicit account is taken of energy loss in the Jovian ring. Comparison of the results is made with Galileo Probe measurements.

  17. DIRECTLY IMAGING TIDALLY POWERED MIGRATING JUPITERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong Subo; Katz, Boaz; Socrates, Aristotle [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2013-01-10

    Upcoming direct-imaging experiments may detect a new class of long-period, highly luminous, tidally powered extrasolar gas giants. Even though they are hosted by {approx} Gyr-'old' main-sequence stars, they can be as 'hot' as young Jupiters at {approx}100 Myr, the prime targets of direct-imaging surveys. They are on years-long orbits and presently migrating to 'feed' the 'hot Jupiters'. They are expected from 'high-e' migration mechanisms, in which Jupiters are excited to highly eccentric orbits and then shrink semimajor axis by a factor of {approx}10-100 due to tidal dissipation at close periastron passages. The dissipated orbital energy is converted to heat, and if it is deposited deep enough into the atmosphere, the planet likely radiates steadily at luminosity L {approx} 100-1000 L{sub Jup}(2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}-2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} L{sub Sun }) during a typical {approx} Gyr migration timescale. Their large orbital separations and expected high planet-to-star flux ratios in IR make them potentially accessible to high-contrast imaging instruments on 10 m class telescopes. {approx}10 such planets are expected to exist around FGK dwarfs within {approx}50 pc. Long-period radial velocity planets are viable candidates, and the highly eccentric planet HD 20782b at maximum angular separation {approx}0.''08 is a promising candidate. Directly imaging these tidally powered Jupiters would enable a direct test of high-e migration mechanisms. Once detected, the luminosity would provide a direct measurement of the migration rate, and together with mass (and possibly radius) estimate, they would serve as a laboratory to study planetary spectral formation and tidal physics.

  18. Solar wind influence on Jupiter's aurora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyalay, Szilard; Vogt, Marissa F.; Withers, Paul; Bunce, Emma J.

    2016-10-01

    Jupiter's main auroral emission is driven by a system of corotation enforcement currents that arises to speed up outflowing Iogenic plasma and is not due to the magnetosphere-solar wind interaction like at Earth. The solar wind is generally expected to have only a small influence on Jupiter's magnetosphere and aurora compared to the influence of rotational stresses due to the planet's rapid rotation. However, there is considerable observational evidence that the solar wind does affect the magnetopause standoff distance, auroral radio emissions, and the position and brightness of the UV auroral emissions. Using the Michigan Solar Wind Model (mSWiM) to predict the solar wind conditions upstream of Jupiter we have identified intervals of high and low solar wind dynamic pressure in the Galileo dataset, and use this information to quantify how a magnetospheric compression affects the magnetospheric field configuration. We have developed separate spatial fits to the compressed and nominal magnetic field data, accounting for variations with radial distance and local time. These two fits can be used to update the flux equivalence mapping model of Vogt et al. (2011), which links auroral features to source regions in the middle and outer magnetosphere. The updated version accounts for changing solar wind conditions and provides a way to quantify the expected solar wind-induced variability in the ionospheric mapping of the main auroral emission, satellite footprints, and other auroral features. Our results are highly relevant to interpretation of the new auroral observations from the Juno mission.

  19. Hubble Gallery of Jupiter's Galilean Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This is a Hubble Space Telescope 'family portrait' of the four largest moons of Jupiter, first observed by the Italian scientist Galileo Galilei nearly four centuries ago. Located approximately one-half billion miles away, the moons are so small that, in visible light, they appear as fuzzy disks in the largest ground-based telescopes. Hubble can resolve surface details seen previously only by the Voyager spacecraft in the early 1980s. While the Voyagers provided close-up snapshots of the satellites, Hubble can now follow changes on the moons and reveal other characteristics at ultraviolet and near-infrared wavelengths.Over the past year Hubble has charted new volcanic activity on Io's active surface, found a faint oxygen atmosphere on the moon Europa, and identified ozone on the surface of Ganymede. Hubble ultraviolet observations of Callisto show the presence of fresh ice on the surface that may indicate impacts from micrometeorites and charged particles from Jupiter's magnetosphere.Hubble observations will play a complementary role when the Galileo spacecraft arrives at Jupiter in December of this year.This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

  20. Capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesvorný, David; Vokrouhlický, David; Deienno, Rogerio [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2014-03-20

    The irregular satellites of outer planets are thought to have been captured from heliocentric orbits. The exact nature of the capture process, however, remains uncertain. We examine the possibility that irregular satellites were captured from the planetesimal disk during the early solar system instability when encounters between the outer planets occurred. Nesvorný et al. already showed that the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune were plausibly captured during planetary encounters. Here we find that the current instability models present favorable conditions for capture of irregular satellites at Jupiter as well, mainly because Jupiter undergoes a phase of close encounters with an ice giant. We show that the orbital distribution of bodies captured during planetary encounters provides a good match to the observed distribution of irregular satellites at Jupiter. The capture efficiency for each particle in the original transplanetary disk is found to be (1.3-3.6) × 10{sup –8}. This is roughly enough to explain the observed population of jovian irregular moons. We also confirm Nesvorný et al.'s results for the irregular satellites of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune.

  1. Structures of the Planets Jupiter and Saturn

    CERN Document Server

    Kerley, Gerald I

    2013-01-01

    New equations of state (EOS) for hydrogen, helium, and compounds containing heavier elements are used to construct models for the structures of the planets Jupiter and Saturn. Good agreement with the gravitational moments J2 and J4 is obtained with a model that uses a two-layer gas envelope, in which the inner region is denser than the outer one, together with a small, dense core. It is possible to match J2 with a homogeneous envelope, but an envelope with a denser inner region is needed to match both moments. The two-layer envelope also gives good agreement with the global oscillation data for Jupiter. In Jupiter, the boundary between the inner and outer envelopes occurs at 319 GPa, with an 8% density increase. In Saturn, it occurs at 227 GPa, with a 69% density increase. The differences between the two planets show that the need for a density increase is not due to EOS errors. It is also shown that helium enrichment cannot be the cause of the density increase. The phenomenon can be explained as the result o...

  2. Directly Imaging Tidally Powered Migrating Jupiters

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Subo; Socrates, Aristotle

    2012-01-01

    We show that ongoing direct imaging experiments may detect a new class of long-period, highly luminous, tidally powered extrasolar gas giants. Even though they are hosted by Gyr-"old" main-sequence stars, they can be as "hot" as young Jupiters at ~100 Myr, the prime targets of direct imaging surveys. These planets, with years-long orbits, are presently migrating to "feed" the "hot Jupiters" in steady state. Their existence is expected from a class of "high-e" migration mechanisms, in which gas giants are excited to highly eccentric orbits and then shrink their semi-major axis by factor of ~ 10-100 due to tidal dissipation at successive close periastron passages. The dissipated orbital energy is converted to heat, and if it is deposited deep enough into the planet atmosphere, the planet likely radiates steadily at luminosity ~2-3 orders of magnitude larger than that of our Jupiter during a typical Gyr migration time scale. Their large orbital separations and expected high planet-to-star flux ratios in IR make ...

  3. Illuminating Hot Jupiters in caustic crossing

    CERN Document Server

    Sajadian, Sedighe

    2010-01-01

    In recent years a large number of Hot Jupiters orbiting in a very close orbit around the parent stars have been explored with the transit and doppler effect methods. Here in this work we study the gravitational microlensing effect of a binary lens on a parent star with a Hot Jupiter revolving around it. Caustic crossing of the planet makes enhancements on the light curve of the parent star in which the signature of the planet can be detected by high precision photometric observations. We use the inverse ray shooting method with tree code algorithm to generate the combined light curve of the parent star and the planet. In order to investigate the probability of observing the planet signal, we do a Monte-Carlo simulation and obtain the observational optical depth of $\\tau \\sim 10^{-8}$. We show that about ten years observations of Galactic Bulge with a network of telescopes will enable us detecting about ten Hot Jupiter with this method. Finally we show that the observation of the microlensing event in infra-re...

  4. New Horizons Imaging of Jupiter's Main Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throop, Henry B.; Showalter, Mark Robert; Dones, Henry C. Luke; Hamilton, D. P.; Weaver, Harold A.; Cheng, Andrew F.; Stern, S. Alan; Young, Leslie; Olkin, Catherine B.; New Horizons Science Team

    2016-10-01

    New Horizons took roughly 520 visible-light images of Jupiter's ring system during its 2007 flyby, using the spacecraft's Long-Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI). These observations were taken over nine days surrounding Jupiter close-approach. They span a range in distance of 30 - 100 RJ, and a phase angle range of 20 - 174 degrees. The highest resolution images -- more than 200 frames -- were taken at a resolution approaching 20 km/pix.We will present an analysis of this dataset, much of which has not been studied in detail before. Our results include New Horizons' first quantitative measurements of the ring's intrinsic brightness and variability. We will also present results on the ring's azimuthal and radial structure. Our measurements of the ring's phase curve will be used to infer properties of the ring's dust grains.Our results build on the only previous analysis of the New Horizons Jupiter ring data set, presented in Showalter et al (2007, Science 318, 232-234), which detected ring clumps and placed a lower limit on the population of undetected ring-moons.This work was supported by NASA's OPR program.

  5. Himalia, a Small Moon of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's Cassini spacecraft captured images of Himalia, the brightest of Jupiter's outer moons, on Dec. 19, 2000, from a distance of 4.4 million kilometers (2.7 million miles).This near-infrared image, with a resolution of about 27 kilometers (17 miles) per pixel, indicates that the side of Himalia facing the spacecraft is roughly 160 kilometers (100 miles) in the up-down direction. Himalia probably has a non-spherical shape. Scientists believe it is a body captured into orbit around Jupiter, most likely an irregularly shaped asteroid.In the main frame, an arrow indicates Himalia. North is up. The inset shows the little moon magnified by a factor of 10, plus a graphic indicating Himalia's size and the direction of lighting (with sunlight coming from the left). Cassini's pictures of Himalia were taken during a brief period when Cassini's attitude was stabilized by thrusters instead of by a steadier reaction-wheel system. No spacecraft or telescope had previously shown any of Jupiter's outer moons as more than a star-like single dot.Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  6. Absorption of trapped particles by Jupiter's moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, W. N.; Birmingham, T. J.; Mead, G. D.

    1974-01-01

    Inclusion of absorption effects of the four innermost moons in the radial transport equations for electrons and protons in Jupiter's magnetosphere. It is found that the phase space density n at 2 Jupiter radii for electrons with equatorial pitch angles less than 69 deg is reduced by a factor of 42,000 when lunar absorption is included in the calculation. For protons with equatorial pitch angles less than 69 deg the corresponding reduction factor is 2,300,000. The effect of the satellites becomes progressively weaker for both electrons and protons as equatorial pitch angles of 90 deg are approached, because the likelihood of impacting a satellite becomes progressively smaller. The large density decreases found at the orbits of Io, Europa, and Ganymede result in corresponding particle flux decreases that should be observed by spacecraft making particle measurements in Jupiter's magnetosphere. The characteristic signature of satellite absorption should be a downward-pointing vertex in the flux versus radius curve at the L value corresponding to each satellite.

  7. The asteroid belt outer region under jumping-Jupiter migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, H. S.; Winter, O. C.; Vieira Neto, E.

    2017-09-01

    The radial configuration of the outer region of the main asteroid belt is quite peculiar, and has much to say about the past evolution of Jupiter. In this work, we investigate the dynamical effects of a jumping-Jupiter-like migration over a more extended primordial asteroid belt. Jupiter's migrations are simulated using a fast jumping-Jupiter synthesizer. Among the results, we highlight non-negligible fractions of primordial objects trapped in 3:2 and 4:3 mean motion resonances (MMRs) with Jupiter. They survived the whole truculent phase of migration and originated populations that are like Hildas and Thules. Fractions ranging from 3 to 6 per cent of the initial distribution remained trapped in 3:2 MMR, and at least 0.05 per cent in 4:3. These results show that the resonance trapping of primordial objects may have originated these resonant populations. This theory is consistent even for Jupiter's truculent evolution.

  8. Library Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konzack, Lars

    2012-01-01

    A seminar paper about a survey of role-playing games in public libraries combined with three cases and a presentation of a model.......A seminar paper about a survey of role-playing games in public libraries combined with three cases and a presentation of a model....

  9. Library Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Nancy Kirkpatrick

    This workbook, designed for a Library Research course at Yavapai College, provides 15 lessons in advanced library reference skills. Each lesson provides explanatory text and reinforcement exercises. After Lesson I introduces specialized dictionaries and encyclopedias (e.g., for foreign languages, medicine, music, economics, social sciences, and…

  10. Privatizing Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrard, Jane; Bolt, Nancy; Strege, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This timely special report from ALA Editions provides a succinct but comprehensive overview of the "privatization" of public libraries. It provides a history of the trend of local and state governments privatizing public services and assets, and then examines the history of public library privatization right up to the California…

  11. Privatizing Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerrard, Jane; Bolt, Nancy; Strege, Karen

    2012-01-01

    This timely special report from ALA Editions provides a succinct but comprehensive overview of the "privatization" of public libraries. It provides a history of the trend of local and state governments privatizing public services and assets, and then examines the history of public library privatization right up to the California legislation…

  12. Local Area Networks for Libraries--Cast and Recast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Dorothy S.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the rationale, methodology, capabilities and problems of a local area network created for the Library Consortium of Health Institutions in Buffalo, using a multi-user microcomputer. The rationale and design of a new network, designed to better meet information and compatibility requirements, are described and suggestions to network…

  13. Study of Power Options for Jupiter and Outer Planet Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Fincannon, James

    2015-01-01

    Power for missions to Jupiter and beyond presents a challenging goal for photovoltaic power systems, but NASA missions including Juno and the upcoming Europa Clipper mission have shown that it is possible to operate solar arrays at Jupiter. This work analyzes photovoltaic technologies for use in Jupiter and outer planet missions, including both conventional arrays, as well as analyzing the advantages of advanced solar cells, concentrator arrays, and thin film technologies. Index Terms - space exploration, spacecraft solar arrays, solar electric propulsion, photovoltaic cells, concentrator, Fresnel lens, Jupiter missions, outer planets.

  14. The Role of Solar Neutrinos in the Jupiter

    CERN Document Server

    Burov, Valery

    2008-01-01

    Judging from the fact that the planet Jupiter is bigger in size than the Earth by 10^3 while is smaller than the Sun by 10^3 and that the average distance of the Jupiter from the Sun is 5.203 a.u., the solar neutrinos, when encounter the Jupiter, may have some accumulating effects bigger than on the Earth. We begin by estimating how much energy/power carried by solar neutrinos get transferred by this unique process, to confirm that solar neutrinos, despite of their feeble neutral weak current interactions, might deposit enough energy in the Jupiter. We also speculate on the other remarkable effects.

  15. JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE): An ESA mission to orbit Ganymede and to characterise the Jupiter system

    OpenAIRE

    Grasset, O.; Dougherty, K; Coustenis, A.; Bunce, J; Erd, C.; Titov, D.; Blanc, M.; Coates, A; Drossart, P.; Fletcher, N; Hussmann, H.; Jaumann, R.; N. Krupp; Lebreton, P; O. Prieto-Ballesteros

    2013-01-01

    Past exploration of Jupiter's diverse satellite system has forever changed our understanding of the unique environments to be found around gas giants, both in our solar system and beyond. The detailed investigation of three of Jupiter's Galilean satellites (Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto), which are believed to harbour subsurface water oceans, is central to elucidating the conditions for habitability of icy worlds in planetary systems in general. The study of the Jupiter system and the possib...

  16. Jupiter internal structure: the effect of different equations of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Y.; Guillot, T.; Fayon, L.

    2016-12-01

    Context. Heavy elements, even though they are a smaller constituent, are crucial to understand the formation history of Jupiter. Interior models are used to determine the amount of heavy elements in the interior of Jupiter, but this range is still subject to degeneracies because of the uncertainties in the equations of state. Aims: Before Juno mission data arrive, we present optimized calculations for Jupiter that explore the effect of different model parameters on the determination of the core and the mass of heavy elements of Jupiter. We compare recently published equations of state. Methods: The interior model of Jupiter was calculated from the equations of hydrostatic equilibrium, mass, and energy conservation, and energy transport. The mass of the core and heavy elements was adjusted to match the observed radius and gravitational moments of Jupiter. Results: We show that the determination of the interior structure of Jupiter is tied to the estimation of its gravitational moments and the accuracy of equations of state of hydrogen, helium, and heavy elements. Locating the region where helium rain occurs and defining its timescale is important to determine the distribution of heavy elements and helium in the interior of Jupiter. We show that the differences found when modeling the interior of Jupiter with recent EOS are more likely due to differences in the internal energy and entropy calculation. The consequent changes in the thermal profile lead to different estimates of the mass of the core and heavy elements, which explains differences in recently published interior models of Jupiter. Conclusions: Our results help clarify the reasons for the differences found in interior models of Jupiter and will help interpreting upcoming Juno data. Full appendix tables are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/596/A114

  17. JUPITER and satellites: Clinical implications of the JUPITER study and its secondary analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostapanos, Michael S; Elisaf, Moses S

    2011-07-26

    THE JUSTIFICATION FOR THE USE OF STATINS IN PREVENTION: an intervention trial evaluating rosuvastatin (JUPITER) study was a real breakthrough in primary cardiovascular disease prevention with statins, since it was conducted in apparently healthy individuals with normal levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C JUPITER, rosuvastatin was associated with significant reductions in cardiovascular outcomes as well as in overall mortality compared with placebo. In this paper the most important secondary analyses of the JUPITER trial are discussed, by focusing on their novel findings regarding the role of statins in primary prevention. Also, the characteristics of otherwise healthy normocholesterolemic subjects who are anticipated to benefit more from statin treatment in the clinical setting are discussed. Subjects at "intermediate" or "high" 10-year risk according to the Framingham score, those who exhibit low post-treatment levels of both LDL-C (JUPITER added to our knowledge that statins may be effective drugs in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in normocholesterolemic individuals at moderate-to-high risk. Also, statin treatment may reduce the risk of venous thromboembolism and preserve renal function. An increase in physician-reported diabetes represents a major safety concern associated with the use of the most potent statins.

  18. Natural radio emission of Jupiter as interferences for radar investigations of the icy satellites of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecconi, B.; Hess, S.; Hérique, A.; Santovito, M. R.; Santos-Costa, D.; Zarka, P.; Alberti, G.; Blankenship, D.; Bougeret, J.-L.; Bruzzone, L.; Kofman, W.

    2012-02-01

    Radar instruments are part of the core payload of the two Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) spacecraft: NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) and ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). At this point of the project, several frequency bands are under study for radar, which ranges between 5 and 50 MHz. Part of this frequency range overlaps with that of the natural jovian radio emissions, which are very intense in the decametric range, below 40 MHz. Radio observations above 40 MHz are free of interferences, whereas below this threshold, careful observation strategies have to be investigated. We present a review of spectral intensity, variability and sources of these radio emissions. As the radio emissions are strongly beamed, it is possible to model the visibility of the radio emissions, as seen from the vicinity of Europa or Ganymede. We have investigated Io-related radio emissions as well as radio emissions related to the auroral oval. We also review the radiation belts synchrotron emission characteristics. We present radio sources visibility products (dynamic spectra and radio source location maps, on still frames or movies), which can be used for operation planning. This study clearly shows that a deep understanding of the natural radio emissions at Jupiter is necessary to prepare the future EJSM radar instrumentation. We show that this radio noise has to be taken into account very early in the observation planning and strategies for both JGO and JEO. We also point out possible synergies with RPW (Radio and Plasma Waves) instrumentations.

  19. Grid Modernization Laboratory Consortium - Testing and Verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroposki, Benjamin; Skare, Paul; Pratt, Rob; Kim, Tom; Ellis, Abraham

    2017-05-11

    This paper highlights some of the unique testing capabilities and projects being performed at several national laboratories as part of the U. S. Department of Energy Grid Modernization Laboratory Consortium. As part of this effort, the Grid Modernization Laboratory Consortium Testing Network isbeing developed to accelerate grid modernization by enablingaccess to a comprehensive testing infrastructure and creating a repository of validated models and simulation tools that will be publicly available. This work is key to accelerating thedevelopment, validation, standardization, adoption, and deployment of new grid technologies to help meet U. S. energy goals.

  20. The COPD Biomarker Qualification Consortium (CBQC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casaburi, Richard; Celli, Bartolome; Crapo, James

    2013-01-01

    , and no interested party has been in a position to undertake such a process. In order to facilitate the development of novel tools to assess new treatments, the Food and Drug Administration, in collaboration with the COPD Foundation, the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute and scientists from the pharmaceutical...... industry and academia conducted a workshop to survey the available information that could contribute to new tools. Based on this, a collaborative project, the COPD Biomarkers Qualification Consortium, was initiated. The Consortium in now actively preparing integrated data sets from existing resources...... that can address the problem of drug development tools for COPD....

  1. COAL ASH RESOURCES RESEARCH CONSORTIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-01

    The Coal Ash Resources Research Consortium (CARRC, pronounced �cars�) is the core coal combustion by-product (CCB) research group at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). CARRC focuses on performing fundamental and applied scientific and engineering research emphasizing the environmentally safe, economical use of CCBs. CARRC member organizations, which include utilities and marketers, are key to developing industry-driven research in the area of CCB utilization and ensuring its successful application. CARRC continued the partnership of industry partners, university researchers, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) addressing needs in the CCB industry through technical research and development projects. Technology transfer also continued through distribution and presentation of the results of research activities to appropriate audiences, with emphasis on reaching government agency representatives and end users of CCBs. CARRC partners have evolved technically and have jointly developed an understanding of the layers of social, regulatory, legal, and competition issues that impact the success of CCB utilization as applies to the CCB industry in general and to individual companies. Many CARRC tasks are designed to provide information on CCB performance including environmental performance, engineering performance, favorable economics, and improved life cycle of products and projects. CARRC activities from 1993�1998 included a variety of research tasks, with primary work performed in laboratory tasks developed to answer specific questions or evaluate important fundamental properties of CCBs. The tasks summarized in this report are 1) The Demonstration of CCB Use in Small Construction Projects, 2) Application of CCSEM (computer-controlled scanning electron microscopy) for Coal Combustion By-Product Characterization, 3) Development of a Procedure to Determine Heat of Hydration for Coal Combustion By-Products, 4) Investigation of the Behavior of High

  2. CAPTURE OF TROJANS BY JUMPING JUPITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesvorny, David [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut St., Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States); Vokrouhlicky, David [Institute of Astronomy, Charles University, V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Morbidelli, Alessandro [Departement Cassiopee, University of Nice, CNRS, Observatoire de la Cote d' Azur, Nice, F-06304 (France)

    2013-05-01

    Jupiter Trojans are thought to be survivors of a much larger population of planetesimals that existed in the planetary region when planets formed. They can provide important constraints on the mass and properties of the planetesimal disk, and its dispersal during planet migration. Here, we tested a possibility that the Trojans were captured during the early dynamical instability among the outer planets (aka the Nice model), when the semimajor axis of Jupiter was changing as a result of scattering encounters with an ice giant. The capture occurs in this model when Jupiter's orbit and its Lagrange points become radially displaced in a scattering event and fall into a region populated by planetesimals (that previously evolved from their natal transplanetary disk to {approx}5 AU during the instability). Our numerical simulations of the new capture model, hereafter jump capture, satisfactorily reproduce the orbital distribution of the Trojans and their total mass. The jump capture is potentially capable of explaining the observed asymmetry in the number of leading and trailing Trojans. We find that the capture probability is (6-8) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7} for each particle in the original transplanetary disk, implying that the disk contained (3-4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} planetesimals with absolute magnitude H < 9 (corresponding to diameter D = 80 km for a 7% albedo). The disk mass inferred from this work, M{sub disk} {approx} 14-28 M{sub Earth}, is consistent with the mass deduced from recent dynamical simulations of the planetary instability.

  3. Radiative and dynamical modeling of Jupiter's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerlet, Sandrine; Spiga, Aymeric

    2016-04-01

    Jupiter's atmosphere harbours a rich meteorology, with alternate westward and eastward zonal jets, waves signatures and long-living storms. Recent ground-based and spacecraft measurements have also revealed a rich stratospheric dynamics, with the observation of thermal signatures of planetary waves, puzzling meridional distribution of hydrocarbons at odds with predictions of photochemical models, and a periodic equatorial oscillation analogous to the Earth's quasi-biennal oscillation and Saturn's equatorial oscillation. These recent observations, along with the many unanswered questions (What drives and maintain the equatorial oscillations? How important is the seasonal forcing compared to the influence of internal heat? What is the large-scale stratospheric circulation of these giant planets?) motivated us to develop a complete 3D General Circulation Model (GCM) of Saturn and Jupiter. We aim at exploring the large-scale circulation, seasonal variability, and wave activity from the troposphere to the stratosphere of these giant planets. We will briefly present how we adapted our existing Saturn GCM to Jupiter. One of the main change is the addition of a stratospheric haze layer made of fractal aggregates in the auroral regions (poleward of 45S and 30N). This haze layer has a significant radiative impact by modifying the temperature up to +/- 15K in the middle stratosphere. We will then describe the results of radiative-convective simulations and how they compare to recent Cassini and ground-based temperature measurements. These simulations reproduce surprisingly well some of the observed thermal vertical and meridional gradients, but several important mismatches at low and high latitudes suggest that dynamics also plays an important role in shaping the temperature field. Finally, we will present full GCM simulations and discuss the main resulting features (waves and instabilities). We will also and discuss the impact of the choice of spatial resolution and

  4. A Possibly Universal Red Chromophore for Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sromovsky, Lawrence A.; Baines, Kevin; Fry, Patrick M.

    2016-10-01

    A new laboratory-generated chemical compound made from photodissociated ammonia (NH3) molecules reacting with acetylene (C2H2) was suggested as a possible coloring agent for Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) by Carlson et al. (2016, Icarus 274, 106-115). Baines et al. (2016, AAS/DPS Meeting abstract) showed that the GRS spectrum measured by the visual channels of the Cassini VIMS instrument in 2000 could be accurately fit by a cloud model in which the chromophore appeared as small particles in a physically thin layer immediately above the main cloud layer of the GRS. Here we show that the same chromophore and similar layer structure can also provide close matches to the 0.4-1 micron spectra of many other cloud features on Jupiter, suggesting that this material may be a nearly universal chromophore responsible for the various degrees of red coloration on Jupiter. This is a robust conclusion, even for 12 percent changes in VIMS calibration and large uncertainties in the refractive index of the main cloud layer due to uncertain fractions of NH4SH and NH3 in its cloud particles. The chromophore layer can account for color variations among north and south equatorial belts, equatorial zone, and the Great Red Spot, by varying particle size from 0.12 to 0.29 micron and optical depth from 0.06 to 0.76. The total mass of the chromophore layer is much less variable than its optical depth, staying mainly within 6-10 micrograms/cm2 range, but is only about half that amount in the equatorial zone. We also found a depression of the ammonia volume mixing ratio in the two belt regions, which averaged 0.4-0.5 × 10-4 immediately below the ammonia condensation level, while the other regions averaged twice that value.LAS and PMF acknowledge support from NASA Grant NNX14AH40G.

  5. Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library Journal, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Building data is given for the following academic libraries: (1) Rosary College, River Forest, Illinois; (2) Abilene Christian College, Abilene, Texas; (3) University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California. (MF)

  6. Proposed standards for professional health sciences library services in hospitals of New York State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, A P; O'Connell, M; Richards, B B; Thompson, J L; Wheeler, R A

    1981-07-01

    Hospital libraries are considered to be the basic unit of the medical information system. A major statewide effort was begun in 1978 to introduce and support legislation in the New York State Legislature which would encourage hospitals to establish and maintain libraries that meet minimum services standards. Included in this legislation is the concept that the Commissioner of Education in consultation with the Commissioner of Health shall have the power to establish standards for hospital libraries. The Ad Hoc Committee for the Promotion of Hospital Library Services, Western New York Library Resources Council, proposes The Standards for Professional Health Sciences Library Services in Hospitals of New York State to clarify and to strengthen existing hospital library standards. These standards differ specifically from the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals standards in that they place equal and specific emphasis on eleven points: administration, qualifications of library staff, continuing education of library staff, requirement for a library advisory committee, required library services, required library resources, library space requirements, library budget, library network and consortium membership, documentation of library policy, and continued evaluation of the needs of the hospital for library service. Detailed interpretations are provided. An appendix describes the qualifications of a hospital library consultant.

  7. Jupiter Magnetospheric Orbiter and Trojan Asteroid Explorer in EJSM (Europa Jupiter System Mission)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Sho; Fujimoto, Masaki; Takashima, Takeshi; Yano, Hajime; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Kimura, Jun; Tsuda, Yuichi; Funase, Ryu; Mori, Osamu

    2010-05-01

    Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) is an international mission to explore and Jupiter, its satellites and magnetospheric environment in 2020s. EJSM consists of (1) The Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) by NASA, (2) the Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO) by ESA, and (3) the Jupiter Magnetospheric Orbiter (JMO) studied by JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). In February 2009, NASA and ESA decided to continue the study of EJSM as a candidate of the outer solar system mission. JMO will have magnetometers, low-energy plasma spectrometers, medium energy particle detectors, energetic particle detectors, electric field / plasma wave instruments, an ENA imager, an EUV spectrometer, and a dust detector. Collaborating with plasma instruments on board JEO and JGO, JMO will investigate the fast and huge rotating magnetosphere to clarify the energy procurement from Jovian rotation to the magnetosphere, to clarify the interaction between the solar wind the magnetosphere. Especially when JEO and JGO are orbiting around Europa and Ganymede, respectively, JMO will measure the outside condition in the Jovian magnetosphere. JMO will clarify the characteristics of the strongest accelerator in the solar system with the investigation of the role of Io as a source of heavy ions in the magnetosphere. JAXA started a study of a solar power sail for deep space explorations. Together with a solar sail (photon propulsion), it will have very efficient ion engines where electric power is produced solar panels within the sail. JAXA has already experienced ion engine in the successful Hayabusa mission, which was launched in 2003 and is still in operation in 2010. For the purpose of testing solar power sail technology, an engineering mission IKAROS (Interplanetary Kite-craft Accelerated by Radiation Of the Sun) will be launched in 2010 together with Venus Climate Orbiter PLANET-C. The shape of the IKAROS' membrane is square, with a diagonal distance of 20m. It is made of polyimide film only 0.0075mm

  8. Jupiter Europa Orbiter Architecture Definition Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Robert; Shishko, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The proposed Jupiter Europa Orbiter mission, planned for launch in 2020, is using a new architectural process and framework tool to drive its model-based systems engineering effort. The process focuses on getting the architecture right before writing requirements and developing a point design. A new architecture framework tool provides for the structured entry and retrieval of architecture artifacts based on an emerging architecture meta-model. This paper describes the relationships among these artifacts and how they are used in the systems engineering effort. Some early lessons learned are discussed.

  9. Equatorial Oscillations in Jupiter's and Saturn's Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasar, F. Michael; Guerlet, S.; Fouchet, T.; Schinder, P. J.

    2011-01-01

    Equatorial oscillations in the zonal-mean temperatures and zonal winds have been well documented in Earth's middle atmosphere. A growing body of evidence from ground-based and Cassini spacecraft observations indicates that such phenomena also occur in the stratospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. Earth-based midinfrared measurements spanning several decades have established that the equatorial stratospheric temperatures on Jupiter vary with a cycle of 4-5 years and on Saturn with a cycle of approximately 15 years. Spectra obtained by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) during the Cassini swingby at the end of 2000, with much better vertical resolution than the ground-based data, indicated a series of vertically stacked warm and cold anomalics at Jupiter's equator; a similar structurc was seen at Saturn's equator in CIRS limb measurements made in 2005, in the early phase of Cassini's orbital tour. The thermal wind equation implied similar patterns of mean zonal winds increasing and decreasing with altitude. On Saturn the peak-to-pcak amplitude of this variation was nearly 200 meters per second. The alternating vertical pattern of wanner and colder cquatorial tcmperatures and easterly and westerly tendencies of the zonal winds is seen in Earth's equatorial oscillations, where the pattern descends with time, The Cassini Jupiter and early Saturn observations were snapshots within a limited time interval, and they did not show the temporal evolution of the spatial patterns. However, more recent Saturn observations by CIRS (2010) and Cassini radio-occultation soundings (2009-2010) have provided an opportunity to follow the change of the temperature-zonal wind pattern, and they suggest there is descent, at a rate of roughly one scale height over four years. On Earth, the observed descent in the zonal-mean structure is associated with the absorption of a combination of vertically propagating waves with easlerly and westerly phase velocities. The peak-to-peak zonal wind

  10. Comparative impactology on Jupiter: Cataloging the clumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Michael

    2010-09-01

    Seven months after HubbleA?s first servicing mission, the impact of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 {SL9} captured worldwide attentionA?and the newly-installed WFPC2 captured 472 images of Jupiter in Program 5642. We will complete a census of each impact, including evolution, size, morphology, and color, now that the geometric and photometric calibration of WFPC2 has reached its best and final state. The data from Program 5642 prove their great value by still continuing to generate science publications, and we will upload deprojected {latitude-longitude mapped} data as High Level Science Products to further enhance the usability of this unique data set. The WFPC2 data are needed to understand recent observations of the 2009 impact on Jupiter, in which only 36 WFC3 and ACS images were obtained in Program 12003. In the isolated 2009 impact, the debris formed clumps that lasted at least until Jupiter was imaged again on 22 September {Program 11559}, two months after the impact. Clumps were observed in a subset of SL9 impact sites, but a complete survey of all the available WFPC2 impact site imaging data will enable us to measure clump formation, favored dynamical environments, frequency of occurrence, interactions with other Jovian atmospheric features, and rates of change in size and albedo. Based on the 2009 WFC3 and ACS data, we suggest that these clumps are lower stratospheric eddies that maintain aerosol concentrations against dissipation. We will search the proposed complete catalog of 1994 WFPC2 data to isolate the determining factors for the formation and evolution of these clumps, with the goal of finding out whether they are commonplace Jovian dynamical features simply traced by impact-generated aerosols, or unique features generated by the impacts themselves {either through impact-related thermochemical processes, or through differences in particle microphysics}. If the clumps mark commonplace but normally invisible eddies, they may play interesting roles in the

  11. Can Terrestrial Planets Form in Hot-Jupiter Systems?

    CERN Document Server

    Fogg, Martyn J

    2007-01-01

    Models of terrestrial planet formation in the presence of a migrating giant planet have challenged the notion that hot-Jupiter systems lack terrestrial planets. We briefly review this issue and suggest that hot-Jupiter systems should be prime targets for future observational missions designed to detect Earth-sized and potentially habitable worlds.

  12. Forum on Concepts and Approaches for Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    The papers presented at this conference primarily discuss instruments and techniques for conducting science on Jupiter's icy moons, and geologic processes on the moons themselves. Remote sensing of satellites, cratering on satellites, and ice on the surface of Europa are given particular attention. Some papers discuss Jupiter's atmosphere, or exobiology.

  13. Periodic changes of the activity of processes in Jupiter's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.

    2016-10-01

    Variations of the Earth jovimagnetic latitude on Jupiter are preferred in solar-driven changes of reflective properties of clouds and haze on Jupiter. Because of the orbit eccentricity (e=0,048450) the northern hemisphere receives 21% greater solar energy flow to the atmosphere, because Jupiter is in the perihelia near the time of the summer solstice. Results of our studies showed that the ratio of the brightness of the northern and southern tropical and temperate regions is evident factor of the photometric activity of the Jupiter's atmospheric processes. The obtained from the analysis of observational data for the period from 1962 to 2015 existence of variations of activity factor of the planet hemispheres with a period of 11.86 years has allowed us to talk about an existence of the seasonal reconstruction of the physical parameters of Jupiter's atmosphere.

  14. Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Griffith (Linda); M. Cowan (Morton); L.D. Notarangelo (Luigi Daniele); R. Kohn (Robert); J. Puck (Jennifer); S.-Y. Pai (Sung-Yun); B. Ballard (Barbara); S.C. Bauer (Sarah); J. Bleesing (Jack); M. Boyle (Marcia); R.W. Brower (Ronald); R.H. Buckley (Rebecca); M. van der Burg (Mirjam); L.M. Burroughs (Lauri); F. Candotti (Fabio); A. Cant (Andrew); T. Chatila (Talal); C. Cunningham-Rundles (Charlotte); M.C. Dinauer (Mary); J. Dvorak (Jennie); A. Filipovich (Alexandra); L.A. Fleisher (Lee); H.B. Gaspar (Bobby); T. Gungor (Tayfun); E. Haddad (Elie); E. Hovermale (Emily); F. Huang (Faith); A. Hurley (Alan); M. Hurley (Mary); S.K. Iyengar (Sudha); E.M. Kang (Elizabeth); B.R. Logan (Brent); J.R. Long-Boyle (Janel); H. Malech (Harry); S.A. McGhee (Sean); S. Modell (Sieglinde); S. Modell (Sieglinde); H.D. Ochs (Hans); R.J. O'Reilly (Richard); R. Parkman (Robertson); D. Rawlings (D.); J.M. Routes (John); P. Shearer (P.); T.N. Small (Trudy); H. Smith (H.); K.E. Sullivan (Kathleen); P. Szabolcs (Paul); A.J. Thrasher (Adrian); D. Torgerson; P. Veys (Paul); K. Weinberg (Kenneth); J.C. Zuniga-Pflucker (Juan Carlos)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThe Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) is a network of 33 centers in North America that study the treatment of rare and severe primary immunodeficiency diseases. Current protocols address the natural history of patients treated for severe combined immunodeficiency (SC

  15. Microbial Degradation of Aniline by Bacterial Consortium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN-LONG WANG; ZE-YU MAO; WEI-ZHONG WU

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristics of microbial degradation of aniline by a stable bacterial consortium. Methods The bacterial consortium was isolated from activated sludge treating chemical wastewater using aniline as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen by enrichment and isolation technique. The biomass was measured as optical density (OD) at 510 nm using a spectrophotometer. Aniline concentrations were determined by spectrophotometer. The intermediates of aniline degradation were identified by GC/MS method. Results The bacterial consortium could grow at a range of aniline concentrations between 50 and 500 mg/L. The optimal pH and temperature for aniline degradation were determined to be 7.0 and 30, respectively. The presence of NH4NO3 as an additional nitrogen source (100-500 mg/L) had no adverse effect on bacterial growth and aniline degradation. The presence of heavy metal ions, such as Co2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Mn2+ and Cu2+ had an inhibitory effect on aniline degradation. Conclusions The isolated bacterial consortium candegrade aniline up to 500 mg/L effectively and tolerate some heavy metal ions that commonly exist in chemical wastewater. It has a potential to be applied in the practical treatment of aniline-containingwastewater.

  16. Mission Connect Mild TBI Translational Research Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-31

    TBI Translational Research Consortium Executive Committee Steering Committee Model of Injury Working Group Neuroprotection Working Group Regeneration ...Report, Holcomb Page 22 Specific aim #3.1: To study neuroprotection and enhanced neurological recovery with erythropoietin ( Epo ) and Epo ...derivatives after MTBI. - #3.1.1 To study the effects of Epo and Epo derivatives on neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and outcome after experimental MTBI

  17. The Digital Preservation Consortium: Mission and Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Donald J.; Kenney, Anne

    The development of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) and the growing use of the Internet are creating a rapidly-changing environment for collaborative preservation and access. Within this environment, the Digital Preservation Consortium (DPC) seeks to advance the use and utility of digital technology for the preservation of and access…

  18. Elliptical instability in hot Jupiter systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cébron, David; Gal, Patrice Le; Moutou, Claire; Leconte, J; Sauret, Alban

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have already considered the influence of tides on the evolution of systems composed of a star and a close-in companion to tentatively explain different observations such as the spin-up of some stars with hot Jupiters, the radius anomaly of short orbital period planets and the synchronization or quasi-synchronization of the stellar spin in some extreme cases. However, the nature of the mechanism responsible for the tidal dissipation in such systems remains uncertain. In this paper, we claim that the so-called elliptical instability may play a major role in these systems, explaining some systematic features present in the observations. This hydrodynamic instability, arising in rotating flows with elliptical streamlines, is suspected to be present in both planet and star of such systems, which are elliptically deformed by tides. The presence and the influence of the elliptical instability in gaseous bodies, such as stars or hot Jupiters, are most of the time neglected. In this paper, using numeri...

  19. Fading of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Michael A.; Orton, Glenn; Baines, Kevin; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma

    2011-01-01

    One of Jupiter's most dominant features, the South Equatorial Belt, has historically gone through a "fading" cycle. The usual dark, brownish clouds turn white, and after a period of time, the region returns to its normal color. Understanding this phenomenon, the latest occurring in 2010, will increase our knowledge of planetary atmospheres. Using the near infrared camera, NSFCAM2, at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii, images were taken of Jupiter accompanied by data describing the circumstances of each observation. These images are then processed and reduced through an IDL program. By scanning the central meridian of the planet, graphs were produced plotting the average values across the central meridian, which are used to find variations in the region of interest. Calculations using Albert4, a FORTRAN program that calculates the upwelling reflected sunlight from a designated cloud model, can be used to determine the effects of a model atmosphere due to various absorption, scattering, and emission processes. Spectra that were produced show ammonia bands in the South Equatorial Belt. So far, we can deduce from this information that an upwelling of ammonia particles caused a cloud layer to cover up the region. Further investigations using Albert4 and other models will help us to constrain better the chemical make up of the cloud and its location in the atmosphere.

  20. ECCENTRIC JUPITERS VIA DISK–PLANET INTERACTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duffell, Paul C.; Chiang, Eugene, E-mail: duffell@berkeley.edu, E-mail: echiang@astro.berkeley.edu [Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Astrophysics Center, University of California, Berkeley (United States)

    2015-10-20

    Numerical hydrodynamics calculations are performed to determine the conditions under which giant planet eccentricities can be excited by parent gas disks. Unlike in other studies, Jupiter-mass planets are found to have their eccentricities amplified—provided their orbits start off as eccentric. We disentangle the web of co-rotation, co-orbital, and external resonances to show that this finite-amplitude instability is consistent with that predicted analytically. Ellipticities can grow until they reach of order of the disk's aspect ratio, beyond which the external Lindblad resonances that excite eccentricity are weakened by the planet's increasingly supersonic epicyclic motion. Forcing the planet to still larger eccentricities causes catastrophic eccentricity damping as the planet collides into gap walls. For standard parameters, the range of eccentricities for instability is modest; the threshold eccentricity for growth (∼0.04) is not much smaller than the final eccentricity to which orbits grow (∼0.07). If this threshold eccentricity can be lowered (perhaps by non-barotropic effects), and if the eccentricity driving documented here survives in 3D, it may robustly explain the low-to-moderate eccentricities ≲0.1 exhibited by many giant planets (including Jupiter and Saturn), especially those without planetary or stellar companions.

  1. Thermal Processes Governing Hot-Jupiter Radii

    CERN Document Server

    Spiegel, David S

    2013-01-01

    There have been many proposed explanations for the larger-than-expected radii of some transiting hot Jupiters, including either stellar or orbital energy deposition deep in the atmosphere or deep in the interior. In this paper, we explore the important influences on hot-Jupiter radius evolution of (i) additional heat sources in the high atmosphere, the deep atmosphere, and deep in the convective interior; (ii) consistent cooling of the deep interior through the planetary dayside, nightside, and poles; (iii) the degree of heat redistribution to the nightside; and (iv) the presence of an upper atmosphere absorber inferred to produce anomalously hot upper atmospheres and inversions in some close-in giant planets. In particular, we compare the radius expansion effects of atmospheric and deep-interior heating at the same power levels and derive the power required to achieve a given radius increase when night-side cooling is incorporated. We find that models that include consistent day/night cooling are more simila...

  2. Broadband Linear Polarization of Jupiter Trojans

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnulo, S; Stinson, A; Christou, A; Borisov, G B

    2016-01-01

    Trojan asteroids orbit in the Lagrange points of the system Sun-planet-asteroid. Their dynamical stability make their physical properties important proxies for the early evolution of our solar system. To study their origin, we want to characterize the surfaces of Jupiter Trojan asteroids and check possible similarities with objects of the main belt and of the Kuiper Belt. We have obtained high-accuracy broad-band linear polarization measurements of six Jupiter Trojans of the L4 population and tried to estimate the main features of their polarimetric behaviour. We have compared the polarimetric properties of our targets among themselves, and with those of other atmosphere-less bodies of our solar system. Our sample show approximately homogeneous polarimetric behaviour, although some distinct features are found between them. In general, the polarimetric properties of Trojan asteroids are similar to those of D- and P-type main-belt asteroids. No sign of coma activity is detected in any of the observed objects. A...

  3. The Transit Spectra of Earth and Jupiter

    CERN Document Server

    Irwin, Patrick G J; Bowles, Neil E; Fletcher, Leigh N; Aigrain, Suzanne; Lee, Jae-Min

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a number of observations have been made of the transits of 'Hot Jupiters', such as HD 189733b, which have been modelled to derive atmospheric structure and composition. As measurement techniques improve, the transit spectra of 'Super-Earths' such as GJ 1214b are becoming better constrained, allowing model atmospheres to be fitted for this class of planet also. While it is not yet possible to constrain the atmospheric states of small planets such as the Earth or cold planets like Jupiter, this may become practical in the coming decades and if so, it is of interest to determine what we might infer from such measurements. Here we have constructed atmospheric models of the Solar System planets from 0.4 - 15.5 microns that are consistent with ground-based and satellite observations and from these calculate the primary transit and secondary eclipse spectra (with respect to the Sun and typical M-dwarfs) that would be observed by a 'remote observer', many light years away. From these spectra we test ...

  4. Tidal Response of Preliminary Jupiter Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Sean M.; Hubbard, William B.; Militzer, Burkhard

    2016-11-01

    In anticipation of improved observational data for Jupiter’s gravitational field, from the Juno spacecraft, we predict the static tidal response for a variety of Jupiter interior models based on ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen-helium mixtures. We calculate hydrostatic-equilibrium gravity terms, using the non-perturbative concentric Maclaurin Spheroid method that eliminates lengthy expansions used in the theory of figures. Our method captures terms arising from the coupled tidal and rotational perturbations, which we find to be important for a rapidly rotating planet like Jupiter. Our predicted static tidal Love number, {k}2=0.5900, is ˜10% larger than previous estimates. The value is, as expected, highly correlated with the zonal harmonic coefficient J 2, and is thus nearly constant when plausible changes are made to the interior structure while holding J 2 fixed at the observed value. We note that the predicted static k 2 might change, due to Jupiter’s dynamical response to the Galilean moons, and find reasons to argue that the change may be detectable—although we do not present here a theory of dynamical tides for highly oblate Jovian planets. An accurate model of Jupiter’s tidal response will be essential for interpreting Juno observations and identifying tidal signals from effects of other interior dynamics of Jupiter’s gravitational field.

  5. America's Star Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s new national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service, identifies 256 "star" libraries. It rates 7,115 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three Michelin guide-like stars. All included libraries, stars or not, can use their scores to learn from their peers and improve…

  6. America's Star Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry

    2009-01-01

    "Library Journal"'s new national rating of public libraries, the "LJ" Index of Public Library Service, identifies 256 "star" libraries. It rates 7,115 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three Michelin guide-like stars. All included libraries, stars or not, can use their scores to learn from their peers and improve…

  7. COMBINATORIAL LIBRARIES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    The invention provides a method for the production of a combinatorial library of compound of general formula (I) using solid phase methodologies. The cleavage of the array of immobilised compounds of the phthalimido type from the solid support matrix is accomplished by using an array of dinucleop......The invention provides a method for the production of a combinatorial library of compound of general formula (I) using solid phase methodologies. The cleavage of the array of immobilised compounds of the phthalimido type from the solid support matrix is accomplished by using an array...... of dinucleophiles, e.g. hydrazines (hydrazinolysis) or N-hydroxylamines, whereby a combinatorial dimension is introduced in the cleavage step. The invention also provides a compound library....

  8. Dynamical Interactions Make Hot Jupiters in Open Star Clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Shara, Michael M; Mardling, Rosemary A

    2014-01-01

    Explaining the origin and evolution of exoplanetary "hot Jupiters" remains a significant challenge. One possible mechanism for their production is planet-planet interactions, which produces hot Jupiters from planets born far from their host stars but near their dynamical stability limits. In the much more likely case of planets born far from their dynamical stability limits, can hot Jupiters can be formed in star clusters? Our N-body simulations of planetary systems inside star clusters answer this question in the affirmative, and show that hot Jupiter formation is not a rare event. We detail three case studies of the dynamics-induced births of hot Jupiters on highly eccentric orbits that can only occur inside star clusters. The hot Jupiters' orbits bear remarkable similarities to those of some of the most extreme exoplanets known: HAT-P-32 b, HAT-P-2 b, HD 80606 b and GJ 876 d. If stellar perturbations formed these hot Jupiters then our simulations predict that these very hot, inner planets are sometimes acc...

  9. Jupiter's Decametric Radio Emission and the Radiation Belts of Its Galilean Satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J A

    1968-03-01

    Many of the observed properties of Jupiter's decametric radiation may be explained by postulation that the inner Galilean satellites of Jupiter have magnetic properties that strongly distort Jupiter's magnetic field in the region of each satellite. Charged particles from Jupiter's radiation belts are trapped by these distorted fields and emit synchrotron radiation.

  10. Library consortia and funding scientific literature and databases in Slovenia in the year 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primož Južnič

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic ways of scientific communication is publishing in scientific journals which play a key role in the evaluation of scientific excellence and as such represent an indispensable part of scientific infrastructure. Their relevance is reflected in the high use rate. The article presents experiences in consortium purchases of scientific journals in the Republic of Slovenia within the management of the Central Technological Library at the University of Ljubljana (CTK. In 2009, the number of successful full-text article requests amounted to 829,576 EUR, an increase of 33% compared to the year 2008 and 178% more requests than in 2006. The Slovenian Research Agency (SRA supports libraries in consortium purchasing and is responsible for co-financing foreign scientific library resources in the Republic of Slovenia. In 2009, the amount of EUR 3,520,000 was given to libraries, of which the consortium received EUR 1,421,458,an increase of 419% compared to the previous year. Consequently eight new members joined the consortium in 2010, now involving 22 institutions. The article also presents the benefits of additional financial means given to the consortium.

  11. Energetic electrons in Jupiter's dawn magnetodisc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Allen, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents and analyzes absolute energy density data on electrons from the University of Iowa instrument on Pioneer 10 for one example of a plasma sheet traversal in Jupiter's dawn magnetodisk on 6-7 December 1973. The absolute integral omnidirectional intensity spectrum of electrons is based on a full and accurate reduction of the counting rate data. The main finding is that electrons of energy greater than 0.060 MeV provide only about 3% of the charged particle pressure required to explain the observed depression in the magnetic field at the center of the plasma sheet, in spite of the fact that the intensity of such electrons is well correlated with the depression of the magnetic pressure throughout the sheet.

  12. The dusty ballerina skirt of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horanyi, M.; Morfill, G.; Gruen, E.

    1993-12-01

    We suggest a model to explain the unexpected recurrent dust events that were observed during the Jupiter encounter by the dust detector on board the Ulysses spacecraft. This model is based dust-magnetosphere interactions. Dust particles inside the Jovian magnetosphere collect electrostatic charges and their interaction with the magnetic and electric fields can lead to energization and subsequent ejection. We discuss the dusty regions (ring/halo, `gossamer' ring) and also Io as potential sources for the Ulysses events. This model favors Io as a source. The mass and velocity range of the escaping particles are compatible with the observations, and we also suggest internal periodicities to explain the recurrent nature of the Ulysses dust events.

  13. Auroral meridian scanning photometer calibration using Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackel, Brian J.; Unick, Craig; Creutzberg, Fokke; Baker, Greg; Davis, Eric; Donovan, Eric F.; Connors, Martin; Wilson, Cody; Little, Jarrett; Greffen, M.; McGuffin, Neil

    2016-10-01

    Observations of astronomical sources provide information that can significantly enhance the utility of auroral data for scientific studies. This report presents results obtained by using Jupiter for field cross calibration of four multispectral auroral meridian scanning photometers during the 2011-2015 Northern Hemisphere winters. Seasonal average optical field-of-view and local orientation estimates are obtained with uncertainties of 0.01 and 0.1°, respectively. Estimates of absolute sensitivity are repeatable to roughly 5 % from one month to the next, while the relative response between different wavelength channels is stable to better than 1 %. Astronomical field calibrations and darkroom calibration differences are on the order of 10 %. Atmospheric variability is the primary source of uncertainty; this may be reduced with complementary data from co-located instruments.

  14. Radio observations of Jupiter-family comets

    CERN Document Server

    Crovisier, J; Bockelée-Morvan, D; Colom, P

    2008-01-01

    Radio observations from decimetric to submillimetric wavelengths are now a basic tool for the investigation of comets. Spectroscopic observations allow us i) to monitor the gas production rate of the comets, by directly observing the water molecule, or by observing secondary products (e.g., the OH radical) or minor species (e.g., HCN); ii) to investigate the chemical composition of comets; iii) to probe the physical conditions of cometary atmospheres: kinetic temperature and expansion velocity. Continuum observations probe large-size dust particles and (for the largest objects) cometary nuclei. Comets are classified from their orbital characteristics into two separate classes: i) nearly-isotropic, mainly long-period comets and ii) ecliptic, short-period comets, the so-called Jupiter-family comets. These two classes apparently come from two different reservoirs, respectively the Oort cloud and the trans-Neptunian scattered disc. Due to their different history and - possibly - their different origin, they may h...

  15. Rotational Properties of Jupiter Trojan 1173 Anchises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Joseph; Henry, Todd; French, Linda; Trilling, David

    2015-11-01

    Anchises (1173) is a large Trojan asteroid librating about Jupiter’s L5 Lagrange point. Here we examine its rotational and lightcurve properties by way of data collected over a 3.5 year observing campaign. The length of the campaign means that data were gathered for more than a quarter of Anchises' full orbital revolution which allows for accurate determinations of pole orientation and bulk shape properties for the asteroid that can then be compared to results of previous work (i.e. French 1987, Horner et al. 2012). In addition to light curves, photometric data taken during this campaign could potentially detect color differences between hemispheres as the viewing geometry changes over time. Understanding these details about a prominent member of the Jupiter Trojans may help us better understand the history of this fascinating and important group of asteroids.

  16. Library rooms or Library halls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Serrai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Library Halls, understood as Renaissance and Baroque architectural creations, along with the furnishings and decorations, accomplish a cognitive task and serve to transmit knowledge. The design of these spaces based on the idea that they should reflect the merits and content of the collections housed within them, in order to prepare the mind of the reader to respect and admire the volumes. In accordance with this principle, in the fifteenth century library rooms had a basilican shape, with two or three naves, like churches, reflecting thus the spiritual value of the books contained there. Next to that inspiring function, library rooms had also the task of representing the entire logical and conceptual universe of human knowledge in a figurative way, including for this purpose also the and Kunst- und Wunderkammern, namely the collections of natural, artficial objects, and works of art. The importance of library rooms and their function was understood already in the early decades of the seventeenth century, as underlined in the treatise, Musei sive Bibliothecae tam privatae quam publicae Extructio, Instructio, Cura, Usus, written by the Jesuit Claude Clément and published in 1635. Almost the entire volume is dedicated to the decoration and ornamentation of the Saloni, and the function of the library is identified exclusively with the preservation and decoration of the collection, neglecting more specifically bibliographic aspects or those connected to library science. The architectural structure of the Saloni was destined to change in relation to two factors, namely the form of books, and the sources of light. As a consequence, from the end of the sixteenth century – or perhaps even before if one considers the fragments of the Library of Urbino belonging to Federico da Montefeltro – shelves and cabinets have been placed no longer in the center of the room, but were set against the walls. This new disposition of the furniture, surmounted by

  17. A Transiting Hot Jupiter Orbiting a Metal-Rich Star

    CERN Document Server

    Dunham, Edward W; Koch, David G; Batalha, Natalie M; Buchhave, Lars A; Brown, Timothy M; Caldwell, Douglas A; Cochran, William D; Endl, Michael; Fischer, Debra; Furesz, Gabor; Gautier, Thomas N; Geary, John C; Gilliland, Ronald L; Gould, Alan; Howell, Steve B; Jenkins, Jon M; Kjeldsen, Hans; Latham, David W; Lissauer, Jack J; Marcy, Geoffrey W; Meibom, Soren; Monet, David G; Rowe, Jason F; Sasselov, Dimitar D

    2010-01-01

    We announce the discovery of Kepler-6b, a transiting hot Jupiter orbiting a star with unusually high metallicity, [Fe/H] = +0.34 +/- 0.04. The planet's mass is about 2/3 that of Jupiter, Mp = 0.67 Mj, and the radius is thirty percent larger than that of Jupiter, Rp = 1.32 Rj, resulting in a density of 0.35 g/cc, a fairly typical value for such a planet. The orbital period is P = 3.235 days. The host star is both more massive than the Sun, Mstar = 1.21 Msun, and larger than the Sun, Rstar = 1.39 Rsun.

  18. Maximum frequency of the decametric radiation from Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, C. H.; Alexander, J. K.

    1980-01-01

    The upper frequency limits of Jupiter's decametric radio emission are found to be essentially the same when observed from the earth or, with considerably higher sensitivity, from the Voyager spacecraft close to Jupiter. This suggests that the maximum frequency is a real cut-off corresponding to a maximum gyrofrequency of about 38-40 MHz at Jupiter. It no longer appears to be necessary to specify different cut-off frequencies for the Io and non-Io emission as the maximum frequencies are roughly the same in each case.

  19. Return to Europa: Overview of the Jupiter Europa Orbiter Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K.; Tan-Wang, G.; Boldt, J.; Greeley, R.; Jun, I.; Lock, R.; Ludwinski, J.; Pappalardo, R.; Van Houten, T.; Yan, T.

    2009-01-01

    Missions to explore Europa have been imagined ever since the Voyager mission first suggested that Europa was geologically very young. Subsequently, Galileo supplied fascinating new insights into that satellite's secrets. The Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) would be the NASA-led portion of the Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), an international mission with orbiters developed by NASA, ESA and possibly JAXA. JEO would address a very important subset of the complete EJSM science objectives and is designed to function alone or in conjunction with ESA's Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO).

  20. Encouragement from Jupiter for Europe's Titan Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Huygens will transmit scientific information for 150 minutes, from the outer reaches of Titan's cold atmosphere and all the way down to its enigmatic surface. For comparison, the Jupiter Probe radioed scientific data for 58 minutes as it descended about 200 kilometres into the outer part of the atmosphere of the giant planet. The parachutes controlling various stages of Huygens' descent will rely upon a system for deployment designed and developed in Europe that is nevertheless similar to that used by the Jupiter Probe. The elaborate sequence of operations in Huygens worked perfectly during a dramatic drop test from a stratospheric balloon over Sweden in May 1995, which approximated as closely as possible to events on Titan. The performance of the American Probe at Jupiter renews the European engineers' confidence in their own descent control system, and also in the lithium sulphur-dioxide batteries which were chosen to power both Probes. "The systems work after long storage in space," comments Hamid Hassan, ESA's Project Manager for Huygens. "Huygens will spend seven years travelling to Saturn's vicinity aboard the Cassini Orbiter. The Jupiter Probe was a passenger in Galileo for six years before its release, so there is no reason to doubt that Huygens will work just as well." Huygens will enter the outer atmosphere of Titan at 20,000 kilometres per hour. A heat shield 2.7 metres in diameter will withstand the friction and slow the Probe to a speed at which parachutes can be deployed. The size of the parachute for the main phase of the descent is chosen to allow Huygens to reach the surface in about 2 hours. The batteries powering Huygens will last for about 21/2 hours. Prepared for surprises A different perspective on the Jupiter Probe comes from Jean-Pierre Lebreton, ESA's Project Scientist for Huygens. The results contradicted many preconceptions of the Galileo scientists, particularly about the abundance of water and the structure of cloud layers. Arguments

  1. Consortium for Verification Technology Fellowship Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadler, Lorraine E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-06-01

    As one recipient of the Consortium for Verification Technology (CVT) Fellowship, I spent eight days as a visiting scientist at the University of Michigan, Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences (NERS). During this time, I participated in multiple department and research group meetings and presentations, met with individual faculty and students, toured multiple laboratories, and taught one-half of a one-unit class on Risk Analysis in Nuclear Arms control (six 1.5 hour lectures). The following report describes some of the interactions that I had during my time as well as a brief discussion of the impact of this fellowship on members of the consortium and on me/my laboratory’s technical knowledge and network.

  2. The NIH Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsztein, Alexandra M; Brooks, Philip J; Dugan, Vivien G; Ganguly, Aniruddha; Guo, Max; Howcroft, T Kevin; Kelley, Christine A; Kuo, Lillian S; Labosky, Patricia A; Lenzi, Rebecca; McKie, George A; Mohla, Suresh; Procaccini, Dena; Reilly, Matthew; Satterlee, John S; Srinivas, Pothur R; Church, Elizabeth Stansell; Sutherland, Margaret; Tagle, Danilo A; Tucker, Jessica M; Venkatachalam, Sundar

    2015-01-01

    The Extracellular RNA (exRNA) Communication Consortium, funded as an initiative of the NIH Common Fund, represents a consortium of investigators assembled to address the critical issues in the exRNA research arena. The overarching goal is to generate a multi-component community resource for sharing fundamental scientific discoveries, protocols, and innovative tools and technologies. The key initiatives include (a) generating a reference catalogue of exRNAs present in body fluids of normal healthy individuals that would facilitate disease diagnosis and therapies, (b) defining the fundamental principles of exRNA biogenesis, distribution, uptake, and function, as well as development of molecular tools, technologies, and imaging modalities to enable these studies,

  3. Overview of the Inland California Translational Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkas, Linda H.

    2017-05-01

    The mission of the Inland California Translational Consortium (ICTC), an independent research consortium comprising a unique hub of regional institutions (City of Hope [COH], California Institute of Technology [Caltech], Jet Propulsion Laboratory [JPL], University of California Riverside [UCR], and Claremont Colleges Keck Graduate Institute [KGI], is to institute a new paradigm within the academic culture to accelerate translation of innovative biomedical discoveries into clinical applications that positively affect human health and life. The ICTC actively supports clinical translational research as well as the implementation and advancement of novel education and training models for the translation of basic discoveries into workable products and practices that preserve and improve human health while training and educating at all levels of the workforce using innovative forward-thinking approaches.

  4. Midwest Nuclear Science and Engineering Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Wynn Volkert; Dr. Arvind Kumar; Dr. Bryan Becker; Dr. Victor Schwinke; Dr. Angel Gonzalez; Dr. DOuglas McGregor

    2010-12-08

    The objective of the Midwest Nuclear Science and Engineering Consortium (MNSEC) is to enhance the scope, quality and integration of educational and research capabilities of nuclear sciences and engineering (NS/E) programs at partner schools in support of the U.S. nuclear industry (including DOE laboratories). With INIE support, MNSEC had a productive seven years and made impressive progress in achieving these goals. Since the past three years have been no-cost-extension periods, limited -- but notable -- progress has been made in FY10. Existing programs continue to be strengthened and broadened at Consortium partner institutions. The enthusiasm generated by the academic, state, federal, and industrial communities for the MNSEC activities is reflected in the significant leveraging that has occurred for our programs.

  5. The STRONG STAR Multidisciplinary PTSD Research Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    myocardial infarction and pre- dicting variables. J. Psychosom. Res. 69, 143e150. Harvey, B.H., Brand, L., Jeeva, Z., Stein, D.J., 2006. Cortical...For the STRONG STAR Consortium. Available online at www.sciencedirect.com j our na l h omepa g e: www.e l se v ie r.c om /l oca te/ psyne ue n 0306

  6. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Consortium Agreement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    This is the third progress report of the M.I.T. Home Automation and Healthcare Consortium-Phase Two. It covers majority of the new findings, concepts...research projects of home automation and healthcare, ranging from human modeling, patient monitoring, and diagnosis to new sensors and actuators, physical...aids, human-machine interface and home automation infrastructure. This report contains several patentable concepts, algorithms, and designs.

  7. Removal of triphenylmethane dyes by bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriaa, Jihane; Khaireddine, Monia; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Bakhrouf, Amina

    2012-01-01

    A new consortium of four bacterial isolates (Agrobacterium radiobacter; Bacillus spp.; Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and Aeromonas hydrophila)-(CM-4) was used to degrade and to decolorize triphenylmethane dyes. All bacteria were isolated from activated sludge extracted from a wastewater treatment station of a dyeing industry plant. Individual bacterial isolates exhibited a remarkable color-removal capability against crystal violet (50 mg/L) and malachite green (50 mg/L) dyes within 24 h. Interestingly, the microbial consortium CM-4 shows a high decolorizing percentage for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively, 91% and 99% within 2 h. The rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal increases after 24 h, reaching 61.5% and 84.2% for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively. UV-Visible absorption spectra, FTIR analysis and the inspection of bacterial cells growth indicated that color removal by the CM-4 was due to biodegradation. Evaluation of mutagenicity by using Salmonella typhimurium test strains, TA98 and TA100 studies revealed that the degradation of crystal violet and malachite green by CM-4 did not lead to mutagenic products. Altogether, these results demonstrated the usefulness of the bacterial consortium in the treatment of the textile dyes.

  8. Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Linda M; Cowan, Morton J; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Kohn, Donald B; Puck, Jennifer M; Pai, Sung-Yun; Ballard, Barbara; Bauer, Sarah C; Bleesing, Jack J H; Boyle, Marcia; Brower, Amy; Buckley, Rebecca H; van der Burg, Mirjam; Burroughs, Lauri M; Candotti, Fabio; Cant, Andrew J; Chatila, Talal; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Dinauer, Mary C; Dvorak, Christopher C; Filipovich, Alexandra H; Fleisher, Thomas A; Bobby Gaspar, Hubert; Gungor, Tayfun; Haddad, Elie; Hovermale, Emily; Huang, Faith; Hurley, Alan; Hurley, Mary; Iyengar, Sumathi; Kang, Elizabeth M; Logan, Brent R; Long-Boyle, Janel R; Malech, Harry L; McGhee, Sean A; Modell, Fred; Modell, Vicki; Ochs, Hans D; O'Reilly, Richard J; Parkman, Robertson; Rawlings, David J; Routes, John M; Shearer, William T; Small, Trudy N; Smith, Heather; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Szabolcs, Paul; Thrasher, Adrian; Torgerson, Troy R; Veys, Paul; Weinberg, Kenneth; Zuniga-Pflucker, Juan Carlos

    2014-02-01

    The Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) is a network of 33 centers in North America that study the treatment of rare and severe primary immunodeficiency diseases. Current protocols address the natural history of patients treated for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, and chronic granulomatous disease through retrospective, prospective, and cross-sectional studies. The PIDTC additionally seeks to encourage training of junior investigators, establish partnerships with European and other International colleagues, work with patient advocacy groups to promote community awareness, and conduct pilot demonstration projects. Future goals include the conduct of prospective treatment studies to determine optimal therapies for primary immunodeficiency diseases. To date, the PIDTC has funded 2 pilot projects: newborn screening for SCID in Navajo Native Americans and B-cell reconstitution in patients with SCID after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Ten junior investigators have received grant awards. The PIDTC Annual Scientific Workshop has brought together consortium members, outside speakers, patient advocacy groups, and young investigators and trainees to report progress of the protocols and discuss common interests and goals, including new scientific developments and future directions of clinical research. Here we report the progress of the PIDTC to date, highlights of the first 2 PIDTC workshops, and consideration of future consortium objectives.

  9. Midwest superconductivity consortium. 1993 Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    The Midwest Superconductivity Consortium, MISCON, in the fourth year of operations further strengthened its mission to advance the science and understanding of high T{sub c} superconductivity. The goals of the organization and the individual projects continue to reflect the current needs for new knowledge in the field and the unique capabilities of the institutions involved. Group efforts and cooperative laboratory interactions to achieve the greatest possible synergy under the Consortium continue to be emphasized. Industrial affiliations coupled with technology transfer initiatives were expanded. Activities of the participants during the past year achieved an interactive and high level of performance. The number of notable achievements in the field contributed by Consortium investigators increased. The programmatic research continues to focus upon key materials-related problems in two areas. The first area has a focus upon {open_quotes}Synthesis and Processing{close_quotes} while the second is centered around {open_quotes}Limiting Features in Transport Properties of High T{sub c} Materials{close_quotes}.

  10. Removal of Triphenylmethane Dyes by Bacterial Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihane Cheriaa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new consortium of four bacterial isolates (Agrobacterium radiobacter; Bacillus spp.; Sphingomonas paucimobilis, and Aeromonas hydrophila-(CM-4 was used to degrade and to decolorize triphenylmethane dyes. All bacteria were isolated from activated sludge extracted from a wastewater treatment station of a dyeing industry plant. Individual bacterial isolates exhibited a remarkable color-removal capability against crystal violet (50 mg/L and malachite green (50 mg/L dyes within 24 h. Interestingly, the microbial consortium CM-4 shows a high decolorizing percentage for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively, 91% and 99% within 2 h. The rate of chemical oxygen demand (COD removal increases after 24 h, reaching 61.5% and 84.2% for crystal violet and malachite green, respectively. UV-Visible absorption spectra, FTIR analysis and the inspection of bacterial cells growth indicated that color removal by the CM-4 was due to biodegradation. Evaluation of mutagenicity by using Salmonella typhimurium test strains, TA98 and TA100 studies revealed that the degradation of crystal violet and malachite green by CM-4 did not lead to mutagenic products. Altogether, these results demonstrated the usefulness of the bacterial consortium in the treatment of the textile dyes.

  11. Development of a standard data base for FBR core nuclear design. 8. Compilation of JUPITER analytical results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, Makoto; Sugino, Kazuteru; Yokoyama, Kenji [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Sato, Wakaei; Numata, Kazuyuki; Iwai, Takehiko

    1997-11-01

    A standard data base for LMFBR core nuclear design has been developed to improve analytical methods and prediction accuracy of nuclear design for large fast breeder cores such as demonstration or commercial FBRs. To develop the data base, extensive work has been performed to accumulate and evaluate many kinds of results from fast reactor physics experiments and their analyses. The present report summarizes the analytical results of the JUPITER experiments, using the most recent nuclear data library (JENDL-3.2) and the latest analytical methods in a consistent manner. The total number of JUPITER C/E values obtained here exceeds 2,300, which cover most of the JUPITER data in the nuclear design data base. The analytical results will be combined with the sensitivity coefficients and experimental and analytical error values as a whole, and are expected to contribute the improvement of large FBR core design methods by means of a unified cross-section set for the demonstration FBR and various physical information. (J.P.N.). 236 refs.

  12. JUPITER PROJECT - JOINT UNIVERSAL PARAMETER IDENTIFICATION AND EVALUATION OF RELIABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The JUPITER (Joint Universal Parameter IdenTification and Evaluation of Reliability) project builds on the technology of two widely used codes for sensitivity analysis, data assessment, calibration, and uncertainty analysis of environmental models: PEST and UCODE.

  13. How does stellar irradiation make hot Jupiters puffy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yu-Jie; Gu, Pin-Gao

    2017-06-01

    Hot Jupiters appear to be re-inflated as their host stars evolve and become more luminous, shedding more light on the intriguing correlation between stellar irradiation and the size of hot Jupiters. To account for the phenomenon, one of the well-known models is the thermal-tide scenario proposed by Arras and Socrates. We present a linear analysis of semi-diurnal thermal tides in a hot Jupiter. The Coriolis effect is added to our equation, which generates more wave modes than non-rotating models, such as Rossby, Yanai, and inertial waves. We attempt to investigate where and which mode contributes most of the torque that maintains the planet in an asynchronous state against gravitational tides, leading to re-inflation of a hot Jupiter.

  14. Pioneer Jupiter orbiter probe mission 1980, probe description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defrees, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    The adaptation of the Saturn-Uranus Atmospheric Entry Probe (SUAEP) to a Jupiter entry probe is summarized. This report is extracted from a comprehensive study of Jovian missions, atmospheric model definitions and probe subsystem alternatives.

  15. Planetary geometry handbook: Jupiter positional data, 1985 - 2020, volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeyevsky, A. B.; Snyder, G. C.; Paulson, B. L.; Cunniff, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Graphical data necessary for the analysis of planetary exploration missions to Jupiter are presented. Positional and geometric information spanning the time period from 1985 through 2020 is provided. The data and their usage are explained.

  16. Fitting Orbits to Jupiter's Moons with a Spreadsheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Describes how a spreadsheet is used to fit a circular orbit model to observations of Jupiter's moons made with a small telescope. Kepler's Third Law and the inverse square law of gravity are observed. (AIM)

  17. Jupiter Magnetospheric Orbiter and Trojan Asteroid Explorer in EJSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Sho; Fujimoto, Masaki; Yano, Hajime; Takashima, Takeshi; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Funase, Ryu; Tsuda, Yuichi; Kawaguchi, Junichiro; Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro; Mori, Osamu; Morimoto, Mutsuko; Yoshida, Fumi; Takato, Naruhisa

    The international mission to explore the Jovian system is planned as Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) aiming at the launch in 2020. EJSM consists of (1) the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) by NASA, (2) the Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO) by ESA, and (3) the Jupiter Magnetospheric Orbiter (JMO) studied by JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency). In February 2009, NASA and ESA decided to continue the study of EJSM as a candidate of the outer solar system mission. In JAXA, a mission plan combining Trojan asteroid explorer with JMO started. According to the mission plan, as the main spacecraft flies by Jupiter, it will deploy the JMO satellite around Jupiter. Then the main will target one (or two) Trojan asteroids. JMO is a spin-stabilized satellite which will have magnetometers, low-energy plasma spectrome-ters, medium energy particle detectors, energetic particle detectors, electric field / plasma wave instruments, an ENA imager, an EUV spectrometer, and a dust detector. Collaborating with plasma instruments on board JEO and JGO, JMO will investigate the fast-rotating huge mag-netosphere to clarify the energy procurement from the rotation of Jupiter to the magnetosphere and to clarify the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere. JAXA started the study of a solar power sail for deep space explorations. In addition to the function of a solar sail (photon propulsion), the solar power sail system has very efficient ion engines where electric power is produced solar panels within the sail. Currently we are studying a mission to Jupiter and Trojan asteroids using a large (100m-scale) solar power sail that can transfer large payload as far as Jupiter. Trojan asteroids, which orbit around Jupiter's Lagrangian points, are primitive bodies with information of the early solar system as well as raw solid materials of Jovian system. Proposed instruments for the Trojan spacecraft are cameras, IR spectrometers, XRS, a laser altimeter, and a small surface rover

  18. Library news

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Library

    2010-01-01

    The CERN Library has been providing electronic access to the "Techniques de l'Ingénieur" database for the past 8 months. As a reminder, this is a multidisciplinary database of over 4000 technical and scientific articles in French, covering a broad range of topics such as mechanical engineering, safety, electronics and the environment. In a few simple steps, you can create your own account, select the types of documents you are interested in and configure your settings so as to receive alerts when articles in your field of activity are published. You can now access this resource from outside CERN using the "remote access to electronic resources" service. Further information is available here. Direct access to the database. Remote access to electronic resources. If you have any questions or comments, don't hesitate to contact us at: library.desk@cern.ch.

  19. Detection of (C-13)-ethane in Jupiter's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemann, Guenter; Bjoraker, Gordon L.; Jennings, Donald E.

    1991-01-01

    High-resolution (C-12)- and (C-13)-ethane spectra of Jupiter were acquired with the Kitt Peak 4 m Fourier spectrometer and the Goddard postdisperser in June 1987. A relative abundance ratio (C-12/C-13) of 94 +/- 12 was derived from the measurements. This nearly terrestrial value indicates little or no fractionation of carbon isotopes when ethane is produced in the photolysis of methane in Jupiter's atmosphere.

  20. A Look Inside the Juno Mission to Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammier, Richard S.

    2008-01-01

    Juno, the second mission within the New Frontiers Program, is a Jupiter polar orbiter mission designed to return high-priority science data that spans across multiple divisions within NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Juno's science objectives, coupled with the natural constraints of a cost-capped, PI-led mission and the harsh environment of Jupiter, have led to a very unique mission and spacecraft design.

  1. The Jupiter Electron Scattering Program at Jefferson Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arie Bodek

    2004-08-01

    JUPITER (Jlab Unified Program to Investigate nuclear Targets and Electroproduction of Resonances) is a new collaboration between the Nuclear Physics Electron Scattering and High Energy Physics Neutrino Scattering Communities to Investigate the Structure of Nucleons and Nuclei with Electron and Neutrino Beams. The first phase of JUPITER is Hall C experiment E04-001 on Inclusive Electron Scattering from Nuclear Targets. First data run of E04-001 is currently scheduled for January of 2005.

  2. An analysis of Jupiter data from the RAE-1 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, T. D.

    1974-01-01

    The analysis of Radio Astronomy Explorer Satellite data are presented. Radio bursts from Jupiter are reported in the frequency range 4700 KHz to 45 KHz. Strong correlations with lo were found at 4700, 3930, and 2200 KHz, while an equally strong Europa effect was observed at 1300, 900, and 700 KHz. Histograms indicating the relative probability and the successful identification of Jupiter activity were plotted, using automatic computer and visual search techniques.

  3. Library Benchmarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiji Suwarno

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The term benchmarking has been encountered in the implementation of total quality (TQM or in Indonesian termed holistic quality management because benchmarking is a tool to look for ideas or learn from the library. Benchmarking is a processof measuring and comparing for continuous business process of systematic and continuous measurement, the process of measuring and comparing for continuous business process of an organization to get information that can help these organization improve their performance efforts.

  4. First Earth-Based Detection of a Superbolide on Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso, R.; Wesley, A.; Go, C.; Perez-Hoyos, S.; Wong, M. H.; Fletcher, L. N.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Boslough, M. B.; DePater, I.; Orton, G. S.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Edwards, M. L.; Hammel, H. B.; Clarke, J. T.; Noll, K. S.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    Cosmic collisions can planets cause detectable optical flashes that range from terrestrial shooting stars to bright fireballs. On 2010 June 3 a bolide in Jupiter's atmosphere was simultaneously observed from the Earth by two amateur astronomers observing Jupiter in red and blue wavelengths, The bolide appeared as a flash of 2 s duration in video recording data of the planet. The analysis of the light carve of the observations results in an estimated energy of the impact of (0.9-4,0) x 10(exp 15) J which corresponds to a colliding body of 8-13 m diameter assuming a mean density of 2 g/cu cm. Images acquired a few days later by the Hubble Space Telescope and other large ground-based facilities did not show any signature of aerosol debris, temperature, or chemical composition anomaly, confirming that the body was small and destroyed in Jupiter's upper atmosphere. Several collisions of this size may happen on Jupiter on a yearly basis. A systematic study of the impact rate and size of these bolides can enable an empirical determination. of the flux of meteoroids in Jupiter with implications for the populations of small bodies in the outer solar system and may allow a better quantification of the threat of impacting bodies to Earth. The serendipitous recording of this optical flash opens a new window in the observation of Jupiter with small telescopes.

  5. Small Inner Companions of Warm Jupiters: Lifetimes and Legacies

    CERN Document Server

    Van Laerhoven, Christa

    2014-01-01

    Although warm jupiters are generally too far from their stars for tides to be important, the presence of an inner planetary companion to a warm jupiter can result in tidal evolution of the system. Insight into the process and its effects comes form classical secular theory of planetary perturbations. The lifetime of the inner planet may be shorter than the age of the system, because the warm jupiter maintains its eccentricity and hence promotes tidal migration into the star. Thus a warm jupiter observed to be alone in its system might have previously cleared away any interior planets. Before its demise, even if an inner planet is of terrestrial scale, it may promote damping of the warm jupiter's eccentricity. Thus any inferences of the initial orbit of an observed warm jupiter must include the possibility of a greater initial eccentricity than would be estimated by assuming it had always been alone. Tidal evolution involving multiple planets also enhances the internal heating of the planets, which readily exc...

  6. Colors and Properties of Jupiter's Greeks and Trojans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Joseph; Henry, Todd J.; French, Linda M.; Trilling, David E.

    2016-10-01

    In this Ph.D. talk, I will present the colors and properties of Jupiter Trojan asteroids examined in my dissertation research. The Jupiter Trojan asteroids are minor bodies that orbit 60 degrees in front and 60 degrees behind Jupiter. Because these orbits are stable over the lifetime of the Solar System, the properties of these objects may inform us about the conditions under which the Solar System formed. We present BVRKCIKC photometry for over 100 of the intrinsically brightest and presumably largest members of the L4 and L5 Jupiter Trojans. We use a new principal color component derived by Chatelain et al. 2016 that is indicative of taxonomic types relevant to the Jupiter Trojan asteroids. We previously found that 76% of the largest L5 Jupiter Trojans are consistent with a D-type classification, while 24% show shallower slopes more consistent with X-type and C-type classifications. Here we extend this study to the L4 cloud and compare the two populations, as well as include findings about specific objects that have resulted from these data. Specifically, multiple photometric observations hint at color variation in some objects, and our richest datasets allow for the determination of phase curves and shapes for a handful of the most compelling asteroids including a new shape model and pole solution for 1173 Anchises. Our goal is to use this study to shed light on these fascinating objects and to place the Trojans in context in the larger Solar System.

  7. Warm Jupiters from secular planet-planet interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Petrovich, Cristobal

    2016-01-01

    Most warm Jupiters (gas-giant planets with $0.1~{\\rm AU}\\lesssim a \\lesssim1$ AU) have pericenter distances that are too large for significant orbital migration by tidal friction. We study the possibility that the warm Jupiters are undergoing secular eccentricity oscillations excited by an outer companion (a planet or star) in an eccentric and/or mutually inclined orbit. In this model the warm Jupiters migrate periodically, in the high-eccentricity phase of the oscillation when the pericenter distance is small, but are typically observed at much lower eccentricities. We show that the steady-state eccentricity distribution of the warm Jupiters migrating by this mechanism is approximately flat, which is consistent with the observed distribution if and only if we restrict the sample to warm Jupiters that have outer companions detected by radial-velocity surveys. The eccentricity distribution of warm Jupiters without companions exhibits a peak at low eccentricities ($e\\lesssim 0.2$) that must be explained by a di...

  8. Strong tidal dissipation in Io and Jupiter from astrometric observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainey, Valéry; Arlot, Jean-Eudes; Karatekin, Ozgür; Van Hoolst, Tim

    2009-06-18

    Io is the volcanically most active body in the Solar System and has a large surface heat flux. The geological activity is thought to be the result of tides raised by Jupiter, but it is not known whether the current tidal heat production is sufficiently high to generate the observed surface heat flow. Io's tidal heat comes from the orbital energy of the Io-Jupiter system (resulting in orbital acceleration), whereas dissipation of energy in Jupiter causes Io's orbital motion to decelerate. Here we report a determination of the tidal dissipation in Io and Jupiter through its effect on the orbital motions of the Galilean moons. Our results show that the rate of internal energy dissipation in Io (k(2)/Q = 0.015 +/- 0.003, where k(2) is the Love number and Q is the quality factor) is in good agreement with the observed surface heat flow, and suggest that Io is close to thermal equilibrium. Dissipation in Jupiter (k(2)/Q = (1.102 +/- 0.203) x 10(-5)) is close to the upper bound of its average value expected from the long-term evolution of the system, and dissipation in extrasolar planets may be higher than presently assumed. The measured secular accelerations indicate that Io is evolving inwards, towards Jupiter, and that the three innermost Galilean moons (Io, Europa and Ganymede) are evolving out of the exact Laplace resonance.

  9. Shoemaker-Levy 9/JUPITER Collision Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-01

    There are many signs that the upcoming collision between comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 and giant planet Jupiter is beginning to catch the imagination of the public. Numerous reports in the various media describe the effects expected during this unique event which according to the latest calculations will start in the evening of July 16 and end in the morning of July 22, 1994. (The times in this Press Release are given in Central European Summer Time (CEST), i.e., Universal Time (UT) + 2 hours. The corresponding local time in Chile is CEST - 6 hours.) Astronomers all over the world are now preparing to observe the associated phenomena with virtually all major telescopes. There will be no less than 12 different investigations at the ESO La Silla observatory during this period. This Press Release updates the information published in ESO PR 02/94 (27 January 1994) and provides details about the special services which will be provided by ESO to the media around this rare astronomical event. SCIENTIFIC EXPECTATIONS The nucleus of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 broke into many smaller pieces during a near passage of Jupiter in July 1992. They are now moving in parallel orbits around this planet and recent calculations show with close to 100 % certainty that they will all collide with it, just two months from now. At some time, more than 20 individual nuclei were observed. This Press Release is accompanied by a photo that shows this formation, the famous "string of pearls", as it looked like in early May 1994. Both Jupiter and these nuclei have been extensively observed during the past months. A large, coordinated observing programme at La Silla has been active since early April and the first results have become available. However, while we now possess more accurate information about the comet's motion and the times of impact, there is still great uncertainty about the effects which may actually be observed at the time of the impacts. This is first of all due to the fact that it has not

  10. Temperature Swings in a Hot Jupiter's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-04-01

    Weather variations in the atmosphere of a planet on a highly eccentric orbit are naturally expected to be extreme. Now, a study has directly measured the wild changes in the atmosphere of a highly eccentric hot Jupiter as it passes close to its host star.Diagram of the HD 80606 system. The inset images labeled AH show the temperature distribution of the planet at different stages as it swings around its star. [de Wit et al. 2016]Eccentric OpportunityFor a hot Jupiter a gas giant that orbits close to its host star the exoplanet HD 80606 b exhibits a fairly unusual path. Rather than having a circularized orbit, HD 80606 b travels on an extremely elliptic 111-day orbit, with an eccentricity of e ~ 0.93. Since the amount of flux HD 80606 b receives from its host varies by a factor of ~850 over the course of its orbit, it stands to reason that this planet must have extreme weather swings!Now a team of scientists led by Julien de Wit (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) has reanalyzed old observations of HD 80606 and obtained new ones using the Spitzer Space Telescope. The longer observing time and new data analysis techniques allowed the team to gain new insights into how the exoplanets atmosphere responds to changes in the stellar flux it receives during its orbit.Extreme VariationsBy measuring the infrared light coming from HD 80606, de Wit and collaborators modeled the planets temperature during 80 hours of its closest approach to its host star. This period of time included the ~20 hours in which most of the planets temperature change is expected to occur, as it approaches to a distance a mere 6 stellar radii from its host.The authors find that the layer of the atmosphere probed by Spitzer heats rapidly from 500K to 1400K (thats ~440F to a scalding 2000+F!) as the planet approaches periastron.The atmosphere then cools similarly quickly as the planet heads away from the star once more.Relative infrared brightness of HD 80606 b at 4.5 and 8 m. The dip marks where

  11. Hot-Jupiter Breakfasts Realign Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-08-01

    Two researchers at the University of Chicago have recently developed a new theory to explain an apparent dichotomy in the orbits of planets around cool vs. hot stars. Their model proposes that the spins of cool stars are affected when they ingest hot Jupiters (HJs) early in their stellar lifetimes. A Puzzling Dichotomy: In exoplanet studies, there is a puzzling difference observed between planet orbits around cool and hot (those with Teff ≥ 6250 K) stars: the orbital planes of planets around cool stars are primarily aligned with the host star's spin, whereas the orbital planes of planets around hot stars seem to be randomly distributed. Previous attempts to explain this dichotomy have focused on tidal interactions between the host star and the planets observed in the system. Now Titos Matsakos and Arieh Königl have taken these models a step further — by including in their calculations not only the effects of observed planets, but also those of HJs that may have been swallowed by the star long before we observed the systems. Modeling Meals: Plots of the distribution of the obliquity λ for hot Jupiters around cool hosts (upper plot) and hot hosts (lower plot). The dashed line shows the initial distribution, the bins show the model prediction for the final distribution after the systems evolve, and the black dots show the current observational data. [Matsakos & Königl, 2015]" class="size-thumbnail wp-image-223" height="386" src="http://aasnova.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/fig22-260x386.png" width="260" /> Plots of the distribution of the obliquity λ for hot Jupiters around cool hosts (upper plot) and hot hosts (lower plot). The dashed line shows the initial distribution, the bins show the model prediction for the final distribution after the systems evolve, and the black dots show the current observational data. [Matsakos & Königl, 2015] The authors' model assumes that as HJs are formed and migrate inward through the protoplanetary disk, they stall out near

  12. Visible spectral slope survey of Jupiter Trojans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Nicolas; Rivkin, Andrew S.; Sickafoose, Amanda A.

    2016-10-01

    Jupiter's Trojans are predicted by the Nice Model [1,2] to be Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) that moved from 30+ AU to 5.2 AU during the early evolution period of the Solar System. This model, predicting giant planet migration and widespread transport of material throughout the Solar System, is however still lacking important constraints. Correlations between the composition, size, and orbital geometry of Jupiter's Trojans can provide additional information to test predicted migration and evolution models.Two main colour groups have been observed, roughly equivalent to the C (plus low-albedo X) and D classes with distinguishable spectral slopes, and one interpretation is that the two groups have different compositions [3]. Independent compositions together with hints of differing orbital inclination distributions could imply separate formation locations; therefore, determining the relative fractions of C and D asteroids at different sizes would provide a key test for Solar System dynamical models. However, there is a caveat: the distinct colour groups could also arise by other means. Regolith processes or "space weathering" such as micrometeorite impacts and UV irradiation of ice are also plausible explanations for a range of spectrographic slopes from C-like to D-like [4].Here we report on our latest survey observations at Sutherland, South Africa of approximately 50 Trojan targets using the Sutherland High Speed Optical Camera (SHOC) [5] on the 74" telescope. These observations are part of a larger multi-telescope survey to determine the spectral slopes (C-like or D-like) for multiple Trojans, focusing on those of small size. These slopes can be used to determine the relative fraction of C+X and D asteroids at different sizes to determine whether what is seen is more consistent with regolith processes or different compositions.References:[1] A. Morbidelli, et al. Nature, 435, 462-465, (2005)[2] R. Gomes, et al. Nature 435, 466-469 (2005)[3] J.P. Emery, et al. The

  13. Dormitory libraries: libraries in dormitories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pavletič

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Dormitory libries are not justly treated in Slovenia. They have a double purpose: to develop student literacy, especially reading, critical and creative competence and, moreover, to provide students with opportunities for learning and active spending of free-time. This is made possible by means of a good collection of expertly arranged library material, which is regulary updated and presented to its users, both students and tutors alike. A questionnaire has helped us to find out that libraries in secondary school dormitories carry out their work rather successfully, especially from the viewpoint of poor facilities. The major problems are, nevertheless, the appropriate qualifications of those who fill the posts of librarian and low financial resources. Therefore, such activities should be thoroughly analysed and reconsidered in terms of possible effective solutions, if we want to at least maintain them, let alone develop them.

  14. The Change in Jupiter's Moment of Inertia due to Core Erosion and Planetary Contraction

    CERN Document Server

    Helled, Ravit

    2012-01-01

    We explore the change in Jupiter's normalized axial moment of inertia (NMOI) assuming that Jupiter undergoes core erosion. It is found that Jupiter's contraction combined with an erosion of 20 M_Earth from a primordial core of 30 M_Earth can change Jupiter's NMOI over time significantly. It is shown that Jupiter's NMOI could have changed from ~0.235 to ~0.264 throughout its evolution. We find that a NMOI value of ~0.235 as suggested by dynamical models (Ward & Canup, 2006, ApJ, 640, L91) could, in principle, be consistent with Jupiter's primordial internal structure. Low NMOI values, however, persist only for the first ~ 10^6 years of Jupiter's evolution. Re-evaluation of dynamical stability models as well as more sophisticated evolution models of Jupiter with core erosion seem to be required in order to provide more robust estimates for Jupiter's primordial NMOI.

  15. Exploration of the Jovian System by EJSM (Europa Jupiter System Mission): Origin of Jupiter and Evolution of Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Sho; Fujimoto, Masaki; Takashima, Takeshi; Yano, Hajime; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Takahashi, Yukihiro; Kimura, Jun; Okada, Tatsuaki; Kawakatsu, Yasuhiro; Tsuda, Yuichi; Kawaguchi, Jun-Ichiro; Funase, Ryu; Mori, Osamu; Morimoto, Mutsuko; Ikoma, Masahiro; Naganuma, Takeshi; Yamaji, Atsushi; Hussmann, Hauke; Kurita, Kei; Working Group, Jupiter

    EJSM (Europa Jupiter System Mission) is a planned Jovian system mission with three spacecraft aiming at coordinated observations of the Jovian satellites especially Europa and the magnetosphere, atmosphere and interior of Jupiter. It was formerly called "Laplace" mission. In October 2007, it was selected as one of future ESA scientific missions Cosmic Vision (2015-2025). From the beginning, Japanese group is participating in the discussion process of the mission. JAXA will take a role on the magnetosphere spinner JMO (Jupiter Magnetosphere Orbiter). On the other hand, ESA will take charge of JGO (Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter) and NASA will be responsible for JEO (Jupiter Europa Orbiter). In February 2009, EJSM is prioritized as the first candidate of outer planet flagship mission and mission study continues in the course of Cosmic Vision. The expected launch time of EJSM will be expected in 2020. Currently we are seeking a possibility to combine JMO with a proposed solar sail mission of JAXA for Jupiter and one of Trojan asteroids.

  16. Libraries for users services in academic libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Alvite, Luisa

    2010-01-01

    This book reviews the quality and evolution of academic library services. It revises service trends offered by academic libraries and the challenge of enhancing traditional ones such as: catalogues, repositories and digital collections, learning resources centres, virtual reference services, information literacy and 2.0 tools.studies the role of the university library in the new educational environment of higher educationrethinks libraries in academic contextredefines roles for academic libraries

  17. Survival of water ice in Jupiter Trojans

    CERN Document Server

    Guilbert-Lepoutre, Aurélie

    2014-01-01

    Jupiter Trojans appear to be a key population of small bodies to study and test the models of the Solar System formation and evolution. Because understanding the evolution of Trojans can bring strong and unique constraints on the origins of our planetary system, a significant observational effort has been undertaken to unveil their physical characteristics. The data gathered so far are consistent with Trojans having volatile-rich interiors (possibly water ice) and volatile-poor surfaces (fine grained silicates). Since water ice is not thermodynamically stable against sublimation at the surface of an object located at ~5 AU, such layering seems consistent with past outgassing. In this work, we study the thermal history of Trojans after the formation of a dust mantle by possible past outgassing, so as to constrain the depth at which water ice could be stable. We find that it could have survived 100 m below the surface, even if Trojans orbited close to the Sun for ~10,000 years, as suggested by the most recent d...

  18. The magnetic fields of Jupiter and Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, N. F.

    1981-01-01

    The magnetic fields of Jupiter and Saturn and the characteristics of their magnetospheres, formed by interaction with the solar wind, are discussed. The origins of both magnetic fields are associated with a dynamo process deep in the planetary interior. The Jovian magnetosphere is analogous to that of a pulsar magnetosphere: a massive central body with a rapid rotation and an associated intense magnetic field. Its most distinctive feature is its magnetodisk of concentrated plasma and particle flux, and reduced magnetic field intensity. The magnetopause near the subsolar point has been observed at radial distances ranging over 50 to 100 Jovian radii, implying a relatively compressible obstacle to solar wind flow. The composition of an embedded current sheet within the magnetic tail is believed to be influenced by volcanic eruptions and emissions from Io. Spectral troughs of the Jovian radiation belts have been interpreted as possible ring particles. The Saturnian magnetosphere appears to be more like the earth in its topology. It is mainly characterized by a dipole axis parallel to the rotational axis of the planet and a magnetic field intensity much less than expected.

  19. Hot Super Earths: disrupted young jupiters?

    CERN Document Server

    Nayakshin, Sergei

    2011-01-01

    Recent {\\em Kepler} observations revealed an unexpected abundance of "hot" Earth-size to Neptune-size planets in the inner $0.02-0.2$ AU from their parent stars. We propose that these smaller planets are the remnants of massive giant planets that migrated inward quicker than they could contract. We show that such disruptions naturally occur in the framework of the Tidal Downsizing hypothesis for planet formation. We find that the characteristic planet-star separation at which such "hot disruptions" occur is $R \\approx 0.03-0.2$ AU. This result is independent of the planet's embryo mass but is dependent on the accretion rate in the disc. At high accretion rates, $\\dot M \\simgt 10^{-6}\\msun$ yr$^{-1}$, the embryo is unable to contract quickly enough and is disrupted. At late times, when the accretion rate drops to $\\dot M \\simlt 10^{-8} \\msun$ yr$^{-1}$, the embryos migrate sufficiently slow to not be disrupted. These "late arrivals" may explain the well known population of hot jupiters. If type I migration reg...

  20. Ground based spectroscopy of hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, Ingo

    2010-05-01

    It has been shown in recent years with great success that spectroscopy of exoplanetary atmospheres is feasible using space based observatories such as the HST and Spitzer. However, with the end of the Spitzer cold-phase, space based observations in the near to mid infra-red are limited, which will remain true until the the onset of the JWST. The importance of developing methods of ground based spectroscopic analysis of known hot Jupiters is therefore apparent. In the past, various groups have attempted exoplanetary spectroscopy using ground based facilities and various techniques. Here I will present results using a novel spectral retrieval method for near to mid infra-red emission and transmission spectra of exoplanetary atmospheres taken from the ground and discuss the feasibility of future ground-based spectroscopy in a broader context. My recently commenced PhD project is under the supervision of Giovanna Tinetti (University College London) and in collaboration with J. P. Beaulieu (Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris), Mark Swain and Pieter Deroo (Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Caltech).

  1. International Cancer Proteogenome Consortium | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The International Cancer Proteogenome Consortium (ICPC), is a voluntary scientific organization that provides a forum for collaboration among some of the world's leading cancer and proteogenomic research centers.

  2. Latest Developments of the Isprs Student Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detchev, I.; Kanjir, U.; Reyes, S. R.; Miyazaki, H.; Aktas, A. F.

    2016-06-01

    The International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ISPRS) Student Consortium (SC) is a network for young professionals studying or working within the fields of photogrammetry, remote sensing, Geographical Information Systems (GIS), and other related geo-spatial sciences. The main goal of the network is to provide means for information exchange for its young members and thus help promote and integrate youth into the ISPRS. Over the past four years the Student Consortium has successfully continued to fulfil its mission in both formal and informal ways. The formal means of communication of the SC are its website, newsletter, e-mail announcements and summer schools, while its informal ones are multiple social media outlets and various social activities during student related events. The newsletter is published every three to four months and provides both technical and experiential content relevant for the young people in the ISPRS. The SC has been in charge or at least has helped with organizing one or more summer schools every year. The organization's e-mail list has over 1,100 subscribers, its website hosts over 1,300 members from 100 countries across the entire globe, and its public Facebook group currently has over 4,500 joined visitors, who connect among one another and share information relevant for their professional careers. These numbers show that the Student Consortium has grown into a significant online-united community. The paper will present the organization's on-going and past activities for the last four years, its current priorities and a strategic plan and aspirations for the future four-year period.

  3. Science Meets Literacy and Art at the Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaConte, K. M.; Shipp, S. S.; Halligan, E.

    2011-12-01

    The Lunar and Planetary Institute's Explore! program is designed to engage and inspire children in Earth and space science in the library and other informal learning environments. Eight online thematic Explore! modules make up-to-date science accessible to rural communities - often where the library is the closest center of public learning - and other underserved audiences. The program prepares librarians to engage their communities in science through experiences with the modules, interactions with scientists, exploration of the resources available within the library learning environment, and development of local partnerships. Through hands-on science activities, art, and reading, Explore! reaches library patrons between the ages of 8 and 13 through librarian-led, locally facilitated programs across the nation. For example, NASA Lunar Science Institute research into lunar formation, evolution, and orbital dynamics are woven into a comic book that serves as a journal and art piece for participants in Marvel Moon programs (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/explore/marvelMoon). In another example, children compare cloud types and atmospheric structure on Earth and Jupiter, and then they consider artwork of Jupiter's clouds and the future discoveries of NASA's upcoming Juno mission as they write "Jovian Poetry" (http://www.lpi.usra.edu/explore/solar_system/activities/weatherStations). Explore! program facilitators are provided resources for making use of children's science books and local professional scientists and engineers.

  4. Car-2-Car Communication Consortium - Manifesto

    OpenAIRE

    Baldessari, Roberto; Bödekker, Bert; Deegener, Matthias; Festag, Andreas; Franz, Walter; Kellum, C. Christopher; Kosch, Timo; Kovacs, Andras; Lenardi, Massimiliano; Menig, Cornelius; Peichl, Timo; Röckl, Matthias; Seeberger, Dieter; Straßberger, Markus; Stratil, Hannes

    2007-01-01

    This document summarizes and describes the main building blocks of the Car2X Communication System as it is pursued by the Car2Car Communication Consortium (C2C-CC). “Car2X” means interactions among cars, between cars and infrastructures, and viceversa. It provides interested readers with an introduction to Car2X communications. It is intended to be a living document which will be complemented according to the progress of the work of the C2C-CC. One main objective of this document is to give i...

  5. University Research Consortium annual review meeting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This brochure presents the program for the first annual review meeting of the University Research Consortium (URC) of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). INEL is a multiprogram laboratory with a distinctive role in applied engineering. It also conducts basic science research and development, and complex facility operations. The URC program consists of a portfolio of research projects funded by INEL and conducted at universities in the United States. In this program, summaries and participant lists for each project are presented as received from the principal investigators.

  6. Midwest Superconductivity Consortium: 1994 Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The mission of the Midwest Superconductivity Consortium, MISCON, is to advance the science and understanding of high {Tc} superconductivity. During the past year, 27 projects produced over 123 talks and 139 publications. Group activities and interactions involved 2 MISCON group meetings (held in August and January); with the second MISCON Workshop held in August; 13 external speakers; 79 collaborations (with universities, industry, Federal laboratories, and foreign research centers); and 48 exchanges of samples and/or measurements. Research achievements this past year focused on understanding the effects of processing phenomena on structure-property interrelationships and the fundamental nature of transport properties in high-temperature superconductors.

  7. Return to Europa: Overview of the Jupiter Europa orbiter mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K.; Boldt, J.; Greeley, R.; Hand, K.; Jun, I.; Lock, R.; Pappalardo, R.; van Houten, T.; Yan, T.

    2011-08-01

    Missions to explore Europa have been imagined ever since the Voyager mission first suggested that Europa was geologically very young. Subsequently, the Galileo spacecraft supplied fascinating new insights into this satellite of Jupiter. Now, an international team is proposing a return to the Jupiter system and Europa with the Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM). Currently, NASA and ESA are designing two orbiters that would explore the Jovian system and then each would settle into orbit around one of Jupiter's icy satellites, Europa and Ganymede. In addition, the Japanese Aerospace eXploration Agency (JAXA) is considering a Jupiter magnetospheric orbiter and the Russian Space Agency is investigating a Europa lander.The Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) would be the NASA-led portion of the EJSM; JEO would address a very important subset of the complete EJSM science objectives and is designed to function alone or in conjunction with ESA's Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). The JEO mission concept uses a single orbiter flight system that would travel to Jupiter by means of a multiple-gravity-assist trajectory and then perform a multi-year study of Europa and the Jupiter system, including 30 months of Jupiter system science and a comprehensive Europa orbit phase of 9 months.The JEO mission would investigate various options for future surface landings. The JEO mission science objectives, as defined by the international EJSM Science Definition Team, include:Europa's ocean: Characterize the extent of the ocean and its relation to the deeper interior.Europa's ice shell: Characterize the ice shell and any subsurface water, including their heterogeneity, and the nature of surface-ice-ocean exchange.Europa's chemistry: Determine global surface compositions and chemistry, especially as related to habitability.Europa's geology: Understand the formation of surface features, including sites of recent or current activity, and identify and characterize candidate sites for future in situ

  8. Hubble Views Ancient Storm in the Atmosphere of Jupiter - Montage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    When 17th-century astronomers first turned their telescopes to Jupiter, they noted a conspicuous reddish spot on the giant planet. This Great Red Spot is still present in Jupiter's atmosphere, more than 300 years later. It is now known that it is a vast storm, spinning like a cyclone. Unlike a low-pressure hurricane in the Caribbean Sea, however, the Red Spot rotates in a counterclockwise direction in the southern hemisphere, showing that it is a high-pressure system. Winds inside this Jovian storm reach speeds of about 270 mph.The Red Spot is the largest known storm in the Solar System. With a diameter of 15,400 miles, it is almost twice the size of the entire Earth and one-sixth the diameter of Jupiter itself.The long lifetime of the Red Spot may be due to the fact that Jupiter is mainly a gaseous planet. It possibly has liquid layers, but lacks a solid surface, which would dissipate the storm's energy, much as happens when a hurricane makes landfall on the Earth. However, the Red Spot does change its shape, size, and color, sometimes dramatically. Such changes are demonstrated in high-resolution Wide Field and Planetary Cameras 1 & 2 images of Jupiter obtained by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, and presented here by the Hubble Heritage Project team. The mosaic presents a series of pictures of the Red Spot obtained by Hubble between 1992 and 1999 (see PIA01594 thru PIA01599 and PIA02400 thru PIA02402 for individual images).Astronomers study weather phenomena on other planets in order to gain a greater understanding of our own Earth's climate. Lacking a solid surface, Jupiter provides us with a laboratory experiment for observing weather phenomena under very different conditions than those prevailing on Earth. This knowledge can also be applied to places in the Earth's atmosphere that are over deep oceans, making them more similar to Jupiter's deep atmosphere.

  9. Bacterial diversity of a consortium degrading high-molecular-weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a two-liquid phase biosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafortune, Isabelle; Juteau, Pierre; Déziel, Eric; Lépine, François; Beaudet, Réjean; Villemur, Richard

    2009-04-01

    High-molecular-weight (HMW) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are pollutants that persist in the environment due to their low solubility in water and their sequestration by soil and sediments. Although several PAH-degrading bacterial species have been isolated, it is not expected that a single isolate would exhibit the ability to degrade completely all PAHs. A consortium composed of different microorganisms can better achieve this. Two-liquid phase (TLP) culture systems have been developed to increase the bioavailability of poorly soluble substrates for uptake and biodegradation by microorganisms. By combining a silicone oil-water TLP system with a microbial consortium capable of degrading HMW PAHs, we previously developed a highly efficient PAH-degrading system. In this report, we characterized the bacterial diversity of the consortium with a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of part of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) sequences combined with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was used to monitor the bacterial population changes during PAH degradation of the consortium when pyrene, chrysene, and benzo[a]pyrene were provided together or separately in the TLP cultures. No substantial changes in bacterial profiles occurred during biodegradation of pyrene and chrysene in these cultures. However, the addition of the low-molecular-weight PAHs phenanthrene or naphthalene in the system favored one bacterial species related to Sphingobium yanoikuyae. Eleven bacterial strains were isolated from the consortium but, interestingly, only one-IAFILS9 affiliated to Novosphingobium pentaromativorans-was capable of growing on pyrene and chrysene as sole source of carbon. A 16S rDNA library was derived from the consortium to identify noncultured bacteria. Among 86 clones screened, 20 were affiliated to different bacterial species-genera. Only three strains were represented in the screened clones. Eighty

  10. EULER - A Real Virtual Library for Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The EULER project completed its work in November 2002. It forms the last part of a very successful project in the specialized but global discipline of mathematics. After a successful RTD project had created the technology, a take-up project has effectively exploited it to the point where its future is assured through a not-for-profit consortium. EULER is a European based, world class, real virtual library for mathematics with up-to-date technological solutions, well accepted by users. In particular, EULER provides a world reference and delivery service, transparent to the end user and offering full coverage of the mathematics literature world-wide, including bibliographic data, peer reviews and/or abstracts, indexing, classification and search, transparent access to library services, co-operation with commercial information providers (publishers, bookstores). The EULER services provide a gateway to the electronic catalogues and repositories of participating institutions, while the latter retain complete respo...

  11. Marketing the Virtual Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Jody Condit

    2009-01-01

    Far more people are familiar with their local public or college library facility than their library's website and online resources. In fact, according to a recent survey, 96% of Americans said they had visited a library in person, but less than one-third have visited their online library. Since everyone agrees that online library resources are…

  12. Overview of the carbon products consortium (CPC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, C.L. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The Carbon Products Consortium (CPC) is an industry, university, government cooperative research team which has evolved over the past seven years to produce and evaluate coal-derived feedstocks for carbon products. The members of the Carbon Products Consortium are UCAR Carbon Company, Koppers Industries, CONOCO, Aluminum Company of America, AMOCO Polymers, and West Virginia University. The Carbon and Insulation Materials Technology Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Fiber Materials Inc., and BASF Corporation are affiliates of the CPC. The initial work on coal-derived nuclear graphites was supported by a grant to WVU, UCAR Carbon, and ORNL from the U.S. DOE New Production Reactor program. More recently, the CPC program has been supported through the Fossil Energy Materials program and through PETC`s Liquefaction program. The coal processing technologies involve hydrogenation, extraction by solvents such as N-methyl pyrolidone and toluene, material blending, and calcination. The breadth of carbon science expertise and manufacturing capability available in the CPC enables it to address virtually all research and development issues of importance to the carbon products industry.

  13. BIODEGRADATION OF MTBE BY A MICROORGANISM CONSORTIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alimohammadi, A. R. Mesdaghinia, M. Mahmoodi, S. Nasseri, A. H. Mahvi and J. Nouri

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Methyl Tert-Butyl Ether (MTBE is one of the ether oxygenates which its use has been increased within the last twenty years. This compound is produced from isobutylene and methanol reaction that is used as octane index enhancer and also increases dissolved oxygen in gasoline and decreases carbon monoxide emission in four phased motors because of better combustion of gasoline. High solubility in water (52 g/L, high vapor pressure (0.54 kg/cm3, low absorption to organic carbon of soil and presence of MTBE in the list of potentially-carcinogens of U.S EPA has made its use of great concern. The culture media used in this study was Mineral Salt Medium (MSM. The study lasted for 236 days and in three different concentrations of MTBE of 200, 5 and 0.8 mg/L. A control sample was also used to compare the results. This research studied the isolation methods of microbial consortium in the MTBE polluted soils in Tehran and Abadan petroleum refinery besides MTBE degradation. The results showed the capability of bacteria in consuming MTBE as carbon source. Final microbial isolation was performed with several microbial passages as well as keeping consortium in a certain amount of MTBE as the carbon source.

  14. Fermentative hydrogen production by microbial consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maintinguer, Sandra I.; Fernandes, Bruna S.; Duarte, Iolanda C.S.; Saavedra, Nora Katia; Adorno, M. Angela T.; Varesche, M. Bernadete [Department of Hydraulics and Sanitation, School of Engineering of Sao Carlos, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Trabalhador Sao-carlense, 400, 13566-590 Sao Carlos-SP (Brazil)

    2008-08-15

    Heat pre-treatment of the inoculum associated to the pH control was applied to select hydrogen-producing bacteria and endospores-forming bacteria. The source of inoculum to the heat pre-treatment was from a UASB reactor used in the slaughterhouse waste treatment. The molecular biology analyses indicated that the microbial consortium presented microorganisms affiliated with Enterobacter cloacae (97% and 98%), Clostridium sp. (98%) and Clostridium acetobutyricum (96%), recognized as H{sub 2} and volatile acids' producers. The following assays were carried out in batch reactors in order to verify the efficiencies of sucrose conversion to H{sub 2} by the microbial consortium: (1) 630.0 mg sucrose/L, (2) 1184.0 mg sucrose/L, (3) 1816.0 mg sucrose/L and (4) 4128.0 mg sucrose/L. The subsequent yields were obtained as follows: 15% (1.2 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose), 20% (1.6 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose), 15% (1.2 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose) and 4% (0.3 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose), respectively. The intermediary products were acetic acid, butyric acid, methanol and ethanol in all of the anaerobic reactors. (author)

  15. The NIH Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M. Ainsztein

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Extracellular RNA (exRNA Communication Consortium, funded as an initiative of the NIH Common Fund, represents a consortium of investigators assembled to address the critical issues in the exRNA research arena. The overarching goal is to generate a multi-component community resource for sharing fundamental scientific discoveries, protocols, and innovative tools and technologies. The key initiatives include (a generating a reference catalogue of exRNAs present in body fluids of normal healthy individuals that would facilitate disease diagnosis and therapies, (b defining the fundamental principles of exRNA biogenesis, distribution, uptake, and function, as well as development of molecular tools, technologies, and imaging modalities to enable these studies, (c identifying exRNA biomarkers of disease, (d demonstrating clinical utility of exRNAs as therapeutic agents and developing scalable technologies required for these studies, and (e developing a community resource, the exRNA Atlas, to provide the scientific community access to exRNA data, standardized exRNA protocols, and other useful tools and technologies generated by funded investigators.

  16. Library Services Alliance of New Mexico. 1994 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    The Library Services Alliance is a unique multi-type library consortium committed to resource sharing. As a voluntary association of university and governmental laboratory libraries supporting scientific research, the Alliance has become a leader in New Mexico in using cooperative ventures to cost-effectively expand resources supporting their scientific and technical communities. During 1994, the alliance continued to expand on their strategic planning foundation to enhance access to research information for the scientific and technical communities. Significant progress was made in facilitating easy access to the on-line catalogs of member libraries via connections through the Internet. Access to Alliance resources is now available via the World Wide Web and Gopher, as well as links to other databases and electronic information. This report highlights the accomplishments of the Alliance during calendar year 1994.

  17. Imaging Jupiter Radiation Belts At Low Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, J. N.; de Pater, I.; Zarka, P.; Santos-Costa, D.; Sault, R.; Hess, S.; Cecconi, B.; Fender, R.; Pewg, Lofar

    2014-04-01

    The ultra-relativistic electrons, trapped in the inner radiation belts of Jupiter, generates a strong synchrotron radio emission (historically known as the jovian decimeter radiation (DIM)) which is beamed, polarized (~20% linear, ~1% circular) and broadband. It has been extensively observed by radio telescopes/ probes and imaged by radio interferometers over a wide frequency spectrum (from >300 MHz up to 22 GHz). This extended emission presents two main emission peaks constantly located on both sides of the planet close to the magnetic plane. High latitude emissions were also regularly observed at particular frequencies, times and in particular observational configurations. This region of the magnetosphere is "frozen" due to the strong magnetic field (~4.2 G as the equator) and therefore is forced to rotate at the planetary period (T≈9h55m). Due to the tilt (~ 10o) between the spin axis of the planet and the magnetic axis (which can be seen as dipolar in first approximation), the belts and the associated radio emission wobble around the planet center. The analysis of the flux at different frequencies highlighted spatial, temporal and spectral variabilities which origins are now partly understood. The emission varies at different time scales (short-time variations of hours to long-term variation over decades) due to the combination of visibility effect (wobbling, beaming, position of the observer in the magnetic rotating reference frame) [1], [2] and intrinsic local variations (interaction between relativistic electrons and satellites/dust, delayed effect of the solar wind ram pressure, impacts events) [3], [4], [5]. A complete framework is necessary to fully understand the source, loss and transport processes of the electrons originating from outside the belt, migrating by inward diffusion and populating the inner region of the magnetosphere. Only a few and unresolved measurements were made below 300 MHz and the nonsystematic observation of this radio emission

  18. Transitions in the cloud composition of hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmentier, Vivien; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Showman, Adam; Morley, Caroline; Marley, Mark S.

    2016-10-01

    Over a large range of equilibrium temperatures, clouds shape the transmission spectrum of hot Jupiter atmospheres, yet their composition remains unknown. Recent observations show that the Kepler lightcurves of some hot Jupiters are asymmetric: for the hottest planets, the lightcurve peaks before secondary eclipse, whereas for planets cooler than 1900K, it peaks after secondary eclipse. We use the thermal structure from 3D global circulation models to determine the expected cloud distribution and Kepler lightcurves of hot Jupiters. We demonstrate that the change from an optical lightcurve dominated by thermal emission to one dominated by scattering (reflection) naturally explains the observed trend from negative to positive offset. For the cool planets the presence of an asymmetry in the Kepler lightcurve is a telltale sign of the cloud composition, because each cloud species can produce an offset only over a narrow range of effective temperatures. By comparing our models and the observations, we show that the cloud composition of hot Jupiters likely varies with equilibrium temperature. We suggest that a transition occurs between silicate and manganese sulfide clouds at a temperature near 1600K, analogous to the L/T transition on brown dwarfs. The cold trapping of cloud species below the photosphere naturally produces such a transition and predicts similar transitions for other condensates, including TiO. We predict that most hot Jupiters should have cloudy nightsides, that partial cloudiness should be common at the limb and that the dayside hot spot should often be cloud-free.

  19. XMM-Newton X-Ray Observation of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, J. Hunter

    2005-01-01

    Soft X-ray emission has been observed from the disk of both Jupiter and Saturn as well as from the auroral regions of these planets. The low-latitude disk emission as observed by ROSAT, the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, and XMM-Newton appears to be uniformly distributed across the disk and to be correlated with solar activity. These characteristics suggest that the disk x-rays are produced by: (1) the elastic scattering of solar X-rays by atmospheric neutrals and (2) the absorption of solar X-rays in the carbon K-shell followed by fluorescent emission. The carbon atoms are found in methane molecules located below the homopause. In this paper we present the results of calculations of the scattering albedo for soft x-rays. We also show the calculated x-ray intensity for a range of atmospheric abundances for Jupiter and Saturn and for a number of solar irradiance spectra. The model calculations are compared with recent x-ray observations of Jupiter and Saturn. We conclude that the emission of soft x-rays from the disks of Jupiter and Saturn can be largely explained by the scattering and fluorescence of soft x-rays. We suggest that measured x-ray intensities from the disk regions of Jupiter

  20. The mass disruption of Jupiter Family comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, Michael J. S.

    2015-01-01

    I show that the size-distribution of small scattered-disk trans-neptunian objects when derived from the observed size-distribution of Jupiter Family comets (JFCs) and other observational constraints implies that a large percentage (94-97%) of newly arrived active comets within a range of 0.2-15.4 km effective radius must physically disrupt, i.e., macroscopically disintegrate, within their median dynamical lifetime. Additional observational constraints include the numbers of dormant and active nuclei in the near-Earth object (NEO) population and the slope of their size distributions. I show that the cumulative power-law slope (-2.86 to -3.15) of the scattered-disk TNO hot population between 0.2 and 15.4 km effective radius is only weakly dependent on the size-dependence of the otherwise unknown disruption mechanism. Evidently, as JFC nuclei from the scattered disk evolve into the inner Solar System only a fraction achieve dormancy while the vast majority of small nuclei (e.g., primarily those with effective radius Morbidelli, A., Dones, L., Jedicke, R., Wiegert, P.A., Bottke Jr., W.F. [2002]. Science 296, 2212-2215) suggesting that all types of comet nuclei may have similar structural characteristics even though they may have different source regions and thermal histories. The typical disruption rate for a 1 km radius active nucleus is ∼5 × 10-5 disruptions/year and the dormancy rate is typically 3 times less. We also estimate that average fragmentation rates range from 0.01 to 0.04 events/year/comet, somewhat above the lower limit of 0.01 events/year/comet observed by Chen and Jewitt (Chen, J., Jewitt, D.C. [1994]. Icarus 108, 265-271).

  1. Limits to Determining the Core of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, David J.

    2016-10-01

    Simple, approximate models based on perturbations of the n=1 polytrope are used to identify some general properties of models for nearly-isentropic Jupiter-like planets where the total heavy element mass fraction is small. In these models, it is found that the radius is remarkably insensitive to the distribution of heavy elements and is effectively a measure of total heavy element enrichment (sum of core and envelope). The gravity harmonic J2 and the normalized moment of inertia α=I/MR2 are almost entirely determined by the density structure outside the core, and this depends on the reduced core mass, defined to be the actual core mass minus the mass of hydrogen and helium that would occupy that region in the absence of the core. The actual core mass or its radius or composition cannot be well determined, even when there is perfect knowledge of the equation of state, thermal state and envelope enrichment by heavy elements. The central concentration of heavy elements is approximately determined, even when the actual core is more massive and contaminated with hydrogen and helium by mixing or erosion (double diffusive convection). At fixed J2, the dependence of α on core structure is very small, and only exceeds the likely detection limit ~0.1-0.2% for very extended cores. Even though these results are obtained for a simple model, it is argued that they are semi-quantitatively applicable to realistic models. A perturbation scheme is presented for testing this systematically and for assessing the consequences of perturbations to the equation of state, compositional profile and temperature structure for the trade-off between reduced core mass and envelope enrichment.

  2. Business Intelligence Infrastructure for Academic Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Zucca

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To describe the rationale for and development of MetriDoc, an information technology infrastructure that facilitates the collection, transport, and use of library activity data.Methods – With the help of the Institute for Museum and Library Services, the University of Pennsylvania Libraries have been working on creating a decision support system for library activity data. MetriDoc is a means of “lighting up” an array of data sources to build a comprehensive repository of quantitative information about services and user behavior. A data source can be a database, text file, Extensible Markup Language (XML, or any binary object that contains data and has business value. MetriDoc provides simple tools to extract useful information from various data sources; transform, resolve, and consolidate that data; and finally store them in a repository.Results – The Penn Libraries completed five reference projects to prove basic concepts of the MetriDoc framework and make available a set of applications that other institutions could test in a deployment of the MetriDoc core. These reference projects are written as configurable plugins to the core framework and can be used to parse and store EZ-Proxy log data, COUNTER data, interlibrary loan transactional data from ILLIAD, fund expenditure data from the Voyager integrated library system, and transactional data from the Relais platform, which supports the BorrowDirect and EZBorrow resource sharing consortiums. The MetriDoc framework is currently undergoing test implementations at the University of Chicago and North Carolina State University, and the Kuali-OLE project is actively considering it as the basis of an analytics module.Conclusion – If libraries decide that a business intelligence infrastructure is strategically important, deep collaboration will be essential to progress, given the costs and complexity of the challenge.

  3. ICONE: An International Consortium of Neuro Endovascular Centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, J; White, P; Kallmes, D F; Spears, J; Marotta, T; Roy, D; Guilbert, F; Weill, A; Nguyen, T; Molyneux, A J; Cloft, H; Cekirge, S; Saatci, I; Bracard, S; Meder, J F; Moret, J; Cognard, C; Qureshi, A I; Turk, A S; Berenstein, A

    2008-06-30

    The proliferation of new endovascular devices and therapeutic strategies calls for a prudentand rational evaluation of their clinical benefit. This evaluation must be done in an effective manner and in collaboration with industry. Such research initiative requires organisation a land methodological support to survive and thrive in a competitive environment. We propose the formation of an international consortium, an academic alliance committed to the pursuit of effective neurovascular therapies. Such a consortium would be dedicated to the designand execution of basic science, device developmentand clinical trials. The Consortium is owned and operated by its members. Members are international leaders in neurointerventional research and clinical practice. The Consortium brings competency, knowledge, and expertise to industry as well as to its membership across aspectrum of research initiatives such as: expedited review of clinical trials, protocol development, surveys and systematic reviews; laboratory expertise and support for research design and grant applications to public agencies. Once objectives and protocols are approved, the Consortium provides a stable network of centers capable of timely realization of clinical trials or pre clinical investigations in an optimal environment. The Consortium is a non-profit organization. The potential revenue generated from clientsponsored financial agreements will be redirected to the academic and research objectives of the organization. The Consortium wishes to work inconcert with industry, to support emerging trends in neurovascular therapeutic development. The Consortium is a realistic endeavour optimally structured to promote excellence through scientific appraisal of our treatments, and to accelerate technical progress while maximizing patients' safety and welfare.

  4. Urban Consortium Energy Task Force - Year 21 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-04-01

    The Urban Consortium Energy Task Force (UCETF), comprised of representatives of large cities and counties in the United States, is a subgroup of the Urban Consortium, an organization of the nation's largest cities and counties joined together to identify, develop and deploy innovative approaches and technological solutions to pressing urban issues.

  5. Growth behind the Mirror: The Family Therapy Consortium's Group Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendorf, Donald J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Charts the development of the Family Therapy Consortium, a group that provides supervision and continuing education in family therapy and explores the peer supervision process at work in the consortium. The focus is on individual and group development, which are seen as complementary aspects of the same growth process. (Author/NRB)

  6. International Arid Lands Consortium: A synopsis of accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter F. Ffolliott; Jeffrey O. Dawson; James T. Fisher; Itshack Moshe; Timothy E. Fulbright; W. Carter Johnson; Paul Verburg; Muhammad Shatanawi; Jim P. M. Chamie

    2003-01-01

    The International Arid Lands Consortium (IALC) was established in 1990 to promote research, education, and training activities related to the development, management, and reclamation of arid and semiarid lands in the Southwestern United States, the Middle East, and elsewhere in the world. The Consortium supports the ecological sustainability and environmentally sound...

  7. Measuring the Economic Value of the Electronic Scientific Information Services in Portuguese Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Luiza Baptista; Pires, Cesaltina Pacheco

    2011-01-01

    This article has three main objectives: i) to describe the use patterns of electronic and traditional resources in Portuguese academic libraries; ii) to estimate the value of the Portuguese electronic scientific information consortium b-on by using two alternative valuation methodologies; iii) to relate the use patterns with the valuation of b-on.…

  8. Measuring the Economic Value of the Electronic Scientific Information Services in Portuguese Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Luiza Baptista; Pires, Cesaltina Pacheco

    2011-01-01

    This article has three main objectives: i) to describe the use patterns of electronic and traditional resources in Portuguese academic libraries; ii) to estimate the value of the Portuguese electronic scientific information consortium b-on by using two alternative valuation methodologies; iii) to relate the use patterns with the valuation of b-on.…

  9. Synthesis of (Arylamido)pyrrolidinone Libraries through Ritter-Type Cascade Reactions of Dihydroxylactams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Peng; Petersen, Michael Åxman; Petersen, Rico

    2015-01-01

    diastereoselectivity. A combined one-step Ritter–hydrolysis procedure proved to be of equal efficiency. This versatile method, which was successfully used for the construction of a screening library containing 706 molecules within the European Lead Factory consortium, provides a simple way to access new compounds...

  10. Developing European Library Services in Changing Times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ayris

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to explain what academic and national libraries can do to continue to offer services and facilities at a time of economic difficulties. It identifies a number of methodologies and opportunities that are open to libraries and takes the view that it is never wise to waste a good crisis, because all threats are really opportunities in disguise. The kernel of this paper was delivered at the 10th Anniversary special EISZ Consortium Members’ Meeting on 2 December 2011, in Budapest, Hungary. It builds on an earlier talk delivered in Thessaloniki, Greece, on 14–15 November 2011 at the 20th Pan-Hellenic Academic Libraries Conference, entitled ‘Academic Libraries and Financial Crisis: Strategies for Survival’. Both these presentations are available in UCL Discovery. This article draws on themes used in both presentations, and introduces a new one on the topic of copyright reform. The article looks at the initial economic context for European research libraries and then examines ways in which libraries can tackle the threats which the current financial crisis poses. Joint procurement is one way in which libraries can achieve value for money, and the paper examines the role of JISC Collections in the UK. Innovation through collaboration and shared services are also ways in which libraries can innovate/make savings in a cost-effective way by sharing the burden of costs around the partnership. The paper gives two examples: one which is now well established, the DART-Europe portal for Open Access e-theses; and one which is in the early stages of being discussed — a cloud-based solution for true collaborative cataloguing amongst the UK’s research and national libraries. The European Research Area (ERA and the contributions that libraries can make to this infrastructure through innovative EU project funding are analysed in some detail by looking at LIBER’s EU project portfolio. Finally, change and growth can come

  11. Agricultural Libraries and Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Keith W., Ed.; Pisa, Maria G., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Eleven articles address issues relating to agricultural libraries and information, including background on agricultural libraries and information, trend management, document delivery, reference services, user needs and library services, collection development, technologies for international information management, information sources,…

  12. Italian library associations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ksenija Petaros-Kmetec

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In Italy, five library associations of national significance function at present. There are special associations of ecclesiastic libraries, prison libraries, architecture libraries and libraries with artistic material. The role of the general national association, covering all types of libraries including documentation centres, is played by the Italian Library Association. It strive for the development of a contemporary Italian library system comparable to international standards, monitors library legislation, promotes education for librarians and keeps the librarians and the broader public informed about the importance of libraries and librarianship for society. The activity and efforts of the association are reflected through their website offering much information and links to similar sites. ILA presents and realises its activities for both, the librarians and the public users. A great deal of actions promoting libraries and the Library Association might be interesting for Slovenia and perhaps transferred to our environment.

  13. Hot Jupiters Aren't As Lonely As We Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    The Friends of Hot Jupiters (FOHJ) project is a systematic search for planetary- and stellar-mass companions in systems that have known hot Jupiters short-period, gas-giant planets. This survey has discovered that many more hot Jupiters may have companions than originally believed.Missing FriendsFOHJ was begun with the goal of better understanding the systems that host hot Jupiters, in order to settle several longstanding issues.The first problem was one of observational statistics. We know that roughly half of the Sun-like stars nearby are in binary systems, yet weve only discovered a handful of hot Jupiters around binaries. Are binary systems less likely to host hot Jupiters? Or have we just missed the binary companions in the hot-Jupiter-hosting systems weve seen so far?An additional issue relates to formation mechanisms. Hot Jupiters probably migrated inward from where they formed out beyond the ice lines in protoplanetary disks but how?This median-stacked image, obtained with adaptive optics, shows one of the newly-discovered stellar companions to a star hosting a hot Jupiter. The projected separation is ~180 AU. [Ngo et al. 2015]Observations reveal two populations of hot Jupiters: those with circular orbits aligned with their hosts spins, and those with eccentric, misaligned orbits. The former population support a migration model dominated by local planet-disk interactions, whereas the latter population suggest the hot Jupiters migrated through dynamical interactions with distant companions. A careful determination of the companion rate in hot-Jupiter-hosting systems could help establish the ability of these two models to explain the observed populations.Search for CompanionsThe FOHJ project began in 2012 and studied 51 systems hosting known, transiting hot Jupiters with roughly half on circular, aligned orbits and half on eccentric, misaligned orbits. The survey consisted of three different, complementary components:Study 1Lead author: Heather Knutson

  14. The virtual atomic and molecular data centre (VAMDC) consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubernet, M. L.; Antony, B. K.; Ba, Y. A.; Babikov, Yu L.; Bartschat, K.; Boudon, V.; Braams, B. J.; Chung, H.-K.; Daniel, F.; Delahaye, F.; Del Zanna, G.; de Urquijo, J.; Dimitrijević, M. S.; Domaracka, A.; Doronin, M.; Drouin, B. J.; Endres, C. P.; Fazliev, A. Z.; Gagarin, S. V.; Gordon, I. E.; Gratier, P.; Heiter, U.; Hill, C.; Jevremović, D.; Joblin, C.; Kasprzak, A.; Krishnakumar, E.; Leto, G.; Loboda, P. A.; Louge, T.; Maclot, S.; Marinković, B. P.; Markwick, A.; Marquart, T.; Mason, H. E.; Mason, N. J.; Mendoza, C.; Mihajlov, A. A.; Millar, T. J.; Moreau, N.; Mulas, G.; Pakhomov, Yu; Palmeri, P.; Pancheshnyi, S.; Perevalov, V. I.; Piskunov, N.; Postler, J.; Quinet, P.; Quintas-Sánchez, E.; Ralchenko, Yu; Rhee, Y.-J.; Rixon, G.; Rothman, L. S.; Roueff, E.; Ryabchikova, T.; Sahal-Bréchot, S.; Scheier, P.; Schlemmer, S.; Schmitt, B.; Stempels, E.; Tashkun, S.; Tennyson, J.; Tyuterev, Vl G.; Vujčić, V.; Wakelam, V.; Walton, N. A.; Zatsarinny, O.; Zeippen, C. J.; Zwölf, C. M.

    2016-04-01

    The Virtual Atomic and Molecular Data Centre (VAMDC) Consortium is a worldwide consortium which federates atomic and molecular databases through an e-science infrastructure and an organisation to support this activity. About 90% of the inter-connected databases handle data that are used for the interpretation of astronomical spectra and for modelling in many fields of astrophysics. Recently the VAMDC Consortium has connected databases from the radiation damage and the plasma communities, as well as promoting the publication of data from Indian institutes. This paper describes how the VAMDC Consortium is organised for the optimal distribution of atomic and molecular data for scientific research. It is noted that the VAMDC Consortium strongly advocates that authors of research papers using data cite the original experimental and theoretical papers as well as the relevant databases. .

  15. The Black Rock Forest Consortium: A narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzetto-More, Nicole Antoinette

    The Black Rock Forest is a 3,785-acre wilderness area whose richly forested landscape represents the splendor of the Hudson Valley Region of New York State. Although originally intended to become the home of wealthy banker James Stillman, it was his son Ernest whose love of conservation caused him to embrace the then new and revolutionary practice of sustainable forestry and establish Black Rock in 1928. Due to Ernest Stillman's foresight, the property was protected from development and bequeathed to Harvard University following his death for the establishment of an experimental forest. The modern environmental movement in America began when the Black Rock Forest was threatened with development by Consolidated Edison, and the people of the surrounding community banded together, battling tirelessly for over 17 years to stop the degradation of this historic forest. The outcome of this crusade marked a hallmark win for the environment leaving an illustrious and inveterate legacy. The campaign resulted in the watershed legislation the National Environmental Policy Act, the formation of several environmental advocacy groups, the creation of the Council on Environmental Quality of the Executive Office of the President, as well as set a precedent for communities to initiate and win cases against major corporations in order to safeguard natural resources. In the midst of the controversy it became apparent that alternative futures for the Forest needed to be explored. As a result of a committee report and one man's vision, the idea emerged to create a consortium that would purchase and steward the Forest. With a formation that took nearly fifteen years, the Black Rock Forest Consortium was formed, a unique amalgamation of K--12 public and private schools, colleges and universities, and science and cultural centers that successfully collaborate to enhance scientific research, environmental conservation, and education. The Consortium works to bridge the gaps between learners

  16. Tilting Saturn without tilting Jupiter: Constraints on giant planet migration

    CERN Document Server

    Brasser, R

    2015-01-01

    The migration and encounter histories of the giant planets in our Solar System can be constrained by the obliquities of Jupiter and Saturn. We have performed secular simulations with imposed migration and N-body simulations with planetesimals to study the expected obliquity distribution of migrating planets with initial conditions resembling those of the smooth migration model, the resonant Nice model and two models with five giant planets initially in resonance (one compact and one loose configuration). For smooth migration, the secular spin-orbit resonance mechanism can tilt Saturn's spin axis to the current obliquity if the product of the migration time scale and the orbital inclinations is sufficiently large (exceeding 30 Myr deg). For the resonant Nice model with imposed migration, it is difficult to reproduce today's obliquity values, because the compactness of the initial system raises the frequency that tilts Saturn above the spin precession frequency of Jupiter, causing a Jupiter spin-orbit resonance...

  17. Early Results from the Juno Mission at Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Scott; Juno Science Team

    2016-10-01

    The Juno mission is the second mission in NASA's New Frontiers program. Launched in August 2011, Juno arrived at Jupiter July 4, 2016. Juno science goals include the study of Jupiter's origin, interior structure, deep atmosphere, aurora and magnetosphere. Juno's orbit around Jupiter is a polar elliptical orbit with perijove approximately 5000 km above the visible cloud tops. The payload consists of a set of microwave antennas for deep sounding, magnetometers, gravity radio science, low and high energy charged particle detectors, electric and magnetic field radio and plasma wave experiment, ultraviolet imaging spectrograph, infrared imager and a visible camera. Early results from the mission will be presented as well as an overview of planned observations.

  18. Processing tools refinement for the JIRAM arrival to Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriconi, Maria L.; Noschese, R.; Adriani, A.

    2017-05-01

    The JUNO mission, launched on August 2011 with the goal of investigating the origin and evolution of Jupiter, reached Jupiter in July 2016. The months preceding the JUNO orbit insertion have been crucial for all the instrument teams to check the status and working abilities of the respective experiments. JIRAM (Jupiter Infrared Auroral Mapper), with its imager and slit spectrometer operating over the 2-5μm spectral range will attempt to reveal the deep atmospheric composition -3 to 7 bars- in hot spots, to analyze the infrared auroral emissions of the H3 + molecules ionized by the Jovian magnetosphere currents and to detect the morphology and vertical structure of the clouds. Many different processing tools are in preparation to exploit the incoming JIRAM data. Here some results pertaining to the image quality optimization and the visualizations that can be obtained from the spectrometer data management are reported.

  19. Atmospheric Circulation of Hot Jupiters: Dayside-Nightside Temperature Differences

    CERN Document Server

    Komacek, Thaddeus D

    2016-01-01

    The full-phase infrared light curves of low-eccentricity hot Jupiters show a trend of increasing dayside-to-nightside brightness temperature difference with increasing equilibrium temperature. Here we present a three-dimensional model that explains this relationship, in order to shed insight on the processes that control heat redistribution in tidally-locked planetary atmospheres. This three-dimensional model combines predictive analytic theory for the atmospheric circulation and dayside-nightside temperature differences over a range of equilibrium temperature, atmospheric composition, and potential frictional drag strengths with numerical solutions of the circulation that verify this analytic theory. This analytic theory shows that the longitudinal propagation of waves mediates dayside-nightside temperature differences in hot Jupiter atmospheres, analogous to the wave adjustment mechanism that regulates the thermal structure in Earth's tropics. These waves can be damped in hot Jupiter atmospheres by either r...

  20. In Situ Formation and Dynamical Evolution of Hot Jupiter Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batygin, Konstantin; Bodenheimer, Peter H.; Laughlin, Gregory P.

    2016-10-01

    Hot Jupiters, giant extrasolar planets with orbital periods shorter than ˜10 days, have long been thought to form at large radial distances, only to subsequently experience long-range inward migration. Here, we offer the contrasting view that a substantial fraction of the hot Jupiter population formed in situ via the core-accretion process. We show that under conditions appropriate to the inner regions of protoplanetary disks, rapid gas accretion can be initiated by super-Earth-type planets, comprising 10-20 Earth masses of refractory material. An in situ formation scenario leads to testable consequences, including the expectation that hot Jupiters should frequently be accompanied by additional low-mass planets with periods shorter than ˜100 days. Our calculations further demonstrate that dynamical interactions during the early stages of planetary systems’ lifetimes should increase the inclinations of such companions, rendering transits rare. High-precision radial velocity monitoring provides the best prospect for their detection.

  1. Ohmic Dissipation in the Atmospheres of Hot Jupiters

    CERN Document Server

    Perna, Rosalba; Rauscher, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Hot Jupiter atmospheres exhibit fast, weakly-ionized winds. The interaction of these winds with the planetary magnetic field generates drag on the winds and leads to ohmic dissipation of the induced electric currents. We study the magnitude of ohmic dissipation in representative, three-dimensional atmospheric circulation models of the hot Jupiter HD 209458b. We find that ohmic dissipation can reach or exceed 1% of the stellar insolation power in the deepest atmospheric layers, in models with and without dragged winds. Such power, dissipated in the deep atmosphere, appears sufficient to slow down planetary contraction and explain the typically inflated radii of hot Jupiters. This atmospheric scenario does not require a top insulating layer or radial currents that penetrate deep in the planetary interior. Circulation in the deepest atmospheric layers may actually be driven by spatially non-uniform ohmic dissipation. A consistent treatment of magnetic drag and ohmic dissipation is required to further elucidate t...

  2. Formation of Jets and Equatorial Superrotation on Jupiter

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Tapio

    2008-01-01

    The zonal flow in Jupiter's upper troposphere is organized into alternating retrograde and prograde jets, with a prograde (superrotating) jet at the equator. Existing models posit as the driver of the flow either differential radiative heating of the atmosphere or intrinsic heat fluxes emanating from the deep interior; however, they do not reproduce all large-scale features of Jupiter's jets and thermal structure. Here it is shown that the difficulties in accounting for Jupiter's jets and thermal structure resolve if the effects of differential radiative heating and intrinsic heat fluxes are considered together, and if upper-tropospheric dynamics are linked to a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) drag that acts deep in the atmosphere. Baroclinic eddies generated by differential radiative heating can account for the off-equatorial jets; meridionally propagating equatorial Rossby waves generated by intrinsic convective heat fluxes can account for the equatorial superrotation. The zonal flow extends deeply into the atmos...

  3. In Situ Formation and Dynamical Evolution of Hot Jupiter Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Batygin, Konstantin; Laughlin, Gregory P

    2015-01-01

    Hot Jupiters, giant extrasolar planets with orbital periods shorter than ~10 days, have long been thought to form at large radial distances, only to subsequently experience long-range inward migration. Here, we propose that in contrast with this picture, a substantial fraction of the hot Jupiter population formed in situ via the core accretion process. We show that under conditions appropriate to the inner regions of protoplanetary disks, rapid gas accretion can be initiated by Super-Earth type planets, comprising 10-20 Earth masses of refractory composition material. An in situ formation scenario leads to testable consequences, including the expectation that hot Jupiters should frequently be accompanied by additional low-mass planets with periods shorter than ~100 days. Our calculations further demonstrate that dynamical interactions during the early stages of planetary systems' lifetimes should increase the inclinations of such companions, rendering transits rare. High-precision radial velocity monitoring p...

  4. Galileo's first images of Jupiter and the Galilean satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, M.J.S.; Head, J. W.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Greeley, R.; McEwen, A.S.; Klaasen, K.P.; Senske, D.; Pappalardo, R.; Collins, G.; Vasavada, A.R.; Sullivan, R.; Simonelli, D.; Geissler, P.; Carr, M.H.; Davies, M.E.; Veverka, J.; Gierasch, P.J.; Banfield, D.; Bell, M.; Chapman, C.R.; Anger, C.; Greenberg, R.; Neukum, G.; Pilcher, C.B.; Beebe, R.F.; Burns, J.A.; Fanale, F.; Ip, W.; Johnson, T.V.; Morrison, D.; Moore, J.; Orton, G.S.; Thomas, P.; West, R.A.

    1996-01-01

    The first images of Jupiter, Io, Europa, and Ganymede from the Galileo spacecraft reveal new information about Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) and the surfaces of the Galilean satellites. Features similar to clusters of thunderstorms were found in the GRS. Nearby wave structures suggest that the GRS may be a shallow atmospheric feature. Changes in surface color and plume distribution indicate differences in resurfacing processes near hot spots on lo. Patchy emissions were seen while Io was in eclipse by Jupiter. The outer margins of prominent linear markings (triple bands) on Europa are diffuse, suggesting that material has been vented from fractures. Numerous small circular craters indicate localized areas of relatively old surface. Pervasive brittle deformation of an ice layer appears to have formed grooves on Ganymede. Dark terrain unexpectedly shows distinctive albedo variations to the limit of resolution.

  5. A transition in the composition of clouds in hot Jupiters

    CERN Document Server

    Parmentier, Vivien; Showman, Adam P; Morley, Caroline V; Marley, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    Over a large range of equilibrium temperatures, clouds shape the transmission spectrum of hot Jupiter atmospheres, yet their composition remains unknown. Recent observations show that the \\emph{Kepler} lightcurves of some hot Jupiters are asymmetric: for the hottest planets, the lightcurve peaks before secondary eclipse, whereas for planets cooler than $\\sim1900\\,\\rm K$, it peaks after secondary eclipse. In this paper we use the thermal structure from 3D global circulation models to determine the expected cloud distribution and \\emph{Kepler} lightcurves of hot Jupiters. We demonstrate that the change from a visible lightcurve dominated by thermal emission to one dominated by scattering (reflection) naturally explains the observed trend from negative to positive offset. For the cool planets the presence of an asymmetry in the \\emph{Kepler} lightcurve is a telltale sign of the cloud composition, because each cloud species can produce an offset only over a narrow range of effective temperatures. Silicate clouds ...

  6. Atmospheric Circulation on Hot Jupiters: Modeling and Observable Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Emily Christine

    2010-12-01

    Hot Jupiters are unlike any planets in our Solar System and yet one of the most common types of extrasolar planet discovered. These gas giants orbit their parent stars with periods of a few days. Expected to be tidally locked into synchronous rotation, hot Jupiters experience intense, asymmetric heating from stellar irradiation, such that day-night temperature contrasts could reach hundreds of degrees Kelvin. This unique state of radiative forcing, as well as the slow rotation rates of these planets, places hot Jupiters within a new regime of atmospheric circulation. Hot Jupiters have also been the first type of extrasolar planet with direct detections of their atmospheres, through measurements of emitted, reflected, and transmitted light. This thesis investigates observational methods to distinguish between various atmospheric models, observational signatures of potential atmospheric variability, and presents a three dimensional model with which to study hot Jupiter circulation patterns. First, we find that eclipse mapping is a technique that can be used to image the day sides of these planets and although this is beyond the ability of current instruments, it will be achievable with future missions, such as the James Webb Space Telescope. Second, we consider the signatures of large-scale atmospheric variability in measurements of secondary eclipses and thermal orbital phase curves. For various models we predict the amount of variation in eclipse depth, and the amplitudes and detailed shapes of phase curves. Lastly, we develop a three-dimensional model of hot Jupiter atmospheric dynamics with simplified forcing and adopt a set-up nearly identical to work by another group to facilitate code inter-comparison. Our results are broadly consistent with theirs, with a transonic flow and the hottest region of the atmosphere advected eastward of the substellar point. However, we note important differences and identify areas of concern for future modeling efforts.

  7. Measuring Jupiter's water abundance by Juno: the link between interior and formation models

    CERN Document Server

    Helled, Ravit

    2014-01-01

    The JUNO mission to Jupiter is planned to measure the water abundance in Jupiter's atmosphere below the cloud layer. This measurement is important because it can be used to reveal valuable information on Jupiter's origin and its composition. In this paper we discuss the importance of this measurement, the challenges in its interpretation, and address how it can be connected to interior and formation models of Jupiter.

  8. Midwest Superconductivity Consortium: 1995 Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The mission of the Midwest Superconductivity Consortium, MISCON, is to advance the science and understanding of high Tc superconductivity. During the past year, 26 projects produced over 133 talks and 127 publications. Three Master`s Degrees and 9 Doctor`s of Philosophy Degrees were granted to students working on MISCON projects. Group activities and interactions involved 2 MISCON group meetings (held in January and July); the third MISCON Summer School held in July; 12 external speakers; 81 collaborations (with universities, industry, Federal laboratories, and foreign research centers); and 54 exchanges of samples and/or measurements. Research achievements this past year focused on understanding the effects of processing phenomena on structure-property interrelationships and the fundamental nature of transport properties in high-temp superconductors.

  9. A consortium approach to glass furnace modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.-L.; Golchert, B.; Petrick, M.

    1999-04-20

    Using computational fluid dynamics to model a glass furnace is a difficult task for any one glass company, laboratory, or university to accomplish. The task of building a computational model of the furnace requires knowledge and experience in modeling two dissimilar regimes (the combustion space and the liquid glass bath), along with the skill necessary to couple these two regimes. Also, a detailed set of experimental data is needed in order to evaluate the output of the code to ensure that the code is providing proper results. Since all these diverse skills are not present in any one research institution, a consortium was formed between Argonne National Laboratory, Purdue University, Mississippi State University, and five glass companies in order to marshal these skills into one three-year program. The objective of this program is to develop a fully coupled, validated simulation of a glass melting furnace that may be used by industry to optimize the performance of existing furnaces.

  10. Midwest Superconductivity Consortium. Progress report, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bement, A.L. Jr.

    1993-01-01

    Mission of the Midwest Superconductivity Consortium, MISCON, is to advance the science and understanding of high Tc superconductivity. Programmatic research focuses upon key materials-related problems; principally, synthesis and processing and properties limiting transport phenomena. During the past year, 26 projects produced over 133 talks and 113 publications. publications. Two Master`s Degrees and one Ph.D. were granted to students working on MISCON projects. Group activities and interactions involved two MISCON group meetings (held in July and January), twenty external speakers, 36 collaborations, 10 exchanges of samples and/or measurements, and one (1) gift of equipment from industry. Research achievements this past year expanded our understanding of processing phenomena on structure property interrelationships and the fundamental nature of transport properties in high-temperature superconductors.

  11. Consortium sandbox: building and sharing resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mark D

    2014-06-25

    Some common challenges of biomedical product translation-scientific, regulatory, adoption, and reimbursement-can best be addressed by the broad sharing of resources or tools. But, such aids remain undeveloped because the undertaking requires expertise from multiple research sectors as well as validation across organizations. Biomedical resource development can benefit from directed consortia-a partnership framework that provides neutral and temporary collaborative environments for several, oftentimes competing, organizations and leverages the aggregated intellect and resources of stakeholders so as to create versatile solutions. By analyzing 369 biomedical research consortia, we tracked consortia growth around the world and gained insight into how this partnership model advances biomedical research. Our analyses suggest that research-by-consortium provides benefit to biomedical science, but the model needs further optimization before it can be fully integrated into the biomedical research pipeline.

  12. Launch Period Development for the Juno Mission to Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalkowski, Theresa D.; Johannesen, Jennie R.; Lam, Try

    2008-01-01

    The Juno mission to Jupiter is targeted to launch in 2011 and would reach the giant planet about five years later. The interplanetary trajectory is planned to include two large deep space maneuvers and an Earth gravity assist a little more than two years after launch. In this paper, we describe the development of a 21-day launch period for Juno with the objective of keeping overall launch energy and delta-V low while meeting constraints imposed on Earth departure, the deep space maneuvers' timing and geometry, and Jupiter arrival.

  13. Recent Simulations of the Late Stages Growth of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; D'Angelo, Gennaro; Hubickyj, Olenka

    2012-01-01

    Presented by Lissauer et al. (2009, Icarus 199, 338) are used to test the model of capture of Jupiter's irregular satellites within proto-Jupiter's distended and thermally-supported envelope. We find such capture highly unlikely, since the envelope shrinks too slowly for a large number of moons to be retained, and many of those that would be retained would orbit closer to the planet than do the observed Jovian irregulars. Our calculations do not address (and therefore do not exclude) the possibility that the irregular satellites were captured as a result of gas drag within a circumjovian disk. Support for this research from NASA Outer Planets Research Program is gratefully acknowledged.

  14. THE JOINT ESA-NASA EUROPA JUPITER SYSTEM MISSION (EJSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebreton, J.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Blanc, M.; Bunce, E. J.; Dougherty, M. K.; Erd, C.; Grasset, O.; Greeley, R.; Johnson, T. V.; Clark, K. B.; Prockter, L. M.; Senske, D. A.

    2009-12-01

    The joint "Europa Jupiter System Mission" (EJSM) is an international mission under study in collaboration between NASA and ESA. Its goal is to study Jupiter and its magnetosphere, the diversity of the Galilean satellites, the physical characteristics, composition and geology of their surfaces. Europa and Ganymede are two primary targets of the mission. The reference mission architecture consists of the NASA-led Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) and the ESA-led Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO). The two primary goals of the mission are i) to determine whether the Jupiter system harbors habitable worlds and ii) to characterize the processes within the Jupiter system. The science objectives addressing the first goal are to: i) characterize and determine the extent of subsurface oceans and their relations to the deeper interior, ii) characterize the ice shells and any subsurface water, including the heterogeneity of the ice, and the nature of surface-ice-ocean exchange; iii) characterize the deep internal structure, differentiation history, and (for Ganymede) the intrinsic magnetic field; iv) compare the exospheres, plasma environments, and magnetospheric interactions; v) determine global surface composition and chemistry, especially as related to habitability; vi) understand the formation of surface features, including sites of recent or current activity, and identify and characterize candidate sites for future in situ exploration. The science objectives for addressing the second goal are to: i) understand the Jovian satellite system, especially as context for Europa and Ganymede; ii) evaluate the structure and dynamics of the Jovian atmosphere; iii) characterize processes of the Jovian magnetodisk/magnetosphere; iv) determine the interactions occurring in the Jovian system; and v) constrain models for the origin of the Jupiter system. Both spacecraft would carry a complement of 11-12 instruments launch separately in 2020 and use a Venus-Earth-Earth Gravity Assist (VEEGA

  15. The EJSM Jupiter-Europa Orbiter: Science Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, R. T.; Blanc, M.; Clark, K.; Greeley, R.; Hendrix, A. R.; Lebreton, J.-P.

    2008-09-01

    Europa is believed to shelter an ocean between its geodynamically active icy shell and its rocky mantle, where the conditions for habitability may be fulfilled. With a warm, salty, water ocean and plausible chemical energy sources, Europa is the astrobiological archetype for icy satellite habitability. It is also a geophysical wonderland of interrelated ice shell processes that are intimately related to the ocean and tides, and of complex interactions among its interior, surface, atmosphere, and magnetospheric environments. The Jupiter-Europa Orbiter (JEO) is one component of the proposed multi-spacecraft Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM). We focus here on the science objectives and heritage of JEO.

  16. Launch Period Development for the Juno Mission to Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalkowski, Theresa D.; Johannesen, Jennie R.; Lam, Try

    2008-01-01

    The Juno mission to Jupiter is targeted to launch in 2011 and would reach the giant planet about five years later. The interplanetary trajectory is planned to include two large deep space maneuvers and an Earth gravity assist a little more than two years after launch. In this paper, we describe the development of a 21-day launch period for Juno with the objective of keeping overall launch energy and delta-V low while meeting constraints imposed on Earth departure, the deep space maneuvers' timing and geometry, and Jupiter arrival.

  17. Ultraviolet Studies of Jupiter's Hydrocarbons and Aerosols from Galileo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladstone, G. Randall

    2001-01-01

    This is the final report for this project. The purpose of this project was to support PI Wayne Pryor's effort to reduce and analyze Galileo UVS (Ultraviolet Spectrometer) data under the JSDAP program. The spectral observations made by the Galileo UVS were to be analyzed to determine mixing ratios for important hydrocarbon species (and aerosols) in Jupiter's stratosphere as a function of location on Jupiter. Much of this work is still ongoing. To date, we have concentrated on analyzing the variability of the auroral emissions rather than the absorption signatures of hydrocarbons, although we have done some work in this area with related HST-STIS data.

  18. Unmasking Europa the search for life on Jupiter's ocean moon

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Jupiter's ice moon Europa is widely regarded as the most likely place to find extraterrestrial life. This book tells the engaging story of Europa, the oceanic moon. It features a large number of stunning images of the ocean moon's surface, clearly displaying the spectacular crack patterns, extensive rifts and ridges, and refrozen pools of exposed water filled with rafts of displaced ice. Coverage also features firsthand accounts of Galileo's mission to Jupiter and its moons. The book tells the rough and tumble inside story of a very human enterprise in science that lead to the discovery of a f

  19. Medical image libraries: ICoS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honniball, John; Thomas, Peter

    1999-08-01

    FOr use of digital techniques for the production, manipulation and storage of images has resulted in the creation of digital image libraries. These libraries often store many thousands of images. While provision of storage media for such large amounts of data has been straightforward, provision of effective searching and retrieval tools has not. Medicine relies heavily on images as a diagnostic tool. The most obvious example is the x-ray, but many other image forms are in everyday use. Advances in technology are affecting the ways medical images are generated, stored and retrieved. The paper describes the work of the Image COding and Segmentation to Support Variable Rate Transmission Channels and Variable Resolution Platforms (ICoS) research project currently under way in Bristol, UK. ICoS is a project of the Mobile of England and Hewlett-Packard Research Laboratories Europe. Funding is provided by the Engineering and PHysical Sciences Research Council. The aim of the ICoS project is to demonstrate the practical application of computer networking to medical image libraries. Work at the University of the West of England concentrates on user interface and indexing issues. Metadata is used to organize the images, coded using the WWW Consortium standard Resource Description Framework. We are investigating the application of such standards to medical images, one outcome being to implement a metadata-based image library. This paper describes the ICoS project in detail and discuses both metadata system and user interfaces in the context of medical applications.

  20. ZATPAC: a model consortium evaluates teen programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Kathryn; Murphy, Dana; Parsons, Chris

    2009-09-01

    How do we advance the environmental literacy of young people, support the next generation of environmental stewards and increase the diversity of the leadership of zoos and aquariums? We believe it is through ongoing evaluation of zoo and aquarium teen programming and have founded a consortium to pursue those goals. The Zoo and Aquarium Teen Program Assessment Consortium (ZATPAC) is an initiative by six of the nation's leading zoos and aquariums to strengthen institutional evaluation capacity, model a collaborative approach toward assessing the impact of youth programs, and bring additional rigor to evaluation efforts within the field of informal science education. Since its beginning in 2004, ZATPAC has researched, developed, pilot-tested and implemented a pre-post program survey instrument designed to assess teens' knowledge of environmental issues, skills and abilities to take conservation actions, self-efficacy in environmental actions, and engagement in environmentally responsible behaviors. Findings from this survey indicate that teens who join zoo/aquarium programs are already actively engaged in many conservation behaviors. After participating in the programs, teens showed a statistically significant increase in their reported knowledge of conservation and environmental issues and their abilities to research, explain, and find resources to take action on conservation issues of personal concern. Teens also showed statistically significant increases pre-program to post-program for various conservation behaviors, including "I talk with my family and/or friends about things they can do to help the animals or the environment," "I save water...," "I save energy...," "When I am shopping I look for recycled products," and "I help with projects that restore wildlife habitat."

  1. Temporally Varying Ethylene Emission on Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romani, Paul N.; Jennings, Donald E.; Bjoraker, Gordon L.; Sada, Pedro V.; McCabe. Geprge; Boyle, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Ethylene (C2H4) emission has been measured in the poles and equator of Jupiter. The 949 cm(sup -1) spectra were recorded with a high resolution spectrometer at the McMath-Pierce telescope at Kitt Peak in October-November 1998 and at the Infrared Telescope Facility at Mauna Kea in June 2000. C2H4 is an important product of methane chemistry in the outer planets. Knowledge of its abundance can help discriminate among the various proposed sets of CH4 photolysis branching ratios at Ly-alpha, and determine the relative importance of the reaction pathways that produce C2H2 and C2H6. In the equatorial region the C2H4 emission is weak, and we were only able to detect it at high air-mass, near the limb. We derive a peak equatorial molar abundance of C2H4 of 4.5 x 10(exp -7) - 1.7 x 10(exp -6) near 2.2 x 10(exp -3) mbar, with a total column of 5.7 x 10(exp 14) - 2.2 x 10(exp 15) molecules cm(exp -2) above 10 mbar depending upon choice of thermal profile. We observed enhanced C2H4 emission from the poles in the regions where auroras are seen in X-ray, UV, and near infrared images. In 2000 we measured a short-term change in the distribution of polar C2H4 emission; the emission in the north IR auroral "hot spot" decreased by a factor of three over a two-day interval. This transient its contribution peak at 5-10 microbar suggests that the polar e is primarily a thermal effect coupled with vertical transport. Comparing our observations from Kitt Peak and Mauna Kea shows that the C2H4 emission of the northern non-"hot spot" auroral regions did not change over the three-year period while that in the southern polar regions decreased.

  2. Surface Irradiation of Jupiter's Moon Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, M.; Tenishev, V.; Combi, M. R.; Jia, X.; Hansen, K. C.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2010-12-01

    Jupiter’s moon Europa has a complex and tightly coupled interaction with the Jovian magnetosphere. Neutral gas of the moon’s exosphere is ionized and picked up by the corotating plasma that sweeps past Europa at a relative velocity of almost 100 km/s. This pick-up process alters the magnetic and electric field topology around Europa, which in turn affects the trajectories of the pick-up ions as well as the thermal and hot magnetospheric ions that hit the moon’s icy surface. In turn these surface-impinging ions are the responsible source for the sputtered neutral atmosphere, which itself is again crucial for the exospheric mass loading of the surrounding plasma. We use the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model BATSRUS to model the interaction of Europa with the Jovian magnetosphere. The model accounts for the exospheric mass loading, ion-neutral charge exchange, and ion-electron recombination [Kabin et al. (J. Geophys. Res., 104, A9, 19,983-19,992, 1999)]. The derived magnetic and electric fields are then used in our Test Particle Monte Carlo (TPMC) model to integrate individual particle trajectories under the influence of the Lorentz force. We take the measurements performed by Galileo’s Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) [Williams et al. (Sp. Sci. Rev. 60, 385-412, 1992) and Cooper et al. (Icarus 149, 133-159, 2001)] and the Plasma Analyzer (PLS) [Paterson et al. (J. Geophys. Res., 104, A10, 22,779-22,791, 1999)] as boundary conditions. Using a Monte Carlo technique allows to individually track ions in a wide energy range and to individually calculate their energy deposition on the moon’s surface. The sputtering yield is a function of incident particle type, energy, and mass. We use the measurements performed by Shi et al. (J. Geophys. Res., 100, E12, 26,387-26,395, 1995) to turn the modeled impinging ion flux into a neutral gas production rate at the surface. We will show preliminary results of this work with application to the missions to the Jupiter system

  3. Making Space Travel to Jupiter Possible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Samuel P.

    2004-01-01

    From man landing on the moon to a simple satellite being launched into orbit, many incredible space accomplishments have been witnessed by us all. However, what goes un-noticed to the common man is the extensive research and testing that lasts months, years, and even decades. Much of this required research just so happens to take place in the corridors of the Glen Research Center building number 49. In the Advanced Materials division of G.R.C., a number of researchers have the responsibility of discovering which metal, ceramic, or polymer is best for a specific application. Under the guidance of mentor extraordinaire Frank Ritzert, I am involved in many critical projects dealing with refractory metals, two of which I will mention in this report. The Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) project actually was under full swing back in the 50's and early 60's. To enable the 14 year trek to the icy moons of Europa, Callisto, and Ganymede, nuclear propulsion methods were selected. Due to the extreme temperature of the reactor and the extended time period, a refractory metal would need to be implemented. After years of research and progress, the program was suddenly canceled. About a decade ago, the JIMO project was re-instated and now has a goal for departure around 2014. However, a few obstacles lie in our way concerning the use of refractory metals. In certain areas of the orbiter a joint is required between the refractories and other less dense metals. Two of these joints are with nickel based super alloys. Being an intern for Frank Ritzert, the refractory metals expert, I have the opportunity to develop the best method to braze refractory metals to Nickel 201. This involves the actual brazing, electron microscopy and reporting the results. My second project involves a certain part of the orbiter where Niobium 1Zirconium, a refractory metal, is joined with Hastelloy-X a Ni based metal. Small quantities of oxygen, helium and other impurities in the Ni alloy could diffuse

  4. 77 FR 63722 - Special Local Regulations; Palm Beach World Championship, Atlantic Ocean; Jupiter, FL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ..., Atlantic Ocean; Jupiter, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast... Indiantown Road and Donald Ross Road, just offshore of Jupiter, Florida during the Palm Beach World... will be held on the waters of the Atlantic Ocean, just offshore of Jupiter, Florida. The high...

  5. 76 FR 24513 - Public Land Order No. 7765; Partial Revocation Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse Withdrawal; Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... Bureau of Land Management Public Land Order No. 7765; Partial Revocation Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse... Management to continue to be managed as part of the Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse Outstanding Natural Area. DATES... Resource Act of 2008 (43 U.S.C. 1787), which created the Jupiter Inlet Lighthouse Outstanding Natural...

  6. Realizing the Hybrid Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinfield, Stephen; Eaton, Jonathan; Edwards, Catherine; Russell, Rosemary; Wissenburg, Astrid; Wynne, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Outlines five projects currently funded by the United Kingdom's Electronic Libraries Program (eLib): HyLiFe (Hybrid Library of the Future), MALIBU (MAnaging the hybrid Library for the Benefit of Users), HeadLine (Hybrid Electronic Access and Delivery in the Library Networked Environment), ATHENS (authentication scheme), and BUILDER (Birmingham…

  7. Special Library Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensley, Robert F., Ed.

    1975-01-01

    The September 1975 issue of Illinois Libraries focuses on the needs of the developmentally disabled, physically handicapped, and emotionally disturbed. Articles on library services to the blind and physically handicapped cover standards, services of local public libraries, Library of Congress programs, braille books and sound recordings,…

  8. The library marketing toolkit

    CERN Document Server

    Potter, Ned

    2012-01-01

    A guide that offers coverage of various elements of library marketing and branding for different sectors including archives and academic, public and special libraries. It is suitable for those who are involved in promoting their library or information service, whether at an academic, public or special library or in archives or records management.

  9. Libraries and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainie, Lee

    2016-01-01

    The majority of Americans think local libraries serve the educational needs of their communities and families pretty well and library users often outpace others in learning activities. But many do not know about key education services libraries provide. This report provides statistics on library usage and presents key education services provided…

  10. Growing Competition for Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Questia subscription-based online academic digital books library. Highlights include weaknesses of the collection; what college students want from a library; importance of marketing; competition for traditional academic libraries that may help improve library services; and the ability of Questia to overcome barriers and…

  11. The "Integrated Library System."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowlin, Kenneth E.

    1985-01-01

    Reviews internal and external dimensions of library environment that must be taken into account by library managers when choosing an integrated library system. The selection, acquisition, and implementation stages of Maggie III--a computerized library system sensitive to the internal and external organizational environment--are described. (MBR)

  12. Teleporting the library?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilesen, Simon

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, six Danish public libraries established a virtual library, Info Island DK, in Second Life. This article discusses the library project in terms of design. The design processes include the planning and implementation of the virtual library structure and its equipment, as well as the organi...

  13. First results of ISO-SWS observations of Jupiter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Encrenaz, T.; de Graauw, T.; Schaeidt, S.; Lellouch, E.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Beintema, D. A.; Bezard, B.; Drossart, P.; Griffin, M.; Heras, A.; Kessler, M.; Leech, K.; Morris, P.; Roelfsema, P. R.; Roos-Serote, M.; Salama, A.; Vandenbussche, B.; Valentijn, E. A.; Davis, G. R.; Naylor, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    The spectrum of Jupiter has been recorded between 2.75 and 14.5 mu m with the grating mode of the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) of ISO. The resolving power is 1500. The main preliminary results of this observation are (1) at 3 mu m, the first spectroscopic signature, probably associated with

  14. Orbits of the small inner satellites of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synnott, S. P.

    1984-01-01

    Voyager images led to the discovery of the three small inner satellites of Jupiter, Adrastea, Metis, and Thebe. Attention is presently given to orbital parameter estimates and associated uncertainties that have been determined from Voyager imaging data, the achievable angular accuracy of which is about 0.00005 rad.

  15. Near-IR Spectroscopy of the Atmosphere of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baines, R. W.

    1997-01-01

    The Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer obtains spectral images in the wavelength range 0.7 to 5.2 um with a special resolving power of approximately 200. This spectral range allows NIMS to sense cloud-reflected solar radiation, thermal emission from the deep atmosphere, and auroral bands from the thermosphere of Jupiter.

  16. Design study for electronic system for Jupiter Orbit Probe (JOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elero, B. P., Jr.; Carignan, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    The conceptual design of the Jupiter probe spectrometer is presented. Block and circuit diagrams are presented along with tabulated parts lists. Problem areas are considered to be (1) the schedule, (2) weight limitations for the electronic systems, and (3) radiation hardness of the electronic devices.

  17. Deciphering Jupiter's atmospheric dynamics using the upcoming Juno gravity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaspi, Yohai; Galanti, Eli

    2016-07-01

    This summer, the Juno spacecraft will arrive at Jupiter in course for close flybys of the planet, obtaining a high precision gravity spectrum of Jupiter. This data can be used to estimate the depth of Jupiter's observed cloud-level wind, and decipher the possible internal flows, that might be decoupled from the surface wind. In this talk, we discuss the Juno gravity experiment, and the possible outcomes with regard to the flows on Jupiter. We show several ways in which the gravity spectrum might be used to study the large scale flows: 1. measurements of the high order even harmonics which beyond J10 are dominated by the dynamics; 2. measurements of odd gravity harmonics which have no contribution from a static planet, and therefore are a pure signature of dynamics; 3. upper limits on the depth of the surface flow can be obtained by comparing low order even harmonics from dynamical models to the difference between the measured low order even harmonics and the largest possible values of a static planet; 4. direct latitudinally varying measurements of the gravity field exerted on the spacecraft. We will discuss how these methods may be applied given the expected sensitivities of the Juno gravity experiment. In addition, we present an inverse adjoint model, which allows given the gravity data, to infer the flows that produce it. This will allow, hopefully, to make significant progress in one of the longest-standing question in planetary atmospheric dynamics regarding the nature of the flows on the giant planets.

  18. Rotating magnetospheres: transport compared at Jupiter and Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivelson, M. G.; Southwood, D. J.; Dougherty, M. K.

    The magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn are dominated by the effects of rotation and the associated outward stress exerted by heavy ions picked up near the inner moons Fields and particle measurements in both systems show dramatic signatures of rotational periodicity At Jupiter the periodicity results principally from the effects of dipole tilt and the related displacements of the equatorial plasma sheet At Saturn there is little dipole tilt yet field and plasma properties vary periodically Efforts to understand how Saturn s rotational motion can be converted into what appears to be radial motion a conversion from rotation to rocking or reciprocating motion that is imposed in mechanical systems by a camshaft have recently focused on convective patterns with preferred sectors for transport see Southwood et al this session It is possible that similar effects are present at Jupiter and can account for plasma properties that have been described in terms of what has been referred to as the magnetic anomaly model Hill Goertz and Dessler 1983 This talk will use magnetometer data for the two systems to identify the possibly subtle signatures of the camshaft effect at Jupiter

  19. First Earth-based Detection of a Superbolide on Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso, Ricardo; Wesley, A.; Go, C.; Perez-Hoyos, S.; Wong, M. H.; Fletcher, L. N.; Sanchez-Lavega, A.; Boslough, M. B. E.; de Pater, I.; Orton, G. S.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Edwards, M. L.; Hammel, H. B.; Clarke, J. T.; Noll, K. S.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P. A.

    2010-10-01

    On June 3, 2010 a bolide in Jupiter's atmosphere was observed from the Earth for the first time. The flash was detected by amateur astronomers A. Wesley and C. Go observing in two wavelength ranges. We present an analysis of the light curve of those observations that allow estimating the size of the object to be significantly smaller than the SL9 and the July 2009 Jupiter impact. Observations obtained a few days later by large telescopes including HST, VLT, Keck and Gemini showed no signature of the impact in Jupiter atmosphere confirming the small size of the impact body. A nearly continuous observation campaign based on several small telescopes by amateurs astronomers might allow an empirical determination of the flux of meteoroids in Jupiter with implications for the populations of small bodies in the outer solar system and may allow a better quantification of the threat of impacting bodies to Earth. Acknowledgements: RH, ASL and SPH are supported by the Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07. LNF is supported by a Glasstone Science Fellowship at the University of Oxford.

  20. Imaging Jupiter's radiation belts down to 127 MHz with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girard, J. N.; Zarka, P.; Tasse, C.; Hess, S.; de Pater, I.; Santos-Costa, D.; Nenon, Q.; Sicard, A.; Bourdarie, S.; Anderson, J.; Asgekar, A.; Bell, M. E.; van Bemmel, I.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Bonafede, A.; Breitling, F.; Breton, R. P.; Broderick, J. W.; Brouw, W. N.; Brüggen, M.; Ciardi, B.; Corbel, S.; Corstanje, A.; de Gasperin, F.; de Geus, E.; Deller, A.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Falcke, H.; Frieswijk, W.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J.; Gunst, A. W.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hoeft, M.; Hörandel, J.; Iacobelli, M.; Juette, E.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; van Leeuwen, J.; Loose, M.; Maat, P.; Mann, G.; Markoff, S.; McFadden, R.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; Moldon, J.; Munk, H.; Nelles, A.; Norden, M. J.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H.; Rowlinson, A.; Schwarz, D.; Smirnov, O.; Steinmetz, M.; Swinbank, J.; Tagger, M.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, M. C.; Vermeulen, R.; Vocks, C.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wucknitz, O.

    2016-01-01

    Context. With the limited amount of in situ particle data available for the innermost region of Jupiter's magnetosphere, Earth-based observations of the giant planets synchrotron emission remain the sole method today of scrutinizing the distribution and dynamical behavior of the ultra energetic elec

  1. Ultra-relativistic electrons in Jupiter's radiation belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, S J; Janssen, M; Thorne, R; Levin, S; Klein, M; Gulkis, S; Bastian, T; Sault, R; Elachi, C; Hofstadter, M; Bunker, A; Dulk, G; Gudim, E; Hamilton, G; Johnson, W T K; Leblanc, Y; Liepack, O; McLeod, R; Roller, J; Roth, L; West, R

    2002-02-28

    Ground-based observations have shown that Jupiter is a two-component source of microwave radio emission: thermal atmospheric emission and synchrotron emission from energetic electrons spiralling in Jupiter's magnetic field. Later in situ measurements confirmed the existence of Jupiter's high-energy electron-radiation belts, with evidence for electrons at energies up to 20[?]MeV. Although most radiation belt models predict electrons at higher energies, adiabatic diffusion theory can account only for energies up to around 20[?]MeV. Unambiguous evidence for more energetic electrons is lacking. Here we report observations of 13.8[?]GHz synchrotron emission that confirm the presence of electrons with energies up to 50[?]MeV; the data were collected during the Cassini fly-by of Jupiter. These energetic electrons may be repeatedly accelerated through an interaction with plasma waves, which can transfer energy into the electrons. Preliminary comparison of our data with model results suggests that electrons with energies of less than 20[?]MeV are more numerous than previously believed.

  2. First results of ISO-SWS observations of Jupiter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Encrenaz, T.; de Graauw, T.; Schaeidt, S.; Lellouch, E.; Feuchtgruber, H.; Beintema, D. A.; Bezard, B.; Drossart, P.; Griffin, M.; Heras, A.; Kessler, M.; Leech, K.; Morris, P.; Roelfsema, P. R.; Roos-Serote, M.; Salama, A.; Vandenbussche, B.; Valentijn, E. A.; Davis, G. R.; Naylor, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    The spectrum of Jupiter has been recorded between 2.75 and 14.5 mu m with the grating mode of the Short-Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) of ISO. The resolving power is 1500. The main preliminary results of this observation are (1) at 3 mu m, the first spectroscopic signature, probably associated with N

  3. The high albedo of the hot Jupiter Kepler-7b

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demory, B.-O.; Seager, S.; Madhusudhan, N.

    2011-01-01

    . The NASA Kepler mission provides a means to widen the sample and to assess the extent to which hot Jupiter albedos are low. We present a global analysis of Kepler-7 b based on Q0-Q4 data, published radial velocities, and asteroseismology constraints. We measure an occultation depth in the Kepler bandpass...

  4. The prediction of impact of Comet SL9 on Jupiter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张家祥; 汪琦; 杨捷兴; 王思潮; 陈协珍

    1996-01-01

    Several predictions of the impact of Comet SL9 on Jupiter were made from April to July, 1994. The predictions are basically in agreement with actuality. The method and theory of the prediction are expounded briefly, and the predicted impact times are analyzed and compared with actually accepted impact times.

  5. EJSM Radar instruments: Natural radio noise from Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecconi, Baptiste; Hess, Sébastien; Zarka, Philippe; Blankenship, Donald; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Santos-Costa, Daniel; Bougeret, Jean-Louis

    2010-05-01

    Radar instruments are part of the core payload of the Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) spacecraft: NASA- led JEO (Jupiter Europa Orbiter) and ESA-led JGO (Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter). At this point of the project, several frequency bands are foreseen for radar studies between 5MHz and 50MHz. While the high frequencies (40 to 50 MHz) are clean bands since natural jovian radio emissions show a high frequency cutoff at about 40 MHz, lower frequencies are right in the middle of the intense decametric (DAM) radio emissions. We present a review of spectral intensity, variability and sources of these radio emissions. As the radio emission are beamed, it is possible to model the visibility of the radio emissions, as seen from the vicinity of Europa or Ganymede. We have investigated Io-related radio emissions as well as radio emissions related to the auroral oval. One result from these simulations is that some portion of the orbit of Europa is clean from Non-Io DAM emissions above 22 MHz. We also review the radiation belts synchrotron emission characteristics. This study clearly shows that a deep understanding of the natural radio emissions at Jupiter is necessary to prepare the future EJSM radar instrumentation.

  6. First Earth-based Detection of a Superbolide on Jupiter

    CERN Document Server

    Hueso, R; Go, C; Perez-Hoyos, S; Wong, M H; Fletcher, L N; Sanchez-Lavega, A; Boslough, M B E; de Pater, I; Orton, G S; Simon-Miller, A A; Djorgovski, S G; Edwards, M L; Hammel, H B; Clarke, J T; Noll, K S; Yanamandra-Fisher, P A; 10.1088/2041-8205/721/2/L129

    2010-01-01

    Cosmic collisions on planets cause detectable optical flashes that range from terrestrial shooting stars to bright fireballs. On June 3, 2010 a bolide in Jupiter's atmosphere was simultaneously observed from the Earth by two amateur astronomers observing Jupiter in red and blue wavelengths. The bolide appeared as a flash of 2 s duration in video recording data of the planet. The analysis of the light curve of the observations results in an estimated energy of the impact of 0.9-4.0x10^{15} J which corresponds to a colliding body of 8-13 m diameter assuming a mean density of 2 g cm^{-3}. Images acquired a few days later by the Hubble Space Telescope and other large ground-based facilities did not show any signature of aerosol debris, temperature or chemical composition anomaly, confirming that the body was small and destroyed in Jupiter's upper atmosphere. Several collisions of this size may happen on Jupiter on a yearly basis. A systematic study of the impact rate and size of these bolides can enable an empiri...

  7. Jupiter and Super-Earth embedded in a gaseous disc

    CERN Document Server

    Podlewska, E

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the evolution of a pair of interacting planets - a Jupiter mass planet and a Super-Earth with the 5.5 Earth masses - orbiting a Solar type star and embedded in a gaseous protoplanetary disc. We focus on the effects of type I and II orbital migrations, caused by the planet-disc interaction, leading to the Super-Earth capture in first order mean motion resonances by the Jupiter. The stability of the resulting resonant system in which the Super-Earth is on the internal orbit relatively to the Jupiter has been studied numerically by means of full 2D hydrodynamical simulations. Our main motivation is to determine the Super-Earth behaviour in the presence of the gas giant in the system. It has been found that the Jupiter captures the Super-Earth into the interior 3:2 or 4:3 mean motion resonances and the stability of such configurations depends on the initial planet positions and eccentricity evolution. If the initial separation of planet orbits is larger or close to that required for t...

  8. Imaging Jupiter's radiation belts down to 127 MHz with LOFAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girard, J. N.; Zarka, P.; Tasse, C.; Hess, S.; de Pater, I.; Santos-Costa, D.; Nenon, Q.; Sicard, A.; Bourdarie, S.; Anderson, J.; Asgekar, A.; Bell, M. E.; van Bemmel, I.; Bentum, M. J.; Bernardi, G.; Best, P.; Bonafede, A.; Breitling, F.; Breton, R. P.; Broderick, J. W.; Brouw, W. N.; Brüggen, M.; Ciardi, B.; Corbel, S.; Corstanje, A.; de Gasperin, F.; de Geus, E.; Deller, A.; Duscha, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Falcke, H.; Frieswijk, W.; Garrett, M. A.; Grießmeier, J.; Gunst, A. W.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Hoeft, M.; Hörandel, J.; Iacobelli, M.; Juette, E.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Kuper, G.; van Leeuwen, J.; Loose, M.; Maat, P.; Mann, G.; Markoff, S.; McFadden, R.; McKay-Bukowski, D.; Moldon, J.; Munk, H.; Nelles, A.; Norden, M. J.; Orru, E.; Paas, H.; Pandey-Pommier, M.; Pizzo, R.; Polatidis, A. G.; Reich, W.; Röttgering, H.; Rowlinson, A.; Schwarz, D.; Smirnov, O.; Steinmetz, M.; Swinbank, J.; Tagger, M.; Thoudam, S.; Toribio, M. C.; Vermeulen, R.; Vocks, C.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Wucknitz, O.

    2016-01-01

    Context. With the limited amount of in situ particle data available for the innermost region of Jupiter's magnetosphere, Earth-based observations of the giant planets synchrotron emission remain the sole method today of scrutinizing the distribution and dynamical behavior of the ultra energetic

  9. An Overview of the Jupiter Europa Orbiter Concept's Europa Science Phase Orbit Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Robert E.; Ludwinski, Jan M.; Petropoulos, Anastassios E.; Clark, Karla B.; Pappalardo, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO), the proposed NASA element of the proposed joint NASA-ESA Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM), could launch in February 2020 and conceivably arrive at Jupiter in December of 2025. The concept is to perform a multi-year study of Europa and the Jupiter system, including 30 months of Jupiter system science and a comprehensive Europa orbit phase of 9 months. This paper provides an overview of the JEO concept and describes the Europa Science phase orbit design and the related science priorities, model pay-load and operations scenarios needed to conduct the Europa Science phase. This overview is for planning and discussion purposes only.

  10. An investigation into the move towards electronic journals: a case study of NHS libraries in Kent, Surrey and Sussex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Rebecca

    2013-09-01

    Electronic journals are so embedded into practice in academic libraries that it is easy to forget that this is not the case everywhere. In NHS libraries, for example, the staff face a particular set of issues. This article is based on Rebecca England's dissertation on this topic, completed as part of the MSc Econ course in Information and Library studies at Aberystwyth University. Rebecca is E-resources Librarian at the Maidstone and Tunbridge Wells NHS Trust. She investigated the momentum towards electronic journals in NHS libraries in the Kent, Surrey and Sussex region and the potential for a regional purchasing consortium.

  11. HUBBLE VIEWS ANCIENT STORM IN THE ATMOSPHERE OF JUPITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    When 17th-century astronomers first turned their telescopes to Jupiter, they noted a conspicuous reddish spot on the giant planet. This Great Red Spot is still present in Jupiter's atmosphere, more than 300 years later. It is now known that it is a vast storm, spinning like a cyclone. Unlike a low-pressure hurricane in the Caribbean Sea, however, the Red Spot rotates in a counterclockwise direction in the southern hemisphere, showing that it is a high-pressure system. Winds inside this Jovian storm reach speeds of about 270 mph. The Red Spot is the largest known storm in the Solar System. With a diameter of 15,400 miles, it is almost twice the size of the entire Earth and one-sixth the diameter of Jupiter itself. The long lifetime of the Red Spot may be due to the fact that Jupiter is mainly a gaseous planet. It possibly has liquid layers, but lacks a solid surface, which would dissipate the storm's energy, much as happens when a hurricane makes landfall on the Earth. However, the Red Spot does change its shape, size, and color, sometimes dramatically. Such changes are demonstrated in high-resolution Wide Field and Planetary Cameras 1 and 2 images of Jupiter obtained by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, and presented here by the Hubble Heritage Project team. The mosaic presents a series of pictures of the Red Spot obtained by Hubble between 1992 and 1999. Astronomers study weather phenomena on other planets in order to gain a greater understanding of our own Earth's climate. Lacking a solid surface, Jupiter provides us with a laboratory experiment for observing weather phenomena under very different conditions than those prevailing on Earth. This knowledge can also be applied to places in the Earth's atmosphere that are over deep oceans, making them more similar to Jupiter's deep atmosphere. The Hubble images were originally collected by Amy Simon (Cornell U.), Reta Beebe (NMSU), Heidi Hammel (Space Science Institute, MIT), and their collaborators, and have been

  12. K2 Warm Jupiters with the LCOGT TECH collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shporer, Avi; Bayliss, Daniel; Cochran, William D.; Colón, Knicole D.; Dragomir, Diana; Palle, Enric; Potter, Stephen; Siverd, Robert; LCOGT TECH Collaboration

    2016-06-01

    Many transiting gas giant planets on short orbital periods (so called hot Jupiters) have larger radii than theoretically expected. Although several explanations have been proposed, none have completely solved this puzzle. As the number of known transiting planets grew a correlation was identified between gas giant radius and the stellar incident flux. Still, it is not clear whether this correlation is causation. Several questions remain and answering them will characterize in more detail this observed correlation and in turn the process responsible for the inflated radii, such as: Is the lack of inflated warm Jupiters a robust feature? What is the incident flux below which there are no inflated gas giants? How low in incident flux does this correlation stretch? These questions arise since there are only a small number of transiting gas giants with low incident flux, below about 108 erg/s/cm2, corresponding to orbital periods of about 10 days and longer for a Sun-like host star. Discovering and confirming more transiting warm Jupiters is the goal of this project, undertaken by the LCOGT Transiting Exoplanet CHaracterization (TECH) team. We are using K2 as our main source of transiting warm Jupiter candidates, with a few candidates discovered in each K2 campaign. LCOGT telescopes are being used for obtaining additional ground-based transit light curves, which are critical for confirming and refining the K2 transit ephemeris as outliers during ingress or egress of the few transit events observed by K2 can bias the measured ephemeris. Further ground-based follow-up data, including spectroscopy, radial velocities, and high angular resolution imaging, are obtained by facilities directly accessible by LCOGT TECH team members. In addition, once LCOGT’s Network of Robotic Echelle Spectrographs (NRES) are deployed in the near future they will allow obtaining spectroscopy and radial velocities with LCOGT facilities. On top of studying the inflated hot Jupiter conundrum

  13. Tracking Jupiter at microwave frequencies after the 2009 impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, Shinji; García-Miró, Cristina; Rizzo, Ricardo; Forster, James; Hofstadter, Mark; Dorcey, Ryan; Jauncey, David; de Pater, Imke; Baines, Graham; Sotuela, Ioanna

    2010-05-01

    On 19 July 2009, amateur astronomer Anthony Wesley located near Canberra, Australia, discovered an anomalous dark feature near Jupiter's south pole. It was soon confirmed with additional observations that the new feature was an impact site created by an unknown object. The only other observed collision with Jupiter occurred 15 years earlier with the catastrophic impact of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 Comet (SL9). Unlike the well-predicted SL9 event, the biggest question to answer this time is whether the impact body was a comet or an asteroid. We started a campaign to track Jupiter at microwave frequencies with NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN), in Canberra, Goldstone (California), and Madrid, and the Allen Telescope Array (ATA) in California. A 34m DSN radio telescope at Goldstone was operated by students through GAVRT program. Our primary goal was first to detect molecular radio emissions possibly originating from cometary core components, such as OH, H2O, and NH3, and second to detect radio burst in non-thermal continuum emissions, as observed after the SL-9 impact 15 years ago. We used a 70m radio telescope in Canberra and another 70m in Madrid to search for molecular emissions at 1.6 GHz for OH, 22 GHz for water vapors, 23 GHz for ammonia. Several radio spectroscopy observing sessions have been successfully conducted from 23 July to 1 August. We also started continuum emission monitoring, mainly at 2.3 GHz and 8.4 GHz using 34m and 70m DSN telescopes and the ATA. At early stage of this still on-going monitoring, joint observations were conducted with two 34m telescopes in Canberra and the ATA on 30 July and 9 August in order to have long continuous time coverage and to check flux density scales using a common calibrator source. To highlight this campaign, on 22 November we undertook the Jupiter: Project 24 for the International Year of Astronomy. This campaign was over 24 hours of continuous observation of Jupiter using all three DSN complexes around the world. A couple

  14. Hubble Provides Infrared View of Jupiter's Moon, Ring, and Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Probing Jupiter's atmosphere for the first time, the Hubble Space Telescope's new Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) provides a sharp glimpse of the planet's ring, moon, and high-altitude clouds.The presence of methane in Jupiter's hydrogen- and helium-rich atmosphere has allowed NICMOS to plumb Jupiter's atmosphere, revealing bands of high-altitude clouds. Visible light observations cannot provide a clear view of these high clouds because the underlying clouds reflect so much visible light that the higher level clouds are indistinguishable from the lower layer. The methane gas between the main cloud deck and the high clouds absorbs the reflected infrared light, allowing those clouds that are above most of the atmosphere to appear bright. Scientists will use NICMOS to study the high altitude portion of Jupiter's atmosphere to study clouds at lower levels. They will then analyze those images along with visible light information to compile a clearer picture of the planet's weather. Clouds at different levels tell unique stories. On Earth, for example, ice crystal (cirrus) clouds are found at high altitudes while water (cumulus) clouds are at lower levels.Besides showing details of the planet's high-altitude clouds, NICMOS also provides a clear view of the ring and the moon, Metis. Jupiter's ring plane, seen nearly edge-on, is visible as a faint line on the upper right portion of the NICMOS image. Metis can be seen in the ring plane (the bright circle on the ring's outer edge). The moon is 25 miles wide and about 80,000 miles from Jupiter.Because of the near-infrared camera's narrow field of view, this image is a mosaic constructed from three individual images taken Sept. 17, 1997. The color intensity was adjusted to accentuate the high-altitude clouds. The dark circle on the disk of Jupiter (center of image) is an artifact of the imaging system.This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the

  15. Consortium for promoting the use of media processors in multimedia applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grow, Michael S.; Kim, Donglok; Kim, Woong J.; Park, Hyun Wook; Kim, Yongmin

    1999-12-01

    Mediaprocessors, such as Philips Trimedia and Hitachi/Equator Technologies MAP, combine the computational power of high-end DSPs with various I/O capabilities in a single programmable chip. due to their programmability, mediaprocessors have greater flexibility than ASICs and other special-purpose hardware. Early mediaprocessors, such as Texas Instruments TMS320C80 since its introduction in 1994, have had limited success due to their difficulty in programming, insufficient computational power, and high cost. Fortunately, several newer mediaprocessors, which are available or under development, are easier to program, are less expensive, and/or have more computational power. However, due to the earlier difficulties and inherent uncertainties in the programmable solutions, mediaprocessor user companies (set makers) are often hesitant in adopting the mediaprocessors in their products. Furthermore, set makers still need to expend a lot of time and manpower in making a successful transition from hardwired to mediaprocessor-based products. Therefore, we introduce the Mediaprocessor (MP) Consortium, which aims to remove the barrier to the widespread use of programmable mediaprocessors. Through publications, web site, training courses, software libraries, and objective evaluations of mediaprocessors, the MP Consortium can increase the awareness of the benefits of mediaprocessors over ASICs, make the transition to mediaprocessor-based products easier for set makers, and help them attain full advantage of using mediaprocessors.

  16. SEEA SOUTHEAST CONSORTIUM FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, Timothy [Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance; Ball, Kia [Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance; Fournier, Ashley [Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance

    2014-01-21

    In 2010 the Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance (SEEA) received a $20 million Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grant (EECBG) under the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Building Neighborhood Program (BBNP). This grant, funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, also included sub-grantees in 13 communities across the Southeast, known as the Southeast Consortium. The objective of this project was to establish a framework for energy efficiency retrofit programs to create models for replication across the Southeast and beyond. To achieve this goal, SEEA and its project partners focused on establishing infrastructure to develop and sustain the energy efficiency market in specific localities across the southeast. Activities included implementing minimum training standards and credentials for marketplace suppliers, educating and engaging homeowners on the benefits of energy efficiency through strategic marketing and outreach and addressing real or perceived financial barriers to investments in whole-home energy efficiency through a variety of financing mechanisms. The anticipated outcome of these activities would be best practice models for program design, marketing, financing, data collection and evaluation as well as increased market demand for energy efficiency retrofits and products. The Southeast Consortium’s programmatic impacts along with the impacts of the other BBNP grantees would further the progress towards the overall goal of energy efficiency market transformation. As the primary grantee SEEA served as the overall program administrator and provided common resources to the 13 Southeast Consortium sub-grantees including contracted services for contractor training, quality assurance testing, data collection, reporting and compliance. Sub-grantee programs were located in cities across eight states including Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Each sub

  17. Establishing an International Soil Modelling Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, Harry; Schnepf, Andrea; Vanderborght, Jan

    2015-04-01

    -change-feedback processes, bridge basic soil science research and management, and facilitate the communication between science and society . To meet these challenges an international community effort is required, similar to initiatives in systems biology, hydrology, and climate and crop research. We therefore propose to establish an international soil modelling consortium with the aims of 1) bringing together leading experts in modelling soil processes within all major soil disciplines, 2) addressing major scientific gaps in describing key processes and their long term impacts with respect to the different functions and ecosystem services provided by soil, 3) intercomparing soil model performance based on standardized and harmonized data sets, 4) identifying interactions with other relevant platforms related to common data formats, protocols and ontologies, 5) developing new approaches to inverse modelling, calibration, and validation of soil models, 6) integrating soil modelling expertise and state of the art knowledge on soil processes in climate, land surface, ecological, crop and contaminant models, and 7) linking process models with new observation, measurement and data evaluation technologies for mapping and characterizing soil properties across scales. Our consortium will bring together modelers and experimental soil scientists at the forefront of new technologies and approaches to characterize soils. By addressing these aims, the consortium will contribute to improve the role of soil modeling as a knowledge dissemination instrument in addressing key global issues and stimulate the development of translational research activities. This presentation will provide a compelling case for this much-needed effort, with a focus on tangible benefits to the scientific and food security communities.

  18. Training of Library Assistants in Academic Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itunu A. Bamidele

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to identify the need to train and retrain library assistants in academic libraries. The researchers however used Babcock University Library to ascertain the impacts of training of library assistants. A descriptive design was adopted for this study. A total enumeration sampling method was used. The instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire. The population was made up of 30 respondents who were library assistants at the Babcock University Library, Nigeria. A total number of 30 questionnaires were administered. All the questionnaires were retrieved and were found useful giving a return rate of 100% used for this study. The result shows that library assistants were not given training in the area of system management and web searching. In addition, 27 (90% of the respondents agreed that training will enhance their job performance while 30 (100% of the respondents agreed that training will improve their skills to support library users in searching for information electronically. Based on the findings the researchers recommend that library assistants should be trained on electronic information technology usage as this will impact the overall service delivery in meeting the goals of the academic library.

  19. Fragment-based cocktail crystallography by the Medical Structural Genomics of Pathogenic Protozoa Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verlinde, Christophe L.M.J.; Fan, Erkang; Shibata, Sayaka; Zhang, Zongsheng; Sun, Zhihua; Deng, Wei; Ross, Jennifer; Kim, Jessica; Xiao, Liren; Arakaki, Tracy L.; Bosch, Jürgen; Caruthers, Jonathan M.; Larson, Eric T.; LeTrong, Isolde; Napuli, Alberto; Kelly, Angela; Mueller, Natasha; Zucker, Frank; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Buckner, Frederick S.; Merritt, Ethan A.; Hol, Wim G.J.

    2010-01-01

    The history of fragment-based drug discovery, with an emphasis on crystallographic methods, is sketched, illuminating various contributions, including our own, which preceded the industrial development of the method. Subsequently, the creation of the BMSC fragment cocktails library is described. The BMSC collection currently comprises 68 cocktails of 10 compounds that are shape-wise diverse. The utility of these cocktails for initiating lead discovery in structure-based drug design has been explored by soaking numerous protein crystals obtained by our MSGPP (Medical Structural Genomics of Pathogenic Protozoa) consortium. Details of the fragment selection and cocktail design procedures, as well as examples of the successes obtained are given. The BMSC Fragment Cocktail recipes are available free of charge and are in use in over 20 academic labs. PMID:19929835

  20. Establishing a consortium for Open Access (OA) publishing in particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Dallman, David Peter; Vigen, Jens; Voss, Rüdiger; Yeomans, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    A meeting has been called at CERN on November 3rd 2006 to work towards establishing a consortium of major particle physics funding agencies, aimed at guiding a transition of the current subscription model for journals to a more stable, more competitive and more affordable future for the dissemination of quality-assured scientific information adapted to the era of electronic publishing. The meeting will gather representatives of major European particle physics agencies and library consortia. In order to be successful it is vital that the stakeholders, representing as they do the funding bodies and academia, see themselves responsible for the financing and organization of the dissemination of scientific information and its quality assurance. In particular the transition to a wider availability of research results cannot afford to be held back due to a lack of concerted effort among the agencies financing the research.

  1. Proposal to establish a Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    In the present proposal, the publishers' subscription income from multiple institutions is replaced by an "author-side" funding. Journals are paid through contracts between publishers and a single financial partner, the "Sponsoring Consortium for Open Access Publishing in Particle Physics" (SCOAP3). SCOAP3 is envisioned as a global network of funding agencies, research laboratories, and libraries that will contribute the necessary funding; each SCOAP3 partner will recover its contribution from the cancellation of journal subscriptions. This model avoids the obvious disadvantage of authors being directly charged for the OA publication of their articles, which is perceived as an even higher barrier than subscription charges, in particular for theoretical physicists from small institutions who account for the vast majority of HEP papers. The financing and governance of SCOAP3 will follow as much as possible the example of the memoranda of understanding governing large research collaborations. Its partners will c...

  2. Multi-University Southeast INIE Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayman Hawari; Nolan Hertel; Mohamed Al-Sheikhly; Laurence Miller; Abdel-Moeze Bayoumi; Ali Haghighat; Kenneth Lewis

    2010-12-29

    2 Project Summary: The Multi-University Southeast INIE Consortium (MUSIC) was established in response to the US Department of Energy’s (DOE) Innovations in Nuclear Infrastructure and Education (INIE) program. MUSIC was established as a consortium composed of academic members and national laboratory partners. The members of MUSIC are the nuclear engineering programs and research reactors of Georgia Institute of Technology (GIT), North Carolina State University (NCSU), University of Maryland (UMD), University of South Carolina (USC), and University of Tennessee (UTK). The University of Florida (UF), and South Carolina State University (SCSU) were added to the MUSIC membership in the second year. In addition, to ensure proper coordination between the academic community and the nation’s premier research and development centers in the fields of nuclear science and engineering, MUSIC created strategic partnerships with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) including the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project and the Joint Institute for Neutron Scattering (JINS), and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). A partnership was also created with the Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) with the aim of utilizing their reactor in research if funding becomes available. Consequently, there are three university research reactors (URRs) within MUSIC, which are located at NCSU (1-MW PULSTAR), UMD (0.25-MW TRIGA) and UF (0.10-MW Argonaut), and the AFRRI reactor (1-MW TRIGA MARK F). The overall objectives of MUSIC are: a) Demonstrate that University Research Reactors (URR) can be used as modern and innovative instruments of research in the basic and applied sciences, which include applications in fundamental physics, materials science and engineering, nondestructive examination, elemental analysis, and contributions to research in the health and medical sciences, b) Establish a strong technical collaboration between the nuclear engineering

  3. Consortium for Petroleum & Natural Gas Stripper Wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, Joel [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The United States has more oil and gas wells than any other country. As of December 31, 2004, there were more than half a million producing oil wells in the United States. That is more than three times the combined total for the next three leaders: China, Canada, and Russia. The Stripper Well Consortium (SWC) is a partnership that includes domestic oil and gas producers, service and supply companies, trade associations, academia, the Department of Energy’s Strategic Center for Natural Gas and Oil (SCNGO) at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA). The Consortium was established in 2000. This report serves as a final technical report for the SWC activities conducted over the May 1, 2004 to December 1, 2011 timeframe. During this timeframe, the SWC worked with 173 members in 29 states and three international countries, to focus on the development of new technologies to benefit the U.S. stripper well industry. SWC worked with NETL to develop a nationwide request-for-proposal (RFP) process to solicit proposals from the U.S. stripper well industry to develop and/or deploy new technologies that would assist small producers in improving the production performance of their stripper well operations. SWC conducted eight rounds of funding. A total of 132 proposals were received. The proposals were compiled and distributed to an industry-driven SWC executive council and program sponsors for review. Applicants were required to make a formal technical presentation to the SWC membership, executive council, and program sponsors. After reviewing the proposals and listening to the presentations, the executive council made their funding recommendations to program sponsors. A total of 64 projects were selected for funding, of which 59 were fully completed. Penn State then worked with grant awardees to issue a subcontract for their approved work. SWC organized and hosted a total of 14 meetings

  4. Jupiter's Mid-Infrared Aurora: Solar Connection and Minor Constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostiuk, Theodore; Livengood, T.A.; Fast, K.E.; Hewagama, T.; Schmilling, F.; Sonnabend, G.; Delgado, J.

    2009-01-01

    High spectral resolution in the 12 pin region of the polar regions of Jupiter reveal unique information on auroral phenomena and upper stratospheric composition. Polar aurorae in Jupiter's atmosphere radiate; throughout the electromagnetic spectrum from X-ray through mid-infrared (mid-IR, 5 - 20 micron wavelength). Voyager IRIS data and ground-based. spectroscopic measurements of Jupiter's northern mid-IR aurora acquired since 1982, reveal a correlation between auroral brightness and solar activity that has not been observed in Jovian aurora at other wavelengths. Over nearly three solar cycles, Jupiter auroral ethane, emission brightness and solar 10.7-cm radar flux and sunspot number are positively correlated with high confidence. Ethane line emission intensity varies over tenfold between low and high scalar activity periods. Detailed measurements have been made using the GSFC HIPWAC spectrometer at the NASA IRTF since the last solar maximum, following the mid-IR emission through the declining phase toward solar minimum. An even more convincing correlation with solar activity is evident in these data. The spectra measured contain features that cannot be attributed to ethane and are most likely spectra of minor constituents whose molecular bands overlap the v9 band of ethane. Possible candidates are allene, propane, and other higher order hydrocarbons. These features appear to be enhanced in the active polar regions. Laboratory measurements at comparable spectral resolution of spectra of candidate molecules will be used to identify the constituents. Current analyses of these results will be described, including planned measurements on polar ethane line emission scheduled through the rise of the next solar maximum beginning in 2009, with a steep gradient to a maximum in 2012. This work is relevant to the Juno mission and to the development of the NASA/ESA Europa Jupiter System Mission.

  5. Exploring the diversity of Jupiter-class planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Leigh N; Irwin, Patrick G J; Barstow, Joanna K; de Kok, Remco J; Lee, Jae-Min; Aigrain, Suzanne

    2014-04-28

    Of the 900+ confirmed exoplanets discovered since 1995 for which we have constraints on their mass (i.e. not including Kepler candidates), 75% have masses larger than Saturn (0.3 MJ), 53% are more massive than Jupiter and 67% are within 1 AU of their host stars. When Kepler candidates are included, Neptune-sized giant planets could form the majority of the planetary population. And yet the term 'hot Jupiter' fails to account for the incredible diversity of this class of astrophysical object, which exists on a continuum of giant planets from the cool jovians of our own Solar System to the highly irradiated, tidally locked hot roasters. We review theoretical expectations for the temperatures, molecular composition and cloud properties of hydrogen-dominated Jupiter-class objects under a variety of different conditions. We discuss the classification schemes for these Jupiter-class planets proposed to date, including the implications for our own Solar System giant planets and the pitfalls associated with compositional classification at this early stage of exoplanetary spectroscopy. We discuss the range of planetary types described by previous authors, accounting for (i) thermochemical equilibrium expectations for cloud condensation and favoured chemical stability fields; (ii) the metallicity and formation mechanism for these giant planets; (iii) the importance of optical absorbers for energy partitioning and the generation of a temperature inversion; (iv) the favoured photochemical pathways and expectations for minor species (e.g. saturated hydrocarbons and nitriles); (v) the unexpected presence of molecules owing to vertical mixing of species above their quench levels; and (vi) methods for energy and material redistribution throughout the atmosphere (e.g. away from the highly irradiated daysides of close-in giants). Finally, we discuss the benefits and potential flaws of retrieval techniques for establishing a family of atmospheric solutions that reproduce the

  6. First Results of the Juno Magnetometer Investigation in Jupiter's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connerney, Jack; Oliversen, Ronald; Espley, Jared; Kotsiaros, Stavros; Joergensen, John; Joergensen, Peter; Merano, Jose; Denver, Troelz; Benn, Mathias; Bloxham, Jeremy; Bolton, Scott; Levin, Steve

    2017-04-01

    The Juno spacecraft entered polar orbit about Jupiter on July 4, 2016, after a Jupiter Orbit Insertion (JOI) main engine burn lasting 35 minutes. Juno's science instruments were not powered during the critical maneuver sequence ( 5 days) but were fully operational shortly afterward. The 53.5-day capture orbit provides Juno's science instruments with the opportunity to sample the Jovian environment close up (to 1.06 Jovian radii, Rj) and in polar orbit extending to the outer reaches of the Jovian magnetosphere. Jupiter's gravity and magnetic fields will be globally mapped with unprecedented accuracy as Juno conducts a study of Jupiter's interior structure and composition, as well as the first comprehensive exploration of the polar magnetosphere. The magnetic field investigation onboard Juno is equipped with two magnetometer sensor suites, located at 10 and 12 m from the spacecraft body at the end of one of the three solar panel wings. Each contains a vector fluxgate magnetometer (FGM) sensor and a pair of co-located non-magnetic star tracker camera heads which provide accurate attitude determination for the FGM sensors. The first few periapsis passes available to date revealed an extraordinary spatial variation of the magnetic field close to the planet's surface, suggesting that Juno may be sampling the field closer to the dynamo region than widely anticipated, i.e., portending a dynamo surface extending to relatively large radial distance ( 0.9Rj?). We present the first observations of Jupiter's magnetic field obtained in close proximity to the planet, and speculate on what wonders await as more longitudes are drawn across the global map (32 polar orbits separated by designed to acquire.

  7. Evidence for Two Hot-Jupiter Formation Paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Benjamin E.; Ford, Eric B.; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2017-09-01

    Disk migration and high-eccentricity migration are two well-studied theories to explain the formation of hot Jupiters. The former predicts that these planets can migrate up until the planet-star Roche separation ({a}{Roche}) and the latter predicts they will tidally circularize at a minimum distance of 2 {a}{Roche}. Considering long-running radial velocity and transit surveys have identified a couple hundred hot Jupiters to date, we can revisit the classic question of hot-Jupiter formation in a data-driven manner. We approach this problem using data from several exoplanet surveys (radial velocity, Kepler, HAT, and WASP) allowing for either a single population or a mixture of populations associated with these formation channels, and applying a hierarchical Bayesian mixture model of truncated power laws of the form {x}γ -1 to constrain the population-level parameters of interest (e.g., location of inner edges, γ, mixture fractions). Within the limitations of our chosen models, we find that the current radial velocity and Kepler sample of hot Jupiters can be well explained with a single truncated power-law distribution with a lower cutoff near 2 {a}{Roche}, a result that still holds after a decade, and γ =-0.51{+/- }0.200.19. However, the HAT and WASP data show evidence for multiple populations (Bayes factor ≈ {10}21). We find that 15{+/- }69 % reside in a component consistent with disk migration (γ =-0.04{+/- }1.270.53) and 85{+/- }96 % in one consistent with high-eccentricity migration (γ =-1.38{+/- }0.470.32). We find no immediately strong connections with some observed host star properties and speculate on how future exoplanet surveys could improve upon hot-Jupiter population inference.

  8. Jupiter's Phase Variations from Cassini: a testbed for future direct-imaging missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, Laura; Jackiewicz, Jason; Rages, Kathy; West, Robert; Knowles, Ben; Marley, Mark; Lewis, Nikole

    2016-10-01

    Phase curves are important for our understanding of the energy balance and scattering behavior of an exoplanet's atmosphere. In preparation for future direct-imaging missions of Jupiter-like planets, we present phase curves of Jupiter from 0--150 degrees as measured in multiple optical bandpasses by Cassini/ISS during the Millennium flyby of Jupiter in late 2000 to early 2001. We demonstrate and confirm that Jupiter is not well represented by a Lambertian phase function and that its color is more variable with phase angle than predicted by Jupiter-like models. This indicates that a Jupiter-twin observed near quadrature may not be as straightforward to classify as a Jupiter-like planet.

  9. Jupiter's Phase Variations from Cassini: a testbed for future direct-imaging missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, Laura; Jackiewicz, Jason; Rages, Kathy; West, Robert A.; Knowles, Ben; Lewis, Nikole K.; Marley, Mark S.

    2017-01-01

    Phase curves are important for our understanding of the energy balance and scattering behavior of an exoplanet's atmosphere. In preparation for future direct-imaging missions of Jupiter-like planets, in particular WFIRST, we present phase curves of Jupiter from 0--150 degrees as measured in multiple optical bandpasses by Cassini/ISS during the Millennium flyby of Jupiter in late 2000 to early 2001. We demonstrate and confirm that Jupiter is not well represented by a Lambertian phase function and that its color is more variable with phase angle than predicted by Jupiter-like models. This indicates that a Jupiter-twin observed near quadrature may not be as straightforward to classify as a Jupiter-like planet and comment on the implications for future missions.

  10. America's Star Libraries, 2010: Top-Rated Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry

    2010-01-01

    The "LJ" Index of Public Library Service 2010, "Library Journal"'s national rating of public libraries, identifies 258 "star" libraries. Created by Ray Lyons and Keith Curry Lance, and based on 2008 data from the IMLS, it rates 7,407 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three stars. All included libraries, stars or…

  11. America's Star Libraries, 2010: Top-Rated Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ray; Lance, Keith Curry

    2010-01-01

    The "LJ" Index of Public Library Service 2010, "Library Journal"'s national rating of public libraries, identifies 258 "star" libraries. Created by Ray Lyons and Keith Curry Lance, and based on 2008 data from the IMLS, it rates 7,407 public libraries. The top libraries in each group get five, four, or three stars. All included libraries, stars or…

  12. Molecular analysis of the bacterial diversity in a specialized consortium for diesel oil degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paixao, Douglas Antonio Alvaredo; Accorsini, Fabio Raphael; Vidotti, Maria Benincasa; Lemos, Eliana Gertrudes de Macedo [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCAV/UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias], Emails: douglas_unespfcav@yahoo.com.br, vidotti@netsite.com.bregerle@fcav.unesp.br; Dimitrov, Mauricio Rocha [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)], Email: mau_dimitrov@yahoo.com.br; Pereira, Rodrigo Matheus [EMBRAPARA Soybean - Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria (EMBRAPA - Soja), Londrina, PR (Brazil)], Email: poetbr@gmail.com

    2010-05-15

    Diesel oil is a compound derived from petroleum, consisting primarily of hydrocarbons. Poor conditions in transportation and storage of this product can contribute significantly to accidental spills causing serious ecological problems in soil and water and affecting the diversity of the microbial environment. The cloning and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene is one of the molecular techniques that allows estimation and comparison of the microbial diversity in different environmental samples. The aim of this work was to estimate the diversity of microorganisms from the Bacteria domain in a consortium specialized in diesel oil degradation through partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. After the extraction of DNA metagenomics, the material was amplified by PCR reaction using specific oligonucleotide primers for the 16S rRNA gene. The PCR products were cloned into a pGEM-T-Easy vector (Promega), and Escherichia coli was used as the host cell for recombinant DNAs. The partial clone sequencing was obtained using universal oligonucleotide primers from the vector. The genetic library obtained generated 431 clones. All the sequenced clones presented similarity to phylum Proteobacteria, with Gammaproteobacteria the most present group (49.8 % of the clones), followed by Alphaproteobacteira (44.8 %) and Betaproteobacteria (5.4 %). The Pseudomonas genus was the most abundant in the metagenomics library, followed by the Parvibaculum and the Sphingobium genus, respectively. After partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA, the diversity of the bacterial consortium was estimated using DOTUR software. When comparing these sequences to the database from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), a strong correlation was found between the data generated by the software used and the data deposited in NCBI. (author)

  13. Effects of the Consortium of Pseudomonas, Bacillus and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Johnny

    concluded that the consortium of these bacteria can be used for the decontamination of ... affects the oil fluid properties such as gravity, viscosity and other physical parameters of crude ... by attack on the aliphatic or light aromatic fraction of oil.

  14. Regional Development and the European Consortium of Innovative Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Saskia Loer; Kokkeler, Ben; van der Sijde, P. C.

    2002-01-01

    The European Consortium of Innovative Universities is a network that shares information not just among universities but with affiliated incubators, research parks, and other regional entities. The learning network contributes to regional development.(JOW)

  15. Kinetics and characteristics of phenanthrene degradation by a microbial consortium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jin; Xu Hongke; An Mingquan; Yan Guiwen

    2008-01-01

    The kinetics and characteristics of phenanthrene degradation by a microbial consortium W4 isolated from Henan Oilfield were investigated. The degradation percentage of solid phenanthrene at 200 mg/L in liquid medium after 6 days of incubation was higher than 95% under the condition of 37 ℃ and 120 r/min by this microbial consortium. The degradation of phenanthrene could be fitted to a first-order kinetic model with the half-life of 1.25 days. The optimum conditions for degradation of phenanthrene by consortium W4 were as follows: temperature about 37 ℃, pH from 6.0 to 7.0 and salinity about 8.0 g/L.It was concluded that microbial consortium W4 might degrade phenanthrene via both salicylic acid and o-phthalic acid pathways by analyzing products with GC-MS.

  16. AGRICOH: A Consortium of Agricultural Cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelia H. Zahm

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available AGRICOH is a recently formed consortium of agricultural cohort studies involving 22 cohorts from nine countries in five continents: South Africa (1, Canada (3, Costa Rica (2, USA (6, Republic of Korea (1, New Zealand (2, Denmark (1, France (3 and Norway (3. The aim of AGRICOH, initiated by the US National Cancer Institute (NCI and coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, is to promote and sustain collaboration and pooling of data to investigate the association between a wide range of agricultural exposures and a wide range of health outcomes, with a particular focus on associations that cannot easily be addressed in individual studies because of rare exposures (e.g., use of infrequently applied chemicals or relatively rare outcomes (e.g., certain types of cancer, neurologic and auto-immune diseases. To facilitate future projects the need for data harmonization of selected variables is required and is underway. Altogether, AGRICOH provides excellent opportunities for studying cancer, respiratory, neurologic, and auto-immune diseases as well as reproductive and allergic disorders, injuries and overall mortality in association with a wide array of exposures, prominent among these the application of pesticides.

  17. [Japan Spastic Paraplegia Research Consortium (JASPAC)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiyama, Yoshihisa

    2014-10-01

    Japan Spastic Paraplegia Research Consortium (JASPAC), a nationwide clinical and genetic survey of patients with hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), was started in 2006 as a project of the Research Committee for Ataxic Diseases of the Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare, Japan. To date (April 4, 2014), 448 indexed patients with HSP have been registered from 46 prefectures in Japan. We are now performing molecular testing of the HSP patients using Sanger sequencing (SPG4, SPG11, SPG31, and ARSACS), comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) array (SPG1, 2, 3A, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 15, 17, 20, 21, 31, 33, 39, 42, ABCD1, alsin, and ARSACS), and resequencing microarray (SPG1, 2, 3A, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 13, 17, 20, 21, 31, 33, and ABCD1). In 206 Japanese families with autosomal dominant HSP, SPG4 was the most common form, accounting for 38%, followed by SPG3A (5%), SPG31 (5%), SPG10 (2%), and SPG8 (1%). In 88 patients with autosomal recessive HSP, although SPG11 was the most common form, accounting for 6%, most showed significant genetic heterogeneity. The results of molecular testing will be applicable to patients in terms of improved positive diagnosis, follow-up, and genetic counseling. JASPAC will contribute to elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying HSP, and will facilitate the development of better treatments for HSP.

  18. Astroparticle Physics European Consortium Town Meeting Conference

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    The Astroparticle Physics European Consortium (APPEC) invites you to a town meeting at the Grand Amphithéatre de Sorbonne in Paris on the 6th and 7th April 2016 to discuss an update of the 2011 APPEC Astroparticle Physics roadmap, to be published in September 2016. In 2014 APPEC decided to launch an update of the 2011 Roadmap, transforming it to a “resource aware” roadmap. The intention was to gauge the financial impact of the beginnings of operation of the large global scale observatories put forward in the previous roadmap and to examine the possibilities of international coordination of future global initiatives. The APPEC Scientific Advisory Committee examined the field and prepared a set of recommendations. Based on these recommendations, the APPEC General Assembly drafted a set of “considerations” to be published by end of February 2016 and be debated in an open dialogue with the community, through the web page but primarily at the town meeting of 6-7 April. Based on this debate the final re...

  19. Toy Library and International Toy Library Association

    OpenAIRE

    Kamaraj, Işık

    2013-01-01

    Toy libraries are resource centers that provides assistance to young children and theirfamilies, gives consultancy service and information about plays, offers play materials andeducational activities and supplies appropriate materials and toys for child development aswell as contributing the development of children. Toy libraries are in commission all over theworld since 1935. The first toy library is opened in America, then in Sweden, England,Canada and Australia respectively. Today, there a...

  20. ISO celebrates its prolonged life with a video of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-07-01

    This is excellent news for astronomers and especially for the multinational teams, with leaders in France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom, who spent many years devising the four instruments served by ISO's telescope. The camera ISOCAM, the photometer ISOPHOT, the Short Wavelength Spectrometer and the Long Wavelength Spectrometer span between them an unprecedented range of infrared wavelengths from 2 to 200 microns. The atmosphere of Jupiter is one of the cool and cloudy places attracting ISO's attention, and ESA today releases a video of unprecedented images of Jupiter. The planet changes its appearance drastically as the camera ISOCAM scans a range of 90 different infrared wavelengths. Picture by picture, ISOCAM picks out different features of the atmosphere's composition and behaviour. These and other results from ISO will enable scientists to sharpen their ideas about how Jupiter's weather works. "ISO is giving us a new impression of the giant planets of the Solar System," comments Roger Bonnet, ESA's director of science. "Not just Jupiter, but Saturn, Uranus and Neptune too. By observing the planets across its very wide range of infrared wavelengths, ISO can see features overlooked even by spacecraft visiting the planets. The remarkable movie of Jupiter released today represents only a few per cent of ISO's wavelength range, yet every image tells its own story." More information about the Jupiter video appears later in this Information Note. How ISO's cold telescope beat the calendar The need to keep ISO's telescope and instruments chilled to a very low temperature sets a limit to their useful operating life. ISO was supplied with more than 2000 litres of superfluid helium to cool it. Slow evaporation maintains key parts of the spacecraft at temperatures close to absolute zero, below minus 271 degrees C. The rate of loss of helium was expected to be about 3 litres a day, but the cryogenic system could not be tested in exactly the conditions

  1. Biodeterioration studies of thermoplastics in nature using indigenous bacterial consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd. Shahbaz Anwar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermoplastics, poly vinyl chloride and low-density polyethylene were treated in the presence of indigenously developed bacterial consortium in laboratory and natural conditions. The consortium was developed using four bacteria, selected on the basis of utilization of PVC as primary carbon source, namely P. otitidis, B. aerius, B. cereus and A. pedis isolated from the plastic waste disposal sites in Northern India. The comparative in-vitro treatment studies as revealed by the spectral and thermal data, illustrated the relatively better biodegradation potential of developed consortium for PVC than the LDPE. Further, the progressive treatments of both the thermoplastics were conducted for three months under natural conditions. For this purpose, bioformulation of consortium was prepared and characterized for the viability up to 70 days of storage at 25±1ºC. The consortium treated polymer samples were monitored through SEM and FT-IR spectroscopy. Analytical data revealed the biodeterioration potential of the developed consortium for PVC and LDPE, which could help in disposing the plastic waste.

  2. Enrichment strategy to select functional consortium from mixed cultures: Consortium from rumen liquor for simultaneous cellulose degradation and hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Aijie; Ren, Nanqi [State Key Lab of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China); Gao, Lingfang; Xu, Jifei; Liu, Chong; Lee, Duu-Jong [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Strain isolation using conventional roll tube/plating technique is time consuming and is able to culture in vitro only a small fraction of existing microbes in a natural microflora. This paper proposed a simple and rapid method to select the as-simple-as-possible biological consortium by serially diluting the original mixed culture. The diluted which remains, while the one diluted in serial loses the target function, is defined as the functional consortium of the original mixed culture. Since the microbial structure and the reaction pathway incorporated with the functional consortium is much simpler than its original mother liquor, detailed analysis on the strain interaction is possible without the risk of losing key functional strains as often caused from conventional isolation method. The rumen liquor that can degrade cellulose and produce hydrogen is used as a demonstration example. A ''rumen cellulose-degrading bacterial consortium'' (RCBC) was identified using the proposed enrichment strategy. (author)

  3. Evolution of Jupiter's auroral-related stratospheric heating and chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, James; Orton, Glenn S.; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Moses, Julianne I.; Hue, Vincent; Irwin, Patrick Gerard Joseph; Melin, Henrik; Giles, Rohini Sara

    2016-10-01

    Auroral processes on Jupiter are evident over a large range of wavelengths. Emission at X-ray, UV and near-infrared wavelengths highlights the precipitation of charged particles in Jupiter's ionosphere. Jupiter's auroral regions also exhibit enhanced mid-infrared emission of CH4 (7.8-μm), C2H2 (13-μm), C2H4 (10.5-μm) and C2H6 (12.2-μm), which indicates auroral processes modify the thermal structure and chemistry of the neutral stratosphere at pressures from 10 mbar to 10 μbar. In Sinclair et al., 2016a (submitted), 2016b (in preparation), we investigated these processes further by performing a retrieval analysis of Voyager-IRIS (Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer) observations measured in November 1979, Cassini-CIRS (Composite Infrared Spectrometer) observations measured in January 2001 and IRTF-TEXES (Texas Echelon Cross Echelle Spectrograph on NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility) spectra measured in December 2014. These datasets however captured Jupiter at significantly different epochs and thus the overall global evolution of atmospheric conditions as well as differences in spatial sampling, spectral resolution (and therefore vertical resolution in the atmosphere) have made inferences of the temporal evolution in auroral regions a challenge. However, in April 2016, we acquired IRTF-TEXES observations of Jupiter's high latitudes, using observing parameters very similar to those in December 2014. By performing a similar analysis of these observations and comparing results between December 2014 and April 2016, we can investigate the evolution of the thermal structure and chemistry in Jupiter's auroral regions over a 15 month timescale. The magnitude of temperature/composition changes and the altitudes at which they occur will provide insights into how auroral processes in the ionosphere propagate to the stratosphere. In particular, we can assess whether the evolution of stratospheric conditions in auroral regions is related to the decrease in solar activity

  4. Libraries and Accessibility: Istanbul Public Libraries Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gül Yücel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the study; the assessment of accessibility has been conducted in Istanbul public libraries within the scope of public area. Public libraries commonly serve with its user of more than 20 million in total, spread to the general of Turkey, having more than one thousand branches in the centrums and having more than one million registered members. The building principles and standards covering the subjects such as the selection of place, historical and architectural specification of the region, distance to the centre of population and design in a way that the disabled people could benefit from the library services fully have been determined with regulations in the construction of new libraries. There are works for the existent libraries such as access for the disabled, fire safety precautions etc. within the scope of the related standards. Easy access by everyone is prioritized in the public libraries having a significant role in life-long learning. The purpose of the study is to develop solution suggestions for the accessibility problems in the public libraries. The study based on the eye inspection and assessments carried out within the scope of accessibility in the public libraries subsidiary to Istanbul Culture and Tourism Provincial Directorate Library and Publications Department within the provincial borders of Istanbul. The arrangements such as reading halls, study areas, book shelves etc. have been examined within the frame of accessible building standards. Building entrances, ramps and staircases, horizontal and vertical circulation of building etc. have been taken into consideration within the scope of accessible building standards. The subjects such as the reading and studying areas and book shelf arrangements for the library have been assessed within the scope of specific buildings. There are a total of 34 public libraries subsidiary to Istanbul Culture and Tourism Provincial Directorate on condition that 20 ea. of them are in the

  5. Acquiring E-Books for academic libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Woodward

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the recent work of the UK’s Joint Information Systems Committee ( JISC in the area of e-books. The JISC Collections Team is responsible for negotiating deals with publishers and aggregators of e-content for all UK higher education libraries - some 180 in total. In other words it acts as a national consortium for the UK academic community, although it should be noted that all deals are negotiated on an ‘opt-in’ basis. The JISC Collections Team is advised by a series of format-based working groups - comprising senior academic librarians and library practitioners - including the E-Books Working Group, the Journals Working Group and the Moving Images Working Group. Recently the working groups have formulated vision statements to help inform both their own activities and the education community as a whole. The vision for e-books in UK education is as follows: “The UK education community will have access to quality e-book content that is of high relevance to teaching, learning and research across the broadest range of subject areas. Flexible business and licensing models will support a diversity of needs, allowing users to do what they want when they want and how they want for education purposes. All e-books will be easily discoverable and consistent standards will allow all content to be fully integrated into library, learning and research environments.”

  6. Web archiving in the National and University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alenka Kavčič-Čolić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The National and University Library (NUK of Slovenia has been investigating web archiving methods and techniques since 2001. Under the new Legal Deposit Law adopted in 2006, NUK is the responsible institution for harvesting and archiving the Slovenian web. In 2008 NUK started archiving the Slovenian web by making use of the web harvesting and access tools developed by the IIPC International Internet Preservation Consortium (IIPC. The paper presents the complexity of web harvesting and gives an overview of the international practice and NUK’s cooperation in the IIPC consortium. Special attention is given to the analysis of public sector web content,harvested since 2008. Main goals of future developement of the web archive are an increase of harvested Slovenian web sites, the development of a user interface for public access and development of improved methods for harvesting technically problematic content.

  7. Antioxidant activity of the probiotic consortium in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saule Saduakhasova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Available evidence suggests that probiotics have different biological functions that depend on several mechanisms, such as antioxidant and DNA-protective activities. The probiotic consortium includes bacterial cultures such as Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and other bacterial cultures isolated from traditional Kazakh dairy products (ayran, kumys, shubat, and healthy clinical material. The aim of this study was to investigate the total antioxidant activity of the consortium of probiotic bacteria and to determine the activity of superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, and DNA-protective action. Material and methods: In vitro comet assay was used to determine the antigenotoxicity of the probiotic consortium. Total antioxidant activity was determined using a method of analysis with Trolox as the equivalent. The analysis method of superoxide dismutase activity assesses the inhibition rate of the nitroblue tetrazolium reduction to formazan by superoxide dismutase. Determination of glutathione reductase activity is based on the measurement of the NADPH oxidation speed. Results: A significantly high level of the total antioxidant activity of the probiotic consortium intact cells (15.3 mM/ml was observed whereas the activity index of  lysate  was 11.1 mM/ml. The superoxide dismutase activity of probiotic consortium lysate was evaluated, with values that peaked at 0.24 U/mg protein. The superoxide dismutase activity of the consortium was lower in comparison to L.fernentum E-3 and L.fernentum E-18 cultures with values of 0.85 U/mg and 0.76 U/mg protein, respectively. SOD activity of probiotic consortium whole cells was not observed, which is typical for lactic acid bacteria. Glutathione reductase plays an important role in the optimal protection from oxidative stress. Glutathione reductase activity of the studied probiotic consortium was low; moreover, the activity of the lysate was two times

  8. Jupiter's Phase Variations from Cassini: a testbed for future direct-imaging missions

    CERN Document Server

    Mayorga, L C; Rages, K; West, R A; Knowles, B; Lewis, N; Marley, M S

    2016-01-01

    We present phase curves of Jupiter from 0-140 degrees as measured in multiple optical bandpasses by Cassini/ISS during the Millennium flyby of Jupiter in late 2000 to early 2001. Phase curves are of interest for studying the energy balance of Jupiter and understanding the scattering behavior of Jupiter as an exoplanet analog. We find that Jupiter is significantly darker at partial phases than an idealized Lambertian planet by roughly 25% and is not well fit by Jupiter-like exoplanet atmospheric models across all wavelengths. We provide analytic fits to Jupiter's phase function in several Cassini/ISS imaging filter bandpasses. In addition, these observations show that Jupiter's color is more variable with phase angle than predicted by models. Therefore, the color of even a near Jupiter-twin planet observed at a partial phase cannot be assumed to be comparable to that of Jupiter at full phase. We discuss how WFIRST and other future direct-imaging missions can enhance the study of cool giants.

  9. The National Astronomy Consortium (NAC) - Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheth, Kartik; Mills, Elisabeth A. C.; Hooper, Eric; National Astronomy Consortium

    2015-01-01

    The National Astronomy Consortium (NAC; see https://sites.google.com/site/nraonac/) is a growing national partnership between majority and minority universities and institutions with the goal of increasing the numbers of under-represented minorities and students who might otherwise be overlooked by the traditional academic pipeline into STEM, or related, careers. The NAC model is based on the successful 'Posse Foundation' model for undergraduate success and incorporates all its major components: pre-training of cohorts to prepare them for the research experience, joint weekly cohort activities throughout the research summer, peer- and multiple mentoring, weekly discussion of various aspects of professional and career development, continued engagement of students in science after return to home institution and lifelong mentoring. The mentors also form a cohort, exchanging information and learning from each other. With its partner institutions, the NAC aims to build a complete pipeline from undergraduate through career for the next generation of scientists and engineers. Our annual goal is to create two to three cohorts of four to five students at each site (currently NRAO-Charlottesville, NRAO-Socorro and U. Wisconsin - Madison). Recruitment occurs in the fall semester with seminars and colloquia in partnership with faculty at the minority serving institutions and the GRAD-MAP program at the University of Maryland. In this talk we describe in detail all the components of the NAC and report on our progress. We are keen to interact and partner with new universities and institutions and encourage them to contact the NAC at nac4stem@googlegroups.com.

  10. Library Advocacy Now! Library Advocate's Handbook. [Videotape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Library Association Video/Library Video Network, Towson, MD.

    Libraries are one of the world's greatest assets. Changes in the political, social, and economic climate in the U.S. mean that people cannot take public access to information for granted. Intense competition for public, private, and institutional dollars makes it more crucial than ever that policymakers understand that libraries--public, school,…

  11. Libraries - LIBRARIES_ISL_IN: Libraries in Indiana (Indiana State Library, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — LIBRARIES_ISL_IN is a point shapefile showing the locations of 528 libraries included in Microsoft Excel spreadsheets that are downloadable from the Web page named...

  12. Libraries serving dialogue

    CERN Document Server

    Dupont, Odile

    2014-01-01

    This book based on experiences of libraries serving interreligious dialogue, presents themes like library tools serving dialogue between cultures, collections dialoguing, children and young adults dialoguing beyond borders, story telling as dialog, librarians serving interreligious dialogue.

  13. Integrated library systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, C M

    1983-07-01

    The development of integrated library systems is discussed. The four major discussion points are (1) initial efforts; (2) network resources; (3) minicomputer-based systems; and (4) beyond library automation. Four existing systems are cited as examples of current systems.

  14. Reutilizing Existing Library Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Marlys Cresap

    1987-01-01

    This discussion of the reutilization of existing library space reviews the decision process and considerations for implementation. Two case studies of small public libraries which reassigned space to better use are provided, including floor plans. (1 reference) (MES)

  15. Discovery of a Jupiter/Saturn Analog with Gravitational Microlensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudi, B; Bennett, D; Udalski, A; Gould, A; Christie, G; Maoz, D; Dong, S; McCormick, J; Szymanski, M; Tristram, P; Nikolaev, S; Paczynski, B; Kubiak, M; Pietrzynski, G; Soszynski, I; Szewczyk, O; Ulaczyk, K; Wyrzykowski, L; DePoy, D; Han, C; Kaspi, S; Lee, C; Mallia, F; Natusch, T; Pogge, R; Park, B; Abe, F; Bond, I; Botzler, C; Fukui, A; Hearnshaw, J; Itow, Y; Kamiya, K; Korpela, A; Kilmartin, P; Lin, W; Masuda, K; Matsubara, Y; Motomura, M; Muraki, Y; Nakamura, S; Okumura, T; Ohnishi, K; Rattenbury, N; Sako, T; Saito, T; Sato, S; Skuljan, L; Sullivan, D; Sumi, T; Sweatman, W; Yock, P; Albrow, M; Beaulieu, J; Burgdorf, M; Cook, K; Coutures, C; Dominik, M; Dieters, S; Fouque, P; Greenhill, J; Horne, K; Steele, I; Tsapras, Y; Chaboyer, B; Crocker, A; Frank, S; Macintosh, B

    2007-11-08

    Searches for extrasolar planets have uncovered an astonishing diversity of planetary systems, yet the frequency of solar system analogs remains unknown. The gravitational microlensing planet search method is potentially sensitive to multiple-planet systems containing analogs of all the solar system planets except Mercury. We report the first detection of a multiple-planet system with microlensing. We identify two planets with masses of {approx} 0.71 and {approx} 0.27 times the mass of Jupiter and orbital separations of {approx} 2.3 and {approx} 4.6 astronomical units orbiting a primary of mass {approx} 0.50 solar masses. This system resembles a scaled version of our solar system in that the mass ratio, separation ratio, and equilibrium temperatures of the planets are similar to those of Jupiter and Saturn. These planets could not have been detected with other techniques; their discovery from only 6 confirmed microlensing planet detections suggests that solar system analogs may be common.

  16. Mechanisms affecting the composition of Hot Jupiters atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Showman Adam P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Opacities and thus local chemical composition play a key role when characterizing exoplanet atmospheres from observations. When the gas is in chemical equilibrium the chemical abundances depend strongly on the temperature profile. Grey models tend to overestimate the temperatures in the upper atmosphere. We present a new analytical model with a more realistic description of the radiative cooling in the infrared. Mechanisms like quenching and cold traps can drive the upper atmosphere far from its chemical equilibrium. The efficiency of these mechanisms depends on the strength of the vertical mixing. Using 3D global circulation models of HD209458b including passive tracers, we show that, although Hot Jupiter atmospheres are stably stratified, they are strongly mixed by planetary scale circulation patterns. We provide a rough estimate of the effective vertical mixing coefficient in Hot Jupiter atmosphere which can be used in 1D models.

  17. Doppler Signatures of the Atmospheric Circulation on Hot Jupiters

    CERN Document Server

    Showman, Adam P; Lewis, Nikole K; Shabram, Megan

    2013-01-01

    The meteorology of hot Jupiters has been characterized primarily with thermal measurements, but recent observations suggest the possibility of directly detecting the winds by observing the Doppler shift of spectral lines seen during transit. Motivated by these observations, we show how Doppler measurements can place powerful constraints on the meteorology. We show that the atmospheric circulation--and Doppler signature--of hot Jupiters splits into two regimes. Under weak stellar insolation, the day-night thermal forcing generates fast zonal jet streams from the interaction of atmospheric waves with the mean flow. In this regime, air along the terminator (as seen during transit) flows toward Earth in some regions and away from Earth in others, leading to a Doppler signature exhibiting superposed blue- and redshifted components. Under intense stellar insolation, however, the strong thermal forcing damps these planetary-scale waves, inhibiting their ability to generate jets. Strong frictional drag likewise damps...

  18. Ongoing Analysis of Jupiter's Equatorial Hotspots and Plumes from Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, D. S.; Showmwn, A. P.; Vasavada, A. R.; Simon-Miller, A. A.

    2012-01-01

    We present updated results from our ongoing analysis of Cassini observations of Jupiter's equatorial meteorology. For two months preceding the spacecraft's closest approach of the planet, the ISS instrument onboard Cassini regularly imaged the atmosphere of Jupiter. We created time-lapse movies from this period that show the complex activity and interactions of the equatorial atmosphere. During this period, hot spots exhibited significant variations in size and shape over timescales of days and weeks. Some of these changes appear to be a result of interactions with passing vortex systems in adjacent latitudes. Strong anticyclonic gyres to the southeast of the dark areas converge with flow from the west and appear to circulate into a hot spot at its southwestern corner.

  19. Tidal Dissipation and Obliquity Evolution in Hot Jupiter Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Valsecchi, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Two formation scenarios have been proposed to explain the tight orbits of hot Jupiters. These giant planets could be formed in low-obliquity orbits via disk migration or in high-obliquity orbits via high-eccentricity migration, where gravitational interactions with a companion are at play, together with tidal dissipation. Here we target the observed misaligned hot Jupiter systems to investigate whether their current properties are consistent with high-eccentricity migration. Specifically, we study whether tidal dissipation in the star can be responsible for the observed distribution of misalignments and orbital separations. Improving on previous studies, we use detailed models for the stellar component, thus accounting for how convection (and thus tidal dissipation) depends on the host star properties. We find that the currently observed degree of misalignment increases as the amount of surface convection in the host star decreases. This trend supports the hypothesis that tides are the mechanism shaping the o...

  20. The STARE Project A Transit Search for Hot Jupiters

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, T M; Brown, Timothy M.; Charbonneau, David

    2000-01-01

    The STARE instrument is a small aperture, wide-field, CCD-based telescope that delivers high cadence time series photometry on roughly 40,000 stars in a typical field centered on the galactic plane. In a two-month observing run on a field, we obtain sufficient precision on roughly 4,000 stars to detect a close-in Jupiter-sized companion in an edge-on orbit. We also used this instrument to detect the planetary transits across the Sun-like star HD209458. The project is now in its third season, and we have acquired a large dataset on several fields. Given the frequency of close-in extrasolar planets found by the radial velocity surveys, and the recent confirmation that at least some of these are indeed gas giants, the STARE project should be able to detect roughly a dozen Jupiter-sized planets in its existing dataset.

  1. Influence of upstream solar wind on thermospheric flows at Jupiter

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, J N; Guio, P

    2010-01-01

    The coupling of Jupiter's magnetosphere and ionosphere plays a vital role in creating its auroral emissions. The strength of these emissions is dependent on the difference in speed of the rotational flows within Jupiter's high-latitude thermosphere and the planet's magnetodisc. Using an azimuthally symmetric global circulation model, we have simulated how upstream solar wind conditions affect the energy and direction of atmospheric flows. In order to simulate the effect of a varying dynamic pressure in the upstream solar wind, we calculated three magnetic field profiles representing compressed, averaged and expanded `middle' magnetospheres. These profiles were then used to solve for the angular velocity of plasma in the magnetosphere. This angular velocity determines the strength of currents flowing between the ionosphere and magnetosphere. We examine the influence of variability in this current system upon the global winds and energy inputs within the Jovian thermosphere. We find that the power dissipated by...

  2. Telecommunications Antennas for the Juno Mission to Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacchione, Joseph D.; Kruid, Ronald C.; Prata, Aluizio, Jr.; Amaro, Luis R.; Mittskus, Anthony P.

    2012-01-01

    The Juno Mission to Jupiter requires a full sphere of coverage throughout its cruise to and mission at Jupiter. This coverage is accommodated through the use of five (5) antennas; forward facing low gain, medium gain, and high gain antennas, and an aft facing low gain antenna along with an aft mounted low gain antenna with a torus shaped antenna pattern. Three of the antennas (the forward low and medium gain antennas) are classical designs that have been employed on several prior NASA missions. Two of the antennas employ new technology developed to meet the Juno mission requirements. The new technology developed for the low gain with torus shaped radiation pattern represents a significant evolution of the bicone antenna. The high gain antenna employs a specialized surface shaping designed to broaden the antenna's main beam at Ka-band to ease the requirements on the spacecraft's attitude control system.

  3. Where is the main source of Jupiter family comets situated?

    CERN Document Server

    Kazantsev, A M

    2012-01-01

    An attempt to determine spatial location of the main source of short-period comet nuclei was made. There were carried out numerical calculations for orbit evolution of Jupiter family comets, comets with middle-period orbits and bodies of Centaur group. On the basis of the calculations it was shown, that orbital evolution of the solar system small bodies is mainly going in the direction of the semi-major axes increase. It belongs to the bodies which can undergo approaches the planets, and orbital evolution of which is mainly going due to the gravitational forces. Such result is confirmed by qualitative analysis of changes of small body semi-major axes under approaches the planets. The conclusion was drawn that the main source of nuclei of Jupiter family comets is apparently situated at distances from the Sun not more than 6 AU.

  4. Solar wind collimation of the Jupiter high velocity dust streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flandes, A.; Krueger, H.

    2006-12-01

    The dust bursts discovered by the Ulysses dust sensor when approaching Jupiter in 1992 were later confirmed as collimated streams of high velocity (~200 km/s) charged (~5V) dust grains escaping from Jupiter and dominated by the interplanetary Magnetic field (IMF). With Cassini, a similar phenomenon was observed in Saturn. It was demonstrated that the Jovian dust streams are closely related to the solar wind compressed regions, either Corotating interaction regions (CIRs) or Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) ¨Cto a minor extent-. Actually the dust streams seem ultimately to be generated by such events. This can be explained considering that dust grains are accelerated as they gain substantial energy while compressed at the forward and reverse shocks that bound or precede these solar wind regions.

  5. Transmission spectral properties of clouds for hot Jupiter exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Wakeford, Hannah R

    2014-01-01

    Clouds have an important role in the atmospheres of planetary bodies. It is expected that, like all the planetary bodies in our solar system, exoplanet atmospheres will also have substantial cloud coverage, and evidence is mounting for clouds in a number of hot Jupiters. In order to better characterise planetary atmospheres we need to consider the effects these clouds will have on the observed broadband transmission spectra. Here we examine the expected cloud condensate species for hot Jupiter exoplanets and the effects of various grain sizes and distributions on the resultant transmission spectra from the optical to infrared, which can be used as a broad framework when interpreting exoplanet spectra. We note that significant infrared absorption features appear in the computed transmission spectrum, the result of vibrational modes between the key species in each condensate, which can potentially be very constraining. While it may be hard to differentiate between individual condensates in the broad transmissio...

  6. Telecommunications Antennas for the Juno Mission to Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacchione, Joseph D.; Kruid, Ronald C.; Prata, Aluizio, Jr.; Amaro, Luis R.; Mittskus, Anthony P.

    2012-01-01

    The Juno Mission to Jupiter requires a full sphere of coverage throughout its cruise to and mission at Jupiter. This coverage is accommodated through the use of five (5) antennas; forward facing low gain, medium gain, and high gain antennas, and an aft facing low gain antenna along with an aft mounted low gain antenna with a torus shaped antenna pattern. Three of the antennas (the forward low and medium gain antennas) are classical designs that have been employed on several prior NASA missions. Two of the antennas employ new technology developed to meet the Juno mission requirements. The new technology developed for the low gain with torus shaped radiation pattern represents a significant evolution of the bicone antenna. The high gain antenna employs a specialized surface shaping designed to broaden the antenna's main beam at Ka-band to ease the requirements on the spacecraft's attitude control system.

  7. Detection of an oxygen atmosphere on Jupiter's moon Europa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, D T; Strobel, D F; Feldman, P D; McGrath, M A; Weaver, H A

    1995-02-23

    Europa, the second large satellite out from Jupiter, is roughly the size of Earth's Moon, but unlike the Moon, it has water ice on its surface. There have been suggestions that an oxygen atmosphere should accumulate around such a body, through reactions which break up the water molecules and form molecular hydrogen and oxygen. The lighter H2 molecules would escape from Europa relatively easily, leaving behind an atmosphere rich in oxygen. Here we report the detection of atomic oxygen emission from Europa, which we interpret as being produced by the simultaneous dissociation and excitation of atmospheric O2 by electrons from Jupiter's magnetosphere. Europa's molecular oxygen atmosphere is very tenuous, with a surface pressure about 10(-11) that of the Earth's atmosphere at sea level.

  8. Secular Chaos and the Production of Hot Jupiters

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yanqin

    2010-01-01

    In a planetary system with two or more well-spaced, eccentric, inclined planets, secular interactions may lead to chaos. The innermost planet may gradually become very eccentric and/or inclined, as a result of the secular degrees of freedom drifting towards equipartition of angular momentum deficit. Secular chaos is known to be responsible for the eventual destabilization of Mercury in our own Solar System. Here we focus on systems with three giant planets. We characterize the secular chaos and demonstrate the criterion for it to occur, but leave a detailed understanding of secular chaos to a companion paper (Lithwick & Wu, 2010). After an extended period of eccentricity diffusion, the inner planet's pericentre can approach the star to within a few stellar radii. Strong tidal interactions and ensuing tidal dissipation extracts orbital energy from the planet and pulls it inward, creating a hot Jupiter. In contrast to other proposed channels for the production of hot Jupiters, such a scenario (which we term...

  9. Dust en-route to Jupiter and the Galilean satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Krüger, H; Krueger, Harald; Gruen, Eberhard

    2002-01-01

    Spacecraft investigations during the last ten years have vastly improved our knowledge about dust in the Jovian system. All Galilean satellites, and probably all smaller satellites as well, are sources of dust in the Jovian system. In-situ measurements with the dust detectors on board the Ulysses and Galileo spacecraft have for the first time demonstrated the electromagnetic interaction of charged dust grains with the interplanetary magnetic field and with a planetary magnetosphere. Jupiter's magnetosphere acts as a giant mass-velocity spectrometer for charged 10-nanometer dust grains. These dust grains are released from Jupiter's moon Io with typical rate of 1 kg s^1. The dust streams probe the plasma conditions in the Io plasma torus and can be used as a potential monitor of Io's volcanic plume activity. The other Galilean satellites are surrounded by tenuous impact-generated clouds of mostly sub-micrometer ejecta grains. Galileo measurements have demonstrated that impact-ejecta derived from hypervelocity i...

  10. ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION OF HOT JUPITERS: DAYSIDE–NIGHTSIDE TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komacek, Thaddeus D.; Showman, Adam P., E-mail: tkomacek@lpl.arizona.edu [Department of Planetary Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-04-10

    The full-phase infrared light curves of low-eccentricity hot Jupiters show a trend of increasing dayside-to-nightside brightness temperature difference with increasing equilibrium temperature. Here, we present a three-dimensional model that explains this relationship, in order to provide insight into the processes that control heat redistribution in tidally locked planetary atmospheres. This three-dimensional model combines predictive analytic theory for the atmospheric circulation and dayside–nightside temperature differences over a range of equilibrium temperatures, atmospheric compositions, and potential frictional drag strengths with numerical solutions of the circulation that verify this analytic theory. The theory shows that the longitudinal propagation of waves mediates dayside–nightside temperature differences in hot Jupiter atmospheres, analogous to the wave adjustment mechanism that regulates the thermal structure in Earth’s tropics. These waves can be damped in hot Jupiter atmospheres by either radiative cooling or potential frictional drag. This frictional drag would likely be caused by Lorentz forces in a partially ionized atmosphere threaded by a background magnetic field, and would increase in strength with increasing temperature. Additionally, the amplitude of radiative heating and cooling increases with increasing temperature, and hence both radiative heating/cooling and frictional drag damp waves more efficiently with increasing equilibrium temperature. Radiative heating and cooling play the largest role in controlling dayside–nightside temperature differences in both our analytic theory and numerical simulations, with frictional drag only being important if it is stronger than the Coriolis force. As a result, dayside–nightside temperature differences in hot Jupiter atmospheres increase with increasing stellar irradiation and decrease with increasing pressure.

  11. RE-INFLATED WARM JUPITERS AROUND RED GIANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Eric D. [Institute for Astronomy, Royal Observatory Edinburgh, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2016-02-10

    Since the discovery of the first transiting hot Jupiters, models have sought to explain the anomalously large radii of highly irradiated gas giants. We now know that the size of hot Jupiter radius anomalies scales strongly with a planet's level of irradiation and numerous models like tidal heating, ohmic dissipation, and thermal tides have since been developed to help explain these inflated radii. In general, however, these models can be grouped into two broad categories: models that directly inflate planetary radii by depositing a fraction of the incident irradiation into the interior and models that simply slow a planet's radiative cooling, allowing it to retain more heat from formation and thereby delay contraction. Here we present a new test to distinguish between these two classes of models. Gas giants orbiting at moderate orbital periods around post-main-sequence stars will experience enormous increases to their irradiation as their host stars move up the sub-giant and red-giant branches. If hot Jupiter inflation works by depositing irradiation into the planet's deep interiors then planetary radii should increase in response to the increased irradiation. This means that otherwise non-inflated gas giants at moderate orbital periods of >10 days can re-inflate as their host stars evolve. Here we explore the circumstances that can lead to the creation of these “re-inflated” gas giants and examine how the existence or absence of such planets can be used to place unique constraints on the physics of the hot Jupiter inflation mechanism. Finally, we explore the prospects for detecting this potentially important undiscovered population of planets.

  12. The New Horizons Mission to Pluto and Flyby of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Alan; Weaver, Hal; Young, Leslie; Bagenal, Fran; Binzel, Richard; Buratti, Bonnie; Cheng, andy; Cruikshank, Dale; Gladstone, Randy; Grundy, Will; Hinson, David; Horanyi, Mihaly; Jennings, Don; Linscott, Ivan; McComas, Dave; McKinnon, William; McNutt, Ralph; Moore, Jeffrey; Murchie, Scott; Olkin, Cathy; Porco, Carolyn; Reitsema, Harold; Reuter, Dennis; Slater, Dave; Spencer, John

    2008-01-01

    New Horizons (NH) is NASA's mission to provide the first in situ reconnaissance of Pluto and its moons Charon, Nix, and Hydra. The NH spacecraft will reach Pluto in July 2015 and will then, if approved for an extended mission phase, continue on to a flyby encounter with one or more Kuiper belt objects (KBOs). NH was launched on 19 January 2006 and received a gravity assist during a flyby encounter with Jupiter (with closest approach at -32 RJ on 28 February 2007) that reduced its flight time to Pluto by 3 years. During the Jupiter flyby, NH collected a trove of multi-wavelength imaging and fields-and-particles measurements. Among the many science results at Jupiter were a detection of planet-wide mesoscale waves, eruptions of atmospheric ammonia clouds, unprecedented views of Io's volcanic plumes and Jupiter's tenuous ring system, a first close-up of the Little Red Spot (LRS), first sightings of polar lightning, and a trip down the tail of the magnetosphere. In 2015, NH will conduct a seven-month investigation of the Pluto system culminating in a closest approach some 12,500 km from Pluto's surface. Planning is presently underway for the Pluto encounter with special emphasis on longidentified science goals of studying the terrain, geology, and composition of the surfaces of Pluto and Charon, examining the composition and structure of Pluto's atmosphere, searching for an atmosphere on Charon, and characterizing Pluto's ionosphere and solar wind interaction. Detailed inspections will also be performed of the newly discovered satellites Nix and Hydra. Additionally, NH will characterize energetic particles in Pluto's environment, refine the bulk properties of Pluto and Charon, and search for additional satellites and rings.

  13. Ionosphere-Thermosphere Coupling in Jupiter's Low Latitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, T.; Melin, H.; Johnson, R.; O'Donoghue, J.; Moore, L.; Miller, S.; Tao, C.; Achilleos, N. A.; Smith, C.; Ray, L. C.; Yates, J. N.

    2015-12-01

    One of the leading problems in our understanding of Jupiter's atmosphere, known colloquially as the 'energy crisis', is that the upper atmosphere has global temperatures far in excess of that predicted by solar heating. Unlike the Earth, solar heating has only a small effect on the thermosphere, varying little in temperature with local time, and with equatorial neutrals co-rotating with the planet due to meridional advection. Within the auroral region, ionosphere-thermosphere coupling produces strong flows and results in huge Joule Heating from auroral currents. In this region, the temperature excess can be explained, but Jupiter's fast rotation means that Coriolis forces prevent energy in the poles from transferring equatorward, so there remains no explanation of why low latitudes are overheated by a factor of 3-5 over that predicted by solar heating alone.Despite this anomaly, although the past twenty years has seen a wealth of new data and results in Jupiter's auroral region, studies of the equatorial region have been somewhat limited. This lack of investigation comes partly from the apparent uniform nature of the equatorial region, and partly from the difficulty in observing this region. It is only in the past three years that observers begun to re-examine this region, revealing evidence of complex interactions between the thermosphere and ionosphere, including what appears to be thermospheric weather patterns at a fixed planetary longitudes, stable over two decades; perhaps caused by continuous flows from the auroral region. Here, we introduce our recent research, in order to compare and contrast what has been observed at Jupiter with the more well understood interactions between Earth's ionosphere and thermosphere. We hope that this will open a discussion between the communities that will improve our understanding of the underlying physical processes, as they occur at both planets.

  14. The long-term evolution of hydrocarbons in Jupiter's stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, Henrik; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Giles, Rohini Sara; Sinclair, James; Orton, Glenn S.; Irwin, Patrick Gerard Joseph

    2016-10-01

    We present the global distribution of hydrocarbons in Jupiter's stratosphere using ground-based mid-infrared R~15,000 TEXES observations from the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF), obtained between 2013 and 2016. Ethane and acetylene are the primary products of methane photolysis in Jupiter's stratosphere, and their spatial distribution can be used to trace atmospheric circulation and the lifetimes of chemical constituents. Zonal mean distributions of these species have been previously studied from the Voyager and Cassini spacecraft (Nixon et al., 2010, doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2010.05.008), but the TEXES dataset now provides the opportunity to track the evolution of the hydrocarbons from Earth (Fletcher et al., 2016, doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2016.06.008 ). Global spectral maps of methane, ethane and acetylene emission are used to characterize the temporal evolution of large scale features in Jupiter's stratosphere (0.5-20 mbar?), including: equator to pole contrasts driven by large-scale stratospheric overturning; mid-latitude bands of elevated hydrocarbon emission; small-scale wave phenomena driven by meteorological activity in the underlying troposphere; and the tropical changes in emission related to Jupiter's Quasi-Quadrennial Oscillation. The NEMESIS spectral inversion tool (Irwin et al., 2008, doi: 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2007.11.006) is used to derive stratospheric temperatures and hydrocarbon abundances from spatially-resolved spectra at 744, 819, and 1247 cm-1. We use these to investigate the changes in the vertical temperature and ethane and acetylene distributions over time, with the aim of providing the global and temporal context for Juno's exploration of the jovian atmosphere in 2016/17.

  15. Modeling Jupiter's Quasi Quadrennial Oscillation (QQO) with Wave Drag Parameterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Rick; Morales-Juberias, Raul; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Orton, Glenn S.

    2016-10-01

    The QQO in Jupiter's atmosphere was first discovered after 7.8 micron infrared observations spanning the 1980's and 1990's detected a temperature oscillation near 10 hPa (Orton et al. 1991, Science 252, 537, Leovy et. al. 1991, Nature 354, 380, Friedson 1999, Icarus 137, 34). New observations using the Texas Echelon cross-dispersed Echelle Spectrograph (TEXES), mounted on the NASA Infrared Telescope facility (IRTF), have been used to characterize a complete cycle of the QQO between January 2012 and January 2016 (Greathouse et al. 2016, DPS) . These new observations not only show the thermal oscillation at 10 hPa, but they also show that the QQO extends upwards in Jupiter's atmosphere to pressures as high as 0.4 hPa. We incorporated three different wave-drag parameterizations into the EPIC General Circulation Model (Dowling et al. 1998, Icarus 132, 221) to simulate the observed Jovian QQO temperature signatures as a function of latitude, pressure and time using results from the TEXES datasets as new constraints. Each parameterization produces unique results and offers insight into the spectra of waves that likely exist in Jupiter's atmosphere to force the QQO. High-frequency gravity waves produced from convection are extremely difficult to directly observe but likely contribute a significant portion to the QQO momentum budget. We use different models to simulate the effects of waves such as these, to indirectly explore their spectrum in Jupiter's atmosphere by varying their properties. The model temperature outputs show strong correlations to equatorial and mid-latitude temperature fields retrieved from the TEXES datasets at different epochs. Our results suggest the QQO phenomenon could be more than one alternating zonal jet that descends over time in response to Jovian atmospheric forcing (e.g. gravity waves from convection).Research funding provided by the NRAO Grote Reber Pre-Doctoral Fellowship. Computing resources include the NMT PELICAN cluster and the CISL

  16. The abundance and distribution of water vapor in Jupiter's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjoraker, Gordon L.; Larson, Harold P.; Kunde, Virgil G.

    1986-01-01

    The atmospheric transmission window between 1800 and 2250/cm in Jupiter's atmosphere was observed from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory and by the IR spectrometer (IRIS) on Voyager. The vertical distribution of H2O was derived for the 1-6 bar portion of Jupiter's troposphere. The spatial variation of H2O was measured using IRIS spectra of the Hot Spots in the North and South Equatorial Belts (NEB, SEB) and the Equatorial Zone and for an average of the North and South Tropical Zones. The H2O column abundance above the 4 bar level is the same in the zones as in the SEB Hot Spots, about 20 cm amagats. The NEB Hot Spots are desiccated by a factor of 3 with respect to the rest of Jupiter. For an average between -40 and +40 deg latitude, the H2O mole fraction, qH2O, is saturated for P less than 2 bars, qH2O = 4 millionths in the 2-4 bar range, and it increases to 3/100,000 at 6 bars. A similar vertical profile applies to the spatially resolved zone and belt spectra, except that H2O falls off more rapidly at P less than 4 bars in the NEB Hot Spots. A massive H2O cloud at 5 bars, T = 273 K is inconsistent with the observations. Instead, a thin H2O ice cloud would form at 2 bars, T = 200 K. The O/H ratio in Jupiter, inferred from H2O measurements in both belts and zones at 6 bars, is depleted by a factor of 50 with respect to the sun.

  17. Electrodynamic tethers for exploration of Jupiter and its icy moons

    OpenAIRE

    Sanmartín Losada, Juan Ramón

    2006-01-01

    Use of electrodynamic bare tethers in exploring the Jovian system by tapping its rotational energy for power and propulsion is studied. The position of perijove and apojove in elliptical orbits, relative to the synchronous orbit at 2.24 times Jupiter’s radius, is exploited to conveniently make the induced Lorentz force to be drag or thrust, while generating power, and navigating the system. Capture and evolution to a low elliptical orbit near Jupiter, and capture into low circular orbits at m...

  18. Library planning in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedrich Geisselmann

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The position and the efficiency of German libraries are rather ambivalent. On the one hand the infrastructure is quite well developed: 2000 public library systems with full time personnel, 275 million books issued, 75 million Euro for acquisitions; 280 scientific general libraries, 60 million books issued, 1300 million Euro for acquisitions. Nevertheless there are a lot of problems, which arise from the administrative structure and the political position of libraries.

  19. Construction and screening of marine metagenomic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Nancy; Löscher, Carolin; Metzger, Rebekka; Schmitz, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Marine microbial communities are highly diverse and have evolved during extended evolutionary processes of physiological adaptations under the influence of a variety of ecological conditions and selection pressures. They harbor an enormous diversity of microbes with still unknown and probably new physiological characteristics. Besides, the surfaces of marine multicellular organisms are typically covered by a consortium of epibiotic bacteria and act as barriers, where diverse interactions between microorganisms and hosts take place. Thus, microbial diversity in the water column of the oceans and the microbial consortia on marine tissues of multicellular organisms are rich sources for isolating novel bioactive compounds and genes. Here we describe the sampling, construction of large-insert metagenomic libraries from marine habitats and exemplarily one function based screen of metagenomic clones.

  20. Architectural and chemical insights into the origin of hot Jupiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaufman, Kevin C.

    2015-10-01

    The origin of Jupiter-mass planets with orbital periods of only a few days is still uncertain. This problem has been with us for 20 years, long enough for significant progress to have been made, and also for a great deal of ``lore" to have accumulated about the properties of these planets. Among this lore is the widespread belief that hot Jupiters are less likely to be in multiple giant planet systems than longer-period giant planets. I will show that in this case the lore is not supported by the best data available today: hot Jupiters are not lonely. I will also show that stellar sodium abundance is inversely proportional to the probability that a star hosts a short-period giant planet. This observation is best explained by the effect of decreasing sodium abundance on protoplanetary disk structure and reveals that planetesimal-disk or planet-disk interactions are critical for the existence of short-period giant planets.

  1. The Atmospheric Dynamics of Jupiter, Saturn, and Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flasar, F. M.

    2009-01-01

    Comparative studies of Jupiter and Saturn often emphasize their similarities, but recent observations have highlighted important differences. The stratospheres of both planets exhibit an equatorial oscillation reminiscent of that in Earth's middle atmosphere. Jupiter's oscillation has a 4-5 year period, not linked to its season, and it has been modeled as an analog to the terrestrial quasi-biennial oscillation, driven by the stresses associated with vertically propagating waves. Saturn's equatorial oscillation is nearly semiannual, but wave activity may still be a driver. Jupiter's internal rotation rate is inferred from its steady modulated radio emission. Saturn's internal rotation is more enigmatic. It has been inferred from the modulation of the body's kilometric radio emission, but this period has varied by 1% over the last 25 years. Saturn's equatorial winds are also puzzling, as those inferred from cloud tracking by Cassini and more recent HST observations are weaker than those from Voyager. Whether this is attributable to a difference in altitudes of the tracked clouds in winds with vertical shear or a real temporal change in the winds is not known. Both winter and summer poles of Saturn exhibit very compact circumpolar vortices with warm cores, indicating subsidence. Titan's middle atmosphere is characterized by global cyclostrophic winds, particularly the strong circumpolar vortex in the winter hemisphere. In many ways, the spatial distribution of temperature, gaseous constituents, and condensates is reminiscent of conditions in terrestrial winter vortices, albeit with different chemistry. The meridional contrast in Titan's tropospheric temperatures is small, only a few kelvins.

  2. The effect of Jupiter oscillations on Juno gravity measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Durante, D; Iess, L

    2016-01-01

    Seismology represents a unique method to probe the interiors of giant planets. Recently, Saturn's f-modes have been indirectly observed in its rings, and there is strong evidence for the detection of Jupiter global modes by means of ground-based, spatially-resolved, velocimetry measurements. We propose to exploit Juno's extremely accurate radio science data by looking at the gravity perturbations that Jupiter's acoustic modes would produce. We evaluate the perturbation to Jupiter's gravitational field using the oscillation spectrum of a polytrope with index 1 and the corresponding radial eigenfunctions. We show that Juno will be most sensitive to the fundamental mode ($n=0$), unless its amplitude is smaller than 0.5 cm/s, i.e. 100 times weaker than the $n \\sim\\ 4 - 11$ modes detected by spatially-resolved velocimetry. The oscillations yield contributions to Juno's measured gravitational coefficients similar to or larger than those expected from shallow zonal winds (extending to depths less than 300 km). In th...

  3. The effect of Jupiter oscillations on Juno gravity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Daniele; Guillot, Tristan; Iess, Luciano

    2017-01-01

    Seismology represents a unique method to probe the interiors of giant planets. Recently, Saturn's f-modes have been indirectly observed in its rings, and there is strong evidence for the detection of Jupiter global modes by means of ground-based, spatially-resolved, velocimetry measurements. We propose to exploit Juno's extremely accurate radio science data by looking at the gravity perturbations that Jupiter's acoustic modes would produce. We evaluate the perturbation to Jupiter's gravitational field using the oscillation spectrum of a polytrope with index 1 and the corresponding radial eigenfunctions. We show that Juno will be most sensitive to the fundamental mode (n = 0), unless its amplitude is smaller than 0.5 cm/s, i.e. 100 times weaker than the n ∼ 4 - 11 modes detected by spatially-resolved velocimetry. The oscillations yield contributions to Juno's measured gravitational coefficients similar to or larger than those expected from shallow zonal winds (extending to depths less than 300 km). In the case of a strong f-mode (radial velocity ∼ 30 cm/s), these contributions would become of the same order as those expected from deep zonal winds (extending to 3000 km), especially on the low degree zonal harmonics, therefore requiring a new approach to the analysis of Juno data.

  4. Phosphine absorption in the 5-micron window of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, R.; Taylor, F. W.

    1979-01-01

    Since the original suggestion by Gillett et al. (1969) it has generally been assumed that the region of partial transparency near 5 micron in Jupiter's atmosphere (the 5-micron window) is bounded by the nu sub 4 NH3 at 6.1 micron and the nu sub 3 CH4 band at 3.3 micron. New measurements of Jupiter and of laboratory phosphine (PH3) samples show that PH3 is a significant contributor to the continuum opacity in the window and in fact defines its short-wavelength limit. This has important implications for the use of 5-micron observations as a means to probe the deep atmospheric structure of Jupiter. The abundance of PH3 which results from a comparison of Jovian and laboratory spectra is about 3 to 5 cm-am. This is five to eight times less than that found by Larson et al. (1977) in the same spectral region, but is in good agreement with the result of Tokunaga et al. (1979) from 10-micron observations.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmospheres of Titan and Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Carl; Khare, B. N.; Thompson, W. R.; Mcdonald, G. D.; Wing, Michael R.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Arakawa, E. T.

    1993-01-01

    PAHs are important components of the interstellar medium and carbonaceous chondrites, but have never been identified in the reducing atmospheres of the outer solar system. Incompletely characterized complex organic solids (tholins) produced by irradiating simulated Titan atmospheres reproduce well the observed UV/visible/IR optical constants of the Titan stratospheric haze. Titan tholin and a tholin generated in a crude simulation of the atmosphere of Jupiter are examined by two-step laser desorption/multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry. A range of two- to four-ring PAHs, some with one to four alkylation sites, are identified, with a net abundance of about 0.0001 g/g (grams per gram) of tholins produced. Synchronous fluorescence techniques confirm this detection. Titan tholins have proportionately more one- and two-ring PAHs than do Jupiter tholins, which in turn have more four-ring and larger PAHs. The four-ringed PAH chrysene, prominent in some discussions of interstellar grains, is found in Jupiter tholins.

  6. First Observation of Jupiter by XMM-Newton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Elsner, R. F.; Gladstone, G. R.; Ramsay, G.; Rodriquez, P.; Soria, R.; Waite, J. H., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    We present the first X-ray observation of Jupiter by XMM-Newton. Images taken with the EPIC cameras show prominent emission, essentially all confined to the 0.2-2.0 keV band, from the planet s auroral spots; their spectra can be modelled with a combination of unresolved emission lines of highly ionised oxygen (OW and O W) , and a pseudo-continuum which may also be due to the superposition of many weak lines. A 2.8 enhancement in the RGS spectrum at 21-22 A (-0.57 keV) is consistent with an O W identification. Our spectral analysis supports the hypothesis that Jupiter s auroral emissions originate from the capture and acceleration of solar wind ions in the planet s magnetosphere, followed by X-ray production by charge exchange. The X-ray flux of the North spot is modulated at Jupiter s rotation period. We do not detect evidence for the -45 min X-ray oscillations observed by C W r u more than two years earlier. Emission from the equatorial regions of the planet s disk is also observed. Its spectrum is consistent with that of scattered solar X-rays.

  7. Radiative signals from impact of Shoemaker-Levy on Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Thomas J.; Orton, Glenn S.; Takata, Toshiko; Okeefe, John D.

    1994-01-01

    The temperature and internal energy fields calculated by Takata et al. in the plume are used to calculate the greybody thermal radiation emitted versus wavelength to predict what might be observed by several spectral sensors operating from different platforms when fragments of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL-9) impact Jupiter in July 1994. A SPH code was used by Takata et al. to calculate the full three dimensional flow and thermodynamic fields in the comet fragment and the atmosphere of Jupiter. We determined the fragment penetration depth, energy partitioning between the atmosphere and the impactor, and energy density deposited per unit length over the trajectory. Once the impactor had disintegrated and stopped, and the strong atmospheric shock decayed, the flow is driven by buoyancy effects. We then used our SPH code to calculate the flow and thermodynamic fields: pressure, article velocity, temperature, and internal energy distributions in the plume. The calculations for 2 and 10 km cometary fragments yield maximum deposition depths of approximately 175 and 525 km, respectively (1 bar = 0 km depth). We also calculated that 0.7 and 0.6 of the initial kinetic energy of the 10 and 2 km bolides, respectively, are deposited as internal energy in Jupiter's atmosphere.

  8. The Collision of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 and Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Keith S.; Weaver, Harold A.; Feldman, Paul D.

    2006-11-01

    Participants; Preface; 1. The orbital motion and impact circumstances of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 Paul W. Chodas and Donald K. Yeomans; 2. Observational constraints on the composition and nature of Comet D/Shoemaker-Levy 9 Jacques Crovisier; 3. Tidal breakup of the nucleus of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 Zdenek Sekanina; 4. Earth-based observations of impact phenomena Philip D. Nicholson; 5. HST imaging of Jupiter shortly after each impact: plumes and fresh sites Heidi B. Hammel; 6. Galileo observations of the impacts Clark R. Chapman; 7. Models of fragment penetration and fireball evolution David A. Crawford; 8. Entry and fireball models vs. observations: what have we learned? Mordecai-Mark Mac Low; 9. Dynamics and chemistry of SL9 plumes Kevin Zahnle; 10. Chemistry induced by the impacts: observations Emmanuel Lellouch; 11. SL9 impact chemistry: long-term photochemical evolution Julianne I. Moses; 12. Particulate matter in Jupiter's atmosphere from the impacts of Comet P/Shoemaker-Levy 9 Robert A. West; 13. Jupiter's post-impact atmospheric thermal response Barney J. Conrath; 14. Growth and dispersion of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 impact features from HST imaging Reta F. Beebe; 15. Waves from the Shoemaker-Levy 9 impacts Andrew P. Ingersoll and Hiroo Kanamori; 16. Jovian magnetospheric and auroral effects of the SL9 impacts Wing-Huen Ip.

  9. Imaging Jupiter's radiation belts down to 127 MHz with LOFAR

    CERN Document Server

    Girard, J N; Tasse, C; Hess, S; de Pater, I; Santos-Costa, D; Nenon, Q; Sicard, A; Bourdarie, S; Anderson, J; Asgekar, A; Bell, M E; van Bemmel, I; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Breton, R P; Broderick, J W; Brouw, W N; Brüggen, M; Ciardi, B; Corbel, S; Corstanje, A; de Gasperin, F; de Geus, E; Deller, A; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Falcke, H; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; Grießmeier, J; Gunst, A W; Hessels, J W T; Hoeft, M; Hörandel, J; Iacobelli, M; Juette, E; Kondratiev, V I; Kuniyoshi, M; Kuper, G; van Leeuwen, J; Loose, M; Maat, P; Mann, G; Markov, S; McFadden, R; McKay-Bukowski, D; Moldon, J; Munk, H; Nelles, A; Norden, M J; Orru, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Rowlinson, A; Schwarz, D; Smirnov, O; Steinmetz, M; Swinbank, J; Tagger, M; Thoudam, S; Toribio, M C; Vermeulen, R; Vocks, C; van Weeren, R J; Wijers, R A M J; Wucknitz, O

    2015-01-01

    Context. Observing Jupiter's synchrotron emission from the Earth remains today the sole method to scrutinize the distribution and dynamical behavior of the ultra energetic electrons magnetically trapped around the planet (because in-situ particle data are limited in the inner magnetosphere). Aims. We perform the first resolved and low-frequency imaging of the synchrotron emission with LOFAR at 127 MHz. The radiation comes from low energy electrons (~1-30 MeV) which map a broad region of Jupiter's inner magnetosphere. Methods (see article for complete abstract) Results. The first resolved images of Jupiter's radiation belts at 127-172 MHz are obtained along with total integrated flux densities. They are compared with previous observations at higher frequencies and show a larger extent of the synchrotron emission source (>=4 $R_J$). The asymmetry and the dynamic of east-west emission peaks are measured and the presence of a hot spot at lambda_III=230 {\\deg} $\\pm$ 25 {\\deg}. Spectral flux density measurements ar...

  10. Re-inflated Warm Jupiters Around Red Giants

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Eric D

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of the first transiting hot Jupiters, models have sought to explain the anomalously large radii of highly irradiated gas giants. We now know that the size of hot Jupiter radius anomalies scales strongly with a planet's level of irradiation and numerous models like tidal heating, ohmic dissipation, and thermal tides have since been developed to help explain these inflated radii. In general however, these models can be grouped into two broad categories: 1) models that directly inflate planetary radii by depositing a fraction of the incident irradiation into the interior and 2) models that simply slow a planet's radiative cooling allowing it to retain more heat from formation and thereby delay contraction. Here we present a new test to distinguish between these two classes of models. Gas giants orbiting at moderate orbital periods around post main sequence stars will experience enormous increases their irradiation as their host stars move up the sub-giant and red-giant branches. If hot Jupite...

  11. Behavior of Jupiter Non-Trojan Co-Orbitals

    CERN Document Server

    Wajer, Paweł

    2012-01-01

    Searching for the non-Trojan Jupiter co-orbitals we have numerically integrated orbits of 3\\,160 asteroids and 24 comets discovered by October 2010 and situated within and close to the planet co-orbital region. Using this sample we have been able to select eight asteroids and three comets and have analyzed their orbital behavior in a great detail. Among them we have identified five new Jupiter co-orbitals: \\cu, \\sa, \\ql, \\gh, and \\Larsen, as well as we have analyzed six previously identified co-orbitals: \\hr, \\ug, \\qq, \\aee, \\wc\\ and \\ar. \\cu\\ is currently on a quasi-satellite orbit with repeatable transitions into the tadpole state. Similar behavior shows \\gh\\ which additionally librates in a compound tadpole-quasi-satellite orbit. \\ql\\ and \\Larsen\\ are the co-orbitals of Jupiter which are temporarily moving in a horseshoe orbit occasionally interrupted by a quasi-satellite behavior. \\sa\\ is moving in a pure horseshoe orbit. Orbits of the latter three objects are unstable and according to our calculations, t...

  12. The Effect of Stellar Evolution on Migrating Warm Jupiters

    CERN Document Server

    Frewen, Shane

    2015-01-01

    Warm jupiters are an unexpected population of extrasolar planets that are too near to their host to have formed in situ, but distant enough to retain a significant eccentricity in the face of tidal damping. These planets are curiously absent around stars larger than two solar radii. We hypothesize that the warm jupiters are migrating due to Kozai-Lidov oscillations, which leads to transient episodes of high eccentricity and a consequent tidal decay. As their host evolves, such planets would be rapidly dragged in or engulfed at minimum periapse, leading to a rapid depletion of the population with increasing stellar radius, as is observed. Using numerical simulations, we determine the relationship between periapse distance and orbital migration rate for planets 0.1 to 10 Jupiter masses and with orbital periods between 10 and 100 days. We find that Kozai-Lidov oscillations effectively result in planetary removal early in the evolution of the host star, possibly accounting for the observed deficit. While the obse...

  13. The collapse of Io's primary atmosphere in Jupiter eclipse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Constantine C. C.; Spencer, John R.; Lellouch, Emmanuel; Lopez-Valverde, Miguel A.; Richter, Matthew J.

    2016-08-01

    Volcanic outgassing due to tidal heating is the ultimate source of a tenuous SO2 atmosphere around Jupiter's moon Io. The question of whether SO2 frost on the surface plays a part, and to what degree, in maintaining Io's atmosphere with the constant volcanic outgassing is still debated. It is believed that for a sublimation-supported atmosphere, the primary atmosphere should collapse during eclipses by Jupiter, as the SO2 vapor pressure is strongly coupled to the temperature of the ice on the surface. No direct observations of Io's atmosphere in eclipse have previously been possible, due to the simultaneous need for high spectral and time sensitivity, as well as a high signal-to-noise ratio. Here we present the first ever high-resolution spectra at 19 µm of Io's SO2 atmosphere in Jupiter eclipse from the Gemini telescope. The strongest atmospheric band depth is seen to dramatically decay from 2.5 ± (0.08)% before the eclipse to 0.18 ± (0.16)% after 40 min in eclipse. Further modeling indicates that the atmosphere has collapsed shortly after eclipse ingress, implying that the atmosphere of Io has a strong sublimation-controlled component. The atmospheric column density—from pre-eclipse to in-eclipse—drops by a factor of 5 ± 2.

  14. Learning Boost C++ libraries

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Arindam

    2015-01-01

    If you are a C++ programmer who has never used Boost libraries before, this book will get you up-to-speed with using them. Whether you are developing new C++ software or maintaining existing code written using Boost libraries, this hands-on introduction will help you decide on the right library and techniques to solve your practical programming problems.

  15. Library Skills Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Constance; And Others

    This self-paced library skills workbook provides incoming students with an introduction to the physical arrangement and use of the university libraries. Divided into two sections, the first contains explanations of the catalogs, classification system, and various library resources. The second consists of practical exercises keyed to the…

  16. Biology Library Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Constance; And Others

    A library skills workbook provides college biology students with an introduction to biological library resources. Divided into two sections, the first contains explanations of the various steps in the library research process. The second consists of exercises keyed to the explanatory chapters of the first section. (RAA)

  17. A Truly Bookless Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolowich, Steve

    2011-01-01

    The difference between the University of Texas at San Antonio's Applied Engineering and Technology Library and other science-focused libraries is not that its on-site collection is also available electronically. It is that its on-site collection is only available electronically. The idea of libraries with no bound books has been a recurring theme…

  18. Changing State Digital Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown that state virtual or digital libraries are evolving into websites that are loaded with free resources, subscription databases, and instructional tools. In this article, the author explores these evolving libraries based on the following questions: (1) How user-friendly are the state digital libraries?; (2) How do state digital…

  19. Technostress and Library Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses information overload and society's and libraries' responses to technology. Considers eight values that libraries should focus on and how they relate to technology in libraries: democracy, stewardship, service, intellectual freedom, privacy, rationalism, equity of access, and building harmony and balance. (LRW)

  20. Changing State Digital Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown that state virtual or digital libraries are evolving into websites that are loaded with free resources, subscription databases, and instructional tools. In this article, the author explores these evolving libraries based on the following questions: (1) How user-friendly are the state digital libraries?; (2) How do state digital…

  1. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sport for You Shyness About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library Print A A A Did you ever wonder ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  2. School Libraries and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Kevin G.

    2015-01-01

    School library programs have measured success by improved test scores. But how do next-generation school libraries demonstrate success as they strive to be centers of innovation and creativity? These libraries offer solutions for school leaders who struggle to restructure existing systems built around traditional silos of learning (subjects and…

  3. Body Basics Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness About the Body Basics Library KidsHealth > For Teens > About the Body Basics Library A A A Did you ever wonder what ... system, part, and process works. Use this medical library to find out about basic human anatomy, how ...

  4. Public Library Finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    This study reviews trends in public library finance; examines recent political, economic, and technological changes; and assesses the impact of these changes on public library services. A history of the public library in America is presented, as well as an analysis of the principles of economics and public finance which reveals that current…

  5. The Electronic, Eclectic Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowlin, Kenneth E.

    1980-01-01

    Utilization of telecommunications and computer technology to increase access to information is identified as a primary goal for public libraries. To further service in the future, libraries should consider database services, online access to library resources, online community conferencing, community databases, network resource sharing,…

  6. Merchandising Your Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivulich, Kenneth G.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses library circulation figures as a reflection of the success of library services and describes merchandising techniques that have produced a 137 percent circulation increase at Queens Borough Public Library over the past seven years. Merchandising techniques such as minibranches, displays, signage, dumps, and modified shelving are…

  7. Marketing Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Melissa, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Ask any academic librarian if marketing their library and its services is an important task, and the answer will most likely be a resounding "yes!" Particularly in economically troubled times, librarians are increasingly called upon to promote their services and defend their library's worth. Since few academic libraries have in-house marketing…

  8. Merchandising Your Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivulich, Kenneth G.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses library circulation figures as a reflection of the success of library services and describes merchandising techniques that have produced a 137 percent circulation increase at Queens Borough Public Library over the past seven years. Merchandising techniques such as minibranches, displays, signage, dumps, and modified shelving are…

  9. Marketing Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Melissa, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Ask any academic librarian if marketing their library and its services is an important task, and the answer will most likely be a resounding "yes!" Particularly in economically troubled times, librarians are increasingly called upon to promote their services and defend their library's worth. Since few academic libraries have in-house marketing…

  10. School Libraries and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Kevin G.

    2015-01-01

    School library programs have measured success by improved test scores. But how do next-generation school libraries demonstrate success as they strive to be centers of innovation and creativity? These libraries offer solutions for school leaders who struggle to restructure existing systems built around traditional silos of learning (subjects and…

  11. FY 2009 Public Libraries Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Dig into FY 2009 data on public library systems (referred to as administrative entities in the Public Libraries Survey) and main libraries, branches, and bookmobiles...

  12. FY 2011 Public Libraries Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Dig into FY 2011 data on public library systems (referred to as administrative entities in the Public Libraries Survey) and main libraries, branches, and bookmobiles...

  13. FY 2010 Public Libraries Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Dig into FY 2010 data on public library systems (referred to as administrative entities in the Public Libraries Survey) and main libraries, branches, and bookmobiles...

  14. FY 2008 Public Libraries Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Institute of Museum and Library Services — Dig into FY 2008 data on public library systems (referred to as administrative entities in the Public Libraries Survey) and main libraries, branches, and bookmobiles...

  15. Spin-orbit angle measurements for six southern transiting planets; New insights into the dynamical origins of hot Jupiters

    CERN Document Server

    Triaud, Amaury H M J; Queloz, Didier; Anderson, David R; Gillon, Michaël; Hebb, Leslie; Hellier, Coel; Loeillet, Benoît; Maxted, Pierre F; Mayor, Michel; Pepe, Francesco; Pollacco, Don; Ségransan, Damien; Smalley, Barry; Udry, Stéphane; West, Richard G; Wheatley, Peter J

    2010-01-01

    For transiting planets, the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect allows the measurement of the sky-projected angle beta between the stellar rotation axis and a planet's orbital axis. Using the HARPS spectrograph, we observed the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect for six transiting hot Jupiters found by the WASP consortium. We combine these with long term radial velocity measurements obtained with CORALIE. We found that three of our targets have a projected spin-orbit angle above 90 degrees: WASP-2b: beta = 153 (+11 -15), WASP-15b: beta = 139.6 (+5.2 -4.3) and WASP-17b: beta = 148.5 (+5.1 -4.2); the other three (WASP-4b, WASP-5b and WASP-18b) have angles compatible with 0 degrees. There is no dependence between the misaligned angle and planet mass nor with any other planetary parameter. All orbits are close to circular, with only one firm detection of eccentricity on WASP-18b with e = 0.00848 (+0.00085 -0.00095). No long term radial acceleration was detected for any of the targets. Combining all previous 20 measurements of bet...

  16. German Librarianship and Munich Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ümit Özen

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available There are 27 municipal libraries including the Central Public Library in Munich. The other important libraries in the city are Bayern State National Library, Maximillian University Library, a technical highschool library and the "Deutsches Musuem" Library. All these libraries are financed locally. The author introduces these libraries briefly and compares German libraries with Turkish libraries. He concludes that although theoretically there are not distinctive differences, in practice, buildings and their layout are better in Germany where more variety of services are offered. In Turkey standardization has not been realized yet. Turkey needs to computerize and network to improve the services offered in an efficient way.

  17. Understanding of particle acceleration and loss in Jupiter's magnetosphere from Juno mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Scott

    2016-07-01

    Juno is the first Jupiter polar mission. Juno science goals include the study of Jupiter's origin, interior structure, deep atmosphere, aurora and magnetosphere. The payload consists of a set of microwave antennas for deep sounding, magnetometers, gravity radio science, low and high energy charged particle detectors, electric and magnetic field radio and plasma wave experiment, ultraviolet imaging spectrograph, infrared imager and a visible camera. Juno's extensive suite of fields and particle experiments along with the UV and IR imagers will provide the first detailed investigation of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere. The set of six microwave radiometers on Juno provide an unprecedented view of Jupiter's synchrotron emission from inside Jupiter's powerful radiation belts. The Juno mission design, science goals, and measurements related to the magnetosphere and radiation belts of Jupiter will be presented.

  18. National University Consortium on Microwave Research (NUCOMR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Robert J.; Agee, Forrest J.

    1995-09-01

    This paper introduces a new cooperative research program of national scale that is focused on crucial research issues in the development of high energy microwave sources. These have many applications in the DOD and industry. The Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), in coopertaion with the Phillips Laboratory, the Naval Research Laboratory, and the Army Research Laboratory, has established a tri-service research consortium to investigate novel high energy microwave sources. The program is part of the DODs 'Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative' and will be funded at a rate of $DLR3.0M per year for up to five years. All research performed under this program will be unclassified. Under its auspices, HPM scientists at nine US universities will be attacking twenty-two separate research projects under the leadership of Neville Luhmann at UC-Davis, Victor Granatstein at Maryland, Magne Kristiansen at Texas Tech, Edl Schamiloglu at New Mexico, John Nation at Cornell, Ned Birdsall at UC-Berkeley, George Caryotakis at Standord, Ronald Gilgenbach at Michigan, and Anthony Lin at UCLA. To facilitate the rapid transition of research results into the industrial community, formal collaborative subcontracts are already in place with James Benford at Physics International, Carter Armstrong at Northrop, and Glen Huffman at Varian Associates. Although this new program officially only came into existence in mid-March of this year, it builds on over a decade of microwave research efforts funded by the plasma physics office at AFOSR. It also is synergistic with the ongoing Tri-Service Vacuum Electronics Initiative led by Robert Parker of NRL as well as with the AFOSR's and Rome Laboratory's long standing Advanced Thermionic Research Initiative. An overview will be given of the broad spectrum of research objectives encompassed by NUCOMR. Areas of collaboration and technology transfer will be highlighted. The areas in which the three university consortia will conduct

  19. Extracting Data From Jupiter GPS Receiver%Jupiter GPS接收机数据的提取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兆瑞; 戴陇咸; 林强

    2002-01-01

    在各种利用GPS OEM板进行二次开发应用的工作中,对GSP数据的提取是必不可少的过程.文章给出了基于SBS-PC-104 486嵌入式计算机提取Jupiter GPS接收机数据的过程和方法,并且给出了相应的程序流程图.

  20. Plans and Combined Operations of the Flight Elements of the Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erd, Christian; Clark, K.; Ejsm System Teams

    2010-05-01

    The Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) is a joint NASA-ESA mission candidate, where ESA would provide the Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO) and NASA would provide the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO). Both spacecraft are foreseen to be launched in 2020, allowing for a joint exploration of the Jovian system, and the Galilean moons. The planning of the development, implementation and combined science phase will be described in the poster.