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Sample records for juniperus communis var

  1. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY OF SHOOTS OF JUNIPERUS COMMUNIS L. FROM CUPRESSACEAE FAMILY

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    F. K. Serebryanaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted morphological and anatomical studies of Juniperus communis, revealed diagnostic indices of the stamina, stalk, and needle. The leaf is sessile, linear awe shaped, pointed. Stalk form at cross section is cylindrical. Needles are lanceolar with one whitish vertical stripe, with paracytic stomata. 

  2. Immunogenic Properties of Ricinus Communis Var Minor Seed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Ogunji

    1College of Health Technology, Zawan, Plateau State.2Department of ... Ricinus communis var minor seed included in their feed (5g/100g body weight). ... White Blood cell Count (WBC) count and lymphocytosis in the differential count.

  3. Evaluation of Sebostatic Activity of Juniperus communis Fruit Oil and Pelargonium graveolens Oil Compared to Niacinamide

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    Justyna Kozlowska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available As a facial skin condition, oily skin causes cosmetic problems, such as large pores, shiny appearance, and the feeling of greasiness and heaviness. Furthermore, extensive sebum production leads to common skin disorders such as acne vulgaris or seborrheic dermatitis. This study investigated the efficacy of sebum control tonics containing Juniperus communis fruit oil, Pelargonium graveolens oil, or niacinamide. The effects of Juniperus communis fruit oil, Pelargonium graveolens oil, and niacinamide on sebum excretion rates were investigated using Sebumeter®. Sebum measurements (Sebumeter® SM 815, Courage & Khazaka®, Köln, Germany were made on the skin surface in three places by applying the sebumeter probe to the forehead after 10, 60, and 120 min from application of the tonic. The results indicated that the application of the tonic maintained a lower sebum secretion 10 min and 60 min after the application of the cosmetic, compared to those before it. However, a visible sebum-reducing efficacy after 2 h was reported only for tonic containing 0.25% Pelargonium graveolens oil and for the tonic with the addition of 3% niacinamide. After 2 h, the values of sebum measurements were 44 ± 5.13 a.u. and 58 ± 9.07 a.u., respectively. Our results show that the tonic with the addition of 0.25% Pelargonium graveolens oil is the most effective in reducing sebum production.

  4. Component composition of essential oils and ultrastructure of secretory cells of resin channel needles Juniperus communis (Cupressaceae

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    N. V. Gerling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of determining the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oil Juniperus communis, growing under the canopy of spruce blueberry sphagnum subzone middle taiga. Juniperus communis essential oil is liquid light yellow color. The content of essential oil was 0.46 % in shoots with needles. 37 substances of components identified. Mass fraction of components in the essential oil of Juniperus communis reached 89 %. The highest percentage of occupied fraction of monoterpenes (82.3 %, the proportion of sesquiterpenes less than 0.5 % of the total composition of essential oils, alcohols 3.5 and 0.7 % esters. In monoterpenes fraction predominant α-pinene (24.5–32.6 %, β-pinene (15–20.3 % and α-phellandrene (6.4–8.8 %. Essential oil of Juniperus communis is characterized by high content of monoterpenoids in contrast to other conifers of the taiga zone. All stages of biosynthesis essential oils occur in the epithelial cells of the resin channel (terpenoidogennyh cells. An oval shape have epithelial cells of the resin channel needles in transverse sections the Juniperus communis, which is situated vacuole in the center. Large number of lipid globules (up to 40 noted in the hyaloplasm of explored cells. Leucoplasts surrounded by membranes of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in cross sections of epithelial cells in resin channel of juniper. Endoplasmic reticulum is poorly developed in epithelial cells, which corresponds to the low content of sesquiterpenes in the needles during the study period. Development of large leucoplasts and large number of mitochondria associated with predominance of synthesis monoterpenoids the in the epithelium cells resin channel.

  5. Increased temperatures negatively affect Juniperus communis seeds: evidence from transplant experiments along a latitudinal gradient.

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    Gruwez, R; De Frenne, P; Vander Mijnsbrugge, K; Vangansbeke, P; Verheyen, K

    2016-05-01

    With a distribution range that covers most of the Northern hemisphere, common juniper (Juniperus communis) has one of the largest ranges of all vascular plant species. In several regions in Europe, however, populations are decreasing in size and number due to failing recruitment. One of the main causes for this failure is low seed viability. Observational evidence suggests that this is partly induced by climate warming, but our mechanistic understanding of this effect remains incomplete. Here, we experimentally assess the influence of temperature on two key developmental phases during sexual reproduction, i.e. gametogenesis and fertilisation (seed phase two, SP2) and embryo development (seed phase three, SP3). Along a latitudinal gradient from southern France to central Sweden, we installed a transplant experiment with shrubs originating from Belgium, a region with unusually low juniper seed viability. Seeds of both seed phases were sampled during three consecutive years, and seed viability assessed. Warming temperatures negatively affected the seed viability of both SP2 and SP3 seeds along the latitudinal gradient. Interestingly, the effect on embryo development (SP3) only occurred in the third year, i.e. when the gametogenesis and fertilisation also took place in warmer conditions. We found strong indications that this negative influence mostly acts via disrupting growth of the pollen tube, the development of the female gametophyte and fertilisation (SP2). This, in turn, can lead to failing embryo development, for example, due to nutritional problems. Our results confirm that climate warming can negatively affect seed viability of juniper. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  6. Genetic structure and diversity in Juniperus communis populations in Saxony, Germany

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    Reim Stefanie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, land use changes led to a rapid decline and fragmentation of J. communis populations in Germany. Population isolation may lead to a restricted gene flow and, further, to negative effects on genetic variation. In this study, genetic diversity and population structure in seven fragmented J. communis populations in Saxony, Germany, were investigated using nuclear microsatellites (nSSR and chloroplast single nucleotide polymorphism (cpSNP. In all Saxony J. communis populations, a high genetic diversity was determined but no population differentiation could be detected whatever method was applied (Bayesian cluster analysis, F-statistics, AMOVA. The same was true for three J. communis out-group samples originating from Italy, Slovakia and Norway, which also showed high genetic diversity and low genetic differences regarding other J. communis populations. Low genetic differentiation among the J. communis populations ascertained with nuclear and chloroplast markers indicated high levels of gene flow by pollen and also by seeds between the sampled locations. Low genetic differentiation may also provide an indicator of Juniper survival during the last glacial maximum (LGM in Europe. The results of this study serve as a basis for the implementation of appropriate conservation measures in Saxony.

  7. Chemical Composition of Juniperus communis L. Cone Essential Oil and Its Variability among Wild Populations in Kosovo.

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    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Nebija, Dashnor; Miftari, Elheme; Quave, Cassandra L; Novak, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Ripe cones of Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae) were collected from five wild populations in Kosovo, with the aim of investigating the chemical composition and natural variation of essential oils between and within wild populations. Ripe cones were collected, air dried, crushed, and the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation. The essential-oil constituents were identified by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The yield of essential oil differed depending on the population origins and ranged from 0.4 to 3.8% (v/w, based on the dry weight). In total, 42 compounds were identified in the essential oils of all populations. The principal components of the cone-essential oils were α-pinene, followed by β-myrcene, sabinene, and D-limonene. Taking into consideration the yield and chemical composition, the essential oil originating from various collection sites in Kosovo fulfilled the minimum requirements for J. communis essential oils of the European Pharmacopoeia. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to determine the influence of the geographical variations on the essential-oil composition. These statistical analyses suggested that the clustering of populations was not related to their geographic location, but rather appeared to be linked to local selective forces acting on the chemotype diversity. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  8. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of leaves essential oil of Juniperus communis (Cupressaceae grown in Republic of Macedonia

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    Floresha Sela

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils isolated from leaves of three different samples of wild growing Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae from R. Macedonia was investigated. Essential oil yield ranged from 7.3 to 9.0 ml/kg. Performing GC/ FID/MS analysis, ninety components were identified, representing 86.07-93.31% of the oil. The major components of the leaves essential oil (LEO were α-pinene (21.37-28.68% and sabinene (2.29-16.27%, followed by limonene, terpinen-4-ol, β-elemene, trans-(E-caryophyllene, germacrene D and δ-cadinene. Antimicrobial screening of the LEO was made by disc diffusion and broth dilution method against 16 bacterial isolates of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and one strain of Candida albicans. Two bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes were sensitive to antimicrobial activity of LEO (MIC = 125 µl/ml. Additionally, LEO showed moderate antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus agalactiae, Haemophilus influnzae, Corynebacterium spp. and Campylobacter jejuni (MIC > 500 µl/ml. Candida albicans, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Acinetobacter spp., Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis were completely resistant to the antimicrobial effects of this.

  9. Chemical characterization and radical scavenging activity of leaves of Juniperus foetidisima, J. excelsa and J. communis from Macedonian flora

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    Marija Karapandzova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Chemical characterization of three Juniperus species: J. foetidisima (JF, J. excelsa (JE and J. communis (JC from Macedonian flora enclosed determination of yield and essential oil composition of the oils obtained by hydro-distillation of dried leaves and determination of the content of total phenols and total flavonoids in dried plant material. GC/FID/MS analysis showed mainly monoterpene profile of the JC oil and combined monoterpene/sesquiterpene profile of JF and JE oils. Sesquiterpene cedrol was found as an important constituent of the JF and JE, thus the JF oil was characterized by three main components (a-pinene, limonene and cedrol, in amount up to 67.63%, 27.11% and 33.91%, respectively and JE oil by four components (a-pinene, sabinene, cis-thujone and cedrol, in amount up to 33.83%, 29.49%, 26.20% and 24.44%, respectively. The JC oil was free of cedrol, but contained relatively large sesquiterpene fraction (sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygen containing sesquiterpenes in amounts up to 28.64% and 13.57%, respectively. The JC oil was characterized by three monoterpene components (a-pinene, sabinene and terpinen-4-ol, presented up to 28.68%, 16.27% and 12.16%, respectively. The content of total phenols determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method ranged from 96.18-122.91 mg GAE/g dw (water extraction while the content of total flavonoids ranged from 2.05-11.91 mg CE/g dw (ethanol extraction. Both water and ethanol extracts possessed radical scavenging activity against DPPH radical. Water extracts were more powerful with % of inhibition of DPPH ranging up to 64.52%, 67.40% and 78.23% for water extract (10 mg/ml of JF, JE and JC, respectively. Obtained results showed correlation with the content of total phenols.

  10. Modeling the kinetics of essential oil hydrodistillation from juniper berries (Juniperus communis L. using non-linear regression

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    Radosavljević Dragana B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents kinetics modeling of essential oil hydrodistillation from juniper berries (Juniperus communis L. by using a non-linear regression methodology. The proposed model has the polynomial-logarithmic form. The initial equation of the proposed non-linear model is q = q∞•(a•(logt2 + b•logt + c and by substituting a1=q∞•a, b1 = q∞•b and c1 = q∞•c, the final equation is obtained as q = a1•(logt2 + b1•logt + c1. In this equation q is the quantity of the obtained oil at time t, while a1, b1 and c1 are parameters to be determined for each sample. From the final equation it can be seen that the key parameter q∞, which presents the maximal oil quantity obtained after infinite time, is already included in parameters a1, b1 and c1. In this way, experimental determination of this parameter is avoided. Using the proposed model with parameters obtained by regression, the values of oil hydrodistillation in time are calculated for each sample and compared to the experimental values. In addition, two kinetic models previously proposed in literature were applied to the same experimental results. The developed model provided better agreements with the experimental values than the two, generally accepted kinetic models of this process. The average values of error measures (RSS, RSE, AIC and MRPD obtained for our model (0.005; 0.017; –84.33; 1.65 were generally lower than the corresponding values of the other two models (0.025; 0.041; –53.20; 3.89 and (0.0035; 0.015; –86.83; 1.59. Also, parameter estimation for the proposed model was significantly simpler (maximum 2 iterations per sample using the non-linear regression than that for the existing models (maximum 9 iterations per sample. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR-35026

  11. Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius, an endophytic fungus from Juniperus communis L. Horstmann as a novel source of the anticancer pro-drug deoxypodophyllotoxin.

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    Kusari, S; Lamshöft, M; Spiteller, M

    2009-09-01

    Isolation, identification and characterization of an endophytic fungus from Juniperus communis L. Horstmann, as a novel producer of deoxypodophyllotoxin and its in vitro antimicrobial assay. The methodology for the isolation, identification and characterization of a novel endophytic fungus from the twigs of the J. communis L. Horstmann plant, which specifically and consistently produces deoxypodophyllotoxin, was unequivocally established. The fungus was identified as Aspergillus fumigatus Fresenius by molecular, morphological and physiological methods. Deoxypodophyllotoxin was identified and quantified by high-resolution LC-MS, LC-MS(2) and LC-MS(3). The antimicrobial efficacy of the fungal deoxypodophyllotoxin against a panel of pathogenic bacteria was established. The production of deoxypodophyllotoxin (found in the host) by the cultured endophyte is an enigmatic observation. It demonstrates the transfer of gene(s) for such accumulation by horizontal means from the host plant to its endophytic counterpart. It would be interesting to further study the deoxypodophyllotoxin production and regulation by the cultured endophyte in J. communis and in axenic cultures. This endophyte is a potential handle for scientific and commercial exploitation. Although the current accumulation of deoxypodophyllotoxin by the endophyte is not very high, it could be scaled-up to provide adequate production to satisfy new drug development and clinical needs. However, further refined precursor-feeding and mass-balance studies are required to result in the consistent and dependable production.

  12. Genetic structure and seed-mediated dispersal rates of an endangered shrub in a fragmented landscape: a case study for Juniperus communis in northwestern Europe

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    Adriaenssens Sandy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population extinction risk in a fragmented landscape is related to the differential ability of the species to spread its genes across the landscape. The impact of landscape fragmentation on plant population dynamics will therefore vary across different spatial scales. We quantified successful seed-mediated dispersal of the dioecious shrub Juniperus communis in a fragmented landscape across northwestern Europe by using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP markers. Furthermore we investigated the genetic diversity and structure on two spatial scales: across northwestern Europe and across Flanders (northern Belgium. We also studied whether seed viability and populations size were correlated with genetic diversity. Results Unexpectedly, estimated seed-mediated dispersal rates were quite high and ranged between 3% and 14%. No population differentiation and no spatial genetic structure were detected on the local, Flemish scale. A significant low to moderate genetic differentiation between populations was detected at the regional, northwest European scale (PhiPT = 0.10. In general, geographically nearby populations were also genetically related. High levels of within-population genetic diversity were detected but no correlation was found between any genetic diversity parameter and population size or seed viability. Conclusions In northwestern Europe, landscape fragmentation has lead to a weak isolation-by-distance pattern but not to genetic impoverishment of common juniper. Substantial rates of successful migration by seed-mediated gene flow indicate a high dispersal ability which could enable Juniperus communis to naturally colonize suitable habitats. However, it is not clear whether the observed levels of migration will suffice to counterbalance the effects of genetic drift in small populations on the long run.

  13. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Ricinus communis var. carmencita leaf extract and its antibacterial study

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    Ojha, Sunita; Sett, Arghya; Bora, Utpal

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we report synthesis of silver nanoparticles (RcAgNPs) from silver nitrate solution using methanolic leaf extract of Ricinus communis var. carmencita. The polyphenols present in the leaves reduce Ag++ ions to Ag0 followed by a color change. Silver nanoparticle formation was ensured by surface plasmon resonance between 400 nm to 500 nm. Crystallinity of the synthesized nanoparticles was confirmed by UHRTEM, SAED and XRD analysis. The capping of phytochemicals and thermal stability of RcAgNPs were assessed by FTIR spectra and TGA analysis, respectively. It also showed antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative strains. RcAgNPs were non-toxic against normal cell line (mouse fibroblast cell line L929) at lower concentrations (80 µg ml-1).

  14. The Standardized Extract of Juniperus communis Alleviates Hyperpigmentation in Vivo HRM-2 Hairless Mice and in Vitro Murine B16 Melanoma Cells.

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    Jegal, Jonghwan; Chung, Ki Wung; Chung, Hae Young; Jeong, Eun Ju; Yang, Min Hye

    2017-01-01

    In European folk medicine, the fruits of Juniperus communis are used in the treatment of skin-related disorders such as skin infection, itching, and psoriasis. Previously, we reported that the EtOAc fraction of J. communis (EAJC) contained tyrosinase inhibition properties in vitro non-cellular experiment. The aim of this study was to evaluate anti-melanogenic effect of standardized EAJC on a hyperpigmentation animal model. Therapeutic effects of EAJC toward skin hyperpigmentation were confirmed by both in vivo experiment and in vitro cell-based assay. Skin depigmenting effect was detected by topical treatment of EAJC for 11 d to HRM-2 melanin-possessing hairless mice. Histologic findings including significantly decreased melanin depositions could be observed in dorsal skin samples of EAJC-treated group. In addition, the EAJC (50 µg/mL) attenuated melanin production through down-regulation of tyrosinase activity and protein expression in B16 murine melanoma cells. According to the phytochemical analysis, EAJC was found to contain hypolaetin-7-O-β-D-xylopyranoside and isoscutellarein-7-O-β-D-xylopyranoside as main components. Hypolaetin-7-O-β-D-xylopyranoside was responsible for the skin-lightening effect of EAJC by reducing the number of melanocytes in dorsal skins of HRM-2 mice. The present study provided direct experimental evidence for skin-lightening effect of EAJC in UV-irradiated hairless mouse model. Therapeutic attempts with the J. communis might be useful in the management of skin pigmentation-related diseases.

  15. Characterization of myrtle seed (Myrtus communis var. baetica as a source of lipids, phenolics, and antioxidant activities

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    Wissem Aidi Wannes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to characterize the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of the oil and the methanolic extract of Myrtus communis var. baetica seed. The oil yield of myrtle seed was 8.90%, with the amount of neutral lipid, especially triacylglycerol, being the highest, followed by phospholipids and glycolipids. Total lipids and all lipid classes were rich in linoleic acid. The content of total phenols, flavonoids, tannins, and proanthocyanidins of the methanolic extract and the oil from myrtle seed was determined using spectrophotometric methods. Antioxidant activities of the oil and the methanolic extract from myrtle seed were evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging, β-carotene–linoleic acid bleaching, and reducing power and metal chelating activity assays. In all tests, the methanolic extract of myrtle seed showed better antioxidant activity than oil. This investigation could suggest the use of myrtle seed in food, industrial, and biomedical applications for its potential metabolites and antioxidant abilities.

  16. CARACTERIZACIÓN TECNOLÓGICA DE LA MADERA DE Juniperus flaccida VAR. POBLANA MARTÍNEZ

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    A. Borja de la Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se realizó con la finalidad de conocer las características y propiedades tecnológicas de la madera de Juniperus flaccida var. poblana Martínez, para lo cual se utilizó la metodología del Laboratorio de Anatomía y Tecnología de la Madera de la División de Ciencias Forestales de la Universidad Autónoma Chapingo. Las propiedades físicas se determinaron según la norma NOM-EE-167-83 y las mecánicas de acuerdo a las normas ASTM 143-83 en el Campo Experimental San Martinito, del Instituto de Investigaciones Forestales, Agrícolas y Pecuarias (INIFAP. Los resultados con relación a las características anatómicas fueron los siguientes: la madera presenta un color castaño claro en el duramen y amarillo pálido en la albura, brillo medio, veteado suave, textura fina, hilo recto, sabor característico y olor aromático. Las traqueidas son largas, de diámetro tangencial mediano y paredes delgadas; presentan una hilera de puntuaciones areoladas seriadas, las puntuaciones de los campos de cruzamiento son tipo cupresoide y el parénquima axial es escaso. Los rayos de tipo uniseriados numerosos, muy bajos y muy angostos; los rayos y las células parenquimatosas axiales presentan aceites. La proporción de elementos fue 92 % de traqueidas, 7.72 de parénquima de rayo y 0.18 % de parénquima axial. La densidad básica fue de 0.50 g·cm-3, las contracciones totales fueron: volumétrica de 8.42 %, tangencial de 4.26 % y radial de 3.02 %; y los hinchamientos totales: volumétrico de 9.17 %, tangencial de 4.45 % y radial de 3.12 %. El punto de saturación de la fibra fue de 33 %; el coeficiente de hinchamiento 0.278 %, y la relación de anisotropía de 1.41. Los valores promedio de las propiedades mecánicas al 12 % de contenido de humedad (CH y en condición verde, se clasificaron de medios a bajos en ambas condiciones de contenido de humedad. Considerando las características anatómicas y los valores de las propiedades f

  17. Identification of flavonoids and hydroxycinnamic acids in pak choi varieties (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis) by HPLC-ESI-MSn and NMR and their quantification by HPLC-DAD.

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    Harbaum, Britta; Hubbermann, Eva Maria; Wolff, Christian; Herges, Rainer; Zhu, Zhujun; Schwarz, Karin

    2007-10-03

    Twenty-eight polyphenols (11 flavonoid derivatives and 17 hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives) were detected in different cultivars of the Chinese cabbage pak choi ( Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis var. communis) by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS(n). Kaempferol was found to be the major flavonoid in pak choi, glycosylated and acylated with different compounds. Smaller amounts of isorhamnetin were also detected. A structural determination was carried out by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy for the main compound, kaempferol-3-O-hydroxyferuloylsophoroside-7-O-glucoside, for the first time. Hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives were identified as different esters of quinic acid, glycosides, and malic acid. The latter ones are described for the first time in cabbages. The content of polyphenols was determined in 11 cultivars of pak choi, with higher concentrations present in the leaf blade than in the leaf stem. Hydroxycinnamic acid esters, particularly malic acid derivatives, are present in both the leaf blade and leaf stem, whereas flavonoid levels were determined only in the leaf blade.

  18. Crossdating Juniperus procera from North Gondar, Ethiopia

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    Wils, T.; Robertson, I.; Eshetu, Z.; Touchan, R.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Koprowski, M.

    2011-01-01

    The application of dendrochronology in (sub)tropical regions has been limited by the difficulty in finding trees with distinct annual rings that can be crossdated. Here, we report successful crossdating of Juniperus procera trees from North Gondar, Ethiopia. The trees form annual rings in response

  19. Antifungal Efficacy of Myrtus communis Linn

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    Sadeghi Nejad; Erfani Nejad; Yusef Naanaie; Zarrin

    2014-01-01

    Background The ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis Linn. leaves was assayed in vitro as a growth inhibitor against opportunistic fungi such as Candida and Aspergillus species. Myrtus communis Linn. (Family, Myrtaceae) is an aromatic evergreen shrub or small tree. It is native to the Mediterranean region. Objectives This study aimed to assess antifungal activity (in vitro) of the ethanolic extracts of Myrtus communis leaves as a g...

  20. Activity of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) against Spodoptera ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the most studied plant species with insecticidal properties is the castor bean Ricinus communis. However, its activity against Spodoptera frugiperda is unclear. Therefore, to determinate the insecticidal and insectistatic activities of methanol, hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of the seeds and leaves of R. communis, ...

  1. Secondary metabolites and bioactivities of Myrtus communis

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    Mahmoud I Nassar; El-Sayed A Aboutabl; Rania F Ahmed; Ezzel-Din A El-Khrisy; Khaled M Ibrahim; Amany A Sleem

    2010-01-01

    Background: Myrtus species are characterized by the presence of phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, volatile oils and fatty acids. They are remedies for variety of ailments. This study therefore investigated medicinal effects of Myrtus communis L. Methods: Bioactivity studies of Myrtus communis L. leaves were carried out on volatile oil, 7% methanol and aqueous extracts and the isolated compounds myricetin 3-O-β-glucopyranoside, myricetin 3-O-∝-rhamnopyranoside and gallic acid. Results: Dete...

  2. Antifungal Efficacy of Myrtus communis Linn

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    Sadeghi Nejad

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background The ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis Linn. leaves was assayed in vitro as a growth inhibitor against opportunistic fungi such as Candida and Aspergillus species. Myrtus communis Linn. (Family, Myrtaceae is an aromatic evergreen shrub or small tree. It is native to the Mediterranean region. Objectives This study aimed to assess antifungal activity (in vitro of the ethanolic extracts of Myrtus communis leaves as a growth inhibitor against 24 clinical isolates of Candida, including C. albicans, C. glabrata, and C. tropicalis also three species of Aspergillus, including A. niger, A. flavus, and A. terreus. Materials and Methods The ethanolic extract of myrtle leaves was prepared by maceration method and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of Myrtus communis leaves extract was determined by agar-well diffusion technique. Amphotericin B and clotrimazole were used as the positive control in this assay. Results The minimal inhibitory concentration (MICs values of Myrtus communis leaves extract ranged 0.625-5.0 µg/µL and 5-40 µg/µL against tested Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp., respectively. Conclusions Results revealed that the ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis leaves have antifungal potency against both pathogenic tested fungi, and it can be used as a natural antifungal agent.

  3. Acquisition through common slave (servus communis

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    Bogunović Mirjana B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Common slave (servus communis is a slave who belongs to two masters. Both masters may entirely dispose with the slave because their joint ownership allows it. However, acquisitions through common slave (servus communis is not that clear. Does a slave evenly oblige co-masters or only the master on whose behalf he has acted? Is it possible for a slave to work in the interest of one master and oblige another? Who does the unconscientious slave correspond to, the third party or a betrayed master? This paper will analyze the opinions of two Roman iurists, which will partly solve doubts that this institute causes.

  4. Acquisition through common slave (servus communis)

    OpenAIRE

    Bogunović Mirjana B.

    2016-01-01

    Common slave (servus communis) is a slave who belongs to two masters. Both masters may entirely dispose with the slave because their joint ownership allows it. However, acquisitions through common slave (servus communis) is not that clear. Does a slave evenly oblige co-masters or only the master on whose behalf he has acted? Is it possible for a slave to work in the interest of one master and oblige another? Who does the unconscientious slave correspond to, the third party or a betrayed maste...

  5. Aerobiology of Juniperus Pollen in Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico

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    Levetin, Estelle; Bunderson, Landon; VandeWater, Pete; Luvall, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Pollen from members of the Cupressaceae are major aeroallergens in many parts of the world. In the south central and southwest United States, Juniperus pollen is the most important member of this family with J. ashei (JA) responsible for severe winter allergy symptoms in Texas and Oklahoma. In New Mexico, pollen from J. monosperma (JM) and other Juniperus species are important contributors to spring allergies, while J. pinchotii (JP) pollinates in the fall affecting sensitive individuals in west Texas, southwest Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico. Throughout this region, JA, JM, and JP occur in dense woodland populations. Generally monitoring for airborne allergens is conducted in urban areas, although the source for tree pollen may be forested areas distant from the sampling sites. Improved pollen forecasts require a better understanding of pollen production at the source. The current study was undertaken to examine the aerobiology of several Juniperus species at their source areas for the development of new pollen forecasting initiatives.

  6. Does sex matter? Gender-specificity and its influence on site-chronologies in the common dioecious shrub Juniperus communis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shetti, Rohan; Buras, Allan; Smiljanic, Marko; Hallinger, Martin; Grigoriev, Andrey A.; Wilmking, Martin

    2018-01-01

    In recent years an increasing number of studies have shown shrubs to be reliable proxies of environmental conditions in regions where Trees − due to harsh climate conditions − are absent. Although many shrubs are monoecious, some are dioecious, which poses certain questions related to

  7. Comparative analysis of essential oil contents of Juniperus excelsa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cones/berries of Juniperus excelsa from three provenances in Balochistan, Pakistan were collected and essential oil was extracted by solvent method. Oil contents were analyzed on gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS). Identification and quantification was made by using Wiley and NIST spectral library and HP ...

  8. Antiparasitic, Nematicidal and Antifouling Constituents from Juniperus Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Juniperus procera berries yielded antiparasitic, nematicidal and antifouling constituents, including a wide range of known abietane, pimarane and labdane diterpenes. Among these, abieta-7,13-diene (1) demonstrated in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium f...

  9. Chemical and Antibacterial Polymorphism of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus and Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa (Cupressaceae Leaf Essential Oils from Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hnène Medini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from Juniperus oxycedrus L. have been used since antiquity for fragrance, flavoring, medicinal, antimicrobial, insecticidal, and cosmetic purposes. Several works studied the chemical composition of the essential oils of Juniperus oxycedrus leaves. The aim of this study is to investigate the chemotaxonomic relationships and antibacterial activity of two Tunisian subspecies: Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus (L. K. Deb. and Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa (S. & m. Ball. In addition, and for the first time, we reported the antibacterial activities of Tunisian J. oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa and J. oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus against four bacteria. Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation were analysed by GC and GC/MS. Fifty-five constituents were identified. Thirty four major compounds were retained for the study of the chemical variability, and α-pinene, sylvestrene, p-cymene, and 13-epi-manoyl oxide were the main ones. The chemical principal components analysis (PCA identified three chemotypes. The study of the antibacterial activity showed that Escherichia coli was found to be extremely resistant (zone diameter 0 mm to all the oils tested, while Staphylococcus aureus was the most sensitive strain (zone diameter 13.5 mm and MIC ranged from 600 to 650 μg/mL.

  10. Antibacterial profile of fermented seed extracts of ricinus communis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to ascertain the antibacterial properties inherent in fermented seed extracts of Ricinus communis. Dry seeds of R. communis (Castor oil plant) were deshelled, grounded to powder, fermented, and then extracted both with alcohol and water using Soxhlet machine. Different concentrations of the ...

  11. A histological study of scala communis with radiological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makary, Chadi; Shin, Jennifer; Caruso, Paul; Curtin, Hugh; Merchant, Saumil

    2010-01-01

    Scala communis or interscalar septum (IS) defect is a developmental abnormality of the inner ear characterized by a dehiscence in the partition separating the turns of the cochlea. The goals of the present study were to (1) study this anomaly and describe its characteristics compared to control ears using a histological analysis of temporal bones, (2) discuss radiological implications regarding its diagnosis, and (3) describe its embryological derivation. Out of 1775 temporal bones assessed, 22 specimens were found to have scala communis in cochleae containing all 3 turns (basal, middle and apical). These 22 ears were studied in detail by qualitative and quantitative methods using light microscopy. Scala communis occurred as an isolated inner ear anomaly, or in association with other congenital cochlear and/or vestibular anomalies. The defect occurred most often between the middle and apical turns of the cochlea. Compared to control ears, scala communis ears were found to have a smaller modiolar area (p Scala communis was compatible with normal hearing. Flattening of the interscalar ridge has the potential to improve the diagnosis of scala communis in patients using CT scanning. The anomaly may result from a mesodermal defect such as excessive resorption of mesenchyme during the formation of the scalae, an error in the formation of bone, or both. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. dbVar

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — dbVar is a database of genomic structural variation. It accepts data from all species and includes clinical data. It can accept diverse types of events, including...

  13. Influence of resource availability on Juniperus virginiana expansion in a forest–prairie ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite being native to the United States, Juniperus virginiana has rapidly expanded in prairie ecosystems bringing detrimental ecological effects and increased wildfire risk. We transplanted J. virginiana seedlings in three plant communities to investigate mechanisms driving J. ...

  14. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Myrtus Communis L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The development of microbial resistance to antibiotics is a global concern. The present study was carried out to determine the composition and the antimicrobial potential of the essential oil of Myrtus communis L. against 13 pathogenic strains responsible of many infections. The results show that levels of MIC observed ...

  15. Growth response of Ricinus communis L (castor oil) in spent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growth response of castor oil plant, Ricinus communis, in spent lubricating oil (SLO) was investigated using 1-6% w/w SLO and a control. The result showed that highest percent germination of approximately 92, was obtained in control and the least in 5% w/w. The early germination obtained in this study was significant ...

  16. Hvem var morderen?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene Vinther

    2014-01-01

    Folkemindesamleren og forfatteren Helene Strange (1874-1943) skrev flere gange om et giftmord på en præst på Nordfalster i 1755. Hun satte spørgsmålstegn ved højesteretsdommen og hævdede, at en uskyldig pige blev dømt, mens den virkelige morder slap fri. Det var folkets uskrevne dom, som i over...... hundrede år var blevet fortalt mundtligt videre på egnen, og hun forsøgte – med forskellige midler – at få bragt denne version af historien frem i offentligheden....

  17. Paulus var kristendommens Lenin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    En af Luthers inspirationskilder var Paulus, hvis løsning på lokale problemer fik globale konsekvenser. Han trak en skarp grænse mellem det snavsede kød og den rene sjæl og mellem vantro og tro.......En af Luthers inspirationskilder var Paulus, hvis løsning på lokale problemer fik globale konsekvenser. Han trak en skarp grænse mellem det snavsede kød og den rene sjæl og mellem vantro og tro....

  18. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Juniperus [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Juniperus 名詞 一般 * * * * ビャクシン属 ビャクシンゾク ビャクシンゾク Thesaurus2015 200906015282514781 C LS06 UNKNOWN_1 Juniperus

  19. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Investigations of Ricinus communis Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants have always played a vital role for the healthy human life. The family Euphorbiaceous is a family of flowering plants and contains nearly about 300 genera and 7,500 species. Amongst all, the species Ricinus communis or castor plant has high traditional and modern medicinal values. The individual parts of the plant like the seed, seed oil, leaves and the roots showed their importance in pharmacology. Traditionally, the plant has been used for the treatment of various diseases in traditional or folk remedies throughout the world. In modern pharmacology, this plant is reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, central analgesic, antitumor, anti-nociceptive, antiasthmatic activity and other medicinal properties. These activities of the plant are due to the presence of important phytochemical constituents like flavonoids, glycosides, alkaloids, steroids, terpenoids etc. The aim of present article is to explore the chemical constituents, their structures and medicinal importance of Ricinus communis.

  20. Pharmacognostic standardization of Homoeopathic drug: Juniperus virginiana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Padma Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Juniperus virginiana L., commonly known as ′red cedar′ in English is a well-known evergreen tree belonging to the family Cupressaceae. The leaves and young aerial shoots are used for preparation of medicine in Homoeopathy. Objective: Standardization is the quintessential aspect which ensures purity and quality of drugs. Hence, the pharmacognostic and physico-chemical studies are carried out to facilitate the use of authentic and correct species of raw drug plant material with established parametric standards for manufacturing the drug. Materials and Methods: Pharmacognostic studies on leaves and young aerial parts of authentic samples of J. virginiana L. have been carried out; physico-chemical parameters of raw drug viz., extractive values, ash values, formulation, besides weight per mL, total solids, alcohol content along with High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC and ultraviolet visible studies have been worked out for mother tincture. Results: The leaves are needles, narrow and sharp at tips; stems are round with greyish white to brown bark possessing small lenticels and covered by imbricate leaves. Epidermal cells in the surface have polygonal linear sides with pitted walls containing crystals and starch. Stomata exclusively occur on the adaxial surface in linear rows. Hypodermis of leaf in T.S. is marked with 1-2 layered lignified sclerenchyma. 2-4 secretory canals are present with one conspicuously beneath midvein bundle. The young terminal axis is sheathed by two closely surrounding leaves while the mature stem possess four leaf bases attached. Vascular tissue of stem possesses predominant xylem surrounded by phloem containing sphaeraphides, prismatic crystals and starch grains. Uniseriate rays occur in the xylem. Mature stem possess shrivelled cork, followed by the cortex. Physicochemical properties and HPTLC values of the drug are standardized and presented. Conclusion: The powder microscopic features and

  1. Characterization of Ricin and R. communis Agglutinin Reference Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worbs, Sylvia; Skiba, Martin; Söderström, Martin; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Zeleny, Reinhard; Russmann, Heiko; Schimmel, Heinz; Vanninen, Paula; Fredriksson, Sten-Åke; Dorner, Brigitte G.

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis intoxications have been known for centuries and were attributed to the toxic protein ricin. Due to its toxicity, availability, ease of preparation, and the lack of medical countermeasures, ricin attracted interest as a potential biological warfare agent. While different technologies for ricin analysis have been established, hardly any universally agreed-upon “gold standards” are available. Expert laboratories currently use differently purified in-house materials, making any comparison of accuracy and sensitivity of different methods nearly impossible. Technically challenging is the discrimination of ricin from R. communis agglutinin (RCA120), a less toxic but highly homologous protein also contained in R. communis. Here, we established both highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials which were extensively characterized by gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS), and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight approaches as well as immunological and functional techniques. Purity reached >97% for ricin and >99% for RCA120. Different isoforms of ricin and RCA120 were identified unambiguously and distinguished by LC-ESI MS/MS. In terms of function, a real-time cytotoxicity assay showed that ricin is approximately 300-fold more toxic than RCA120. The highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials were used to conduct an international proficiency test. PMID:26703723

  2. Characterization of Ricin and R. communis Agglutinin Reference Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Worbs

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ricinus communis intoxications have been known for centuries and were attributed to the toxic protein ricin. Due to its toxicity, availability, ease of preparation, and the lack of medical countermeasures, ricin attracted interest as a potential biological warfare agent. While different technologies for ricin analysis have been established, hardly any universally agreed-upon “gold standards” are available. Expert laboratories currently use differently purified in-house materials, making any comparison of accuracy and sensitivity of different methods nearly impossible. Technically challenging is the discrimination of ricin from R. communis agglutinin (RCA120, a less toxic but highly homologous protein also contained in R. communis. Here, we established both highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials which were extensively characterized by gel electrophoresis, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI MS/MS, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight approaches as well as immunological and functional techniques. Purity reached >97% for ricin and >99% for RCA120. Different isoforms of ricin and RCA120 were identified unambiguously and distinguished by LC-ESI MS/MS. In terms of function, a real-time cytotoxicity assay showed that ricin is approximately 300-fold more toxic than RCA120. The highly pure ricin and RCA120 reference materials were used to conduct an international proficiency test.

  3. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Phragmites communis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Phragmites communis 名詞 一般 * * * *... ヨシ ヨシ ヨシ Thesaurus2015 200906077254295905 C LS06 UNKNOWN_2 Phragmites communis

  4. Screening and Testing Phytochemicals in Eastern Redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) for Development of Potential Entrepreneurial Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) is often considered a “trash or nuisance” tree. In some states, this species has been declared invasive and management strategies have been adopted to destroy it. However, value-added phytochemical products from eastern redcedar have the potential to create n...

  5. Combining dendrochronology and matrix modelling in demographic studies: An evaluation for Juniperus procera in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couralet, C.; Sass, U.G.W.; Sterck, F.J.; Zuidema, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Tree demography was analysed by applying dendrochronological techniques and matrix modelling on a static data set of Juniperus procera populations of Ethiopian dry highland forests. Six permanent sample plots were established for an inventory of diameters and 11 stem discs were collected for

  6. Periodicity of growth rings in Juniperus procera from Ethiopia inferred from crossdating and radiocarbon dating.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wils, T.; Robertson, I.; Eshetu, Z.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Koprowski, M.

    2009-01-01

    African pencil cedar (Juniperus procera Hochst. ex Endlicher 1847) is a tropical, irregularly growing species that can produce annual growth rings in response to an annual cycle of wet and dry seasons. In this paper, we assess the periodicity of growth-ring formation for 13 stem discs from a site in

  7. Evidence of recovery of Juniperus virginiana trees from sulfur pollution after the Clean Air Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Richard B; Spal, Scott E; Smith, Kenneth R; Nippert, Jesse B

    2013-09-17

    Using dendroisotopic techniques, we show the recovery of Juniperus virginiana L. (eastern red cedar) trees in the Central Appalachian Mountains from decades of acidic pollution. Acid deposition over much of the 20th century reduced stomatal conductance of leaves, thereby increasing intrinsic water-use efficiency of the Juniperus trees. These data indicate that the stomata of Juniperus may be more sensitive to acid deposition than to increasing atmospheric CO2. A breakpoint in the 100-y δ(13)C tree ring chronology occurred around 1980, as the legacy of sulfur dioxide emissions declined following the enactment of the Clean Air Act in 1970, indicating a gradual increase in stomatal conductance (despite rising levels of atmospheric CO2) and a concurrent increase in photosynthesis related to decreasing acid deposition and increasing atmospheric CO2. Tree ring δ(34)S shows a synchronous change in the sources of sulfur used at the whole-tree level that indicates a reduced anthropogenic influence. The increase in growth and the δ(13)C and δ(34)S trends in the tree ring chronology of these Juniperus trees provide evidence for a distinct physiological response to changes in atmospheric SO2 emissions since ∼1980 and signify the positive impacts of landmark environmental legislation to facilitate recovery of forest ecosystems from acid deposition.

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community composition associated with Juniperus brevifolia in native Azorean forest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drumonde Melo, C.; Luna, S.; Krüger, Claudia; Walker, C.; Mendonça, D.; Fonseca, H. M. A. C.; Jaizme-Vega, M.; da Camara Machado, A.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 79, FEB 2017 (2017), s. 48-61 ISSN 1146-609X Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi * Juniperus bravifolia * native forests Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 1.652, year: 2016

  9. A case report of truncus arteriosus communis and genetic counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Nourzad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Truncus arteriosus communis (TAC is a rare heart disorder with the prevalence of approximately 1%, mostly in male newborns. In this disease, aorta and pulmonary artery have not been separated during fetus development and both originate jointly from left ventricle. In addition, various disorders are reported like ventricular septal defect (VSD, mitral and tricuspid valves defects, aortic septal defect (ASD, reduction of lung and lung vessels’ resistance, pulmonary hypertension, increase in heart rate, high perspiration, bad digestion, and tetralogy of Fallot. CASR REPORT: Parents of deceased patient were referred for genetic counseling after the death of third girl due to severe cardiac disorder. Cardiologist declared the disease in deceased girl as TAC based on findings along with VSD, ASD and hypoplastic aortic arch which resulted to death in the first day of birth. CONCLUSION: There was no chromosomal disorder in chromosome analysis of patient’ skin. Parents were interested to have another child, so they were referred to university's Genetic Counseling Center to become aware of their next child’s condition. This disorder is genetically heterogeneous and multifactorial and because all external factors are not recognized, the accurate estimation of risk is not possible and the probability of risk for the next child is about 10% to 20%.   Keywords: Heart Disorder, Truncus Arteriosus Communis, Genetic Counseling 

  10. Radical-Scavenging Activity and Ferric Reducing Ability of Juniperus thurifera (L.), J. oxycedrus (L.), J. phoenicea (L.) and Tetraclinis articulata (L.)

    OpenAIRE

    El Jemli, Meryem; Kamal, Rabie; Marmouzi, Ilias; Zerrouki, Asmae; Cherrah, Yahia; Alaoui, Katim

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this work is to study and compare the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of aqueous leaf extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus Phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata from Morocco. Methods. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging ability, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Also the total phenolic ...

  11. Da Danmark var en slavenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Rikke Louise Alberg; Brunbech, Peter Johan Yding; Poulsen, Jens Aage

    I mere end 250 år var Danmark en stor kolonimagt. Skt. Jan, Skt. Thomas og Skt. Croix, eller U.S. Virgin Islands, som de kaldes i dag, var danske kolonier, hvor der bl.a. blev dyrket sukkerrør og bomuld. Det hårde arbejde blev udført af slaver, som man fra slutningen af 1600-tallet begyndte at tr...

  12. Synthesis of Estolide 2-ethylhexyl Ester from Ricinus communis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazrizawati Ahmad Tajuddin; Nor Habibah Rosli

    2013-01-01

    Estolide 2-ethylhexyl ester synthesized through condensation reaction between ricinoleic acid from castor oil (Ricinus communis) and lauric acid, and then capped with 2-ethylhexyl alcohol. The reaction was continuously conducted under vacuum for 24 hours. Product of 2-ethylhexyl ester was characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) to determine functional group and Nuclear Magnetic Resonans (NMR) for structure's determination. The presence of ester group at 1738.23 cm -1 wavenumber indicates that the formation of estolide ester has occurred. The vibration peak of C-O at 1174.60 cm -1 and 1117.10 cm -1 support the formation of ester. The presence of CH 2 bending indicated the long-chain compound. The ester methine signal at 3.8669 ppm indicated the estolide linkage in the 1 H-NMR spectrum while the 13 C-NMR showed two carbonyl signals at 173.41 ppm for acid and 173.56 ppm for ester. (author)

  13. Discovery and Characterization of Novel Signatures from the Ricinus communis L. (Castor Bean) Genome

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Connell, Kevin P; Skowronski, Evan W; Dretchen, Kenneth L; Leshin, Jonathan A; Weeks, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Given the infamous toxicity of ricin and the industrial usefulness of castor oil, there is a surprising lack of information about the genetic diversity of the species that produces both, the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis L...

  14. Effect of powdered castor oil seed ( Ricinus communis L.) on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of powdered castor oil seed ( Ricinus communis L.) on some internal organs of ... distribution tables, mean, mode and percentages were used for the analysis. ... development agencies and provision of training by relevant stakeholders to ...

  15. Physicochemical and phytochemical standardization of berries of Myrtus communis Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabiha Sumbul

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Herbal medicines are gaining more and more attention all over the world due to their long historical clinical practice and less side effects. The major limitation with herbal medicines is that the lack of standardization technique. Initially, the crude drugs were identified by comparison only with the standard description available. Materials and Methods: Standardization of drugs means confirmation of its identity and determination of its quality and purity. The quality control standards of various medicinal plants, used in indigenous system of medicine, are significant nowadays in view of commercialization of formulations based on medicinal plants. The quality of herbal drugs is the sum of all factors, which contribute directly or indirectly to the safety, effectiveness, and acceptability of the product. Lack of quality control can affect the efficacy and safety of drugs that may lead to health problems in the consumers. Standardization of drugs is needed to overcome the problems of adulteration and is most developing field of research now. Therefore, there is an urgent need of standardized drugs having consistent quality. Results: The drug showed the presence of phyto-chemical constituents. Powdered drug was treated with different reagents and examined under UV light. Different reagents showed different colors of the drug at 2 wavelengths. The percentage of physiological active compounds viz. total phenolics, tannins, volatile oil, fixed oil, and alkaloids were also observed. Conclusion: Myrtus communis L. (Family: Myrtaceae is one of the important drug being used in Unani system of medicine for various therapeutic purposes. In this study, an attempt has been made to study berries of M. communis from physico-chemical and phytochemical standardization point of view.

  16. var. puiggarianum (Batrachospermales, Rhodophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Gauna

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se coleccionó Batrachospermum atrum var. puiggarianum por primera vez en la provincia de Buenos Aires. La identificación de las muestras se basó en el análisis de la morfología microscópica y en el número cromosómico de cada una de las generaciones de su ciclo de vida bajo cultivo. Los talos se estudiaron con microscopio óptico, y la cariología, por medio de la técnica de carmín acético. El ciclo de vida presentó tres generaciones: una gametofítica haploide, una carposporófitica diploide que originó la última fase Chantransia diploide. Los talos gametófitos estuvieron formados por verticilos separados por zonas internodales, cada uno de ellos constituidos por ramas primarias densamente comprimidas. Entre éstas se observaron ramas portadoras de espermatangios y de carpogonios. Las zonas internodales estuvieron constituidas por células corticales y axiales. Los carposporófitos ovoideos estuvieron formados por filamentos gonimoblásticos portadores de carposporangios terminales. El estado Chantransia se caracterizó por presentar filamentos cortos con pocas células. El material estudiado presentó un número haploide n = 4 y diploide 2n = 8.

  17. Angiographic differentiation of the forms of truncus arteriosis communis and their prognostic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schumacher, G.; Schreiber, R.; Lorenz, H.P.; Sebening, W.; Meisner, H.; Sebening, F.; Buehlmeyer, K.; Deutsches Herzzentrum Muenchen des Freistaates Bayern

    1986-01-01

    To decisively improve the life expectancy of children having a truncus arteriosus communis, early surgical intervention during the first year is necessary. As a prerequisite for a successful intervention, a precise diagnosis must be made including angiographic differentiation of the form of the truncus arteriosus communis and possible associated cardiovascular malformations must be established; these constitute important operation hazards and can determine the ultimate success of the intervention. (orig.) [de

  18. Relevance of Allergenic Sensitization to Cynodon dactylon and Phragmites communis: Cross-reactivity With Pooideae Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Matas, M A; Moya, R; Cardona, V; Valero, A; Gaig, P; Malet, A; Viñas, M; García-Moral, A; Labrador, M; Alcoceba, E; Ibero, M; Carnés, J

    The homologous group of sweet grasses belongs to the Pooideae subfamily, but grass pollen species from other subfamilies can also cause allergy, such as Cynodon dactylon (Chloridoideae) and Phragmites communis (Arundinoideae). C dactylon and P communis have not been included in the sweet grasses homologous group because of their low cross-reactivity with other grasses. The aims of this study were to investigate the profile of sensitization to C dactylon and P communis in patients sensitized to grasses and to analyze cross-reactivity between these 2 species and temperate grasses. Patients were skin prick tested with a grass mixture (GM). Specific IgE to GM, C dactylon, P communis, Cyn d 1, and Phl p 1 was measured by ImmunoCAP. A pool of sera was used for the immunoblot assays. Cross-reactivity was studied by ELISA and immunoblot inhibition. Thirty patients had sIgE to GM. Twenty-four (80%) had positive results for C dactylon, 27 (90%) for P communis, 22 (73.3%) for nCyn d 1, and 92.9% for rPhl p 1. Bands were detected in the 3 extracts by immunoblot. Inhibition of GM was not observed with C dactylon or P communis by immunoblot or ELISA inhibition. When C dactylon or P communis were used in the solid phase, GM produced almost complete inhibition. Eighty percent of patients sensitized to grasses were also sensitized to C dactylon and 90% were sensitized to P communis. Sensitization to these species seems to be induced by allergens different to those in sweet grasses.

  19. IMUNIDADE CRUZADA PELAS SEMENTES DE Abrus precatorius E Ricinus communis EM BOVINOS Crossimmunity by the seeds of Abrus precatorius and Ricinus communis in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hubinger Tokarnia

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Cinco bovinos imunizados contra a ação tóxica das sementes de Abrus precatorius L. ("tento", "jiquiriti" não adoeceram ou somente levemente pela administração das sementes de Ricinus communis L. ("mamona", em doses que em bovinos que antes nunca ingeriram sementes de A. precatorius ou R. communis, causaram intoxicação de intensidade de grau moderado a acentuado ou até a morte. Um sexto bovino, que não ficou bem imunizado contra a ação tóxica das sementes de A. precatorius, adoeceu em grau acentuado pela administração de dose elevada das sementes de R. communis. Já dos cinco bovinos imunizados contra a ação tóxica das sementes de R. communis quatro adoeceram em grau acentuado, oquinto em grau moderado, pela administração das sementes de A. precatorias em doses que em bovinos que antes nunca ingeriram sementes de R. communis ou A. precatorius causaram intoxicação de intensidade leve a acentuada. Estes resultados permitem concluir que bovinos imunizados contra a ação tóxica das sementes de A. precatorius são resistentes à ação tóxica das sementes de R. communis, mas que o contrário não ocorre, isto é, bovinos imunizados contra a ação tóxica das sementes de R. communis, não se mostraram protegidos contra a intoxicação por A. precatorius. Estudos anteriores por outros autores mostraram que as toxalbuminas de A. precatorius e R. communis, respectivamente abrina e ricina, são diferentes do ponto de vista antigênico. Uma explicação para a divergência desses resultados com os nossos poderia estar no fato de que no presente estudo foram usados poligástricos que receberam as sementes por via oral, enquanto que nos estudos anteriores foram usados monogástricos em que as sementes ou as toxinas foram aplicadas por via parenteral. A administração de folhas frescas ou do pericarpo do fruto de R. communis a bovinos imunizados contra a ação das sementes desta planta tiveram o mesmo efeito tóxico que em animais n

  20. Competitive interactions between a native spider (Frontinella communis, Araneae: Linyphiidae) and an invasive spider (Linyphia triangularis, Araneae: Linyphiidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarski, Julie V.; Ginsberg, Howard S.; Jakob, Elizabeth M.

    2010-01-01

    There are numerous reports of spiders that have become established outside of their native ranges, but few studies examine their impact on native spiders. We examined the effect of the European hammock spider Linyphia triangularis (Araneae, Linyphiidae) on the native bowl-and-doily spider Frontinella communis (Araneae, Linyphiidae) in Acadia National Park, Maine, USA. First, we added L. triangularis to established plots of F. communis. Significantly more F. communis abandoned their webs when L. triangularis were added compared to control plots. Second, we tested whether F. communis were deterred from building webs in areas where L. triangularis was established. Significantly fewer F. communis built webs on plots with L. triangularis than on control plots. In both experiments, L. triangularis sometimes took over webs of F. communis or incorporated F. communis webs into their own webs, but F. communisnever took over or incorporated L. triangularis webs. Competition between L. triangularis and F. communis for both webs and web sites may contribute to the decline of F. communis.

  1. Measurement of the CP-violation parameter Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, L.K.; Barker, A.R.; Briere, R.A.; Makoff, G.; Papadimitriou, V.; Patterson, J.R.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Somalwar, S.V.; Wah, Y.W.; Winstein, B.; Winston, R.; Woods, M.; Yamamoto, H.; Swallow, E.C.; Bock, G.J.; Coleman, R.; Enagonio, J.; Hsiung, Y.B.; Ramberg, E.; Stanfield, K.; Tschirhart, R.; Yamanaka, T.; Gollin, G.D.; Karlsson, M.; Okamitsu, J.K.; Debu, P.; Peyaud, B.; Turlay, R.; Vallage, B.

    1993-01-01

    A measurement of the CP-violation parameter Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon) has been made using the full E731 data set. We find Re(var-epsilon '/var-epsilon)=(7.4±5.2±2.9)x10 -4 where the first error is statistical and the second systematic

  2. [Genetical control of the allozymes in juniper (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) of the Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Nikolaeva, A V

    2007-01-01

    Genetical control of nine enzyme systems has been studied in preserved juniper species (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) of the natural population of the mountain Crimea. Isozymes were extracted from the haploid seed endosperms and separated elecrophoretically. As a result 16 loci have been identified. Fourteen of them were polymorphic (14--Gdh, Got-1, Mdh-1, Mdh-2, Mdh-3, Acp-1, Acp-2, Acp-3, Lap-1, Dia-1, Fdh, Sod-1, Sod-2, Sod-3). Analysis of the allele segragation of the heterozygous trees confirmed their monogenic inheritance.

  3. Antiinflammatory flavonoids from Artocarpus heterophyllus and Artocarpus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bai-Luh; Weng, Jing-Ru; Chiu, Pao-Hui; Hung, Chi-Feng; Wang, Jih-Pyang; Lin, Chun-Nan

    2005-05-18

    The antiinflammatory activities of the isolated flavonoids, including cycloartomunin (1), cyclomorusin (2), dihydrocycloartomunin (3), dihydroisocycloartomunin (4), cudraflavone A (5), cyclocommunin (6), and artomunoxanthone (7), and cycloheterohyllin (8), artonins A (9) and B (10), artocarpanone (11), artocarpanone A (12), and heteroflavanones A (13), B (14), and C (15) from Artocarpus communis and A. heterophyllus, were assessed in vitro by determining their inhibitory effects on the chemical mediators released from mast cells, neutrophils, and macrophages. Compound 4 significantly inhibited the release of beta-glucuronidase and histamine from rat peritoneal mast cells stimulated with P-methoxy-N-methylphenethylamine (compound 48/80). Compound 11 significantly inhibited the release of lysozyme from rat neutrophils stimulated with formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP). Compounds 8, 10, and 11 significantly inhibited superoxide anion formation in fMLP-stimulated rat neutrophils while compounds 2, 3, 5, and 6 evoked the stimulation of superoxide anion generation. Compound 11 exhibited significant inhibitory effect on NO production and iNOS protein expression in RAW 264.7 cells. The potent inhibitory effect of compound 11 on NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages, probably through the suppression of iNOS protein expression.

  4. Effect of copper on castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Lucia Helena Garofalo; Cunha, Tassio Cavalcanti da Silva; Lima, Vinicius Mota; Cabral, Paulo Cesar Pinto; Barros Junior, Genival; Lacerda, Rogerio Dantas de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UAEAg/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Castor beans crop (Ricinus communis L.) is raising attention as an alternative crop for oil and biodiesel production. Despite the mineral fertilization is an important factor for increasing castor yield, few research has been made on this issue, mainly on the use de copper. In order to evaluate the effects of copper on growth of this plant an experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in Campina Grande, Paraiba State, Brazil, from July to December 2007. The substrate for the pot plants was a 6 mm-sieved surface soil (Neossolo Quartzarenico). The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications. The treatments were composed of five levels of Cu (0; 1; 2; 3 and 4 mg dm{sup -3}), which were applied at the time of planting. One plant of castor bean, cultivar BRS 188 - Paraguacu, was grown per pot after thinning and was irrigated whenever necessary. Data on plant height, number and length of leaves and stem diameter were measured at 21, 34, 77 and 103 days after planting. Copper levels used, in general, did not affect the plant height, stem diameter and leaf area, however they influenced the leaves and shoot biomass dry mass and the quadratic trend was the best to show the behavior of these. (author)

  5. Phenolic contents of myrtle (Myrtus communis L.) fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Arzu BAYIR YEĞİN; Halil İbrahim UZUN

    2015-01-01

    Mersin (Myrtus communis L.) Akdeniz Bölgesinin önemli bir doğal bitkisidir. Meyveleri siyah ve beyaz renklidir. Mersin bitkisi hakkında yapılan çalışmaların çoğu özellikle yapraklarında bulunan uçucu yağların tespiti ile ilgili iken, son yıllarda sağlık üzerine etkileri nedeniyle mersinin içerdiği fenolik bileşikler ve bunların etkileri üzerine çalışmalar yoğunlaşmıştır. Çalışmanın amacı, mersin meyvelerinin içerdiği fenolik bileşik miktarlarını ve bunların genotiplere göre değişimini saptama...

  6. Evaluation of fruit extracts of six Turkish Juniperus species for their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Mehmet; Tümen, İbrahim; Uğur, Aysel; Aydoğmuş-Öztürk, Fatma; Topçu, Gülaçtı

    2011-03-30

    Juniperus L. (Cupressaceae) species are mostly spread out in the Northern Hemisphere of the world, and some of them are used as folkloric medicines. The fruits of some species are eaten. Since oxidative stress is one of the reasons for neurodegeneration and is associated with the Alzheimer's disease (AD), the extracts prepared from the fruits of six Juniperus species were screened for their antioxidant activity. Therefore, the extracts were also evaluated against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), which are chief enzymes in the pathogenesis of AD. In addition, antimicrobial activity was also evaluated. In the β-carotene-linoleic acid assay, acetone extracts of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, J. sabina and J. excelsa, and methanol extracts of J. phoenicea and J. sabina, effectively inhibited oxidation of linoleic acid. The hexane extracts of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, J. foetidissima and J. phoenicea showed remarkable inhibitory effect against AChE and BChE. Because of their high antioxidant activity, J. excelsa, J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, J. sabina and J. phoenicia might be used in the food industry as preservative agents or extension of the shelf-life of raw and processed foods. Since the hexane extracts of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus and J. foetidissima demonstrated significant anticholinesterase activity they should be considered as a potential source for anticholinesterase agents. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Radical-Scavenging Activity and Ferric Reducing Ability of Juniperus thurifera (L., J. oxycedrus (L., J. phoenicea (L. and Tetraclinis articulata (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem El Jemli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this work is to study and compare the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of aqueous leaf extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus Phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata from Morocco. Methods. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical-scavenging ability, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. Also the total phenolic and flavonoids contents of the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. Results. All the extracts showed interesting antioxidant activities compared to the standard antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, quercetin, and Trolox. The aqueous extract of Juniperus oxycedrus showed the highest antioxidant activity as measured by DPPH, TEAC, and FRAP assays with IC50 values of 17.91±0.37 μg/mL, 19.80±0.55 μg/mL, and 24.23±0.07 μg/mL, respectively. The strong correlation observed between antioxidant capacities and their total phenolic contents indicated that phenolic compounds were a major contributor to antioxidant properties of these plants extracts. Conclusion. These results suggest that the aqueous extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata can constitute a promising new source of natural compounds with antioxidants ability.

  8. Radical-Scavenging Activity and Ferric Reducing Ability of Juniperus thurifera (L.), J. oxycedrus (L.), J. phoenicea (L.) and Tetraclinis articulata (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Jemli, Meryem; Kamal, Rabie; Marmouzi, Ilias; Zerrouki, Asmae; Cherrah, Yahia; Alaoui, Katim

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this work is to study and compare the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of aqueous leaf extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus Phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata from Morocco. Methods. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging ability, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Also the total phenolic and flavonoids contents of the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. Results. All the extracts showed interesting antioxidant activities compared to the standard antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), quercetin, and Trolox). The aqueous extract of Juniperus oxycedrus showed the highest antioxidant activity as measured by DPPH, TEAC, and FRAP assays with IC50 values of 17.91 ± 0.37 μg/mL, 19.80 ± 0.55 μg/mL, and 24.23 ± 0.07 μg/mL, respectively. The strong correlation observed between antioxidant capacities and their total phenolic contents indicated that phenolic compounds were a major contributor to antioxidant properties of these plants extracts. Conclusion. These results suggest that the aqueous extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata can constitute a promising new source of natural compounds with antioxidants ability.

  9. Critical fluid extraction of Juniperus virginiana L. and bioactivity of extracts against subterranean termites and wood-rot fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. J. Eller; Carol A. Clausen; Frederick Green; S.L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    Eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana L.) is an abundant renewable resource and represents a vast potential source of valuable natural products that may serve as natural biocides. Both the wood and needles from J. virginiana were extracted using liquid carbon dioxide (L-CO2) as well as ethanol (EtOH) and the yields determined.Woodblocks were...

  10. Differential Consumption of Eastern Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana) by Avian and Mammalian Guilds: Implications for Tree Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased abundance of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginianus), a native but invasive species in the Great Plains, has been associated with changes in ecosystem functioning and landscape cover. Knowledge of the main consumers and dispersal agents of eastern redcedar fruits is e...

  11. Hypnotic effect of the essential oil from the leaves of Myrtus communis on mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birhanie MW

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Muluken Walle Birhanie,1 Bizuayehu Walle,1 Kidist Rebba2 1Department of Physiology, 2Department of Nursing, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia Background: Myrtus communis has been suggested as a sleep aid in unconventional medicine. Moreover, previous studies have also indicated its sedative- and hypnotic-like activity. In this study, the hypnotic effect of M. communis was investigated.Methods: Essential oil (EO of M. communis (600, 800, and 1,000 mg/kg was given orally to Swiss albino mice of both sex, and the hypnotic effect was evaluated. In addition, the EO of M. communis (500, 600, 800, and 1,000 mg/kg was administered orally to Swiss albino mice of both sex 60 minutes prior to pentobarbital injection (50 mg/kg. Latency to sleep and sleep duration were recorded. The effect of the EO on motor coordination and muscle relaxation was evaluated using chimney and traction tests, 60 and 90 minutes after administration of the respective doses of the EO, respectively.Results: There was no induction of hypnosis as the presence of the righting reflex was intact. However the EO prolonged pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and there was also 50% negative response on the chimney and traction test in a dose dependent manner.Conclusion: The EO of M. communis did not produce a hypnotic effect, but it potentiated a hypnotic effect with significant central nervous system depressant activity. Keywords: Myrtus communis, hypnotic, motor coordination, muscle relaxation, essential oil

  12. Different methods evaluation of antioxidant properties of Myrtus communis extract and its fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Moein

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Myrtus communis L. is a plant traditionally used as an antiseptic and disinfectant drug. In this research, the antioxidant activity of Myrtus communis was assayed by evaluating radical scavenging activity, reducing power, FRAP method and determination of phenolic compounds. The methanolic extract of leaves of Myrtus communis was fractionated by using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and buthanol. In reducing power, different concentrations of samples were mixed with phosphate buffer, ferrocyanate, TCA and ferric chloride. Different concentrations of samples were mixed with DPPH and after 30 min the absorbances were measured. For determination of phenolic content, 500 μl of sample was mixed with Folin-Ciocalteu and sodium carbonate. For determination of flavonoids, 500 μl of sample was mixed with 2 ml of distilled water, NaNO2 and NaOH. In reducing power method, chloroform fraction showed the highest reducing capacity. In the DPPH radical scavenging method, the highest antioxidant capacity was found in buthanol fraction (IC50=84.42±1.8 μg/ml. In FRAP method, the highest antioxidant capacity was found in crude extract (5.4±0.3 mg/ml and buthanol fractions (5.51±0.4 mg/ml, respectively. The highest amount of phenolic compounds was detected in ethyl acetate fraction of Myrtus communis (17.5±0.001 μg/g. The highest amount of flavonoids was found in crude extract of Myrtus communis (171.9±7.3 μg/ml. Overall, we can suggest that the leaves of Myrtus communis can be used as antioxidant and as a food additives to avoid oxidative degradation of foods.

  13. Structure of the fruit peel of Pyrus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Konarska

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The peel of fruits of Pyrus communisL. cv. ‘Klapsa’,harvested at commercial maturity in September 2011, was examined using bright-field and fluorescence microscopy as well as scanning electron and transmission microscopy. The fruit peel was found to be composed of an epidermis covered by a cuticle and several layers of hypodermis. SEM observations showed that in the cuticle there were numerous microcracks of various widths, running in different directions, as well as numerous oval- or star-shaped lenticels with a diameter of approximately 130-230 µm. The microcracks ran along the cell walls and the appearance of the widest ones resembled a zipped-up zip. Crystalline wax platelets with horizontal and, more rarely, vertical orientation in relation to the surface of the organ were visible on the surface of the cuticle. The largest number of vertical wax platelets was found inside the microcracks, whereas inside the lenticels mycelium hyphae and/or fungal spores were sometimes observed. In the cross-section through the surface layer covering the fruit of Pyrus, the cells of the single- and sometimes two-layered epidermis were found to have different shapes and sizes and to be covered with a cuticular epithelium characterized by a varying structure and a thickness of about 10 µm. The cuticle covered not only the external tangential walls, but also penetrated through the anticlinal walls significantly increasing their thickness and reducing the inner diameter of the cells. TEM observations showed that inside the epidermal cells, which exhibited varying degrees of vacuolation, there was parietal cytoplasm in which cell nuclei, plastids with starch grains, and numerous mitochondria could be observed. In the hypodermis, which was composed of 3 up to 5 layers of tangential collenchyma cells with thickened tangential walls, organelles were found similar to those described in the epidermis, whereas in the vacuoles there were visible fibrous deposits

  14. Identification and differentiation of Ricinus communis L. using SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenka Gálová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false CS JA X-NONE The castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis L., a member of the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae, is a versatile industrial oil crop that is cultivated in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Castor oil is of continuing importance to the global specialty chemical industry because it is the only commercial source of a hydroxylated fatty acid. Castor also has tremendous future potential as an industrial oilseed crop because of its high seed oil content, unique fatty acid composition, potentially high oil yields and ability to be grown under drought and saline conditions. Knowledge of genetic variability is important for breeding programs to provide the basis for developing desirable genotypes. The aim of this study was to assess genetic diversity within the set of 60 ricin genotypes using 10 SSR primers. Ten SSR primers revealed a total of 67 alleles ranging from 4 to 9 alleles per locus with a mean value of 6.70 alleles per locus. The PIC values ranged from 0.719 to 0.860 with an average value of 0.813 and the DI value ranged from 0.745 to 0.862 with an average value of 0.821. Probability of identity (PI was low ranged from 0.004 to 0.018 with an average of 0.008. A dendrogram was constructed from a genetic distance matrix based on profiles of the 10 SSR loci using the unweighted pair-group method with the arithmetic average (UPGMA. According to analysis, the collection of 60 diverse accessions of castor bean was clustered into six clusters. We could not distinguish 2 genotypes grouped in cluster 1, RM-96 and RM-98, which are genetically the closest. Knowledge on the genetic diversity of castor can be used to future breeding programs of castor.

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community composition associated with Juniperus brevifolia in native Azorean forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Catarina Drumonde; Luna, Sara; Krüger, Claudia; Walker, Christopher; Mendonça, Duarte; Fonseca, Henrique M. A. C.; Jaizme-Vega, Maria; da Câmara Machado, Artur

    2017-02-01

    The communities of glomeromycotan fungi (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, AMF) under native Juniperus brevifolia forest from two Azorean islands, Terceira and São Miguel, were compared, mainly by spore morphology, and when possible, by molecular analysis. Thirty-nine morphotypes were detected from 12 genera. Glomeromycotan fungal richness was similar in Terceira and São Miguel, but significantly different among the four fragments of native forest. Spore diversity and community composition differed significantly between the two islands. The less degraded island, Terceira, showed 10 exclusive morphotypes including more rare types, whereas the more disturbed forest on São Miguel showed 13 morphs, mostly of common types. Forests from Terceira were dominated by Acaulosporaceae and Glomeraceae. Whereas members of Acaulosporaceae, Glomeraceae and Ambisporaceae were most frequent and abundant in those from São Miguel. Spore abundance was greatest on Terceira, and correlated with soil chemical properties (pH), average monthly temperature and relative humidity.

  16. Isolation of deoxypodophyllotoxin and podophyllotoxin from Juniperus sabina by high speed counter current chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y.; Yang, Y.; Chen, Q.; Kasimu, R.; Aisa, H.A.

    2016-11-01

    Deoxypodophyllotoxin and podophyllotoxin are known for their excellent anti-proliferative and anti-tumor activities, therefore large amount of pure compounds is urgently needed as authentic standards for various in vivo and in vitro studies. In this paper, an effective, rapid separation and purification method of deoxypodophyllotoxin and podophyllotoxin from the crude extract of Juniperus sabina was established using high speed counter current chromatography (HSCCC). HSCCC was performed with atwo phase solvent system comprising of n-hexane-ethylacetate-methanol-water (3:5:3:5, v/v) at the flow rate of 2mL/min at the speed of 850 rpm. 34.8 mg of deoxypodophyllotoxin and 7.9 mg of podophyllotoxin were obtained from 200 mg crude sample with a purity of 96.5% and 94.4%, respectively, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). (Author)

  17. Recognition factors of Ricinus communis agglutinin 1 (RCA(1)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Albert M; Wu, June H; Singh, Tanuja; Lai, Li-Ju; Yang, Zhangung; Herp, Anthony

    2006-04-01

    Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA1) is one of the most important applied lectins that has been widely used as a tool to study cell surfaces and to purify glycans. Although the carbohydrate specificity of RCA1 has been described, the information obtained was mainly focused on inhibition of simple Galbeta1-related oligosaccharides and simple clusters. Here, all possible recognition factors of RCA1 of glycan binding were examined by enzyme-linked lectinosorbent (ELLSA) and inhibition assays, using known mammalian Gal/GalNAc carbohydrate structural units and natural polyvalent glycans. Among the glycoproteins (gps) tested and expressed as 50% nanogram inhibition, the high-density polyvalent Galbeta1-4GlcNAc (II) glycotopes occurring in natural gps, such as Pneumococcus type 14 capsular polysaccharide which is composed of repeating poly II residues, resulted in 9.0 x 10(4), 1.5 x 10(5), 2.3 x 10(4) and 2.1 x 10(4)-fold higher affinities to RCA1 than the monomeric Gal, linear I/II and Tri-antennary-II (Tri-II). Of the ligands tested and expressed as nanomoles of 50% inhibition, Tri-II was the best, being about 2, 4, 25.6 and 33.3 times better inhibitor than Di-II, II, I (Galbeta1-3GlcNAc) and Gal, respectively. From the results of this study, it is concluded that: (a) Galbeta1-4GlcNAc and other Galbeta1-related oligosaccharides are essential for lectin binding and their polyvalent form in macromolecules should be the most important recognition factor for RCA1; (b) the combining site of RCA1 may be a groove type, recognizing Galbeta1-4GlcNAc (II) as the major binding site; (c) its combining size may be large enough to accommodate a tetrasaccharide of beta-anomeric Gal at the non-reducing end and most complementary to human blood group I Ma active trisaccharide (Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-6Gal) and lacto-N-neotetraose (Galbeta1-4GlcNAcbeta1-3Galbeta1-4Glc); (d) RCA1 has a preference for the beta-anomer of Gal oligosaccharides with a Galbeta1-4 linkage > Galbeta1-6 > or = Galbeta

  18. Proteomic profile of the nucellus of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) seeds during development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Soares, Emanoella L

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of nucellus from two developmental stages of Ricinus communis seeds by a GeLC-MS/MS approach, using of a high resolution orbitrap mass spectrometer, which resulted in the identification of a total of 766 proteins that were grouped into 553 protein ...

  19. Can adaptive modulation of traits to urban environments facilitate Ricinus communis L. invasiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Neha; Pardha-Saradhi, P; Sharma, Gyan P

    2014-11-01

    This paper addresses the phenotypic variation among Ricinus communis L. populations in four urban habitat types (road verges, garbage dumps, construction debris, and natural area) in Delhi, India, by evaluating important traits such as plant height, basal circumference, seeds per plant, seed size, seed weight, specific leaf area, and reproductive index. An important biochemical marker, proline, considered as a good plant performance indicator under stress was also quantified in leaves of R. communis to evaluate its response in different habitats. Interestingly, the species showed significant variation in plant height, specific leaf area, seed size, seed weight, and leaf proline content in different habitat types. Leaf proline content was positively related to plant height, specific leaf area, and seed size while negatively related to the total number of seeds/plant. Interestingly, reproductive index, calculated as a ratio of the total number of seeds to the plant height also showed a negative relation with leaf proline content. Results indicated that R. communis exhibits adaptive modulation of growth, reproductive traits, and leaf proline content in various urban habitats which contributes to invasiveness, range expansion, and establishment of the species. The study also gives evidence of how morphological and physiological traits could directly affect invasiveness of R. communis.

  20. Physiological and biochemical responses of Ricinus communis seedlings to different temperatures: a metabolomics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.; Fernandez, L.G.; Delmondez de Castro, R.; Ligterink, W.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Compared with major crops, growth and development of Ricinus communis is still poorly understood. A better understanding of the biochemical and physiological aspects of germination and seedling growth is crucial for the breeding of high yielding varieties adapted to various growing

  1. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF Myrtus communis L BERRIES GROWING WILD IN ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Toauibia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of microbial resistance to antibiotics is a global concern. The present study was carried out to determine the composition and the antimicrobial potential of the essential oil of Myrtus communis L. against 13 pathogenic strains responsible of many infections. The results show that levels of MIC observed range from 0.563 to 36 mg/ml. 

  2. Antidiabetic Activity of Different Extracts of Myrtus Communis in Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panjeshahin Mohammad Reza

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Hydroalcoholic (70° extract of leaves of Myrtus communis has been shown to have antidiabetic effect in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats in our previous study. In this study, we intended to determine the components of the mentioned extract and identify the mechanism for its action.

  3. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF Myrtus communis L BERRIES GROWING WILD IN ALGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    M. Toauibia

    2015-01-01

    The development of microbial resistance to antibiotics is a global concern. The present study was carried out to determine the composition and the antimicrobial potential of the essential oil of Myrtus communis L. against 13 pathogenic strains responsible of many infections. The results show that levels of MIC observed range from 0.563 to 36 mg/ml. 

  4. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL OF MYRTUS COMMUNIS L BERRIES GROWING WILD IN ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Toauibia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of microbial resistance to antibiotics is a global concern. The present study was carried out to determine the composition and the antimicrobial potential of the essential oil of Myrtus communis L. against 13 pathogenic strains responsible of many infections. The results show that levels of MIC observed range from 0.563 to 36 mg/ml.

  5. Intoxicação em eqüino por Ricinus communis: relato de caso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Y. A. Baccarin

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: A intoxicação por Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae geralmente ocorre após a ingestão acidental de suas folhas ou sementes, podendo causar distúrbios neuromusculares e gastrintestinais. Um eqüino da raça Mangalarga Marchador de 4 anos de idade foi atendido no setor de Clínica de Eqüinos do Hospital Veterinário (HOVET da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade de São Paulo (FMVZ-USP após ter ingerido e aspirado um filtrado preparado à base de frutos de mamona. O animal apresentava pleuropneumonia, alterações de comportamento, comprometimentos hepático e renal, peritonite e desidratação. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Eqüino, Ricinus communis, pleuropneumonia. SUMMARY: The Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae intoxication generally occurs after accidental ingestion of its leaves or seeds, and may cause neuromuscular and gastrintestinal disturbance. An equine, Mangalarga Marchador breed, 4-year old, was attended at the section of Clínica de Eqüinos from the Hospital Veterinário (HOVET of Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia of Universidade de São Paulo (FMVZ-USP after ingestion and aspiration of a R. communis fruits filtrate. The animal presented pleuropneumonia, behavioural alterations, hepatic and renal disturbances, peritonitis and dehydration. KEYWORDS: Equine, Ricinus communis, pleuropneumonia.

  6. Essential oil of the leaves of Ricinus communis L.: in vitro cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarai, Zied; Ben Chobba, Ines; Ben Mansour, Riadh; Békir, Ahmed; Gharsallah, Néji; Kadri, Adel

    2012-08-13

    The aim of the present study was to appraise the antimicrobial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against different pathogenic microorganisms and the cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines. The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil against 12 bacterial and 4 fungi strains. The disc diameters of zone of inhibition (DD), the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the concentration inhibiting 50% (IC50) were investigated to characterize the antimicrobial activities of this essential oil. The in vitro cytotoxicity of Ricinus communis L. essential oil was examined using a modified MTT assay; the viability and the IC50 were used to evaluate this test. The essential oil from the leaves of Ricinus communis L. was analyzed by GC-MS and bioassays were carried out. Five constituents of the oil were identified by GC-MS. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against twelve bacteria and four fungi species, using disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods. The essential oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against all microorganisms tested with higher sensitivity for Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae. The cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the essential oil on HeLa cell lines were examined by MTT assay. The cytotoxicity of the oil was quite strong with IC50 values less than 2.63 mg/ml for both cell lines. The present study showed the potential antimicrobial and anticarcinogenic properties of the essential oil of Ricinus communis L., indicating the possibilities of its potential use in the formula of natural remedies for the topical treatment of infections.

  7. Use of MODIS Satellite Images and an Atmospheric Dust Transport Model To Evaluate Juniperus spp. Pollen Phenology and Dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, Estelle; Huete, Alfredo; Nickovic, S.; Pejanovic, G. A.; Vukovic, A.; VandeWater, P. K.; Myers, O. B.; Budge, A. M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et. al., 2003 reported Juniperus spp. pollen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model, Nickovic et al. 2001) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and quantities of dust. We are modifying the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport. Pollen release will be estimated based on MODIS derived phenology of Juniperus spp. communities. Ground based observational records of pollen release timing and quantities will be used as verification. This information will be used to support the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program and the State of New Mexico environmental public health decision support for asthma and allergies alerts.

  8. New var reconstruction algorithm exposes high var sequence diversity in a single geographic location in Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dara, Antoine; Drábek, Elliott F; Travassos, Mark A; Moser, Kara A; Delcher, Arthur L; Su, Qi; Hostelley, Timothy; Coulibaly, Drissa; Daou, Modibo; Dembele, Ahmadou; Diarra, Issa; Kone, Abdoulaye K; Kouriba, Bourema; Laurens, Matthew B; Niangaly, Amadou; Traore, Karim; Tolo, Youssouf; Fraser, Claire M; Thera, Mahamadou A; Djimde, Abdoulaye A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Plowe, Christopher V; Silva, Joana C

    2017-03-28

    Encoded by the var gene family, highly variable Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP1) proteins mediate tissue-specific cytoadherence of infected erythrocytes, resulting in immune evasion and severe malaria disease. Sequencing and assembling the 40-60 var gene complement for individual infections has been notoriously difficult, impeding molecular epidemiological studies and the assessment of particular var elements as subunit vaccine candidates. We developed and validated a novel algorithm, Exon-Targeted Hybrid Assembly (ETHA), to perform targeted assembly of var gene sequences, based on a combination of Pacific Biosciences and Illumina data. Using ETHA, we characterized the repertoire of var genes in 12 samples from uncomplicated malaria infections in children from a single Malian village and showed them to be as genetically diverse as vars from isolates from around the globe. The gene var2csa, a member of the var family associated with placental malaria pathogenesis, was present in each genome, as were vars previously associated with severe malaria. ETHA, a tool to discover novel var sequences from clinical samples, will aid the understanding of malaria pathogenesis and inform the design of malaria vaccines based on PfEMP1. ETHA is available at: https://sourceforge.net/projects/etha/ .

  9. arXiv Observation of the $\\varXi^{-}_{b}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Andreassi, Guido; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Arnau Romeu, Joan; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Babuschkin, Igor; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baker, Sophie; Balagura, Vladislav; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Baryshnikov, Fedor; Baszczyk, Mateusz; Batozskaya, Varvara; Batsukh, Baasansuren; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Bellee, Violaine; Belloli, Nicoletta; Belous, Konstantin; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Betancourt, Christopher; Betti, Federico; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bezshyiko, Iaroslava; Bifani, Simone; Billoir, Pierre; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bitadze, Alexander; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frederic; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Boettcher, Thomas; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Bordyuzhin, Igor; Borgheresi, Alessio; Borghi, Silvia; Borisyak, Maxim; Borsato, Martino; Bossu, Francesco; Boubdir, Meriem; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Braun, Svende; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Buchanan, Emma; Burr, Christopher; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Camboni, Alessandro; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel Hugo; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Chamont, David; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chatzikonstantinidis, Georgios; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chobanova, Veronika; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombs, George; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Costa Sobral, Cayo Mar; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Dall'Occo, Elena; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Serio, Marilisa; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Demmer, Moritz; Dendek, Adam; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Dijkstra, Hans; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dufour, Laurent; Dujany, Giulio; Dungs, Kevin; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Déléage, Nicolas; Easo, Sajan; Ebert, Marcus; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Fazzini, Davide; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Prieto, Antonio; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fini, Rosa Anna; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fleuret, Frederic; Fohl, Klaus; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forshaw, Dean Charles; Forty, Roger; Franco Lima, Vinicius; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Fu, Jinlin; Funk, Wolfgang; Furfaro, Emiliano; Färber, Christian; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; Garcia Martin, Luis Miguel; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Garsed, Philip John; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Girard, Olivier Göran; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gizdov, Konstantin; Gligorov, Vladimir; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gorelov, Igor Vladimirovich; Gotti, Claudio; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Gruberg Cazon, Barak Raimond; Grünberg, Oliver; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Göbel, Carla; Hadavizadeh, Thomas; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hamilton, Brian; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; Hatch, Mark; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heister, Arno; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hombach, Christoph; Hopchev, P H; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hushchyn, Mikhail; Hutchcroft, David; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jiang, Feng; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Karacson, Matthias; Kariuki, James Mwangi; Karodia, Sarah; Kecke, Matthieu; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenzie, Matthew; 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Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Lusiani, Alberto; Lyu, Xiao-Rui; Machefert, Frederic; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Maguire, Kevin; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Maltsev, Timofei; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marinangeli, Matthieu; Marino, Pietro; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martin, Morgan; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massacrier, Laure Marie; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathad, Abhijit; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurice, Emilie; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Melnychuk, Dmytro; Merk, Marcel; Merli, Andrea; Michielin, Emanuele; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Mogini, Andrea; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monroy, Ignacio Alberto; 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Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Petrov, Aleksandr; Petruzzo, Marco; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pikies, Malgorzata; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Piucci, Alessio; Placinta, Vlad-Mihai; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Pomery, Gabriela Johanna; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Poslavskii, Stanislav; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rama, Matteo; Ramos Pernas, Miguel; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Ratnikov, Fedor; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; dos Reis, Alberto; Remon Alepuz, Clara; Renaudin, Victor; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vicente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Lopez, Jairo Alexis; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Rogozhnikov, Alexey; Roiser, Stefan; Rollings, Alexandra Paige; Romanovskiy, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Ronayne, John William; Rotondo, Marcello; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sadykhov, Elnur; Sagidova, Naylya; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santimaria, Marco; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schael, Stefan; Schellenberg, Margarete; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schubert, Konstantin; Schubiger, Maxime; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sergi, Antonino; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Siddi, Benedetto Gianluca; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Silva de Oliveira, Luiz Gustavo; Simi, Gabriele; Simone, Saverio; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Iwan Thomas; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Soares Lavra, Lais; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Stefko, Pavol; Stefkova, Slavorima; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stemmle, Simon; Stenyakin, Oleg; Stevens, Holger; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tayduganov, Andrey; Tekampe, Tobias; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tilley, Matthew James; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Toriello, Francis; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Traill, Murdo; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tully, Alison; Tuning, Niels; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valassi, Andrea; Valat, Sebastien; Valenti, Giovanni; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vecchi, Stefania; van Veghel, Maarten; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Venkateswaran, Aravindhan; Vernet, Maxime; Vesterinen, Mika; Viana Barbosa, Joao Vitor; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Viemann, Harald; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vitti, Marcela; Volkov, Vladimir; Vollhardt, Achim; Voneki, Balazs; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Wark, Heather Mckenzie; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wicht, Jean; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Williams, Timothy; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wraight, Kenneth; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xing, Zhou; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yao, Yuezhe; Yin, Hang; Yu, Jiesheng; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zarebski, Kristian Alexander; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhang, Yu; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zheng, Yangheng; Zhu, Xianglei; Zhukov, Valery; Zucchelli, Stefano

    2017-09-10

    The observation of the decay $\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ is reported, using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of $3~\\mathrm{fb}^{-1}$, collected by the LHCb detector in $pp$ collisions at centre-of-mass energies of $7$ and $8~\\mathrm{TeV}$. The production rate of $\\varXi_{b}^{-}$ baryons detected in the decay $\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-}$ is measured relative to that of $\\varLambda_{b}^{0}$ baryons using the decay $\\varLambda_{b}^{0}\\to J/\\psi \\varLambda$. Integrated over the $b$-baryon transverse momentum $p_{\\rm T}<25~\\mathrm{GeV/}c $ and rapidity $2.0 < y < 4.5$, the measured ratio is \\begin{equation*} \\frac{f_{\\varXi_{b}^{-}}}{f_{\\varLambda_{b}^{0}}}\\frac{\\mathcal{B}(\\varXi_{b}^{-}\\to J/\\psi\\varLambda K^{-})}{\\mathcal{B}(\\varLambda_{b}^{0}\\to J/\\psi \\varLambda)}=(4.19\\pm 0.29~(\\mathrm{stat})\\pm0.14~(\\mathrm{syst}))\\times 10^{-2}, \\end{equation*}where $f_{\\varXi_{b}^{-}}$ and $f_{\\varLambda_{b}^{0}}$ are the fragmentation fractions of $b\\to\\varXi_{...

  10. Avaliação da atividade antibacteriana de folhas de Myrtus communis L. (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Estevão Salvagnini

    Full Text Available O óleo essencial e o extrato etanólico obtidos a partir de folhas de Myrtus communis foram avaliados quanto 'a atividade inibitória frente a vários microrganismos. Os halos de inibição de crescimento foram avaliados através das técnicas de "template" e difusão em disco para as linhagens de Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis e Serratia marcescens. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que o óleo de M. communis apresentou atividade antibacteriana superior ao extrato etanólico frente a todas as bactérias. A atividade demonstrada tanto para o óleo como para o extrato etanólico frente a algumas linhagens, foi melhor evidenciada pela técnica "template". E. coli foi resistente ao óleo e extrato etanólico testados.

  11. Contact and Repellent Activities of the Essential Oil from Juniperus formosana against Two Stored Product Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Guo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil from Juniperus formosana leaves and its contact and repellent activities against Tribolium castaneum and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults were investigated. The essential oil of J. formosana leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 28 components were identified and the main compounds in the essential oil were α-pinene (21.66%, 4-terpineol (11.25%, limonene (11.00% and β-phellandrene (6.63%. The constituents α-pinene, 4-terpineol and d-limonene were isolated from the essential oil. It was found that the essential oil exhibited contact activity against T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila adults (LD50 = 29.14 μg/adult and 81.50 µg/cm2, respectively. The compound 4-terpineol exhibited the strongest contact activity (LD50 = 7.65 μg/adult. In addition, data showed that at 78.63 nL/cm2, the essential oil and the three isolated compounds strongly repelled T. castaneum adults. The compounds α-pinene and d-limonene reached the same level (Class V of repellency as DEET (p = 0.396 and 0.664 against L. bostrychophila at 63.17 nL/cm2 after 2 h treatment. The results indicate that the essential oil and the isolated compounds have potential to be developed into natural insecticides and repellents to control insects in stored products.

  12. Antioxidant activity and chemical composition of Juniperus excelsa ssp. polycarpos wood extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinihashemi, S K; Dadpour, A; Lashgari, A

    2017-03-01

    Extracts from the wood of Juniperus excelsa ssp. polycarpos were analysed for their antioxidant activity using the DPPH method and compared with ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene. The most active extracts were analysed for their chemical composition using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Acetone extract was found to be moderately active as an antioxidant agent at 58.38%, which was lower than the value of vitamin C (98.56%) at the concentration of 14.20 mg/mL. The major components identified in the acetone extract as trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives were pimaric acid TMS (24.56%), followed by α-d-glucopyranoside,1,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS)-β-d-fructofuranosyl 2,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS) (21.39%), triflouromethyl-bis-(TMS)methyl ketone (9.32%), and cedrol (0.72%). The dissolved water:methanol (1:1 v/v) partitioned from acetone extract afforded 12 fractions; among them, the F9 fraction was found to have good antioxidant activity (88.49%) at the concentration of 14.20 mg/mL. The major compounds identified in F9 fraction were α-d-glucopyranoside, 1,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS) (20.22%) and trifluoromethyl-bis-(TMS)methyl ketone (5.10%).

  13. Taxonomical studies on endemic scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans stat. nov. (asteraceae) from turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyuncu, O.; Kus, G.

    2014-01-01

    The taxonomic status of Scorzonera pygmaea var. pygmaea and var. nutans belonging to the tribe. cichoreae (Asteraceae). S. pygmaea samples were collected from Arayit mountain. We suggest that these two subspecies should be classified as varietes because of their morphological and anatomical characteristics, ecological and geographical similarities. Moreover being together in the same localities of these under species taxa supports our opinion, i.e. S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. pygmaea stat. nov. and S. pygmaea Sibth. and Sm. var. nutans (Czeczott) O. Koyuncu and Yaylac, stat. nov. (author)

  14. Ricinus communis intoxications in human and veterinary medicine-a summary of real cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worbs, Sylvia; Köhler, Kernt; Pauly, Diana; Avondet, Marc-André; Schaer, Martin; Dorner, Martin B; Dorner, Brigitte G

    2011-10-01

    Accidental and intended Ricinus communis intoxications in humans and animals have been known for centuries but the causative agent remained elusive until 1888 when Stillmark attributed the toxicity to the lectin ricin. Ricinus communis is grown worldwide on an industrial scale for the production of castor oil. As by-product in castor oil production ricin is mass produced above 1 million tons per year. On the basis of its availability, toxicity, ease of preparation and the current lack of medical countermeasures, ricin has gained attention as potential biological warfare agent. The seeds also contain the less toxic, but highly homologous Ricinus communis agglutinin and the alkaloid ricinine, and especially the latter can be used to track intoxications. After oil extraction and detoxification, the defatted press cake is used as organic fertilizer and as low-value feed. In this context there have been sporadic reports from different countries describing animal intoxications after uptake of obviously insufficiently detoxified fertilizer. Observations in Germany over several years, however, have led us to speculate that the detoxification process is not always performed thoroughly and controlled, calling for international regulations which clearly state a ricin threshold in fertilizer. In this review we summarize knowledge on intended and unintended poisoning with ricin or castor seeds both in humans and animals, with a particular emphasis on intoxications due to improperly detoxified castor bean meal and forensic analysis.

  15. Ricinus communis L. A Value Added Crop for Remediation of Cadmium Contaminated Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauddh, Kuldeep; Singh, Kripal; Singh, Rana P

    2016-02-01

    Heavy metal pollution of soil is a global environmental problem and therefore its remediation is of paramount importance. Cadmium (Cd) is a potential toxicant to living organisms and even at very low concentrations. This study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of Ricinus communis for remediation of Cd contaminated soils. For this, growth and biomass of R. communis and Cd accumulation, translocation and partitioning in different plant parts were investigated after 8 months of plant growth in Cd contaminated soil (17.50 mg Cd kg−1 soil). Eight months old plants stabilized 51 % Cd in its roots and rest of the metal was transferred to the stem and leaves. There were no significant differences in growth, biomass and yield between control and Cd treated plants, except fresh weight of shoots. The seed yield per plant was reduced only by 5 % of Cd contaminated plants than control. The amount of Cd translocated to the castor seeds was nominal i.e. 0.007 µg Cd g−1 seeds. The bioconcentration factor reduced significantly in shoots and seeds in comparison to roots. The data indicates that R. communis is highly tolerant to Cd contamination and can be used for remediation of heavy metal polluted sites.

  16. Use of Energy Crop (Ricinus communis L.) for Phytoextraction of Heavy Metals Assisted with Citric Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Chen, Xueping; He, Chiquan; Liang, Xia; Oh, Kokyo; Liu, Xiaoyan; Lei, Yanru

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is a bioenergetic crop with high-biomass production and tolerance to cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), thus, the plant is a candidate crop for phytoremediation. Pot experiments were performed to study the effects of citric acid in enhancing phytoextraction of Cd/Pb by Ricinus communis L. Citric acid increased Cd and Pb contents in plant shoots in all treatments by about 78% and 18-45%, respectively, at the dosage of 10 mM kg(-1) soil without affecting aboveground biomass production. Addition of citric acid reduced CEC, weakened soil adsorption of heavy metals and activated Cd and Pb in soil solutions. The acid-exchangeable fraction (BCR-1) of Pb remained lower than 7% and significantly increased with citric acid amendment. Respective increases in soil evaluation index induces by 14% and 19% under the Cd1Pb50 and Cd1Pb250 treatments upon addition of citric acid resulted in soil quality improvement. Ricinus communis L. has great potential in citric acid-assisted phytoextraction for Cd and Pb remediation.

  17. Selective response of Ricinus communis seedlings to soil borne rhizoctonia infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras Bittsanszky

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Seedlings of Ricinus communis tolerated soil-borne Rhizoctonia infection in strain dependent manner. There was no connection revealed between pathogenicity of strains and their origin or taxonomic position, however, the castor plant proved to be susceptible to most strains highly pathogenic to other host plants as well. Rhizoctonia zeae (teleomorph: Waitea circinata, a species new for European flora, was less aggressive to R. communis as the most potent R. solani strains. The effect of Rhizoctonia infection on mass accumulation of hypocotyls was more prominent than that on cotyledons. The protein content and glutathione S-transferase (GST activity increased in parallel with evolution of disease syndrome. Metalaxyl, an acetanilide type systemic anti-omycete fungicide induced locally the GST activity in R. communis cotyledons with 24 hours lag phase, and this induction was altered in the seedlings grown in Rhizoctonia infested soil by strain dependent manner. It might be concluded, that the stress response related detoxication mechanisms of plants in tolerant host/parasite pairs take effect at higher level than in highly susceptible relationships.

  18. Evaluation of antibacterial effect of Myrtus communis against Acinetobacter baumannii clinical strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venous Akhavan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Because of inappropriate use of antibiotics and prevalence of resistant bacteria, there is urgent need for antibacterial drugs that have fewer side effects than antibiotics. Myrtus communis is a medicinal plant which had many uses in traditional medicine. In this study, ethanol leave extract of this plant is tested on Acinetobacter baumannii. In the case of antimicrobial evaluation of plants, one of the effecting factors on effectiveness of the microbial inhibition is extraction techniques. In the presents study, the antibacterial activity of the Ethanol, Methanol, and Ethyl acetate extracts of M. communis plant was evaluated at seven different concentrations by broth microdilution method. The results of this study showed that the antimicrobial effect of M. communis extract is concentration dependent. Different extracts were obtained by the maceration method. Extracts of the plant exhibited antibacterial activity at varied levels against A. baumannii. Obtained results from our antibacterial experiments showed that all extracts have anti-bacterial activity against tested bacterial isolates According to the results, the ethyl acetate extracted fraction showed the highest level of activity at a MIC 400 mg/ml for A. baumannii. The results of this study indicate that, different extracts had growth inhibitory effect on A. baumannii. Therefore this plant has the potential to be evaluated as an alternative or adjunct to antibiotics to treat Acinetobacter infections.

  19. Antifungal and Herbicidal Effects of Fruit Essential Oils of Four Myrtus communis Genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordali, Saban; Usanmaz, Ayse; Cakir, Ahmet; Komaki, Amanmohammad; Ercisli, Sezai

    2016-01-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the fruits of four selected Myrtus communis L. genotypes from Turkey was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. 1,8-Cineole (29.20-31.40%), linalool (15.67-19.13%), α-terpineol (8.40-18.43%), α-pinene (6.04-20.71%), and geranyl acetate (3.98-7.54%) were found to be the major constituents of the fruit essential oils of all M. communis genotypes investigated. The oils were characterized by high amounts of oxygenated monoterpenes, representing 73.02-83.83% of the total oil compositions. The results of the fungal growth inhibition assays showed that the oils inhibited the growth of 19 phytopathogenic fungi. However, their antifungal activity was generally lower than that of the commercial pesticide benomyl. The herbicidal effects of the oils on the seed germination and seedling growth of Amaranthus retroflexus L., Chenopodium album L., Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Lactuca serriola L., and Rumex crispus L. were also determined. The oils completely or partly inhibited the seed germinations and seedling growths of the plants. The findings of the present study suggest that the M. communis essential oils might have potential to be used as natural herbicides as well as fungicides. Copyright © 2016 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  20. "Var Teatre"--A Pioneer Turns 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Pamela L.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the Stockholm Municipal Youth and Children's theatre ("Var Teatre"), an institution of 14 theatres and attendant professional staff devoted exclusively to drama activities for children and teenagers. (PD)

  1. 4D-Var Developement at GMAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelc, Joanna S.; Todling, Ricardo; Akkraoui, Amal El

    2014-01-01

    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Offce (GMAO) is currently using an IAU-based 3D-Var data assimilation system. GMAO has been experimenting with a 3D-Var-hybrid version of its data assimilation system (DAS) for over a year now, which will soon become operational and it will rapidly progress toward a 4D-EnVar. Concurrently, the machinery to exercise traditional 4DVar is in place and it is desirable to have a comparison of the traditional 4D approach with the other available options, and evaluate their performance in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) DAS. This work will also explore the possibility for constructing a reduced order model (ROM) to make traditional 4D-Var computationally attractive for increasing model resolutions. Part of the research on ROM will be to search for a suitably acceptable space to carry on the corresponding reduction. This poster illustrates how the IAU-based 4D-Var assimilation compares with our currently used IAU-based 3D-Var.

  2. Detección de compuestos inductores de aborto en acículas de enebro (Juniperus communis) y suero de vacas abortadas en los montes de la Rioja

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over recent years, there have been observed in several cattle farms within the region of the Sierra de Cameros (La Rioja) mountains, reproductive alterations consisting of pre-mature births and birth of dead calves or calves of reduced viability. After laboratory examination of several cases with ne...

  3. Weinig VVT-instellingen met VAR : onderzoek naar VAR's in Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corina de Feijter; Pieterbas Lalleman

    V&VN is op zoek gegaan naar alle actieve Verpleegkundige en/of Verzorgende Adviesraden (VAR) in Nederland. Het blijkt dat in totaal 144 zorginstellingen (24%) een VAR hebben. Vooral in de VVT-sector is het aantal VAR’s laag: 13%.

  4. Molecular and physiological diversity among Verticillium fungicola var. fungicola and var. aleophilum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Largeteau, M.L.; Baars, J.J.P.; Savoie, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    The genetic and physiological variability of Verticillium fungicola var. aleophilum responsible for Agaricus bisporus dry bubble disease in North America is well documented but little is known about the var. fungicola affecting European crops. Variability was assessed within this variety and

  5. Over de verspreiding binnen Nederland van Bidens connata var. fallax (Warnst.) Sherf en var. anomala Farw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballintijn, Koos (J.) F.

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of recent observations and study of herbarium material it might tentatively be concluded that var. anomala (with erecto-patent barb hairs on achenes as well as on the bristles) is becoming more common since 1954 and might be locally replacing the hitherto more common var. fallax (with

  6. Contrasting patterns of genetic divergence in two sympatric pseudo-metallophytes: Rumex acetosa L. and Commelina communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patterns of genetic divergence between populations of facultative metallophytes have been investigated extensively. However, most previous investigations have focused on a single plant species making it unclear if genetic divergence shows common patterns or, conversely, is species-specific. The herbs Rumex acetosa L. and Commelina communis L. are two pseudo-metallophytes thriving in both normal and cupriferous soils along the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River in China. Their non-metallicolous and metallicolous populations are often sympatric thus providing an ideal opportunity for comparative estimation of genetic structures and divergence under the selective pressure derived from copper toxicity. Results In the present study, patterns of genetic divergence of R. acetosa and C. communis , including metal tolerance, genetic structure and genetic relationships between populations, were investigated and compared using hydroponic experiments, AFLP, ISSR and chloroplast genetic markers. Our results show a significant reduction in genetic diversity in metallicolous populations of C. communis but not in R. acetosa . Moreover, genetic differentiation is less in R. acetosa than in C. communis , the latter species also shows a clustering of its metallicolous populations. Conclusions We propose that the genetic divergences apparent in R. acetosa and C. communis , and the contrasting responses of the two species to copper contamination, might be attributed to the differences in their intrinsic physiological and ecological properties. No simple and generalised conclusions on genetic divergence in pseudo-metallophytes can thus be drawn.

  7. Use of MODIS Satellite Images and an Atmospheric Dust Transport Model to Evaluate Juniperus spp. Pollen Phenology and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, E.; Huete, A.; Nickovic, S.; Pejanovic, G. A.; Vukovic, A.; Van de Water, P. K.; Myers, O. B.; Budge, A. M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et al., 2003 reported Juniperus spp. pollen, a significant aeroallergen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. Direct detection of pollen via satellite is not practical. A practical alternative combines modeling and phenological observations using ground based sampling and satellite data. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and quantities of dust (Nickovic et al. 2001). The use of satellite data products for studying phenology is well documented (White and Nemani 2006). In the current project MODIS data will provide critical input to the PREAM model providing pollen source location, timing of pollen release, and vegetation type. We are modifying the DREAM model (PREAM - Pollen REgional Atmospheric Model) to incorporate pollen transport. The linkages already exist with DREAM through PHAiRS (Public Health Applications in Remote Sensing) to the public health community. This linkage has the potential to fill this data gap so that the potential association of health effects of pollen can better be tracked for possible linkage with health outcome data which may be associated with asthma, respiratory effects, myocardial infarction, and lost workdays. Juniperus spp. pollen phenology may respond to a wide range of environmental factors such as day length, growing degree-days, precipitation patterns and soil moisture. Species differences are also important. These environmental factors vary over both time and spatial scales. Ground based networks such as the USA National Phenology Network have been established to provide national wide observations of vegetation phenology. However, the density of observers is not adequate to sufficiently document the phenology variability

  8. The anxiolytic effect of Juniperus virginiana L. essential oil and determination of its active constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Yao, Lei

    2018-05-15

    Essential oil from Juniperus virginiana L. (eastern red cedarwood essential oil, CWO) has been used to relax mind and enhance comfort for medical purposes. Few reports showed its effect on anxiety behaviors in animal models. The present study investigated the anxiolytic effect of CWO using two anxiety tests in mice, then determined the major active constituents, examined the change of neurotransmitters after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration. Analysis using GC/MS revealed that the CWO contained (-)-α-cedrene (28.11%), (+)-β-cedrene (7.81%), (-)-thujopsene (17.71%) and (+)-cedrol (24.58%). CWO at 400-800mg/kg increased the percentage of open arm entries and the percentage of the time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze (EPM), suggesting that the oil has anxiolytic effect. However, it didn't show anxiolytic effect in the light-dark box (LDB) test. Tests of the cedrene did not show anxiolytic effect in either test, but rather induced anxiety-related behaviors and inhibited the locomotor activity in EPM and LDB. Cedrol produced significant anxiolytic effect in both EPM and LDB tests at 400-1600mg/kg and 800-1600mg/kg, respectively. A more significant increase in locomotor activity was observed in cedrol at 200-1600mg/kg administration than CWO. CWO increased the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration at 800mg/kg, whereas it didn't affect the dopamine (DA) concentration. Cedrol significantly reduced the DA level at 100-200mg/kg and elevated the 5-HT level at 1200-1600mg/kg. Moreover, it changed the ratio of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid/5-HT and 3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl acetic acid/DA at 1200-1600mg/kg. CWO and cedrol, in particular might act in an anxiolytic effect through the 5-HTnergic and DAnergic pathways. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of berries and leaves essential oils of Macedonian Juniperus foetidissima Willd. (Cupressaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floresha Sela

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of leaves and berries essential oils from Juniperus foetidissima Willd. (Cupressaceae grown in R. Macedonia (RM was investigated. GC/FID/MS analysis was carried out and 93 components were identified, representing 89.7-96.5% of the oils. The major components of the berries essential oil were α-pinene (19.2%, limonene (24.9% and cedrol (23.1%, followed by smaller amounts of b-funebrene, trans-caryophyllene, germacrene D and d-cadinene. The composition of the leaves essential oil was variable depending on the region of collection. Accordingly, samples originated from southeastern RM contained essential oil with α-pinene (67.6% and limonene (10.0%, from central part of RM with limonene (17.9-27.1% and cedrol (28.8-33.9%, while samples from southwestern RM contained oil with terpinen-4-ol (19.1%, cis-thujone (8.3%, germacrene D (11.0% and d-cadinene (6.3% as predominant components in the oil. Antimicrobial screening of the essential oils was made by disc diffusion and broth dilution method against 16 bacterial strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and one strain of Candida albicans. The leaves essential oil showed stronger antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Haemophilus influenzae (MIC = 125 ml/ml and moderate activity against Campylobacter jejuni (MIC > 500 ml/ml. Other investigated bacterial strains and Candida albicans were completely resistant to the antimicrobial activity of J. foetidissima essential oils.

  10. Photosynthetic performance of invasive Pinus ponderosa and Juniperus virginiana seedlings under gradual soil water depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihmidine, S; Bryan, N M; Payne, K R; Parde, M R; Okalebo, J A; Cooperstein, S E; Awada, T

    2010-07-01

    Changes in climate, land management and fire regime have contributed to woody species expansion into grasslands and savannas worldwide. In the USA, Pinus ponderosa P.&C. Lawson and Juniperus virginiana L. are expanding into semiarid grasslands of Nebraska and other regions of the Great Plains. We examined P. ponderosa and J. virginiana seedling response to soil water content, one of the most important limiting factors in semiarid grasslands, to provide insight into their success in the region. Photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, maximum photochemical efficiency of PSII, maximum carboxylation velocity, maximum rate of electron transport, stomatal limitation to photosynthesis, water potential, root-to-shoot ratio, and needle nitrogen content were followed under gradual soil water depletion for 40 days. J. virginiana maintained lower L(s), higher A, g(s), and initial F(v)/F(m), and displayed a more gradual decline in V(cmax) and J(max) with increasing water deficit compared to P. ponderosa. J. virginiana also invested more in roots relative to shoots compared to P. ponderosa. F(v)/F(m) showed high PSII resistance to dehydration in both species. Photoinhibition was observed at approximately 30% of field capacity. Soil water content was a better predictor of A and g(s) than Psi, indicating that there are other growth factors controlling physiological processes under increased water stress. The two species followed different strategies to succeed in semiarid grasslands. P. ponderosa seedlings behaved like a drought-avoidant species with strong stomatal control, while J. virginiana was more of a drought-tolerant species, maintaining physiological activity at lower soil water content. Differences between the studied species and the ecological implications are discussed.

  11. Dual extraction of essential oil and podophyllotoxin from creeping juniper (Juniperus horizontalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L Cantrell

    Full Text Available Juniperus horizontalis Moench (Family Cupressaceae, commonly called creeping juniper, is a widely distributed species in the United States and much of Canada. It is potentially a source for two important chemical products, the anticancer drug synthetic precursor, podophyllotoxin and essential oils. The objectives of this study were to ascertain the likelihood of utilizing J. horizontalis needles for the simultaneous production of both (--podophyllotoxin and essential oil components and to determine the optimum distillation time (DT needed for the production of essential oil containing a specific ratio of constituents. Eleven different distillation times were tested in this study: 20, 40, 80, 160, 180, 240, 480, 600, 720, 840, and 960 min. Total essential oil content increased with increasing distillation time from a minimum of 0.023% at 20 min to a maximum of 1.098% at 960 min. The major constituents present in the oil were alpha-pinene, sabinene, and limonene. The percent concentration of sabinene in the essential oil varied from a high of 46.6% at 80 min to a low of 30.2% at 960 min, that of limonene changed very little as a result of distillation time and remained near 30% for all distillation times, whereas the concentration of alpha-pinene was 9.6% at 20 min DT and decreased to 4.2% at 960 min. Post distillation analysis of needles revealed elevated amounts of (--podophyllotoxin remaining in the tissue varied in the amount of podophyllotoxin present, from a low of 0.281% to a high of 0.364% as compared to undistilled needles which gave 0.217% podophyllotoxin. As a result of this study, specific essential oil components can now be targeted in J. horizontalis by varying the distillation time. Furthermore, needles can be successfully utilized as a source of both essential oil and podophyllotoxin, consecutively.

  12. Hybrid VAR compensator with improved efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Burlaka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern electrical networks thyristor-switched capacitors (TSC are most used devices for VAR compensation. These devices don’t contain rotating parts and mechanical contacts, provide a stepwise control of reactive power and no generation of harmonics to the network. However, with the help of TSC it’s not possible to ensure smooth control of reactive power and capacitor banks (CB are exposed to the negative impact of higher harmonic components of the network voltage. Hybrid VAR compensator don’t have such drawbacks. It consists of active filter (AF and capacitor bank with discrete regulation. The main drawback of such systems is the necessity of accessing all six terminals of CB, while most of them are manufactured with three terminals, internally delta-connected. In the article, the topology and control system of hybrid VAR compensator free from beforementioned drawback, is proposed. The control system provides operating modes of overcompensation or undercompensation reactive power. VAR distribution regulator performs redistribution of reactive power between active filter and capacitor banks with the condition to minimize active filter’s power. Scheme of the hybrid VAR compensator, which includes a three-phase three-terminal delta-connected capacitor banks, is shown. Proposed approach allows to provide smooth control of reactive power, isolate the capacitor bank from harmonic currents and use a more effective low-voltage power components

  13. Measurements of essential oil extract and antioxidant in Syrian Myrtus communis L. leaves using photo chemiluminescence assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayzafoon, G.; Odeh, A.; Mahzia, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The essential oil extracts and antioxidant measurements of Syrian Myrtus communis L. leaves as hydrophilic and hydrophobic existence species have been carried out. The plant leaves as a source of antioxidants was tested by the influence of its aqueous and essential oil extracts on the yield of photo chemiluminescence, PCL solution applying very sensitive and reliable method. By means of a photo chemiluminescence assay, it was possible to assess the total antioxidants capacity of hydrophilic and hydrophobic species existence in Syrian Myrtus communis L. leaves. It has been found that, the integral antioxidant capacity measurements value of Syrian Myrtus communis L. leaves was found in Kurdaha site which has a value of 465.67 1.18 nmol TE/g DM (total Trolox equivalent /gram of Dry material) . The following three mainly chemical species were found in the essential oil extracts: -Pinene, Cineole and Limonene. (author)

  14. Gregarine Cephaloidophora communis mawrodiadi, 1908 in the barnacle Euraphia rhyzophorae, Oliveira, 1940 from Brazil

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    Lacombe Dyrce

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The gregarine Cephaloidophora communis was observed for the first time in Brazil in the barnacles Euraphia rhyzophorae collected in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 1990 and 1996. Histological studies showed growth phases of the parasite in specific parts of the digestive system. The intracellular forms occurred in the vacuoles of the intestinal cells. Syzygy was frequent, and the most common form following syzygy was cylindrical, with a single membrane. The cytoplasm of the gregarines was always irregular, dense, and occasionally presenting a dark stoch area.

  15. Apis mellifera pollination improves agronomic productivity of anemophilous castor bean (Ricinus communis

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    Rômulo A.G. Rizzardo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Castor bean (Ricinus communis L. is cultivated mainly for biodiesel production because of its oil-rich seeds; it is assumed to be an anemophylous species. But pollination deficit can lead to low productivity often attributed to other reasons. In this paper, we investigated pollination requirements, pollination mechanism, occurrence of pollination deficit, and the role of biotic pollinators in a large commercial plantation of castor bean. Our results show that R. communis bears a mixed breeding system favoring selfing by geitonogamy, although the wind promotes mostly outcrossing. We also found that the honey bee (Apis mellifera L. foraging on castor bean can both transfer pollen from male to female flowers within the same raceme and boost the release of airborne pollen by male flowers. Both situations increase geitonogamy rates, raising significantly fruit set and seed yield. This is the first report of an animal foraging activity increasing seed yield in an anemophilous and geitonogamous crop and elucidates the role of biotic pollinators in castor bean reproduction.A mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. é cultivada principalmente para produção de biodiesel devido ao alto teor de óleo de suas sementes e considerada como sendo de polinização anemófila. Mas déficits de polinização podem levar a baixos índices de produtividade geralmente atribuídos a outros fatores. Neste trabalho foram investigados os requerimentos, mecanismos e déficit de polinização e o papel dos polinizadores bióticos em um monocultivo comercial de mamona. Os resultados mostram que R. communis possui um sistema de polinização misto, favorecendo a autopolinização por geitonogamia, embora o vento normalmente promova polinização cruzada. Observou-se também que a abelha melífera (Apis mellifera L. forrageando na mamoneira pode tanto transferir pólen das flores estaminadas para as pistiladas do mesmo racemo, quanto aumentar consideravelmente a liberação de p

  16. Nitrosomonas communis strain YNSRA, an ammonia-oxidizing bacterium, isolated from the reed rhizoplane in an aquaponics plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuyama, Tatsuaki; Mine, Atsusi; Kamiyama, Kaoru; Yabe, Ryuichi; Satoh, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Hirotoshi; Takahashi, Reiji; Itonaga, Koji

    2004-01-01

    An ammonia-oxidizing bacterium (strain YNSRA) was isolated from the rhizoplane of the reed (Phragmites communis) used in an aquaponics plant which is a wastewater treatment plant. Strain YNSRA was identified as Nitrosomonas communis by taxonomic studies. The hydroxylamine-cytochrome c reductase (HCR) of strain YNSRA was found to have a higher activity (25.60 u/mg) than that of Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC25978T (8.94 u/mg). Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RubisCO) activity was detected at very low levels in strain YNSRA, whereas strain ATCC25978T had definite activity.

  17. Haavelmo's Probability Approach and the Cointegrated VAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    Some key econometric concepts and problems addressed by Trygve Haavelmo and Ragnar Frisch are discussed within the general frame- work of a cointegrated VAR. The focus is on problems typical of time- series data such as multicollinearity, spurious correlation and regres- sion results, time......) the plausibility of the multivari- ate normality assumption underlying the VAR, (3) cointegration as a solution to the problem of spurious correlation and multicollinearity when data contain deterministic and stochastic trends, (4) the exis- tence of a universe, (5) the association between Frisch’s con...

  18. Rediscovery of Impatiens laevigata var. grandifolia (Balsaminaceae from NE India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gogoi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Impatiens laevigata var. grandifolia Hook.f. rediscovered after a lapse of 139 years from Lohit district of Arunachal Pradesh. Earlier it was known only – from its type locality in Manipur. Detailed morphological description of I. laevigata var. laevigata and var. grandifolia have been provided based on fresh plant collections.

  19. B. oleracea var. capitata monosomic and disomic alien

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Five monosomic alien addition lines (MAALs) of Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis – B. oleracea var. capitata were obtained by hybridization and backcrossing between B. rapa ssp. pekinensis (female parent) and B. oleracea var. capitata. The alien linkage groups were identified using 42 B. oleracea var. capitata linkage ...

  20. Status and trends of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) in the central United States: Analyses and observations based on Forest Inventory and Analysis data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Greg C. Liknes

    2015-01-01

    Eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginiana) (ERC) is a conifer native to North America that has been used for a variety of wood products, and its planting has been encouraged to help stabilize soil, reforest abandoned farmland, and provide cover for wildlife. However, ERC tends to expand rapidly and take over certain areas primarily because it can grow...

  1. Antibacterial and antioxidant activity of Juniperus thurifera L. leaf extracts growing in East of Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merradi Manel

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This work aimed to evaluate the biological activity of the leaf extracts of Juniperus thurifera L., which is an Algerian endemic tree that belongs to the family of Cupressaceae. Materials and Methods: The plant leaves were extracted in solvents of increasing polarity to obtain different extracts such as methanol, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and aqueous extracts (MeE, PEE, ChlE, EtAE, and AqE. The antioxidant activity of four extracts (MeE, ChlE, EtAE, and AqE was assessed by trapping test of 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical. The evaluation of antibacterial activity of MeE, ChlE, EtAE, and PEE was done using the disk diffusion method on solid agar. Results: The three extracts of EtAE, AqE, and MeE showed high antiradical activity toward the DPPH radical (IC50=29.348 μg/mL, 37.538 μg/mL, and 52.573 μg/mL, respectively, while the lowest radical scavenging activity was expressed by the ChlE (IC50=70.096 μg/mL. These extracts were active only toward the Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC and methicillin-resistant S. aureus at different concentrations, and the highest activity was obtained with the ChlE with an inhibition diameter of 14 mm at the concentration of 1 g/mL. No inhibition was detected for all of these extracts against the Gram-negative tested strains (Escherichia coli ATCC, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC, and Enterobacter cloacae (extended spectrum β-lactamase. Conclusion: From this study, on the one hand, it was concluded that J. thurifera L. leaves extracts exhibited a very intense antioxidant potential toward the DPPH radical, and on the other hand, the antibacterial activity showed an action spectrum exclusively toward the Gram-positive bacteria.

  2. Development of an energy-protein for animal food based crop residues pear (Pyrus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Néstor Julián Pulido-Suárez,

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pear (Pyrus communis is a fruit from the species of deciduous, widely consumed worldwide for its high quality energ y. However, pear itself does not provide the amount of protein required for cattle feeding, so alternatives to improve its nutritional quality have been studied. On these grounds, the objective of this study was to evaluate the parameters of solid state fermentation, and compositional energ y value of a protein food based on pears (Pyrus communis with apparent physical damage. A completely random design was used to evaluate three treatments; these correspond to percentages of inclusion of calcium carbonate (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 formulation based on already established (40 % pear, 25 % rice flour, 25 % wheat bran and 10 % urea, the parameters evaluated were: pH, ashes (CZ, crude protein (CP and crude fiber (CF, and they were recorded at 0, 24, 48 and 72 hours. As a result, it was found that the pH dropped gradually for each treatment and at each sampling period; however, there were no significant differences. The lower value at the end of the process is recorded T2 (0.25 with 4.66, followed by T3 (0.50 with 4.50, the ash reached values of up to 6 % with T3, and T2 (0.50 reached the highest percentages in fiber and crude protein. Finally, decreasing the fermentation variables ensures a food with no presence of undesirable microorganisms and stable over time.

  3. Evaluation of Ricinus communis L. for the Phytoremediation of Polluted Soil with Organochlorine Pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Rissato

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytoremediation is an attractive alternative to conventional treatments of soil due to advantages such as low cost, large application areas, and the possibility of in situ treatment. This study presents the assessment of phytoremediation processes conducted under controlled experimental conditions to evaluate the ability of Ricinus communis L., tropical plant species, to promote the degradation of 15 persistent organic pollutants (POPs, in a 66-day period. The contaminants tested were hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH, DDT, heptachlor, aldrin, and others. Measurements made in rhizosphere soil indicate that the roots of the studied species reduce the concentration of pesticides. Results obtained during this study indicated that the higher the hydrophobicity of the organic compound and its molecular interaction with soil or root matrix the greater its tendency to concentrate in root tissues and the research showed the following trend: HCHs < diclofop-methyl < chlorpyrifos < methoxychlor < heptachlor epoxide < endrin < o,p′-DDE < heptachlor < dieldrin < aldrin < o,p′-DDT < p,p′-DDT by increasing order of log Kow values. The experimental results confirm the importance of vegetation in removing pollutants, obtaining remediation from 25% to 70%, and demonstrated that Ricinus communis L. can be used for the phytoremediation of such compounds.

  4. Photosynthetic activity of young Ricinus communis L. plants under conditions of flooded soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Silva Dalberto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil flooding is a stress condition that causes changes in hydric relationships and in the metabolism of crops, thereby affecting their productivity. To evaluate the effects of soil flooding on the chlorophyll a fluorescence transient, as well as gas exchange and Ricinus communis growth, young plants of the ‘AL Guarany 2002’ and ‘IAC Guarani’ cultivars, grown in a greenhouse, were subjected to flood conditions by maintaining a layer of water 2-3 cm above the soil. The stressed plants showed drastic reduction in net CO2 assimilation and growth variables. There was, however, an increase in performance index (PIABS e PITOTAL at different moments of stress between the two cultivars. In general, R. communis plants possess mechanisms to protect the electron transport chain during a period of stress, without causing damage and reducing functionality. However, this is not enough to maintain photosynthetic activity owing to the decrease in stomatal conductance and intrinsic carboxylation efficiency, which affects biomass accumulation in stressed plants. In summary, this study found that the ‘AL Guarany 2002’ was found to be more sensitive to stress than the ‘IAC Guarani’ was.

  5. In vitro activity of total aqueous ethanol leaf extracts of Ricinus communis on Leishmania major promastigotes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okech, B.G.A.; Irungu, L.W.; Anjili, C.O.; Munyua, J.K.; Njagi, E.N.M.; Rukungu, G.

    2006-01-01

    The activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts of Ricinus communis was tested on Leishmania promastigotes in cell-free culture media. Serial dilutions of the extracts ranging from 500μg/ml, 250 μg/ml and 62.5μg/ml were prepared in triplicate using Schneiders Drosophila medium supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum in the absence of antibiotics and the growth of approximately 1x 10 (power 6) parasites monitored every two days for a period of 8 days. Parasite density was estimated every two days using the Neuabeur counting chamber. At the end of the 8-day period cell morphology was observed and photographed. Significant growth inihibitory effect was observed on the promastigotes by the aqueous and ethanol extracts especially at high concentrations. However, there was an enhanced growth effect initially thereafter leading to to a rapid decline in promastigote cell population. Flagellar motility was also greatly affected at high concentration and it appeared that there was a linear relationship between flagellar motilities and the level of concentrations. Parasite morphology was affected severely. Most of the cultures observed appeared to have abnormal round morphology. Rosseting was also evident in the extract treated cultures. The aqueous leaf extract interfered with parasite morphology but this was dose dependent. The importance of R. communis plant as a potential source for chemotypes with antileishmanial activity is discussed. (author)

  6. Teucrium pruinosum var. aksarayense var. nov. (Lamiaceae from Central Anatolia, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhittin Dinç

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Teucrium pruinosum var. aksarayense M. Dinç & S. Doğu (Lamiaceae, a new variety from Aksaray in Central Anatolia, is described and illustrated. The new variety is similar to the typical one in its calyx teeth uncinate at tip and subequal to the tube with conspicious midvein. It is readily distinguished from var. pruinosum by its general appearance, indumentum, and floral organ pigmentation. The map showing the distributions of the varieties was given.

  7. What is Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pujadas Salvà, Antonio J.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck (Orobanchaceae, a problematic taxon described from Algeciras (Cádiz, S Spain is here identified after studying the original material of Wolley-Dod (BM 4476. It is considered to be the same as O. austrohispanica M.J.Y. Foley and better included, as a variety, under O. gracilis Sm. The new combination O. gracilis var. deludens (Beck A. Pujadas is consequently proposed. It mainly parasites Ulex (Fabaceae in the western Mediterranean Region (Iberian Peninsula and NW Africa.Se identifica Orobanche haenseleri var. deludens Beck (Orobanchaceae, un taxon conflictivo descrito de Algeciras (Cádiz, sur de España, a partir del análisis del material original de Wolley-Dod (BM 4476. Se considera que es lo mismo que O. austrohispanica M.J.Y. Foley, y se incluye en O. gracilis Sm. con rango varietal. Se propone la nueva combinación O. gracilis var. deludens (Beck A. Pujadas. Parasita principalmente a especies del género Ulex (Fabaceae en la Región Mediterránea Occidental (Península Ibérica y noroeste de África.

  8. Is Solanum ferox var. ferox (Solanaceae) extinct?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiser, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    In 1995 I wrote letters to over 50 people (botanists, agricultural scientists, and former students of Indiana University) in south-eastern Asia trying to obtain a few seeds of Solanumferox L. var. ferox (S. involucratum Blume). I had over 25 replies, five of which included seeds, but none of the

  9. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 4. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie. Flowering Trees Volume 8 Issue 4 April 2003 pp 89-89. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/04/0089-0089. Resonance ...

  10. Var der noget kapløb?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimpel, Denise; Nielsen, Bent

    2006-01-01

    Hvorfor faldt Kina bagud i kapløbet med Vesten?« spørger David Favrholdt i sidste nummer af Weekendavisen. Var der overhovedet noget kapløb? Forudsætter et kapløb ikke, at man har et fælles mål? Spørgsmålet implicerer, at Vesten har vundet og indplacerer samtidig klodens øvrige kulturer i forhold....... Som en af 1900-tallets største sinologer A. C. Graham skriver i sin bog Disputers of the Tao (La Salle, Ill., 1989) var den videnskabelige revolution »en unik og kompleks begivenhed, som var afhængig af en mangfoldighed af sociale og andre betingelser, herunder et sammenfald af opdagelser (græske......, indiske, kinesiske, arabiske, næsten ingen romerske) koncentreret om kombinationen af indiske tal og aritmetik og græsk logik og geometri« (s. 317). En unik begivenhed, som er forekommet én gang i verdenshistorien. Det giver derfor ingen mening at spørge, hvorfor det ikke skete andre steder. Hvis det var...

  11. Ascorbic acid and tissue browning in pears (Pyrus communis L. cvs Rocha and Conference) under controlled atmosphere conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, R.H.; Kho, R.M.; Schaik, van A.C.R.; Sanders, M.G.; Oosterhaven, J.

    2000-01-01

    The relationships between storage gas composition and ascorbic acid (AA) levels, and between AA levels and the development of internal browning, were studied in 'Conference' and 'Rocha' pears (Pyrus communis L.). In both cultivars, AA levels declined under (browning-inducing) controlled atmosphere

  12. Biochemical, physiological and molecular responses of Ricinus communis seeds and seedlings to different temperatures: a multi-omics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    Biochemical, physiological and molecular responses of Ricinus communis seeds and seedlings to different temperatures: a multi-omics approach

    by Paulo Roberto Ribeiro de Jesus

    The main objective of this thesis was to provide a detailed

  13. Effect of temperature on biomass allocation in seedlings of two contrasting genotypes of the oilseed crop Ricinus communis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.; Zanotti, R.F.; Deflers, C.; Fernandez, L.G.; Castro, De R.D.; Ligterink, W.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Ricinus communis is becoming an important crop for oil production, and studying the physiological and biochemical aspects of seedling development may aid in the improvement of crop quality and yield. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of temperature on biomass allocation in two R.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of untenospongin B, a metabolic from the marine sponge Hippospongia communis collected from the Atlantic coast of Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rifai, S.; Kijjoa, A.; van Soest, R.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    (-)-Untenospongin B isolated from the marine sponge Hippospongia communis has been tested for its antimicrobial activity against bacteria and human pathogenic fungi using agar disk method and was found to possess a broad and strong activity toward the test organisms. Its antifungal activity was

  15. Analysis list: Su(var)205 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Su(var)205 Adult,Embryo,Larvae + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3.../target/Su(var)205.1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.5.tsv http://dbarc...hive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Su(var)205.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/c...olo/Su(var)205.Adult.tsv,http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(var)205.Embryo.tsv,http:...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Su(var)205.Larvae.tsv http://dbarchive

  16. Exposure to an environment containing the aromatic red cedar, Juniperus virginiana: procarcinogenic, enzyme-inducing and insecticidal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabine, J R

    1975-11-01

    (1) Shavings from the Eastern Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana) were examined for three diverse biological properties, i.e. enzyme induction, procarcinogenicity and insecticidal activity. (2) The ability of a cedar environment to stimulate liver drug-metabolizing enzymes in mice was confirmed by lowered values for barbiturate sleeping time. (3) In susceptible strains of mice (C3H-Avy, C3H-AvyfB and CBA/J) the use of cedar shavings as bedding increased significantly the incidence of spontaneous tumors of the liver and mammary gland, and also reduced the average time at which tumors appeared. (4) Cedar and some of its derivatives (Oil of Cedarwood, cedrene, cedrol) disrupted the reproductive and developmental cycle of a number of insects, including the Peanut Trash Bug (Elasmolomus sordidus), the Indian Meal Moth (Plodia interpunctella) and the Forage Mite (Tyrophagus putrescentiae).

  17. Antihyperglycemic effect ofJuniperus phoenicea L. on alloxan-induced diabetic rats and diterpenoids isolated from the fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salma Ahmed El-Sawi; Hemaia Mohamed Motawae; Abdel-Rahman Omar El-Shabrawy; Mohamed Aboul-Fotouh Sleem; Amani Ameen Sleem; Maii Abdel Naby Ismail Maamoun

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the traditional use ofJuniperus phoenicea L. (J. phoenicea) growing in Egypt as antidiabetic herb. Methods: The antihyperglycemic activities of the crude 80% ethanol and successive extracts of leaves and fruits of the plant were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats after collecting blood samples through retro-orbital puncture technique. As a consequence of the biological results, phytochemical investigation of the chloroform fraction of fruits was carried out by column chromatography and thin layer chromatography. Results: Results revealed the reduction in blood glucose levels in rats, which were significantly different from control at 4 and 8 weeks (P Conclusions: It has become clear that leaves and fruits of the EgyptianJ. phoenicea provide effective antihyperglycemic action in diabetic rats as was reported in folk medicine. The high contents of terpenoids in the non-polar fractions may attribute to the antidiabetic effect of the plant.

  18. Composition of the essential oils from Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum), Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), and White Sage (Salvia apiana).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochrein, James Michael; Irwin, Adriane Nadine; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus III

    2003-09-01

    The essential oils of Juniperus scopulorum, Artemisia tridentata, and Salvia apiana obtained by steam extraction were analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. For J. scopulorum, twenty-five compounds were identified which accounts for 92.43% of the oil. The primary constituents were sabinene (49.91%), {alpha}-terpinene (9.95%), and 4-terpineol (6.79%). For A. tridentata, twenty compounds were identified which accounts for 84.32% of the oil. The primary constituents were camphor (28.63%), camphene (16.88%), and 1,8-cineole (13.23%). For S. apiana, fourteen compounds were identified which accounts for 96.76% of the oil. The primary component was 1,8-cineole (60.65%).

  19. Encroachment Dynamics of Juniperus virginiana L. and Mesic Hardwood Species into Cross Timbers Forests of North-Central Oklahoma, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Hoff

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cross Timbers forests, typically dominated by Quercus stellata Wangenh. and Q. marilandica Muenchh., are the transition zone between eastern deciduous forest and prairie in the southern Great Plains. Fire exclusion beginning in the mid-1900s has led to increasing stand density and encroachment of fire-intolerant Juniperus virginiana L. and mesic hardwood. We measured current forest structure and tree ages of 25 stands (130 plots in north-central Oklahoma to characterize the extent and dynamics of encroachment. The respective basal area and stand density of the overstory (diameter at breast height; dbh > 10 cm were 19.0 m2 ha−1 and 407 trees ha−1 with Q. stellata comprising 43% of basal area and 42% of stand density. Quercus marilandica represented only 3% of basal area and 4% of overstory density. Juniperus virginiana represented 7% of basal area and 14% of stand density while mesic hardwoods, e.g., Celtis spp., Ulmus spp., Carya spp., 33% of basal area and stand density. The sapling layer was dominated by mesic hardwoods (68% and J. virginiana (25% while the seedling layer was dominated by mesic hardwoods (74%. The majority of Quercus recruited into the overstory between 1910–1970, while recruitment of J. virginiana and mesic hardwoods began more recently (post 1950s. Growth rate, based on the relationship between age and dbh, was faster for mesic hardwoods than for J. virginiana and Q. stellata. These results indicate that removal of recurrent surface fire as a disturbance agent has significantly altered forest composition in the Cross Timbers region by allowing encroachment of J. virginiana and fire-intolerant, mesic hardwoods. This increases wildfire risk because J. virginiana is very flammable and will alter how these forests respond to future drought and other disturbance events.

  20. Study of the thermohygrometric conditions of Juniperus turbinata habitat in the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salva-Catarineu, Montserrat; Salvador-Franch, Ferran; López-Bustins, Joan Albert; Padrón-Padrón, Perdro A.; Cortés-Lucas, Amparo

    2015-04-01

    The biggest population of Juniperus turbinata throughout the Canary Islands is located in the island of El Hierro. The current extent of juniper woodlands is very small compared with the potential distribution due to heavy exploitation for centuries. Nowadays, the recovery of its natural habitat has such a high environmental and scenic interest since this is a protected species in Europe; however, an improved understanding of the environmental factors that help or limit its recovery is indispensable. Under the JUNITUR project the populations of juniper woodlands in El Hierro are being studied, which are subjected to highly different environments. These environments are mainly determined by their altitude and exposure to NE trade winds. The main objective of this study is to compare the thermohygrometric conditions of three juniper woodlands, located at different altitude and orientation in El Hierro, which present different recovery rates. We are currently using air sensor data loggers fixed to tree branches for recording hourly temperature and humidity data in the three study areas. For this preliminary approach, we analyse daily data of two annual cycles (from September 2012 to August 2014). Our first results show similar thermohygrometric annual cycles among the three study areas. The largest differences are detected in winter temperature and summer humidity between the north (to windward) and south (to leeward) faces of the island. The juniper woodland with a highest recovery rate shows the most extreme temperature conditions in both winter and summer seasons. This last juniper woodland is located leeward to trade winds at 996 m a.s.l. In general terms, the results of this research project might contribute to the knowledge of the juniper bioclimatology in the westernmost of the Canary Islands. Key words: bioclimatology, El Hierro, habitat, Juniperus turbinata, protected species

  1. Physiological and biochemical responses of Ricinus communis seedlings to different temperatures: a metabolomics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Paulo Roberto; Fernandez, Luzimar Gonzaga; de Castro, Renato Delmondez; Ligterink, Wilco; Hilhorst, Henk W M

    2014-08-12

    Compared with major crops, growth and development of Ricinus communis is still poorly understood. A better understanding of the biochemical and physiological aspects of germination and seedling growth is crucial for the breeding of high yielding varieties adapted to various growing environments. In this context, we analysed the effect of temperature on growth of young R. communis seedlings and we measured primary and secondary metabolites in roots and cotyledons. Three genotypes, recommended to small family farms as cash crop, were used in this study. Seedling biomass was strongly affected by the temperature, with the lowest total biomass observed at 20°C. The response in terms of biomass production for the genotype MPA11 was clearly different from the other two genotypes: genotype MPA11 produced heavier seedlings at all temperatures but the root biomass of this genotype decreased with increasing temperature, reaching the lowest value at 35°C. In contrast, root biomass of genotypes MPB01 and IAC80 was not affected by temperature, suggesting that the roots of these genotypes are less sensitive to changes in temperature. In addition, an increasing temperature decreased the root to shoot ratio, which suggests that biomass allocation between below- and above ground parts of the plants was strongly affected by the temperature. Carbohydrate contents were reduced in response to increasing temperature in both roots and cotyledons, whereas amino acids accumulated to higher contents. Our results show that a specific balance between amino acids, carbohydrates and organic acids in the cotyledons and roots seems to be an important trait for faster and more efficient growth of genotype MPA11. An increase in temperature triggers the mobilization of carbohydrates to support the preferred growth of the aerial parts, at the expense of the roots. A shift in the carbon-nitrogen metabolism towards the accumulation of nitrogen-containing compounds seems to be the main biochemical

  2. Karakteristik Cookies Berbahan Dasar Tepung Sukun (Artocarpus communis Bagi Anak Penderita Autis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dede Sukandar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Tepung sukun (Artocarpus communis merupakan tepung yang bebas gluten sehingga baik digunakan sebagai alternatif dalam pembuatan cookies untuk anak penderita autis. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui tingkat kesukaan panelis terhadap cookies sukun dan berbagai formulasinya dibandingkan dengan cookies berbahan dasar tepung lain yang meliputi pengaruh penambahan bahan tambahan terhadap sifat kimia, fisika, daya terima cookies sukun, kadar kalsium dan fosforus cookies sukun, dan mengetahui cookies sukun tersukai memenuhi standar mutu cookies menurut SNI 01-2973-1992 atau tidak. Uji organoleptik dilakukan untuk mengetahui tingkat kesukaan dan penerimaan panelis terhadap cookies sukun dibandingkan dengan cookies berbahan dasar tepung lain (terigu, beras, sagu dan cookies sukun dalam berbagai formulasi. Parameter yang digunakan meliputi warna, aroma, tekstur, rasa dan penerimaan keseluruhan. Uji kadar kalsium dilakukan menggunakan spektroskopi serapan atom pada λ 422.7 nm dan kadar fosforus menggunakan spektroskopi UV-Vis pada λ 880 nm. Data yang diperoleh dianalisis menggunakan analisis sidik ragam anova dan analisis Duncan. Cookies sukun memiliki penerimaan yang rendah dibandingkan cookies tepung lain berdasarkan penerimaan rasa dan penerimaan umum. Formulasi cookies sukun memperbaiki sifat fisik (aroma, rasa, warna, dan tekstur dan daya terima cookies sukun oleh panelis. Cookies sukun tersukai adalah formulasi 718 dengan bahan tambahan susu kedelai.  Mutu cookies sukun tersukai formulasi 718 sesuai dengan SNI 01-2973-1992 kecuali kadar protein yang masih rendah 8.05% dan terdapat kandungan tembaga dengan sebesar 1.56 ppm. Cookies sukun tersukai memiliki kadar kalsium dan fosforus tertinggi dibandingkan dengan tepung sukun dan cookies komersil untuk anak penderita autis sehingga cookies sukun tersukai sangat baik dikonsumsi oleh anak penderita autis. Kata kunci : Artocarpus communis, autis, cookies sukun, organoleptik, kalsium, fosforus

  3. Micropropagation of Pear Rootstock (Pyrus Communis) by using tissue culture technique and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Sharnouby, M.E.; ESSAM, E.R.; Ayoub, S.

    2006-01-01

    New growing shoots from healthy pear rootstock (Pyrus communis) trees were taken and sterilized 3 times in dipping water. Explants were subjected to antioxidant treatment, different media, different additives and different BAP and NAA concentrations. The obtained results showed that Murashig-Skoog (MS) supplemented with 1 mg/l BA was better than Gamborg medium. Adding antioxidant solution and adenine sulphate to the culture medium was preferred for maximizing explants development. Exposing the explants to gamma irradiation at different doses decreased tissue culture parameters with increasing gamma doses. However, the low dose of gamma rays (1 Krad) significantly increased the number of shoots than other gamma treatments. Adding of BAP at 2 mg/l to the culture medium increased number and length of shoots. However, addition of 1 mg/l NAA to the rooting medium led to increase the root formation

  4. Expression of Ricinus communis receptors on epithelial cells in oral carcinomas and oral wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabelsteen, E; Mackenzie, I C

    1978-12-01

    The histological distribution of receptors for Ricinus communis Fraction 1 (RCA1) in oral carcinomas and in oral epithelial cells during wound healing has been studied by use of fluorescein-tagged RCA1. Biopsies from 15 human oral carcinomas and adjacent normal mucosa showed RCA1 receptors at the cell membranes in the basal and spinous layer of the normal epithelium, whereas receptors could not be demonstrated in invading islands of the tumors. In healing oral wounds from eight humans and three monkeys, RCA1 receptors were demonstrated both in normal epithelium adjacent to the wounds and in the epithelial outgrowth from the wound margin. Titrations, however, showed that the epithelial outgrowth reacted more weakly than did the normal adjacent epithelium. These results support previous in vitro studies showing changes in carbohydrate composition of moving normal cells and of malignant cells, a finding that may be of interest in relation to formation of metastases.

  5. A BATCH REACTOR CONSTRUCTION FOR OBTAINING BIODIESEL FROM OIL Ricinus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolimar Fernández

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A batch reactor was constructed to obtain biodiesel from 5 liters of extracted from the seed of Ricinus communis. The reactor is made of stainless steel, 29cm length, 15.24 cm of inner diameter and a conical base of 20cm long, wall thickness of 0.2 cm, 1000 W tubular resistance and 110 volt motor. It is extracted and compared with the respective norms the physical and chemical properties of crude oil. Preliminary tests catalyzed transesterification of the oil with NaOH to verify the feasibility of the reaction and define the performed operational conditions. Obtained biodiesel was characterized and compared with references. The results showed that it is possible to obtain the biofuel in the batch reactor with a conversion 88%, confirming its application in transesterification reactions in a basic medium.

  6. Variability of Polyphenol Compounds in Myrtus Communis L. (Myrtaceae Berries from Corsica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Chiaramonti

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Polyphenol compounds were extracted from Myrtus communis L. berries (Myrtaceae by maceration in 70% ethanol and analysed by HPLC-DAD and electrospray mass spectrometry. The Myrtus berries were collected at maturity from seven localities on the island of Corsica (France and the sampling was carried out during three years. The polyphenol composition of Corsican Myrtus berries was characterized by two phenolic acids, four flavanols, three flavonols and five flavonol glycosides. The major compounds were myricetin-3-O-arabinoside and myricetin-3-O-galactoside. Principal components analysis (PCA is applied to study the chemical composition and variability of myrtle berries alcoholic extracts from the seven localities. Canonical analysis and PCA data distinguishes two groups of myrtle berries characterized by different concentrations of polyphenols according to soil and years of harvest. The variations in the polyphenol concentration were due to biotic and abiotic factors.

  7. Mersin (Myrtus communis L. Meyvesinin bazı Fiziksel ve Kimyasal Özellikleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Özcan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available İçel’den (Büyükeceli-Gülnar toplanan farklı büyüklük ve renklerdeki mersin (Myrtus communis L. meyvelerinin fiziksel ve kimyasal özellikleri belirlenmiştir. Mor meyvelerde antosiyanin tespit edilirken beyaz renklide bulunmamıştır. Mor meyvelerde tanen miktarı beyazlara göre oldukça yüksektir. Titrasyon asitliği mor meyvelerde aynı olup, beyaza göre yüksektir. Meyveler mineral bakımından zengindir ve en yüksek olarak potasyum belirlenmiştir.

  8. Mersin (Myrtus communis L.) Meyvesinin bazı Fiziksel ve Kimyasal Özellikleri

    OpenAIRE

    Özcan, Musa; Akbulut, Mehmet

    1998-01-01

    İçel’den (Büyükeceli-Gülnar) toplanan farklı büyüklük ve renklerdeki mersin (Myrtus communis L.) meyvelerinin fiziksel ve kimyasal özellikleri belirlenmiştir. Mor meyvelerde antosiyanin tespit edilirken beyaz renklide bulunmamıştır. Mor meyvelerde tanen miktarı beyazlara göre oldukça yüksektir. Titrasyon asitliği mor meyvelerde aynı olup, beyaza göre yüksektir. Meyveler mineral bakımından zengindir ve en yüksek olarak potasyum belirlenmiştir. 

  9. Isotope labeling-based quantitative proteomics of developing seeds of castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Fábio C S; Palmisano, Giuseppe; Schwämmle, Veit

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used a mass spectrometry-based quantification approach employing isotopic (ICPL) and isobaric (iTRAQ) labeling to investigate the pattern of protein deposition during castor oil seed (Ricinus communis L.) development, including that of proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism...... give important insights into certain aspects of the biology of castor oil seed development such as carbon flow, anabolism, and catabolism of fatty acid and the pattern of deposition of SSPs, toxins, and allergens such as ricin and 2S albumins. We also found, for the first time, some genes of SSP......, seed-storage proteins (SSPs), toxins, and allergens. Additionally, we have used off-line hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) as a step of peptide fractionation preceding the reverse-phase nanoLC coupled to a LTQ Orbitrap. We were able to identify a total of 1875 proteins, and from these 1748...

  10. Forensic Applications of Light-Element Stable Isotope Ratios of Ricinus communis Seeds and Ricin Preparations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreuzer, Helen W.; West, Jason B.; Ehleringer, James

    2013-01-01

    Seeds of the castor plant Ricinus communis, also known as castor beans, are of forensic interest because they are the source of the poison ricin. We have tested whether stable isotope ratios of castor seeds and ricin prepared by various methods can be used as a forensic signature. We collected over 300 castor seed samples from locations around the world and measured the C, N, O, and H stable isotope ratios of the whole seeds, oil, and three types of ricin preparations. Our results demonstrate that N isotope ratios can be used to correlate ricin prepared by any of these methods to source seeds. Further, stable isotope ratios distinguished >99% of crude and purified ricin protein samples in pair-wise comparison tests. Stable isotope ratios therefore constitute a valuable forensic signature for ricin preparations.

  11. A Structured VAR under Changing Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juselius, Katarina

    The empirical analysis is mainly concerned with the aggregate demand for money relation as part of a small macroeconomic system. Using the theory of cointegrated VAR models for I(2) data the long-run relationships in the data are first investigated, and the ML-estimates of the corresponding coint...... the effects of capital liberalization on the determination of money, income, prices, and interest rates in a small open economy...

  12. Single nucleotide polymorphisms for assessing genetic diversity in castor bean (Ricinus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabinowicz Pablo D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Castor bean (Ricinus communis is an agricultural crop and garden ornamental that is widely cultivated and has been introduced worldwide. Understanding population structure and the distribution of castor bean cultivars has been challenging because of limited genetic variability. We analyzed the population genetics of R. communis in a worldwide collection of plants from germplasm and from naturalized populations in Florida, U.S. To assess genetic diversity we conducted survey sequencing of the genomes of seven diverse cultivars and compared the data to a reference genome assembly of a widespread cultivar (Hale. We determined the population genetic structure of 676 samples using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs at 48 loci. Results Bayesian clustering indicated five main groups worldwide and a repeated pattern of mixed genotypes in most countries. High levels of population differentiation occurred between most populations but this structure was not geographically based. Most molecular variance occurred within populations (74% followed by 22% among populations, and 4% among continents. Samples from naturalized populations in Florida indicated significant population structuring consistent with local demes. There was significant population differentiation for 56 of 78 comparisons in Florida (pairwise population ϕPT values, p Conclusion Low levels of genetic diversity and mixing of genotypes have led to minimal geographic structuring of castor bean populations worldwide. Relatively few lineages occur and these are widely distributed. Our approach of determining population genetic structure using SNPs from genome-wide comparisons constitutes a framework for high-throughput analyses of genetic diversity in plants, particularly in species with limited genetic diversity.

  13. Combined treatment of Thymus vulgaris L., Rosmarinus officinalis L. and Myrtus communis L. essential oils against Salmonella typhimurium: Optimization of antibacterial activity by mixture design methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadil, Mouhcine; Fikri-Benbrahim, Kawtar; Rachiq, Saad; Ihssane, Bouchaib; Lebrazi, Sara; Chraibi, Marwa; Haloui, Taoufik; Farah, Abdellah

    2018-05-01

    To increase the sensibility of Salmonella typhimurium strain, a mixture of Thymus vulgaris L. (T. vulgaris L.), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (R. officinalis L.) and Myrtus communis L. (M. communis L.) essential oils (EOs) was used in combined treatment by experimental design methodology (mixture design). The chemical composition of EOs was firstly identified by GC and GC/MS and their antibacterial activity was evaluated. The results of this first step have shown that thymol and borneol were the major compounds in T. vulgaris and M. communis L. EOs, respectively, while 1,8-cineole and α-pinene were found as major compounds in R. officinalis L. The same results have shown a strong antibacterial activity of T. vulgaris L. EO followed by an important power of M. communis L. EO against a moderate activity of R. officinalis L. EO. Besides, 1/20 (v/v) was the concentration giving a strain response classified as sensitive. From this concentration, the mixture design was performed and analyzed. The optimization of mixtures antibacterial activities has highlighted the synergistic effect between T. vulgaris L. and M. communis L. essential oils. A formulation comprising 55% of T. vulgaris L. and 45% of M. communis L. essential oils, respectively, can be considered for the increase of Salmonella typhimurium sensibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic variability and differentiation among populations of the Azorean endemic gymnosperm Juniperus brevifolia: baseline information for a conservation and restoration perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís; Elias, Rui B; Moura, Mónica; Meimberg, Harald; Dias, Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    The Azorean endemic gymnosperm Juniperus brevifolia (Seub.) Antoine is a top priority species for conservation in Macaronesia, based on its ecological significance in natural plant communities. To evaluate genetic variability and differentiation among J. brevifolia populations from the Azorean archipelago, we studied 15 ISSR and 15 RAPD markers in 178 individuals from 18 populations. The average number of polymorphic bands per population was 65 for both ISSR and RAPD. The majority of genetic variability was found within populations and among populations within islands, and this partitioning of variability was confirmed by AMOVA. The large majority of population pairwise F(ST) values were above 0.3 and below 0.6. The degree of population genetic differentiation in J. brevifolia was relatively high compared with other species, including Juniperus spp. The genetic differentiation among populations suggests that provenance should be considered when formulating augmentation or reintroduction strategies.

  15. Use of MODIS Satellite Data to Evaluate Juniperus spp. Pollen Phenology to Support a Pollen Dispersal Model, PREAM, to Support Public Health Allergy Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, E.; Huete, A.; Nickovic, S.; Prasad, A.; Pejanovic, G. A.; Vukovic, A.; VandeWater, P. K.; Budge, A. M.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et. al., 2003 reported Juniperus spp. pollen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and concentrations of dust. We are modifying the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport. Pollen emission is based on MODIS-derived phenology of Juniperus spp. communities. Ground-based observational records of pollen release timing and quantities will be used as model verification. This information will be used to support the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention s National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program and the State of New Mexico environmental public health decision support for asthma and allergies alerts

  16. Use of MODIS Satellite Data to Evaluate Juniperus spp. Pollen Phenology to Support a Pollen Dispersal Model, PREAM, to Support Public Health Allergy Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, E.; Huete, A. R.; Nickovic, S.; Prasad, A. K.; Pejanovic, G.; Vukovic, A.; Van De Water, P. K.; Budge, A.; Hudspeth, W. B.; Krapfl, H.; Toth, B.; Zelicoff, A.; Myers, O.; Bunderson, L.; Ponce-Campos, G.; Menache, M.; Crimmins, T. M.; Vujadinovic, M.

    2012-12-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et. al., 2003 reported Juniperus spp. pollen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model, Nickovic et al. 2001) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and concentrations of dust. We are modifying the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport. Pollen emission is based on MODIS-derived phenology of Juniperus spp. communities. Ground-based observational records of pollen release timing and quantities will be used as model verification. This information will be used to support the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program and the State of New Mexico environmental public health decision support for asthma and allergies alerts.

  17. Energy flow in castor bean (Ricinus communis L. production systems Fluxos de energia em sistemas de produção de mamona (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Nunes da Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Although energy analysis is a way to evaluate the sustainability of production systems, this practice is not often used in the agribusiness. In this context, the castor bean (Ricinus communis L is an agricultural crop not yet well studied despite its great potential in the Brazilian energetic scenario. This article aimed to evaluate the productive potential of the castor bean oil, using an energetic view applied to two management systems: low (System 1 and medium (System 2 technologies. The quantification of the used material fluxes was made converting these factors in energy units. The input energy fluxes were 3,170.6 MJ ha¹ and 10,366.0 MJ ha¹ for Systems 1 and 2, respectively. The energy balance of System 1 was 11,938.2 MJ ha¹ and that of System 2 16,296.5 MJ ha¹. The net energetic gain or the energy gain over the invested energy (EROI of System 1 was 3.8 and of System 2, 2.6. Although presenting a greater energy demand and a lower EROI, System 2 had a greater energy balance, demonstrating a better viability of this cultivation system for the production of castor bean oil.A análise energética é uma forma de se avaliar a sustentabilidade de um sistema produtivo, apesar de ainda pouco utilizada no setor agropecuário. Inserida neste setor encontra-se a produção da mamoneira (Ricinus communis L., cultura ainda pouco estudada e que apresenta grande importância para o agronegócio brasileiro. Avaliou-se sob a ótica energética a produção potencial de óleo de mamona em dois sistemas de cultivo: com baixa (Sistema 1 e média (Sistema 2 tecnologias. Foi realizada a quantificação dos fluxos de materiais empregados nos dois sistemas de produção e conversão destes fatores em unidades de energia. Os fluxos de energia de entrada foram de 3.170,6 MJ ha¹ e 10.366 MJ ha¹ para os sistemas 1 e 2, respectivamente. O balanço de energia foi de 11.938,2 MJ ha¹ no sistema 1 e 16.296,5 MJ ha¹ no sistema 2. A lucratividade energética, retorno

  18. Calcium fluxes across the plasma membrane of Commelina communis L. assayed in a cell-free system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siebers, B.; Graef, P.; Weiler, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    The inside-out fraction of plasma membrane-rich vesicles prepared from leaves of Commelina communis L. by aqueous two-phase partitioning was loaded with 45 Ca 2+ through the action of the plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase. Results suggest the presence of a Ca 2+ channel in the plasma membrane of C. communis. The channel is obtained in a Ca 2+ -inactivated state after preparation and Ca 2+ -loading of the vesicles. The inactivation is removed by TFP [trifluoperazine] or W-7 [N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide], presumably due to the Ca 2+ -mobilizing effect of these compounds. The activated Ca 2+ channel is La 3+ sensitive and, in the cell, would allow for passage of Ca 2+ into the cell. The possibility that TFP or W-7 act independent of CM, or through CM tightly associated with the plasma membrane, is discussed

  19. [Inhibition by cysteine of the carbohydrate-binding activity of lectins from Ricinus communis, Canavalia ensiformis and Euonymus europaeus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorkin, V M

    1985-10-01

    Precipitation induced by different lectins has been studied in the presence of some aminoacids. It was shown that precipitates formed by lectins from Ricinus communis (RCA1), Canavalia ensiformis (Con A), Euonymus europaeus (Eel) in the presence of appropriate carbohydrate-containing molecules disappeared after cysteine addition, like after addition of specific carbohydrate precipitation inhibitors. It is assumed that cysteine residues of RCA1, Con A and Eel lectins are essential for their carbohydrate binding activity.

  20. Study of the Antibacterial Activity of Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Myrtus communis on Pathogenic Strains Causing Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrooz Alizadeh Behbahani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Medicine plants have been used as sources of medicine in virtually all cultures. During the last decade, the use of traditional medicine (TM has been expanded globally and is gaining popularity. Objectives The antimicrobial activities of methanol and water extracts of Myrtus communis L. leaves were evaluated in this study. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, the tests were carried out using disk agar diffusion method at four extract concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20 mg/mL. The MICs and MBCs of the extracts of M. communis were determined by agar dilution method. Average results were reported as the mean and standard error (mean ± SE and SPSS-18 statistical software, oneway ANOVA followed by Turkey’s test were used to do inter-group comparison, while considering P ≤ 0.05 as the significance level. Results Methanol extract of M. communis exhibited significant antibacterial activity in the concentration of 20 mg/mL (P ≤ 0.05 against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis with a greater inhibition zone of 20 mm, while a 14 mm zone of inhibition was observed in Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the extracts ranged between 2 mg/mL and 128 mg/mL while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC ranged between 4 mg/mL and 256 mg/mL. Conclusions The study showed that species, strains and concentrations of M. communis extract are of those factors that may influence the sensitivity of the tested bacteria. A significant correlation was observed between zone of inhibition and concentration of extract.

  1. Repellent activity of Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus Mart. and Ricinus communis L. extracts against Aedes aegypti L. oviposition behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lafayette Pereira Candido

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Female Aedes aegypti lay their eggs on nearly any moist substrate. Methods with potential to repel oviposition may reduce infestation, thereby contributing to control of epidemics. We evaluated the influence of Cnidoscolus phyllacanthus and Ricinus communis plant extracts on the oviposition behavior of A. aegypti. Lethal concentrations were first determined in experiments with larvae after 24 h of exposure, after which LC50 and LC90 were used to test oviposition repellency. The experiment consisted of an oviposition preference test based multiple-choice and no-choice assays. The Oviposition Activity Indices (OAIs from the multiple-choice test using both R. communis and C. phyllacanthus were negative, suggesting oviposition repellent and deterrent activity. The LC90 of both plant extracts deterred oviposition by this vector, as demonstrated by an OAI = value of -1. In the choice study, mean oviposition values were significantly different between R. communis and C. phyllacanthus. In the absence of choice, mosquitoes laid eggs independent of the substrate. In conclusion, our OAI values indicate that all substrates used repelled oviposition by A. aegypti.

  2. Hasil Biji dan Kadar Minyak Jarak Kepyar Lokal Beaq Amor (Ricinus communis L. pada Berbagai Umur Pemangkasan Batang Utama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Budi Santoso

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTSuccessful castor (Ricinus communis L. cropping depends on the reliability of production technique. Branching is a useful agronomic trait because infloresence developed at each branch’s terminal. Pruning is considered as an important technique for branching stimulation. This study attempted to elucidate the effect of main stem pruning on the yield of Beaq Amor local variety of castor (Ricinus communis L. with short cultivation system. The experiment was conducted on dry land area of Amor-Amor, North Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara during February-July 2011 and was arranged in a single-factor randomized complete block design with three replications. The treatments were four types of pruning (i.e. no pruning, main stem pruning at 30 days after planting, 45 days after planting, and 60 days after planting. The results showed that the effect of pruning was significant on dry seed yield and was not significant on kernel oil content. Pruning at 30 days old and 45 days old plant yielded in the highest dry seed weight (374.9-387.8 g tree-1 or 943.0-974.3 kg ha-1 with oil content of 62.2%.Keywords: branching, canopy, dry seed, Ricinus communis L.

  3. Survival and infectivity of Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis and var. hominis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlian, L G; Runyan, R A; Achar, S; Estes, S A

    1984-08-01

    Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis served as a suitable model for the study of S. scabiei var. hominis survival. S. scabiei var. canis and var. hominis mites were found to survive off the host for 24 to 36 hours at room conditions (21 degrees C and 40% to 80% relative humidity [RH]), and the canine variety survived 19 days at 10 degrees C and 97% RH. Female mites survived decidedly longer than male mites at comparable conditions. Generally, higher RH values and lower temperatures favored survival, whereas higher temperature and lower RH led to early death. Most canine scabies mites that were held off the host for 36 hours at 75% RH and 22 degrees to 24 degrees C remained infective and penetrated when returned to the host. Live mites of the human variety that were recovered from bed linen slept on by infested patients would also penetrate a host after being held off a host for 96 hours in alternating 12-hour periods of room conditions and refrigeration. Penetration required less than 30 minutes for all life stages of both varieties, and it was accomplished by a mite secretion that dissolved the host tissue. Dislodged mites, particularly those in close proximity to the source, can be a likely source of infestation.

  4. Cardenolide glycosides from Elaeodendron australe var. integrifolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Mark S; Towerzey, Leanne; Pham, Ngoc B; Hyde, Edward; Wadi, Sao Khemar; Guymer, Gordon P; Quinn, Ronald J

    2014-02-01

    Extracts from dried leaf and stems of Elaeodendron australe var. integrifolium (Celastraceae) collected in South East Queensland, Australia, were active in an assay that measured Ca(2+) driven expression of IL-2/luciferase designed to identify inhibitors of the ICRAC channel. Bioassay-guided isolation using C18 and polyamide column chromatography, HPLC (Phenyl and C18) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) led to the isolation of digitoxigenin (1) and three cardenolide glycosides, glucoside 2, quinovoside 3 and the new natural product xyloside 4, as the active components with low nM activity in the reporter assay. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. VAR IPP-IPC Model Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. Pérez Monsalve

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This work analyzed the relationship of the two main Price indicators in the Colombian economy, the IPP and the IPC. For this purpose, we identified the theory comprising both indexes to then develop a vector autoregressive model, which shows the reaction to shocks both in itself as in the other variable, whose impact continues propagating in the long term. Additionally, the work presents a simulation of the VAR model through the Monte Carlo method, verifying the coincidence in distributions of probability and volatility levels, as well as the existence correlation over time

  6. Quercetin - A Flavonoid Compound from Sarcopyramis bodinieri var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DAPI staining and PARP SDS-PAGE tests showed 60 μM quercetin could induce potential apoptotic activity in HepG2 liver cancer cells. Conclusion: Quercetin was the major cytotoxicity constituent in S. bodinieri var. delicate. Keywords: Apoptotic activity, Quercetin, Sarcopyramis bodinieri var. delicate, HepG2 liver cancer ...

  7. Growth and provenance variation of Pinus caribaea var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CAMCORE has visited 33 populations of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis in Belize, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Quintana Roo, Mexico. Seed collections have been made in 29 provenances from 1, 325 mother trees. A total of 21 provenances and sources of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis were ...

  8. Larvicidal Activity of Isodon japonicus var. glaucocalyx (Maxim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To determine the larvicidal activity of the essential oil derived from Isodon japonicus var. ... Methods: The essential oil of I. japonicus var. glaucocalyx aerial parts was obtained by ..... µg/mL; G. silvatica leaves, LC50 = 117.9 µg/mL.

  9. ESTIMASI NILAI VaR PORTOFOLIO MENGGUNAKAN FUNGSI ARCHIMEDEAN COPULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AULIA ATIKA PRAWIBTA SUHARTO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Value at Risk explains the magnitude of the worst losses occurred in financial products investments with a certain level of confidence and time interval. The purpose of this study is to estimate the VaR of portfolio using Archimedean Copula family. The methods for calculating the VaR are as follows: (1 calculating the stock return; (2 calculating descriptive statistics of return; (3 checking for the nature of autocorrelation and heteroscedasticity effects on stock return data; (4 checking for the presence of extreme value by using Pareto tail; (5 estimating the parameters of Achimedean Copula family; (6 conducting simulations of Archimedean Copula; (7 estimating the value of the stock portfolio VaR. This study uses the closing price of TLKM and GGRM. At 90% the VaR obtained using Clayton, Gumbel, Frank copulas are 0.9562%, 1.0189%, 0.9827% respectively. At 95% the VaR obtained using Clayton, Gumbel, Frank copulas are 1.2930%, 1.2522%, 1.3152% respectively. At 99% the VaR obtained using Clayton, Gumbel, Frank copulas are 2.0327%, 1.9164%, is 1.8678% respectively. In conclusion estimation of VaR using Clayton copula yields the highest VaR.

  10. Een nieuwe naam voor Arenaria serpyllifolia L. var. macrocarpa Lloyd

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutermann, W.; Mennema, J.

    1983-01-01

    The name Arenaria serpyllifoiia L. var. macrocarpa Lloyd is illegitimate, because of the existence of the earlier non-synonymous A. serpyllifolia0 macrocarpa Godron. As on the level of variety no other name is available, we call the taxon A renaria serpylli/olia L. var. Iloydn (Jord.) Gutermann et

  11. VaR Methodology Application for Banking Currency Portfolios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Armeanu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available VaR has become the standard measure that financial analysts use to quantify market risk. VaR measures can have many applications, such as in risk management, to evaluate the performance of risk takers and for regulatory requirements, and hence it is very important to develop methodologies that provide accurate estimates. In particular, the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision at the Bank for International Settlements imposes to financial institutions such as banks and investment firms to meet capital requirements based on VaR estimates. In this paper we determine VaR for a banking currency portfolio and respect rules of National Bank of Romania regarding VaR report.

  12. Acute aquatic toxicity of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) foliage and Port Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) heartwood oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duringer, Jennifer M; Swan, Laurence R; Walker, Douglas B; Craig, A Morrie

    2010-11-01

    Recently, interest has developed for using essential oils from Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) foliage and Port Orford cedar (Chamaecyparis lawsoniana) heartwood in commercial products such as pest repellents and cosmetics. In order to gauge the relative toxicological risk that these oils pose to freshwater and marine organisms, the acute aquatic toxicity of these oils was evaluated using OPPTS guidelines to the cladoceran Daphnia magna, the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and the green alga Selenastrum capricornutum. For western juniper foliage oil, no toxicity was exhibited toward D. magna or O. mykiss, even at 5.0 mg/L (the highest concentration tested and limit of solubility). For toxicity to S. capricornutum using algal cell density, the 72 and 96 h EC50 value was 1.7 mg/L and the no observable effect concentration (NOEC) was 0.63 mg/L. For Port Orford cedar heartwood oil, no toxicity was exhibited toward O. mykiss or S. capricornutum, even at 5.0 mg/L (the highest concentration tested and limit of solubility). The 48-h D. magna EC50 value was 1.9 mg/L; the NOEC values for algal cell density were 1.25 mg/L (72 h) and 0.63 mg/L (96 h). In summary, this study shows that western juniper foliage and Port Orford cedar heartwood oils demonstrate little to no risk to aquatic organisms.

  13. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of berry essential oil of Juniperus oxycedrus L. (Cupressaceae grown wild in Republic of Macedonia

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    Floresha Sela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil isolated from berries from 2 different samples of Juniperus oxycedrus L. (Cupressaceae, growing wild in Republic of Macedonia was investigated. Performing GC/FID/MS analysis, one hundred components were identified, representing 96.0-98.95% of the oil. The major components were α-pinene (22.54- 27.12%, myrcene (11.26- 15.13% and limonene (2.78-18.06%. Antimicrobial screening of the J. oxycedrus essential oils was made by disc diffusion and broth dilution method against 16 bacterial isolates of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and one strain of Candida albicans. The most sensitive bacteria was Haemophilus influenzae (MIC = 125 ml/ml. The essential oils showed moderate antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Corynebacterium spp., Escherichia coli and Campilobacter jejuni (MIC > 500 ml/ml and no activity against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Acinetobacter spp., Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella flexnery, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus and Proteus mirabilis.

  14. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils and Methanol Extracts of Different Parts from Juniperus rigida Siebold & Zucc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiaoxiao; Li, Dengwu; Wang, Wei; Wang, Dongmei; Meng, Xiaxia; Wang, Yongtao

    2016-09-01

    The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils and MeOH extracts of stems, needles, and berries from Juniperus rigida were studied. The results indicated that the yield of essential oil from stems (2.5%) was higher than from needles (0.8%) and berries (1.0%). The gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) analysis indicated that 21, 17, and 14 compounds were identified from stems, needles, and berries essential oils, respectively. Caryophyllene, α-caryophyllene, and caryophyllene oxide were primary compounds in both stems and needles essential oils. However, α-pinene and β-myrcene mainly existed in berries essential oils and α-ionone only in needles essential oils. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that the phenolic profiles of three parts exhibited significant differences. Needles extracts had the highest content of chlorogenic acid, catechin, podophyllotoxin, and amentoflavone, and for berries extracts, the content of those compounds was the lowest. Meanwhile, three in vitro methods (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP) were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. Stems essential oil and needles extracts exhibited the powerful antioxidant activity than other parts. This is the first comprehensive study on the different parts of J. rigida. The results suggested that stems and needles of J. rigida are useful supplements for healthy products as new resources. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zürich.

  15. Site properties for Crimean juniper (Juniperus excelsa) in semi-natural forests of south western Anatolia, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Kürsad; Gulsoy, Serkan; Aerts, Raf; Muys, Bart

    2010-01-01

    We explored the semi-natural forests in south western Anatolia along a gradient between Mediterranean and continental climates to determine the site requirements of Juniperus excelsa in Turkey. We hypothesized that environmental variables and indicator species can be used to predict differences in occurrence and cover of J. excelsa and can therefore support decision making in reforestation management planning. Plant species composition and environmental variables were assessed in 153 plots. Association between J. excelsa and other plant species and environmental variables were analyzed using Fisher exact probability tests and stepwise discriminant analysis. High altitude (> 1000 m) as a proxy for an Oromediterranean climate, and high surface stoniness as a proxy for low competition by other tree species, are positive site properties for J. excelsa. The tree species avoids Eumediterranean and Supramediterranean plant communities. Twelve plant species, including the herbs Dianthus zonatus, Ajuga chamaepitys and Paronchia carica and the shrub Cotoneaster nummularia may be used as site indicators for J. excelsa restoration. Platanus orientalis, with similar site requirements but at present negatively associated to J. excelsa due to competitive effects, may be considered an additional indicator if stand conversion (harvesting and replacing P. orientalis) is part of the management plan.

  16. Increasing Juniperus virginiana L. pollen in the Tulsa atmosphere: long-term trends, variability, and influence of meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flonard, Michaela; Lo, Esther; Levetin, Estelle

    2018-02-01

    In the Tulsa area, the Cupressaceae is largely represented by eastern red cedar ( Juniperus virginiana L.). The encroachment of this species into the grasslands of Oklahoma has been well documented, and it is believed this trend will continue. The pollen is known to be allergenic and is a major component of the Tulsa atmosphere in February and March. This study examined airborne Cupressaceae pollen data from 1987 to 2016 to determine long-term trends, pollen seasonal variability, and influence of meteorological variables on airborne pollen concentrations. Pollen was collected through means of a Burkard sampler and analyzed with microscopy. Daily pollen concentrations and yearly pollen metrics showed a high degree of variability. In addition, there were significant increases over time in the seasonal pollen index and in peak concentrations. These increases parallel the increasing population of J. virginiana in the region. Pollen data were split into pre- and post-peak categories for statistical analyses, which revealed significant differences in correlations of the two datasets when analyzed with meteorological conditions. While temperature and dew point, among others were significant in both datasets, other factors, like relative humidity, were significant only in one dataset. Analyses using wind direction showed that southerly and southwestern winds contributed to increased pollen concentrations. This study confirms that J. virginiana pollen has become an increasing risk for individuals sensitive to this pollen and emphasizes the need for long-term aerobiological monitoring in other areas.

  17. Comparative Studies on the Phytochemistry of Essential Oil from Needles and Berries of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadir, M.

    2013-01-01

    The study provides a comparison on the essential oil composition of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. Essential oil extracted separately from berries (yield 0.11%) and needles (yield 0.13%) were subjected to GC-MS and GC-FID techniques for the identification and quantification of the constituents. A total of 26 compounds; 21 from berries and 20 from needles were identified. Of these major constituents in berries were beta-pinene (43.4%), beta-pinene (32.3%), limonene (9.6%), and sabinene (2.7%) while in needles were beta-pinene (36.0%), beta-pinene (30.2%), limonene (12.6%), and beta-phellandrene (3.9%). 3 identified compounds (guaiol, beta-elemene and epi-bicyclosesquiphellandrene) were not reported yet from any essential oil of J. excelsa, beta-guaiene is also reported for the first time from needles. A comparative discussion on the chemical composition of the essential oil from two different parts of plants in the current study with those available in literature is also included. The findings confirmed that the Pakistan origin plant belongs to alpha-pinene chemotype, alpha-pinene rich oils are used as local antiseptic. (author)

  18. Evaluation of the cadmium and lead phytoextraction by castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) in hydroponics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Z. X.; Sun, L. N.

    2017-06-01

    Phytoextraction has been considered as an innovative method to remove toxic metals from soil; higher biomass plants such as castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) have already been considered as a hyperaccumulating candidate. In the present study, castor bean was used to accumulate the cadmium and lead in hydroponic culture, and the root exudates and biomass changes were analyzed. Results demonstrated that ratios of aerial biomass/ root biomass (AW/RW) in treatments declined with concentrations of Cd or Pb. Optical density (OD) at 190 nm and 280 nm of root exudates observed in Cd and Pb treatments were lower than the control. In single Cd or Pb treatments, bioconcentration factors (BCF) of Cd or Pb increased with time and decreased with concentrations, the highest BCFs appeared in Cd5 (14.36) and Pb50 (6.48), respectively. Cd-BCF or Pb-BCF showed positive correlations with AW/RW ratios and OD values, and they were negative correlated with Cd and Pb concentration. Results in this study may supply useful information for phytoremediation of soil contaminated with cadmium and lead in situ.

  19. Essential Oil of Myrtus communis L. as a Potential Antioxidant and Antimutagenic Agents

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    Neda Mimica-Dukić

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity and antimutagenic properties of the essential oil of myrtle (Myrtus communis L.. Plant samples were collected from the two distant localities (southernmost and northern point of the Montenegro coastline. Chemical profiles of the two samples were evaluated by GC-MS. In both of the samples monoterpenes were found to be the predominant compounds. Among them a-pinene, linalool, 1,8-cineole, and myrtenyl acetate were the major compounds. Significant differences between the samples were found in the ranges of a-pinene (14.7%–35.9% and myrtenyl acetate (5.4%–21.6%. Both oils exhibited moderate DPPH scavenging activity, with IC50 values of 6.24 mg/mL and 5.99 mg/mL. The antimutagenic properties were assayed against spontaneous and t-BOOH-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli oxyR mutant IC202, a bacterial strain deficient in removing ROS. Reduction of the spontaneous mutagenesis in presence of myrtle EO was only slight, up to 13% at the highest concentration tested. When the oxidative mutagen was used, EO expressed higher reduction of mutagenesis, in a concentration dependent manner, with statistical significance for effect at the highest concentration tested (28%. Suppression of t-BOOH induced mutagenesis was correlated with the observed scavenging activity.

  20. The Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Callus Induction and Regeneration of Amygdalus communis

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    Naimeh SHARIFMOGHADAM

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The Almond (Amygdalus communis is one of the most important and oldest commercial nut crops, belonging to the Rosaceae family. Almond has been used as base material in pharmaceutical, cosmetic, hygienically and food industry. Propagation by tissue culture technique is the most important one in woody plants. In the current research, in vitro optimization of tissue culture and mass production of almond was investigated. In this idea, explants of actively growing shoots were collected and sterilized, then transferred to MS medium with different concentrations and combinations of plant growth regulators. The experiment was done in completely randomized blocks design, with 7 treatment and 30 replications. After 4 weeks, calli induction, proliferation, shoot length and number of shoot per explants were measured. Results showed that the best medium for shoot initiation and proliferation was MS + 0.5 mg/l IAA (Indol-3-Acetic Acid + 1 mg/l BA (Benzyl Adenine. Autumn was the best season for collecting explants. The shoots were transferred to root induction medium with different concentrations of plant growth regulators. The best root induction medium was MS + 0.5 mg/l IBA (Indol Butyric Acid.

  1. Physicochemical characteristics of seeds from wild and cultivated castor bean plants (Ricinus communis L.

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    Jose Daniel Mosquera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The castor (Ricinus communis L. is an oilseed plant whose main features are its drought resistance, and its adaptation to eroded, polluted, and low fertility soils. Its oil has a great demand in the industrial sector and it has recently attracted considerable interest for its use in the production of biodiesel and jet fuel. In this study, morphological, physical and chemical characterizations were performed to ascertain the quality of wild (VQ-1 and under cultivation (VQ-7 oil castor seeds. The results showed that there are differences in the morphological and physicochemical characteristics regarding oil content (44,95 vs 33,84%, ash (3,20 vs 2,42%, and 100-seed-weight (45,87 vs 54,23g; similar behavior was recorded when characterizing the oil: kinematic viscosity (269,67 vs 266,44mm2 /s, density (0,9389 vs 0,9465g/cm3 , and acidity index (0,9918 vs 0,5440mg KOH/g for VQ-1 and VQ-7, respectively. Growing conditions to which castor plants were subjected may influence both the final quality of seeds and chemical properties of the oil.

  2. Apomixis and the problem of obtaining haploids and homozygote diploids in pear (Pyrus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Є. О. Долматов

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights results of research over simulative apomixes in pear and its utilization for obtaining haploids and homozygote diploids. It has been established that over 50% pear varieties with failed remote hybridization are capable of generating seeds of apomictic origin producing diploid plants. Genotypes displaying maximal inclination to apomixes have been singled out. Apomictic pear seedlings obtained from foreign pollination within the limits of the same combination are inherent in profound morphological diversity. Fruit-bearing apomicts originated from one and the same maternal plant differ to the same extent as hybrid seedlings of the same family. Genetic markers have enabled to establish that these are embryo sacs in which meiosis has completed that give rise to apomictic seeds. In vitro method as used for the purpose of increasing apomictic plants output has been illustrated. The greatest induction of apomictic shoots in vitro has been reached by alternation of BAP cytokinin at concentration of 1mg/l and 2 mg/l on the background of GA3 amounting to 1,5 mg/l. Grafting with shoots in vitro on non-sterile rootstocks of pear (Pyrus communis has increased the output of plants up to 80%. A cytological assessment of 9 apomictic samples is provided. The cytological analysis of samples of apomictic forms has certified the presence of simulative haploid parthenogenesis in pear.

  3. Eficiencia del extracto de Ricinus communis para el control del mosquito Culex

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    Diego Tomás Corradine Mora

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo evaluó el efecto insecticida del extracto de Ricinus communis sobre larvas de mosquitos Culex. A las 24 h la mortalidad es de 8.33 % con dosis de 1 mL del extracto en una concentración de 500 ppm; 35 % en dosis de 1 mL de una concentración de 1000 ppm; 65 % en dosis de 5 mL de una concentración de 1000 ppm; 98.33 % con 10 mL en concentración de 1000 ppm; testigos 3.3 %. Cuando se evaluó el efecto insecticida del extracto aplicado por aspersión en concentraciones de 500, 750 y 1000 ppm, se consiguieron mortalidades de 18.33, 36.66 y 48.32 %, respectivamente. Ninguna de las concentraciones evaluadas alcanzó el cien por ciento de letalidad. En la prueba de semicampo, solo se logró una mortalidad de 9 %. Se evidenció que el extracto tiene un mejor efecto insecticida para el control de ejemplares inmaduros en estado larvario que sobre los adultos.

  4. BONE REGENERATION AFTER DEMINERALIZED BONE MATRIX AND CASTOR OIL (RICINUS COMMUNIS) POLYURETHANE IMPLANTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Fábio Renato Manzolli; Ramalho, Lizeti Toledo de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Innocuous biocompatible materials have been searched to repair or reconstruct bone defects. Their goal is to restore the function of live or dead tissues. This study compared connective tissue and bone reaction when exposed to demineralized bovine bone matrix and a polyurethane resin derived from castor bean (Ricinus communis). Forty-five rats were assigned to 3 groups of 15 animals (control, bovine bone and polyurethane). A cylindrical defect was created on mandible base and filled with bovine bone matrix and the polyurethane. Control group received no treatment. Analyses were performed after 15, 45 and 60 days (5 animals each). Histological analysis revealed connective tissue tolerance to bovine bone with local inflammatory response similar to that of the control group. After 15 days, all groups demonstrated similar outcomes, with mild inflammatory reaction, probably due to the surgical procedure rather than to the material. In the polymer group, after 60 days, scarce multinucleated cells could still be observed. In general, all groups showed good stability and osteogenic connective tissue with blood vessels into the surgical area. The results suggest biocompatibility of both materials, seen by their integration into rat mandible. Moreover, the polyurethane seems to be an alternative in bone reconstruction and it is an inexhaustible source of biomaterial. PMID:19089203

  5. Production, optimization and quality assessment of biodiesel from Ricinus communis L. oil

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    Maryam Ijaz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, biodiesel is gaining tremendous attention due to its eco-friendly nature and is possible substitute for diesel fuel. Biodiesel as renewable energy source can be produced from edible and non-edible feedstock. Non-edible resources are preferred to circumvent for food competition. In the present study FAME was produced from Ricinus communis L. oil by transesterification with methanol and ethanol in the presence of potassium hydroxide. The practical optimal condition for the production of biodiesel from castor bean was found to be: methanol/oil molar ratio, 6:1; temperature, 60 °C; time, 45 min; catalyst concentration 0.32 g. Quality assessment of biodiesel showed comparable results with ASTM standards. The values of specific gravity (SG were 0.5, kinematic viscosity 2.45 cSt, acid values 0.13 mg KOH/g, carbon residue 0.03%, flash point 119 °C, fire point 125 °C, cloud point −10 °C and pour point −20 °C of Ricinus FAME, respectively. Based on our data, it is suggested that to overcome prevailing energy crisis this non-edible plant is useful for production of biodiesel, which is an alternate to fossil fuel and may be used alone or in blend with HSD in engine combustion.

  6. Does heavy metal exposure affect the condition of Whitethroat (Sylvia communis) nestlings?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turzańska-Pietras, Katarzyna; Chachulska, Justyna; Polechońska, Ludmiła; Borowiec, Marta

    2018-03-01

    Anthropogenic pollution results in high concentrations of heavy metals in the environment. Due to their persistence and a high potential for bioaccumulation, metals are a real threat for birds breeding in industrial areas. The aim of the present study has been to explore the contents of heavy metals (arsenic As, cadmium Cd, chromium Cr, copper Cu, iron Fe, nickel Ni, lead Pb and zinc Zn) in the excreta of Whitethroat (Sylvia communis) nestlings living in polluted environment and to investigate the relationship between these contents and the nestlings' condition. Excrement samples contained all the studied elements. The contents of arsenic, cadmium, copper and zinc in the excreta of nestlings from nests located close to a slag dump were several times higher than in the soil near the dump, which suggested accumulation in food consumed by the birds. Condition parameters (body mass and haemoglobin concentration) were not related to heavy metal concentrations in the nestlings' excreta, except of Zn. It is possible that Whitethroats are able to detoxicate heavy metals to a certain extent. Detailed, multi-element analysis of the environment, food and bird tissues or excreta should be performed to explore relations between different chemicals and bird condition.

  7. Variation in Myrtus communis L. Essential Oil Composition and its Antibacterial Activities Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mairiri, A.; Swied, G.; Hallab, L. A.; Oda, A.

    2016-01-01

    The Myrtus communis L. leaves samples were collected from five locations of its native grown areas in Lattakia, Syria, during their blooming seasons (June, 2009). Essential oil (EO) extraction was carried out by hydro-distillation in a Clevenger apparatus. The EO was analysed by both gas chromatography-Flame Ionization Detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography/mass (GC/MS) techniques. The EO yield of the dry samples was found to be around 1.88%. The main identified components of EO were: alpha-pinene 30.40%, 1,8-cineole 17.66%, limonene 8.96%, myrtenol 5.78%, and beta-caryophyllene 5.00%. The bulk EO and the separated components were tested for their antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Yersinia enterocolitica O9, Brucella melitensis, Proteus spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by using broth micro-dilution method. It was found that citronellal and nerol were the most effective components against all pathogens. (author)

  8. Perineal hernia repair using an autologous tunica vaginalis communis in nine intact male dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratummintra, Kittiya; Chuthatep, Suwicha; Banlunara, Wijit; Kalpravidh, Marissak

    2013-01-01

    Perineal hernia in dogs is very problematic and mostly requires surgical reconstruction of the weak pelvic diaphragm. Tissue or synthetic grafts have been used for the correction after failure of the conventional herniorrhaphy. Aim of this clinical trial was to assess the possible use of the autologous tunica vaginalis communis as a free graft for perineal hernia repair in intact male dogs. Seven unilateral and 2 bilateral perineal hernias in nine intact male dogs free from testicular and scrotal neoplasms were included in this study. The median surgical time for unilateral herniorrhaphy was 75 min. The median follow-up time was 13 months. The success of the autografting, based on no recurrence and comfort of the animals during urination and defecation, was found in ten of 11 hernias; giving a success rate of 90.91%. One hernia (9.09%) recurred 10 days after surgery. Histopathological examination of the apposing area between the graft and the adjacent tissue, taken during the repair of the recurred case at day 20, revealed neovascularization and connective tissue ingrowth. In conclusion, the tunica vaginalis autograft can be used for perineal herniorrhaphy in intact male dogs.

  9. IDENTIFICACIÓN DE MICROORGANISMOS ASOCIADOS A RESIDUOS DE HIGUERILLA (Ricinus communis

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    Teresa Cabra Cendales

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo fue aislar e identificar los microorganismos presentes en los residuos de fruto y  torta de higuerilla (Ricinus communis. Se utilizaron medios de cultivo selectivos para la caracterización morfológica y bioquímica y para la identificación molecular se usó la técnica de PCR con oligonucleótidos universales RM y RB del gen 16S para bacterias y secuencias intergénicas ITS1 e ITS4 para hongos y levaduras. Las secuencias fueron analizadas identificándose nueve especies de hongos, siendo Penicillium brevicompactum predominante; 12 especies de bacterias, donde el género más recurrente fue Bacillus sp. y dos especies de levaduras, Rhodosporidium paludigenum y Pichia burtonni. La identificación de la microbiota nativa presente en los residuos de higuerilla es muy promisoria, aportando un amplio conocimiento sobre la versatilidad metabólica de cada una de las cepas aisladas. El mayor número de aislamientos se obtuvieron de la torta probablemente debido al alto contenido de nutrientes presentes en este residuo.

  10. Composition of Myrtus communis L. Essential Oils as Affected by Climatic Conditions

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    Paula Pereira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Myrtus Communis L. (Myrtaceae family, commonly known as myrtle, possesses a set of qualities that make it very interesting for the pharmaceutical, nutraceutical and cosmetic industries. In this work, myrtle was studied over a period of three years (2006-2008, encompassing the main stages of the development cycle of the plant. The influence of climatic conditions, such as temperature and rainfall, on the chemical composition and yield of the essential oils obtained from leaves and berries was studied. The leaves and berries essential oils were obtained by Clevenger distillation and analysed by GC and GC-MS. The results show that the major components were limonene+1,8-cineole, myrtenyl acetate, α-pinene and linalool. Over the three year period of study, a decrease in the composition of the most volatile compounds (α-pinene and limonene+1,8-cineole was observed, the reverse being found for linalool and myrtenyl acetate. The highest value for the yield of the leaves’ essential oils was observed in the third year (0.64%, w/w, whereas that same year the lowest yield (0.07%, w/w of fruit was observed. These results were likely due to an atypically high record for rainfall in April and May of that year. The highest value of the berry essential oils (0.14%, w/w was obtained in the second year.

  11. Antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis. L leaves against salivary Mutans streptococci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlAnbori, Dalia K.A; AlNimer, Marwan S.M; AlWeheb, Athraa M

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ethanolic extract of Myrtus communis (myrtle) leaves in the selective reduction of Mutans streptococci count in saliva compared to chlorhexidine through in vitro and in vivo experiments. Ethanolic extract (2%) was prepared and screened by UV-visible spectrophotometer to detect peaks of active compounds. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of myrtle extract as well as chlorhexidine (0.12%) were determined against Mutans streptococci isolated from human saliva and identified bacteriologically in vivo experiments, the effect of single mouth rinse of myrtle extract or chlorhexidine was investigated against the number of colony forming unit (CFU) of Mutans streptococci for two hours after rinse. The results showed the presence of one large peak at λ266.5 nm and a small one at λ672 of the extract in UV-visible spectra suggesting the presence of flavanoid. The MIC of myrtle was 106.6 μg/mL compared with 3.3 μg/mL of chlorhexidine. Single mouth rinse of myrtle extract significantly reduced the number of CFU of salivary Mutans streptococci but its effect was significantly less than that of chlorhexidine. It was concluded that the antibacterial effect of myrtle on Mutans streptococci was due to its flavanoid content. Therefore, ethanolic extract of myrtle could be a potential remedy for the prevention of colonization by Mutans streptococci thereby preventing or retarding development of dental caries. (author)

  12. Effects of GA3 applications on seedlesness and fruit quality in black myrtle (Myrtus communis L.

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    Esra Alım

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Myrtle (Myrtus communis L. is one of the medical and aromatic plants naturally grown in Mediterranean basin. Myrtle fruits are mostly consumed as fresh or dried while essential oils obtained from the leaves are widely used in pharmacy, perfumery, cosmetic and even as pesticide. Myrtle fruits have white and black color. Nowadays, there is a big demand for myrtle fruits because of its high antioxidant capacity. But it contains high amount of seeds which reduce marketing and production. Main objective of this study is to investigate the effects of GA3 on seedlesness and quality in black myrtle fruits. At different flowering stages, GA3 dose of 100 ppm were applied to whole of the plants. Some applications significantly reduced seed number in fruits. Two applications of GA3 at great ballon and full bloom stages consecutively decreased seed number from 10.69 (control to 1.98 seed fruit-1 . In addition, with three consecutive application of GA3, seed rate decreased to 4.98% while 15.08% in control. Some GA3 applications resulted in fully seedless fruits up to 10.67%. Conversely, GA3 applications did not change fruit weight and some biochemical parameters of fruits.

  13. Chemical And Physiological Studies On Drought Stress Tolerance Of Irradiated Communis Pear Using Tissue Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaied, N.S.; Ragab, E.A.

    2007-01-01

    The rooted in vitro irradiated pear rootstocks (Pyrus communis) were subjected to drought stress by using different concentrations of mannitol (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 gm/l), polyethylene glycol (PEG) at concentrations 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 % to culture medium and also agar at concentrations 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 gm/l to study their effects on tissue culture and chemical analysis and their tolerance to drought stress. The obtained results showed that the number of shoots, shoot length and number of leaves were higher at 20 and 40 gm/l mannitol. Increasing mannitol concentration enhanced the increase of chlorophyll b, reducing sugars, total indoles and total phenols up to the highest level at 100 gm/l. Adding PEG at concentration 2% to the culture medium encouraged significant increases in the number of shoots and number of leaves and increase chlorophyll a, and non-reducing sugars as well as significant decrease in number of shoots, shoots length, number of leaves, root length and number of roots with increasing agar concentrations to the culture medium. However, decreasing agar concentration in the culture medium induced increase in chlorophyll A and non-reducing sugar

  14. Physicochemical characterization of seven Mexican Ricinus communis L. seeds and oil contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdomo, Felipe A.; Acosta-Osorio, Andrés A.; Herrera, G.; Vasco-Leal, José F.; Mosquera-Artamonov, José D.; Millan-Malo, Beatriz; Rodriguez-Garcia, Mario E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a rigorous study and characterization of seven Mexican Ricinus communis L. seeds and its respective extracted oil. Several physical–chemical properties were measured in order to know moisture, total lipid content, fiber content, starch presence, morphology, acidity, free fatty acid profile, ricinoleic acid content, viscosity and crude oil density. Three different methodologies were implemented for the oil extraction in each variety (extraction with chemical solvents and mechanical compression heated and non-heated). The yield percentage of the oil extraction was evaluated as well as the extraction method influence over the oil's nature. -- Highlights: ► We characterized seven different Castor seeds and oils from semi deserted region. ► We evaluate the performance of three different methods to obtain Castor Oils. ► It was found that the density and fatty acid profile depend on the method of extraction. ► According to x-ray diffraction experiments no crystalline compounds were found in the defatted mass. ► The viscosity of the Castor Oils was strongly influence by the extractive method

  15. Formulation and Optimization of Oral Mucoadhesive Patches of Myrtus Communis by Box Behnken Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Mahbubeh; Ramezani, Vahid; Seyedabadi, Mohammad; Ranjbar, Ali Mohamad; Jafari, Hossein; Honarvar, Mina; Fanaei, Hamed

    2017-09-01

    Purpose: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common painful ulcerative disease of oral mucosa happening in ~20% of people. Aimed to develop Myrtus communis L. (Myrtle) containing oral patches, we applied box-behnken design to evaluate the effect of polymers such as Polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), Gelatin, Methylcellulose (MC) and Pectin. Methods: The patches properties such as tensile strength, folding endurance, swelling index, thickness, mucoadhesive strength and the pattern of myrtle release were evaluated as dependent variables. Then, the model was adjusted according to the best fitted equation with box behnken design. Results: The results indicated that preparation of myrtle patch with hydrophilic polymers showed the disintegration time up to 24h and more. Using of polyvinyl pyrrolidone as a water soluble polymer and a pore-former polymer led to faster release of soluble materials from the patch to 29 (min -1 ). Also it decreases swelling index by increasing the patch disintegration. Gelatin and Pectin, with rigid matrix and water interaction properties, decreased the swelling ratio. Pectin increased the tensile strength, but gelatin produced an opposite effect. Thinner Myrtle patch (about 28µm) was obtained by formulation of methyl cellulose with equal ratio with polyvinyl pyrrolidone or gelatin. Conclusion: Altogether, the analysis showed that the optimal formulation was achieved with of 35.04 mg of Gelatin, 7.22 mg of Pectin, 7.20 mg of polyvinyl pyrrolidone, 50.52 mg of methyl cellulose and 20 mg of Myrtle extract.

  16. Dissipation of excess photosynthetic energy contributes to salinity tolerance: a comparative study of salt-tolerant Ricinus communis and salt-sensitive Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Neto, Milton C; Lobo, Ana K M; Martins, Marcio O; Fontenele, Adilton V; Silveira, Joaquim Albenisio G

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between salt tolerance and photosynthetic mechanisms of excess energy dissipation were assessed using two species that exhibit contrasting responses to salinity, Ricinus communis (tolerant) and Jatropha curcas (sensitive). The salt tolerance of R. communis was indicated by unchanged electrolyte leakage (cellular integrity) and dry weight in leaves, whereas these parameters were greatly affected in J. curcas. The leaf Na+ content was similar in both species. Photosynthesis was intensely decreased in both species, but the reduction was more pronounced in J. curcas. In this species biochemical limitations in photosynthesis were more prominent, as indicated by increased C(i) values and decreased Rubisco activity. Salinity decreased both the V(cmax) (in vivo Rubisco activity) and J(max) (maximum electron transport rate) more significantly in J. curcas. The higher tolerance in R. communis was positively associated with higher photorespiratory activity, nitrate assimilation and higher cyclic electron flow. The high activity of these alternative electron sinks in R. communis was closely associated with a more efficient photoprotection mechanism. In conclusion, salt tolerance in R. communis, compared with J. curcas, is related to higher electron partitioning from the photosynthetic electron transport chain to alternative sinks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Somatic Embryogenesis in Olive (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugini, Eddo; Silvestri, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Protocols for olive somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos and mature tissues have been described for both Olea europaea sub. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris. Immature zygotic embryos (no more than 75 days old), used after fruit collection or stored at 12-14 °C for 2-3 months, are the best responsive explants and very slightly genotype dependent, and one single protocol can be effective for a wide range of genotypes. On the contrary, protocols for mature zygotic embryos and for mature tissue of cultivars are often genotype specific, so that they may require many adjustments according to genotypes. The use of thidiazuron and cefotaxime seems to be an important trigger for induction phase particularly for tissues derived from cultivars. Up to now, however, the application of this technique for large-scale propagation is hampered also by the low rate of embryo germination; it proves nonetheless very useful for genetic improvement.

  18. Somatic Embryogenesis in Juniperus Procera using Juniperus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ecologically important and endangered forest species in Ethiopia. The aim for this particular research was initially an adaptation of optimum half strength lithium ... culture. But as other conifer species it was difficult to stop proliferation of ...

  19. Somatic Embryogenesis in Juniperus Procera using Juniperus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim for this particular research was initially an adaptation of optimum half strength lithium chloride-sodium propionate (LP) medium protocol for growth and proliferation of embryogenic ... Additional study on the effect of seed extraction to the growing embryogenic culture showed no effect on mature somatic embryos.

  20. Delice(Olea europea var. oleaster L.) ile zeytin (Olea europea var.sativa) arasında anatomik ve palinojik ayrıcalıklar (The Anatomic And Palynological Differences Between Olea europea var. oleaster L. AND Olea europea var.sativa)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Zafer

    1991-01-01

    Delice(Olea europea var. oleaster L.) ile zeytin (Olea europea var.sativa) arasında anatomik ve palinojik ayrıcalıklar (The Anatomic And Palynological Differences Between Olea europea var. oleaster L. AND Olea europea var.sativa)

  1. Chromosome behaviour in Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y J

    1980-01-01

    Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata is unusual in that its twelve chromosomes are arranged in a ring at meiosis. The order of the chromosomes has been established, and each chromosome arm has been designated a letter in accordance with the segmental interchange theory. Chromosomes are often irregularly orientated at metaphase I. Chromosomes at anaphase I are generally distributed equally (6-6, 58.75%) although not necessarily balanced. Due to adjacent distribution, 7-5 distribution at anaphase I was frequently observed (24.17%), and due to lagging, 6-1-5 and 5-2-5 distributions were also observed (10.83% and 3.33% respectively). Three types of abnormal distribution, 8-4, 7-1-4 and 6-2-4 were observed very infrequently (2.92% total), and their possible origins are discussed. Irregularities, such as adjacent distribution and lagging, undoubtedly reduce the fertility of the plant because of the resulting unbalanced gametes.

  2. 1D-VAR Retrieval Using Superchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel; Larar, Allen; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter; Mango, Stephen; SaintGermain, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Since modern ultra-spectral remote sensors have thousands of channels, it is difficult to include all of them in a 1D-var retrieval system. We will describe a physical inversion algorithm, which includes all available channels for the atmospheric temperature, moisture, cloud, and surface parameter retrievals. Both the forward model and the inversion algorithm compress the channel radiances into super channels. These super channels are obtained by projecting the radiance spectra onto a set of pre-calculated eigenvectors. The forward model provides both super channel properties and jacobian in EOF space directly. For ultra-spectral sensors such as Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST), a compression ratio of more than 80 can be achieved, leading to a significant reduction in computations involved in an inversion process. Results will be shown applying the algorithm to real IASI and NAST data.

  3. Enzyme inhibitory and radical scavenging effects of some antidiabetic plants of Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Nilüfer; Hoçbaç, Sanem; Orhan, Didem Deliorman; Asian, Mustafa; Ergun, Fatma

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Ethnopharmacological field surveys demonstrated that many plants, such as Gentiana olivieri, Helichrysum graveolens, Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum, Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus, Juniperus communis var. saxatilis, Viscum album (ssp. album, ssp. austriacum), are used as traditional medicine for diabetes in different regions of Anatolia. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antidiabetic effects of some selected plants, tested in animal models recently. Materials and Methods: α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme inhibitory effects of the plant extracts were investigated and Acarbose was used as a reference drug. Additionally, radical scavenging capacities were determined using 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) ABTS radical cation scavenging assay and total phenolic content of the extracts were evaluated using Folin Ciocalteu method. Results: H. graveolens ethanol extract exhibited the highest inhibitory activity (55.7 % ± 2.2) on α-amylase enzyme. Additionally, J. oxycedrus hydro-alcoholic leaf extract had potent α-amylase inhibitory effect, while the hydro-alcoholic extract of J. communis fruit showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50: 4.4 μg/ml). Conclusion: Results indicated that, antidiabetic effect of hydro-alcoholic extracts of H. graveolens capitulums, J. communis fruit and J. oxycedrus leaf might arise from inhibition of digestive enzymes. PMID:25140204

  4. Enzyme inhibitory and radical scavenging effects of some antidiabetic plants of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilüfer Orhan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Ethnopharmacological field surveys demonstrated that many plants, such as Gentiana olivieri, Helichrysum graveolens, Helichrysum plicatum ssp. plicatum, Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus, Juniperus  communis var. saxatilis, Viscum album (ssp. album, ssp. austriacum, are used as traditional medicine for diabetes in different regions of Anatolia. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antidiabetic effects of some selected plants, tested in animal models recently. Materials and Methods: α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme inhibitory effects of the plant extracts were investigated and Acarbose was used as a reference drug. Additionally, radical scavenging capacities were determined using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid ABTS radical cation scavenging assay and total phenolic content of the extracts were evaluated using Folin Ciocalteu method. Results: H. graveolens ethanol extract exhibited the highest inhibitory activity (55.7 % ± 2.2 on α-amylase enzyme. Additionally, J. oxycedrus hydro-alcoholic leaf extract had potent α-amylase inhibitory effect, while the hydro-alcoholic extract of J. communis fruit showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibitory activity (IC50: 4.4 μg/ml. Conclusion:Results indicated that, antidiabetic effect of hydro-alcoholic extracts of H. graveolens capitulums, J. communis fruit and J. oxycedrus leaf might arise from inhibition of digestive enzymes.

  5. Isolamento do alcalóide ricinina das folhas de Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae através de cromatografias em contracorrente Isolation of the alkaloid ricinine from the leaves of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae through counter-current chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Leite

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Droplet counter-current chromatography, rotation locular counter-current chromatography and high-speed counter-current chromatography were applied to the preparative separation of the alkaloid ricinine from the dichloromethane extracts of Ricinus communis leaves. The solvent system used was composed of dichloromethane-methanol-water (93:35:72 v/v/v and all techniques led to the isolation of large amounts of the alkaloid. The best result was obtained through HSCCC, since the ricinine yield was respectively 50% and 30% higher than when using RLCCC or DCCC.

  6. Pitfalls in VAR based return decompositions: A clarification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsted, Tom; Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard; Tanggaard, Carsten

    in their analysis is not "cashflow news" but "inter- est rate news" which should not be zero. Consequently, in contrast to what Chen and Zhao claim, their decomposition does not serve as a valid caution against VAR based decompositions. Second, we point out that in order for VAR based decompositions to be valid......Based on Chen and Zhao's (2009) criticism of VAR based return de- compositions, we explain in detail the various limitations and pitfalls involved in such decompositions. First, we show that Chen and Zhao's interpretation of their excess bond return decomposition is wrong: the residual component...

  7. Cone and seed traits of two Juniperus species influence roles of frugivores and scatter-hoarding rodents as seed dispersal agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitri, Lindsay A.; Longland, William S.; Vander Wall, Stephen B.

    2017-11-01

    Seed dispersal in Juniperus is generally attributed to frugivores that consume the berry-like female cones. Some juniper cones are fleshy and resinous such as those of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis), while others are dry and leathery such as those of Utah juniper (J. osteosperma). Rodents have been recorded harvesting Juniperus seeds and cones but are mostly considered seed predators. Our study sought to determine if rodents play a role in dispersal of western and Utah juniper seeds. We documented rodent harvest of cones and seeds of the locally-occurring juniper species and the alternate (non-local) juniper species in removal experiments at a western juniper site in northeastern California and a Utah juniper site in western Nevada. Characteristics of western and Utah juniper cones appeared to influence removal, as cones from the local juniper species were preferred at both sites. Conversely, removal of local and non-local seeds was similar. Piñon mice (Peromyscus truei) were responsible for most removal of cones and seeds at both sites. We used radioactively labeled seeds to follow seed fate and found many of these seeds in scattered caches (western juniper: 415 seeds in 82 caches, 63.0% of seeds found; Utah juniper: 458 seeds in 127 caches, 39.5% of seeds found) most of which were attributed to piñon mice. We found little evidence of frugivores dispersing Utah juniper seeds, thus scatter-hoarding rodents appear to be the main dispersal agents. Western juniper cones were eaten by frugivores, and scatter-hoarding is a complimentary or secondary form of seed dispersal. Our results support the notion that Utah juniper has adapted to xeric environments by conserving water through the loss of fleshy fruits that attract frugivores and instead relies on scatter-hoarding rodents as effective dispersal agents.

  8. Use of MODIS Satellite Data to Evaluate Juniperus spp. Pollen Phenology to Support a Pollen Dispersal Model, PREAM, to Support Public Health Allergy Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W.; Levetin, E.; Huete, A.; Nickovic, S.; Pejanovic, G. A.; Vukovic, A.; VandeWater, P.; Budge, A.; Hudspeth, W.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Juniperus spp. pollen is a significant aeroallergen that can be transported 200-600 km from the source. Local observations of Juniperus spp. phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. Methods: The Dust REgional Atmospheric Model (DREAM)is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and quantities of dust. We successfully modified the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport (PREAM) and used MODIS satellite images to develop Juniperus ashei pollen input source masks. The Pollen Release Potential Source Map, also referred to as a source mask in model applications, may use different satellite platforms and sensors and a variety of data sets other than the USGS GAP data we used to map J. ashei cover type. MODIS derived percent tree cover is obtained from MODIS Vegetation Continuous Fields (VCF) product (collection 3 and 4, MOD44B, 500 and 250 m grid resolution). We use updated 2010 values to calculate pollen concentration at source (J. ashei ). The original MODIS derived values are converted from native approx. 250 m to 990m (approx. 1 km) for the calculation of a mask to fit the model (PREAM) resolution. Results: The simulation period is chosen following the information that in the last 2 weeks of December 2010. The PREAM modeled near-surface concentrations (Nm-3) shows the transport patterns of J. ashei pollen over a 5 day period (Fig. 2). Typical scales of the simulated transport process are regional.

  9. Vitamin, Trace Element, and Fatty Acid Levels of Vitex agnus-castus L., Juniperus oxycedrus L., and Papaver somniferum L. Plant Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ozkaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of fat-soluble vitamin, trace element and fatty acid of Vitex agnus-castus L., Juniperus oxycedrus L., and Papaver somniferum L. seeds in Turkey were determined by using HPLC, ICP-OES, and GC, respectively. In the Vitex agnus-castus L., Juniperus oxycedrus L., and Papaver somniferum L. seeds, linoleic acid (18 : 2 was determined with the highest level rates (%54.11, %28.03, and %72.14, resp.. In the Vitex agnus-castus L. seeds, R-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, and K1 levels were determined as 9.70 μg/g, 18.20 μg/g, and 24.79 μg/g, respectively; In the Juniperus oxycedrus L. seeds, R-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, and K1 were determined as 18.50 μg/g, 0.84 μg/g, and 5.00 μg/g, respectively, and in the Papaver somniferum L. seeds, R-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, K1, and D2 levels were determined as 43.25 μg/g, 122.05 μg/g, 12.01 μg/g, and 0.62 μg/g, respectively. In the Vitex agnus-castus L., Juniperus oxycedrus L., and Papaver somniferum L. seeds, nickel (Ni, zinc (Zn, and iron (Fe were determined with the trace element level rates (4.42 mg/kg, 10.43 mg/kg, 3.71 mg/kg for Ni, 7.00 mg/kg, 7.70 mg/kg, and 24 mg/kg for Zn and 93.73 mg/kg, 187.95 mg/kg, and 149.64 mg/kg for Fe, resp.. These parameters in seeds are very important for human life.

  10. Enhanced growth of Juniperus thurifera under a warmer climate is explained by a positive carbon gain under cold and drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Teresa E; Camarero, J Julio; Granda, Elena; Pías, Beatriz; Valladares, Fernando

    2012-03-01

    Juniperus thurifera L. is an endemic conifer of the western Mediterranean Basin where it is subjected to a severe climatic stress characterized by low winter temperatures and summer drought. Given the trend of increased warming-induced drought stress in this area and the climatic sensitivity of this species, we expect a negative impact of climate change on growth and ecophysiological performance of J. thurifera in the harsh environments where it dominates. To evaluate this, we measured long- and short-term radial growth using dendrochronology, photosynthesis and water-use efficiency in males, females and juveniles in three sites in Central Spain. Climate was monitored and completed with historical records. Mean annual temperature has increased +0.2 °C per decade in the study area, and the main warming trends corresponded to spring (+0.2 °C per decade) and summer (+0.3 °C per decade). Radial growth and maximum photosynthesis peaked in spring and autumn. Positive photosynthetic rates were maintained all year long, albeit at reduced rates in winter and summer. Radial growth was enhanced by wet conditions in the previous autumn and by warm springs and high precipitation in summer of the year of tree-ring formation. Cloud cover during the summer increased growth, while cloudy winters led to impaired carbon gain and reduced growth in the long term. We argue that maintenance of carbon gain under harsh conditions (low winter temperatures and dry summer months) and plastic xylogenesis underlie J. thurifera's ability to profit from changing climatic conditions such as earlier spring onset and erratic summer rainfall. Our results highlight that not only the magnitude but also the sign of the impact of climate change on growth and persistence of Mediterranean trees is species specific.

  11. Colonization of abandoned land by Juniperus thurifera is mediated by the interaction of a diverse dispersal assemblage and environmental heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Escribano-Avila

    Full Text Available Land abandonment is one of the most powerful global change drivers in developed countries where recent rural exodus has been the norm. Abandonment of traditional land use practices has permitted the colonization of these areas by shrub and tree species. For fleshy fruited species the colonization of new areas is determined by the dispersal assemblage composition and abundance. In this study we showed how the relative contribution to the dispersal process by each animal species is modulated by the environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure. This complex interaction caused differential patterns on the seed dispersal in both, landscape patches in which the process of colonization is acting nowadays and mature woodlands of Juniperus thurifera, a relict tree distributed in the western Mediterranean Basin. Thrushes (Turdus spp and carnivores (red fox and stone marten dispersed a high amount of seeds while rabbits and sheeps only a tiny fraction. Thrushes dispersed a significant amount of seeds in new colonization areas, however they were limited by the presence of high perches with big crop size. While carnivores dispersed seeds to all studied habitats, even in those patches where no trees of J. thurifera were present, turning out to be critical for primary colonization. The presence of Pinus and Quercus was related to a reduced consumption of J. thurifera seeds while the presence of fleshy fruited shrubs was related with higher content of J. thurifera seeds in dispersers' faeces. Therefore environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure had a great influence on dispersers feeding behaviour, and should be considered in order to accurately describe the role of seed dispersal in ecological process, such as regeneration and colonization. J. thurifera expansion is not seed limited thanks to its diverse dispersal community, hence the conservation of all dispersers in an ecosystem enhance ecosystems services and resilience.

  12. Is precipitation a trigger for the onset of xylogenesis in Juniperus przewalskii on the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ping; Rossi, Sergio; Gricar, Jozica; Liang, Eryuan; Cufar, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims A series of studies have shown that temperature triggers the onset of xylogenesis of trees after winter dormancy. However, little is known about whether and how moisture availability influences xylogenesis in spring in drought-prone areas. Methods Xylogenesis was monitored in five mature Qilian junipers (Juniperus przewalskii) by microcore sampling from 2009 to 2011 in a semi-arid area of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau. A simple physical model of xylem cell production was developed and its sensitivity was analysed. The relationship between climate and growth was then evaluated, using weekly wood production data and climatic data from the study site. Key Results Delayed onset of xylogenesis in 2010 corresponded to a negative standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) value and a continuous period without rainfall in early May. The main period of wood formation was in June and July, and drier conditions from May to July led to a smaller number of xylem cells. Dry conditions in July could cause early cessation of xylem differentiation. The final number of xylem cells was mainly determined by the average production rate rather than the duration of new cell production. Xylem growth showed a positive and significant response to precipitation, but not to temperature. Conclusions Precipitation in late spring and summer can play a critical role in the onset of xylogenesis and xylem cell production. The delay in the initiation of xylogenesis under extremely dry conditions seems to be a stress-avoidance strategy against hydraulic failure. These findings could thus demonstrate an evolutionary adaptation of Qilian juniper to the extremely dry conditions of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau. PMID:25725006

  13. Colonization of abandoned land by Juniperus thurifera is mediated by the interaction of a diverse dispersal assemblage and environmental heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano-Avila, Gema; Sanz-Pérez, Virginia; Pías, Beatriz; Virgós, Emilio; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Land abandonment is one of the most powerful global change drivers in developed countries where recent rural exodus has been the norm. Abandonment of traditional land use practices has permitted the colonization of these areas by shrub and tree species. For fleshy fruited species the colonization of new areas is determined by the dispersal assemblage composition and abundance. In this study we showed how the relative contribution to the dispersal process by each animal species is modulated by the environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure. This complex interaction caused differential patterns on the seed dispersal in both, landscape patches in which the process of colonization is acting nowadays and mature woodlands of Juniperus thurifera, a relict tree distributed in the western Mediterranean Basin. Thrushes (Turdus spp) and carnivores (red fox and stone marten) dispersed a high amount of seeds while rabbits and sheeps only a tiny fraction. Thrushes dispersed a significant amount of seeds in new colonization areas, however they were limited by the presence of high perches with big crop size. While carnivores dispersed seeds to all studied habitats, even in those patches where no trees of J. thurifera were present, turning out to be critical for primary colonization. The presence of Pinus and Quercus was related to a reduced consumption of J. thurifera seeds while the presence of fleshy fruited shrubs was related with higher content of J. thurifera seeds in dispersers' faeces. Therefore environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure had a great influence on dispersers feeding behaviour, and should be considered in order to accurately describe the role of seed dispersal in ecological process, such as regeneration and colonization. J. thurifera expansion is not seed limited thanks to its diverse dispersal community, hence the conservation of all dispersers in an ecosystem enhance ecosystems services and resilience.

  14. The Effect of Myrtus communis Extract on Liver Enzymes and Blood Biochemical Factors in Diabetic Adult Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habiballah Johari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was the effect of Myrtus communis extract on liver enzymes and blood biochemical factors in diabetic adult male rats. Materials and Methods: This study has been carried out experimentally and completely random. Seventy adult male Wistar rats were divided in 7 groups including: control which received no treatment, sham who received 2 mL of distilled water, the 1st, 2nd and 3rd experimental groups which received 0.75, 1.5 and 3 mg/kg Myrtus communis leaf extract respectively, the 4th experimental group as the diabetic control group who received streptozotocin (60 mg/kg and the 5th experimental group as the diabetic treatment group who received 3 mg/kg of extract. This experiment lasted 14 days with prescript orally. After this period, all the rats, were weighted, anesthetized and blood samples were taken from the heart centrifuged and sera were evaluated for the concentration of various factors. In addition liver were removed and sliced. Results: According to the obtained results, the plasma concentration of liver enzyme (alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, cholesterol and glucose presented a significant decrease at (p≤0.05. Whereas no significant change were seen in body weight, triglyceride, urea, albumin and total protein. Histological studies of the liver tissue showed no significant difference among various groups. Conclusion: Myrtus communis is comprise of collections of flavonoids and other various components with antioxidant and anti inflammatory properties. Thence it can effective in treatment of liver diseases and decrease of blood sugar and cholesterol in diabetes mellitus patients.

  15. How can the origin of the decay var-phi →3π be determined?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achasov, N.N.; Kozhevnikov, A.A.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that the interference pattern in the region √s = 1.05 GeV in the reaction e + e - →ω, var-phi →3π can be used to determine unambiguously whether the decay var-phi →3π occurs because of var-phi ω mixing, var-phi →ω→3π, or because of the direct transition var-phi →3π. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  16. Aedes communis Reactivity Is Associated with Bee Venom Hypersensitivity: An in vitro and in vivo Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scala, Enrico; Pirrotta, Lia; Uasuf, Carina G; Mistrello, Gianni; Amato, Stefano; Guerra, Emma Cristina; Locanto, Maria; Meneguzzi, Giorgia; Giani, Mauro; Cecchi, Lorenzo; Abeni, Damiano; Asero, Riccardo

    2018-01-01

    Mosquito bite is usually followed by a local reaction, but severe or systemic reaction may, in rare cases, occur. Allergic reactions to Aedes communis (Ac) may be underestimated due to the lack of reliable diagnostic tools. In this multicenter study, 205 individuals reporting large local reactions to Ac were enrolled and studied for cutaneous or IgE reactivity to Ac, Blattella germanica, Penaeus monodon, and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Extract and molecular IgE reactivity to bees, wasps, hornets, and yellow jacket venoms were also studied in 119 patients with a clinical history of adverse reaction to Hymenoptera. Immunoblot (IB) analysis and immunoCAP IgE inhibition experiments were carried out in selected sera. Ac sensitization was recorded in 96 (46.8%) patients on SPT. Strict relationship between Ac and D. pteronyssinus, B. germanica, P. monodon, or Apis mellifera reactivity on SPT was observed. Ac IgE recognition was seen in 60/131 (45.8%) patients, 49 (81.6%) of them SPT positive, and 5/14 IB reactors. Ac IgE sensitization was associated with Tabanus spp, A. mellifera, Vespula vulgaris, and Polistes dominula reactivity. A strict relationship between Ac IgE reactivity and Api m 1, Api m 2, Api m 3, Api m 5, and Api m 10 was recorded. IgE reactivity to AC was inhibited in 9/15 cases after serum absorption with the A. mellifera extract. Both SPT and IgE Ac reactivity is observed in about half of patients with a history of large local reactions to mosquito bites. The significant relationship between Ac sensitization and either extract or single bee venom components is suggestive of a "bee-mosquito syndrome" occurrence. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Collection of castor-oil plant germoplasm (Ricinus communis L. in two municipalities of Arauca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Iván Cardozo Conde

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Ricinus communis L., commonly known as the castor-oil plant, is important for its use in biofuels production. With the objective of learning about its current status, in 40 villages influential to the oil complex of Caricare (municipality of Arauquita and Caño Limón (municipality of Arauca in Arauca, Colombia (where five years earlier the crop had been established, a collection of sexual seed was carried out between December 2011 and January 2012. The variables studied include passport data as a collection resource, local name, relief, and soil type among others. A Garmin map76CSx was used in order to identify the transects and record data such as geographic location and elevation. Simple descriptive statistics were used to identify the variables of greatest variation. Using the qualitative variables of greatest importance, a contingency table analysis with a significance level of 5%, a multiple correspondence analysis (MCA and principal component analysis (PCA were performed for quantitative and qualitative variables, in addition to a classification analysis through a similarity matrix. The castor-oil plant was found in 25% of the villages visited. 12 introductions were collected, four from Caricare and eight from Caño Limón. Although the environmental conditions were favo­rable for its cultivation, there are no castor-oil plant crops in the locations visited. The absence of grain commercialization and oil extraction equipment is the main limiting factor. A garden was established using collected materials for the purpose of research, breeding and propagation.

  18. Potential of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) for phytoremediation of mine tailings and oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz Olivares, Alejandro; Carrillo-González, Rogelio; González-Chávez, Ma del Carmen A; Soto Hernández, Ramón Marcos

    2013-01-15

    Bioenergy production combined with phytoremediation has been suggested to help in solving two critical world problems: the gradual reduction of fossil fuels and soil contamination. The aim of this research was to investigate the potential for the use of Ricinus communis L. (castor oil plant) as an energy crop and plant species to remediate metal-polluted sites. This study was performed in mine tailings containing high concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb and Cd. Physico-chemical characterization, total, DTPA-extractable and water-soluble metals in rhizospheric tailings heap samples were carried. Metal concentrations in plant tissues and translocation factors (TFs) were also determined. The Ricinus seed-oil content was high between 41 and 64%, seeds from San Francisco site 6 had the highest oil content, while these from site 7 had the lowest. No trend between oil yield vs seed origin site was observed. Seed-oil content was negatively correlated with root concentration of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd, but no correlation was observed with the extractable-metals. According to its shoot metal concentrations and TFs, castor bean is not a metal accumulator plant. This primary colonizing plant is well suited to cope with the local toxic conditions and can be useful for the stabilization of these residues, and for then decreasing metal bioavailability, dispersion and human health risks on these barren tailings heaps and in the surrounding area. Our work is the first report regarding combined oil production and a phytostabilization role for Ricinus plants in metal mine tailings and may give a new value to suitable metal-polluted areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Antibacterial Effect of Myrtus Communis Hydro-Alcoholic Extract on Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Taheri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Today, due to the changes in the form of the resistance of pathogenic bacteria, discovering new antimicrobial drugs is under study. So, the aim of this study is to evaluate the antimicrobial properties of the extract of the myrtle herb on some of pathogenic bacteria. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves of myrtle herb was evaluated at 4 concentrations including 10-80 mg/ml on four strains of pathogenic bacteria using penetrative dissemination method together with the measuring diameter of the growth inhibition zone; then the results were compared to four conventional antibiotics. The minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations were studied using macro dilution method. Results: Treatment by the concentration of 80 mg/ml extract of this herb showed the greatest effect on the bacterium Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio cholera serotype Ogawa which had a significant difference with all other treatments and standard antibiotics (p> 0.05. The extract showed no effect on the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa and just concentration of 80 mg/ml showed a little effect on E. coli and other antibiotics had no significant effect except tetracycline which has little effect on this strain. Minimum inhibitory concentration was 0.2 mg/ml for bacterium Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus and the maximum for E.coli by 8 mg/ml.Conclusion: This study showed that under study bacteria were more resistant to the antibiotics and the extract of Myrtus communis leaves showed greatest antibacterial effect against S. aureus and V. cholerae cerotype Ogawa.

  20. The Antimicrobial Effect of Methanolic Extracts of Achillea wilhelmsii, Myrtus communis, and Allium sativum on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Rostami Rad

    2017-12-01

      In this study, the effect of Achillea Wilhelmsii, Myrtus communis, and Allium sativum extracts, was investigated on 4 strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the effect of each extract, was studied using agar dilution method.   Among these three extracts, the Allium sativum  extract showed the highest antimicrobial activity. Also, observations were indicative of difference in the susceptibility of the studied strains to different extracts, which showed different reactions to each of the extracts based on the origin and antibiotic resistance level.   According to the results of this study, extracts are a natural and valuable sources to produce antimicrobial drugs against pseudomonas strains and other resistant pathogenic bacteria.    

  1. Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Properties of the Essential Oil of Myrtus communis L. against Clinical Strains of Mycobacterium spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Zanetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the etiological agent of tuberculosis. The World Health Organization has estimated that 8 million of people develop active TB every year and the situation is complicated by an increase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains resistant to drugs used in antitubercular therapy: MDR and XDR-TB. Myrtle leaf extracts, used as an antiseptic in Sardinian traditional medicine, have strong antibacterial activity as several investigations showed. In this study we investigated the antimicrobial properties of the essential oil of Myrtus communis against clinical strains of M. tuberculosis and M. paratuberculosis.

  2. Activation and clustering of a Plasmodium falciparum var gene are affected by subtelomeric sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Michael F; Tang, Jingyi; Sumardy, Fransisca; Nguyen, Hanh H T; Selvarajah, Shamista A; Josling, Gabrielle A; Day, Karen P; Petter, Michaela; Brown, Graham V

    2017-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum var multigene family encodes the cytoadhesive, variant antigen PfEMP1. P. falciparum antigenic variation and cytoadhesion specificity are controlled by epigenetic switching between the single, or few, simultaneously expressed var genes. Most var genes are maintained in perinuclear clusters of heterochromatic telomeres. The active var gene(s) occupy a single, perinuclear var expression site. It is unresolved whether the var expression site forms in situ at a telomeric cluster or whether it is an extant compartment to which single chromosomes travel, thus controlling var switching. Here we show that transcription of a var gene did not require decreased colocalisation with clusters of telomeres, supporting var expression site formation in situ. However following recombination within adjacent subtelomeric sequences, the same var gene was persistently activated and did colocalise less with telomeric clusters. Thus, participation in stable, heterochromatic, telomere clusters and var switching are independent but are both affected by subtelomeric sequences. The var expression site colocalised with the euchromatic mark H3K27ac to a greater extent than it did with heterochromatic H3K9me3. H3K27ac was enriched within the active var gene promoter even when the var gene was transiently repressed in mature parasites and thus H3K27ac may contribute to var gene epigenetic memory. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  3. VAr reserve concept applied to a wind power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Philip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    to wind power plants. This paper proposes two different VAr reserve control strategies for a wind power plant. The amount of dynamic VAr available most of the operation time, makes the wind power plant (WPP) a good candidate to include a VAr reserve management system. Two different ways of implementing...... a VAr management system are proposed and analyzed. Such a reactive power reserve may be provided by the wind power plant since the amount of reactive power installed for most active power working points exceeds the demand required by the grid operator. Basically, this overrated reactive power capacity...... is a consequence of sizing wind turbine facilities for maximum active power level. The reactive power losses, due to active power transportation inside the plant (normally two transformers), and P-Q wind turbine characteristics define the P-Q reserve chart. By utilizing the intrinsic overrated reactive power...

  4. Molt disruption and mortality of Locusta migratoria var. manilensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IGRs) on the oriental migratory locust Locusta migratoria var. manilensis were assessed. Under laboratory conditions, at the highest tested dose rate of 300 ppm, the percent mortality and molt inhibition after two weeks for the five tested ...

  5. ClinVar data parsing [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Zhang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This software repository provides a pipeline for converting raw ClinVar data files into analysis-friendly tab-delimited tables, and also provides these tables for the most recent ClinVar release. Separate tables are generated for genome builds GRCh37 and GRCh38 as well as for mono-allelic variants and complex multi-allelic variants. Additionally, the tables are augmented with allele frequencies from the ExAC and gnomAD datasets as these are often consulted when analyzing ClinVar variants. Overall, this work provides ClinVar data in a format that is easier to work with and can be directly loaded into a variety of popular analysis tools such as R, python pandas, and SQL databases.

  6. Orientation of the Fiscal Policy in Tunisia: Structural VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissem Khanfir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to indicate the orientation of fiscal policy in Tunisia, using the structural budget balance, during the period 1972-2014. For this purpose, we estimate a structural VAR model consisting of the fiscal deficit to current GDP ratio and the volume of economic activity represented by the real GDP. We estimate bivariate structural VAR in order to decompose fiscal deficit fluctuations into different disturbances.

  7. An orientin derivative isolated from Passiflora tripartita var. mollissima

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Freddy A.; Castellanos, Leonardo; López, César; Palacios, Lizeth; Duque, Carmenza; Pacheco, Ricardo; Guzmán, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Passiflora tripartita var. mollisima (banana passion fruit) is an edible fruit widespread in the Andean highlands of Colombia and Ecuador. The fruit is used for juices as well as for the sedative properties of the leaves. As a contribution to the chemical characterization of this species, a new compound, 4'- methoxyluteolin-8-C-6”acetylglucopyranoside, was isolated from the ethanolic extract of Passiflora tripartita var. mollisima leaves and identified by spectroscopical data (NMR, MS, UV).

  8. Da abort ikke var en sag for kvinden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Annette Østergaard

    2013-01-01

    Case fra tiden før 1973, hvor der ikke var fri abort i Danmark. Sagen er fundet i Mødrehjælpens arkiv og giver som andre sager indblik i kvindens situation. Led i serien: Nyt i arkivet.......Case fra tiden før 1973, hvor der ikke var fri abort i Danmark. Sagen er fundet i Mødrehjælpens arkiv og giver som andre sager indblik i kvindens situation. Led i serien: Nyt i arkivet....

  9. Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia following probiotic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Appel-da-Silva, Marcelo C.; Narvaez, Gabriel A.; Perez, Leandro R.R.; Drehmer, Laura; Lewgoy, Jairo

    2017-01-01

    Probiotics are commonly prescribed as an adjuvant in the treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile. We report the case of an immunocompromised 73-year-old patient on chemotherapy who developed Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia in a central venous catheter during treatment of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis with the probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii. Fungemia was resolved after interruption of probiotic administrat...

  10. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Balu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  11. VAR Methodology Used for Exchange Risk Measurement and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article we discuss one of the modern risk measuring techniques Value-at-Risk (VaR. Currently central banks in major money centers, under the auspices of the BIS Basle Committee, adopt the VaR system to evaluate the market risk of their supervised banks. Banks regulators ask all commercial banks to report VaRs with their internal models. Value at risk (VaR is a powerful tool for assessing market risk, but it also imposes a challenge. Its power is its generality. Unlike market risk metrics such as the Greeks, duration and convexity, or beta, which are applicable to only certain asset categories or certain sources of market risk, VaR is general. It is based on the probability distribution for a portfolio’s market value. Value at Risk (VAR calculates the maximum loss expected (or worst case scenario on an investment, over a given time period and given a specified degree of confidence. There are three methods by which VaR can be calculated: the historical simulation, the variance-covariance method and the Monte Carlo simulation. The variance-covariance method is easiest because you need to estimate only two factors: average return and standard deviation. However, it assumes returns are well-behaved according to the symmetrical normal curve and that historical patterns will repeat into the future. The historical simulation improves on the accuracy of the VAR calculation, but requires more computational data; it also assumes that “past is prologue”. The Monte Carlo simulation is complex, but has the advantage of allowing users to tailor ideas about future patterns that depart from historical patterns.

  12. Genetic analisys of a cross of gaillon (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra) with cauliflower (B.oleracea var. botrytis)

    OpenAIRE

    Spini, Vanessa B.M.G.; Kerr, Warwick Estevam

    2000-01-01

    The cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) is an annual vegetable cultivated in Southern and Southwestern Brazil with limited production in the Northeast and Centralwest. A variety of Chinese kale, "kaai laan" or "gaillon" (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra), produces seeds at high temperatures and therefore can do so in North and Northeastern Brazil. Gaillon and cauliflower were crossed 55 times using 10 gaillon plants as mothers and 4 cauliflower plants as pollen donors. From these c...

  13. ANTIBACTERIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF THE ESSENTIAL OILS AND PHENOLIC EXTRACTS OF MYRTUS COMMUNIS AND ZYGOPHYLUM ALBUM FROM ALGERIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Belmimoun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the evaluation of the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial activity of phenolic extracts and essential oils of two medicinal and aromatic plants Zygophyllum album and Myrtus communis by using the 2,2- diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical ,total antioxidant power and agar diffusion methods and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC determination.Moreover,the extracts were investigated for their polyphenolic,flavonoids,tannins and anthocyans content by using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay,the aluminium trichlorid method,reaction with vanillin and colometer method based on differentiation of absorbance,respectively.The results showed that the highest antioxidant capacity was exhibited by the aqueous extract of Myrtus communis with IC50= 29,080mg/ml.All extracts  possessed more or less antibacterial activity against the  tested Gram- positive and Gram –negative bacteria Bacillus subtilis and E.coli were the more susceptible microorganisms to all extracts and essential oils. Pronounced antibacterial activity was observed by the methanolic extract of Zygophylum album (MIC value=25 µg/ml.Morever,the results showed that the phenolic compounds and flavonoids were abundant in Myrtle aqueous extracts.

  14. Effect of Artocarpus communis Extract on UVB Irradiation-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Hairless Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Lin Yen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Administration of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents is an effective strategy for preventing ultraviolet (UV irradiation-induced skin damage. Artocarpus communis possesses several pharmacological activities, such as antioxidant, anticancer and anti-inflammation. However, the photoprotective activity of methanol extract of A. communis heartwood (ACM in ultraviolet irradiation-induced skin damage has not yet been investigated. The present study was performed using ultraviolet absorption, histopathological observation, antioxidant and anti-inflammation assays to elucidate the mechanism of the photoprotective activity of ACM. Our results indicated that ACM displayed a UVA and UVB absorption effect and then effectively decreased scaly skin, epidermis thickness and sunburn cells during ultraviolet irradiation in hairless mice. ACM not only decreased ultraviolet irradiation-mediated oxidative stress, including lowering the overproduction of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation (p < 0.05, but also reduced the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α and interleukin 1β. Additionally, ACM can decrease the synthesis of cytosolic phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenase, inducible nitric oxide synthase and vascular cell adhesion molecular-1 via inhibiting TNF-α-independent pathways (p < 0.05 in UVB-mediated inflammation and formation of sunburn cells. Consequently, we concluded that ACM extract has a photoprotective effect against UVB-induced oxidative stress and inflammation due to its sunscreen property, and its topical formulations may be developed as therapeutic and/or cosmetic products in further studies.

  15. In-vitro regeneration of castor bean (ricinus communis, L) and physic nut (jatropha curcas, L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afful, N. T.

    2008-06-01

    Investigations were conducted on in vitro regeneration of physic nut (Jatropha curcas, 1.) and castor bean (Ricinus communis, 1.) using zygotic embryo culture, shoot tip and meristem culture as well as somatic embryogenesis. Zygotic embryos from different stages of fruit maturity cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with benzylaminopurine (BAP), kinetin and 2-isopentyl (2iP) produced vigorous seedlings with roots. However the optimal concentration of cytokinin for seedling development depended on the type cytokinin as well as the maturity stage of the fruit. Embryos from yellow fruits of Jatropha had the highest germination (100%) on an MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L kinetin or 1 mg/L BAP while in Ricinus embryos from black fruits had the highest percentage germination (97%) on an MS medium modified with I mg/L 2iP or 0.5 or I mg/L BAP. Decrease in embryo viability especially in Jatropha as the seed matured may be due to high oil content in matured (black) fruit. Oil content in both Jatropha and Ricinus increased as the fruit matured from green to black and this may have effect on germination of zygotic embryos. In vitro culture response of shoot tip or meristem was significantly influenced by the concentration of growth regulators in the culture medium as well as the plant species. In both plant species, 2iP resulted in highest percentage shoot regeneration. The optimal concentration of 2iP was 0.5 mg/L for Ricinus shoot tip and 1.5 or 2.0 mg/L for Jatropha, indicating genotypic difference between the species. However excessive callus formation and browning in Ricinus led to the loss of all the regenerants. Shoot regeneration from meristem explants was also influenced by growth regulators with 2iP again being the best. Cultures of cotyledon and leaf lobe explants on MS medium supplemented with 2, 4-D and picloram resulted in callus induction with the exception of cotyledons obtained from black fruits. However transfer of calli onto fresh

  16. Hematological and biochemical changes in rabbits exposed to castor oil (Ricinus communis under experimental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar M. Ahmed

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last few decades there has been an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicine. One such medicinal plant is Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae, which is commonly known as castor. All parts of the plant are important phloem, bark, leaves, flowers, seed and oil. The study was conducted on 15 mature rabbitsof either sex of 1-2 kg body weight and 1-2 years old. The animals were divided into three groups of 5 animals each. Animals of group I were exposed orally to ricin extract at a dose rate of 0.5 mg /kg b.wt. daily for 14 days, while those of group II were exposed orally to aqueous leaves extract 0.5mg /kg b.wt daily for 14 day, mean while those of group III were left as a control group not exposed. The dependent parameters in the study were hemoglobin (Hb concentration, total erythrocytes count, packed cells volume (PCV%, erythrocytes indices mean corpuscular volume (MCV, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, Total and differential leucocytes count (TLC and DLC, in addition to some biochemical tests of blood serum which obtained at day 14th post exposure. The results of the study were revealed that the ricin extract and leaf extract exhibited an effects on hematological pictures as the erythrocytes counts, erythrocytes indices, Hb concentration and PCV% decreased and the obvious effects were in the 14th day. Ricin extract was less effects on many dependent parameters in comparison with aqueous leaf extract. Total leucocytes count, neutrophils % was increased in both ricin and leaf extract, and the increasing were higher in the 7th day in Ricin extract group. The lymphocytes% was decreased. While monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils % did not show any significant changes in all groups. Neutrophil /lymphocyte (N/l, and monocyte /lymphocyte (M/l increased in both exposed groups. Cholesterol (Chol, Triglyceride (TGwere increased, while total protein (TPwas decreased, Albumin (Alb, Cortisol

  17. Metabolite profiling of the oilseed crop Ricinus communis during early seed imbibition reveals a specific metabolic signature in response to temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro de Jesus, P.R.; Willems, L.A.J.; Mudde, E.; Fernandez, L.G.; Castro, de R.D.; Ligterink, W.; Hilhorst, H.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    Seed imbibition is an important process in the plant life cycle and determines whether seed germination and plant growth will be successful or not. Ricinus communis is becoming an important crop for oil production, and therefore, studying the physiological and biochemical aspects of seed imbibition

  18. A comparison of the efficacy of metronidazole vaginal gel and Myrtus (Myrtus communis extract combination and metronidazole vaginal gel alone in the treatment of recurrent bacterial vaginosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoure Masoudi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Due to the high incidence of bacterial vaginosis (BV and its resistance to chemical medications and considering the anti-bacterial and anti-fungal effects of Myrtus communis, the present study aimed to compare the therapeutic effects of the vaginal gel of M. communis 2% (in metronidazole base with metronidazole vaginal gel 0.75% alone on BV.Materials and Methods: This research was a random­ized controlled clinical trial conducted on 80 women of 18-40 years old with BV. Patients were divided into two groups of 40 women. Diagnostic criteria were Amsel's criteria and Gram staining. The first group received vaginal gel of metronidazole plus M. communis 2% and the second group received metronidazole vaginal gel alone for five consecutive nights. Therapeutic effects and Amsel’s criteria were assessed after one week. Finally, the data were analyzed by SPSS 16 using t-test and Chi square tests.Results: There was a significant difference in the therapeutic response between the two groups. The results demonstrated that the combination of metronidazole and M. communis had a higher efficiency (p

  19. Effects of Oganic and Biofertilizers on Growth Indices of Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Amin Ghafori

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Castor plant, Ricinus communis L. is a species of flowering plant in the spurge family; Euphorbiaceae, which contains a vast number of plants mostly native to the tropics. It belongs to a monotypic genus Ricinus. The name Ricinus is a latin word for tick. The plant is probably named because its seed has markings and a dump at the end that resemble certain ticks (NCRI, 2014. Castorbean is an industrial oil seed crop containing about 45-58 percent oil, which has tremendous application in petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, textiles, chemicals, soap, leather, paints, varnishes, ink, nylon and plastic. Castor oil is traditionally associated with medicine and veterinary use in the fields of obstetrics, dermatology. It is also used as laxative. Presently, its utilization as bio-diesel has magnified its importance. Its oil does not freeze even at high altitudes and it is one the best lubricants for jet engines. This 100% castor-based product, has numerous applications in industry such as rotating glass car-wipers, ski boots fixatives, and for use in air-brake systems on trucks. Many new uses, based on the biodegradability of castor oil derived products, are expected in the future (Labalette et al., 1996. The shell of the castor bean is used as an organic termite control agent and its seed cake as manure in the soil. Medicinal plants are valuable resources in a wide range of natural resources that scientific identification, cultivation, development and proper utilization of them can have an important role in community health, employment and non-petrol exports. Quality of medicinal plants is more important than other crops. One of the most important factors determining the yield of castor bean is fertility. Integrated supply of nutrient to plants through combinations of organic and inorganic sources is becoming an increasingly important aspect of environmentally sound agriculture. Reports showed that the application of manure on bean

  20. Cyclic electron flow, NPQ and photorespiration are crucial for the establishment of young plants of Ricinus communis and Jatropha curcas exposed to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima Neto, M C; Cerqueira, J V A; da Cunha, J R; Ribeiro, R V; Silveira, J A G

    2017-07-01

    Although plant physiological responses to drought have been widely studied, the interaction between photoprotection, photorespiration and antioxidant metabolism in water-stressed plants is scarcely addressed. This study aimed to evaluate the physiological adjustments preserving photosynthesis and growth in two plant species with different tolerance to drought: Jatropha curcas and Ricinus communis. We measured stress indicators, gas exchange, photochemistry of PSII and PSI, antioxidant enzymes, cyclic electron flow and photorespiration. Physiological stress indicators associated with reduction in growth confirmed R. communis as sensitive and J. curcas as tolerant to drought. Drought induced loss of photosynthesis in R. communis, whereas J. curcas maintained higher leaf gas exchange and photochemistry under drought. In addition, J. curcas showed higher dissipation of excess energy and presented higher cyclic electron flow when exposed to drought. Although none of these mechanisms have been triggered in R. communis, this species showed increases in photorespiration. R. communis displayed loss of Rubisco content while the Rubisco relative abundance did not change in J. curcas under drought. Accordingly, the in vivo maximum Rubisco carboxylation rate (V cmax ) and the maximum photosynthetic electron transport rate driving RuBP regeneration (J max ) were less affected in J. curcas. Both species displayed an efficient antioxidant mechanism by increasing activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Overall, we suggest that the modulation of different photoprotective mechanisms is crucial to mitigate the effects caused by excess energy, maintaining photosynthetic apparatus efficiency and promoting the establishment of young plants of these two species under drought. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. Some tests for parameter constancy in cointegrated VAR-models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Johansen, Søren

    1999-01-01

    Some methods for the evaluation of parameter constancy in vector autoregressive (VAR) models are discussed. Two different ways of re-estimating the VAR model are proposed; one in which all parameters are estimated recursively based upon the likelihood function for the first observations, and anot...... be applied to test the constancy of the long-run parameters in the cointegrated VAR-model. All results are illustrated using a model for the term structure of interest rates on US Treasury securities. ......Some methods for the evaluation of parameter constancy in vector autoregressive (VAR) models are discussed. Two different ways of re-estimating the VAR model are proposed; one in which all parameters are estimated recursively based upon the likelihood function for the first observations......, and another in which the cointegrating relations are estimated recursively from a likelihood function, where the short-run parameters have been concentrated out. We suggest graphical procedures based on recursively estimated eigenvalues to evaluate the constancy of the long-run parameters in the model...

  2. EFFECTS OF MONETARY POLICY IN ROMANIA - A VAR APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Popescu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how monetary policy decisions affect inflation and other economic variables is particularly important. In this paper we consider the implications of monetary policy under the inflation targeting regime in Romania, based on an autoregressive vector method including recursive VAR and structural VAR (SVAR. Therefore, we focus on assessing the extent and persistence of monetary policy effects on gross domestic product (GDP, price level, extended monetary aggregate (M3 and exchange rate. The main results of VAR analysis reflect a negative response of consumer price index (CPI, GDP and M3 and positive nominal exchange rate behaviour to a monetary policy shock, and also a limited impact of a short-term interest rate shock in explaining the consumer prices, production and exchange rate fluctuations.

  3. To the issue of increasing efficiency of VAR compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Костянтинівна Поднебенна

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the features of VAR compensation of variable loads. One of the most common non-symmetric non-linear power consumers are welding power sources. Time and duration of the work of these sources vary randomly. To compensate the consumption of reactive power on the basis of consumption data from the three-phase electricity meters is inefficient. Compensation devices power should be calculated taking into account the asymmetrical consumption/generation of reactive power per phase and changing consumption patterns. Thyristor-controlled reactor, thyristor-switched capacitors, hybrid VAR compensators, active compensators (STATCOMs, «dynamic capacitors» can be used as the VAR compensation devices. Thyristor-controlled reactors can provide smooth regulation of reactive power, but they have high weight and size parameters and are additional sources of higher harmonics. Thyristor-switched capacitors provide stepwise adjustment of reactive power and are subject to the current higher harmonics. Hybrid VAR compensators make it possible to isolate capacitors from the higher harmonics and ensure smooth regulation, which is achieved by active filter introduction to the reactive power compensation devices based on thyristor-switched capacitors. However, this increases the cost of a compensator and complicates its control system. STATCOMs provide smooth regulation of reactive power, but they are too expensive.Perspective direction in the development of effective VAR compensation devices is «dynamic capacitor». As a result of a feasibility study the prospects for further research of electrical grids power efficiency through the development of effective devices for VAR compensation have been established

  4. INTOXICAÇÃO EXPERIMENTAL PELAS SEMENTES TRITURADAS DE Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae EM COELHOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito Marilene de Farias

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available As sementes trituradas de Ricinus communis, administradas em doses únicas por sonda intragástrica a coelhos causou graves sintomas de intoxicação com êxito letal nos três coelhos que receberam a dose de 2 g/kg e em um dos quatro que receberam 1 g/kg. Os outros três coelhos que receberam 1g/kg desenvolveram sintomas discretos a moderados e se recuperaram, e os três que receberam 0,5g/kg só mostraram sintomas discretos. O período entre a administração das sementes e a morte ou recuperação variou de 12h47min a 68h08min, e de 3 a 6 dias, respectivamente. Os primeiros sintomas após a administração das sementes, foram observados dentro de cerca 8 horas nos casos letais e nos animais que adoeceram moderadamente, e dentro de cerca 24 horas nos casos com sintomatogia discreta. A evolução da intoxicação variou de 4 a 56 horas nos casos letais e de 2 a 5 meio dias nos casos de recuperação. A sintomatologia consistiu principalmente de perturbações digestivas. Os animais apresentaram inapetência até anorexia. As fezes geralmente eram escassas, com forma e tamanho das síbalas alteradas, eram escuras, às vezes pastosas, com muco. Havia nítidas manifestações de cólica. Os achados de necropsia mais evidentes foram constatados no intestino delgado e ceco. O conteúdo destes segmentos do intestino era líquido. A parede do intestino delgado apresentou congestão e edema e havia fibrina recobrindo a mucosa sob forma de pseudomembranas, ou na luz intestinal sob forma de flocos e/ou filamentos. No ceco havia edema da mucosa como também congestão da parede e fibrina aderida à mucosa ou encontrada em flocos e/ou filamentos no conteúdo. As alterações histológicas mais importantes foram verificadas no intestino delgado e ceco. No intestino delgado observou-se necrose de coagulação associada a congestão/hemorragias na mucosa. Havia ainda congestão/hemorragias e edema na submucosa. Lesões semelhantes foram vistas no ceco onde

  5. Intercropping for Management of Insect Pests of Castor, Ricinus communis, in the Semi—Arid Tropics of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa Rao, M.; Venkateswarlu, B.

    2012-01-01

    Intercropping is one of the important cultural practices in pest management and is based on the principle of reducing insect pests by increasing the diversity of an ecosystem. On—farm experiments were conducted in villages of semi—arid tropical (SAT) India to identify the appropriate combination of castor (Ricinus communis L.) (Malpighiales: Euphorbiaceae) and intercropping in relation to pest incidence. The diversity created by introducing cluster bean, cowpea, black gram, or groundnut as intercrops in castor (1:2 ratio proportions) resulted in reduction of incidence of insect pests, namely semilooper (Achaea janata L.), leaf hopper (Empoasca flavescens Fabricius), and shoot and capsule borer (Conogethes punctiferalis Guenee). A buildup of natural enemies (Microplitis, coccinellids, and spiders) of the major pests of castor was also observed in these intercropping systems and resulted in the reduction of insect pests. Further, these systems were more efficient agronomically and economically, and were thus more profitable than a castor monocrop. PMID:22934569

  6. Studying the antibacterial effects of some phytochemical compounds isolated from Origanum syriacum, Thymus syriacus and Myrtus communis on some bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almariri, I.; Swied, G.; Oda, A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The Origanum Syriacum, Thymus syriacus and Myrtus communis leaves samples were collected. Essential oils (EO) extractions were done by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus. GC-FID was used to analyze the essential oils and GC-MS was used to confirm the identities of the isolated components. Preparative HPLC technique was used to separate and isolate the oils main components. The bulk EO and the separated components were tested for their antibacterial activities against Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumonia, Yersinia enterocolitica O9, Brucella melitensis, Proteus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes and Bacillus cereus using broth microdilution method. The results confirm that the EOs and some of its components exhibited significant bactericidal activity. (author)

  7. New prediction for the direct CP-violating parameter var-epsilon prime/var-epsilon and the ΔI=1/2 rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Yue-Liang

    2001-01-01

    The low-energy dynamics of QCD is investigated with special attention paid to the matching between QCD and chiral perturbation theory (ChPT), and also to some useful algebraic chiral operator relations which survive even when we include chiral loop corrections. It then allows us to evaluate the hadronic matrix elements below the energy scale Λ χ ≅1GeV. Based on the new analyses, we present a consistent prediction for both the direct CP-violating parameter var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon and the ΔI=1/2 rule in kaon decays. In the leading 1/N c approximation, the isospin amplitudes A 0 and A 2 are found to agree well with the data, and the direct CP-violating parameter var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon is predicted to be large, which also confirms our earlier conclusion. Its numerical value is var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon=23.6 -7.8 +12.4 x10 -4 (Imλ t /= 1.2x10 -4 ) which is no longer sensitive to the strange quark mass due to the matching conditions. Taking into account a simultaneous consistent analysis on the isospin amplitudes A 0 and A 2 , the ratio var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon is in favor of the values var-epsilonprime/var-epsilon=(20±9)x10 -4

  8. Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia following probiotic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo C. Appel-da-Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are commonly prescribed as an adjuvant in the treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile. We report the case of an immunocompromised 73-year-old patient on chemotherapy who developed Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia in a central venous catheter during treatment of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis with the probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii. Fungemia was resolved after interruption of probiotic administration without the need to replace the central venous line. Keywords: Saccharomyces, Probiotics, Fungemia, Critical illness, Clostridium difficile

  9. Mersin Bitkisi (Myrtus communis L.'nde Farklı Hasat Zamanlarının

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Betül AVCI

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışma Ege Üniversitesi Ziraat Fakültesi Bornova araştırma alanında bulunan Mersin (Myrtus communis L. bitkilerinde farklı hasat zamanlarının uçucu yağ oranlarına etkisini araştırmak amacıyla yürütülmüştür. Araştırmada, Mersin bitkisinden Ekim 2002 tarihinden itibaren bir yıl boyunca her ayın 15'inde ve günün üç farklı saatinde (08:00, 13:00, 18:00 olacak şekilde yapraklı dal örnekleri alınmıştır. Mersin (Myrtus communis L. bitkisinde en yüksek uçucu yağ oranı ortalama % 0.725 ile Temmuz ayında saat 18.00'de yapılan hasatta, en düşük oran ise ortalama % 0.250 ile mart ayında saat 13.00'de yapılan hasatta elde edildiği gözlenmiştir. Yapılan LSD testine göre farklı aylara ve saatlere göre belirlenen uçucu yağ değerleri arasındaki fark istatistiksel açıdan önemli bulunmuştur.

  10. The Vibrio cholerae var regulon encodes a metallo-β-lactamase and an antibiotic efflux pump, which are regulated by VarR, a LysR-type transcription factor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ting Victor Lin

    Full Text Available The genome sequence of V. cholerae O1 Biovar Eltor strain N16961 has revealed a putative antibiotic resistance (var regulon that is predicted to encode a transcriptional activator (VarR, which is divergently transcribed relative to the putative resistance genes for both a metallo-β-lactamase (VarG and an antibiotic efflux-pump (VarABCDEF. We sought to test whether these genes could confer antibiotic resistance and are organised as a regulon under the control of VarR. VarG was overexpressed and purified and shown to have β-lactamase activity against penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems, having the highest activity against meropenem. The expression of VarABCDEF in the Escherichia coli (ΔacrAB strain KAM3 conferred resistance to a range of drugs, but most significant resistance was to the macrolide spiramycin. A gel-shift analysis was used to determine if VarR bound to the promoter regions of the resistance genes. Consistent with the regulation of these resistance genes, VarR binds to three distinct intergenic regions, varRG, varGA and varBC located upstream and adjacent to varG, varA and varC, respectively. VarR can act as a repressor at the varRG promoter region; whilst this repression was relieved upon addition of β-lactams, these did not dissociate the VarR/varRG-DNA complex, indicating that the de-repression of varR by β-lactams is indirect. Considering that the genomic arrangement of VarR-VarG is strikingly similar to that of AmpR-AmpC system, it is possible that V. cholerae has evolved a system for resistance to the newer β-lactams that would prove more beneficial to the bacterium in light of current selective pressures.

  11. 21 CFR 173.145 - Alpha-Galactosidase derived from Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer. 173.145 Section 173.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... Alpha-Galactosidase derived from Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer. The food additive alpha-galactosidase and parent mycelial microorganism Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer may be safely used...

  12. El patrimonio vegetal en los Arribes del Duero zamoranos: las formaciones de enebral Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. badia (H. Gay Debeaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Marino Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el patrimonio vegetal de los Arribes del Duero zamoranos, en concreto, las diferentes formaciones que componen el tapiz vegetal, empleando una metodología que combina el trabajo de campo (inventarios de vegetación, encuestas, localización y delimitación vía GPS y cartografía in situ , la fotointerpretación y la implementación de un Sistema de Información Geográfica. De todas las comunidades del paisaje vegetal sobresalen, por su singularidad, los enebrales de Juni - perus oxycedrus L. subsp. badia (H. Gay Debeaux, por cuanto que configuran inusuales masas muy densas y de porte arbóreo. Se trata, en efecto, de verdaderas manchas boscosas situadas en Cozcurrita y Mámoles (municipio de Fariza, que ocupan una superficie de 42,9 ha acompañadas de masas arborescentes en clara expansión colonizadora (252 ha, merced a la tendencia xerotér - mica del clima y el abandono de las actividades agrosilvopastoriles tradicionales. En definitiva, los Arribes del Duero zamoranos disponen de un rico patrimonio vegetal que se concreta en 4 hábitats forestales de interés comunitario que abarcan una extensión de 1.795 ha, la cual repre- senta el 30,1% del territorio. De esta categoría quedan fuera los enebrales de Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. badia , incluidos, sin embargo, en el tipo 5210 de matorrales arborescentes de Juniperus spp., pese a tratarse de bosques de alto valor natural y cultural.

  13. On the detection of thermohygrometric differences of Juniperus turbinata habitat between north and south faces in the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salva-Catarineu, Montserrat; Salvador-Franch, Ferran; Lopez-Bustins, Joan A.; Padrón-Padrón, Pedro A.; Cortés-Lucas, Amparo

    2016-04-01

    The current extent of Juniperus turbinata in the island of El Hierro is very small due to heavy exploitation for centuries. The recovery of its natural habitat has such a high environmental and scenic interest since this is a protected species in Europe. The study of the environmental factors that help or limit its recovery is indispensable. Our research project (JUNITUR) studied the populations of juniper woodlands in El Hierro from different environments. These environments are mainly determined by their altitude and exposure to north-easterly trade winds. The main objective of this study was to compare the thermohygrometric conditions of three juniper woodlands: La Dehesa (north-west face at 528 m a.s.l.), El Julan (south face at 996 m a.s.l.) and Sabinosa (north face at 258 m a.s.l.). They are located at different altitude and orientation in El Hierro and present different recovery rates. We used air sensor data loggers fixed to tree branches for recording hourly temperature and humidity data in the three study areas. We analysed daily data of three annual cycles (from September 2012 to August 2015). Similar thermohygrometric annual cycles among the three study areas were observed. We detected the largest differences in winter temperature and summer humidity between the north (to windward) (Sabinosa and La Dehesa) and south (to leeward) (El Julan) faces of the island. The juniper woodland with a highest recovery rate (El Julan) showed the most extreme temperature conditions in both winter and summer seasons. The results of this project might contribute to the knowledge of the juniper bioclimatology in El Hierro, where there is the biggest population of Juniperus turbinata throughout the Canary Islands.

  14. Morphological and genetic differences between Coptis japonica var. anemonifolia H. Ohba and Coptis japonica var. major Satake in Hokuriku area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Masashi; Ando, Hirokazu; Sasaki, Yohei

    2018-03-01

    Coptis japonica is widely distributed in Japan, and its dried rhizome is a source of the domestic herbal medicine Coptidis Rhizoma ( Oren). There are three varieties of C. japonica, two of which, namely, C. japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major, are important as sources of traditional medicines. Coptis japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major are distinguishable on the basis of their ternate or biternate compound leaves, respectively. In the Hokuriku area, where both C. japonica var. anemonifolia and C. japonica var. major grow naturally, some individual plants cannot be identified unambiguously on the basis of leaf morphology because changes in leaf morphology may occur due to intra-variety variation or crossbreeding between the two varieties. In addition, genetic differences between the two varieties have remained unclear. In this study, we employed new genetic and morphological classification approaches to discriminate between the two varieties. Based on the single nucleotide polymorphisms of the tetrahydroberberine oxidase gene, we found four conserved SNPs between the two varieties and were able to classify C. japonica into two varieties and crossbreeds. Furthermore, we introduced a new leaf type index based on the overall degree of leaflet dissection calculated by surface area of a leaflet and length of leaflet margin and petiolule. Using our new index we were able to discriminate between the two varieties and their crossbreeds more accurately than is possible with the conventional discrimination method. Our genetic and morphological classification methods may be used as novel benchmarks to discriminate between the two varieties and their crossbreeds.

  15. Ochratoxin A production by strains of Aspergillus niger var. niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarca, M L; Bragulat, M R; Castellá, G; Cabañes, F J

    1994-01-01

    In a survey of the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OA)-positive strains isolated from feedstuffs, two of the 19 isolates of Aspergillus niger var. niger that were studied produced OA in 2% yeast extract-15% sucrose broth and in corn cultures. This is the first report of production of OA by this species. PMID:8074536

  16. Micropropagation of Caralluma stalagmifera var. longipetala : A rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An efficient in vitro protocol has been developed for the multiplication of shoots and conservation of a rare succulent medicinal plant Caralluma stalagmifera var. longipetala growing wildly in Karnataka State. Proliferation of multiple shoots was achieved on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with various ...

  17. Chemical composition of essential oil of Psidium cattleianum var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the essential oil composition of Psidium cattleianum var. lucidum from South Africa. The essential oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and the components were identified by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to determine the chemical composition of the ...

  18. Testing for Granger causality in large mixed-frequency VARs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Götz, T.B.; Hecq, A.W.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we analyze Granger causality testing in a mixed-frequency VAR, originally proposed by Ghysels (2012), where the difference in sampling frequencies of the variables is large. In particular, we investigate whether past information on a low-frequency variable help in forecasting a

  19. Impacts of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis and Bacillus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study assessed the impact of bio-larvicides- Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bti) and B. sphaericus (Bs) on anopheline mosquito larval densities in four selected areas of Lusaka urban district. Larval densities were determined using a standard WHO protocol at each study area prior to and after larviciding.

  20. The identity of zostera marina var. angustifolia Hornemann (Potamogetonaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den C.

    1972-01-01

    Since Hornemann (Fl. Dan. 9, 1816, p. 3, pl. 1501) published the name Zostera marina var. angustifolia together with a very poor drawing and the extremely short diagnosis ‘foliis subenerviis’ several interpretations of the identity of this taxon have been given. Some authors regarded it as a

  1. A Bootstrap Cointegration Rank Test for Panels of VAR Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callot, Laurent

    functions of the individual Cointegrated VARs (CVAR) models. A bootstrap based procedure is used to compute empirical distributions of the trace test statistics for these individual models. From these empirical distributions two panel trace test statistics are constructed. The satisfying small sample...

  2. Local cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) populations from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In previous experiments, we were able to augment cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) with two new local open pollinated (OP) populations and one cultivar. The type of use indicated that these are cabbages with thinner and juicier leaves, which predisposes their heads for fine grating and also makes their ...

  3. Fiscal developments and financial stress: a threshold VAR analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Afonso, A.; Baxa, Jaromír; Slavík, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2011, č. 1319 (2011), s. 1-60 ISSN 1725-2806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : fiscal policy * financial markets * threshold VAR Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/E/baxa-0364091.pdf

  4. Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie (Combretaceae ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anogeissus sericea var. nummalaria King ex Duthie (Combretaceae) is moderate sized multipurpose hard wood tree of dry deciduous forests with drooping branches and yellow to brownish-yellow flowers. it is endemic to Rajasthan and is considered to be a threatened tree of the region due to over exploitation for timber ...

  5. Fast Responding Voltage Regulator and Dynamic VAR Compensator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divan, Deepak [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Moghe, Rohit [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States); Tholomier, Damien [Varentec, Incorporated, San Jose, CA (United States)

    2014-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to develop a dynamic VAR compensator (DVC) for voltage regulation through VAR support to demonstrate the ability to achieve greater levels of voltage control on electricity distribution networks, and faster response compared to existing grid technology. The goal of the project was to develop a prototype Fast Dynamic VAR Compensator (Fast DVC) hardware device, and this was achieved. In addition to developing the dynamic VAR compensator device, Varentec in partnership with researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) successfully met the objectives to model the potential positive impact of such DVCs on representative power networks. This modeling activity validated the ability of distributed dynamic VAR compensators to provide fast voltage regulation and reactive power control required to respond to grid disturbances under high penetration of fluctuating and intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs) through extensive simulation studies. Specifically the following tasks were set to be accomplished: 1) Development of dynamic VAR compensator to support dynamic voltage variations on the grid through VAR control 2) Extensive testing of the DVC in the lab environment 3) Present the operational DVC device to the DOE at Varentec’s lab 4) Formulation of a detailed specification sheet, unit assembly document, test setup document, unit bring-up plan, and test plan 5) Extensive simulations of the DVC in a system with high PV penetration. Understanding the operation with many DVC on a single distribution system 6) Creation and submittal of quarterly and final reports conveying the design documents, unit performance data, modeling simulation charts and diagrams, and summary explanations of the satisfaction of program goals. This report details the various efforts that led to the development of the Fast DVC as well as the modeling & simulation results. The report begins with the introduction in Section II which outlines the

  6. Chemopreventive and Anticancer Activities of Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Min Jeong; Park, Hee-Juhn; Chung, Won-Yoon; Kim, Ki-Rim; Park, Kwang-Kyun

    2014-09-01

    Allium victorialis var. platyphyllum is an edible perennial herb and has been used as a vegetable or as a Korean traditional medicine. Allium species have received much attention owing to their diverse pharmacological properties, including antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. However, A. victorialis var. platyphyllum needs more study. The chemopreventive potential of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum methanol extracts was examined by measuring 12-O-tetra-decanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA)-induced superoxide anion production in the differentiated HL-60 cells, TPA-induced mouse ear edema, and Ames/Salmonella mutagenicity. The apoptosis-inducing capabilities of the extracts were evaluated by the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, and the DNA fragmentation assay in human colon cancer HT-29 cells. Antimetastatic activities of the extracts were also investigated in an experimental mouse lung metastasis model. The methanol extracts of A. victorialis var. platyphyllum rhizome (AVP-R) and A. victorialis var. platyphyllum stem (AVP-S) dose-dependently inhibited the TPA-induced generation of superoxide anion in HL-60 cells and TPA-induced ear edema in mice, as well as 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BOOH) -induced bacterial mutagenesis. AVP-R and AVP-S reduced cell viability in a dose-related manner and induced apoptotic morphological changes and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in HT-29 cells. In the experimental mouse lung metastasis model, the formation of tumor nodules in lung tissue was significantly inhibited by the treatment of the extracts. AVP-R and AVP-S possess antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, proapoptotic, and antimetastatic activities. Therefore, these extracts can serve as a beneficial supplement for the prevention and treatment of cancer.

  7. Amanitin and phallotoxin concentration in Amanita phalloides var. alba mushroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Ertugrul; Yilmaz, Ismail; Sinirlioglu, Zeynep Aydin; Karahan, Selim; Bayram, Recep; Yaykasli, Kursat Oguz; Colakoglu, Serdar; Saritas, Ayhan; Severoglu, Zeki

    2013-12-15

    Although rarely seen, Amanita phalloides var. alba, a variety of A. phalloides type mushrooms, causes mushroom poisoning resulting in death. Since it is frequently confused with some edible mushrooms due to its white colored cap and macroscopic appearance, it becomes important in toxicological terms. Knowledge of the toxin amount contained in this mushroom type is invaluable in the treatment of cases involving poisoning. In this study, we examined the toxin levels of various parts of the A. phalloides var. alba mushroom growing Duzce region of Turkey. Toxin analyses were carried out for A. phalloides var. alba, which were collected from the forests Duzce region of Turkey in 2011, as a whole and also separately in its spore, pileus, gills, stipe and volva parts. The alpha amanitin, beta amanitin, gamma amanitin, phalloidin and phallacidine analyses of the mushrooms were carried out using the RP-HPLC method. A genetic analysis of the mushroom showed that it had similar genetic characteristics as A. phalloides and was a variety of it. The lowest toxins quantity was detected in spores, volva and stipe among all parts of the mushroom. The maximum amount of amatoxins was measured in the gills. The pileus also contained a high amount of amatoxins. Generally, amatoxins and phallotoxin concentrations were lower as compared to A. phalloides, but interestingly all toxins other than gamma toxin were higher in the spores of A. phalloides var. alba. The amount of toxin in all of its parts had sufficient concentrations to cause death. With this study, the amatoxin and phallotoxin concentrations in A. phalloides var. alba mushroom and in its parts have been revealed in detail for the first time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A comprehensive market-based scheme for VAR management and pricing in the electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Araby, E.E. [Qassim Univ., Alqassim, Meldia (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    In order to enable a power system to operate within an acceptable degree of reliability and security, the provision of VAR ancillary services from the VAR sources in electricity markets is the most effective method. The procurement of VAR services is particularly problematic for transmission operators as it relates to pricing mechanism and various technical issues during system operation. This paper proposed an integrated market-based approach for pricing VAR service in the electricity market. The paper was an extension of the authors' proposal for the provision of the VAR service from dynamic VAR sources in a competitive market-based environment. The formulation was modified to include VAR utilization payment and possible power system transition states multiple base cases and contingencies with their associated occurrence probabilities. The paper discussed the basic terms of the proposed approach including the VAR market objective and generator VAR output and its compensation. The mathematical formulation that considered VAR capacity payment, utilization payment and operating costs under the previous transition states in a unified single problem were introduced. The overall problem formulation and solution algorithm were also presented as a large-scale mixed integer nonlinear optimization problem. It was concluded that the proposed method was suited for the simulation and analysis of the existing VAR market. 8 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs., 2 appendices.

  9. Castor (Ricinus communis L. and Pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. Growth Indices in Terms of Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    naser jafarzadeh

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Growth analysis has been widely used in breeding programs to identify the important plant developmental phases and components related to higher yield under a particular set of environmental conditions. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L. is an important commercial crop. Castor oil based by products is used in manufacturing of several commercially important commodities like surfactants, coatings, greases, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, polyesters, polymers, etc. Interference (Interactive effects among species on inter-species populations is one of the main issues on the eco-physiology of plant populations where weeds impose negative effects by approaching the plant to compete in light, water and nutrient elements availability and results in reduced growth and yield (Shinggu et al., 2011. Growth indices are useful for interpreting plant reactions to the crop and weed density. Various reasons have been attributed for the low productivity among the most important is weed competition (Radosevich, 1987. The aim of the present experiment was evaluating the interference effects of redroot pigweed on growth indices of castor bean in northwest of Iran. Materials and methods This experiment was conducted in Urmia, Iran (Agricultural Research of West Azarbayjan, Saatlo Station (37°44´18״ N Latitude and 45° 10´ 53״ E Longitude, at 1338 m above sea level in 2012. The soil of the experimental field was sandy - loam, with pH of 7.2. Competitive pattern of experiment was in two-factor based on a randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications arranged in four castor plant densities (3, 4, 5 and 6 plants.m-2 and four redroot pigweed densities (0, 5, 10 and 15 plants.m-2. Redroot pigweed and castor seeds were simultaneously directly planted on the 22th May in 2012. Redroot pigweed plants were weeded at the times related to the treatments level. Irrigation and intercultural operations were performed whenever necessary. Plots were 3m×5m

  10. Jatropha curcas and Ricinus communis differentially affect arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi diversity in soil when cultivated for biofuel production in a Guantanamo (Cuba) tropical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alguacil, M. M.; Torrecillas, E.; Hernández, G.; Torres, P.; Roldán, A.

    2012-04-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are a key, integral component of the stability, sustainability and functioning of ecosystems. In this study, we characterised the AMF biodiversity in a control soil and in a soil cultivated with Jatropha curcas or Ricinus communis, in a tropical system in Guantanamo (Cuba), in order to verify if a change of land use to biofuel plant production had any effect on the AMF communities. We also asses whether some soil properties related with the soil fertility (total N, Organic C, microbial biomass C, aggregate stability percentage, pH and electrical conductivity) were changed with the cultivation of both crop species. The AM fungal small sub-unit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty AM fungal sequence types were identified: 19 belong to the Glomeraceae and one to the Paraglomeraceae. Two AMF sequence types related to cultured AMF species (Glo G3 for Glomus sinuosum and Glo G6 for Glomus intraradices-G. fasciculatum-G. irregulare) disappeared in the soil cultivated with J. curcas and R. communis. The soil properties (total N, Organic C and microbial biomass C) were improved by the cultivation of the two plant species. The diversity of the AMF community decreased in the soil of both crops, with respect to the control soil, and varied significantly depending on the crop species planted. Thus, R. communis soil showed higher AMF diversity than J. curcas soil. In conclusion, R. communis could be more suitable in long-term conservation and sustainable management of these tropical ecosystems.

  11. Influence of processing on the quality of pomaceas juice (Pyrus communis and Malus domestica) - doi: 10.4025/actasciagron.v35i1.15360

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha, Andressa Schaia; Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa; Zielinski, Acácio Antonio Ferreira; Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa; Ávila, Suelen; Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa; Nogueira, Alessandro; Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa; Wosiacki, Gilvan; Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa

    2012-01-01

    Pear (Pyrus communis), which is intensively cultivated in subtropical and temperate climates, has recently attained the 3rd position in the world fruit ranking, just after apple and peach. This fruit exhibits certain similarities to apple with respect to the pulp, but pear is used as a raw material only when apple is no longer available, which suggests that the same technology line may be utilized. Both fruits do have processing compatibilities, and it is permissible to add pear juice to appl...

  12. EFEITO FUNGITÓXICO DO ÓLEO DE NIM SOBRE Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum e Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álison Bruno da Silva Santos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Plague control is based almost exclusively on application of chemical substances, however these products are toxic to men and animals and cause odd effects on environment quality. In Plague Integrated Management (PIM, the use of selected insecticides and entomopathogenic fungi should be considered as one viable strategy for plague control in agriculture. This work aimed to evaluate, in laboratory, the compatibility of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum and Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae with the oil of Nim. The addition of the product was made to the potato-dextrose-agar medium still liquid (±45°C, in a way that the final concentration obeyed 50% of the producer's recommendation. After fungi inoculation, the dishes were incubated in a cimatized room at 28°C, photophase of 12 hours and relative humidity of 75±5% for 12 day period. The number of conidia per colonie was counted with a Neubauer chamber. Statistic delineament was entirely in random, with two treatments (PDA with insecticide, and a control group (PDA without insecticide, and 9 repetitions for each treatment. The results showed that the insecticide inhibited conidial production in Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae strains when compared to the control group. The diameter of Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum colonies suffered significative reduction in its size, compared to control. The tested insecticide, in the concentration and formulation used, presented compatibility with the tested strains.

  13. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jahangir, M.; Abdel-Farid, I.B.; Vos, de C.H.R.; Jonker, H.H.; Choi, Y.H.; Verpoorte, R.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids,

  14. Can reported VaR be used as an indicator of the volatility of share prices? Evidence from UK banks.

    OpenAIRE

    Ou, Shian Kao

    2006-01-01

    Value at Risk (VaR) is used as an indicator to measure the risks contained in a firm. With the uprising development of VaR theory and computational techniques, the VaR is nowadays adopted by banks and reported in annual reports. Since the method to calculate VaR is questioned, and the reported VaR can not be thoroughly audited, this paper attempts to find the relationship between the reported VaR and the volatility of share price for UK listed banks. This paper reviews literature about VaR an...

  15. Balanço energético para a produção de biodiesel pela cultura da mamona (Ricinus communis L. Energy balance for biodiesel production by the castor bean crop (Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Glauber Chechetto

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A cultura da mamona (Ricinus communis L. adquiriu prestígio ao interesse da indústria pela qualidade de seu óleo e, recentemente, pela busca de novas fontes de energias. O experimento que serviu como base para os dados utilizados nesse trabalho foi realizado na Fazenda Experimental Lageado, FCA - UNESP, no município de Botucatu - SP, no ano de 2008. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade energética da cultura através do balanço e da eficiência energética, desde a implantação até a produção de biodiesel, utilizando parâmetros de consumo operacional no manejo para instalação e manutenção da cultura, colheita e processamento de óleo. As operações de manejo de solo, semeadura e colheita consumiramo total de 266,20 MJ ha-1, que juntamente com fertilizantes, agrotóxicos, combustíveis e lubrificantes, mão-de-obra, sementes e processamento industrial totalizaram uma entrada de energia de 56.808,10 MJ ha-1. A produção de energia foi de 72.814,00 MJ ha-1. O setor ainda carece de estudos que contribuiriam para o levantamento de dados e coeficientes energéticos mais específicos. A cultura da mamona foi considerada eficiente, permitindo ganho de 15.983,44 MJ ha-1, equivalente a aproximadamente 415 L de óleo diesel.The castor bean crop (Ricinus communis L. has acquired prestige due to industries interest in the oil quality and recently for new sources of energy demand. The experiment that served as basis for the data used in this study was conducted at the Lageado Experimental Farm, in Botucatu - SP, 2008. This study aimed to avaluate the crop viability through energy balance and energy efficiency since the implantation until biodiesel production using parameters of consumption in operational management for installation and maintenance of culture harvest and oil production. The soil management operations, sow and harvest consumed the total of 266.20 MJ ha-1, gathering with the fertilizers, pesticides, fuels

  16. Foco de leishmaniasis en El Hobo, municipio de El Carmen de Bolívar, Bolívar, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Alberto Cortés

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Se describen las características epidemiológica e importancia de la especies de Lutzomyia presentes en un foco de leishmaniasis en la vereda El Hobo Carmen de Bolívar, departamento de Bolívar. Objetivos. Obtener un conocimiento preliminar de la transmisión de leishmaniasis en la vereda El Hobo Carmen de Bolívar. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron datos epidemiológicos y se realizaron capturas de flebótomos con trampas CDC y cebo humano en la vereda El Hobo. Para establecer la sero prevalencia de leishmaniasis visceral canina se hizo un estudio en perros mediante la técnica de inmunofluorescencia indirecta. Resultados. Se capturaron nueve especies de Lutzomyia: L. trinidadensis, L. evansi, L .cayennensis, L. venezuelensis, L. gomezi,L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, y L. walkeri. Las especie de mayor importancia por sus implicaciones en la transmisión de leishmaniasis cutánea y visceral fueron L. gomezi, y L. evansi respectivamente. Se reporta por primera vez para Bolívar especimenes de L. venezuelensis, L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, y L. walkeri. Se determinó una prevalencia de leishmaniasis visceral del 36% en los caninos estudiados. Según los reportes epidemiológicos, en el 2002 en el municipio de Carmen de Bolívar la leishmaniasis cutánea mostró un aumento del 40% y la leishmaniasis visceral canina del 80% de los casos con respecto al 2001, debido al brote presentado en la vereda El Hobo Conclusiones. Los resultados determinan a la vereda El Hobo como una zona de riesgo potencial de transmisión de leishmaniasis cutánea y visceral.

  17. Effects of Myrtus communis leaves decoction on biochemical and hematological disorders induced by Cypermethrin-chronic toxicity in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelkrim Berroukche

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uncontrolled and an excessive uses of insecticides, in agriculture, will expose the human and animal health to a high risk of chemical toxicity. Objective: This study aimed to assess Myrtus communis (MC effects against the toxicity induced by the Cypermethrin (CYP in Wistar rat. Methods : The experimental period was 30 days, carried out on 50 rats, divided into 5 groups; group I (controls, group II orally administered with 20 mg / kg of CYP ( < 1/10 LD50 dissolved in corn oil (CO, a group III orally administered with CYP and treated with 1 mL of MC leaves decoction (50 g /L, a group IV receiving 1 mL MC and a group V received 1 mL CO. Results : A decrease in mean body weight was observed in group II (178 g compared to group III (190.66 g. Biochemical parameters were insignificant. Mean blood glucose and urea levels were respectively 0.94 ± 0.03 and 0.65 ± 0.06 g / L (group II and 0.72 ± 0.06 and 0.68 ± 0.05 g / L (group III. Furthermore, liver transaminase activities as GPT was 93 ± 38.7 (group II and 36.6 ± 8.0 IU / L (group III but GOT and ALP were respectively 188.3 ± 55.1 and 73.3 ± 47.7 (II and 210.3 ± 33.8 and 207 ± 5.1 IU / L (III. The hematological parameters (blood cells and Hb were respectively 6.16 ± 0.26 ×105 / mm3 and 13.52 ± 2.9 g / dL( II and 7.37 ± 0.41×105 / mm3 and 14.14 ± 0.87 g / dL (III. Conclusion: The medicinal plant Myrtus communis showed limited and partial beneficial effects against Cypermethrine negative effects in animal model. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(4.000: 385-390

  18. Identification of the relationship between Chinese Adiantum reniforme var. sinense and Canary Adiantum reniforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ye; Schneider, Harald; Zhai, Jun-Wen; Liu, Dong-Ming; Zhou, Jin-Song; Xing, Fu-Wu; Chen, Hong-Feng; Wang, Fa-Guo

    2015-02-05

    There are different opinions about the relationship of two disjunctively distributed varieties Adiantum reniforme L. var. sinense Y.X.Lin and Adiantum reniforme L. Adiantum reniforme var. sinense is an endangered fern only distributed in a narrowed region of Chongqing city in China, while Adiantum reniforme var. reniforme just distributed in Canary Islands and Madeira off the north-western African coast. To verify the relationship of these two taxa, relative phylogenetic analyses, karyotype analyses, microscopic spore observations and morphological studies were performed in this study. Besides, divergence time between A. reniforme var. sinense and A. reniforme var. reniforme was estimated using GTR model according to a phylogeny tree constructed with the three cpDNA markers atpA, atpB, and rbcL. Phylogenetic results and divergence time analyses--all individuals of A. reniforme var. sinense from 4 different populations (representing all biogeographic distributions) were clustered into one clade and all individuals of A. reniforme var. reniforme from 7 different populations (all biogeographic distributions are included) were clustered into another clade. The divergence between A. reniforme var. reniforme and A. reniforme var. sinense was estimated to be 4.94 (2.26-8.66) Myr. Based on karyotype analyses, A. reniforme var. reniforme was deduced to be hexaploidy with 2n = 180, X = 30, while A. reniforme var. sinense was known as tetraploidy. Microscopic spore observations suggested that surface ornamentation of A. reniforme var. reniforme is psilate, but that of A. reniforme var. sinense is rugate. Leaf blades of A. reniforme var. sinense are membranous and reniform and with several obvious concentric rings, and leaves of A. reniforme var. reniforme are pachyphyllous and coriaceous and are much rounder and similar to palm. Adiantum reniforme var. sinense is an independent species rather than the variety of Adiantum reniforme var. reniforme. As a result, we

  19. Caracterización morfológica y agroproductiva de procedencias de Ricinus communis L. para la producción de aceite Morphological and agroproductive characterization of Ricinus communis L. provenances for oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Machado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar dos procedencias introducidas desde Suramérica (Planta-2 y Planta-3 y tres colectadas en Cuba (SSCS-5, Colón-1 y Las Tunas, de Ricinus communis L. Para ello se consideraron indicadores morfológicos y agroproductivos. Se utilizaron parcelas de 40 m² (área vital, con diez plantas. El diseño fue totalmente aleatorizado y los datos se analizaron a partir de estadígrafos descriptivos. Planta-2 alcanzó la mayor velocidad de crecimiento (2,98 cm/día y, a los 17 meses, fue superior en cuanto a: el grosor del tallo (17,5 cm; el número de ramas primarias (45, secundarias (41 y terciarias (20; y el grosor de las ramas primarias (5,9 cm. SSCS-5, Colón-1 y Las Tunas mostraron racimos más largos, con un mayor número de frutos; pero fueron superadas por Planta-3 y Planta-2 en el peso de los frutos por racimo (134,9 y 139,0 g, respectivamente, con frutos y semillas más grandes. Las lesiones producidas por insectos y el grado de infestación por microorganismos patógenos no fueron representativos. El mayor rendimiento de semilla (95,1 kg, el de frutos por planta (5,28 kg y por área (4 398 kg/ha y el estimado de aceite por unidad de área (1 130,2 kg/ha se detectaron en Planta-2. Se concluye que estas procedencias poseen características morfoproductivas que las diferencian, y mostraron particularidades relevantes para la producción de aceite, el cual se destina no solo a la producción de biodiesel, sino a múltiples usos a partir de sus derivados. Se recomienda profundizar en estudios sobre la fitotecnia de R. communis, de forma particular en Planta-2; así como introducir tipos medianos que faciliten su cosecha.The objective of this work was to characterize two provenances introduced from South America (Planta-2 and Planta-3 and three provenances collected in Cuba (SSCS-5, Colón-1 and Las Tunas, of Ricinus communis L. For such purpose, morphological and agroproductive indicators were considered

  20. [Photosynthetic parameters and physiological indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis influenced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Zheng-xin; Guo, Dong-qin; Li, Hai-feng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Nong; Yu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Through potted inoculation test at room temperature and indoor analysis, the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed after 28 arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi were injected into the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis growing in a sterile soil environment. The results showed that AM fungi established a good symbiosis with P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The AM fungi influenced the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the influences were varied depending on different AM fungi. The application of AM fungi improved photosynthesis intensity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis mesophyll cells, the contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar, protective enzyme activity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis leaf, which was beneficial to resist the adverse environment and promote the growth of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Otherwise, there was a certain mutual selectivity between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and AM fungi. From the comprehensive effect of inoculation, Racocetra coralloidea, Scutellospora calospora, Claroideoglomus claroideum, S. pellucida and Rhizophagus clarus were the most suitable AM fungi to P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis when P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was planted in the field.

  1. [Physiological characteristics of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis and Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica seedlings on sandy lands under salt-alkali stresses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Peng; Li, Yu-Ling; Zhang, Bai-xi

    2013-02-01

    For the popularization of Pinus densiflora var. zhangwuensis, a new afforestation tree species on the desertified and salinized-alkalized lands in Northern China, and to evaluate the salinity-alkalinity tolerance of the tree species and to better understand the tolerance mechanisms, a pot experiment with 4-year old P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis and P. sylvestris var. mongolica was conducted to study their seedlings growth and physiological and biochemical indices under the effects of three types salt (NaCl, Na2CO3, and NaHCO3 ) stresses and of alkali (NaOH) stress. Under the salt-alkali stresses, the injury level of P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis was lower, and the root tolerance index was higher. The leaf catalase (CAT) activity increased significantly by 22. 6 times at the most, as compared with the control; the leaf malondialdehyde (MDA) content had no significant increase; the leaf chlorophyll (Chl) content had a smaller decrement; and the leaf water content (LWC) increased slightly. P. sylvestris var. mongolica responded differently to the salt-alkali stresses. Its leaf CAT activity had less change, MDA content increased significantly, Chl content had significant decrease, and LWC decreased slightly. It was suggested that P. densi-flora var. zhangwuensis had a greater salinity-alkalinity tolerance than P. sylvestris var. mongolica. The higher iron concentration in P. densiflora var. zhangwuensis needles enhanced the CAT activity and Chl content, whereas the higher concentrations of zinc and copper were associated with the stronger salinity-alkalinity tolerance.

  2. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusamy, Raman; Lee, Do-Hyung; Park, SeonJoo

    2016-05-01

    The complete chloroplast genome (cpDNA) sequence of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is an economically important traditional Chinese medicine was reported and characterized. The cpDNA of Dianthus superbus var. longicalycinus is 149,539 bp, with 36.3% GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 24,803 bp is separated by a large single-copy region (LSC, 82,805 bp) and a small single-copy region (SSC, 17,128 bp). It encodes 85 protein-coding genes, 36 tRNA genes and 8 rRNA genes. Of 129 individual genes, 13 genes encoded one intron and three genes have two introns.

  3. [Study on quality standard of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shi-Hong; Jiang, Wei-Zhe; Lv, Li; Wu, Ling-Ling; Lv, Cong; Shi, Xiao-Xia; Su, Gui-Liang

    2009-03-01

    To provide scientific basis for the utilization and development of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis by establishing its quality control standard. The bioactive constituents were analyzed by TLC and HPLC. Moisture, ash and the extracts of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis were all determined. The TLC spots of levodopa had similar color with the control group at the same position. The results of HPLC quantitative analysis showed that the linear range of levodopa was 26.45 to approximately 132.25 microg/mL, r = 0.9992, and the average recovery rate was 103.8%, RSD = 1.85%. This method is convenient, accurate, reliable with good reproducibility, so it can be used to establish quality standard for the medicinal material.

  4. BRINE SHRIMP LETHALITY BIOASSAY OF GLAUCIUM GRANDIFLORUM VAR. GRANDIFLORUM

    OpenAIRE

    A. SARI, Ç. ÜNSAL, İ. SARIOĞLU, A. SARI, Ç. ÜNSAL, İ. SARIOĞLU

    2013-01-01

    Türkiye'nin 3 farklı bölgesinden toplanan Glaucium grandiflorum Boiss. et Huet var. grandiflorum örneklerinin toprak üstü kısımlarından elde edilen alkaloit ekstreleri ve bu ekstrelerden elde edilen majör alkaloitler allokriptopin, protopİn, (+)-izokoridin, (+)-korİdin üzerinde brİne shrimp lethality testi yapılarak sitotoksisiteleri İncelenmiştir. Glaucium grandiflorum var. grandiflorum türünün 3 örneği de önemli oranda sitotoksik aktİvite göstermiştir. Allokriptopin, protopin, (+)-izok...

  5. Inflows and their Macroeconomic Impact in India a VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Sethi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study attempts to examine the effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. The study also examines the trends and composition of capital inflows into India. Using the Vector Autoregression (VAR method, this paper specifically examines effects of private foreign capital inflows (FINV on macroeconomic variables in India. This study is based on the monthly data from 1995:04 to 2011:07 and incorporating the macroeconomic variables such as exchange rate (EXR, inflation, money supply (M3, export (EXPO, import (IMP, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX and economic growth (IIP as proxy of GDP. The important observations emerge from the VAR analysis which shows there is dynamic short and long equilibrium relationship between few macroeconomic variables like exchange rate (EXR, foreign exchange reserve (FOREX, index of industrial production (IIP and money supply (M3 with private foreign capital inflows (FINV during the study period from 1995:04 to 2011:07

  6. VaR: Exchange Rate Risk and Jump Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-Ying Chen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating the Poisson jumps and exchange rate risk, this paper provides an analytical VaR to manage market risk of international portfolios over the subprime mortgage crisis. There are some properties in the model. First, different from past studies in portfolios valued only in one currency, this model considers portfolios not only with jumps but also with exchange rate risk, that is vital for investors in highly integrated global financial markets. Second, in general, the analytical VaR solution is more accurate than historical simulations in terms of backtesting and Christoffersen's independence test (1998 for small portfolios and large portfolios. In other words, the proposed model is reliable not only for a portfolio on specific stocks but also for a large portfolio. Third, the model can be regarded as the extension of that of Kupiec (1999 and Chen and Liao (2009.

  7. MANAGEMENT OF Amburana cearensis var. acreana IN ACRE STATE, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evaldo Muñoz Braz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814586This work has as its objectives: a to assess the geographical distribution and population structure of Amburana cearensis var. acreana; b to calculate sustainable cutting rates, according to stipulated cutting cycles, and c to simulate the projected recovery potential in volume based on the calculated cutting rate. It was used data from sustainable forest management plans, and the results will contribute for future decisions about its endangered condition. The results did not corroborate the information that Amburana cearensis var. acreana is endangered in Acre state. However the management sustainability will only be feasible if considered the ideal remaining population structure and the estimative of the optimal cutting rate according to the cutting cycle.

  8. Probiotic Activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii Against Human Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Rajkowska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diarrhoea is associated with a modification of the intestinal microflora and colonization of pathogenic bacteria. Tests were performed for seven probiotic yeast strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, designated for the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea. To check their possible effectiveness against diarrhoea of different etiologies, the activity against a variety of human pathogenic or opportunistic bacteria was investigated in vitro. In mixed cultures with S. cerevisiae var. boulardii, a statistically significant reduction was observed in the number of cells of Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, by even 55.9 % in the case of L. monocytogenes compared with bacterial monocultures. The influence of yeasts was mostly associated with the shortening of the bacterial lag phase duration, more rapid achievement of the maximum growth rates, and a decrease by 4.4–57.1 % (L. monocytogenes, P. aeruginosa, or an increase by 1.4–70.6 % (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Salmonella Typhimurium in the exponential growth rates. Another issue included in the research was the ability of S. cerevisiae var. boulardii to bind pathogenic bacteria to its cell surface. Yeasts have shown binding capacity of E. coli, S. Typhimurium and additionally of S. aureus, Campylobacter jejuni and E. faecalis. However, no adhesion of L. monocytogenes and P. aeruginosa to the yeast cell wall was noted. The probiotic activity of S. cerevisiae var. boulardii against human pathogens is related to a decrease in the number of viable and active cells of bacteria and the binding capacity of yeasts. These processes may limit bacterial invasiveness and prevent bacterial adherence and translocation in the human intestines.

  9. Phytochemical study of the flavonoids of acacia nilotica var astringens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Gazali, N. A.

    2006-08-01

    The barks of acaica nilotica var astringens were extracted with 95% ethanol. Qualitative tests on the alcoholic extractives were negative for alkaloids and positive for steroids, tannins and flavonoids. Fractionation of the alcoholic extract over silica gel using acetone: methanol (4:1) gave a pure compound-compound 1. The structure of compound 1 was deduced on the basis of its IR, UV, NMR and mass spectra and the following structure was suggested.(Author)

  10. Fiscal developments and financial stress: a threshold VAR analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Afonso, A.; Baxa, Jaromír; Slavík, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2018), s. 395-423 ISSN 0377-7332 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G097 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Fiscal policy * Financial markets * Threshold VAR Subject RIV: AH - Economic s OBOR OECD: Applied Economic s, Econometrics Impact factor: 0.645, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2018/E/baxa-0488303.pdf

  11. A Structural VAR Approach to Estimating Budget Balance Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Robert A Buckle; Kunhong Kim; Julie Tam

    2001-01-01

    The Fiscal Responsibility Act 1994 states that, as a principle of responsible fiscal management, a New Zealand government should ensure total Crown debt is at a prudent level by ensuring total operating expenses do not exceed total operating revenues. In this paper a structural VAR model is estimated to evaluate the impact on the government's cash operating surplus (or budget balance) of four independent disturbances: supply, fiscal, real private demand, and nominal disturbances. Based on the...

  12. REDESCUBRIMIENTO DE MYRRHINIUM ATROPURPUREUM VAR. OCTANDRUM (MYRTACEAE: MYRTINAE EN COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PARRA-O. CARLOS

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se documenta el redescubrimiento de Myrrhinium atropurpureum var. octandrum(Myrteae DC., Myrtaceae, taxón prácticamente desconocido en Colombia. Se presentala descripción del taxón, así como notas sobre su distribución en Colombia, elhábitat en que se desarrolla y su posible estatus dentro de las categorías de la ListaRoja de la UICN.

  13. Labor Costs and Foreign Direct Investment: A Panel VAR Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bahar Bayraktar-Sağlam; Selin Sayek Böke

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the endogenous interaction between labor costs and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the OECD countries via the Panel VAR approach under system GMM estimates for the period 1995–2009. The available data allows identifying the relevance of the components of labor costs, and allows a detailed analysis across different sectors. Empirical findings have revealed that sectoral composition of FDI and the decomposition of labor costs play a significant role in investigating the d...

  14. Gene Structures, Evolution and Transcriptional Profiling of the WRKY Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhi; Yang, Lifu; Wang, Danhua; Huang, Qixing; Mo, Yeyong; Xie, Guishui

    2016-01-01

    WRKY proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families in plants and form key regulators of many plant processes. This study presents the characterization of 58 WRKY genes from the castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphorbiaceae) genome. Compared with the automatic genome annotation, one more WRKY-encoding locus was identified and 20 out of the 57 predicted gene models were manually corrected. All RcWRKY genes were shown to contain at least one intron in their coding sequences. According to the structural features of the present WRKY domains, the identified RcWRKY genes were assigned to three previously defined groups (I-III). Although castor bean underwent no recent whole-genome duplication event like physic nut (Jatropha curcas L., Euphorbiaceae), comparative genomics analysis indicated that one gene loss, one intron loss and one recent proximal duplication occurred in the RcWRKY gene family. The expression of all 58 RcWRKY genes was supported by ESTs and/or RNA sequencing reads derived from roots, leaves, flowers, seeds and endosperms. Further global expression profiles with RNA sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. Results obtained from this study not only provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization of the castor bean WRKY genes, but also provide a useful reference to investigate the gene family expansion and evolution in Euphorbiaceus plants.

  15. Truncus arteriosus communis in a midtrimester fetus: Comparison of prenatal ultrasound and MRI with postmortem MRI and autopsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehler, Matthias R.; Lembcke, Alexander; Fischer, Thomas; Kivelitz, Dietmar; Rake, Anett; Chaoui, Rabih; Heling, Kay-Sven; Schwabe, Michael; Planke, Christiane

    2004-01-01

    Different techniques are used in fetal cardiology, and their accuracy has been demonstrated on several occasions. Color Doppler US has proved to be a reliable and valuable tool in the diagnosis of fetal cardiac abnormalities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the fetal heart has, so far, played no role in prenatal diagnostics. We report on a truncus arteriosus communis diagnosed prenatally during a screening ultrasound at 22 weeks of gestation. In addition to real-time ultrasound and color Doppler echocardiography, fetal MRI was performed. Fetal echocardiography arose suspicion of a type I common trunk. Fetal MR showed solely a widened vessel coursing retrocardially and additionally an inhomogeneous fluid distribution of the lung not shown on prenatal US. After termination of pregnancy at 23 weeks of gestation, MR fetography and autopsy were performed, and both found a type II common trunk. MR autopsy of the heart was very reliable in this case and could be an alternative when fetal pathology is not available for different reasons. Postmortem MRI was also able to demonstrate the inhomogeneous fluid distribution in the lung, which was confirmed by autopsy. Fetal and postmortem MR was reliable in the detection of an inhomogeneous fluid distribution in the lung not shown on prenatal US, providing a relevant additional finding to US. Therefore, MRI should be used more often in fetal cardiology, although it still must be further developed. (orig.)

  16. Culture of Desmodesmus communis (E.Hegewald E.Hegewald and Its Determination of the Biochemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rıza Akgül

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, culture medium and growth conditions were detected for Desmodesmus communis (E. Hegewald E. Hegewald (Sphaeropleales with KF470792 Accession Number that isolated from Thrace inland water (Bahçedere Stream, Tekirdağ, Turkey and determined by molecular taxonomy techniques. The microalgae was cultured under detected conditions (nutrients, pH, temperature, light density and aeration and when the culture was reached to stationary phase microalgae biomass was harvested for biochemical analysis. Total protein, total lipid, fatty acid and amino acid compositions, vitamin E amounts and variety were detected. Cell density was 9.76x105 colony/ml; dry biomass was 0.762 g/l; chlorophyll-a was 13.3 mg/l in BG11 culture medium (7.5 pH, 24±2ºC, 500 ml/min. aeration. According to biochemical analysis; total protein amount was 42.59% (dw/w; total lipid amount was 5.23% (dw/w and vitamin E amount was 3694.24 µg/glipid. The most abundant fatty acid was linolenic acid (35.18%; amino acid was glutamic acid (46.9 mg/g.

  17. Gene Structures, Evolution, Classification and Expression Profiles of the Aquaporin Gene Family in Castor Bean (Ricinus communis L..

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    Zhi Zou

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are a class of integral membrane proteins that facilitate the passive transport of water and other small solutes across biological membranes. Castor bean (Ricinus communis L., Euphobiaceae, an important non-edible oilseed crop, is widely cultivated for industrial, medicinal and cosmetic purposes. Its recently available genome provides an opportunity to analyze specific gene families. In this study, a total of 37 full-length AQP genes were identified from the castor bean genome, which were assigned to five subfamilies, including 10 plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs, 9 tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs, 8 NOD26-like intrinsic proteins (NIPs, 6 X intrinsic proteins (XIPs and 4 small basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs on the basis of sequence similarities. Functional prediction based on the analysis of the aromatic/arginine (ar/R selectivity filter, Froger's positions and specificity-determining positions (SDPs showed a remarkable difference in substrate specificity among subfamilies. Homology analysis supported the expression of all 37 RcAQP genes in at least one of examined tissues, e.g., root, leaf, flower, seed and endosperm. Furthermore, global expression profiles with deep transcriptome sequencing data revealed diverse expression patterns among various tissues. The current study presents the first genome-wide analysis of the AQP gene family in castor bean. Results obtained from this study provide valuable information for future functional analysis and utilization.

  18. Chemometric investigation of light-shade effects on essential oil yield and morphology of Moroccan Myrtus communis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadil, Mouhcine; Farah, Abdellah; Ihssane, Bouchaib; Haloui, Taoufik; Lebrazi, Sara; Zghari, Badreddine; Rachiq, Saâd

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of environmental factors such as light and shade on essential oil yield and morphological traits of Moroccan Myrtus communis, a chemometric study was conducted on 20 individuals growing under two contrasting light environments. The study of individual's parameters by principal component analysis has shown that essential oil yield, altitude, and leaves thickness were positively correlated between them and negatively correlated with plants height, leaves length and leaves width. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis have also shown that the individuals of each sampling site were grouped separately. The one-way ANOVA test has confirmed the effect of light and shade on essential oil yield and morphological parameters by showing a statistically significant difference between them from the shaded side to the sunny one. Finally, the multiple linear model containing main, interaction and quadratic terms was chosen for the modeling of essential oil yield in terms of morphological parameters. Sun plants have a small height, small leaves length and width, but they are thicker and richer in essential oil than shade plants which have shown almost the opposite. The highlighted multiple linear model can be used to predict essential oil yield in the studied area.

  19. Light and electron microscopic observations in connection with the developing pistil and seed-appendix (caruncle of Ricinus communis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Liszt

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the particularly organized stigma and obturator, their fine structure, their function as well as the histological differentiation and the role of the seed-appendix i.e. the caruncle of Ricinus communis L. have been investigated in several developmental phases from the so called "gynoecial primordium" state to the ripe state, 'using the terminology introduced by S a t t 1 e r (1974. The stigma cells are characterized by dens cytoplasm, numerous vesicles mostly of ER origin, ribosomes and negatively stained mitochondria. Dilatation of ER, the appearance of electron opaque substances in it and between the plasmamembran and cell wall are frequent. The degenerating process of some stigma cells will start before the pollination because of autolysis. In the cells of the obturator and young caruncle however dictyosomes can be found more frequently than in stigma cells and the starch content of the ;plastids is remarkable. The thickening of the cell wall is connected with the function of these tissues.

  20. Local Perceptions about the Effects of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas and Castor (Ricinus communis Plantations on Households in Ghana and Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joleen A. Timko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel plantations have been hyped as a means to reinvigorate Africa’s rural areas. Yet there is still apprehension about the negative environmental and social impacts of large-scale commercial biofuel production around rising food prices, land grabbing, ecological damage, and disruption of rural livelihoods. Given the extent of Jatropha curcas production in Ghana and Ethiopia and Castor bean (Ricinus communis in Ethiopia, this paper presents the results of a study that assessed the socio-economic implications of industrial Jatropha plantations on local livelihoods in Ghana, and of industrial Jatropha and Castor plantations on local livelihoods in Ethiopia. This study used primary data collected from 234 households in Ghana and 165 in Ethiopia. The cultivation of Jatropha and Castor has had several important effects on local livelihoods in the study sites, most notably decreases in household landholdings due to the arrival of industrial Jatropha or Castor plantations; and the resulting changes these plantations have caused in household socio-economic status, food security, fallow periods, and fodder availability. We consider how a lack of meaningful consultation between local people, their traditional authorities and the biofuel company managers, along with shortcomings in each country’s broader land acquisition process and poor land use information, may have contributed to these overall negative effects on local livelihoods. We conclude by suggesting several ways that emerging biofuel industries could be improved from the perspective of local people and their livelihoods.

  1. Functional reconstitution of an ATP-driven Ca2+-transport system from the plasma membrane of Commelina communis L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graef, P.; Weiler, E.W.

    1990-01-01

    The protein(s) that constitute(s) the ATP-driven Ca 2+ -translocator of plasma membrane enriched vesicles obtained by aqueous two-phase partitioning from leaves of Commelina communis L. has/have been solubilized and reincorporated into tightly sealed liposomes. The reconstituted Ca 2+ -transport system was studied using ATP-driven 45 Ca 2+ import into the proteoliposomes as a measure of activity. The detergent, 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propane-sulfonate proved to be the most suitable and was used at 10 millimolar concentration, i.e. just above its critical micellar concentration. The presence of additional phospholipid and ATP improved the solubilization and/or reconstitution. The characteristics of the reconstituted system were similar to those of the plasma membrane-bound activity, including the apparent K m for Ca 2+ inhibition by relatively high levels of vanadate and lacking response to added calmodulin. The reconstituted transport system was very strongly inhibited by erythrosine B and had a low apparent K m for ATP levels of the Ca 2+ -ionophore A 23187 instantaneously discharged 90% of the Ca 2+ associated with the vesicles, proving that it had been accumulated in the intravesicular volume in soluble, freely exchangeable form. Ca 2+ -transport in the reconstituted system was thus primary active, through a Ca 2+ -translocating ATPase

  2. Direct Ethanol Production from Breadfruit Starch (Artocarpus communis Forst. by Engineered Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (ESSF using Microbes Consortium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iftachul Farida

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Breadfruit (Artocarpus communis Forst. is one of sources for ethanol production, which has high starch content (89%. Ethanol production from breadfruit starch was conducted by Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF technology using microbes consortium. The aim of the research was to examine a method to produce ethanol by SSF technology using microbes consortium at high yield and efficiency. The main research consisted of two treatments, namely normal SSF and enginereed SSF. The results showed that normal SSF using aeration and agitation during cultivation could produce ethanol at 11.15 ± 0.18 g/L, with the yield of product (Yp/s 0.34 g ethanol/g substrate; and yield of biomass (Yx/s 0.29 g cell/g substrate, respectively. A better result was obtained using engineered SSF in which aeration was stopped after biomass condition has reached the end of the exponential phase. The ethanol produced was 12.75 ± 0.04 g/L, with the yields of product (Yp/s 0.41 g ethanol/g substrate, and the yield of cell (Yx/s 0.09 g cell/g substrate.

  3. Scalable and Flexible Multiview MAX-VAR Canonical Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao; Huang, Kejun; Hong, Mingyi; Sidiropoulos, Nicholas D.; So, Anthony Man-Cho

    2017-08-01

    Generalized canonical correlation analysis (GCCA) aims at finding latent low-dimensional common structure from multiple views (feature vectors in different domains) of the same entities. Unlike principal component analysis (PCA) that handles a single view, (G)CCA is able to integrate information from different feature spaces. Here we focus on MAX-VAR GCCA, a popular formulation which has recently gained renewed interest in multilingual processing and speech modeling. The classic MAX-VAR GCCA problem can be solved optimally via eigen-decomposition of a matrix that compounds the (whitened) correlation matrices of the views; but this solution has serious scalability issues, and is not directly amenable to incorporating pertinent structural constraints such as non-negativity and sparsity on the canonical components. We posit regularized MAX-VAR GCCA as a non-convex optimization problem and propose an alternating optimization (AO)-based algorithm to handle it. Our algorithm alternates between {\\em inexact} solutions of a regularized least squares subproblem and a manifold-constrained non-convex subproblem, thereby achieving substantial memory and computational savings. An important benefit of our design is that it can easily handle structure-promoting regularization. We show that the algorithm globally converges to a critical point at a sublinear rate, and approaches a global optimal solution at a linear rate when no regularization is considered. Judiciously designed simulations and large-scale word embedding tasks are employed to showcase the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  4. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of Laurus nobilis L. and Myrtus communis L. essential oils from Morocco and evaluation of their antimicrobial activity acting alone or in combined processes for food preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherrat, Lamia; Espina, Laura; Bakkali, Mohammed; García-Gonzalo, Diego; Pagán, Rafael; Laglaoui, Amin

    2014-04-01

    This study describes the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Laurus nobilis L. and Myrtus communis L. essential oils (EOs). This is the first report of the synergistic antimicrobial effect of these EOs in combination with physical food preservation treatments. EOs obtained by steam distillation from aerial parts of Laurus nobilis and Myrtus communis were analysed by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main compounds were 1,8-cineole and 2-carene (L. nobilis EO); and myrtenyl acetate, 1,8-cineole and α-pinene (M. communis EO). L. nobilis EO showed higher antioxidant activity than M. communis EO in three complementary antioxidant tests. Although antimicrobial activity tests demonstrated the effectiveness of L. nobilis EO and the lack of bactericidal effect of M. communis EO, synergistic lethal effects were observed when combining each EO (0.2 µL mL(-1)) with mild heat (54°C for 10 min) or high hydrostatic pressure (175-400 MPa for 20 min). In contrast, combination of EOs with pulsed electric fields (30 kV cm(-1) for 25 pulses) showed no additional effects. This study shows the great potential of these EOs in combined treatments with mild heat and high hydrostatic pressure to obtain a higher inactivation of foodborne pathogens, which might help in the design of safe processes applied at low intensity. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Metabolomic variation of brassica rapa var. rapa (var. raapstelen) and raphanus sativus l. at different developmental stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jahangir, M.; Farid, I.B.A.

    2014-01-01

    Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and Raphanus sativus (red radish) are being used as food and fodder while also known as model in recent plant research due to the diversity of metabolites as well as genetic resemblance to Arabidopsis. This study explains the change in metabolites (amino acids, organic acids, chlorophyll, carotenoids, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, sucrose, phenylpropanoids and glucosinolates) during plant development. In present study the metabolomic variation in relation to plant growth has been evaluated, for Brassica rapa (var. raapstelen) and red radish (Raphanus sativus) at three different developmental stages. A non-targeted and targeted metabolomic approach by NMR and HPLC in combination with Principal component analysis (PCA) of the data was used to identify phytochemicals being influenced by plant growth. The results lead to the better understanding of metabolic changes during plant development and show the importance of plant age with respect to the metabolomic profile of vegetables. (author)

  6. Complete mitochondrial genome of Xingguo red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis) and purse red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guang-Fu; Liu, Xiang-Jiang; Li, Zhong; Liang, Hong-Wei; Hu, Shao-Na; Zou, Gui-Wei

    2016-01-01

    The complete mitochondrial genomes of Xingguo red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. singuonensis) and purse red carp (Cyprinus carpio var. wuyuanensis) were sequenced. Comparison of these two mitochondrial genomes revealed that the mtDNAs of these two common carp varieties were remarkably similar in genome length, gene order and content, and AT content. However, size variation between these two mitochondrial genomes presented here showed 39 site differences in overall length. About 2 site differences were located in rRNAs, 3 in tRNAs, 3 in the control region, 31 in protein-coding genes. Thirty-one variable bases in the protein-coding regions between the two varieties mitochondrial sequences led to three variable amino acids, which were mainly located in the protein ND5 and ND4.

  7. VAR, stress-testing and supplementary methodologies: uses and constraints in energy risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senior, Brian

    1999-01-01

    This chapter lists some of the special risks associated with a range of energy markets, and questions what is risk. Market risk, the use of value-at-risk (VAR) for measuring and managing market risk, use of VAR in the banking sector, back-testing of VAR, the corporate sector, making investment decisions, and the need for additional methods of risk analysis are discussed. Scenario analysis and stress testing, liquidity, and combining VAR and stress-testing are described. Credit risk and the quantitative analysis of credit risk are addressed, and operational risk, and organisational challenges are considered. Panels present examples of a simple VAR calculation and give descriptions of VAR in corporate decisions, the measurement of liquidity, and the use of the Greeks in decisions on day to day trading and risk management

  8. Mosquito Passage Dramatically Changes var Gene Expression in Controlled Human Plasmodium falciparum Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Anna; Petter, Michaela; Krumkamp, Ralf; Esen, Meral; Held, Jana; Scholz, Judith A M; Li, Tao; Sim, B Kim Lee; Hoffman, Stephen L; Kremsner, Peter G; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Duffy, Michael F; Tannich, Egbert

    2016-04-01

    Virulence of the most deadly malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is linked to the variant surface antigen PfEMP1, which is encoded by about 60 var genes per parasite genome. Although the expression of particular variants has been associated with different clinical outcomes, little is known about var gene expression at the onset of infection. By analyzing controlled human malaria infections via quantitative real-time PCR, we show that parasite populations from 18 volunteers expressed virtually identical transcript patterns that were dominated by the subtelomeric var gene group B and, to a lesser extent, group A. Furthermore, major changes in composition and frequency of var gene transcripts were detected between the parental parasite culture that was used to infect mosquitoes and Plasmodia recovered from infected volunteers, suggesting that P. falciparum resets its var gene expression during mosquito passage and starts with the broad expression of a specific subset of var genes when entering the human blood phase.

  9. Twenty novel polymorphic microsatellite primers in the critically endangered Melastoma tetramerum var. tetramerum (Melastomataceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Ayu; Izuno, Ayako; Komaki, Yoshiteru; Tanaka, Takefumi; Murata, Jin; Isagi, Yuji

    2016-09-01

    Microsatellite markers were identified for Melastoma tetramerum var. tetramerum (Melastomataceae), a critically endangered shrub endemic to the Bonin Islands, to reveal genetic characteristics in wild and restored populations. Using next-generation sequencing, 27 microsatellite markers were identified. Twenty of these markers were polymorphic in M. tetramerum var. tetramerum, with two to nine alleles per locus and expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.10 to 0.71. Among the 20 polymorphic markers, 15 were applicable to other closely related taxa, namely M. tetramerum var. pentapetalum, M. candidum var. candidum, and M. candidum var. alessandrense. These markers can be potentially useful to investigate the genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and reproductive ecology of M. tetramerum var. tetramerum as well as of the three related taxa to provide appropriate genetic information for conservation.

  10. Foliar flavonoids from Tanacetum vulgare var. boreale and their geographical variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Ayumi; Akiyama, Shinobu; Iwashina, Tsukasa

    2015-03-01

    Foliar flavonoids of Tanacetum vulgare var. boreale were isolated. Eight flavonoid glycosides, 7-O-glucosides of apigenin, luteolin, scutellarein and 6- hydroxyluteolin, and 7-O-glucuronides of apigenin, luteolin, chrysoeriol and eriodictyol were identified. Moreover, eight flavonoid aglycones, apigenin, luteolin, hispidulin, nepetin, eupatilin, jaceosidin, pectolinarigenin and axillarin were also isolated and identified. The flavonoid composition of two varieties of T. vulgare, i.e. var. boreale and var. vulgare, were compared. All samples of var. boreale and one sample of var. vulgare had the same flavonoid pattern, and could be distinguished from almost all the samples of var. vulgare. Thus, the occurrence of chemotypes, which are characterized by either the presence or absence of scutellarein 7-O-glucoside, eriodictyol 7-O-glucuronide and pectolinarigenin was shown in T. vulgare sensu lato.

  11. Detection of Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata and Juniperus procera in the dry Afromontane forest of northern Ethiopia using subpixel analysis of Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hishe, Hadgu; Giday, Kidane; Neka, Mulugeta; Soromessa, Teshome; Van Orshoven, Jos; Muys, Bart

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive and less costly forest inventory approaches are required to monitor the spatiotemporal dynamics of key species in forest ecosystems. Subpixel analysis using the earth resources data analysis system imagine subpixel classification procedure was tested to extract Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata and Juniperus procera canopies from Landsat 7 enhanced thematic mapper plus imagery. Control points with various canopy area fractions of the target species were collected to develop signatures for each of the species. With these signatures, the imagine subpixel classification procedure was run for each species independently. The subpixel process enabled the detection of O. europaea subsp. cuspidata and J. procera trees in pure and mixed pixels. Total of 100 pixels each were field verified for both species. An overall accuracy of 85% was achieved for O. europaea subsp. cuspidata and 89% for J. procera. A high overall accuracy level of detecting species at a natural forest was achieved, which encourages using the algorithm for future species monitoring activities. We recommend that the algorithm has to be validated in similar environment to enrich the knowledge on its capability to ensure its wider usage.

  12. Antisense long noncoding RNAs regulate var gene activation in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit-Avraham, Inbar; Pozner, Guy; Eshar, Shiri; Fastman, Yair; Kolevzon, Netanel; Yavin, Eylon; Dzikowski, Ron

    2015-03-03

    The virulence of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the deadliest form of human malaria, is attributed to its ability to evade human immunity through antigenic variation. These parasites alternate between expression of variable antigens, encoded by members of a multicopy gene family named var. Immune evasion through antigenic variation depends on tight regulation of var gene expression, ensuring that only a single var gene is expressed at a time while the rest of the family is maintained transcriptionally silent. Understanding how a single gene is chosen for activation is critical for understanding mutually exclusive expression but remains a mystery. Here, we show that antisense long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) initiating from var introns are associated with the single active var gene at the time in the cell cycle when the single var upstream promoter is active. We demonstrate that these antisense transcripts are incorporated into chromatin, and that expression of these antisense lncRNAs in trans triggers activation of a silent var gene in a sequence- and dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, interference with these lncRNAs using complement peptide nucleic acid molecules down-regulated the active var gene, erased the epigenetic memory, and induced expression switching. Altogether, our data provide evidence that these antisense lncRNAs play a key role in regulating var gene activation and mutually exclusive expression.

  13. Eficiência da seleção recorrente para redução da estatura de plantas em mamoneira (Ricinus communis L. Recurrent selection efficiency for stature reduction of castor bean (Ricinus communis L. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inocencio Junior de Oliveira

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se, o presente trabalho, com o objetivo de avaliar a eficiência da seleção recorrente para a redução da estatura de plantas de mamona da cultivar Guarani (Ricinus communis L., tornando-a com porte adequado para facilitar a colheita manual e/ou mecânica. Foram realizados quatro ciclos de seleção recorrente com a utilização de progênies autofecundadas na cultivar Guarani para redução da estatura das plantas, nas condições edafoclimáticas dos municípios de São Manuel - SP, Botucatu - SP e Penápolis - SP. As avaliações de estatura das plantas e de produtividade de grãos (kg.ha-1, dos quatro ciclos de seleção e do ciclo original foram realizadas nos municípios de São Manuel - SP, Botucatu - SP e Penápolis - SP na safra 2005/2006, sob um delineamento de blocos casualizados com cinco repetições e parcela útil de 30 m². A análise de variância para as características avaliadas foi feita separadamente para cada local e conjuntamente para os três locais e, posteriormente, realizada a comparação das médias pelo teste de Tukey, a 5%. Foram estimados, para as três localidades, por análise de regressão, os ganhos genéticos dos quatros ciclos de seleção para estatura de plantas. A partir dos resultados obtidos pôde-se concluir que a seleção recorrente foi eficiente para a redução da estatura de plantas e que a cultivar de mamona Guarani apresenta variabilidade genética para essa característica e que a produtividade não foi influenciada pela redução da estatura de plantas.The aim of this work was to evaluate the recurrent selection efficiency for reduction of stature of the castor bean plants of the Guarani cultivar (Ricinus communis L., turning it with appropriate strucuture to facilitate the manual and/or mechanic harvest. Four cycles of recurrent selection were accomplished through the utilization of self-pollinated progenies in the Guarani cultivar for reduction of plants stature, in

  14. Comparison between 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation methods for the simulation of a heavy rainfall case in central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarella, Vincenzo; Maiello, Ida; Capozzi, Vincenzo; Budillon, Giorgio; Ferretti, Rossella

    2017-08-01

    This work aims to provide a comparison between three dimensional and four dimensional variational data assimilation methods (3D-Var and 4D-Var) for a heavy rainfall case in central Italy. To evaluate the impact of the assimilation of reflectivity and radial velocity acquired from Monte Midia Doppler radar into the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model, the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) is used.The two methods are compared for a heavy rainfall event that occurred in central Italy on 14 September 2012 during the first Special Observation Period (SOP1) of the HyMeX (HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment) campaign. This event, characterized by a deep low pressure system over the Tyrrhenian Sea, produced flash floods over the Marche and Abruzzo regions, where rainfall maxima reached more than 150 mm 24 h-1.To identify the best QPF, nine experiments are performed using 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation techniques. All simulations are compared in terms of rainfall forecast and precipitation measured by the gauges through three statistical indicators: probability of detection (POD), critical success index (CSI) and false alarm ratio (FAR). The assimilation of conventional observations with 4D-Var method improves the QPF compared to 3D-Var. In addition, the use of radar measurements in 4D-Var simulations enhances the performances of statistical scores for higher rainfall thresholds.

  15. Interaction Effect Between Herbivory and Plant Fertilization on Extrafloral Nectar Production and on Seed Traits: An Experimental Study With Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sibio, P R; Rossi, M N

    2016-08-01

    It is known that the release of volatile chemicals by many plants can attract the natural enemies of herbivorous insects. Such indirect interactions are likely when plants produce nectar from their extrafloral nectaries, and particularly when the production of extrafloral nectar (EFN) is induced by herbivory. In the present study, we conducted experiments to test whether foliar herbivory inflicted by Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Noctuidae) increases nectar production by extrafloral nectaries on one of its host plants, Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae). Due to the current economic importance of R. communis, we also investigated whether the following seed traits-water content, dry mass, and essential oil production-are negatively affected by herbivory. Finally, we tested whether or not nectar production and seed traits are influenced by plant fertilization (plant quality). We found that nectar production was increased after herbivory, but it was not affected by the type of fertilization. Seed dry mass was higher in plants that were subjected to full fertilization, without herbivory; plants maintained in low fertilization conditions, however, had higher seed mass when subjected to herbivory. The same inverted pattern was observed for oil production. Therefore, our results suggest that EFN production in R. communis may act as an indirect defense strategy against herbivores, and that there is a trade-off between reproduction and plant growth when low-fertilized plants are subjected to herbivory. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Plasmodium falciparum var Gene Silencing Is Determined by cis DNA Elements That Form Stable and Heritable Interactions ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Lakshmi; Amulic, Borko; Deitsch, Kirk W.

    2011-01-01

    Antigenic variation in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum depends on the transcriptional regulation of the var gene family. In each individual parasite, mRNA is expressed exclusively from 1 var gene out of ∼60, while the rest of the genes are transcriptionally silenced. Both modifications to chromatin structure and DNA regulatory elements associated with each var gene have been implicated in the organization and maintenance of the silent state. Whether silencing is established at the level of entire chromosomal regions via heterochromatin spreading or at the level of individual var promoters through the action of a silencing element within each var intron has been debated. Here, we consider both possibilities, using clonal parasite lines carrying chromosomally integrated transgenes. We confirm a previous finding that the loss of an adjacent var intron results in var promoter activation and further show that transcriptional activation of a var promoter within a cluster does not affect the transcriptional activity of neighboring var promoters. Our results provide more evidence for the hypothesis that var genes are primarily silenced at the level of an individual gene, rather than by heterochromatin spreading. We also tested the intrinsic directionality of an intron's silencing effect on upstream or downstream var promoters. We found that an intron is capable of silencing in either direction and that, once established, a var promoter-intron pair is stably maintained through many generations, suggesting a possible role in epigenetic memory. This study provides insights into the regulation of endogenous var gene clusters. PMID:21317310

  17. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thies, Judy A; Ariss, Jennifer J; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Hassell, Richard L; Levi, Amnon

    2016-03-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN.

  18. Phloem sap proteins from Cucurbita maxima and Ricinus communis have the capacity to traffic cell to cell through plasmodesmata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Suchandra; Xiang, Yu; Schobert, Christian; Thompson, Gary A.; Lucas, William J.

    1997-01-01

    In angiosperms, the functional enucleate sieve tube system of the phloem appears to be maintained by the surrounding companion cells. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that polypeptides present within the phloem sap traffic cell to cell from the companion cells, where they are synthesized, into the sieve tube via plasmodesmata. Coinjection of fluorescently labeled dextrans along with size-fractionated Cucurbita maxima phloem proteins, ranging in size from 10 to 200 kDa, as well as injection of individual fluorescently labeled phloem proteins, provided unambiguous evidence that these proteins have the capacity to interact with mesophyll plasmodesmata in cucurbit cotyledons to induce an increase in size exclusion limit and traffic cell to cell. Plasmodesmal size exclusion limit increased to greater than 20 kDa, but less than 40 kDa, irrespective of the size of the injected protein, indicating that partial protein unfolding may be a requirement for transport. A threshold concentration in the 20–100 nM range was required for cell-to-cell transport indicating that phloem proteins have a high affinity for the mesophyll plasmodesmal binding site(s). Parallel experiments with glutaredoxin and cystatin, phloem sap proteins from Ricinus communis, established that these proteins can also traffic through cucurbit mesophyll plasmodesmata. These results are discussed in terms of the requirements for regulated protein trafficking between companion cells and the sieve tube system. As the threshold value for plasmodesmal transport of phloem sap proteins falls within the same range as many plant hormones, the possibility is discussed that some of these proteins may act as long-distance signaling molecules. PMID:9391168

  19. Phloem sap proteins from Cucurbita maxima and Ricinus communis have the capacity to traffic cell to cell through plasmodesmata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, S; Xiang, Y; Schobert, C; Thompson, G A; Lucas, W J

    1997-12-09

    In angiosperms, the functional enucleate sieve tube system of the phloem appears to be maintained by the surrounding companion cells. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that polypeptides present within the phloem sap traffic cell to cell from the companion cells, where they are synthesized, into the sieve tube via plasmodesmata. Coinjection of fluorescently labeled dextrans along with size-fractionated Cucurbita maxima phloem proteins, ranging in size from 10 to 200 kDa, as well as injection of individual fluorescently labeled phloem proteins, provided unambiguous evidence that these proteins have the capacity to interact with mesophyll plasmodesmata in cucurbit cotyledons to induce an increase in size exclusion limit and traffic cell to cell. Plasmodesmal size exclusion limit increased to greater than 20 kDa, but less than 40 kDa, irrespective of the size of the injected protein, indicating that partial protein unfolding may be a requirement for transport. A threshold concentration in the 20-100 nM range was required for cell-to-cell transport indicating that phloem proteins have a high affinity for the mesophyll plasmodesmal binding site(s). Parallel experiments with glutaredoxin and cystatin, phloem sap proteins from Ricinus communis, established that these proteins can also traffic through cucurbit mesophyll plasmodesmata. These results are discussed in terms of the requirements for regulated protein trafficking between companion cells and the sieve tube system. As the threshold value for plasmodesmal transport of phloem sap proteins falls within the same range as many plant hormones, the possibility is discussed that some of these proteins may act as long-distance signaling molecules.

  20. Potential application of waste from castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) for production for xylanase of interest in the industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herculano, Polyanna Nunes; Moreira, Keila Aparecida; Bezerra, Raquel Pedrosa; Porto, Tatiana Souza; de Souza-Motta, Cristina Maria; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo

    2016-12-01

    Xylanases activity (XY) from Aspergillus japonicus URM5620 produced by Solid-State Fermentation (SSF) of castor press cake (Ricinus communis) on different conditions of production and extraction by PEG/citrate aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) were investigated. XY production was influenced by substrate amount (5-10 g), initial moisture (15-35 %), pH (4.0-6.0) and temperature (25-35 °C), obtaining the maximum activity of 29,085 ± 1808 U g ds -1 using 5.0 g of substrate with initial moisture of 15 % at 25 °C and pH 6.0, after 120 h of fermentation. The influence of PEG molar mass (1000-8000 g mol -1 ), phase concentrations (PEG 20.0-24.0 % w/w and sodium citrate 15-20 % w/w) and pH (6.0-8.0) on partition coefficient, purification factor, yield and selectivity of XY were determinate. Enzyme partitioning into the PEG rich phase was favored by M PEG 8000 (g mol -1 ), C PEG 24 % (w/w), C C 20 % (w/w) and pH 8.0, resulting in partition coefficient of 50.78, activity yield of 268 %, 7.20-fold purification factor and selectivity of 293. A. japonicus URM5620 has a potential role in the development of a bioprocess for the XY production using low-cost media. In addition, the present study proved it is feasible to extract xylanase from SSF by adopting the one step ATPS consisting of PEG/citrate.

  1. Alternatif Pembuatan Biodiesel Melalui Transesterifikasi Minyak Castor (Ricinus communis Menggunakan Katalis Campuran Cangkang Telur Ayam dan Kaolin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni - Setiadji

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel was produced by transesterification of castor oil (Ricinus communis using a catalyst of CaO and kaolin (CaO / kaolin had been performed. CaO was obtained from the calcination of eggshell. Castor oil is selected as biodiesel feedstock because it belongs to non-food oil and easy to cultivate. In general, the research method aims to comprise the CaO / Kaolin catalysts with a ratio of 15 mmol CaO per 1 gram of kaolin activated using impregnation method and biodiesel produced through transesterification of castor oil using the catalyst at 65 ºC for 8 hours with ratio of castor oil: methanol: catalyst (1: 15: 5% w / w. The reaction is carried out on the reflux system. The XRD analysis show the presence of silica and potassium aluminum silicate hydroxide in the catalyst. The EDS results show the catalyst-forming components CaO and silica. The FTIR analysis results show the absorption peak in the functional group forming the methyl ester compound. Based on the characterization of GC-MS, the largest methyl ester components contained in biodiesel are methyl risinoleate, methyl elaidat, methyl stearate, methyl linoleate, and methyl palmitate. The overall conversion of castor oil to methyl ester using CaO / kaolin catalyst is 97.36%. The largest component in castor oil is risinoleic acid, has been successfully converted to methyl risinoleate by 74.75%.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/jkv.v0i0.4778

  2. Immunochemical studies on the N-acetyllactosamine beta-(1----6)-linked trisaccharide specificity of Ricinus communis agglutinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A M; Sugii, S; Gruezo, F G; Kabat, E A

    1988-07-15

    The combining site of Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA1) was studied by quantitative precipitin and precipitin inhibition assays. Of 31 complex carbohydrates tested, all except active and inactive antifreeze glycoproteins, Streptococcus group C polysaccharide, and native rat salivary glycoprotein, reacted strongly, and 22 completely precipitated the lectin, indicating that RCA1 has both a broad range of affinity and a low solubility of its carbohydrate-bound complex. Of the monosaccharides and glycosides tested for inhibition of precipitation, p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside was the best. It was about 6.4 times better than methyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. The beta anomer of glycosides of D-galactose was much more potent than the corresponding alpha anomer. Among the oligosaccharides tested, beta-D-Galp-(1----4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1----6)-D-Gal was the best inhibitor, which was approximately 2/3 as active as p-nitrophenyl beta-D-galactopyranoside. It was approximately 1.4 times as active as beta-D-Gal-(1----4)-D-GlcNAc (N-acetyllactosamine), twice as active as beta-D-Gal-(1----3)-D-GlcNAc, and 4.5 times more active than lacto-N-tetraose. From the results, it can be concluded that; (a) hydrophobic interaction is important for binding; (b) the combining site of this lectin is at least as large as a trisaccharide; and (c) of the compounds studied, the trisaccharide beta-D-Galp-(1----4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1----6)-D-Gal was the most complementary to the human blood group I Ma determinant beta-D-Galp-(1----4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc-(1----6)-D-Gal.

  3. Gene structure, expression pattern and interaction of Nuclear Factor-Y family in castor bean (Ricinus communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Xu, Wei; Chen, Zexi; Han, Bing; Haque, Mohammad E; Liu, Aizhong

    2018-03-01

    Nuclear Factor-Y transcription factors, which function in regulating seed development (including storage reservoir accumulation) and responding to abiotic stresses, were identified and characterized in castor bean. Nuclear Factor-Y (NF-Y) transcription factors in plants contain three subunits (NF-YA, NF-YB and NF-YC), and function as a heterodimer or heterotrimer complex in regulating plant growth, development and response to stresses. Castor bean (Ricinus communis, Euphorbiaceae) one of the most economically important non-edible oilseed crops, able to grow in diverse soil conditions and displays high tolerance to abiotic stresses. Due to increasing demands for its seed oils, it is necessary to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the regulation of growth and development. Based on the available genome data, we identified 25 RcNF-Y members including six RcNF-YAs, 12 RcNF-YBs and seven RcNF-YCs, and characterized their gene structures. Yeast two-hybrid assays confirmed the protein-protein interactions among three subunits. Using transcriptomic data from different tissues, we found that six members were highly or specifically expressed in endosperms (in particular, two LEC1-type members RcNF-YB2 and RcNF-YB12), implying their involvement in regulating seed development and storage reservoir accumulation. Further, we investigated the expression changes of RcNF-Y members in two-week-old seedlings under drought, cold, hot and salt stresses. We found that the expression levels of 20 RcNF-Y members tested were changed and three RcNF-Y members might function in response to abiotic stresses. This study is the first reported on genomic characterization of NF-Y transcription factors in the family Euphorbiaceae. Our results provide the basis for improved understanding of how NF-Y genes function in the regulation of seed development and responses to abiotic stresses in both castor bean and other plants in this family.

  4. CAPACIDAD ANTAGÓNICA Y QUITINOLÍTICA DE MICROORGANISMOS AISLADOS DE RESIDUOS DE HIGUERILLA (Ricinus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TERESA CABRA C

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se ha comprobado que los fertilizantes y controladores biológicos a base de microorganismos benéficos productores de metabolitos de interés, inducen el crecimiento vegetal y actúan contra microorganismos patógenos y plagas que afectan los agroecosistemas. Por lo tanto, su uso constituye una práctica eficiente de producción limpia que ayuda a reducir el impacto ambiental causado por el uso de agroquímicos. En este trabajo se evaluó la capacidad antagónica y quitinolítica de 15 cepas bacterianas y una levaduriforme, aisladas de residuos lignocelulósicos de higuerilla (Ricinus communis. La actividad antagónica de cada cepa se determinó por la capacidad de inhibir el crecimiento del hongo fitopatógeno Fusarium equiseti, en medio de cultivo PDA. Solamente la bacteria Bacillus subtilis, presentó una inhibición significativa del crecimiento del hongo equivalente al 76,08%. Por lo tanto se demuestra que la cepa de Bacillus subtilis puede ser empleada en la formulación de inoculantes microbianos. La capacidad quitinolítica de las cepas se definió por el crecimiento del microorganismo y por la formación de halos de hidrólisis alrededor de las colonias sobre el medio de cultivo suplementado con quitina coloidal. Ninguna de las cepas evaluadas mostró capacidad para degradar quitina.

  5. Recubrimiento comestible de quitosano, almidón de yuca y aceite esencial de canela para conservar pera (Pyrus communis L. cv. “Bosc”)

    OpenAIRE

    Castro García, Marlon Reinaldo; Espinoza Posligua, Vanessa Gabriela; López Mantuano, Mario Henry; Molina Basurto, Ramón; García Montes, Yessenia Maribel; Lavayen Delgado, Edison Grego

    2017-01-01

    Las tecnologías de conservación de alimentos son esenciales en la alimentación humana por lo cual es fundamental utilizar técnicas de conservación sanas y seguras para los consumidores. Los frutos de pera (Pyrus communis) confieren un importante aporte nutricional, sin embargo, su vida útil es limitada al ser susceptibles a daños físicos, así como al deterioro microbiológico, frente a lo cual esta investigación evalúa el efecto de recubrimientos comestibles a base de quitosano y almidón de yu...

  6. Methods for Detection of Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi on Raspberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Koprivica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi (Wilcox & Duncan, a causal agent of raspberry root rot, is a serious soil-borne pathogen listed by EPPO as an A2 quarantine pest. Root samples were collected from badly diseased raspberry plants showing a variety of characteristic and often dramatic symptoms during surveys carried out in western Serbia in 2002. Identification of the causal agent was performed in collaboration work with the Scottish Crop Research Institute (S.C.R.I., Dundee, UK. Necrotic roots were plated on selective French bean agar (incorporating ampicilin, ryfamicin, bavistin and hymexasol. Detection of isolates was based on cultural and morphological features compared with referent cultures. DNA was extracted directly from the sampled roots using extraction buffer (200 mM Tris- HCl pH 8.5, 250 mM NaCl, 25 mM EDTA, 0.5% SDS, purified by multi spin separation columns [Thistle Scientific (Axygen] or in 24:1 mixture of chlorophorm- iso-amyl alcohol and amplified by nested PCR (ITS4 and DC6 for first round, DC1and DC5 for second round. Diluted DNA extracts were also amplified by conventional PCR with modified ”universal” Phytophthora primers (ITS 6, ITS 7 and ITS 8, Cooke et al., 2000 and digested with Msp1. Digestion patterns of the universal primers PCR product from infected roots matched those of Scottish strains. P. fragariae var. rubi occured on 8 out of 14 sites. Our results indicate that nested PCR (ITS4 and DC6 for first round, DC1 and DC5 for second round or digestion of the ”universal” Phytophthora primers PCR product for detection of P. fragariae var. rubi are more sensitive and less time-consuming and therefore recommended for use.

  7. Complete plastid genome of Astragalus mongholicus var. nakaianus (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, In-Su; Kim, Joo-Hwan; Choi, Byoung-Hee

    2016-07-01

    The first complete plastid genome (plastome) of the largest angiosperm genus, Astragalus, was sequenced for the Korean endangered endemic species A. mongholicus var. nakaianus. Its genome is relatively short (123,633 bp) because it lacks an Inverted Repeat (IR) region. It comprises 110 genes, including four unique rRNAs, 30 tRNAs, and 76 protein-coding genes. Similar to other closely related plastomes, rpl22 and rps16 are absent. The putative pseudogene with abnormal stop codons is atpE. This plastome has no additional inversions when compared with highly variable plastomes from IRLC tribes Fabeae and Trifolieae. Our phylogenetic analysis confirms the non-monophyly of Galegeae.

  8. Labor Costs and Foreign Direct Investment: A Panel VAR Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahar Bayraktar-Sağlam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the endogenous interaction between labor costs and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI in the OECD countries via the Panel VAR approach under system GMM estimates for the period 1995–2009. The available data allows identifying the relevance of the components of labor costs, and allows a detailed analysis across different sectors. Empirical findings have revealed that sectoral composition of FDI and the decomposition of labor costs play a significant role in investigating the dynamic association between labor costs and FDI. Further, results suggest that labor market policies should focus on productivity-enhancing tools in addition to price hindering tools.

  9. Phenolic compounds from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou Jun [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China. Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhao, You-Xing, E-mail: zhoujun3264@yahoo.com.cn, E-mail: zhaoyouxing@itbb.org.cn [Key Laboratory of Biology and Genetic Resources of Tropical Crops. Ministry of Agriculture, Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology. Chinese Academy of Tropical Agriculture Sciences (China)

    2013-09-15

    A new benzofuran neolignan, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovalerate, along with ten known phenolic compounds, olivil, pinoresinol, 8-hydroxypinoresinol, pinorespiol, 8-hydroxy- 7-epipinoresinol, trans-p-hydroxyphenyl- propenoic acid, cis-p-hydroxyphenyl-propenoic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isovanillin were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovaterate and olivil were evaluated. (author)

  10. Phytochemical Studies on Polygonum barbatum (L. Hara var. barbata (Polygonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdul Mazid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum barbatum (L. Hara var. barbata (Polygonaceae, commonly known as ‘bekhanjabaj’, is a Bangladeshi perennial herb. A combination of the normal phase column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography on silica gel afforded sitosterone (1 from the petroleum ether fraction, and viscozulenic acid (2 and acetophenone (3 from the chloroform fraction of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of this plant . The free-radical-scavenging properties the isolated compounds 1-3 were evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay.

  11. Radioactivity in a mountain ecosystem: the Haut Bassin du Var

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the IPSN realized a study of the radioactive fallout in the mountain area of the Var (France). Today the main radionuclides are the cesium 134 and 137, others disappeared because of their short half-life. In this paper, the artificial radioactivity of soils and sediments is concerned. The study shows a concentration of the contamination in some specific areas, especially in soils abounding in organic matter. The dose measured can not lead to significant exposures. (A.L.B.)

  12. An unusual variant of Trichophyton tonsurans var. sulfureum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhye, A A; Weitzman, I; Domenech, E

    1994-01-01

    A fungus, recovered from a skin lesion of a patient, produced velvety to powdery, white to deep yellow colonies on Sabouraud glucose agar. Microscopically, it produced a large number of cylindric, smooth-walled, three- to eight-celled macroconidia but failed to produce microconidia on a variety of nutritional media such as rice grains, cornmeal dextrose, potato dextrose, Sabouraud glucose, oatmeal and lactrimel agars. It hydrolysed urea in 7 days, perforated hair in vitro and required thiamine for growth. This isolate represents an atypical variant of Trichophyton tonsurans var. sufureum subvar. perforans.

  13. Phenolic compounds from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Peng-Cheng; Ran, Xin-Hui; Luo, Huai-Rong; Liu, Yu-Qing; Zhou Jun; Ma, Qing-Yun; Zhao, You-Xing

    2013-01-01

    A new benzofuran neolignan, dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovalerate, along with ten known phenolic compounds, olivil, pinoresinol, 8-hydroxypinoresinol, pinorespiol, 8-hydroxy- 7-epipinoresinol, trans-p-hydroxyphenyl- propenoic acid, cis-p-hydroxyphenyl-propenoic acid, ferulic acid, isoferulic acid and isovanillin were isolated from the roots of Valeriana officinalis var. latifolia. Their structures and configurations were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The inhibitory activity for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and enhancing activity on nerve growth factor (NGF)-mediated neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells of dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol 9-isovaterate and olivil were evaluated. (author)

  14. Mitigation of voltage fluctuations with an Adaptive Var Compensator (AVC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, F [TransAlta Utilities Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Castanheira, A

    1997-04-01

    The installation of an Adaptive Var Compensator (AVC) to remedy a voltage flicker problem at the TIMEU sawmill in Fort Assiniboine, Alberta, was described. The TIMEU sawmill is a 980 kVA load at the end of a 25 kV feeder. Two older style J bar type saws, each driven by a 200 Hp motor, are used to operate the wood processing services. The sawing and chipping process resulted in the generation of significant voltage flicker on the 25 kV distribution system. The AVC provided cycle per cycle reactive compensation and voltage support; no further complaints of flicker were received.

  15. Comparison of the specificity of antibodies to VAR2CSA in Cameroonian multigravidae with and without placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Fang, Rui; Wey, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibodies (Ab) to VAR2CSA prevent Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes from sequestrating in the placenta, i.e., prevent placental malaria (PM). The specificity of Ab to VAR2CSA associated with absence of PM is unknown. Accordingly, differences in the specificity of Ab to VAR2......CSA were compared between multigravidae with and without PM who had Ab to VAR2CSA. METHODS: In a retrospective case-control study, plasma collected from Cameroonian multigravidae with (n = 96) and without (n = 324) PM were screened in 21 assays that measured antibody levels to full length VAR2CSA (FV2......), individual VAR2CSA DBL domains, VAR2CSA domains from different genetic backgrounds (variants), as well as proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2. RESULTS: Multigravidae with and without PM had similar levels of Ab to FV2, the six VAR2CSA DBL domains and different variants, while the proportion of high avidity...

  16. Further elucidation of the taxonomic relationships and geographic distribution of Escobaria sneedii var. sneedii, E. sneedii var. leei, and E. guadalupensis (Cactaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc A. Baker

    2007-01-01

    Individuals of E. sneedii var. sneedii were found to occur in greater abundance within the Guadalupe Mountains than was previously recorded. No additional populations morphologically intermediate between E. guadalupensis and E. sneedii were found. Taxonomic affiliation and geographic...

  17. Scleria neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis (Cyperaceae, a New Variety from Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind M. Sardesai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A new variety of Scleria P. J. Bergius (Cyperaceae S. neesii Kunth var. gadchiroliensis from Central India is described here with description, line-drawing, photographic illustration and notes. It resembles with S. neesii Kunth var. neesii in overall morphology but differs in having milky white nuts covered with ribbon like hairs on distinct stalk.

  18. Silence, Metaperformance, and Communication in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellie, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Many scenes in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella" (2002) include shots of metaperformances such as silent films, dances, television shows, concerts, and bullfights. Spectators often observe passive characters who are in turn observing. By presenting these performances within cinematic performance, Almodóvar highlights our role as viewers…

  19. A Stochastic Dominance Approach to the Basel III Dilemma: Expected Shortfall or VaR?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); J.A. Jiménez-Martín (Juan-Ángel); E. Maasoumi (Esfandiar); M.J. McAleer (Michael); T. Pérez-Amaral (Teodosio)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) (2013) recently proposed shifting the quantitative risk metrics system from Value-at-Risk (VaR) to Expected Shortfall (ES). The BCBS (2013) noted that “a number of weaknesses have been identified with using VaR for

  20. Generation of antigenic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum by structured rearrangement of Var genes during mitosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Claessens

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The most polymorphic gene family in P. falciparum is the ∼60 var genes distributed across parasite chromosomes, both in the subtelomeres and in internal regions. They encode hypervariable surface proteins known as P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 that are critical for pathogenesis and immune evasion in Plasmodium falciparum. How var gene sequence diversity is generated is not currently completely understood. To address this, we constructed large clone trees and performed whole genome sequence analysis to study the generation of novel var gene sequences in asexually replicating parasites. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were scattered across the genome, structural variants (deletions, duplications, translocations were focused in and around var genes, with considerable variation in frequency between strains. Analysis of more than 100 recombination events involving var exon 1 revealed that the average nucleotide sequence identity of two recombining exons was only 63% (range: 52.7-72.4% yet the crossovers were error-free and occurred in such a way that the resulting sequence was in frame and domain architecture was preserved. Var exon 1, which encodes the immunologically exposed part of the protein, recombined in up to 0.2% of infected erythrocytes in vitro per life cycle. The high rate of var exon 1 recombination indicates that millions of new antigenic structures could potentially be generated each day in a single infected individual. We propose a model whereby var gene sequence polymorphism is mainly generated during the asexual part of the life cycle.

  1. Clinical development of a VAR2CSA-based placental malaria vaccine PAMVAC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gbédandé, Komi; Fievet, Nadine; Viwami, Firmine

    2017-01-01

    Background  The antigen VAR2CSA plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) caused by Plasmodium falciparum. A VAR2CSA-based vaccine candidate, PAMVAC, is under development by an EU-funded multi-country consortium (PlacMalVac project). As part of PAMVAC...

  2. Abelmoschus manihot var. pungens (Roxburgh Hochreutiner (Malvaceae, A Newly Naturalized Plant in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szu-I Hsieh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abelmoschus manihot var. pungens (Roxburgh Hochreutiner is naturalized in abandoned land of central Taiwan. The distinguished characteristics of A. manihot var. pungens include the ovate-lanceolate epicalyx lobes, distinct prickly hairs all over the plant, and even over the margins of its epicalyx lobes. Descriptions, line drawings and photos of this species are provided.

  3. Essays on Imperfect Knowledge Economics, Structural Change, and Persistence in the Cointegrated VAR Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabor, Morten Nyboe

    2014-01-01

    conrm the original intuition behind the attempt to combine IKE and the econometric approach based on the cointegrated VAR model, that the parameter-instability of IKE models could potentially be an important source of the persistence found empirically in estimated cointegrated VAR models...

  4. Waarnemingen aan Equisetum arvense L. var. serotinum F.W. Meyer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van L.

    1978-01-01

    Observations during six successive years in a cultivated clone of Equisetum arvense L. var. serotinum F. W. Meyer made it possible to study various types of fertile, sterile, and homophyadic stems developing in this clone. As E. arvense var. varium Milde, E. arvense f. sanguineum Luerss., and E.

  5. Computing level-impulse responses of log-specified VAR systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wieringa, J.E.; Horvath, C.

    2005-01-01

    Impulse response functions (IRFs) are often used to analyze the dynamic behavior of a vector autoregressive (VAR) system. In many applications of VAR modelling, the variables are log-transformed before the model is estimated. If this is the case, the results of the IRFs do not have a direct

  6. Generation of antigenic diversity in Plasmodium falciparum by structured rearrangement of Var genes during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Antoine; Hamilton, William L; Kekre, Mihir; Otto, Thomas D; Faizullabhoy, Adnan; Rayner, Julian C; Kwiatkowski, Dominic

    2014-12-01

    The most polymorphic gene family in P. falciparum is the ∼60 var genes distributed across parasite chromosomes, both in the subtelomeres and in internal regions. They encode hypervariable surface proteins known as P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) that are critical for pathogenesis and immune evasion in Plasmodium falciparum. How var gene sequence diversity is generated is not currently completely understood. To address this, we constructed large clone trees and performed whole genome sequence analysis to study the generation of novel var gene sequences in asexually replicating parasites. While single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were scattered across the genome, structural variants (deletions, duplications, translocations) were focused in and around var genes, with considerable variation in frequency between strains. Analysis of more than 100 recombination events involving var exon 1 revealed that the average nucleotide sequence identity of two recombining exons was only 63% (range: 52.7-72.4%) yet the crossovers were error-free and occurred in such a way that the resulting sequence was in frame and domain architecture was preserved. Var exon 1, which encodes the immunologically exposed part of the protein, recombined in up to 0.2% of infected erythrocytes in vitro per life cycle. The high rate of var exon 1 recombination indicates that millions of new antigenic structures could potentially be generated each day in a single infected individual. We propose a model whereby var gene sequence polymorphism is mainly generated during the asexual part of the life cycle.

  7. Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ji, X.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    I studied numerical and structural chromosome aberrations in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) and

  8. You'd better walk alone: Changes in forest composition affect pollination efficiency and pre-dispersal cone damage in Iberian Juniperus thurifera forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-García, E; Mezquida, E T; Olano, J M

    2017-11-01

    Changes in land-use patterns are a major driver of global environmental change. Cessation of traditional land-use practices has led to forest expansion and shifts in forest composition. Consequently, former monospecific forests maintained by traditional management are progressing towards mixed forests. However, knowledge is scarce on how the presence of other tree species will affect reproduction of formerly dominant species. We explored this question in the wind-pollinated tree Juniperus thurifera. We hypothesised that the presence of heterospecific trees would have a negative effect on cone production and on the proportion of cones attacked by specialised predators. We assessed the relative importance of forest composition on cone production, seed development and pre-dispersal cone damage on nine paired pure and mixed J. thurifera forests in three regions across the Iberian Peninsula. The effects of forest composition on crop size, cone and seed characteristics, as well as damage by pre-dispersal arthropods were tested using mixed models. Cone production was lower and seed abortion higher in mixed forests, suggesting higher pollination failure. In contrast, cone damage by arthropods was higher in pure forests, supporting the hypothesis that presence of non-host plants reduces damage rates. However, the response of each arthropod to forest composition was species-specific and the relative rates of cone damage varied depending on individual tree crops. Larger crop sizes in pure forests compensated for the higher cone damage rates, leading to a higher net production of sound seeds compared to mixed forests. This study indicates that ongoing changes in forest composition after land abandonment may impact tree reproduction. © 2017 German Society for Plant Sciences and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  9. ANALYSIS OF DWARF MISTLETOE ARCEUTHOBIUM OXYCEDRI (DC. M. BIEB. AND ITS PRINCIPAL HOST EASTERN PRICKLY JUNIPER JUNIPERUS DELTOIDES R. P. ADAMS DISTRIBUTION IN CRIMEA USING GIS TECHOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Kukushkin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The current study highlights the distribution pattern of juniper dwarf mistletoe (Arceuthobium oxycedri, a semi-parasite of the Eastern prickly juniper (Juniperus deltoides, in Crimea. A. oxycedri has considerably narrower range in Crimea as compared to its principal host and its ubiquitous distribution is rather sporadic. Nature observations characterize A. oxycedri as a thermophilic and mezo-хerophytic species confined to the low-mountain terrains with mild sub-Mediterranean climate. Significant sites of permanent infection have been discovered at the Crimean coast and in the warmest southwestern part of the Crimean Mountains to the south from the Belbek River valley. Greek juniper (J. excelsa is a codominant species growing side by side with J. deltoids in the majority of localities examined that have the high infection rate. Generally, J. excelsa is an insusceptible species in relation to the parasite; nevertheless, it is affected by A. oxycedri at several sites. Birds feeding habit to consume J. excelsa and J. deltoides fleshy berry-like cones helps to maintain the high infection rate and to disseminate mistletoe seeds at the distance of approximately 4 km. Modeling ecological niche and creating maps of potential range of the parasite and its principal host using MaxEnt 3.3.3k software have demonstrated that A. oxycedri distribution in Crimea at present may be wider than it has been currently observed. It is noteworthy that while modeling such bioclimatic indicators as the minimum winter temperatures and the elevation above sea level were irrelevant for establishing the distribution range of the parasite. Presumably the limited distribution of A. oxycedri can be attributed to the history of forming J. deltoides range in the late Pleistocene – Holocene, alongside with a low speed of the parasite dissemination from Quaternary refugia in the southernmost part of the Crimean Peninsula.

  10. Analytical approaches to the determination of simple biophenols in forest trees such as Acer (maple), Betula (birch), Coniferus, Eucalyptus, Juniperus (cedar), Picea (spruce) and Quercus (oak).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedgood, Danny R; Bishop, Andrea G; Prenzler, Paul D; Robards, Kevin

    2005-06-01

    Analytical methods are reviewed for the determination of simple biophenols in forest trees such as Acer (maple), Betula (birch), Coniferus, Eucalyptus, Juniperus (cedar), Picea (spruce) and Quercus (oak). Data are limited but nevertheless clearly establish the critical importance of sample preparation and pre-treatment in the analysis. For example, drying methods invariably reduce the recovery of biophenols and this is illustrated by data for birch leaves where flavonoid glycosides were determined as 12.3 +/- 0.44 mg g(-1) in fresh leaves but 9.7 +/- 0.35 mg g(-1) in air-dried samples (data expressed as dry weight). Diverse sample handling procedures have been employed for recovery of biophenols. The range of biophenols and diversity of sample types precludes general procedural recommendations. Caution is necessary in selecting appropriate procedures as the high reactivity of these compounds complicates their analysis. Moreover, our experience suggests that their reactivity is very dependent on the matrix. The actual measurement is less contentious and high performance separation methods particularly liquid chromatography dominate analyses whilst coupled techniques involving electrospray ionization are becoming routine particularly for qualitative applications. Quantitative data are still the exception and are summarized for representative species that dominate the forest canopy of various habitats. Reported concentrations for simple phenols range from trace level (<0.1 microg g(-1)) to in excess of 500 microg g(-1) depending on a range of factors. Plant tissue is one of these variables but various biotic and abiotic processes such as stress are also important considerations.

  11. The Review of Certain In Vivo Antioxidant Effects on Essential Oils of Origanum Minutiflorum O Schwarz-Ph Davis, Juniperus Excelsa Bieb.subsp. Excelsa and Histopathologic Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Göze

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Essential oil of plants called Juniperus excelsa Bieb. (JE, Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz and P.H. Davis (OM were used in this study. In order to determine experimental doses, LD50 values of essential oils were determined on mice. Taking into consideration the LD30 range, the experimental toxic doses were calculated for each rat (rat/kg. The toxic dosages thus determined were adapted to rats for active substances (rat/kg. Using commercially available pure virgin olive oil (VOO as the solvent and diluting agent, OM oil (n=10, JE fruitoil (n=10, carvacrol (CRV (n=10, VOO (n=10 and normal saline SF (n=8 were administered on the basis of 12 days into intraperitoneal (IP. Enzyme activities of Glucose-6-Phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, Superoxide Dismutase (SOD, Glutathione-S-transferase (GST, Adenosine-deaminase (ADA and Catalase were studied in isolates of kidney, brain and liver tissues. The data was statistically analyzed through Kruskal Wallis variance analysis. Elevated levels of GST and catalase have been found statistically important, as have both essential oil activities of OM and JE in the kidney tissue (p<0.005. All of the enzymes except the levels of ADA and SOD led to a statistically significant change in the brain and liver. There was sinusoidal hyperemia and capsular adhesion in the liver as histopathological were found to be statistically significant (p<0.005. It did not observe any important changes in the other organs. Findings were scored and analyzed by using x2(chi-square test and Fisher’s definite variance analysis.

  12. Comparative anatomy of the leaves of Piper lepturum(Kunth) C.DC. var. lepturum and Piper lepturum var. angustifolium (C.DC.) Yunck.

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Nelson Santana de Oliveira; Pereira, Flaviane Gomes; Santos, Paulo Roberto Dias dos; Costa, Cecília Gonçalves; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin

    2015-01-01

    This study showed anatomical differences related to Piper lepturumvar. lepturum and P. lepturum var. angustifolium species, sometimes considered varieties and in other cases synonyms. For histological analysis, fully expanded leaves were collected and for analysis by scanning electron microscope (SEM), fragments from the midrib were fixed on both leaf surfaces. The two species revealed differences in plant anatomy and it was observed that the stem of P. lepturum var. lepturum showed persisten...

  13. Antioxidant potency of white (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata) and Chinese (Brassica rapa L. var. pekinensis (Lour.)) cabbage: The influence of development stage, cultivar choice and seed selection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šamec, D.; Piljac-Žegarac, J.; Bogovic, M.; Habjanic, K.; Grúz, Jiří

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 128, č. 2 (2011), s. 78-83 ISSN 0304-4238 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200380801; GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Antimicrobial activity * Antioxidant capacity * Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata * rapa L. var. pekinensis Lour * Cabbage Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.527, year: 2011

  14. METODE VECTOR AUTOREGRESSIVE (VAR DALAM PERAMALAN JUMLAH WISATAWAN MANCANEGARA KE BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TJOK GDE SAHITYAHUTTI RANANGGA

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to model and to forecast the number of foreign tourists (Australia, China, and Japan arrival to Bali using vector autoregressive (VAR method. The estimated of VAR model obtained to forecast the number of foreign tourists to Bali is the sixth order VAR (VAR(6.We used multivariate least square method to estimate the VAR(6’s parameters.The mean absolute percentage error (MAPE in this model were as follows 6.8% in predicting the number of Australian tourists, 15.9% in predicting the number of Chinese tourists, and 9% in predicting the number of Japanese tourists. The prediction of Australian, Chinese, and Japanese tourists arrival to Bali for July 2017 to December 2017 tended  to experience up and downs that were not too high compared to the previous months.

  15. Phyllactinia mali and Podosphaera tridactyla var. tridactyla – new hosts of Ampelomyces quisqualis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Czerniawska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, the occurrence of fungi of the order Erysiphales on plants of the Słowiański Park located in Goorzów Wielkopolski was investigated. Plant samples were collected once a month, from August to November. The samples examined were above ground plant parts colonized by powdery mildew fungi. A total of 78 samples were collected. Apart from 14 species of the order Erysiphales, Ampelomyces quisqualis parasitizing on Erysiphe cichoracearum var. cichoracearum, Phyllactinia mali and Podosphaera tridactyl var. tridactyla was found. Ampelomyces quisqualis affected hyphae, oidia, and young cleistothecia of P. mali. In contrast, in E. cichoracearum var. cichoracearum, Po. tridactyle var. tridactyla, this hyperparasite colonized only hyphae and oidia. This paper for the first trime informs of A. quisqualis parasitizing on P. mali and Po. tridactyla var. tridactyla.

  16. MODEL NON LINIER GARCH (NGARCH UNTUK MENGESTIMASI NILAI VALUE at RISK (VaR PADA IHSG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I KOMANG TRY BAYU MAHENDRA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In investment, risk measurement is important. One of risk measure is Value at Risk (VaR. There are many methods that can be used to estimate risk based on VaR framework. One of them Non Linier GARCH (NGARCH model. In this research, determination of VaR used NGARCH model. NGARCH model allowed for asymetric behaviour in the volatility such that “good news” or positive return and “bad news” or negative return. Based on calculations of VaR, the higher of the confidence level and the longer the investment period, the risk was greater. Determination of VaR using NGARCH model was less than GARCH model.

  17. [A survey on ecological environment of wild Adiantum reniforme var. sinense in Three Gorges Reservoir region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhong-de; Jia, Han; Fu, Shao-Zhi; Gao, Wen-Yuan; Zhang, Zhi-Wei; Sun, Wei

    2017-11-01

    The study aims at investigating the ecological environment Adiantum reniforme var. sinense of in Three Gorges Reservoir region, and providing a reference basis for the protection of resources and artificial cultivation of A. reniforme var. sinense. By using the method of investigation, field survey and experimental analysis, the vegetation, natural geographical environment, climate, soil nutrients of A. reniforme var. sinense were studied and analyzed. The survey found that A. reniforme var. sinense distribution area reduced fast in Three Gorges region, a lot of distribution has diminished and vanished due to excessive digging, currently only in 3 towns of Wanzhou there exist 4 wild distribution areas. The growth of A. reniforme var. sinense needs an environment with low altitude, steep slope and thin soil, northeast slope, canopy height and warm and humid climate characteristics, and the soil in distribution has the characteristics of high organic matter, available nitrogen, available potassium, and low available phosphorus content. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  18. Empirical analysis on future-cash arbitrage risk with portfolio VaR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongda; Li, Cong; Wang, Weijin; Wang, Ze

    2014-03-01

    This paper constructs the positive arbitrage position by alternating the spot index with Chinese Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) portfolio and estimating the arbitrage-free interval of futures with the latest trade data. Then, an improved Delta-normal method was used, which replaces the simple linear correlation coefficient with tail dependence correlation coefficient, to measure VaR (Value-at-risk) of the arbitrage position. Analysis of VaR implies that the risk of future-cash arbitrage is less than that of investing completely in either futures or spot market. Then according to the compositional VaR and the marginal VaR, we should increase the futures position and decrease the spot position appropriately to minimize the VaR, which can minimize risk subject to certain revenues.

  19. Molecular structures of fructans from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Mercedes G; Mancilla-Margalli, Norma A; Mendoza-Diaz, Guillermo

    2003-12-31

    Agave plants utilize crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) for CO(2) fixation. Fructans are the principal photosynthetic products generated by agave plants. These carbohydrates are fructose-bound polymers frequently with a single glucose moiety. Agave tequilana Weber var. azul is an economically important CAM species not only because it is the sole plant allowed for tequila production but because it is a potential source of prebiotics. Because of the large amounts of carbohydrates in A. tequilana, in this study the molecular structures of its fructans were determined by fructan derivatization for linkage analysis coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Fructans were extracted from 8-year-old A. tequilana plants. The linkage types present in fructans from A. tequilana were determined by permethylation followed by reductive cleavage, acetylation, and finally GC-MS analysis. Analysis of the degree of polymerization (DP) estimated by (1)H NMR integration and (13)C NMR and confirmed by MALDI-TOF-MS showed a wide DP ranging from 3 to 29 units. All of the analyses performed demonstrated that fructans from A. tequilana consist of a complex mixture of fructooligosaccharides containing principally beta(2 --> 1) linkages, but also beta(2 --> 6) and branch moieties were observed. Finally, it can be stated that fructans from A. tequilana Weber var. azul are not an inulin type as previously thought.

  20. Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii poisoning in water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira-Filho, José C; Carmo, Priscila M S; Lucena, Ricardo B; Pierezan, Felipe; Barros, Claudio S L

    2011-05-01

    An outbreak of an acute disease in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) caused by the ingestion of Baccharis megapotamica var. weirii occurred in the southern region of Brazil. Ten out of 50 buffalo died 24-48 hr after being introduced into a pasture containing abundant amounts of the plant. Factors influencing the ingestion of the plant and consequent toxicosis included hunger, stress caused by shipment, and unfamiliarity with the plant. Clinical signs included serous ocular discharge, incoordination, mild bloat, and muscle trembling. One buffalo was necropsied. Gross findings included dehydration, abundant liquid in the rumen, reddening of the mucosa of forestomachs, abomasum, and intestine, and edema of the wall of the rumen. The main histologic lesions were superficial to full thickness degeneration and necrosis of the stratified epithelium lining the forestomachs, necrosis of the intestinal mucosa, and widespread lymphoid necrosis. A calf (Bos taurus) was fed a single dose of 5 g/kg/body weight of B. megapotamica var. weirii harvested from the same site where the buffalo died. Twenty hours after the administration of the plant this calf died with clinical signs and lesions similar to those observed in the naturally poisoned buffalo. © 2011 The Author(s)

  1. DGA-based VAR rescheduling for transmission loss reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, S. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Delhi (India); Taylor, G.A. [Brunel Univ., London (United Kingdom). Brunel Inst. of Power Systems; Reddy, J.B.V. [Government of India, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Science and Technology; Naeem, M.H. [Multimedia Univ. (Malaysia). Faculty of Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Power losses in power transmission lines can be minimized by adjusting transformer taps and switchable VAR sources. Optimal power flow (OPF) is a static, nonlinear, multi-objective optimization challenge in which the optimal settings of control variables must be determined for minimizing the cost of generation, emissions, transmission losses and voltage and power flow deviations. OPF is important in power system operation because a small savings per hour can mean a large annual savings. This paper presented a method to reduce transmission power losses using a Differential Genetic Algorithm (DGA) for VAR rescheduling. The New England 39-bus power system was used as a test case. Power losses were minimized by changing the tap settings of various transformers and by varying the injected reactive power. The paper showed that certain buses in the system can improve the voltage profile and reduce transmission losses through reactive power injections from capacitor banks. In this study, minimum reactive power output of generators was maintained at zero to ensure that the generators did not draw reactive power. The DGA was shown to produce better results than the Conventional Genetic Algorithm in terms of power loss minimization. 12 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  2. Parasitosis intestinales en vendedores ambulantes de comida en Ciudad Bolívar, estado Bolívar, Venezuela | Intestinal parasitosis in food handlers from ciudad Bolívar, Bolívar state, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ixora Requena

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive study was performed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in a sample of apparently healthy individuals who sold food in streets in Los Proceres of Ciudad Bolívar, Bolívar State. Fecal samples were collected from 85 individuals, which were analyzed by means of direct examination, qualitative Kato, spontaneous sedimentation and Kinyoun staining. Each individual was filled a clinical epidemiological record and underwent anamnesis and oriented clinical examination. The assessed group comprised 50 women and 35 men with ages 14 to 57 years (mean 15.25 ± 4.21 years. From this group, 50 persons (58.82% were parasitized mainly by Blastocystis spp. (42.22%, Endolimax nana (11.11%, Entamoeba coli (6.67%, Giardia intestinalis (11.11%, Cryptosporidium spp. (11.11% and Cystoisospora belli (4.44%. There was no preference for gender or age (p > 0.05, and persons aged 20 to 25 years were the most affected group. Monoparasitism was observed in 56% (n = 28 cases and 44% (n = 22 of cases had other associated parasites, being the most frequent association between Blastocystis spp with Entamoeba coli and Endolimax nana. It is concluded that there is a high prevalence of intestinal parasitosis among street food handlers.

  3. The Development and Application of an Integrated VAR Process Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, A. Stewart

    2016-07-01

    The VAR ingot has been the focus of several modelling efforts over the years with the result that the thermal regime in the ingot can be simulated quite realistically. Such models provide important insight into solidification of the ingot but present some significant challenges to the casual user such as a process engineer. To provide the process engineer with a tool to assist in the development of a melt practice, a comprehensive model of the complete VAR process has been developed. A radiation heat transfer simulation of the arc has been combined with electrode and ingot models to develop a platform which accepts typical operating variables (voltage, current, and gap) together with process parameters (electrode size, crucible size, orientation, water flow, etc.) as input data. The output consists of heat flow distributions and solidification parameters in the form of text, comma-separated value, and visual toolkit files. The resulting model has been used to examine the relationship between the assumed energy distribution in the arc and the actual energy flux which arrives at the ingot top surface. Utilizing heat balance information generated by the model, the effects of electrode-crucible orientation and arc gap have been explored with regard to the formation of ingot segregation defects.

  4. Physicochemical traits of Dekoko (Pisum sativum var. abyssinicum) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemane, Asgedom; Skjelvåg, Arne O

    2003-01-01

    Dekoko (Pisum sativum var. abyssinicum) has high appreciation for its taste and obtains a premium price in local markets compared to Ater (Pisum sativum var. sativum). However, data on the physicochemical traits of Dekoko seeds were lacking. This paper reports on the physicochemical features of Dekoko and compares the results with that of Ater. Seed weight and seed volume were 36 and 30%, respectively, higher in Ater, while water absorption, percent seed swelling, and percent husk were higher in Dekoko. Cooking time was shorter for Dekoko than Ater seeds. Decortication reduced cooking time on average by 39 and 45 min in Dekoko and Ater, respectively. Cotyledon flour of Dekoko contained 251 g crude protein, 19 g fat, 31.7 g total sugars, 370 g starch, and 130 g neutral detergent fiber per kilogram DM. These traits were significantly higher in Dekoko than in Ater, except for starch, which was higher in the latter. Arginine, asparagine, and glutamine occurred in larger proportions, and collectively contributed about 39% to the total amino acids in both varieties. Lysine contributed about 7%, while sulfur containing amino acids constituted about 3.0 and 2.3% of the total amino acids in Dekoko and Ater, respectively. Ca and Mg were higher in Ater, while P was higher in Dekoko. Based on the observations it was concluded that Dekoko is a suitable supplementary protein source for a cereal-based diet.

  5. Optimizing expression of the pregnancy malaria vaccine candidate, VAR2CSA in Pichia pastoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avril, Marion; Hathaway, Marianne J; Cartwright, Megan M; Gose, Severin O; Narum, David L; Smith, Joseph D

    2009-06-29

    VAR2CSA is the main candidate for a vaccine against pregnancy-associated malaria, but vaccine development is complicated by the large size and complex disulfide bonding pattern of the protein. Recent X-ray crystallographic information suggests that domain boundaries of VAR2CSA Duffy binding-like (DBL) domains may be larger than previously predicted and include two additional cysteine residues. This study investigated whether longer constructs would improve VAR2CSA recombinant protein secretion from Pichia pastoris and if domain boundaries were applicable across different VAR2CSA alleles. VAR2CSA sequences were bioinformatically analysed to identify the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues at the C-termini of DBL domains and revised N- and C-termimal domain boundaries were predicted in VAR2CSA. Multiple construct boundaries were systematically evaluated for protein secretion in P. pastoris and secreted proteins were tested as immunogens. From a total of 42 different VAR2CSA constructs, 15 proteins (36%) were secreted. Longer construct boundaries, including the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues, generally improved expression of poorly or non-secreted domains and permitted expression of all six VAR2CSA DBL domains. However, protein secretion was still highly empiric and affected by subtle differences in domain boundaries and allelic variation between VAR2CSA sequences. Eleven of the secreted proteins were used to immunize rabbits. Antibodies reacted with CSA-binding infected erythrocytes, indicating that P. pastoris recombinant proteins possessed native protein epitopes. These findings strengthen emerging data for a revision of DBL domain boundaries in var-encoded proteins and may facilitate pregnancy malaria vaccine development.

  6. Optimizing expression of the pregnancy malaria vaccine candidate, VAR2CSA in Pichia pastoris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narum David L

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background VAR2CSA is the main candidate for a vaccine against pregnancy-associated malaria, but vaccine development is complicated by the large size and complex disulfide bonding pattern of the protein. Recent X-ray crystallographic information suggests that domain boundaries of VAR2CSA Duffy binding-like (DBL domains may be larger than previously predicted and include two additional cysteine residues. This study investigated whether longer constructs would improve VAR2CSA recombinant protein secretion from Pichia pastoris and if domain boundaries were applicable across different VAR2CSA alleles. Methods VAR2CSA sequences were bioinformatically analysed to identify the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues at the C-termini of DBL domains and revised N- and C-termimal domain boundaries were predicted in VAR2CSA. Multiple construct boundaries were systematically evaluated for protein secretion in P. pastoris and secreted proteins were tested as immunogens. Results From a total of 42 different VAR2CSA constructs, 15 proteins (36% were secreted. Longer construct boundaries, including the predicted C11 and C12 cysteine residues, generally improved expression of poorly or non-secreted domains and permitted expression of all six VAR2CSA DBL domains. However, protein secretion was still highly empiric and affected by subtle differences in domain boundaries and allelic variation between VAR2CSA sequences. Eleven of the secreted proteins were used to immunize rabbits. Antibodies reacted with CSA-binding infected erythrocytes, indicating that P. pastoris recombinant proteins possessed native protein epitopes. Conclusion These findings strengthen emerging data for a revision of DBL domain boundaries in var-encoded proteins and may facilitate pregnancy malaria vaccine development.

  7. Hierarchical cluster analysis and chemical characterisation of Myrtus communis L. essential oil from Yemen region and its antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-colorectal adenocarcinoma properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Sirajudheen; Crouch, Rebecca A; Awadh Ali, Nasser A; Al-Fatimi, Mohamed A; Setzer, William N; Wessjohann, Ludger

    2017-09-01

    The hydrodistilled essential oil obtained from the dried leaves of Myrtus communis, collected in Yemen, was analysed by GC-MS. Forty-one compounds were identified, representing 96.3% of the total oil. The major constituents of essential oil were oxygenated monoterpenoids (87.1%), linalool (29.1%), 1,8-cineole (18.4%), α-terpineol (10.8%), geraniol (7.3%) and linalyl acetate (7.4%). The essential oil was assessed for its antimicrobial activity using a disc diffusion assay and resulted in moderate to potent antibacterial and antifungal activities targeting mainly Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. The oil moderately reduced the diphenylpicrylhydrazyl radical (IC 50  = 4.2 μL/mL or 4.1 mg/mL). In vitro cytotoxicity evaluation against HT29 (human colonic adenocarcinoma cells) showed that the essential oil exhibited a moderate antitumor effect with IC 50 of 110 ± 4 μg/mL. Hierarchical cluster analysis of M. communis has been carried out based on the chemical compositions of 99 samples reported in the literature, including Yemeni sample.

  8. Evaluation of Repellency Effect of Essential Oils of Satureja khuzestanica (Carvacrol, Myrtus communis (Myrtle, Lavendula officinalis and Salvia sclarea using Standard WHO Repellency Tests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Kayedi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Using special lotions and repellent sprays on skin is one of the effective methods to prevent Arthropods biting which was verified in this study.Essential oils of four plants (Satureja khuzestanica, Salvia sclarea, Lavendula officinalis and Myrtus communis were separately extracted by Clevenger used hydro distillation method. Then separated solutions with 10%, 20% and 40% concentrations of essential oils of plants in 99.6 % ethanol were prepared. WHO guidelines for efficacy testing of mosquito repellents for human skin were used on different concentrations of essential oils of plants, traditional repellents (DEET, 50% and 33% as positive control, and ethanol 99.6% and naked hands as negative controls.In negative control groups, the number of bits were comparable (P= 0.42 and had decreasing time trends (naked hands P= 0.011, ethanol P< 0.001. In all time points, minimum bites were observed in traditional repellents and it was significantly less than the other groups (P< 0.001. The time trend in the number of bites in the other groups was positive and showed minimum number of bites in time zero in all groups. We also found that the concentration of repellents had association with the number of bites. The maximum and minimum numbers of bites were observed with 10% and 40% concentrations respectively in all groups.Essential oils of Salvia sclarea, Lavendula officinalis and Myrtus communis have repellency effect, even with 10% concentration of essential oils.

  9. Toxicological effects and recovery of the corneal epithelium in Cyprinus carpio communis Linn. exposed to monocrotophos: an scanning electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, Ravneet Kaur; Johal, Mohinder Singh; Sharma, Madan Lal

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted based on the evidence of fish habitats in North India being affected by organophosphate pesticides draining from agricultural fields into bodies of water, especially during the rainy season. Various tissues of fish such as scales, gills ovaries, kidney, and liver have been studied from the toxicological point of view, but the toxicological effects of aquatic pollutants on fish cornea have not been investigated to date. We conducted comparative toxicological studies on the cornea of Cyprinus carpio communis using two sublethal (0.038 and 0.126 ppm) concentrations of monocrotophos pesticide for 30 days. Corneas from all the groups were evaluated by a scanning electron microscope. The fish exposed to the monocrotophos pesticide developed corneal necrosis due to the formation of crystalloid-like structures, thinning and shrinkage of microridges on the corneal epithelium. After 30 days, fish from the monocrotophos-treated tank were transferred to normal environmental conditions. After 60 days under natural condition, epithelial cells did not fully recover. In conclusion, exposure to monocrotophos induces irreversible changes in the cornea of C. carpio communis. As fish and mammalian visual systems share many similarities, the reported finding may offer useful insights for further toxicological and ophthalmological studies in humans. © 2013 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  10. In vitro effect of seven essential oils on the reproduction of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Pazinato

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The acaricidal effect of seven essential oils was examined in vitro against the cattle tick (Rhipicephalus microplus. Engorged female ticks were manually collected in farms of Southern Brazil and placed into petri dishes (n = 10 in order to test the following oils: juniper (Juniperus communis, palmarosa (Cymbopogon martinii, cedar (Cedrus atlantica, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus, ginger (Zingiber officinale, geranium (Pelargonium graveolens and bergamot (Citrus aurantium var bergamia at concentrations of 1%, 5%, and 10% each. A control group was used to validate the tests containing Triton X-100 only. Treatment effectiveness was measured considering inhibition of tick oviposition (partial or total, egg’s weight, and hatchability. C. martinii, C. citratus and C. atlantica essential oils showed efficacy higher than 99% at all concentrations tested. In addition, J. communis, Z. officinale, P. graveolens, and C. aurantium var bergamia oils showed efficiency ranging from 73% to 95%, depending on the concentration tested, where higher concentrations showed greater efficacy. It was concluded that essential oils can affect tick reproduction in vitro by inhibiting oviposition and hatchability.

  11. [Leishmaniasis transmission focus in El Hobo, Carmen de Bolívar, Bolívar, Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Luis Alberto

    2006-10-01

    The epidemiological characteristics and the importance of the Lutzomyia species present in a leishmaniasis focus in the village El Hobo, Carmen de Bolívar, Department of Bolivar, Colombia, are described. To obtain a preliminary assessment of leishmaniasis transmission in the village of El Hobo, Carmen de Bolívar. Epidemiological data were analyzed and sandflies were collected with CDC traps and on protected human volunteers in the village of El Hobo. Sero prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniasis in dogs was evaluated using indirect inmunofluorescence (IFAT). Nine Lutzomyia species were collected: L. trinidadensis, L. evansi, L. cayennensis, L. venezuelensis, L. gomezi, L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, and L. walkeri. The species of greater importance based on their implication in the transmission of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis were L. gomezi, and L. evansi respectively. Specimens of L. venezuelensis, L. dubitans, L. ylephiletor, L. yuilli, and L. walkeri are reported for the first time for the Department of Bolivar. The sero prevalence of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs was 36%. According to the epidemiological records, in 2002 the municipality of Carmen de Bolivar presented a 40% increase in cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis and an 80% increase in canine visceral leishmaniasis as compared to 2001, due to the outbreak in the village of El Hobo. The results indicate that the village of El Hobo is an area of potential risk for transmission of both cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis.

  12. A molecular epidemiological study of var gene diversity to characterize the reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum in humans in Africa.

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    Donald S Chen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The reservoir of Plasmodium infection in humans has traditionally been defined by blood slide positivity. This study was designed to characterize the local reservoir of infection in relation to the diverse var genes that encode the major surface antigen of Plasmodium falciparum blood stages and underlie the parasite's ability to establish chronic infection and transmit from human to mosquito.We investigated the molecular epidemiology of the var multigene family at local sites in Gabon, Senegal and Kenya which differ in parasite prevalence and transmission intensity. 1839 distinct var gene types were defined by sequencing DBLα domains in the three sites. Only 76 (4.1% var types were found in more than one population indicating spatial heterogeneity in var types across the African continent. The majority of var types appeared only once in the population sample. Non-parametric statistical estimators predict in each population at minimum five to seven thousand distinct var types. Similar diversity of var types was seen in sites with different parasite prevalences.Var population genomics provides new insights into the epidemiology of P. falciparum in Africa where malaria has never been conquered. In particular, we have described the extensive reservoir of infection in local African sites and discovered a unique var population structure that can facilitate superinfection through minimal overlap in var repertoires among parasite genomes. Our findings show that var typing as a molecular surveillance system defines the extent of genetic complexity in the reservoir of infection to complement measures of malaria prevalence. The observed small scale spatial diversity of var genes suggests that var genetics could greatly inform current malaria mapping approaches and predict complex malaria population dynamics due to the import of var types to areas where no widespread pre-existing immunity in the population exists.

  13. A Molecular Epidemiological Study of var Gene Diversity to Characterize the Reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum in Humans in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leliwa-Sytek, Aleksandra; Smith, Terry-Ann; Peterson, Ingrid; Brown, Stuart M.; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Deloron, Philippe; Kortok, Moses M.; Marsh, Kevin; Daily, Johanna P.; Ndiaye, Daouda; Sarr, Ousmane; Mboup, Souleymane; Day, Karen P.

    2011-01-01

    Background The reservoir of Plasmodium infection in humans has traditionally been defined by blood slide positivity. This study was designed to characterize the local reservoir of infection in relation to the diverse var genes that encode the major surface antigen of Plasmodium falciparum blood stages and underlie the parasite's ability to establish chronic infection and transmit from human to mosquito. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the molecular epidemiology of the var multigene family at local sites in Gabon, Senegal and Kenya which differ in parasite prevalence and transmission intensity. 1839 distinct var gene types were defined by sequencing DBLα domains in the three sites. Only 76 (4.1%) var types were found in more than one population indicating spatial heterogeneity in var types across the African continent. The majority of var types appeared only once in the population sample. Non-parametric statistical estimators predict in each population at minimum five to seven thousand distinct var types. Similar diversity of var types was seen in sites with different parasite prevalences. Conclusions/Significance Var population genomics provides new insights into the epidemiology of P. falciparum in Africa where malaria has never been conquered. In particular, we have described the extensive reservoir of infection in local African sites and discovered a unique var population structure that can facilitate superinfection through minimal overlap in var repertoires among parasite genomes. Our findings show that var typing as a molecular surveillance system defines the extent of genetic complexity in the reservoir of infection to complement measures of malaria prevalence. The observed small scale spatial diversity of var genes suggests that var genetics could greatly inform current malaria mapping approaches and predict complex malaria population dynamics due to the import of var types to areas where no widespread pre-existing immunity in the population

  14. A sheep hydatid cyst glycoprotein as receptors for three toxic lectins, as well as Abrus precatorius and Ricinus communis agglutinins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, A M; Song, S C; Wu, J H; Pfüller, U; Chow, L P; Lin, J Y

    1995-01-18

    The binding properties of a glycoprotein with blood group P1 specificity isolated from sheep hydatid cyst fluid with Gal and GalNAc specific lectins was investigated by quantitative precipitin and precipitin inhibition assays. The glycoprotein completely precipitated Ricinus communis agglutinin (RCA1), Abrus precatorius agglutinin (APA) and Mistletoe toxic lectin-I (ML-I). Only 1.0 microgram of P1 glycoprotein was required to precipitate 50% of 5.1 micrograms ML-I nitrogen. It also reacted well with abrin-a and ricin, precipitating over 73% of the lectin nitrogen added, but poorly or weakly with Dolichos biflorus (DBL), Vicia villosa (VVL, a mixture of A4, A2B2 and B4), VVL-B4, Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Maclura pomifera (MPL), Bauchinia purpurea alba (BPL) and Wistaria floribunda (WFL) lectins. When an inhibition assay in the range of 5.1 micrograms N to 5.9 micrograms N of lectins (ML-I, abrin-a; ricin, RCA1, and APA, and 10 micrograms P1 active glycoprotein interaction was performed; from 76 to 100% of the precipitations were inhibited by 0.44 and 0.52 mumol of Gal alpha 1-->4Gal and Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc, respectively, but not or insignificantly with 1.72 mumol of GlcNAc. The Gal alpha 1-->4Gal disaccharide found in this P1 active glycoprotein is a frequently occurring sequence of many glycosphingolipids located at the surface of mammalian cell membranes, especially human erythrocytes and intestinal cells for ligand binding and microbial toxin attachment. The present finding suggests that the Gal alpha 1-->4Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc sequence in this P1 active glycoprotein is one of the best glycoprotein receptors for three toxic lectins (ricin, abrin-a, and ML-I) as well as for APA, and RCA1, and the result of inhibition assay implies that these lectins are recognizing part or all of the Gal alpha 1-->4Gal beta 1-->4GlcNAc sequence in the P1 active glycoprotein.

  15. Exploiting EST databases for the development and characterization of EST-SSR markers in castor bean (Ricinus communis L.

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    Yang Jun-Bo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The castor bean (Ricinus communis L., a monotypic species in the spurge family (Euphorbiaceae, 2n = 20, is an important non-edible oilseed crop widely cultivated in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate countries for its high economic value. Because of the high level of ricinoleic acid (over 85% in its seed oil, the castor bean seed derivatives are often used in aviation oil, lubricants, nylon, dyes, inks, soaps, adhesive and biodiesel. Due to lack of efficient molecular markers, little is known about the population genetic diversity and the genetic relationships among castor bean germplasm. Efficient and robust molecular markers are increasingly needed for breeding and improving varieties in castor bean. The advent of modern genomics has produced large amounts of publicly available DNA sequence data. In particular, expressed sequence tags (ESTs provide valuable resources to develop gene-associated SSR markers. Results In total, 18,928 publicly available non-redundant castor bean EST sequences, representing approximately 17.03 Mb, were evaluated and 7732 SSR sites in 5,122 ESTs were identified by data mining. Castor bean exhibited considerably high frequency of EST-SSRs. We developed and characterized 118 polymorphic EST-SSR markers from 379 primer pairs flanking repeats by screening 24 castor bean samples collected from different countries. A total of 350 alleles were identified from 118 polymorphic SSR loci, ranging from 2-6 per locus (A with an average of 2.97. The EST-SSR markers developed displayed moderate gene diversity (He with an average of 0.41. Genetic relationships among 24 germplasms were investigated using the genotypes of 350 alleles, showing geographic pattern of genotypes across genetic diversity centers of castor bean. Conclusion Castor bean EST sequences exhibited considerably high frequency of SSR sites, and were rich resources for developing EST-SSR markers. These EST-SSR markers would be particularly

  16. Vibrio communis sp. nov., isolated from the marine animals Mussismilia hispida, Phyllogorgia dilatata, Palythoa caribaeorum, Palythoa variabilis and Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimetto, Luciane A; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Alves, Nelson; Silva, Bruno Sergio; Brocchi, Marcelo; Willems, Anne; De Vos, Paul; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2011-02-01

    also be differentiated on the basis of the presence of the fatty acids C(17 : 0,) C(17 : 1)ω8c, iso-C(17 : 0) and iso-C(13 : 0) and the absence of the fatty acid C(18 : 0). The name Vibrio communis sp. nov. is proposed for this taxon. Strain R-40496(T) (=LMG 25430(T) =CAIM 1816(T)) is the type strain.

  17. New observations about the antineoplasic properties of the non-oily residue from the Ricinus communis seed, cultivated in Pernambuco, Brazil and its association with Co sup(60) ionizing irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, I.A. de; Santana, C.F. de; Martins, D.G.; Santos, E.R. dos; Lins, L.J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Based on results obtained by other authors on Ricinus communis, we are investigating the antineoplasic action of the non-oily residue from ketonic extract of the seed pulp of one of the R. communis varieties cultivated in the Stat of Pernambuco. Hipocratic tests yielded a DL sub(50) of 3mg/kg. The antineoplasic tests on Yoshida sarcoma with a dosage of 0.1 mg/kg/day by intraperitoneal injection detected a 50,5% inhibition of the tumour growth. When Ricinus communis was used in alternating days in the same dosage, the inhibition recorded was 40.16%. With an oral application of 10 mg/kg/day we recorded an inhibition of 58.5%. When it was associated with Co sup(60), an inhibition of 72.45% was observed. Radiations of Co sup(60) applied alone in the same dosage (12.0 Gy) yielded an inhibition of 63.02%. Based on these results we conclude that our variety of Ricinus communis has an antineoplasic action when used orally of intraperitoneally. (author)

  18. A novel virus-like particle based vaccine platform displaying the placental malaria antigen VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Susan; Janitzek, Christoph M; Agerbæk, Mette Ø

    2015-01-01

    , this difference was not statistically significant after 3rd immunization. Importantly, the VLP-VAR2CSA induced antibodies were functional in inhibiting the binding of parasites to CSA. This study demonstrates that the described Avi-L1 VLP-platform may serve as a versatile system for facilitating optimal VLP......SA-VAR2CSA vaccines induced higher antibody titers than the soluble naked VAR2CSA vaccine after three immunizations. The VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP vaccine induced statistically significantly higher endpoint titres compared to the soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccine, after 1st and 2nd immunization; however...

  19. iVAR: a program for imputing missing data in multivariate time series using vector autoregressive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siwei; Molenaar, Peter C M

    2014-12-01

    This article introduces iVAR, an R program for imputing missing data in multivariate time series on the basis of vector autoregressive (VAR) models. We conducted a simulation study to compare iVAR with three methods for handling missing data: listwise deletion, imputation with sample means and variances, and multiple imputation ignoring time dependency. The results showed that iVAR produces better estimates for the cross-lagged coefficients than do the other three methods. We demonstrate the use of iVAR with an empirical example of time series electrodermal activity data and discuss the advantages and limitations of the program.

  20. Anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea and var. angustifolia on 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woon, Shiau Mei; Seng, Yew Wei; Ling, Anna Pick Kiong; Chye, Soi Moi; Koh, Rhun Yian

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the anti-adipogenic effects of extracts of Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidia and var. angustifolia, a natural slimming aid, on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methanol and water extracts of leaves of the F. deltoidea varieties were analyzed to determine their total flavonoid content (TFC) and total phenolic content (TPC), respectively. The study was initiated by determining the maximum non-toxic dose (MNTD) of the methanol and water extracts for 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Possible anti-adipogenic effects were then examined by treating 2-d post confluent 3T3-L1 preadipocytes with either methanol extract or water extract at MNTD and half MNTD (½MNTD), after which the preadipocytces were induced to form mature adipocytes. Visualisation and quantification of lipid content in mature adipocytes were carried out through oil red O staining and measurement of optical density (OD) at 520 nm, respectively. The TFCs of the methanol extracts were 1.36 and 1.97 g quercetin equivalents (QE)/100 g dry weight (DW), while the TPCs of the water extracts were 5.61 and 2.73 g gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW for var. deltoidea and var. angustilofia, respectively. The MNTDs determined for methanol and water extracts were (300.0 ± 28.3) and (225.0 ± 21.2) µg/ml, respectively, for var. deltoidea, while much lower MNTDs [(60.0 ± 2.0) µg/ml for methanol extracts and (8.0 ± 1.0) µg/ml for water extracts] were recorded for var. angustifolia. Studies revealed that the methanol extracts of both varieties and the water extracts of var. angustifolia at either MNTD or ½MNTD significantly inhibited the maturation of preadipocytes. The inhibition of the formation of mature adipocytes indicated that leaf extracts of F. deltoidea could have potential anti-obesity effects.

  1. A hybrid PSO technique for procuring VAR ancillary service in the deregulated electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Araby, E.E. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Suez Canal University (Egypt); Yorino, Naoto [Department of Artificial Complex Systems Engineering, Hiroshima University (Japan)

    2010-07-15

    This paper develops a new market-based technique for acquiring VAR ancillary service in the electricity market. The main objective of the developed market is to enable transmission operator ''TO'' to procure VAR service in a long term contract from the critical VAR providers that satisfy minimum VAR service payment while maintaining system security. Reactive power control problem for voltage stability is introduced into the VAR market problem in an explicit manner for normal and emergency states. An integration of particle swarm optimization ''PSO'' is presented with successive linear programming ''SLP'' for dealing with the VAR ancillary service problem. The problem is formulated as a large-scale nonlinear constrained optimization problem with a non-differentiable objective function representing VAR payment and operational costs. This type of problem is hard to be treated straightforwardly by the classical optimization methods. Therefore, we propose here a two-layer hybrid PSO/SLP approach, which is suited for carrying out the difficulties associated with non-differentiable and discontinuous objective functions. The proposed method has been examined on the standard IEEE 57 bus-system and compared with GA/SLP method to demonstrate its capability. (author)

  2. [Correlation between distribution of rhizospheric microorganisms and contents of steroidal saponins of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Nong; Qi, Wen-hua; Xiao, Guo-sheng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Hua; Guo, Dong-qin; Shen, Wei

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the varying pattern of the amount of rhizospheric microorganisms, including bacteria, actinomycetes and fungus, was observed during the cultivation of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the correlations between number of rhizospheric microorganisms and the quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis were also studied. The results showed that the rhizospheric microorganism source of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was rich. The distribution of rhizospheric microorganisms (soil bacteria, fungus, actinomycetes, potassium-solubilizing bacteria, inorganic phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria, organic phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria) collected from different origin places existed significant difference (P the amount of actinomycetes > the amount of fungus. The medicinal quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was influenced by their habits, and the increase of cultivation years caused the obvious decrease of the quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Therefore, the increase of cultivation years will cause the variation of the soil micro-ecology flora, and decrease the nutrient absorption and the utilization of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis, which will make the decrease of the medical quality of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis.

  3. [Autotoxicity of aqueous extracts from plant of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Hui; Lang, Duo-Yong; Chen, Jing; Zhao, Yun-Sheng; Wu, Xiu-Li; Fu, Xue-Yan

    2014-02-01

    To exploring the relationship between continuous cropping obstacle and autotoxicity of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, autotoxic effect of plant aqueous extract were determined. Distilled water (CK), aqueous extract of plant, including root, stem and leaf (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL respectively)were applied to testing their effect on early growth of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. Specifically, seed germination rate, germination index, emergence rate, elongation of radical and embryo, and seedling vigor index were determined. The aqueous extract of root, stem, and leaf at 25 mg/mL significantly inhibited the seed germination and seedling growth of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, and this inhibitory effect generally increased with the increase of the concentration of aqueous extracts. To the comprehensive allelopathic effect, the extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus stem were more inhibitory than those from leaf and root. The germination index and seedling vigor index were more sensitive to extract than other determined parameters. Aqueous extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus plant gave inhibitory effects on Astragalus. membranaceus var. mongholicus germination and seedling growth, and this inhibitory effect generally increased with the increases of aqueous extract concentration at a certain ranges. In conclusion, there is an autotoxicity in continuous cropping of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus.

  4. Phosphorylation of SU(VAR3-9 by the chromosomal kinase JIL-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joern Boeke

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The histone methyltransferase SU(VAR3-9 plays an important role in the formation of heterochromatin within the eukaryotic nucleus. Several studies have shown that the formation of condensed chromatin is highly regulated during development, suggesting that SU(VAR3-9's activity is regulated as well. However, no mechanism by which this may be achieved has been reported so far. As we and others had shown previously that the N-terminus of SU(VAR3-9 plays an important role for its activity, we purified interaction partners from Drosophila embryo nuclear extract using as bait a GST fusion protein containing the SU(VAR3-9 N-terminus. Among several other proteins known to bind Su(VAR3-9 we isolated the chromosomal kinase JIL-1 as a strong interactor. We show that SU(VAR3-9 is a substrate for JIL-1 in vitro as well as in vivo and map the site of phosphorylation. These findings may provide a molecular explanation for the observed genetic interaction between SU(VAR3-9 and JIL-1.

  5. Sporozoite Route of Infection Influences In Vitro var Gene Transcription of Plasmodium falciparum Parasites From Controlled Human Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimonte, Sandra; Bruske, Ellen I; Hass, Johanna; Supan, Christian; Salazar, Carmen L; Held, Jana; Tschan, Serena; Esen, Meral; Flötenmeyer, Matthias; Koch, Iris; Berger, Jürgen; Bachmann, Anna; Sim, Betty K L; Hoffman, Stephen L; Kremsner, Peter G; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Frank, Matthias

    2016-09-15

    Antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum is mediated by the multicopy var gene family. Each parasite possesses about 60 var genes, and switching between active var loci results in antigenic variation. In the current study, the effect of mosquito and host passage on in vitro var gene transcription was investigated. Thirty malaria-naive individuals were inoculated by intradermal or intravenous injection with cryopreserved, isogenic NF54 P. falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ) generated from 1 premosquito culture. Microscopic parasitemia developed in 22 individuals, and 21 in vitro cultures were established. The var gene transcript levels were determined in early and late postpatient cultures and in the premosquito culture. At the early time point, all cultures preferentially transcribed 8 subtelomeric var genes. Intradermal infections had higher var gene transcript levels than intravenous infections and a significantly longer intrahost replication time (P = .03). At the late time point, 9 subtelomeric and 8 central var genes were transcribed at the same levels in almost all cultures. Premosquito and late postpatient cultures transcribed the same subtelomeric and central var genes, except for var2csa  The duration of intrahost replication influences in vitro var gene transcript patterns. Differences between premosquito and postpatient cultures decrease with prolonged in vitro growth. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Cloning of the Repertoire of Individual Plasmodium falciparum var Genes Using Transformation Associated Recombination (TAR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Christoph D.; Bühlmann, Tobias; Louis, Edward J.; Beck, Hans-Peter

    2011-01-01

    One of the major virulence factors of the malaria causing parasite is the Plasmodium falciparum encoded erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1). It is translocated to It the membrane of infected erythrocytes and expressed from approximately 60 var genes in a mutually exclusive manner. Switching of var genes allows the parasite to alter functional and antigenic properties of infected erythrocytes, to escape the immune defense and to establish chronic infections. We have developed an efficient method for isolating VAR genes from telomeric and other genome locations by adapting transformation-associated recombination (TAR) cloning, which can then be analyzed and sequenced. For this purpose, three plasmids each containing a homologous sequence representing the upstream regions of the group A, B, and C var genes and a sequence homologous to the conserved acidic terminal segment (ATS) of var genes were generated. Co-transfection with P. falciparum strain ITG2F6 genomic DNA in yeast cells yielded 200 TAR clones. The relative frequencies of clones from each group were not biased. Clones were screened by PCR, as well as Southern blotting, which revealed clones missed by PCR due to sequence mismatches with the primers. Selected clones were transformed into E. coli and further analyzed by RFLP and end sequencing. Physical analysis of 36 clones revealed 27 distinct types potentially representing 50% of the var gene repertoire. Three clones were selected for sequencing and assembled into single var gene containing contigs. This study demonstrates that it is possible to rapidly obtain the repertoire of var genes from P. falciparum within a single set of cloning experiments. This technique can be applied to individual isolates which will provide a detailed picture of the diversity of var genes in the field. This is a powerful tool to overcome the obstacles with cloning and assembly of multi-gene families by simultaneously cloning each member. PMID:21408186

  7. Tillers induction in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernani Augusto Ochekoski Mossanek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bactris gasipaes produces heart-of-palm. Peach palm is a perennial crop that has a tillering capacity, being an alternative to illegal extraction. There is a lack of studies about vegetative propagation technics for this species. The present study aimed to analyze different tillering induction methods in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes seedlings in four different seasons. The treatments were: 1 stem bending; 2 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of benzylaminopurine; 3 stem bending and application of 150 mg kg-1 of gibberellic acid and; 4 stem girdling. The experimental design was random with 4 replicates of 20 plants per treatment. Anatomical analyses were conducted at the stem, and the tillering and mortality of the treated plants were evaluated. It was possible to identify the stem tissues and the meristematic apex site by anatomical analysis. The stem bending treatments were inefficient; but girdling presented potential as tillers inducer.

  8. BASIC ANATOMICAL PROPERTIES of Ammannia auriculata var. arenaria (LYTHRACEAE

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    Mehmet AYBEKE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed in order to define some anatomical characteristics of Ammannia auriculata Willd. var. arenaria (Kunth Koehne (Lythraceae to ensure a proper identification of the species and prevent confusion with other plants. Roots, leaves and stems of the plants were fixed in Formalin-Aceto-Alcohol (FAA, stained with various dyes, examined under a microscope and their photos were taken. The microscopic investigations of the plant parts revealed that 1 the leaf anatomy showed partly mezophyte character, the stem and roots beared aquatic characters with a wide aeranchymatic cortex and 2 thick lignified secondary xylem tissue in the roots and stems were located outwards of the stele. The results were compared with those of similar studies.

  9. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale.

  10. Citogenética de Guazuma ulmifolia var. Ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Tapia-Pastrana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se utilizó una metodología de extendido en superficie y secado al aire para obtener por vez primera el cariotipo somático de una población de Guazuma ulmifolia var. ulmifolia. El número cromosómico diploide 2n = 16 obtenido a partir de meristemos radiculares confirma recuentos anteriores. La fórmula cariotípica fue 14m + 2st con una ligera asimetría (T.F.% = 42,19. La longitud cromosómica total haploide fue de 11,65 µm con un intervalo cromosómico de 1,11 - 2,05 µm. Los organizadores nucleolares asociados a constricciones secundarias ubicados en el par 3 (m y el polimorfismo que exhibe el par 8 (st pueden ser empleados como marcadores citogenéticos en futuros estudios de otras especies y variedades del género.

  11. Effects of ionizing radiation on Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum (Solanaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scaldaferro, M.A.; Prina, A.R.; Moscone, E.A.; Kwasniewska, J.

    2013-01-01

    Cytogenetic and somatic effects of various x-ray treatments were evaluated in pepper, Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum cv. “Cayenne”, with the aim to assess optimal conditions for obtaining viable lines. The cytogenetic effects were quantified by counting chromosome aberrations. The level of DNA fragmentation was estimated with TUNEL test (terminal transferase mediated dUTP-fluorescein nick end labeling). Irradiation to 20 Gy with 16-h presoaking can be a suitable treatment of the selected pepper cultivar for a mutagenesis program. - Highlights: • Cytogenetic and somatic effects of x-rays treatments in Capsicum were evaluated. • Frequencies of chromosome aberrations correlated with radiation doses. • Highest frequency of chromosome aberrations occurred with 20 Gy+soaking seeds. • In TUNEL test, the nuclei with DNA fragmentation were higher than in the control. • The strongest effects were observed with doses of 300 Gy or 20 Gy after soaking

  12. Forecasting Macedonian Business Cycle Turning Points Using Qual Var Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrovska Magdalena

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at assessing the usefulness of leading indicators in business cycle research and forecast. Initially we test the predictive power of the economic sentiment indicator (ESI within a static probit model as a leading indicator, commonly perceived to be able to provide a reliable summary of the current economic conditions. We further proceed analyzing how well an extended set of indicators performs in forecasting turning points of the Macedonian business cycle by employing the Qual VAR approach of Dueker (2005. In continuation, we evaluate the quality of the selected indicators in pseudo-out-of-sample context. The results show that the use of survey-based indicators as a complement to macroeconomic data work satisfactory well in capturing the business cycle developments in Macedonia.

  13. Controlling pool depth during VAR of Alloy 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, F.; Beaman, J.; Williamson, R.; Evans, D.

    2016-07-01

    A longtime goal of superalloy producers has been to control the geometry of the liquid pool in solidifying ingots. Accurate pool depth control at appropriate values is expected to result in ingots free of segregation defects. This article describes an industrial VAR experiment in which a 430mm (17 in) diameter Alloy 718 electrode was melted into a 510mm (20 in) ingot. In the experiment, the depth of the liquid pool at the mid-radius was controlled to three different set-points: 137 mm (nominal), 193 mm (deep) and 118 mm (shallow). At each level, the pool depth was marked by a power cutback of several minutes. The ingot was sectioned and longitudinal slices were cut out. Analysis of the photographed ingot revealed that accurate control was obtained for both the nominal and deep pool cases, while the third one was not conclusive.

  14. Solidification Mapping of a Nickel Alloy 718 Laboratory VAR Ingot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Trevor J.; Taleff, Eric M.; Lopez, Felipe; Beaman, Joe; Williamson, Rodney

    The solidification microstructure of a laboratory-scale Nickel alloy 718 vacuum arc remelted (VAR) ingot was analyzed. The cylindrical, 210-mm-diameter ingot was sectioned along a plane bisecting it length-wise, and this mid-plane surface was ground and etched using Canada's reagent to reveal segregation contrast. Over 350 photographs were taken of the etched mid-plane surface and stitched together to form a single mosaic image. Image data in the resulting mosaic were processed using a variety of algorithms to extract quantities such as primary dendrite orientation, primary dendrite arm spacing (PDAS), and secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) as a function of location. These quantities were used to calculate pool shape and solidification rate during solidification using existing empirical relationships for Nickel Alloy 718. The details and outcomes of this approach, along with the resulting comparison to experimental processing conditions and computational models, are presented.

  15. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruvalcaba-Ruiz, Domingo; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamin

    2002-10-23

    Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I) showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB); 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00%) and 58.00 % viable pollen. The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability.

  16. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez-Garay Benjamin

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Results The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB; 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00% and 58.00 % viable pollen. Conclusion The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability.

  17. Positive selection of Plasmodium falciparum parasites with multiple var2csa-type PfEMP1 genes during the course of infection in pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Adam F; Salanti, Ali; Lavstsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    multiple genes coding for different VAR2CSA proteins, and parasites with >1 var2csa gene appear to be more common in pregnant women with placental malaria than in nonpregnant individuals. We present evidence that, in pregnant women, parasites containing multiple var2csa-type genes possess a selective...... advantage over parasites with a single var2csa gene. Accumulation of parasites with multiple copies of the var2csa gene during the course of pregnancy was also correlated with the development of antibodies involved in blocking VAR2CSA adhesion. The data suggest that multiplicity of var2csa-type genes...

  18. Occurrence of pathotypes of Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella (Jones Boerema in the Olsztyn district

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Furgał-Węgrzycka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The causal agents of leaves and pods spot-pot of peas and field peas in the Olsztyn district was the fungus Phoma medicaginis var. pinodella. Investigated isolates of P. medicaginis var. pinodella differed by macroscopic and microscopic features. From diseases leaves and pods of peas and field peas obtained also saprophytic fungi among which Alternaria alternata, Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Epicoccum purpurascens, Stemphylium botryosum, Sordaria fimicola and mycelia sterilia were dominated. In the study on the identification and distribution of pathotypes of P. medicaginis var. pinodella six pathotypes were identified among which pathotype 3 were dominated. The identified pathotypes differed by macroscopic and microscopic features.

  19. Application of superconducting coils to VAR control in electric power systems: a proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boenig, H.J.; Hassenzahl, W.V.

    1979-11-01

    During the last eight years, static VAR-control systems with thyristor-controlled, room-temperature reactors have been used in electrical systems for voltage control and system stabilization. In this proposal, we describe a new static VAR-control system that uses an asymmetrically controlled Graetz bridge and a superconducting dc coil. Preliminary studies indicate that the proposed system will have lower overall losses and that its capital cost and electrical characteristics are comparable to those of a conventional system. Three- and four-year programs for developing the electronic circuitry and superconducting coils for VAR control, culminating in the installation and testing of an approx. 40-MVAR system, are proposed

  20. Chemical composition, antibacterial activity and related mechanism of the essential oil from the leaves of Juniperus rigida Sieb. et Zucc against Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xiaxia; Li, Dengwu; Zhou, Dan; Wang, Dongmei; Liu, Qiaoxiao; Fan, Sufang

    2016-12-24

    Juniperus rigida is used as Tibetan and Mongolian medicine in China for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, nephritis, brucellosis and other various inflammatory diseases. To evaluate antibacterial potential of essential oils from J. rigida leaves against Klebsiella pneumoniae and to examine its possible related mechanisms. The study was undertaken in order to scientifically validate the traditional use of J. rigida. The essential oil was extracted from the leaves of J. rigida by supercritical CO 2 fluid extraction technology. Chemical composition of essential oils was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antibacterial activity was evaluated against 10 bacteria by the paper disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of the essential oil were estimated by agar dilution method. The antibacterial mechanism was evaluated by growth curve, the integrity of cell membrane, the SDS-PAGE of protein patterns and scanning electron microscope (SEM). 61 components were identified from the essential oil. Caryophyllene (13.11%) and α-Caryophyllene (11.72%) were found to be the major components. The antibacterial activities of the essential oil were screened and compared against 10 bacteria. The essential oil showed good antibacterial activity against K. pneumoniae, with the biggest diameters of inhibition zones (DIZ) (16.00±0.25mm) and the lowest MIC and MBC values of 3.125mg/mL. The increase in proteins, 260nm absorbing materials of bacterial cells suspension indicated that the cytoplasmic membranes were broken by the essential oil. The SDS-PAGE of bacterial proteins demonstrated that the essential oil could damage bacterial cells through the destruction of cellular proteins. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the essential oil damaged the morphology of cell wall and membrane. The essential oil of J. rigida has potential antibacterial activities against K

  1. Seasonal changes in depth of water uptake for encroaching trees Juniperus virginiana and Pinus ponderosa and two dominant C4 grasses in a semiarid grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggemeyer, Kathleen D; Awada, Tala; Harvey, F Edwin; Wedin, David A; Zhou, Xinhua; Zanner, C William

    2009-02-01

    We used the natural abundance of stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen and oxygen in soil (0.05-3 m depth), plant xylem and precipitation to determine the seasonal changes in sources of soil water uptake by two native encroaching woody species (Pinus ponderosa P. & C. Lawson, Juniperus virginiana L.), and two C(4) grasses (Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Panicum virgatum L.), in the semiarid Sandhills grasslands of Nebraska. Grass species extracted most of their water from the upper soil profile (0.05-0.5 m). Soil water uptake from below 0.5 m depth increased under drought, but appeared to be minimal in relation to the total water use of these species. The grasses senesced in late August in response to drought conditions. In contrast to grasses, P. ponderosa and J. virginiana trees exhibited significant plasticity in sources of water uptake. In winter, tree species extracted a large fraction of their soil water from below 0.9 m depth. In spring when shallow soil water was available, tree species used water from the upper soil profile (0.05-0.5 m) and relied little on water from below 0.5 m depth. During the growing season (May-August) significant differences between the patterns of tree species water uptake emerged. Pinus ponderosa acquired a large fraction of its water from the 0.05-0.5 and 0.5-0.9 m soil profiles. Compared with P. ponderosa, J. virginiana acquired water from the 0.05-0.5 m profile during the early growing season but the amount extracted from this profile progressively declined between May and August and was mirrored by a progressive increase in the fraction taken up from 0.5-0.9 m depth, showing plasticity in tracking the general increase in soil water content within the 0.5-0.9 m profile, and being less responsive to growing season precipitation events. In September, soil water content declined to its minimum, and both tree species shifted soil water uptake to below 0.9 m. Tree transpiration rates (E) and water potentials (Psi) indicated

  2. Anti-tumor effect of hot aqueous extracts from Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L. and Juniperus sabina L - Two traditional medicinal plants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyan, Ting; Li, Qi; Wang, Yi-Lin; Li, Jing; Zhang, Jian-Yang; Liu, Ya-Xiong; Shahid, Muhammad Riaz; Yang, Hui; Li, Huan-Qing

    2016-06-05

    Sonchus oleraceus (L.) L (SO) and Juniperus sabina L (JS) are traditional medicinal plants in China. And the aqueous extracts of them have been used to treat tumor, inflammatory diseases, infection and so on in Chinese folk culture. However, the underlying mechanisms of their anti-tumor activities have not been illustrated yet. This study aims to evaluate the inhibitory effects of aqueous extracts from SO and JS on tumor cells. The prepared aqueous extracts of SO and JS were used to treat HepG-2 and K562 tumor cells, while the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were set as normal control. The viabilities, cell cycle and apoptosis of tumor cells after extracts treatment were assessed, in addition the expression of apoptosis-related genes (FasL, caspase 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10) were analyzed. Meanwhile, the adherence and migration of HepG-2 were tested, and the expression levels of MMPs and ICAM-1 were analyzed. On top of that, the pSTAT in the two cells were also analyzed and suggested the related signaling pathway that the extracts acted on with in these tumor cells. Results showed that aqueous extracts of SO and JS have inhibitory effects on HepG-2 and K562 cells by decreasing cell viability and inducing apoptosis via up-regulation of the expression of the apoptosis-related genes FasL, caspase 3 and caspase 9. The extracts had different IC50 on tumor cells and PBMCs, which could block the tumor cell cycle at the G(0)/G(1) stage and significantly inhibit the adherence of HepG-2 cells. The extracts inhibited migration of these cells by inhibiting the expression of ICAM-1, MMP-2 and MMP-9. Further study indicated that the inhibition of pSTAT1 and 3 might be responsible for the inhibitory effects of the extracts on tumor cells. The results of this study indicated that SO and JS extracts had the anti-tumor effects, which may be developed as novel anti-tumor drugs and used in cancer therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evidence for in vitro and in vivo expression of the conserved VAR3 (type 3) plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Christian W; Lavstsen, Thomas; Bengtsson, Dominique C

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Members of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) adhesion antigen family are major contributors to the pathogenesis of P. falciparum malaria infections. The PfEMP1-encoding var genes are among the most diverse sequences in nature, but three genes......, var1, var2csa and var3 are found conserved in most parasite genomes. The most severe forms of malaria disease are caused by parasites expressing a subset of antigenically conserved PfEMP1 variants. Thus the ubiquitous and conserved VAR3 PfEMP1 is of particular interest to the research field. Evidence...... of VAR3 expression on the infected erythrocyte surface has never been presented, and var3 genes have been proposed to be transcribed and expressed differently from the rest of the var gene family members. METHODS: In this study, parasites expressing VAR3 PfEMP1 were generated using anti-VAR3 antibodies...

  4. Poliuretana de mamona (Ricinus communis para desvio da crista tibial no cão Polyurethane resins derived from castor oil (Ricinus communis for tibial crest deviation in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Popak Maria

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A luxação medial de patela é uma das principais afecções ortopédicas que afetam cães de raças de pequeno porte. Tendo como princípio que o desvio da crista tibial é uma das alterações anatômicas encontradas, este estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito da poliuretana de mamona (Ricinus communis aplicada em defeitos produzidos experimentalmente na porção proximal medial da tíbia de cães normais em fase de crescimento. Para isto, foram utilizados 12 cães subdivididos aleatoriamente em 3 grupos de igual número, com mesmo tratamento, mas com análise histopatológica aos 30 (GI, 60 (GII e 90 (GIII dias. O estudo constou de avaliações clínica, radiográfica, macroscópica, histopatológica, tomográfica e análise estatística. Avaliação clínica demonstrou não haver rejeição do implante. A análise radiográfica revelou intensa reação periosteal e neoformações ósseas no local da implantação. Macroscopicamente observou-se espessamento da crista tibial, neoformações ósseas e desvio lateral da crista. Os achados à microscopia óptica revelaram presença de tecido conjuntivo fibroso ao redor da poliuretana, ausência de proliferação óssea em direção ao implante e proliferação de periósteo na face medial das tíbias. A tomografia computadorizada revelou desvio lateral da crista em 11 animais e estes desvios foram estatisticamente significantes em nível de 5% por meio do teste t pareado.Medial patellar luxation is one of the most common orthopedic problems in small breeds of dogs and tibial crest deviation is a frequent accompaining anatomical abnormality. For that reason, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the behavior of castor oil derived polyurethane implants when apllied to experimental defects created on the medial side of the proximal tibia of normal puppies. Twelve dogs were randomly divided in 3 groups of 4 animals and were submitted to the same treatment. Histopathological study was performed

  5. Genetic analisys of a cross of gaillon (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with cauliflower (B.oleracea var. botrytis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa B.M.G. Spini

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis is an annual vegetable cultivated in Southern and Southwestern Brazil with limited production in the Northeast and Centralwest. A variety of Chinese kale, "kaai laan" or "gaillon" (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra, produces seeds at high temperatures and therefore can do so in North and Northeastern Brazil. Gaillon and cauliflower were crossed 55 times using 10 gaillon plants as mothers and 4 cauliflower plants as pollen donors. From these crosses, in the F2 generation, 612 plants with inflorescence like gaillon and 48 plants with inflorescence like cauliflower were obtained, in a proportion similar to 15:1, implying that 2 pairs of genes entered into formation of the cauliflower inflorescence type. In order to study flower color, 339 plants were analyzed: 274 presented white flowers and 65, yellow flowers, denoting that this caracter is determined by 1 pair of genes, white being dominant over yellow; white flowers had a slighly higher adaptive value in our population. The characteristic waxy leaf showed a proportion of 3 waxy plants for 1 not waxy, indicating the action of one pair of genes.A couve-flor (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis é um vegetal anual e tem seu cultivo no Brasil limitado às regiões Sul e Sudeste, com pequena produção no Nordeste e Centro-Oeste. Uma variedade de couve da China, "kaai laan" ou "gaillon" (Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra, produz sementes em altas temperaturas e, portanto, é apta a produzir sementes no Norte e Nordeste do Brasil. Gaillon e couve-flor foram cruzados. Foram feitos 55 cruzamentos usando 10 plantas de gaillon como mãe e 4 plantas de couve-flor como doadores de pólen. Desses cruzamentos, na geração F2, 612 plantas com inflorescência tipo gaillon e 48 plantas com inflorescência tipo couve-flor foram obtidas, em proporção similar a 15:1, demonstrando que 2 pares de genes estão envolvidos na formação da inflorescência em couve

  6. Refusion of zircaloy scraps by VAR (vacuum arc remelting): preliminary results; Fusao de cavacos de zircaloy por VAR: resultados preliminares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, L.A.T.; Mucsi, C.S.; Sato, I.M.; Rossi, J.L.; Martinez, L.G., E-mail: lgallego@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Correa, H.P.S. [Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS), Campo Grande, MS (Brazil); Orlando, M.T.D. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Fuel elements and structural components of the core of PWR nuclear reactors are made in zirconium alloys known as Zircaloy. Machining chips and shavings resulting from the manufacturing of these components can not be discarded as scrap, once these alloys are strategic materials for the nuclear area, have high costs and are not produced in Brazil on an industrial bases and, consequently, are imported for the manufacture of nuclear fuel. The reuse of Zircaloy chips has economic, strategic and environmental aspects. In this work is proposed a process for recycling Zircaloy scraps using a VAR (vacuum arc remelting) furnace in order to obtain ingots suitable for the manufacture of components of the reactors. The ingots obtained are being studied in order to verify the influence of processing on composition and microstructure of the remelted material. In this work are presented preliminary results of the composition of obtained ingots compared to start material and the resulting microstructure. (author)

  7. ESTIMATING RISK ON THE CAPITAL MARKET WITH VaR METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinisa Bogdan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The two basic questions that every investor tries to answer before investment are questions about predicting return and risk. Risk and return are generally considered two positively correlated sizes, during the growth of risk it is expected increase of return to compensate the higher risk. The quantification of risk in the capital market represents the current topic since occurrence of securities. Together with estimated future returns it represents starting point of any investment. In this study it is described the history of the emergence of VaR methods, usefulness in assessing the risks of financial assets. Three main Value at Risk (VaR methodologies are decribed and explained in detail: historical method, parametric method and Monte Carlo method. After the theoretical review of VaR methods it is estimated risk of liquid stocks and portfolio from the Croatian capital market with historical and parametric VaR method, after which the results were compared and explained.

  8. Comparison of historically simulated VaR: Evidence from oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costello, Alexandra; Asem, Ebenezer; Gardner, Eldon

    2008-01-01

    Cabedo and Moya [Cabedo, J.D., Moya, I., 2003. Estimating oil price 'Value at Risk' using the historical simulation approach. Energy Economics 25, 239-253] find that ARMA with historical simulation delivers VaR forecasts that are superior to those from GARCH. We compare the ARMA with historical simulation to the semi-parametric GARCH model proposed by Barone-Adesi et al. [Barone-Adesi, G., Giannopoulos, K., Vosper, L., 1999. VaR without correlations for portfolios of derivative securities. Journal of Futures Markets 19 (5), 583-602]. The results suggest that the semi-parametric GARCH model generates VaR forecasts that are superior to the VaR forecasts from the ARMA with historical simulation. This is due to the fact that GARCH captures volatility clustering. Our findings suggest that Cabedo and Moya's conclusion is mainly driven by the normal distributional assumption imposed on the future risk structure in the GARCH model. (author)

  9. Modeling and Analysis of a Three-Phase Solid-State Var ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling and Analysis of a Three-Phase Solid-State Var Compensator (SSVC) ... Nigerian Journal of Technology. Journal Home ... The problems associated with the flow of reactive power in transmission and distribution lines are well known.

  10. Equisetum hyemale L. var. affine (Engelm.) A.A. Eaton in Schoorl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swolfs, Aart G.

    1996-01-01

    A giant form of the Northamerican Equisetum hyemale var. affine has been planted a decade ago near the coast, where it has naturalized since. It is suggested that other Northamerican introductions of this extremely variable taxon may have remained unnoticed.

  11. Larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DE Lara, Ana Paula DE Souza Stori; Lorenzon, Lucas Bigolin; Vianna, Ana Muñoz; Santos, Francisco Denis Souza; Pinto, Luciano Silva; Aires Berne, Maria Elisabeth; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2016-10-01

    Effective control of gastrointestinal parasites is necessary in sheep production. The development of anthelmintics resistance is causing the available chemically based anthelmintics to become less effective. Biological control strategies present an alternative to this problem. In the current study, we tested the larvicidal effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus larvae. Bacterial suspensions [2 × 108 colony-forming units (CFU) g-1 of the feces] of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were added to naturally H. contortus egg-contaminated feces. The larvae were quantified, and significant reductions of 62 and 81% (P var. israelensis and recombinant E. coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were then orally administered to lambs naturally infected with H. contortus. Twelve hours after administration, feces were collected and submitted to coprocultures. Significant larvae reductions (P var. israelensis is a promising new class of biological anthelmintics for treating sheep against H. contortus.

  12. Salts and nutrients present in regenerated waters induce changes in water relations, antioxidative metabolism, ion accumulation and restricted ion uptake in Myrtus communis L. plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Motos, José R; Alvarez, Sara; Barba-Espín, Gregorio; Hernández, José A; Sánchez-Blanco, María J

    2014-12-01

    The use of reclaimed water (RW) constitutes a valuable strategy for the efficient management of water and nutrients in landscaping. However, RW may contain levels of toxic ions, affecting plant production or quality, a very important aspect for ornamental plants. The present paper evaluates the effect of different quality RWs on physiological and biochemical parameters and the recovery capacity in Myrtus communis L. plants. M. communis plants were submitted to 3 irrigation treatments with RW from different sources (22 weeks): RW1 (1.7 dS m(-1)), RW2 (4.0 dS m(-1)) and RW3 (8.0 dS m(-1)) and one control (C, 0.8 dS m(-1)). During a recovery period of 11 weeks, all plants were irrigated with the control water. The RW treatments did not negatively affect plant growth, while RW2 even led to an increase in biomass. After recovery,only plants irrigated with RW3 showed some negative effects on growth, which was related to a decrease in the net photosynthesis rate, higher Na accumulation and a reduction in K levels. An increase in salinity was accompanied by decreases in leaf water potential, relative water content and gas exchange parameters, and increases in Na and Cl uptake. Plants accumulated Na in roots and restricted its translocation to the aerial part. The highest salinity levels produced oxidative stress, as seen from the rise in electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation. The use of regenerated water together with carefully managed drainage practices, which avoid the accumulation of salt by the substrate, will provide economic and environmental benefits.

  13. Organic acids, amino acids compositions in the root exudates and Cu-accumulation in castor (Ricinus communis L.) Under Cu stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guoyong; Guo, Guangguang; Yao, Shiyuan; Zhang, Na; Hu, Hongqing

    2016-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is a hyperaccumulation plant newly discovered in an abandoned land of Cu mine in China. A hydroponic experiment was then carried out to determine the root exudates in the Cu-tolerant castor (Ricinus communis L.). Plants were grown in nutrient solution with increasing level of Cu doses (0, 100, 250, 500, and 750 μmol/L Cu) in the form of CuSO4. Cu accumulation in the roots and shoots of castor, and root exudates collected from the castor were measured. The results indicated that the castor had a high Cu accumulation capacity and the Cu concentrations in the shoots and roots of the castor treated with 750 μmol/L Cu were 177.1, 14586.7 mg/kg, respectively. Tartaric was the largest in the root exudates in terms of concentrations, which reached up to 329.13 μmol/g (dry plant) in the level of 750 μmol/L Cu. There was a significantly positive linear relationship between the Cu concentration in root and the concentration of succinic (R = 0.92, P < 0.05), tartaric (R = 0.96, P < 0.01), and citric (R = 0.89, P < 0.05). These results indicated that the difference in root exudation from castor could affect their Cu tolerance. What is more, significant is that the high tartaric and citric, the low oxalic and cysteine in the root exudation of castor contributed to toleration of high Cu concentrations.

  14. Ricinus communis L. (castor bean) as a potential candidate for revegetating industrial waste contaminated sites in peri-urban Greater Hyderabad: remarks on seed oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boda, Ravi Kiran; Majeti, Narasimha Vara Prasad; Suthari, Sateesh

    2017-08-01

    Ricinus communis L. (castor bean or castor oil plant) was found growing on metal-contaminated sites (4) of peri-urban Greater Hyderabad comprises of erstwhile industrial areas viz Bollaram, Patancheru, Bharatnagar, and Kattedan industrial areas. During 2013-2017, about 60 research papers have appeared focusing the role of castor bean in phytoremediation of co-contaminated soils, co-generation of biomaterials, and environmental cleanup, as bioenergy crop and sustainable development. The present study is focused on its use as a multipurpose phytoremediation crop for phytostabilization and revegetation of waste disposed peri-urban contaminated soils. To determine the plant tolerance level, metal accumulation, chlorophyll, protein, proline, lipid peroxidation, oil content, and soil properties were characterized. It was noticed that the castor plant and soils have high concentration of metals such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn). The soils have high phosphorous (P), adequate nitrogen (N), and low concentration of potassium (K). Iron (Fe) concentrations ranged from1672±50.91 to 2166±155.78 mg kg -1 in the soil. The trend of metal accumulation Fe>Zn>Mn>Pb>Cd was found in different plant parts at polluted sites. The translocation of Cd and Pb showed values more than one in industrial areas viz Bollaram, Kattedan, and Bharatnagar indicating the plants resistance to metal toxicity. Chlorophyll and protein content reduced while proline and malondialdehyde increased due to its tolerance level under metal exposure. The content of ricinoleic acid was higher, and the fatty acids composition of polluted areas was almost similar to that of the control area. Thus, R. communis L. can be employed for reclamation of heavy metal contaminated soils.

  15. Taxonomic study on Japanese Salvia (Lamiaceae): Phylogenetic position of S. akiensis, and polyphyletic nature of S. lutescens var. intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Atsuko

    2017-01-01

    Both Salvia akiensis and S. lutescens (Lamiaceae) are endemic to Japan. Salvia akiensis was recently described in 2014 in the Chugoku (= SW Honshu) region, and each four varieties of S. lutescens distributed allopatrically. Among varieties in S. lutescens , var. intermedia show a disjunctive distribution in the Kanto (=E Honshu) and Kinki (= W Honshu) regions. Recent field studies of S. lutescens var. intermedia revealed several morphological differences between the Kanto and Kinki populations. Here, I evaluated these differences among Salvia lutescens var. intermedia and its allies with morphological analysis and molecular phylogenetic analyses of nuclear ribosomal DNA (internal and external transcribed spacer regions) and plastid DNA ( ycf1-rps15 spacer, rbcL , and trnL-F ) sequences. Both morphological analysis and molecular phylogenetic analyses showed that S. lutescens var. intermedia from the Kinki region and var. lutescens were closely related to each other. However, var. intermedia from the Kanto region exhibited an association with S. lutescens var. crenata and var. stolonifera, which also grew in eastern Japan, rather than var. intermedia in the Kinki region. These results indicated that S. lutescens var. intermedia is not a taxon with a disjunctive distribution, but a combination of two or more allopatric taxa. Present study also suggested that S. akiensis was most closely related to S. omerocalyx .

  16. Influence of beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. cruenta) on mice leukocytes increase

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro, Jony

    2014-01-01

    Background: Beetroot is a flavonoid-containing Mediterranean plant used for food and medicinal purposes. Objectives: To determine the influence of Beta vulgaris var. cruenta extract consumption in increasing albino mice leukocytes. Design: Experimental study. Setting: School N° 1182 bioterium. Biologic material: Twenty male Balb/c albino mice weighing 24 g average. Interventions: Two groups of ten mice each were formed; the experimental group received Beta vulgaris var. cruenta extract at 250...

  17. Characterization of flavonoids in Millettia nitida var. hirsutissima by HPLC/DAD/ESI-MS n

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Min; Yang, Wen-Zhi; Liu, Ke-Di; Qiao, Xue; Li, Bei-Jia; Cheng, Jun; Feng, Jie; Guo, De-An; Zhao, Yu-Ying

    2011-01-01

    Millettia nitida var. hirsutissima is a Chinese herbal medicine used for the treatment of gynecological diseases. An HPLC/DAD/ESI-MSn method was established for the rapid separation and characterization of bioactive flavonoids in M. nitida var. hirsutissima. A total of 32 flavonoids were detected, of which 14 compounds were unambiguously characterized by comparing their retention time, UV, and MS spectra with those of the reference standards, and the others were tentatively identified based o...

  18. [Content and distribution of active components in cultivated and wild Taxus chinensis var. mairei plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shao-Shuai; Sun, Qi-Wu; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Tian, Sheng-Ni; Bo, Pei-Lei

    2012-10-01

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei is an endemic and endangered plant species in China. The resources of T. chinensis var. mairei have been excessively exploited due to its anti-cancer potential, accordingly, the extant T. chinensis var. mairei population is decreasing. In this paper, ultrasonic extraction and HPLC were adopted to determine the contents of active components paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine in cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants, with the content distribution of these components in different parts of the plants having grown for different years and at different slope aspects investigated. There existed obvious differences in the contents of these active components between cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants. The paclitaxel content in the wild plants was about 0.78 times more than that in the cultivated plants, whereas the 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine contents were slishtly higher in the cultivated plants. The differences in the three active components contents between different parts and tree canopies of the plants were notable, being higher in barks and upper tree canopies. Four-year old plants had comparatively higher contents of paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine (0.08, 0.91 and 0.32 mg x g(-1), respectively), and the plants growing at sunny slope had higher contents of the three active components, with significant differences in the paclitaxel and 7-xylosyltaxol contents and unapparent difference in the cephalomannine content of the plants at shady slope. It was suggested that the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants were closely related to the sunshine conditions. To appropriately increase the sunshine during the artificial cultivation of T. chinensis var. mairei would be beneficial to the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants.

  19. Exact eigenstates and open-quotes trivialityclose quotes of λ(var-phi *var-phi)2 theory in the Feshbach-Villars formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darewych, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    The complex scalar (Klein-Gordon) quantum field theory (QFT) with a λ(var-phi * var-phi) 2 interaction is considered in the Feshbach-Villars formulation. It is shown that exact few-particle eigenstates of the QFT Hamiltonian can be obtained. The resulting relativistic few-body equations correspond to Klein-Gordon particles interacting via delta-function, or open-quotes contact,close quotes potentials. Momentum-space solutions of the two-body equation yield a open-quotes trivialclose quotes unity S matrix. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  20. Feasibility of Stochastic Voltage/VAr Optimization Considering Renewable Energy Resources for Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James A.; Salkuti, Surender Reddy

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a stochastic optimization technique for solving the Voltage/VAr control problem including the load demand and Renewable Energy Resources (RERs) variation. The RERs often take along some inputs like stochastic behavior. One of the important challenges i. e., Voltage/VAr control is a prime source for handling power system complexity and reliability, hence it is the fundamental requirement for all the utility companies. There is a need for the robust and efficient Voltage/VAr optimization technique to meet the peak demand and reduction of system losses. The voltages beyond the limit may damage costly sub-station devices and equipments at consumer end as well. Especially, the RERs introduces more disturbances and some of the RERs are not even capable enough to meet the VAr demand. Therefore, there is a strong need for the Voltage/VAr control in RERs environment. This paper aims at the development of optimal scheme for Voltage/VAr control involving RERs. In this paper, Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) method is used to cover full range of variables by maximally satisfying the marginal distribution. Here, backward scenario reduction technique is used to reduce the number of scenarios effectively and maximally retain the fitting accuracy of samples. The developed optimization scheme is tested on IEEE 24 bus Reliability Test System (RTS) considering the load demand and RERs variation.

  1. Working alliance inventory applied to virtual and augmented reality (WAI-VAR): psychometrics and therapeutic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miragall, Marta; Baños, Rosa M; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Botella, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S) adaptation to Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) therapies (WAI-VAR). The relationship between the therapeutic alliance (TA) with VR and AR and clinically significant change (CSC) is also explored. Seventy-five patients took part in this study (74.7% women, M age = 34.41). Fear of flying and adjustment disorder patients received VR therapy, and cockroach phobia patients received AR therapy. Psychometric properties, CSC, one-way ANOVA, Spearman's Correlations and Multiple Regression were calculated. The WAI-VAR showed a unidimensional structure, high internal consistency and adequate convergent validity. "Not changed" patients scored lower on the WAI-VAR than "improved" and "recovered" patients. Correlation between the WAI-VAR and CSC was moderate. The best fitting model for predicting CSC was a linear combination of the TA with therapist (WAI-S) and the TA with VR and AR (WAI-VAR), due to the latter variable slightly increased the percentage of variability accounted for in CSC. The WAI-VAR is the first validated instrument to measure the TA with VR and AR in research and clinical practice. This study reveals the importance of the quality of the TA with technologies in achieving positive outcomes in the therapy.

  2. The effect of extract of Punica granatum var. pleniflora for treatment of minor recurrent aphthous stomatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavanji, Shahin; Larki, Behrouz; Bakhtari, Azizollah

    2014-06-01

    Herbal drugs are considered alternative agents and have been used for several years around the world. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is one of the most common problems recognized by dentists and skin specialists. This problem is characterized by recurring, painful, small oral mucosal ulcers with a round or oval aspect that mostly appear in keratinized mucosa, cheeks, and on the surface of the mouth under the tongue. In our experiment, the alcoholic and water extracts of Punica granatum var. pleniflora, P. granatum var. Sweet Alak, and P. granatum var. Saveh Black were tested on minor RAS. The study was carried out using the double-blind method. The study population consisted of 210 participants, of whom 69 were females (32%) and 141 were males (68%). In addition to checking several factors, the pain and the degree of the participant's satisfaction had been determined based on visual analog scale. Data analysis was done in the form of a nonparametric method using Kruskal-Wallis test and SPSS version 20 software. The results show that the alcoholic and water extracts of P. granatum var. pleniflora have a meaningful therapeutic effect on minor RAS. Results from the antioxidant activity and its relation to total phenolics show that P. granatum var. pleniflora and P. granatum var. Sweet Alak are rich in phenols. The water and alcoholic extracts of P. granatum varpleniflora decreased the entire time of complete treatment, and the treatment was meaningfully satisfactory for patients who participated in this experiment.

  3. Arundina graminifolia var. revoluta (Arethuseae, Orchidaceae) has fern-type rheophyte characteristics in the leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Eri; Ishikawa, Naoko; Okada, Hiroshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2015-03-01

    Morphological and molecular variation between Arundina graminifolia var. graminifolia and the dwarf variety, A. graminifolia var. revoluta, was examined to assess the validity of their taxonomic characteristics and genetic background for identification. Morphological analysis in combination with field observations indicated that A. graminifolia var. revoluta is a rheophyte form of A. graminifolia characterized by narrow leaves, whereas the other morphological characteristics described for A. graminifolia var. revoluta, such as smaller flowers and short stems, were not always accompanied by the narrower leaf phenotype. Molecular analysis based on matK sequences indicated that only partial differentiation has occurred between A. graminifolia var. graminifolia and A. graminifolia var. revoluta. Therefore, we should consider the rheophyte form an ecotype rather than a variety. Anatomical observations of the leaves revealed that the rheophyte form of A. graminifolia possessed characteristics of the rheophytes of both ferns and angiosperms, such as narrower palisade tissue cells and thinner spongy tissue cells, as well as fewer cells in the leaf-width direction and fewer mesophyll cell layers.

  4. Penetration, Post-penetration Development, and Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Cucumis melo var. texanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faske, T R

    2013-03-01

    Cucumis melo var. texanus, a wild melon commonly found in the southern United States and two accessions, Burleson Co. and MX 1230, expressed resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in preliminary experiments. To characterize the mechanism of resistance, we evaluated root penetration, post-penetration development, reproduction, and emigration of M. incognita on these two accessions of C. melo var. texanus. Additionally, we evaluated 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus for their reaction against M. incognita in a greenhouse experiment. Fewer (P ≤ 0.05) J2 penetrated the root system of C. melo var. texanus accessions (Burleson Co. and MX 1230) and C. metuliferus (PI 482452) (resistant control), 7 days after inoculation (DAI) than in C. melo 'Hales Best Jumbo' (susceptible control). A delayed (P ≤ 0.05) rate of nematode development was observed at 7, 14, and 21 DAI that contributed to lower (P ≤ 0.05) egg production on both accessions and C. metuliferus compared with C. melo. Though J2 emigration was observed on all Cucumis genotypes a higher (P ≤ 0.05) rate of J2 emigration was observed from 3 to 6 DAI on accession Burleson Co. and C. metuliferus than on C. melo. The 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus varied relative to their reaction to M. incognita with eight supporting similar levels of nematode reproduction to that of C. metuliferus. Cucumis melo var. texanus may be a useful source of resistance against root-knot nematode in melon.

  5. Characterization of the antigenicity of Cpl1, a surface protein of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jian-Piao; Liu, Ling-Li; To, Kelvin K W; Lau, Candy C Y; Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Guo, Yong-Hui; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Che, Xiao-Yan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans is an important fungal pathogen. The capsule is a well established virulence factor and a target site for diagnostic tests. The CPL1 gene is required for capsular formation and virulence. The protein product Cpl1 has been proposed to be a secreted protein, but the characteristics of this protein have not been reported. Here we sought to characterize Cpl1. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Cpl1 of C. neoformans var. neoformans and the Cpl1 orthologs identified in C. neoformans var. grubii and C. gattii formed a distinct cluster among related fungi; while the putative ortholog found in Trichosporon asahii was distantly related to the Cryptococcus cluster. We expressed Cpl1 abundantly as a secreted His-tagged protein in Pichia pastoris. The protein was used to immunize guinea pigs and rabbits for high titer mono-specific polyclonal antibody that was shown to be highly specific against the cell wall of C. neoformans var. neoformans and did not cross react with C. gattii, T. asahii, Aspergillus spp., Candida spp. and Penicillium spp. Using the anti-Cpl1 antibody, we detected Cpl1 protein in the fresh culture supernatant of C. neoformans var. neoformans and we showed by immunostaining that the Cpl1 protein was located on the surface. The Cpl1 protein is a specific surface protein of C. neoformans var. neoformans. © 2015 by The Mycological Society of America.

  6. Efficient transformation and expression of gfp gene in Valsa mali var. mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Sun, Gengwu; Wu, Shujing; Liu, Huixiang; Wang, Hongkai

    2015-01-01

    Valsa mali var. mali, the causal agent of valsa canker of apple, causes great loss of apple production in apple producing regions. The pathogenic mechanism of the pathogen has not been studied extensively, thus a suitable gene marker for pathogenic invasion analysis and a random insertion of T-DNA for mutants are desirable. In this paper, we reported the construction of a binary vector pKO1-HPH containing a positive selective gene hygromycin phosphotransferase (hph), a reporter gene gfp conferring green fluorescent protein, and an efficient protocol for V. mali var. mali transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. A transformation efficiency up to about 75 transformants per 10(5) conidia was achieved when co-cultivation of V. mali var. mali and A. tumefaciens for 48 h in A. tumefaciens inductive medium agar plates. The insertions of hph gene and gfp gene into V. mali var. mali genome verified by polymerase chain reaction and southern blot analysis showed that 10 randomly-selected transformants exhibited a single, unique hybridization pattern. This is the first report of A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation of V. mali var mali carrying a 'reporter' gfp gene that stably and efficiently expressed in the transformed V. mali var. mali species.

  7. Semi-nonparametric VaR forecasts for hedge funds during the recent crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Brio, Esther B.; Mora-Valencia, Andrés; Perote, Javier

    2014-05-01

    The need to provide accurate value-at-risk (VaR) forecasting measures has triggered an important literature in econophysics. Although these accurate VaR models and methodologies are particularly demanded for hedge fund managers, there exist few articles specifically devoted to implement new techniques in hedge fund returns VaR forecasting. This article advances in these issues by comparing the performance of risk measures based on parametric distributions (the normal, Student’s t and skewed-t), semi-nonparametric (SNP) methodologies based on Gram-Charlier (GC) series and the extreme value theory (EVT) approach. Our results show that normal-, Student’s t- and Skewed t- based methodologies fail to forecast hedge fund VaR, whilst SNP and EVT approaches accurately success on it. We extend these results to the multivariate framework by providing an explicit formula for the GC copula and its density that encompasses the Gaussian copula and accounts for non-linear dependences. We show that the VaR obtained by the meta GC accurately captures portfolio risk and outperforms regulatory VaR estimates obtained through the meta Gaussian and Student’s t distributions.

  8. In vitro antioxidant and anticancer effects of solvent fractions from Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yu-Jin; Lee, Eun-Ju; Kim, Haeng-Ran; Hwang, Kyung-A

    2013-11-09

    Recently, considerable attention has been focused on exploring the potential antioxidant properties of plant extracts or isolated products of plant origin. Prunella vulgaris var. lilacina is widely distributed in Korea, Japan, China, and Europe, and it continues to be used to treat inflammation, eye pain, headache, and dizziness. However, reports on the antioxidant activities of P. vulgaris var. lilacina are limited, particularly concerning the relationship between its phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant and anticancer activities of an ethanol extract from P. vulgaris var. lilacina and its fractions. Dried powder of P. vulgaris var. lilacina was extracted with ethanol, and the extract was fractionated to produce the hexane fraction, butanol fraction, chloroform fraction and residual water fraction. The phenolic content was assayed using the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method. Subsequently, the antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract and its fractions were analyzed employing various antioxidant assay methods including DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, SOD activity and production of reactive oxygen species. Additionally, the extract and fractions were assayed for their ability to exert cytotoxic activities on various cancer cells using the MTT assay. We also investigated the expression of genes associated with apoptotic cell death by RT-PCR. The total phenolic contents of the ethanol extract and water fraction of P. vulgaris var. lilacina were 303.66 and 322.80 mg GAE/g dry weight (or fractions), respectively. The results showed that the ethanol extract and the water fraction of P. vulgaris var. lilacina had higher antioxidant content than other solvent fractions, similar to their total phenolic content. Anticancer activity was also tested using the HepG2, HT29, A549, MKN45 and HeLa cancer cell lines. The results clearly demonstrated that the P. vulgaris var. lilacina ethanol extract induced significant cytotoxic effects

  9. Chiasma failures and chromosome association in Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y J

    1982-01-01

    In Rhoeo spathacea var. variegata (2n = 2x = 12), the most frequent meiotic configuration was the chain-of-12 chromosomes (36%) and the second most frequent was the ring-of-12 chromosomes (25.6%). All six possible two-chain situations and eleven of the twelve possible three-chain situations were observed. A maximum of five chains was observed in four cells. The size of chains ranged from on through twelve chromosomes. The mean number of chiasma failures was 1.36 +/- 0.07 per cell and 0.1133 per pair of chromosome arms. Because the observed frequencies of various configurations agree with the expected, which were calculated under the assumption that chiasma failure is equally likely at each of the twelve positions around the ring, it was concluded that chiasma failures occurred at random among the arm-positions. Due to the lengths of arm-pairs in the ring vary considerably, the randomness may mean that chiasma formation was restricted to small terminal regions on all chromosomes.

  10. Bauhinia variegata var. variegata lectin: isolation, characterization, and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yau Sang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    Bauhinia variegata var. variegata seeds are rich in proteins. Previously, one of the major storage proteins of the seeds was found to be a trypsin inhibitor that possessed various biological activities. By using another purification protocol, a glucoside- and galactoside-binding lectin that demonstrated some differences from the previously reported B. variegata lectin could be isolated from the seeds. It involved affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose and Mono Q, and also size exclusion chromatography on Superdex 75. The lectin was not retained on Affi-gel blue gel but interacted with Q-Sepharose. The lectin was a 64-kDa protein with two 32-kDa subunits. It had low thermostability (stable up to 50 °C) and moderate pH stability (stable in pH 3-10). It exhibited anti-proliferative activity on nasopharyngeal carcinoma HONE1 cells with an IC50 of 12.8 μM after treatment for 48 h. It also slightly inhibited the growth of hepatoma HepG2 cells. The lectin may have potential in aiding cancer treatments.

  11. Bioactive phenylpropanoid analogues from Piper betle L. var. birkoli leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiya, Akhtar; Sinha, Barij Nayan; Lal, Uma Ranjan

    2017-11-01

    Phytochemical analyses of the chloroform extract of Piper betle L. var. birkoli, Piperaceae, leaves led to the isolation of two new phenylpropanoid analogues: bis-chavicol dodecanoyl ester (2) and bis-hydroxychavicol dodecanoyl ester (3), along with one known compound: allyl-3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzene (1) on the basis of spectroscopic data 1D ( 1 H and 13 C) and 2D ( 1 H- 1 H COSY and HMBC) NMR, as well as ESI-MS, FT-IR, HR-ESI-MS and LC-ESI-MS. Compound 2 and 3 exhibited excellent antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC 50 values of 12.67 μg/mL and 1.08 μg/mL compared to ascorbic acid as a standard antioxidant drug with IC 50 value of 6.60 μg/mL. Evaluation of cytotoxic activity against two human oral cancer cell lines (AW13516 and AW8507) showed significant effect with GI 50 values of 19.61 and 23.01 μg/mL for compound 2 and 10.25 and 13.12 μg/mL for compound 3, compared to Doxorubicin ® as a standard cytotoxic drug with GI 50 value of < 10 μg/mL.

  12. Foam separation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis var. niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieves, R B; Wang, S L

    1967-01-01

    An experimental investigation established the effect of the presence of inorganic salts on the foam separation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and of Bacillus subtilis var. niger (B. globigii) from aqueous suspension by use of a cationic surfactant. For P. fluorescens, 5.0 mueq/ml of NaCl, KCl, Na(2)SO(4), K(2)SO(4), CaCl(2), CaSO(4), MgCl(2), or MgSO(4) produced increases in the cell concentration in the residual suspension (not carried into the foam) from 2.9 x 10(5) up to 1.6 x 10(6) to 2.8 x 10(7) cells per milliliter (initial suspensions contain from 3.3 x 10(7) to 4.8 x 10(7) cells per milliliter). The exceptional influence of magnesium was overcome by bringing the cells into contact first with the surfactant and then the salt. For B. subtilis, the presence of 5.0 mueq/ml of any of the eight salts increased the residual cell concentration by one order of magnitude from 1.2 x 10(4) to about 4.0 x 10(5) cells per milliliter. This occurred regardless of the sequence of contact as long as the surfactant contact period was sufficient. The presence of salts increased collapsed foam volumes with P. fluorescens and decreased collapsed foam volumes with B. subtilis.

  13. MORFOGÉNESIS IN VITRO DE Pseudotsuga menziesii VAR. glauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Guadalupe Carrillo-Benítez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la respuesta morfogénica a partir de embriones cigóticos cultivados in vitro de semilla almacenada (un año de Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca recolectada en Tlaxcala. Las semillas fueron desinfestadas con detergente y H2O2 (3 % v/v durante 48 h en agitación a 50 rpm, cultivadas en el medio de Murashige y Skoog (1962 sin reguladores. La germinación ocurrió después de siete días y posteriormente subcultivados a un medio MS con 2,4-D (3 mg·L-1 y BA (1 mg·L-1. Con los callos obtenidos en un medio HS se evaluaron tres concentraciones de ABA para promover formación de estructuras embrionarias, presentándose el mejor tratamiento con concentración de 10.0 mg·L-1 (P<.0001. El mejor desarrollo de plántulas se presentó empleando un medio Murashige y Skoog (1962 con sacarosa al 6 %. Se usaron micorrizas para mejor adaptación de plántulas a suelo. No hubo formación de raíces.

  14. Chemical constituents and biological activities of Dianthus elegans var. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutlu, Kiymet; Sarikahya, Nazli Boke; Nalbantsoy, Ayse; Kirmizigul, Suheyla

    2018-06-01

    Chemical investigation of the aerial parts of Dianthus elegans var. elegans afforded two previously undescribed saponins, named dianosides M-N (1-2), together with four oleanane-type triterpenoid glycosides (3-6). Their structures were elucidated as 3-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-16α-hydroxyolean-12-ene-23α, 28β-dioic acid (1) and 3-O-α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1 → 3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl 16α-hydroxyolean-12-ene-23α-oic acid, 28-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 6)-β-D-glycosyl ester (2) by chemical and extensive spectroscopic methods including IR, 1D, 2D NMR and HRESIMS. Both of the saponins were evaluated for their cytotoxicities against HEK-293, A-549 and HeLa human cancer cells using the MTT method. All compounds showed no substantial cytotoxic activity against tested cell lines. However, dianosides M-N and the n-butanol fraction exhibited considerable haemolysis in human erythrocyte cells. The immunomodulatory properties of dianosides M-N were also evaluated in activated whole blood cells by PMA plus ionomycin. Dianosides M-N increased IL-1β concentration significantly whereas the n-butanol fraction slightly augmented IL-1β secretion. All compounds did not change IL-2 and IFN-γ levels considerably.

  15. The R + var-epsilon R2 cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.S.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis presents the study of a model cosmology based on the R + var-epsilon R 2 gravitational Lagrangian. It may be roughly divided into two distinct parts. First, the classical inflationary scenario is developed. Then, the formalism of quantum cosmology is employed to determined initial conditions for the classical model. In the work on the classical model, the evolution equations for an isotropic and homogeneous universe are solved to exhibit both early-time inflation and a smooth transition to subsequent radiation-dominated behavior. Then perturbations on this isotropic background are evolved through the model to provide constraints on the model parameters from the observational limits on anisotropy today. In the work on the wave function, the two boundary conditions of Vilenkin and Hartle and Hawking are compared. The wave functions obtained are restricted to the initial edge of classical Lorentzian inflationary trajectories as distributions over initial conditions for the classical inflationary model. It is found that Vilenkin's wave function prefers the universe to undergo a great deal of inflation, whereas Hartle and Hawking's wave function prefers the universe to undergo little inflation. Finally, both boundary conditions are shown to require the inhomogeneous perturbative modes start out in their ground states

  16. Micropropagation of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iapichino, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) is a perennial plant cultivated in the Mediterranean region and the Americas for its edible young flower heads. Although vegetative propagation by offshoots or by "ovoli" (underground dormant axillary buds) has been the primary method of propagation, the potential for the diffusion of diseases and the phenotypic variability can be very high. The propagation of this species by axillary shoot proliferation from in vitro-cultured meristems produces systemic pathogen-free plants and a higher multiplication rate as compared to that obtained by conventional agamic multiplication. Axillary shoot proliferation can be induced from excised shoot apices cultured on Murashige and Skoog agar solidified medium supplemented with various concentrations of cytokinins and auxins, depending on genotype. For the production of virus-free plants, meristems, 0.3-0.8 mm long are excised from shoot apices and surface sterilized. The transfer of artichoke microshoots to a medium lacking cytokinins or with low cytokinin concentration is critical for rooting. Adventitious roots develop within 3-5 weeks after transfer to root induction MS medium containing NAA or IAA at various concentrations. However, in vitro rooting frequency rate is dependent on the genotype and the protocol used. Acclimatization of in vitro microshoots having 3-4 roots is successfully accomplished; plantlets develop new roots in ex vitro conditions and continue to grow.

  17. VAR control in distribution systems by using artificial intelligence techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golkar, M.A. [Curtin Univ. of Technology, Sarawak (Malaysia). School of Engineering and Science

    2005-07-01

    This paper reviewed artificial intelligence techniques used in VAR control systems. Reactive power controls in distribution systems were also reviewed. While artificial intelligence methods are widely used in power control systems, the techniques require extensive human knowledge bases and experiences in order to operate correctly. Expert systems use knowledge and interface procedures to solve problems that often require human expertise. Expert systems often cause knowledge bottlenecks as they are unable to learn or adopt to new situations. While neural networks possess learning ability, they are computationally expensive. However, test results in recent neural network studies have demonstrated that they work well in a variety of loading conditions. Fuzzy logic techniques are used to accurately represent the operational constraints of power systems. Fuzzy logic has an advantage over other artificial intelligence techniques as it is able to remedy uncertainties in data. Evolutionary computing algorithms use probabilistic transition rules which can search complicated data to determine optimal constraints and parameters. Over 95 per cent of all papers published on power systems use genetic algorithms. It was concluded that hybrid systems using various artificial intelligence techniques are now being used by researchers. 69 refs.

  18. Ortopnea y hemoptisis en un varón joven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo Silva

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Varón de 21 años visitado en urgencias por ortopnea, hemoptisis y disnea. La radiografía detectó redistribución en hemitórax izquierdo, el ecocardiograma una masa intraauricular izquierda que protruía en el ventrículo izquierdo a través de la válvula mitral, produciendo obstrucción crítica, y la tomografía computarizada (TC una masa que ocupaba la aurícula izquierda desde la vena pulmonar superior izquierda (Fig. 1. Por vía transeptal superior se reseca una masa multilobulada de 6 × 7 cm, con base de implantación en el techo auricular (Fig. 2, que se reconstruyó con pericardio autólogo. La histopatología confirma el diagnóstico de leiomiosarcoma de vena pulmonar muy diferenciado. Al paciente se le dio el alta a los siete días.

  19. la Universidad Simón Bolívar

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    Jennie Brand Barajas

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación es un estudio de caso sobre la identidad institucional de los docentes de la Universidad Simón Bolívar (USB desde la filosofía, ideario y misión, los cuales la definen como una institución de educación superior privada católica con carisma franciscano. La pregunta central es: ¿cómo se ha identificado el docente con la USB? Los propósitos parten de un análisis de los documentos de la universidad para explicitar la identidad y, a partir de ello, conocer el perfil del docente para explorar cómo se relaciona con la institución. Se tiene como supuesto que la falta de una definición explícita de la identidad institucional por parte de la USB obstaculiza la identificación del docente. El andamiaje teórico se basa en la construcción y reconstrucción colectiva de la identidad institucional.

  20. Toxicological assessment of nattokinase derived from Bacillus subtilis var. natto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Bradley J; English, J Caroline

    2016-02-01

    Subtilisin NAT, commonly known as "nattokinase," is a fibrinolytic enzyme produced by the bacterial strain B. subtilis var. natto, which plays a central role in the fermentation of soybeans into the popular Japanese food natto. Recent studies have reported on the potential anticoagulatory and antihypertensive effects of nattokinase administration in humans, with no indication of adverse effects. To evaluate the safety of nattokinase in a more comprehensive manner, several GLP-compliant studies in rodents and human volunteers have been conducted with the enzyme product, NSK-SD (Japan Bio Science Laboratory Co., Ltd., Japan). Nattokinase was non-mutagenic and non-clastogenic in vitro, and no adverse effects were observed in 28-day and 90-day subchronic toxicity studies conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats at doses up to 167 mg/kg-day and 1000 mg/kg-day, respectively. Mice inoculated with 7.55 × 10(8) CFU of the enzyme-producing bacterial strain showed no signs of toxicity or residual tissue concentrations of viable bacteria. Additionally consumption of 10 mg/kg-day nattokinase for 4 weeks was well tolerated in healthy human volunteers. These findings suggest that the oral consumption of nattokinase is of low toxicological concern. The 90-day oral subchronic NOAEL for nattokinase in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats is 1000 mg/kg-day, the highest dose tested. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Effet comparé des poudres de Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf et de l'huile de Ricinus communis L sur la conservation des graines de Vigna unguiculata (L Walp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gakuru, S.

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared Effect of Nicotiana tabacum L, Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf Powders and Castor Oil Ricinus communis L. on Conservation of Cowpea Vigna Unguiculata (L. Walp Grains. The effect of powder of tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. and citronella grass Cymbopogon citratus (D.C. Stapf and castor oil Ricinus communis L. on conservation of cowpea Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. grains was investigated in Kisangani, Zaire. After 5 months of conservation, infestation rates by bean weevil Acanthoscelides obtectus Say were 72.5 %, 74.5 %, 49.5 % and 5 % respectively for the check, the samples treated by 1 % of citronella grass and tobacco powder and 1 % of castor oil. The powder dose of 7.5 % did not give more interesting results.

  2. Genomic resources and draft assemblies of the human and porcine varieties of scabies mites, Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis and var. suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofiz, Ehtesham; Holt, Deborah C; Seemann, Torsten; Currie, Bart J; Fischer, Katja; Papenfuss, Anthony T

    2016-06-02

    The scabies mite, Sarcoptes scabiei, is a parasitic arachnid and cause of the infectious skin disease scabies in humans and mange in other animal species. Scabies infections are a major health problem, particularly in remote Indigenous communities in Australia, where secondary group A streptococcal and Staphylococcus aureus infections of scabies sores are thought to drive the high rate of rheumatic heart disease and chronic kidney disease. We sequenced the genome of two samples of Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis obtained from unrelated patients with crusted scabies located in different parts of northern Australia using the Illumina HiSeq. We also sequenced samples of Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis from a pig model. Because of the small size of the scabies mite, these data are derived from pools of thousands of mites and are metagenomic, including host and microbiome DNA. We performed cleaning and de novo assembly and present Sarcoptes scabiei var. hominis and var. suis draft reference genomes. We have constructed a preliminary annotation of this reference comprising 13,226 putative coding sequences based on sequence similarity to known proteins. We have developed extensive genomic resources for the scabies mite, including reference genomes and a preliminary annotation.

  3. Trans-acting GC-rich non-coding RNA at var expression site modulates gene counting in malaria parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guizetti, Julien; Barcons-Simon, Anna; Scherf, Artur

    2016-11-16

    Monoallelic expression of the var multigene family enables immune evasion of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in its human host. At a given time only a single member of the 60-member var gene family is expressed at a discrete perinuclear region called the 'var expression site'. However, the mechanism of var gene counting remains ill-defined. We hypothesize that activation factors associating specifically with the expression site play a key role in this process. Here, we investigate the role of a GC-rich non-coding RNA (ncRNA) gene family composed of 15 highly homologous members. GC-rich genes are positioned adjacent to var genes in chromosome-central gene clusters but are absent near subtelomeric var genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrates that GC-rich ncRNA localizes to the perinuclear expression site of central and subtelomeric var genes in trans. Importantly, overexpression of distinct GC-rich ncRNA members disrupts the gene counting process at the single cell level and results in activation of a specific subset of var genes in distinct clones. We identify the first trans-acting factor targeted to the elusive perinuclear var expression site and open up new avenues to investigate ncRNA function in antigenic variation of malaria and other protozoan pathogens. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  4. Comparative ozone responses of cutleaf coneflowers (Rudbeckia laciniata var. digitata, var. ampla) from Rocky Mountain and Great Smoky Mountains National Parks, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neufeld, Howard S; Johnson, Jennifer; Kohut, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata L. var. digitata) is native to Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) and an ozone bioindicator species. Variety ampla, whose ozone sensitivity is less well known, is native to Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO). In the early 2000s, researchers found putative ozone symptoms on var. ampla and rhizomes were sent to Appalachian State University to verify that the symptoms were the result of ozone exposure. In 2011, potted plants were exposed to ambient ozone from May to August. These same plants were grown in open-top chambers (OTCs) in 2012 and 2013, and exposed to charcoal-filtered (CF), non-filtered (NF), elevated ozone (EO), NF+50ppb in 2012 for 47days and NF+30/NF+50ppb ozone in 2013 for 36 and 36days, respectively. Ozone symptoms similar to those found in ROMO (blue-black adaxial stippling) were reproduced both in ambient air and in the OTCs. Both varieties exhibited foliar injury in the OTCs in an exposure-dependent manner, verifying that symptoms resulted from ozone exposure. In two of the three study years, var. digitata appeared more sensitive than var. ampla. Exposure to EO caused reductions in ambient photosynthetic rate (A) and stomatal conductance (g s ) for both varieties. Light response curves indicated that ozone reduced A, g s , and the apparent quantum yield while it increased the light compensation point. In CF air, var. ampla had higher light saturated A (18.2±1.04 vs 11.6±0.37μmolm -2 s -1 ), higher light saturation (1833±166.7 vs 1108±141.7μmolm -2 s -1 ), and lower Ci/Ca ratio (0.67±0.01 vs 0.77±0.01) than var. digitata. Coneflowers in both Parks are adversely affected by exposure to ambient ozone and if ozone concentrations increase in the Rocky Mountains, greater amounts of injury on var. ampla can be expected. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Gene cloning and bioinformatics analysis of SABATH methyltransferase in Lonicera japonica var. chinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Dan; Jiang, Chao; Huang, Lu-Qi; Qin, Shuang-Shuang; Zeng, Xiang-Mei; Chen, Ping; Yuan, Yuan

    2013-08-01

    To clone SABATH methyltransferase (rLjSABATHMT) gene in Lonicera japonica var. chinensis, and compare the gene expression and intron sequence of SABATH methyltransferase orthologous in L. japonica with L. japonica var. chinensis. It provide a basis for gene regulate the formation of L. japonica floral scents. The cDNA and genome sequences of LjSABATHMT from L. japonica var. chinensis were cloned according to the gene fragments in cDNA library. The LjSABATHMT protein was characterized by bioinformatics analysis. SABATH family phylogenetic tree were built by MEGA 5.0. The transcripted level of SABATHMT orthologous were analyzed in different organs and different flower periods of L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis using RT-PCR analysis. Intron sequences of SABATHMT orthologous were also analyzied. The cDNA of LjSABATHMT was 1 251 bp, had a complete coding frame with 365 amino acids. The protein had the conservative SABATHMT domain, and phylogenetic tree showed that it may be a salicylic acid/benzoic acid methyltransferase. Higher expression of SABATH methyltransferase orthologous was found in flower. The intron sequence of L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis had rich polymorphism, and two SNP are unique genotype of L. japonica var. chinensis. The motif elements in two orthologous genes were significant differences. The intron difference of SABATH methyltransferase orthologous could be inducing to difference of gene expression between L. japonica and L. japonica var. chinensis. These results will provide important base on regulating active compounds of L. japonica.

  6. Influence of LAR and VAR on Para-Aminopyridine Antimalarials Targetting Haematin in Chloroquine-Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warhurst, David C; Craig, John C; Raheem, K Saki

    2016-01-01

    Antimalarial chloroquine (CQ) prevents haematin detoxication when CQ-base concentrates in the acidic digestive vacuole through protonation of its p-aminopyridine (pAP) basic aromatic nitrogen and sidechain diethyl-N. CQ export through the variant vacuolar membrane export channel, PFCRT, causes CQ-resistance in Plasmodium falciparum but 3-methyl CQ (sontochin SC), des-ethyl amodiaquine (DAQ) and bis 4-aminoquinoline piperaquine (PQ) are still active. This is determined by changes in drug accumulation ratios in parasite lipid (LAR) and in vacuolar water (VAR). Higher LAR may facilitate drug binding to and blocking PFCRT and also aid haematin in lipid to bind drug. LAR for CQ is only 8.3; VAR is 143,482. More hydrophobic SC has LAR 143; VAR remains 68,523. Similarly DAQ with a phenol substituent has LAR of 40.8, with VAR 89,366. In PQ, basicity of each pAP is reduced by distal piperazine N, allowing very high LAR of 973,492, retaining VAR of 104,378. In another bis quinoline, dichlorquinazine (DCQ), also active but clinically unsatisfactory, each pAP retains basicity, being insulated by a 2-carbon chain from a proximal nitrogen of the single linking piperazine. While LAR of 15,488 is still high, the lowest estimate of VAR approaches 4.9 million. DCQ may be expected to be very highly lysosomotropic and therefore potentially hepatotoxic. In 11 pAP antimalarials a quadratic relationship between logLAR and logResistance Index (RI) was confirmed, while log (LAR/VAR) vs logRI for 12 was linear. Both might be used to predict the utility of structural modifications.

  7. Allelopatic effect of different caster bean organs (Ricinus communis L. on reducing germination and growth of dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yuncker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M Seyyedi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Dodder (Cascuta campestris Yuncker is an annual parasitic plant from the Convolvulaceae family (Mishra et al., 2007. It wraps around many adjacent dicot and a few monocot plants, penetrates in their vascular tissue and exploits photosynthates, nutrients and water (Lanini & Kogan, 2005. Consequently, the growth, vigor and production of the host plant will be severely reduced (Nadler-Hasasr & Rubin, 2003. Dodder is not able to complete its cycle, if it is not attached to a host. Therefore, it is entirely dependent on its host for supplying water, assimilates and minerals (Mishra et al., 2007. Considering the nature of dodder habit, it is rarely possible to completely control dodder by using different chemical herbicides (Lanini & Kogan, 2005. In addition, because of increasing the environmental concerns caused by applying synthetic herbicides, there is considerable attention to alternative strategies for weeds management (Batish et al., 2002; Bowmik & Inderjit, 2003. In recent years, allelopathic plants, an alternative strategy for weed management, have received massive attention (Narwal, 2010; Jamil et al., 2009. Due to the importance of dodder as a parasitic weed, this research was conducted with the purpose of studying the allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts and decay durations of caster bean (Ricinus communis L. organs on germination and emergence of dodder. Materials and methods The current study was conducted based on three separate experiments using a completely randomized design (CRD with factorial arrangement with three replications. The first experiment was conducted in petri dishes and consisted of caster bean organs at four levels (root, stem, leaf and total plant without inflorescence and their aqueous extract concentrations at 11 levels (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10%. The second experiment was conducted in pots and factors were caster bean organs at 4 levels (root, stem, leaf and total plant without

  8. Alastrim, varíola é? Is allastrim small pox?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Teixeira

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo trata de uma controvérsia científica havida em São Paulo entre 1910 e 1913, que opôs dois destacados médicos da cidade: Antonio Carini, diretor do Instituto Pasteur de São Paulo, e Emílio Ribas, diretor do Serviço Sanitário. A questão em jogo era a classificação de uma doença que reinava no estado. Para Carini tratava-se de varíola, para Ribas era uma entidade mórbida chamada de alastrim. A polêmica teve início na Sociedade de Medicina e Cirurgia e, posteriormente, migrou para outros fóruns, incorporando novos personagens. A apresentação e discussão dessa controvérsia objetiva contribuiu para a compreensão do processo de construção e estabilização de um consenso científico no campo das ciências biomédicas.Between 1910 and 1913, two renowned physicians in the city of São Paulo found themselves engaged in a scientific controversy regarding the classification of a disease then assailing the state. Antonio Carini, director of the Instituto Pasteur de São Paulo, believed the illness to be small pox, while Emílio Ribas, director of the Serviço Sanitário, claimed it was allastrim, or milk pox. The controversy started in the Sociedade de Medicina e Cirurgia but later migrated to other forums and came to incorporate other figures as well. This presentation and discussion of the polemic is meant as a contribution to our understanding of the process by which a scientific consensus is constructed and solidified within the field of the biomedical sciences.

  9. [Micromorphology of pejibaye leaflets Bactris gasipaes (Arecaceae) var. diamonds-10].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Chacón, Ethel; Alvarado-Rodríguez, Olman; Rodríguez-Arrieta, Alexander; Gómez-Alpízar, Luis

    2016-09-01

    Bactris gasipaes is widely cultivated for the consumption of palm hearts and fruits. The present work describes the micro morphological characteristics of leaflets from adult plants of B. gasipaes, thornless variety Diamantes-10, collected in the Diamantes Experimental Station in Guápiles, Costa Rica. We collected 25 leaflets and analyses were performed with a combination of microscopy techniques: light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy to study their structure. Our results showed that leaflets have abundant epicuticular wax on adaxial and abaxial surfaces. Analyses from the epidermis indicated that it is composed of isodiametric cells, and it is also evident that hypodermis cells have rectangular shape and are larger than the other epidermal cells. We observed stomata on both surfaces, but they were more abundant in the abaxial surface. On the other hand, the epidermis showed the presence of trichomes with three different morphologies. In the parenchyma, cells are large and not well defined, and we observed the presence of astroesclereids, and compact groups of fiber bundles between parenchyma cells. The central vein has several vascular bundles, arranged in a continuous manner, and they are surrounded by sclerotic tissue; some of these fibers presented live protoplasts. All minor veins showed the same anatomy as the central vein. In these veins, the vessel elements of protoxylem and metaxylem showed scalariform ornaments on their walls. Phloem is located towards the adaxial surface of the vein and we observed sieve and companion cells surrounded by fibers and parenchyma cells. The companion cells presented branched plasmodesmata attached to a sieve element, and in these elements we found protein bodies called P-protein. The main anatomical difference in the leaflets of the var. Diamantes-10, compared to the other varieties of B. gasipaes K, is the lack of thorns; the other morphological features seem to be conserved.

  10. Chemical Constituents from Solanum glabratum Dunal var. sepicula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Abdel-Sattar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of screening program of Saudi plants for their potential biological activity, the methanolic extract of Solanum glabratum Dunal var. sepicula as well as its different fractions were tested for its possible cytoxicity in prostate cancer (PC3 and colon cancer (HT29 cell lines using the MTT assay. In the present study, three spirostan saponins and one flavonoid glycoside were isolated from the active n-butanol fraction through a bio-guided fractionation approach. Two new saponin glycosides were identified as 23-β-D-glucopyranosyl (23S, 25R-spirost-5-en-3, 23 diol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4]-β-D-glucopyranoside (2 and (25R-spirost-5-en-3-ol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3]-β-D-galactopyranoside (3. In addition, two known compounds were also isolated and identified as isorhamnetin-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1→6 β-D-glucopyranoside (1 and (23S, 25R-spirost-5-en-3, 23 diol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4]-β-D-glucopyranoside (4. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on their MS, one dimensional and extensive two dimensional NMR spectral data. Among the isolated metabolites, compound 3 showed the highest cytotoxic activity in both PC3 and HT29 cell lines with an IC 50 values of 14.8 and 19.5 m g/mL, respectively.

  11. Inheritance of bacterial spot resistance in Capsicum annuum var. annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L R A; Rodrigues, R; Pimenta, S; Correa, J W S; Araújo, M S B; Bento, C S; Sudré, C P

    2017-04-20

    Since 2008, Brazil is the largest consumer of agrochemicals, which increases production costs and risks of agricultural products, environment, and farmers' contamination. Sweet pepper, which is one of the main consumed vegetables in the country, is on top of the list of the most sprayed crops. The bacterial spot, caused by Xanthomonas spp, is one of the most damaging diseases of pepper crops. Genetic resistant consists of a suitable way of disease control, but development of durable resistant cultivars as well as understanding of plant-bacterium interaction is being a challenge for plant breeders and pathologists worldwide. Inheritance of disease resistance is often variable, depending on genetic background of the parents. The knowledge of the genetic base controlling such resistance is the first step in a breeding program aiming to develop new genotypes, bringing together resistance and other superior agronomic traits. This study reports the genetic basis of bacterial spot resistance in Capsicum annuum var. annuum using mean generation analysis from crosses between accessions UENF 2285 (susceptible) and UENF 1381 (resistant). The plants of each generation were grown in a greenhouse and leaflets were inoculated with bacterial strain ENA 4135 at 10 5 CFU/mL in 1.0 cm 2 of the mesophyll. Evaluations were performed using a scoring scale whose grades ranged from 1.0 (resistant) to 5.0 (susceptible), depending on symptom manifestation. Genetic control of bacterial spot has a quantitative aspect, with higher additive effect. The quantitative analysis showed that five genes were the minimum number controlling bacterial spot resistance. Additive effect was higher (6.06) than dominant (3.31) and explained 86.36% of total variation.

  12. VAR Portfolio Optimal: Perbandingan Antara Metode Markowitz dan Mean Absolute Deviation

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    R. Agus Sartono

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Portfolio selection method which have been introduced by Harry Markowitz (1952 used variance or deviation standard as a measure of risk. Kanno and Yamazaki (1991 introduced another method and used mean absolute deviation as a measure of risk instead of variance. The Value-at Risk (VaR is a relatively new method to capitalized risk that been used by financial institutions. The aim of this research is compare between mean variance and mean absolute deviation of two portfolios. Next, we attempt to assess the VaR of two portfolios using delta normal method and historical simulation. We use the secondary data from the Jakarta Stock Exchange – LQ45 during 2003. We find that there is a weak-positive correlation between deviation standard and return in both portfolios. The VaR nolmal delta based on mean absolute deviation method eventually is higher than the VaR normal delta based on mean variance method. However, based on the historical simulation the VaR of two methods is statistically insignificant. Thus, the deviation standard is sufficient measures of portfolio risk.Keywords: optimalisasi portofolio, mean-variance, mean-absolute deviation, value-at-risk, metode delta normal, metode simulasi historis

  13. Population genomics of the immune evasion (var genes of Plasmodium falciparum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa E Barry

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Var genes encode the major surface antigen (PfEMP1 of the blood stages of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Differential expression of up to 60 diverse var genes in each parasite genome underlies immune evasion. We compared the diversity of the DBLalpha domain of var genes sampled from 30 parasite isolates from a malaria endemic area of Papua New Guinea (PNG and 59 from widespread geographic origins (global. Overall, we obtained over 8,000 quality-controlled DBLalpha sequences. Within our sampling frame, the global population had a total of 895 distinct DBLalpha "types" and negligible overlap among repertoires. This indicated that var gene diversity on a global scale is so immense that many genomes would need to be sequenced to capture its true extent. In contrast, we found a much lower diversity in PNG of 185 DBLalpha types, with an average of approximately 7% overlap among repertoires. While we identify marked geographic structuring, nearly 40% of types identified in PNG were also found in samples from different countries showing a cosmopolitan distribution for much of the diversity. We also present evidence to suggest that recombination plays a key role in maintaining the unprecedented levels of polymorphism found in these immune evasion genes. This population genomic framework provides a cost effective molecular epidemiological tool to rapidly explore the geographic diversity of var genes.

  14. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2010-06-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect.

  15. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo

    2010-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect. PMID:22110339

  16. PERHITUNGAN VaR PORTOFOLIO SAHAM MENGGUNAKAN DATA HISTORIS DAN DATA SIMULASI MONTE CARLO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAYAN ARTHINI

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Value at Risk (VaR is the maximum potential loss on a portfolio based on the probability at a certain time.  In this research, portfolio VaR values calculated from historical data and Monte Carlo simulation data. Historical data is processed so as to obtain stock returns, variance, correlation coefficient, and variance-covariance matrix, then the method of Markowitz sought proportion of each stock fund, and portfolio risk and return portfolio. The data was then simulated by Monte Carlo simulation, Exact Monte Carlo Simulation and Expected Monte Carlo Simulation. Exact Monte Carlo simulation have same returns and standard deviation  with historical data, while the Expected Monte Carlo Simulation satistic calculation similar to historical data. The results of this research is the portfolio VaR  with time horizon T=1, T=10, T=22 and the confidence level of 95 %, values obtained VaR between historical data and Monte Carlo simulation data with the method exact and expected. Value of VaR from both Monte Carlo simulation is greater than VaR historical data.

  17. Value at risk (VaR in uncertainty: Analysis with parametric method and black & scholes simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Banda Ortiz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available VaR is the most accepted risk measure worldwide and the leading reference in any risk management assessment. However, its methodology has important limitations which makes it unreliable in contexts of crisis or high uncertainty. For this reason, the aim of this work is to test the VaR accuracy when is employed in contexts of volatility, for which we compare the VaR outcomes in scenarios of both stability and uncertainty, using the parametric method and a historical simulation based on data generated with the Black & Scholes model. VaR main objective is the prediction of the highest expected loss for any given portfolio, but even when it is considered a useful tool for risk management under conditions of markets stability, we found that it is substantially inaccurate in contexts of crisis or high uncertainty. In addition, we found that the Black & Scholes simulations lead to underestimate the expected losses, in comparison with the parametric method and we also found that those disparities increase substantially in times of crisis. In the first section of this work we present a brief context of risk management in finance. In section II we present the existent literature relative to the VaR concept, its methods and applications. In section III we describe the methodology and assumptions used in this work. Section IV is dedicated to expose the findings. And finally, in Section V we present our conclusions.

  18. [Diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi from Taxus chinensis var. mairei].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A total of 628 endophytic fungi were isolated from 480 tissue segments of needles and branches of Taxus chinensis var. mairei. According to morphological characteristics and ITS sequences, they represented 43 taxa in 28 genera, of which 10 Hyphomycetes, 20 Coelomycetes, 12 Ascomycetes and 1 unknown fungus. Phomopsis mali was confirmed as the dominant species. In accordance with relative frequency, Alternaria alternata, Aureobasidium pullulans, Colletotrichum boninense, C. gloeosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum , Fungal sp., Fusarium lateritium, Glomerella cingulata, Magnaporthales sp. , Nigrospora oryzae, Pestalotiopsis maculiformans, P. microspora, Peyronellaea glomerata and Xylaria sp. 1 were more common in T. chinensis var. mairei. T. chinensis var. mairei were severely infected by endophytic fungi. Endophytic fungi were found in 81 percent of plant tissues with a high diversity. Distribution ranges of endophytic fungi were influenced by tissue properties. The colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi in needles were obviously lower than in branches, and kinds of endophytic fungi between branches were more similar than those in needles, thus endophytic fungi had tissue preference. In addition, tissue age influenced the community structure of endophytic fungi. The elder branch tissues were, the higher colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi were. Systematic studying the diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi in T. chinensis var. mairei and clarifying their distribution regularity in plant tissues would offer basic data and scientific basis for their development and utilization. Discussing the presence of fungal pathogens in healthy plant tissues would be of positive significance for source protection of T. chinensis var. mairei.

  19. Testing popular VaR models in EU new member and candidate states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Žiković

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The impact of allowing banks to calculate their capital requirement based on their internal VaR models, and the impact of regulation changes on banks in transitional countries has not been well studied. This paper examines whether VaR models that are created and suited for developed markets apply to the volatile stock markets of EU new member and candidate states (Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia and Turkey. Nine popular VaR models are tested on five stock indexes from EU new member and candidate states. Backtesting results show that VaR models commonly used in developed stock markets are not well suited for measuring market risk in these markets. Presented findings bear very important implications that have to be addressed by regulators and risk practitioners operating in EU new member andcandidate states. Risk managers have to start thinking outside the frames set by their parent companies or else investors present in these markets may find themselves in serious trouble, dealing with losses that they have not been expecting. National regulators have to take into consideration that simplistic VaR models that are widely used in some developed countries are not well suited for these illiquid and developing stock markets.

  20. VarR controls colonization and virulence in the marine macroalgal pathogen Nautella italica R11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa eGardiner

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence to suggest that macroalgae (seaweeds are susceptible to infectious disease. However, to date, little is known about the mechanisms that facilitate the colonization and virulence of microbial seaweed pathogens. One well-described example of a seaweed disease is the bleaching of the red alga Delisea pulchra, which can be caused by the bacterium Nautella italica R11, a member of the Roseobacter clade. This pathogen contains a unique luxR-type gene, varR, which we hypothesize controls its colonization and virulence. We show here that a varR knock-out strain is deficient in its ability to cause disease in D. pulchra and is defective in biofilm formation and attachment to a common algal polysaccharide. Moreover complementation of the varR gene in trans can restore these functions to the wild type levels. Proteomic analysis of bacterial cells in planktonic and biofilm growth highlight the potential importance of nitrogen scavenging, mobilization of energy reserves, and stress resistance in the biofilm lifestyle of N. italica R11. Moreover, we show that VarR regulates the expression of a specific subset of biofilm-associated proteins. Taken together these data suggest that VarR controls colonization and persistence of N. italica R11 on the surface of a macroalgal host and that it is an important regulator of virulence.

  1. Evidence of strain structure in Plasmodium falciparum var gene repertoires in children from Gabon, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Karen P; Artzy-Randrup, Yael; Tiedje, Kathryn E; Rougeron, Virginie; Chen, Donald S; Rask, Thomas S; Rorick, Mary M; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Deloron, Philippe; Luty, Adrian J F; Pascual, Mercedes

    2017-05-16

    Existing theory on competition for hosts between pathogen strains has proposed that immune selection can lead to the maintenance of strain structure consisting of discrete, weakly overlapping antigenic repertoires. This prediction of strain theory has conceptual overlap with fundamental ideas in ecology on niche partitioning and limiting similarity between coexisting species in an ecosystem, which oppose the hypothesis of neutral coexistence. For Plasmodium falciparum , strain theory has been specifically proposed in relation to the major surface antigen of the blood stage, known as Pf EMP1 and encoded by the multicopy multigene family known as the var genes. Deep sampling of the DBLα domain of var genes in the local population of Bakoumba, West Africa, was completed to define whether patterns of repertoire overlap support a role of immune selection under the opposing force of high outcrossing, a characteristic of areas of intense malaria transmission. Using a 454 high-throughput sequencing protocol, we report extremely high diversity of the DBLα domain and a large parasite population with DBLα repertoires structured into nonrandom patterns of overlap. Such population structure, significant for the high diversity of var genes that compose it at a local level, supports the existence of "strains" characterized by distinct var gene repertoires. Nonneutral, frequency-dependent competition would be at play and could underlie these patterns. With a computational experiment that simulates an intervention similar to mass drug administration, we argue that the observed repertoire structure matters for the antigenic var diversity of the parasite population remaining after intervention.

  2. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of thorium in Brassica juncea var. foliosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sai; Kai, Hailu; Zha, Zhongyong; Fang, Zhendong; Wang, Dingna; Du, Liang; Zhang, Dong; Feng, Xiaojie; Jin, Yongdong; Xia, Chuanqin

    2016-06-01

    Brassica juncea var. foliosa (B. juncea var. foliosa) is a promising species for thorium (Th) phytoextraction due to its large biomass, fast growth rate and high tolerance toward Th. To further understand the mechanisms of Th tolerance, the present study investigated the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Th found in B. juncea var. foliosa Our results indicated that in both roots and leaves, Th contents in different parts of the cells follow the order of cell wall > membranes and soluble fraction > organelles. In particular, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis showed that Th was abundantly located in cell walls of the roots. Additionally, when plants were exposed to different concentrations of Th, we have found that Th existed in B. juncea var. foliosa with different chemical forms. Much of the Th extracted by 2% acetic acid (HAc), 1 M NaCl and HCl in roots with the percentage distribution varied from 47.2% to 62.5%, while in leaves, most of the Th was in the form of residue and the subdominant amount of Th was extracted by HCl, followed by 2% HAc. This suggested that Th compartmentation in cytosol and integration with phosphate or proteins in cell wall might be responsible for the tolerance of B. juncea var. foliosa to the stress of Th. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Genome-wide analysis of SU(VAR)3-9 distribution in chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, Daniil A; Laktionov, Petr P; Posukh, Olga V; Belyakin, Stepan N; Koryakov, Dmitry E

    2018-03-01

    Histone modifications represent one of the key factors contributing to proper genome regulation. One of histone modifications involved in gene silencing is methylation of H3K9 residue. Present in the chromosomes across different eukaryotes, this epigenetic mark is controlled by SU(VAR)3-9 and its orthologs. Despite SU(VAR)3-9 was discovered over two decades ago, little is known about the details of its chromosomal distribution pattern. To fill in this gap, we used DamID-seq approach and obtained high-resolution genome-wide profiles for SU(VAR)3-9 in two somatic (salivary glands and brain ganglia) and two germline (ovarian nurse cells and testes) tissues of Drosophila melanogaster. Analysis of tissue and developmental expression of SU(VAR)3-9-bound genes indicates that in the somatic tissues tested, as well as in the ovarian nurse cells, SU(VAR)3-9 tends to associate with transcriptionally silent genes. In contrast, in the testes, SU(VAR)3-9 shows preferential association with testis-specific genes, and its binding appears dynamic during spermatogenesis. In somatic cells, the mere presence/absence of SU(VAR)3-9 binding correlates with lower/higher expression. No such correlation is found in the male germline. Interestingly, transcription units in piRNA clusters (particularly flanks thereof) are frequently targeted by SU(VAR)3-9, and Su(var)3-9 mutation affects the expression of select piRNA species. Our analyses suggest a context-dependent role of SU(VAR)3-9. In euchromatin, SU(VAR)3-9 may serve to fine-tune the expression of individual genes, whereas in heterochromatin, chromosome 4, and piRNA clusters, it may act more broadly over large chromatin domains.

  4. Effect of the irradiation on Salmonella enteretidis var. typhimurium with gamma rays from 60Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maliska, C.; Norberg, A.N.; Norberg, J.B.M.; Santos Souza, R.C. dos; Silva Tavares, P.R. da

    1988-01-01

    The use of ionizinf radiation to the destruction of microrganisms responsible for food deterioration, and productive of feeding toxinfections constitute their usefulness for actually peaceful goals of nuclear energy. The feeding toxinfections are, among us, produced in their most part by Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurim. One hundred nineteen samples of milk containing about 150.000 bacteria per ml, by means doses ranging from 100 to 1.100 gy, two samples of surviving bacteria were again irradiated by doses up to 2.5000 Gy. The bacteria not previously irradiated were throughly killed by means of doses of 1.100 Gy. Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurium was inactivated by means of 1.200 and 1.900 Gy doses. It was concluded that 60-Cobalt gamma radiation minimal lethal dose to Salmonella enteritidis var. typhimurium is 1.200 Gy; the re-irradiation to the survivors prompts the forthcoming of more resistant germs. (author) [pt

  5. High avidity antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA correlate with absence of placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutterrow, Yeung Lo; Salanti, Ali; Avril, Marion

    2012-01-01

    VAR2CSA mediates sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta, increasing the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Naturally acquired antibodies (Ab) to placental parasites at delivery have been associated with improved pregnancy outcomes, but Ab levels and how early...... in pregnancy Ab must be present in order to eliminate placental parasites before delivery remains unknown. Antibodies to individual Duffy-binding like domains of VAR2CSA have been studied, but the domains lack many of the conformational epitopes present in full-length VAR2CSA (FV2). Thus, the purpose...... of this study was to describe the acquisition of Ab to FV2 in women residing in high and low transmission areas and determine how Ab levels during pregnancy correlate with clearance of placental parasites. Plasma samples collected monthly throughout pregnancy from pregnant women living in high and low...

  6. Tamarix arborea var. arborea and Tamarix parviflora: Two species valued for their adaptability to stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisafi, Francesca; Oddo, Elisabetta; Gargano, Maria Letizia; Inzerillo, Simone; Russo, Gianni; Venturella, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    The choice of stress resistant and highly adaptable species is a fundamental step for landscaping and ornamental purposes in arid and coastal environments such as those in the Mediterranean basin. The genus Tamarix L. includes about 90 species with a high endurance of adversity. We investigated the water relations and photosynthetic response of Tamarix arborea (Sieb. ex Ehrenb.) Bge. var. arborea and T. parviflora DC. growing in an urban environment. Both species showed no evidence of drought or salt stress in summer, and appeared to follow two strategies with T. arborea var. arborea investing in high carbon gain at the beginning of the summer, and then reducing photosynthetic activity at the end of the season, and T. parviflora showing lower but constant levels of photosynthetic activity throughout the vegetative season. For landscaping and ornamental purposes, we suggest T. arborea var. arborea when a fast-growing, high-cover species is necessary, and T. parviflora when less-invasive species are required.

  7. Application of static var compensator on large synchronous motors based on linear optimization control design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltani, J.; Fath Abadi, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the application of static var compensators, on an electrical distribution network containing two large synchronous motors, one of which is excited via a three-phase thyristor bridge rectifier. The second machine is excited via a diode bridge rectifier. Based on linear optimization control, the measurable feedback signals are applied to the control system loops of static var compensators and the excitation control loop of the first synchronous motor. The phase equations method was used to develop a computer program to model the distribution network. Computer results were obtained to demonstrate the system performance for some abnormal modes of operation. These results show that employing static var compensators based on the linear optimization control design for electrical distribution networks containing large synchronous motors is beneficial and may be considered a first stage of the system design

  8. The Burr X Pareto Distribution: Properties, Applications and VaR Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ç. Korkmaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new three-parameter Pareto distribution is introduced and studied. We discuss various mathematical and statistical properties of the new model. Some estimation methods of the model parameters are performed. Moreover, the peaks-over-threshold method is used to estimate Value-at-Risk (VaR by means of the proposed distribution. We compare the distribution with a few other models to show its versatility in modelling data with heavy tails. VaR estimation with the Burr X Pareto distribution is presented using time series data, and the new model could be considered as an alternative VaR model against the generalized Pareto model for financial institutions.

  9. INDUCING RESISTANCE IN COTTON AGAINST COLLETOTRICHUM GOSSYPII VAR. CEPHALOSPORIOIDES WITH ESSENTIAL OILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Santos

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the potential of essential oils of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis, baccharis (Baccharis trimera, lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus, basil (Ocimum basilicum and eucalyptus (Corymbia citriodora in inducing resistance in cotton plants against C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides. The inductive effect of the essential oils was evaluated in plants growing in pots in the environment, which were treated with 1% essential oil at 47 days of age. 24 hours after elicitor treatment the plants were inoculated with a suspension of 1.5 x 105 conidia mL-1 of C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides. Five evaluations were performed disease and calculated the area under the disease progress curve. All essential oils showed potential for inducing resistance against cotton C. gossypii var. cephalosporioides.

  10. RBF neural network prediction on weak electrical signals in Aloe vera var. chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanzhou; Zhao, Jiayin; Wang, Miao

    2008-10-01

    A Gaussian radial base function (RBF) neural network forecast on signals in the Aloe vera var. chinensis by the wavelet soft-threshold denoised as the time series and using the delayed input window chosen at 50, is set up to forecast backward. There was the maximum amplitude at 310.45μV, minimum -75.15μV, average value -2.69μV and Aloe vera var. chinensis respectively. The electrical signal in Aloe vera var. chinensis is a sort of weak, unstable and low frequency signals. A result showed that it is feasible to forecast plant electrical signals for the timing by the RBF. The forecast data can be used as the preferences for the intelligent autocontrol system based on the adaptive characteristic of plants to achieve the energy saving on the agricultural production in the plastic lookum or greenhouse.

  11. Identification and characterization of microsatellite markers in Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis (Pinaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Nian-Hui; Xu, Yu-Lan; Wang, Da-Wei; Chen, Shi; Li, Gen-Qian

    2017-02-01

    Microsatellite primers were developed in Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis (Pinaceae), a species native to southwestern China, to investigate its genetic diversity and population structure in order to provide information for the conservation and management of this species. Using next-generation sequencing, a total of 2349 putative simple sequence repeat primer pairs were designed. Eighteen polymorphic markers in 60 individuals belonging to four populations of P. kesiya var. langbianensis were identified and characterized with two to 11 alleles per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.000 to 0.800 and 0.000 to 0.840, respectively. Each of these loci cross-amplified in the closely related species P. massoniana , P. densata , P. tabuliformis , and P. yunnanensis , with one to seven alleles per locus. The new markers are promising tools to study the population genetics of P. kesiya var. langbianensis and related species.

  12. Dynamics of anti-VAR2CSA immunoglobulin G response in a cohort of senegalese pregnant women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tuikue Ndam, N G; Salanti, A; Le-Hesran, J-Y

    2006-01-01

    demonstrated that a single P. falciparum infection was able to trigger a VAR2CSA-specific antibody response. Among women with infected placentas, women with high anti-VAR2CSA IgG levels at enrollment were more likely to present with a past infection than with an acute/chronic infection. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-VAR2...... (VSAPAM). Several studies have shown that 1 var gene, var2csa, is transcribed at high levels and expressed in CSA-binding Plasmodium falciparum parasites. METHODS: Plasma levels of anti-VAR2CSA immunoglobulin G (IgG) in Senegalese women were measured during pregnancy by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay......, using 3 recombinant proteins representing 3 domains of the var2csa gene product. RESULTS: The 3 recombinant proteins were specifically recognized by plasma from pregnant women but not by control plasma. A parity-dependent recognition pattern was observed with 2 of the 3 VAR2CSA antigens. A kinetic study...

  13. 40 CFR 180.1243 - Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis var... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1243 Bacillus subtilis... the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain...

  14. Several domains from VAR2CSA can induce Plasmodium falciparum adhesion-blocking antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salanti, Ali; Resende, Mafalda; Ditlev, Sisse B

    2010-01-01

    . In this study, it is demonstrated that other domains of VAR2CSA also can induce antibodies with inhibitory activity. METHODS: All VAR2CSA domains from the 3D7 and HB3 parasites were produced in Baculovirus-transfected insect cells. Groups of three rats per protein were immunized and anti-sera were tested...

  15. [Effect of Water Extracts from Rhizosphere Soil of Cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus on It's Seed Germination and Physiological Characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Duo-yong; Fu, Xue-yan; Rong, Jia-wang; Zhang, Xin-hui

    2015-01-01

    To explore the relationship between continuous cropping obstacle and autotoxicity of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. Distilled water(CK), water extracts of rhizosphere soil(50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/mL) were applied to test their effect on early growth and physiological characteristics of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. The water extracts from rhizospher soil of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus significantly increased seedling emergence rate, root length and vigor index of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus seedling when at the concentration of 100 mg/mL or below, however,there was no significant effect at 200 mg/mL or higher. The water extracts from rhizosphere soil of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus significantly reduced the SOD activity in Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus seedling at 400 mg/mL and POD activity at 200 mg/mL and 400 mg/mL,while significantly increased the MDA content. Water extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus rhizosphere soil significantly affected Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus germination and seedling growth in a concentration-dependent manner, generally, low concentrations increased the SOD and POD activity which improved seed germination and seedling growth, while high concentrations caused cell membrane damage of the seedling.

  16. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: Brassica rapa var. peruviridis [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term Brassica rapa var. peruviridis 名詞... 一般 * * * * コマツナ コマツナ コマツナ Thesaurus2015 200906099324987960 C LS06/LS72 UNKNOWN_2 Brassica rapa var . peruviridis

  17. Reversal of cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer stem cells by Taxus chinensis var.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Y Q; Xu, X P; Guo, Q M; Xu, X C; Liu, Q Y; An, S H; Xu, J L; Su, F; Tai, J B

    2016-09-02

    Drug resistance in cells is a major impedance to successful treatment of lung cancer. Taxus chinensis var. inhibits the growth of tumor cells and promotes the synthesis of interleukins 1 and 2 and tumor necrosis factor, enhancing immune function. In this study, T. chinensis var.-induced cell death was analyzed in lung cancer cells (H460) enriched for stem cell growth in a defined serum-free medium. Taxus-treated stem cells were also analyzed for Rhodamine 123 (Rh-123) expression by flow cytometry, and used as a standard functional indicator of MDR. The molecular basis of T. chinensis var.-mediated drug resistance was established by real-time PCR analysis of ABCC1, ABCB1, and lung resistance-related protein (LRP) mRNA, and western blot analysis of MRP1, MDR1, and LRP. Our results revealed that stem cells treated with higher doses of T. chinensis var. showed significantly lower growth inhibition rates than did H460 cells (P var. and cisplatin was also significantly inhibited (P var. (P var.-treated stem cells showed significant downregulation of the ABCC1, ABCB1, and LRP mRNA and MRP1, MDR1, and LRP (P var.-mediated downregulation of MRP1, MDR1, and LRP might contribute to the reversal of drug resistance in non-small cell lung cancer stem cells.

  18. Erasing the Epigenetic Memory and Beginning to Switch—The Onset of Antigenic Switching of var Genes in Plasmodium falciparum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastman, Yair; Noble, Robert; Recker, Mario; Dzikowski, Ron

    2012-01-01

    Antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum is regulated by transcriptional switches among members of the var gene family, each expressed in a mutually exclusive manner and encoding a different variant of the surface antigens collectively named PfEMP1. Antigenic switching starts when the first merozoites egress from the liver and begin their asexual proliferation within red blood cells. By erasing the epigenetic memory we created parasites with no var background, similar to merozoites that egress from the liver where no var gene is expressed. Creating a null-var background enabled us to investigate the onset of antigenic switches at the early phase of infection. At the onset of switching, var transcription pattern is heterogeneous with numerous genes transcribed at low levels including upsA vars, a subtype that was implicated in severe malaria, which are rarely activated in growing cultures. Analysis of subsequent in vitro switches shows that the probability of a gene to turn on or off is not associated with its chromosomal position or promoter type per se but on intrinsic properties of each gene. We concluded that var switching is determined by gene specific associated switch rates rather than general promoter type or locus associated switch rates. In addition, we show that fine tuned reduction in var transcription increases their switch rate, indicating that transcriptional perturbation can alter antigenic switching. PMID:22461905

  19. An optimization approach for online identification of harmonic resonance due to pending Volt/VAr operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, Kerry D.

    The emphasis on creating a more efficient distribution system has led many utility companies to employ dynamic voltage and VAr compensation (Volt/VAr) applications that reduce energy demand, generation, and losses associated with the transmission and distribution of energy. To achieve these benefits, Volt/VAr applications rely upon algorithms to control voltage support equipment, such as transformer load tap changers, voltage regulators, and capacitor banks. The majority of these algorithms utilize metaheuristic programming methods to determine the Volt/VAr scheme that produces the most energy efficient operating conditions. It has been well documented that the interaction between capacitor bank reactance and the inductive reactance of a distribution system can produce parallel harmonic resonance that can damage utility and customer equipment. The Volt/VAr controlling algorithms that account for harmonics do so in an indirect manner that can mask harmonic resonance conditions. Unlike previous research endeavors, the primary focus of the method described within this dissertation is to identify Volt/VAr schemes that prevent harmonic resonance due to capacitor bank operation. Instead of a metaheuristic approach, the harmonic resonance identification algorithm relies upon constrained mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP), which is more suited for analyzing impedance characteristics created by the energized states of a system of capacitor banks. Utilizing a numerical approach improves the accuracy of identifying harmonic resonance conditions, while also reducing the complexity of the process by exclusively relying upon the system's admittance characteristics. The novel harmonic resonance identification method is applicable to distribution systems that are dynamically reconfigured, which can result in a number of unknown harmonic resonance producing conditions, a feature unavailable with existing controlling algorithms. The ability to identify all harmonic

  20. Potential for wind extraction from 4D-Var assimilation of aerosols and moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaplotnik, Žiga; Žagar, Nedjeljka

    2017-04-01

    We discuss the potential of the four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var) to retrieve the unobserved wind field from observations of atmospheric tracers and the mass field through internal model dynamics and the multivariate relationships in the background-error term for 4D-Var. The presence of non-linear moist dynamics makes the wind retrieval from tracers very difficult. On the other hand, it has been shown that moisture observations strongly influence both tropical and mid-latitude wind field in 4D-Var. We present an intermediate complexity model that describes nonlinear interactions between the wind, temperature, aerosols and moisture including their sinks and sources in the framework of the so-called first baroclinic mode atmosphere envisaged by A. Gill. Aerosol physical processes, which are included in the model, are the non-linear advection, diffusion and sources and sinks that exist as dry and wet deposition and diffusion. Precipitation is parametrized according to the Betts-Miller scheme. The control vector for 4D-Var includes aerosols, moisture and the three dynamical variables. The former is analysed univariately whereas wind field and mass field are analysed in a multivariate fashion taking into account quasi-geostrophic and unbalanced dynamics. The OSSE type of studies are performed for the tropical region to assess the ability of 4D-Var to extract wind-field information from the time series of observations of tracers as a function of the flow nonlinearity, the observations density and the length of the assimilation window (12 hours and 24 hours), in dry and moist environment. Results show that the 4D-Var assimilation of aerosols and temperature data is beneficial for the wind analysis with analysis errors strongly dependent on the moist processes and reliable background-error covariances.

  1. Kalman Filter or VAR Models to Predict Unemployment Rate in Romania?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionescu Mihaela

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings to light an economic problem that frequently appears in practice: For the same variable, more alternative forecasts are proposed, yet the decision-making process requires the use of a single prediction. Therefore, a forecast assessment is necessary to select the best prediction. The aim of this research is to propose some strategies for improving the unemployment rate forecast in Romania by conducting a comparative accuracy analysis of unemployment rate forecasts based on two quantitative methods: Kalman filter and vector-auto-regressive (VAR models. The first method considers the evolution of unemployment components, while the VAR model takes into account the interdependencies between the unemployment rate and the inflation rate. According to the Granger causality test, the inflation rate in the first difference is a cause of the unemployment rate in the first difference, these data sets being stationary. For the unemployment rate forecasts for 2010-2012 in Romania, the VAR models (in all variants of VAR simulations determined more accurate predictions than Kalman filter based on two state space models for all accuracy measures. According to mean absolute scaled error, the dynamic-stochastic simulations used in predicting unemployment based on the VAR model are the most accurate. Another strategy for improving the initial forecasts based on the Kalman filter used the adjusted unemployment data transformed by the application of the Hodrick-Prescott filter. However, the use of VAR models rather than different variants of the Kalman filter methods remains the best strategy in improving the quality of the unemployment rate forecast in Romania. The explanation of these results is related to the fact that the interaction of unemployment with inflation provides useful information for predictions of the evolution of unemployment related to its components (i.e., natural unemployment and cyclical component.

  2. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of thorium in Brassica juncea var. foliosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Sai; Kai, Hailu; Zha, Zhongyong; Fang, Zhendong; Wang, Dingna; Du, Liang; Zhang, Dong; Feng, Xiaojie; Jin, Yongdong; Xia, Chuanqin

    2016-01-01

    Brassica juncea var. foliosa (B. juncea var. foliosa) is a promising species for thorium (Th) phytoextraction due to its large biomass, fast growth rate and high tolerance toward Th. To further understand the mechanisms of Th tolerance, the present study investigated the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Th found in B. juncea var. foliosa Our results indicated that in both roots and leaves, Th contents in different parts of the cells follow the order of cell wall > membranes and soluble fraction > organelles. In particular, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis showed that Th was abundantly located in cell walls of the roots. Additionally, when plants were exposed to different concentrations of Th, we have found that Th existed in B. juncea var. foliosa with different chemical forms. Much of the Th extracted by 2% acetic acid (HAc), 1 M NaCl and HCl in roots with the percentage distribution varied from 47.2% to 62.5%, while in leaves, most of the Th was in the form of residue and the subdominant amount of Th was extracted by HCl, followed by 2% HAc. This suggested that Th compartmentation in cytosol and integration with phosphate or proteins in cell wall might be responsible for the tolerance of B. juncea var. foliosa to the stress of Th. - Highlights: • Brassica juncea var. foliosa can adapt to the stress of Th(<200 μM) under hydroponic condition. • Th was selectively distributed on cell wall, membranes and soluble fraction. • Th mainly existed in low-toxicity forms which were benefit for Th tolerance.

  3. [Investigation on Main Cultivation of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus and Commercial Specifications Grades].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, He-ting; Wang, Jian; Cheng, Ming-en; Duan, Hai-yan; Peng, Hua-sheng

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the main cultivation areas of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, and to clarify its present cultivation status and commercial specification grades. Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus cultivated in Hunyuan and Ying County of Shanxi, Longxi, Weiyuan and Min County of Gansu and Wuchuan, Guyang and Chifeng of Inner Mongolia were investigated, including their ecological environment, cultivation history and present situation, harvesting and processing as well as commercial specification grades. The cultivation methods of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus changed greatly in the main cultivation areas. In Gansu and Inner Mongolia, the current major cultivation method was 2 - 3 years of seedling transplantation method, while the 3 - 5 years of seed-directly-sowed method in Inner Mongolia had been almost abandoned, and the 6 - 8 years of mountain direct seeding method was still in application in Hunyuan county of Shanxi province. On the other hand, the harvest method of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus had been gradually changed from manual harvesting in ancient times to the current mechanical harvesting although the latter method did more damage to environment of cultivation areas and the resource of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus in regions Hunyuan county of Shanxi. Through investigating the processing methods of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus in different cultivation areas, it was found that processing method varied from area to area, and no unified specifications had been formulated on processing methods in market. In addition, the current processing method was too complicated in processing the slices of prepared Astragali Radix and most were self processing by farmers themselves, creating market disorders. Moreover, the Astragali Radix products were basically without grading classification but sold as bulk cargo. It is urgent to unify the specifications and grades of Astragali Radix product, and standardize

  4. Murine Model for Preclinical Studies of Var2CSA-Mediated Pathology Associated with Malaria in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechavanne, Sebastien; Sousa, Patrícia M.; Barateiro, André; Cunha, Sónia F.; Nunes-Silva, Sofia; Lima, Flávia A.; Murillo, Oscar; Marinho, Claudio R. F.; Gangnard, Stephane; Srivastava, Anand; Braks, Joanna A.; Janse, Chris J.; Gamain, Benoit; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy leads to abortions, stillbirth, low birth weight, and maternal mortality. Infected erythrocytes (IEs) accumulate in the placenta by adhering to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) via var2CSA protein exposed on the P. falciparum IE membrane. Plasmodium berghei IE infection in pregnant BALB/c mice is a model for severe placental malaria (PM). Here, we describe a transgenic P. berghei parasite expressing the full-length var2CSA extracellular region (domains DBL1X to DBL6ε) fused to a P. berghei exported protein (EMAP1) and characterize a var2CSA-based mouse model of PM. BALB/c mice were infected at midgestation with different doses of P. berghei-var2CSA (P. berghei-VAR) or P. berghei wild-type IEs. Infection with 104 P. berghei-VAR IEs induced a higher incidence of stillbirth and lower fetal weight than P. berghei. At doses of 105 and 106 IEs, P. berghei-VAR-infected mice showed increased maternal mortality during pregnancy and fetal loss, respectively. Parasite loads in infected placentas were similar between parasite lines despite differences in maternal outcomes. Fetal weight loss normalized for parasitemia was higher in P. berghei-VAR-infected mice than in P. berghei-infected mice. In vitro assays showed that higher numbers of P. berghei-VAR IEs than P. berghei IEs adhered to placental tissue. Immunization of mice with P. berghei-VAR elicited IgG antibodies reactive to DBL1-6 recombinant protein, indicating that the topology of immunogenic epitopes is maintained between DBL1-6–EMAP1 on P. berghei-VAR and recombinant DBL1-6 (recDBL1-6). Our data suggested that impairments in pregnancy caused by P. berghei-VAR infection were attributable to var2CSA expression. This model provides a tool for preclinical evaluation of protection against PM induced by approaches that target var2CSA. PMID:27045035

  5. Controlling Kuka Industrial Robots : Flexible Communication Interface JOpenShowVar.

    OpenAIRE

    Sanfilippo, Filippo; Hatledal, Lars Ivar; Zhang, Houxiang; Fago, Massimiliano; Pettersen, Kristin Ytterstad

    2015-01-01

    JOpenShowVar is a Java open-source cross-platform communication interface to Kuka industrial robots. This novel interface allows for read-write use of the controlled manipulator variables and data structures. JOpenShowVar, which is compatible with all the Kuka industrial robots that use KUKA Robot Controller version 4 (KR C4) and KUKA Robot Controller version 2 (KR C2), runs as a client on a remote computer connected with the Kuka controller via TCP/IP. Even though only soft real-time applica...

  6. Phenyl ethers from cultured lichen mycobionts of Graphis scripta var. serpentina and G. rikuzensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaka, Yukiko; Tanahashi, Takao; Nagakura, Naotaka; Hamada, Nobuo

    2003-07-01

    Spore-derived mycobionts of the lichen Graphis scripta var. serpentina and G. rikuzensis were cultivated on a malt-yeast extract medium supplemented with 10% sucrose and their metabolites were investigated. 3,3'-Dihydroxy-5,5'-dimethyldiphenyl ether was isolated from the cultures of the mycobionts of G. scripta var. serpentina, while a new phenyl ether, rikuzenol, along with two known diphenyl ethers, violaceol-I and violaceol-II, were isolated from those of G. rikuzensis. The structure of the new compound was determined by spectroscopic methods. Violaceol-I was chemically synthesized and interconversion between violaceol-I and violaceol-II was proven.

  7. Utilizing nanobody technology to target non-immunodominant domains of VAR2CSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlev, Sisse B; Florea, Raluca; Nielsen, Morten A

    2014-01-01

    adhesion. However, the development of a VAR2CSA adhesion-blocking vaccine remains challenging due to (i) the large size of VAR2CSA and (ii) the extensive immune selection for polymorphisms and thereby non-neutralizing B-cell epitopes. Camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies (HcAbs) are known to target epitopes...... that are less immunogenic to classical IgG and, due to their small size and protruding antigen-binding loop, able to reach and recognize cryptic, conformational epitopes which are inaccessible to conventional antibodies. The variable heavy chain (VHH) domain is the antigen-binding site of camelid HcAbs, the so...

  8. Influence of intermittent preventive treatment on antibodies to VAR2CSA in pregnant Cameroonian women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Tutterrow, Yeung L; Bobbili, Naveen

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) and insecticide-treated bed nets are the standard of care for preventing malaria in pregnant women. Since these preventive measures reduce exposure to malaria, their influence on the antibody (Ab) response to the parasite antigen VAR2CSA was evaluated...... in pregnant Cameroonian women exposed to holoendemic malaria. Ab levels to full-length VAR2CSA (FV2), variants of the six Duffy binding like (DBL) domains, and proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 were measured longitudinally in 92 women before and 147 women after IPT. As predicted, reduced exposure...

  9. The cross-ecosystem impact of deer on an endangered submerged macrophyte, Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hino Takafumi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Macrophytes are a critical component of freshwater ecosystems and are often eaten by cervids. However, the impact of cervids on macrophytes is not well known. In this study, we investigated the effect of sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis on the endangered macrophyte Ranunculus nipponicus var. submersus in a spring stream in southwestern Hokkaido, Japan. We monitored the frequency of stream habitat use by deer by using sensor cameras in photography mode for four seasons. We also monitored deer feeding behavior on R. nipponicus var. submersus using sensor cameras in movie mode. To quantitatively evaluate the impact of deer on R. nipponicus var. submersus, we conducted a field experiment in which deer were excluded from part of the stream. We selected 10 pairs of adjacent patches of R. nipponicus var. submersus and set up exclosures covering one patch in each pair. We assessed the frequency of deer feeding and trampling on the control patches using the sensor cameras in photography mode and measured the mean macrophyte stem length in the exclosure and control patches every month for four seasons. To compare abiotic conditions between the exclosure and control patches, we investigated canopy openness, water depth, water temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, current velocity, and water quality at each patch during the growing season. The frequency of deer in the stream habitat was higher from spring to summer than in other seasons. Direct evidence of deer feeding behavior on R. nipponicus var. submersus was recorded using the sensor cameras. Deer often fed on and trampled on the control patches, particularly from spring to summer. The R. nipponicus var. submersus stem length was longer in the exclosure patches than in control patches (P 0.189. Stem growth of R. nipponicus var. submersus differed among seasons (P <0.001, and was low from winter to spring. In addition, exclosure and seasonality significantly affected stem length (P <0.001, and the

  10. Transient Stability Enhancement in Power System Using Static VAR Compensator (SVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef MOULOUDI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an indirect adaptive fuzzy excitation and static VAR (unit of reactive power, volt-ampere reactive compensator (SVC controller is proposed to enhance transient stability for the power system, which based on input-output linearization technique. A three-bus system, which contains a generator and static VAR compensator (SVC, is considered in this paper, the SVC is located at the midpoint of the transmission lines. Simulation results show that the proposed controller compared with a controller based on tradition linearization technique can enhance the transient stability of the power system under a large sudden fault, which may occur nearly at the generator bus terminal.

  11. Disruption of var2csa gene impairs placental malaria associated adhesion phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola K Viebig

    Full Text Available Infection with Plasmodium falciparum during pregnancy is one of the major causes of malaria related morbidity and mortality in newborn and mothers. The complications of pregnancy-associated malaria result mainly from massive adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IE to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA present in the placental intervillous blood spaces. Var2CSA, a member of the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1 family is the predominant parasite ligand mediating CSA binding. However, experimental evidence suggests that other host receptors, such as hyaluronic acid (HA and the neonatal Fc receptor, may also support placental binding. Here we used parasites in which var2csa was genetically disrupted to evaluate the contribution of these receptors to placental sequestration and to identify additional adhesion receptors that may be involved in pregnancy-associated malaria. By comparison to the wild-type parasites, the FCR3delta var2csa mutants could not be selected for HA adhesion, indicating that var2csa is not only essential for IE cytoadhesion to the placental receptor CSA, but also to HA. However, further studies using different pure sources of HA revealed that the previously observed binding results from CSA contamination in the bovine vitreous humor HA preparation. To identify CSA-independent placental interactions, FCR3delta var2csa mutant parasites were selected for adhesion to the human placental trophoblastic BeWo cell line. BeWo selected parasites revealed a multi-phenotypic adhesion population expressing multiple var genes. However, these parasites did not cytoadhere specifically to the syncytiotrophoblast lining of placental cryosections and were not recognized by sera from malaria-exposed women in a parity dependent manner, indicating that the surface molecules present on the surface of the BeWo selected population are not specifically expressed during the course of pregnancy-associated malaria. Taken

  12. Description of rainfall variability in Br hat -samhita of Varâha-mihira

    OpenAIRE

    Iyengar, RN

    2004-01-01

    Br hat -samhita of Varâha-mihira (5–6th century AD) provides valuable information on the approach in ancient India towards monsoon rainfall, including its measurement and forecasting. In this context, we come across a description of the expected amount of total seasonal rainfall depending on the first rains under the 27 naks atras of Indian astronomy. This provides a rough statistical picture of what might have been the rainfall and its variability in the region around Ujjain, where Varâha-mi...

  13. On Setting Day-Ahead Equity Trading Risk Limits: VaR Prediction at Market Close or Open?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Fuertes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the information content of the ex post overnight return for one-day-ahead equity Value-at-Risk (VaR forecasting. To do so, we deploy a univariate VaR modeling approach that constructs the forecast at market open and, accordingly, exploits the available overnight close-to-open price variation. The benchmark is the bivariate VaR modeling approach proposed by Ahoniemi et al. that constructs the forecast at the market close instead and, accordingly, it models separately the daytime and overnight return processes and their covariance. For a small cap portfolio, the bivariate VaR approach affords superior predictive ability than the ex post overnight VaR approach whereas for a large cap portfolio the results are reversed. The contrast indicates that price discovery at the market open is less efficient for small capitalization, thinly traded stocks.

  14. Mining whole genomes and transcriptomes of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) and Castor bean (Ricinus communis) for NBS-LRR genes and defense response associated transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Archit; Jaiswal, Varun; Chanumolu, Sree Krishna; Malhotra, Nikhil; Pal, Tarun; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2014-11-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) and Castor bean (Ricinus communis) are oilseed crops of family Euphorbiaceae with the potential of producing high quality biodiesel and having industrial value. Both the bioenergy plants are becoming susceptible to various biotic stresses directly affecting the oil quality and content. No report exists as of today on analysis of Nucleotide Binding Site-Leucine Rich Repeat (NBS-LRR) gene repertoire and defense response transcription factors in both the plant species. In silico analysis of whole genomes and transcriptomes identified 47 new NBS-LRR genes in both the species and 122 and 318 defense response related transcription factors in Jatropha and Castor bean, respectively. The identified NBS-LRR genes and defense response transcription factors were mapped onto the respective genomes. Common and unique NBS-LRR genes and defense related transcription factors were identified in both the plant species. All NBS-LRR genes in both the species were characterized into Toll/interleukin-1 receptor NBS-LRRs (TNLs) and coiled-coil NBS-LRRs (CNLs), position on contigs, gene clusters and motifs and domains distribution. Transcript abundance or expression values were measured for all NBS-LRR genes and defense response transcription factors, suggesting their functional role. The current study provides a repertoire of NBS-LRR genes and transcription factors which can be used in not only dissecting the molecular basis of disease resistance phenotype but also in developing disease resistant genotypes in Jatropha and Castor bean through transgenic or molecular breeding approaches.

  15. Molybdenum (Mo) increases endogenous phenolics, proline and photosynthetic pigments and the phytoremediation potential of the industrially important plant Ricinus communis L. for removal of cadmium from contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Fazal; Ali, Nasir; Fuller, Michael Paul

    2016-10-01

    Cadmium (Cd) in agricultural soil negatively affects crops yield and compromises food safety. Remediation of polluted soil is necessary for the re-establishment of sustainable agriculture and to prevent hazards to human health and environmental pollution. Phytoremediation is a promising technology for decontamination of polluted soil. The present study investigated the effect of molybdenum (Mo) (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 ppm) on endogenous production of total phenolics and free proline, plant biomass and photosynthetic pigments in Ricinus communis plants grown in Cd (25, 50 and 100 ppm) contaminated soils and the potential for Cd phytoextraction. Mo was applied via seed soaking, soil addition and foliar spray. Foliar sprays significantly increased plant biomass, Cd accumulation and bioconcentration. Phenolic concentrations showed significantly positive correlations with Cd accumulation in roots (R 2  = 0.793, 0.807 and 0.739) and leaves (R 2  = 0.707, 721 and 0.866). Similarly, proline was significantly positively correlated with Cd accumulation in roots (R 2  = 0.668, 0.694 and 0.673) and leaves (R 2  = 0.831, 0.964 and 0.930). Foliar application was found to be the most effective way to deliver Mo in terms of increase in plant growth, Cd accumulation and production of phenolics and proline.

  16. Rendimento e Características Físicas dos Óleos de Nim (Azadirachta indica e Mamona (Ricinus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Benigno Paes

    Full Text Available A pesquisa objetivou avaliar o rendimento e a viscosidade de óleos de nim (Azadirachta indica e mamona (Ricinus communis. Os frutos de nim foram coletados no Núcleo de Pesquisa do Semiárido, em Patos, Paraíba, e os de mamona, às margens do Rio Espinharas, Patos e em Igaracy, Paraíba. Os frutos foram beneficiados no Laboratório de Tecnologia de Produtos Florestais, em Patos. Foram retiradas amostras de sementes para a determinação do teor de umidade e do rendimento em óleos. Os óleos foram extraídos com álcool etílico absoluto e empregados no preparo de soluções com os óleos de nim e mamona. Determinaram-se a densidade e a viscosidade das soluções. A mamona teve menor teor de umidade e rendimento em óleo que o nim. A densidade e a viscosidade do óleo de nim foram menores que o da mamona. Uma maior quantidade de óleos de mamona proporcionou aumento na densidade e na viscosidade das soluções preparadas.

  17. The effects of dietary Myrtle (Myrtus communis) on skin mucus immune parameters and mRNA levels of growth, antioxidant and immune related genes in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Roghieh; Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Van Doan, Hien; Dadar, Maryam

    2017-07-01

    Myrtle (Myrtus communis L., Myrtaceae) is a significant plant which naturally distributed around the globe. Although numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of myrtle in different species, studies using the oral route are rare in the literature. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of myrtle intake on the antioxidant, immune, appetite and growth related genes as well as mucosal immune responses in zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. Zebrafish were fed control or myrtle (5, 10 and 20 g kg -1 myrtle) supplemented diets for sixty days. The results showed that, oral administration of Myrtle significantly improved mucosal immune responses (the activity of lysozyme, total Ig and protease). Furthermore, fish fed 20 g kg -1 showed remarkably higher antioxidant (sod and cat) enzymes gene expression compared other treatment. There were significant difference between myrtle fed fish and control group regarding tnf-alpha and lyz expression. Also, evaluation of growth (gh and igf1) related genes revealed remarkable upregulation in 20 g kg -1 myrtle treatment compared other myrtle treatments and control group. Similar results was observed regarding the mRNA levels of appetite related genes (ghrl) in zebrafish fed 20 g kg -1 myrtle. The present results indicated that dietary administration of myrtle improved mucosal immune parameters and altered mRNA levels of selected genes. These results on zebrafish model also highlights the potential use of Myrtle supplements as additive in human diets. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. CONSTRUCCIÓN DE UN REACTOR DISCONTINUO PARA LA OBTENCIÓN DE BIODIESEL A PARTIR DEL ACEITE DE Ricinus communis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolimar Fernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se construyó un reactor discontinuo para obtener biodiesel a partir de 5 litros de extracto obtenido de la semilla de Ricinus communis. El reactor es de acero inoxidable, con longitud de 29 cm; diámetro interno de 15,24 cm y fondo cónico de 20cm de largo, espesor de la pared de 0,2cm, resistencia tubular de 1000 W y motor de 110 volt. Se extrajo y se comparó con las normas respectivas las propiedades físicas y químicas del aceite crudo. Se realizaron pruebas preliminares de transesterificación del aceite catalizadas con NaOH para constatar la viabilidad de la reacción y definir las condiciones operacionales. El biodiesel obtenido fue caracterizado y comparado con referencias presentes en la literatura. Los resultaron mostraron que es posible obtener el biocombustible en el reactor discontinuo con un grado de conversión 88%; confirmando su aplicación en reacciones de transesterificación en medio básico.

  19. Phytoextraction of metals and rhizoremediation of PAHs in co-contaminated soil by co-planting of Sedum alfredii with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or castor (Ricinus communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Huang, Huagang; Zhu, Zhiqiang; Li, Tingqiang; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe; Alva, Ashok

    2013-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the potential for phytoextraction of heavy metals and rhizoremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in co-contaminated soil by co-planting a cadmium/zinc (Cd/Zn) hyperaccumulator and lead (Pb) accumulator Sedum alfredii with ryegrass (Lolium perenne) or castor (Ricinus communis). Co-planting with castor decreased the shoot biomass of S. alfredii as compared to that in monoculture. Cadmium concentration in S. alfredii shoot significantly decreased when grown with ryegrass or castor as compared to that in monoculture. However, no reduction of Zn or Pb concentration in S. alfredii shoot was detected in co-planting treatments. Total removal of either Cd, Zn, or Pb by plants was similar across S. alfredii monoculture or co-planting with ryegrass or castor, except enhanced Pb removal in S. alfredii and ryegrass co-planting treatment. Co-planting of S. alfredii with ryegrass or castor significantly enhanced the pyrene and anthracene dissipation as compared to that in the bare soil or S. alfredii monoculture. This appears to be due to the increased soil microbial population and activities in both co-planting treatments. Co-planting of S. alfredii with ryegrass or castor provides a promising strategy to mitigate both metal and PAH contaminants from co-contaminated soils.

  20. Life history of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954 (Acari: Phytoseiidae fed with castor bean (Ricinus communisL. pollen in laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PP Marafeli

    Full Text Available The predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus(McGregor, 1954 (Acari: Phytoseiidae is one of the principal natural enemies of tetranychid mites in several countries, promoting efficient control of those mites in several food and ornamental crops. Pest attacks such as that of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticaeKoch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae, is one of the problems faced by farmers, especially in the greenhouse, due to the difficulty of its control with the use of chemicals because of the development of fast resistance making it hard to control it. The objective of this work was to study the life history of the predatory mite N. californicus as a contribution to its mass laboratory rearing, having castor bean plant [Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae] pollen as food, for its subsequent use as a natural enemy of T. urticae on a cultivation of greenhouse rosebushes. The studies were carried out in the laboratory, at 25 ± 2°C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and a 14 hour photophase. The biological aspects and the fertility life table were appraised. Longevity of 32.9 days was verified for adult females and 40.4 days for males. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm was 0.2 and the mean generation time (T was 17.2 days. The population doubled every 4.1 days. The results obtained were similar to those in which the predatory mite N. californicus fed on T. urticae.