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Sample records for juniper juniperus occidentalis

  1. Conifer encroachment and hydrology: Altered above and below ground hydrologic fluxes in western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, R. J.; Link, T. E.; Heinse, R.; Seyfried, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) occupy 9 million acres in Oregon, California, Idaho, and Nevada. In many of these areas juniper has expanded 10-fold since Euro-American settlement into what was mostly sagebrush steppe due to grazing, changes in fire regimes, and climate. Despite the importance of elucidating if juniper encroachment appreciably changes semi-arid hydrology, there have been few process-based studies linking above and below ground hydrologic fluxes or that assess variations across a gradient of shrub to tree-dominated areas. Our objectives are to determine: A) the differences in interception and throughfall at a lower density juniper stand dominated by low sagebrush (Artemisia arbuscula) and a moderate density juniper stand dominated by juniper, B) soil moisture dynamics between lower and moderate density juniper stands, and C) how those above and below ground processes are linked. Our study area was located at the USDA-ARS Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in the Owyhee Mountains of southwestern Idaho. We used multiple methods to measure and estimate above and below ground hydrologic fluxes. Above ground precipitation was estimated with large (approximately 5.5 m2) precipitation lysimeters; two located under tree canopies and two in the open. Soil moisture was measured continuously at four trees and across both plots once every 1 - 2 months once snow melted. Continuous measurements under the canopy consisted of four soil moisture probes each; two outside and under the canopy at 15 cm and 60 cm. Plot wide soil moisture changes were estimated based on changes in conductivity measured with electromagnetic induction (EMI) at both 0-75 cm and 0-150 cm. Results show some clear patterns in differences in hydrologic fluxes across the two stands. Rain and snow throughfall from mid-October through mid-April under the canopy was 289 mm, compared to 381 mm outside the canopy, therefore interception was 24% of incoming precipitation. Snowmelt rates

  2. Geospatial analysis of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis ) encroachment utilizing remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poznanovic, Aaron James

    Utilizing remote sensing methods to assess landscape-scale ecological change are rapidly becoming a dominant force in the natural sciences. Powerful and robust non-parametric statistical methods are also actively being developed to compliment the unique characteristics of remotely sensed data. The focus of this research is to utilize these powerful, robust remote sensing and statistical approaches to shed light on woody plant encroachment into native grasslands---a troubling ecological phenomenon occurring throughout the world. Specifically, this research investigates western juniper encroachment within the sage-steppe ecosystem of the western USA. Western juniper trees are native to the intermountain west and are ecologically important by means of providing structural diversity and habitat for many species. However, after nearly 150 years of post-European settlement changes to this threatened ecosystem, natural ecological processes such as fire regimes no longer limit the range of western juniper to rocky refugia and other areas protected from short fire return intervals that are historically common to the region. Consequently, sage-steppe communities with high juniper densities exhibit negative impacts, such as reduced structural diversity, degraded wildlife habitat and ultimately the loss of biodiversity. Much of today's sage-steppe ecosystem is transitioning to juniper woodlands. Additionally, the majority of western juniper woodlands have not reached their full potential in both range and density. The first section of this research investigates the biophysical drivers responsible for juniper expansion patterns observed in the sage-steppe ecosystem. The second section is a comprehensive accuracy assessment of classification methods used to identify juniper tree cover from multispectral 1 m spatial resolution aerial imagery.

  3. Does woodland encroachment impact water?: An ecohydrology study of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) and other semi-arid conifers in the western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeyer, R. J.; Link, T. E.; Heinse, R.; Seyfried, M. S.; Flerchinger, G. N.; Klos, P. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Semi-arid conifer species including western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) among other pinyon and juniper (P-J) species have expanded into grass and shrub-dominated landscapes in the western U.S. Despite the importance of land cover changes to hydrological fluxes in these water-limited systems, there have been few process-based ecohydrology studies of western juniper encroachment. Furthermore, many conclusions about the impact of P-J encroachment on streamflow are limited to several studies in the southwestern U.S. Our objectives are to: a) assess how western juniper will impact above-ground hydrological processes, b) assess how western juniper will alter below-ground hydrological processes, c) assess how changes in P-J cover alters deep drainage across diverse climates of the western U.S. To accomplish these objectives we used a combination of continuous lysimeter and soil moisture measurements, periodic snow surveys, electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and electromagnetic induction (EMI) surveys, simulations with the Simultaneous Heat and Water (SHAW) model and broad, spatially-coarse simulations with the atmosphere-vegetation-soil component of the HBV model. Juniper trees by both intercepting snow and increasing below-canopy snow melt caused tree wells to form throughout the winter. These tree wells increased snow redistribution to the base of the trees. Soil moisture in the interspace dominated by sagebrush, forbes, and grasses drops early in the season, but late season soil moisture changes are moderated by juniper. There is evidence that junipers continue to transpire soil moisture both late into the summer and at up to 3 meters deep. HBV simulations revealed that the potential for increases in deep drainage with a change from P-J to grass cover is principally controlled by the timing instead of the total precipitation. Simulations confirm previous empirical studies that landscapes in monsoon-dominated climates of the southwestern U.S. show negligible

  4. New glycosides of acetophenone derivatives and phenylpropanoids from Juniperus occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inatomi, Yuka; Murata, Hiroko; Inada, Akira; Nakanishi, Tsutomu; Lang, Frank A; Murata, Jin; Iinuma, Munekazu

    2013-04-01

    New glycosides of seven acetophenone derivatives (1-7) and two phenylpropanoids (8, 9), named juniperosides III-XI, have been isolated from the MeOH extract of the leaves and stems of Juniperus occidentalis Hook. (Cupressaceae), together with eleven other known compounds. The structures of these compounds have been successfully elucidated using a variety of spectroscopic techniques.

  5. Conservation opportunities in Spanish Juniper Juniperus thurifera woodlands: the case of migratory thrushes Turdus spp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleria, J.L.; De la Hera, I.; Ramírez, A.; Santos, T.

    2011-01-01

    Conservation opportunities in Spanish juniper Juniperus thurifera woodlands: the case of migratory thrushes Turdus spp. Spanish juniper Juniperus thurifera woodlands are the core habitat of several sites included in the Nature 2000 Network and the wintering ground of many European thrushes Turdus

  6. Western juniper in eastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald R. Gedney; David L. Azuma; Charles L. Bolsinger; Neil. McKay

    1999-01-01

    This report analyzes and summarizes a 1988 inventory of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook.) in eastern Oregon. This inventory, conducted by the Pacific Northwest Research Station of the USDA Forest Service, was intensified to meet increased need for more information about the juniper resource than was available in previous inventories. A...

  7. Using juniper berry ( Juniperus communis ) as a supplement in Japanese quail diets

    OpenAIRE

    Hakan Inci; Gokce Ozdemir; Ahmet Yusuf Sengul; Bunyamin Sogut; Hüseyin Nursoy; Turgay Sengul

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to determine the effects of supplemented juniper berry (Juniperus communis) on fattening performance and some carcass traits of quails. A total of 150 one-day-old Japanese quail chicks were randomly divided into five groups (one control and four treated groups) with three replicates. Four different juniper berry levels (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2%) and a control treatment (0%) were added to the diet. Juniper berry supplementation to the diets initiated at the ...

  8. Sagebrush steppe recovery after fire varies by development phase of Juniperus occidentalis woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinus-Juniperus L. (Piñon- juniper) woodlands have expanded into Artemisia tridentata Beetle (big sagebrush) steppe of the western United States primarily as a result of reduced fire disturbances. Woodland control measures, including prescribed fire, have been increasingly employed to restore sagebr...

  9. Are western juniper seeds dispersed through diplochory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seed dispersal of western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) appears to be convergent on a strategy utilized by fruit-bearing trees in that this conifer produces fleshy female cones (a.k.a., juniper “berries”) that are consumed by frugivorous birds, which then disperse the seeds through endozoochory b...

  10. Topical wound-healing effects and phytochemical composition of heartwood essential oils of Juniperus virginiana L., Juniperus occidentalis Hook., and Juniperus ashei J. Buchholz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumen, Ibrahim; Süntar, Ipek; Eller, Fred J; Keleş, Hikmet; Akkol, Esra Küpeli

    2013-01-01

    Ethnobotanical surveys indicated that in the traditional medicines worldwide, several Juniperus species are utilized as antihelmintic, diuretic, stimulant, antiseptic, carminative, stomachic, antirheumatic, antifungal, and for wound healing. In the present study, essential oils obtained from heartwood samples of Juniperus virginiana L., Juniperus occidentalis Hook. and Juniperus ashei J. Buchholz were evaluated for wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities by using in vivo experimental methods. The essential oils were obtained by the supercritical carbon dioxide extraction method. Linear incision and circular excision wound models were performed for the wound-healing activity assessment. The tissues were also evaluated for the hydroxyproline content as well as histopathologically. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of the essential oils, the test used was an acetic acid-induced increase in capillary permeability. The essential oil of J. occidentalis showed the highest activity on the in vivo biological activity models. Additionaly, the oil of J. virginiana was found highly effective in the anti-inflammatory activity method. The experimental data demonstrated that essential oil of J. occidentalis displayed significant wound-healing and anti-inflammatory activities.

  11. Hart Mountain - Control of Cheatgrass in the Poker Jim Ridge Juniper Removal Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Since 2011 the Sheldon-Hart Mountain NWR Complex (Complex) has removed encroaching western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) from within approximately 5,470 acres on...

  12. Compatible dominant height - site index model for juniper (Juniperus deppeana Steud.)

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Rodríguez-Carrillo; Francisco Cruz-Cobos; Benedicto Vargas-Larreta; Francisco J. Hernández

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the site quality of juniper (Juniperus deppeana Steud.) in the San Dimas region of the state of Durango, Mexico, using the site index method. The database comes from stem analysis of 43 trees felled in harvesting activities. The Chapman-Richards and Schumacher models, by means of the algebraic difference and generalized algebraic difference approaches, were tested to determine the site index; in addition, the error structure was modeled with a second-ord...

  13. Using juniper berry ( Juniperus communis as a supplement in Japanese quail diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Inci

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present study was conducted to determine the effects of supplemented juniper berry (Juniperus communis on fattening performance and some carcass traits of quails. A total of 150 one-day-old Japanese quail chicks were randomly divided into five groups (one control and four treated groups with three replicates. Four different juniper berry levels (0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2% and a control treatment (0% were added to the diet. Juniper berry supplementation to the diets initiated at the end of the 1st week and sustained for seven weeks. Live weight, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio during the trial and some carcass traits after slaughter were determined. Juniper berry supplementation in the diet during seven weeks of growing period significantly increased body weight, cumulative feed intake, and feed conversion ratio of the treated groups. Carcass weight, carcass yield, and breast yield were also significantly increased by supplemented juniper berry. No significant difference was observed between viability of different groups. Supplementation of 0.5-1% juniper berry in quail diets has positive impacts on fattening performance and carcass traits.

  14. Environmental, genetic, and ecophysiological variation of western and Utah juniper and their hybrids: A model system for vegetation response to climate change. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, R.S. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Dept. of Environmental and Resource Sciences; Tausch, R.J. [Forest Service, Reno, NV (United States). Rocky Mountain Research Station

    1998-11-01

    This report focuses on the following two research projects relating to the biological effects of climate change: Hybridization and genetic diversity populations of Utah (Juniperus osteosperma) and western (Juniperus occidentalis) juniper: Evidence from nuclear ribosomal and chloroplast DNA; and Ecophysiological patterns of pinyon and juniper.

  15. Functional characterization of fifteen hundred transcripts from Ziarat juniper (Juniperus excelsa M.Bieb

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    Humaira Abdul Wahid

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ziarat juniper (Juniperus excelsa M.Bieb is an evergreen and dominant species of Balochistan juniper forests. This forest is providing many benefits to regional ecosystems and surrounding populations. No functional genomics study is reported for this important juniper plant. This research is aimed to characterize the Ziarat juniper functional genome based on the analyses of 1500 transcripts. Methods: Total RNA from shoot of Juniperus excelsa was extracted and subjected for transcriptome sequencing using Illumina HiSeq 2000 with the service from Macrogen, Inc., South Korea. The Illumina sequenced data was subjected to bioinformatics analysis. Quality assessment and data filtration was performed for the removal of low-quality reads, ambiguous reads and adaptor sequences. The high-quality clean reads data was deposited in the Sequence Read Archive (SRA at NCBI, and used for downstream processes. Fifteen hundred transcripts were randomly chosen and used for functional characterization. Results: As a result of homology search 80.3% transcripts showed significant similarities and were placed in significant similarities category, 19.3% transcripts showed low similarities and assigned to the ‘‘unclassified’’ category while 0.4% transcripts are defined as no hits. The functional characterization results showed that most (18% of the transcripts are involved in metabolism, followed by 11.7% in transcription and 11.5% as structural protein. 8.8% transcripts are engaged in stress response, whereas the transcripts involved in growth and development constituted 6.7%. Transcripts involved in signal transduction represented 5.6%, while 3.5% facilitating transport and 34.1% are involved in hypothetical functions. Conclusion: The functional annotation data produced in this study will be very useful for future functional genome analysis of Juniperus excelsa.

  16. Topical wound-healing effects and phytochemical composition of heartwood essential oils of Juniperus virginiana L., Juniperus occidentalis Hook., and Juniperus ashei Juniperus Buchholz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethnobotanical surveys indicated that several Juniperus species are utilized as an antihelmintic, diuretic, stimulant, antiseptic, carminative, antirheumatic, antifungal and for wound healing. In the present study, essential oils obtained from heartwood samples of Juniperus virginiana L., J. occide...

  17. [Genetical control of the allozymes in juniper (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) of the Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Nikolaeva, A V

    2007-01-01

    Genetical control of nine enzyme systems has been studied in preserved juniper species (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) of the natural population of the mountain Crimea. Isozymes were extracted from the haploid seed endosperms and separated elecrophoretically. As a result 16 loci have been identified. Fourteen of them were polymorphic (14--Gdh, Got-1, Mdh-1, Mdh-2, Mdh-3, Acp-1, Acp-2, Acp-3, Lap-1, Dia-1, Fdh, Sod-1, Sod-2, Sod-3). Analysis of the allele segragation of the heterozygous trees confirmed their monogenic inheritance.

  18. Multi-element determination in medicinal Juniper tree (Juniperus phoenicea by instrumental neutron activation analysis

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    Bouzid Nedjimi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Red Juniper (Juniperus phoenicea, a local medicinal tree was collected and analyzed for 18 essential, non-essential and toxic elements using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA. The GBW 07605 (GSV-4 standard reference material was analyzed simultaneously with the plant samples, the results shown a good recovery and reproducibility of the method. Ca, K and Fe have been detected in good levels in this plant clarifying their possible contribution to curative properties. The data obtained in the present work will be helpful in the synthesis of new synthetic drugs which can be used for medicinal purpose.

  19. Negative effects of temperature and atmospheric depositions on the seed viability of common juniper (Juniperus communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruwez, R; De Frenne, P; De Schrijver, A; Leroux, O; Vangansbeke, P; Verheyen, K

    2014-02-01

    Environmental change is increasingly impacting ecosystems worldwide. However, our knowledge about the interacting effects of various drivers of global change on sexual reproduction of plants, one of their key mechanisms to cope with change, is limited. This study examines populations of poorly regenerating and threatened common juniper (Juniperus communis) to determine the influence of four drivers of global change (rising temperatures, nitrogen deposition, potentially acidifying deposition and altering precipitation patterns) on two key developmental phases during sexual reproduction, gametogenesis and fertilization (seed phase two, SP2) and embryo development (seed phase three, SP3), and on the ripening time of seeds. In 42 populations throughout the distribution range of common juniper in Europe, 11,943 seeds of two developmental phases were sampled. Seed viability was determined using seed dissection and related to accumulated temperature (expressed as growing degree-days), nitrogen and potentially acidifying deposition (nitrogen plus sulfur), and precipitation data. Precipitation had no influence on the viability of the seeds or on the ripening time. Increasing temperatures had a negative impact on the viability of SP2 and SP3 seeds and decreased the ripening time. Potentially acidifying depositions negatively influenced SP3 seed viability, while enhanced nitrogen deposition led to lower ripening times. Higher temperatures and atmospheric deposition affected SP3 seeds more than SP2 seeds. However, this is possibly a delayed effect as juniper seeds develop practically independently, due to the absence of vascular communication with the parent plant from shortly after fertilization. It is proposed that the failure of natural regeneration in many European juniper populations might be attributed to climate warming as well as enhanced atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur.

  20. Modeling and mapping potential distribution of Crimean juniper (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) using correlative approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Kürşad; Şentürk, Özdemir; Mert, Ahmet; Negiz, Mehmet Güvenç

    2015-01-01

    Modeling and mapping potential distribution of living organisms has become an important component of conservation planning and ecosystem management in recent years. Various correlative and mechanistic methods can be applied to build predictive distributions of living organisms in terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Correlative methods used to predict species' potential distribution have been described as either group discrimination techniques or profile techniques. We attempted to determine whether group discrimination techniques could perform as well as profile techniques for predicting species potential distributions, using elevation (ELVN), parent material (ROCK), slope (SLOP), radiation index (RI) and topographic position index (TPI)) as explanatory variables. We compared potential distribution predictions made for Crimean juniper (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) in the Yukan Gokdere forest district of the Mediterranean region, Turkey, applying four group discrimination techniques (discriminate analysis (DA), logistic regression analysis (LR), generalized addictive model (GAM) and classification tree technique (CT)) and two profile techniques (a maximum entropy approach to species distribution modeling (MAXENT), the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction (GARP)). Visual assessments of the potential distribution probability of the applied models for Crimean juniper were performed by using geographical information systems (GIS). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to objectively assess model performance. The results suggested that group discrimination techniques are better than profile techniques and, among the group discrimination techniques, GAM indicated the best performance.

  1. Critical phases in the seed development of common juniper (Juniperus communis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruwez, R; Leroux, O; De Frenne, P; Tack, W; Viane, R; Verheyen, K

    2013-01-01

    Common juniper (Juniperus communis L.) populations in northwest European lowlands are currently declining in size and number. An important cause of this decline is a lack of natural regeneration. Low seed viability seems to be one of the main bottlenecks in this process. Previous research revealed a negative relation between seed viability and both temperature and nitrogen deposition. Additionally, the seeds of common juniper have a variable ripening time, which possibly influences seed viability. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unresolved. In order to elucidate this puzzle, it is important to understand in which phases of seed production the main defects are situated, together with the influence of ripening time. In this study, we compared seed viability of populations with and without successful recruitment. We examined three seed phases: (i) gamete development; (ii) fertilisation and early-embryo development; and (iii) late-embryo development. After the first two phases, we found no difference in the percentage viable seeds between populations with or without recruitment. After late-embryo development, populations without recruitment showed a significantly lower percentage of viable seeds. These results suggest that late-embryo development is a bottleneck in seed development. However, the complex interaction between seed viability and ripening time suggest that the causes should be in the second seed phase, as the accelerated development of male and female gametophytes may disturb the male-female synchrony for successful mating. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  2. Antileishmanial Activities of Greek Juniper (Juniperus excelsa M.Bieb.) Against Leishmania major Promastigotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moein, Mahmoodreza; Hatam, Gholamreza; Taghavi-Moghadam, Razieh; Zarshenas, Mohammad M

    2017-01-01

    Petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol fractions of Greek juniper (Juniperus excelsa M.Bieb. from the family Cupressaceae) were evaluated for antileishmanial activities against Leishmania major promastigotes compared to meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime). In vitro toxicity assay was performed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide and microplate ELISA reader. Extracts were prepared in ethanol/dimethyl sulfoxide (80/20) at 10 to 0.62 mg/mL. The standard was prepared in phosphate-buffered saline at 500 to 15.62 mg/mL. Both leaf and fruit extracts and related fractions showed strong inhibitory effects against promastigotes, significantly different from that of the standard. The leaf extract and the respective petroleum ether fraction showed maximum effectiveness compared to other fractions and also fruit extract and fractions (IC90 = 1.89 ± 0.03 and 0.90 ± 0.03 mg/mL, respectively). Regarding the potent activities of nonpolar fractions of Greek juniper leaf extract, these fractions can be suggested for further investigation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Juniperus extraction: a comparison of species and solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effectiveness of the three solvents, hexane, methanol and ethanol were compared for their ability to extract non-polar and polar materials from sawdust from three species of Juniperus (i.e., J. virginianna, J. occidentalis and J. ashei). These species studied represent the junipers with the grea...

  4. Effect of using redberry juniper (Juniperus pinchotii) to reduce Haemonchus contortus in vitro motility and increase ivermectin efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, S A; Klein, D R; Whitney, T R; Scott, C B; Muir, J P; Lambert, B D; Craig, T M

    2013-10-18

    A modified larval migration inhibition assay was used to determine if redberry juniper (Juniperus pinchotii Sudw.) can reduce Haemonchus contortus in vitro motility and increase ivermectin (IVM) efficacy. Ruminal fluid was mixed with buffer solution and either no material (CNTL) or Tifton 85 Bermudagrass hay (T85), dried juniper (DRY), fresh juniper (FRE), or distilled juniper terpenoid oil (OIL) to make treatment solutions and anaerobically incubated for 16 h. For Trial 1, larvae were incubated in CNTL, T85, DRY, or IVM. During Trial 2, larvae were incubated in CNTL, DRY, FRE, or OIL for 4h. Trials 3 (CNTL or OIL) and 4 (CNTL, DRY or FRE) evaluated larvae after incubation in treatment solution for 2h, then incubated an additional 2h in various IVM doses (0, 0.1, 1, 3, and 6 μg/mL IVM) and placed onto a screen. Larvae that passed through the 20-μm screen within a 96-well plate were considered motile. Larvae incubated in CNTL or T85 had similar (P=0.12) motility, but larvae incubated in DRY were less (PFRE, or OIL reduced (PFRE. Juniper forage material reduced in vitro H. contortus larval motility, but IVM efficacy was increased only by initially incubating larvae in DRY.

  5. Compatible dominant height - site index model for juniper (Juniperus deppeana Steud.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rodríguez-Carrillo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the site quality of juniper (Juniperus deppeana Steud. in the San Dimas region of the state of Durango, Mexico, using the site index method. The database comes from stem analysis of 43 trees felled in harvesting activities. The Chapman-Richards and Schumacher models, by means of the algebraic difference and generalized algebraic difference approaches, were tested to determine the site index; in addition, the error structure was modeled with a second-order autoregressive model to remedy the dependency of existing longitudinal errors. The results showed that the Chapman-Richards model in generalized algebraic difference form provided the best fit according to the adjusted coefficient of determination (R2 adj = 0.98 and root mean square error (RMSE = 0.46 m. Plotting of the quality curves generated with this model, superimposed on the observed heights, corroborated the goodness of fit of the model selected. The equation obtained with the generalized algebraic difference approach directly estimates the dominant height and site index at any height and base age.

  6. THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT SOWING TIMES ON GERMINATION PERCENTAGE OF MOUNTAIN JUNIPER (Juniperus communis L. subsp. nana Syme, SMALL FRUITED JUNIPER (Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus, SAVIN JUNIPER (Juniperus sabina L. SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cemal Gültekin

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Germination is delayed in Junipers because of embriyo dormancy, and also in same cases by an impermable seedcoat, or inhibitors in the cone and seedcoat. There are a lot of non-viable or nongerminating seeds of the species like the other juniper species. Low rates of germination in a number of species are due to a large propartion of non-viable or nongerminating seed. Non-viable seed may be hollow, damaged, or immature. In this study, after the process extraction the seeds from the cones and seperation of the empty, damaged, and immature seeds, the remain full seeds has been sown to find out the effects of different sowing times on germination percent under the nursery conditions. For this reason, ten different sowing times have been applied in thirty days intervals. Germination date on sowing times were analyzed using JMP statistical software. Results of the ANOVA and LSD showed that the most suitable sowing time and greatest germination was July (62.5 % and August (61.3 % for mountain juniper, August (73.0 % for small fruited juniper, July (51.8 % and August (50.8 % for savin juniper.

  7. [Genetic variability of juniper tall (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) in the northern and southern limits of the natural distribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korshikov, I I; Nikolaeva, A V

    2013-01-01

    Genetic structure, subdivision and differentiation of six populations of juniper tall (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) of the Crimean Mountains and of one population in Lebanon were investigated using 18 polymorphic allozyme loci as genetic markers. The high level of genetic variability of J. excelsa was established in the northern and the southern limits of its natural habitat. The mean values of the main indicators of genetic polymorphism were: P99 = 1,000, A = 3,167, H(E) = 0,370, H(o) = 0,405. Subdivision and differentiation of populations were low (F(ST) = 0,032, D(N) = 0,026) indicating similarity of their gene pools.

  8. Dual extraction of essential oil and podophyllotoxin from creeping juniper (Juniperus horizontalis.

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    Charles L Cantrell

    Full Text Available Juniperus horizontalis Moench (Family Cupressaceae, commonly called creeping juniper, is a widely distributed species in the United States and much of Canada. It is potentially a source for two important chemical products, the anticancer drug synthetic precursor, podophyllotoxin and essential oils. The objectives of this study were to ascertain the likelihood of utilizing J. horizontalis needles for the simultaneous production of both (--podophyllotoxin and essential oil components and to determine the optimum distillation time (DT needed for the production of essential oil containing a specific ratio of constituents. Eleven different distillation times were tested in this study: 20, 40, 80, 160, 180, 240, 480, 600, 720, 840, and 960 min. Total essential oil content increased with increasing distillation time from a minimum of 0.023% at 20 min to a maximum of 1.098% at 960 min. The major constituents present in the oil were alpha-pinene, sabinene, and limonene. The percent concentration of sabinene in the essential oil varied from a high of 46.6% at 80 min to a low of 30.2% at 960 min, that of limonene changed very little as a result of distillation time and remained near 30% for all distillation times, whereas the concentration of alpha-pinene was 9.6% at 20 min DT and decreased to 4.2% at 960 min. Post distillation analysis of needles revealed elevated amounts of (--podophyllotoxin remaining in the tissue varied in the amount of podophyllotoxin present, from a low of 0.281% to a high of 0.364% as compared to undistilled needles which gave 0.217% podophyllotoxin. As a result of this study, specific essential oil components can now be targeted in J. horizontalis by varying the distillation time. Furthermore, needles can be successfully utilized as a source of both essential oil and podophyllotoxin, consecutively.

  9. Dual extraction of essential oil and podophyllotoxin from creeping juniper (Juniperus horizontalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Charles L; Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Carvalho, Camila R; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2014-01-01

    Juniperus horizontalis Moench (Family Cupressaceae), commonly called creeping juniper, is a widely distributed species in the United States and much of Canada. It is potentially a source for two important chemical products, the anticancer drug synthetic precursor, podophyllotoxin and essential oils. The objectives of this study were to ascertain the likelihood of utilizing J. horizontalis needles for the simultaneous production of both (-)-podophyllotoxin and essential oil components and to determine the optimum distillation time (DT) needed for the production of essential oil containing a specific ratio of constituents. Eleven different distillation times were tested in this study: 20, 40, 80, 160, 180, 240, 480, 600, 720, 840, and 960 min. Total essential oil content increased with increasing distillation time from a minimum of 0.023% at 20 min to a maximum of 1.098% at 960 min. The major constituents present in the oil were alpha-pinene, sabinene, and limonene. The percent concentration of sabinene in the essential oil varied from a high of 46.6% at 80 min to a low of 30.2% at 960 min, that of limonene changed very little as a result of distillation time and remained near 30% for all distillation times, whereas the concentration of alpha-pinene was 9.6% at 20 min DT and decreased to 4.2% at 960 min. Post distillation analysis of needles revealed elevated amounts of (-)-podophyllotoxin remaining in the tissue varied in the amount of podophyllotoxin present, from a low of 0.281% to a high of 0.364% as compared to undistilled needles which gave 0.217% podophyllotoxin. As a result of this study, specific essential oil components can now be targeted in J. horizontalis by varying the distillation time. Furthermore, needles can be successfully utilized as a source of both essential oil and podophyllotoxin, consecutively.

  10. Individualistic Response of Piñon and Juniper Tree Species Distributions to Climate Change in North America's Arid Interior West

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Jacob R.

    2011-01-01

    Piñon and juniper tree species have species-specific climatic requirements, resulting in unique distributions and differential responses to climate change. Piñons and junipers co-dominate the arid woodlands of North America as groups with widespread hybridization. Two piñons, Pinus edulis; P. monophylla, and four junipers, Juniperus deppeana var. deppeana; J. monosperma; J. occidentalis; J. osteosperma, are endemic to the midlatitude interior west and form three groups of hybridizing sister s...

  11. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Juniper Berry (Juniperus communis L.) Essential Oil. Action of the Essential Oil on the Antioxidant Protection of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Model Organism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höferl, Martina; Stoilova, Ivanka; Schmidt, Erich; Wanner, Jürgen; Jirovetz, Leopold; Trifonova, Dora; Krastev, Lutsian; Krastanov, Albert

    2014-01-01

    The essential oil of juniper berries (Juniperus communis L., Cupressaceae) is traditionally used for medicinal and flavoring purposes. As elucidated by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector (GC/FID) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS methods), the juniper berry oil from Bulgaria is largely comprised of monoterpene hydrocarbons such as α-pinene (51.4%), myrcene (8.3%), sabinene (5.8%), limonene (5.1%) and β-pinene (5.0%). The antioxidant capacity of the essential oil was evaluated in vitro by 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging, 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6 sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical cation scavenging, hydroxyl radical (ОН•) scavenging and chelating capacity, superoxide radical (•O2−) scavenging and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects, hydrogen peroxide scavenging. The antioxidant activity of the oil attributable to electron transfer made juniper berry essential oil a strong antioxidant, whereas the antioxidant activity attributable to hydrogen atom transfer was lower. Lipid peroxidation inhibition by the essential oil in both stages, i.e., hydroperoxide formation and malondialdehyde formation, was less efficient than the inhibition by butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). In vivo studies confirmed these effects of the oil which created the possibility of blocking the oxidation processes in yeast cells by increasing activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). PMID:26784665

  12. Western Juniper Management: Assessing Strategies for Improving Greater Sage-grouse Habitat and Rangeland Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzan, Shahla; Young, Derek J. N.; Dedrick, Allison G.; Hamilton, Matthew; Porse, Erik C.; Coates, Peter S.; Sampson, Gabriel

    2015-09-01

    Western juniper ( Juniperus occidentalis subsp. occidentalis) range expansion into sagebrush steppe ecosystems has affected both native wildlife and economic livelihoods across western North America. The potential listing of the greater sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus) under the U.S. Endangered Species Act has spurred a decade of juniper removal efforts, yet limited research has evaluated program effectiveness. We used a multi-objective spatially explicit model to identify optimal juniper removal sites in Northeastern California across weighted goals for ecological (sage-grouse habitat) and economic (cattle forage production) benefits. We also extended the analysis through alternative case scenarios that tested the effects of coordination among federal agencies, budgetary constraints, and the use of fire as a juniper treatment method. We found that sage-grouse conservation and forage production goals are somewhat complementary, but the extent of complementary benefits strongly depends on spatial factors and management approaches. Certain management actions substantially increase achievable benefits, including agency coordination and the use of prescribed burns to remove juniper. Critically, our results indicate that juniper management strategies designed to increase cattle forage do not necessarily achieve measurable sage-grouse benefits, underscoring the need for program evaluation and monitoring.

  13. Western juniper management: assessing strategies for improving greater sage-grouse habitat and rangeland productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzan, Shahla; Young, Derek J.N.; Dedrick, Allison G.; Hamilton, Mattew; Porse, Erik C.; Coates, Peter S.; Sampson, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis subsp. occidentalis) range expansion into sagebrush steppe ecosystems has affected both native wildlife and economic livelihoods across western North America. The potential listing of the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) under the U.S. Endangered Species Act has spurred a decade of juniper removal efforts, yet limited research has evaluated program effectiveness. We used a multi-objective spatially explicit model to identify optimal juniper removal sites in Northeastern California across weighted goals for ecological (sage-grouse habitat) and economic (cattle forage production) benefits. We also extended the analysis through alternative case scenarios that tested the effects of coordination among federal agencies, budgetary constraints, and the use of fire as a juniper treatment method. We found that sage-grouse conservation and forage production goals are somewhat complementary, but the extent of complementary benefits strongly depends on spatial factors and management approaches. Certain management actions substantially increase achievable benefits, including agency coordination and the use of prescribed burns to remove juniper. Critically, our results indicate that juniper management strategies designed to increase cattle forage do not necessarily achieve measurable sage-grouse benefits, underscoring the need for program evaluation and monitoring.

  14. Western Juniper Management: Assessing Strategies for Improving Greater Sage-grouse Habitat and Rangeland Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzan, Shahla; Young, Derek J N; Dedrick, Allison G; Hamilton, Matthew; Porse, Erik C; Coates, Peter S; Sampson, Gabriel

    2015-09-01

    Western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis subsp. occidentalis) range expansion into sagebrush steppe ecosystems has affected both native wildlife and economic livelihoods across western North America. The potential listing of the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) under the U.S. Endangered Species Act has spurred a decade of juniper removal efforts, yet limited research has evaluated program effectiveness. We used a multi-objective spatially explicit model to identify optimal juniper removal sites in Northeastern California across weighted goals for ecological (sage-grouse habitat) and economic (cattle forage production) benefits. We also extended the analysis through alternative case scenarios that tested the effects of coordination among federal agencies, budgetary constraints, and the use of fire as a juniper treatment method. We found that sage-grouse conservation and forage production goals are somewhat complementary, but the extent of complementary benefits strongly depends on spatial factors and management approaches. Certain management actions substantially increase achievable benefits, including agency coordination and the use of prescribed burns to remove juniper. Critically, our results indicate that juniper management strategies designed to increase cattle forage do not necessarily achieve measurable sage-grouse benefits, underscoring the need for program evaluation and monitoring.

  15. The use of redberry juniper (Juniperus pinchotii) to reduce Haemonchus contortus fecal egg counts and increase ivermectin efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, T R; Wildeus, S; Zajac, A M

    2013-10-18

    Objectives of this study were to determine if a redberry juniper-based diet can reduce fecal egg counts (FEC) and increase ivermectin (IVM) efficacy in IVM-resistant Haemonchus contortus. Predominant genera present were Haemonchus (range 45-100%) and Trichostrongylus (range 0-47%). The FEC reduction for IVM in the ewe flock was 25% (95% confidence intervals 79% to -162%) and confirmed IVM resistance. After natural infection was established, Barbados Blackbelly and St. Croix lambs (n=64, 6 months old) were randomly assigned to pens and fed a pelleted treatment diet (4 pens/treatment and 8 lambs/pen) consisting of traditional feed ingredients mixed with either 30% hay (CNTL) or 30% ground juniper leaves and stems (JUN). Lambs were fed during two periods: Period 1 (days 0-28) and Period 2 (days 28-42). On day 28, half of the lambs from each treatment and pen were treated with IVM orally (0.2 mg/kg), creating four treatment groups: lambs fed CNTL or JUN and either not treated (CNTLn, JUNn) or treated (CNTLi, JUNi) with IVM. During Period 1, lambs fed CNTL had greater (P0.46) FEC on days 0 and 28, but lambs fed JUN had 69.1% lower (P<0.001) FEC on day 15 as compared to lambs fed CNTL. During Period 2, CNTLi lambs had greater (P<0.05) average daily gain than JUNn and JUNi lambs. Lambs fed JUN and treated with IVM (JUNi) had 66%, 65%, and 61% lower (P<0.05) FEC as compared to CNTLn, CNTLi, and JUNn lambs, respectively. Results suggest that feeding lambs a diet containing 30% redberry juniper reduced FEC and increased IVM efficacy by 65% (JUNi vs. CNTLi). Specific mechanisms involved in increasing IVM efficacy by feeding diets containing bioactive compounds warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Taxonomy of prickly juniper (Juniperus oxycedrus group): A phytochemical-morphometric combined approach at the contact zone of two cryptospecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma-Marzio, Francesco; Najar, Basma; Alessandri, John; Pistelli, Luisa; Peruzzi, Lorenzo

    2017-09-01

    Based on different essential oil composition paralleling different genotypes, Juniperus deltoides was recently segregated from Juniperus oxycedrus. Despite a clear phytochemical and molecular differentiation, J. deltoides resulted not clearly morphologically discernible from J. oxycedrus, so that it was defined as a cryptospecies. Italy represents the contact zone of their distribution, but the ranges of the two species are not sufficiently known, due to unsatisfactory morphological characterisation. To further complicate the picture, a third closely related species (ecotype), J. macrocarpa, occurs all across the Mediterranean coasts. After a preliminary phytochemical analysis to ascertain the (chemo-)identities of the studied populations, we performed a morphometric investigation to test the degree of morphological distinctiveness among the taxa. According to our analysis, some character (e.g. leaf mucro length, leaf width, seed-cone size and seed size) resulted useful to discriminate these cryptic taxa. Finally, based on these characters, an extensive revision of herbarium specimens allowed us to redefine the distribution pattern of the investigated species in the Central Mediterranean area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Composition of the essential oils from Rocky Mountain juniper (Juniperus scopulorum), Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), and White Sage (Salvia apiana).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochrein, James Michael; Irwin, Adriane Nadine; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus III

    2003-09-01

    The essential oils of Juniperus scopulorum, Artemisia tridentata, and Salvia apiana obtained by steam extraction were analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. For J. scopulorum, twenty-five compounds were identified which accounts for 92.43% of the oil. The primary constituents were sabinene (49.91%), {alpha}-terpinene (9.95%), and 4-terpineol (6.79%). For A. tridentata, twenty compounds were identified which accounts for 84.32% of the oil. The primary constituents were camphor (28.63%), camphene (16.88%), and 1,8-cineole (13.23%). For S. apiana, fourteen compounds were identified which accounts for 96.76% of the oil. The primary component was 1,8-cineole (60.65%).

  18. A comparison of change detection measurements using object-based and pixel-based classification methods on western juniper dominated woodlands in eastern Oregon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan G. Howell

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Encroachment of pinyon (Pinus spp and juniper (Juniperus spp. woodlands in western North America is considered detrimental due to its effects on ecohydrology, plant community structure, and soil stability. Management plans at the federal, state, and private level often include juniper removal for improving habitat of sensitive species and maintaining sustainable ecosystem processes. Remote sensing has become a useful tool in determining changes in juniper woodland structure because of its uses in comparing archived historic imagery with newly available multispectral images to provide information on changes that are no longer detectable by field measurements. Change in western juniper (J. occidentalis cover was detected following juniper removal treatments between 1995 and 2011 using panchromatic 1-meter NAIP and 4-band 1-meter NAIP imagery, respectively. Image classification was conducted using remotely sensed images taken at the Roaring Springs Ranch in southeastern Oregon. Feature Analyst for ArcGIS (object-based extraction and a supervised classification with ENVI 5.2 (pixel-based extraction were used to delineate juniper canopy cover. Image classification accuracy was calculated using an Accuracy Assessment and Kappa Statistic. Both methods showed approximately a 76% decrease in western juniper cover, although differing in total canopy cover area, with object-based classification being more accurate. Classification results for the 2011 imagery were much more accurate (0.99 Kappa statistic because of its low juniper density and the presence of an infrared band. The development of methods for detecting change in juniper cover can lead to more accurate and efficient data acquisition and subsequently improved land management and monitoring practices. These data can subsequently be used to assess and quantify juniper invasion and succession, potential ecological impacts, and plant community resilience.

  19. Juniper tar poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koruk, Suda Tekin; Ozyilkan, Esin; Kaya, Pinar; Colak, Dilsen; Donderici, Omer; Cesaretli, Yildirim

    2005-01-01

    Juniper tar (cade oil) is distilled from the branches and wood of Juniperus oxycedrus. It contains etheric oils, triterpene and phenols, and is used for many purposes in folk medicine. A case is reported of a previously healthy man who ingested a spoonful of home-made extract of Juniperus oxycedrus. The poisoning caused fever, severe hypotension, renal failure, hepatotoxicity, and severe cutaneous burns on the face. After supportive and symptomatic treatment, the patient improved and was discharged in a good condition on the eleventh day.

  20. Pinyon/juniper woodlands [Chapter 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin J. Tausch; Sharon Hood

    2007-01-01

    Pinyon-juniper woodlands occur in 10 states and cover large areas in many of them. These woodlands can be dominated by several species of pinyon pine (Pinus spp. L.) and juniper (Juniperus spp. L.) (Lanner 1975; Mitchell and Roberts 1999; West 1999a). A considerable amount of information is available on the expansion of the woodlands that has occurred over large parts...

  1. Restoration of Mountain Big Sagebrush Steppe Following Prescribed Burning to Control Western Juniper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, K. W.; Bates, J. D.; Madsen, M. D.; Nafus, A. M.

    2014-05-01

    Western juniper ( Juniperus occidentalis ssp. occidentalis Hook) encroachment into mountain big sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata spp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle) steppe has reduced livestock forage production, increased erosion risk, and degraded sagebrush-associated wildlife habitat. Western juniper has been successfully controlled with partial cutting followed by prescribed burning the next fall, but the herbaceous understory and sagebrush may be slow to recover. We evaluated the effectiveness of seeding perennial herbaceous vegetation and sagebrush at five sites where juniper was controlled by partially cutting and prescribed burning. Treatments tested at each site included an unseeded control, herbaceous seed mix (aerially seeded), and the herbaceous seed mix plus sagebrush seed. In the third year post-treatment, perennial grass cover and density were twice as high in plots receiving the herbaceous seed mix compared to the control plots. Sagebrush cover and density in the sagebrush seeded plots were between 74- and 290-fold and 62- and 155-fold greater than the other treatments. By the third year after treatment, sagebrush cover was as high as 12 % in the sagebrush seeded plots and between 0 % and 0.4 % where it was not seeded. These results indicate that aerial seeding perennial herbaceous vegetation can accelerate the recovery of perennial grasses which likely stabilize the site. Our results also suggest that seeding mountain big sagebrush after prescribed burning encroaching juniper can rapidly recover sagebrush cover and density. In areas where sagebrush habitat is limited, seeding sagebrush after juniper control may increase sagebrush habitat and decrease the risks to sagebrush-associated species.

  2. Chapter 2: Genetic Variability in Nuclear Ribosomal and Chloroplast DNA in Utah (Juniperus Osteosperma) and Western (J. Occidentalis) Juniper (Cupressaceae): Evidence for Interspecific Gene Flow1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terry, Randall G.; Tausch, Robin J.; Nowak, Robert S.

    1998-02-14

    Early studies of evolutionary change in chloroplast DNA indicated limited variability within species. This finding has been attributed to relatively low rates of sequence evolution and has been maintained as justification for the lack of intraspecific sampling in studies examining, relationships at the species level and above. However, documentation of intraspecific variation in cpDNA has become increasingly common and has been attributed in many cases to ''chloroplast capture'' following genetic exchange across species boundaries. Rleseberg and Wendel (1993) list 37 cases of proposed hybridization in plants that include intraspecific variation in cpDNA, 24 (65%) of which they considered to be probable instances of introgression. Rieseberg (1995) suspected that a review of the literature at that time would reveal over 100 cases of intraspecific variation in CPDNA that could be attributed to hybridization and introgression. That intraspecific variation in cpDNA is potentially indicative of hybridization is founded on the expectation that slowly evolving loci or genomes will produce greater molecular variation between than within species. In cases where a species is polymorphic for CPDNA and at least one of the molecular variants is diagnostic for a second species, interspecific hybridization is a plausible explanation. Incongruence between relationships suggested by cpDNA variation and those supported by other types of data (e.g., morphology or molecular data from an additional locus) provides additional support for introgression. One aspect of hybridization in both animals and plants that has become increasingly evident is incongruence in the phylogenetic and geographic distribution of cytoplasmic and nuclear markers. In most cases cytoplasmic introgression appears to be more pervasive than nuclear exchange. This discordance appears attributable to several factors including differences in the mutation rate, number of effective alleles, and modes of inheritance of cytoplasmic and nuclear loci. In addition, unidirectional introgression following an initial hybridization event can result in populations that have the cytoplasmic genome of one parental species and the nuclear genome of the other. In such cases, discordance in the phylogenetic, taxonomic, and geographic distribution of cytoplasmic and nuclear markers can provide insight into the biogeographic and population genetic forces affecting parental and hybrid populations.

  3. Final report on the safety assessment of Juniperus communis Extract, Juniperus oxycedrus Extract, Juniperus oxycedrus Tar, Juniperus phoenicea extract, and Juniperus virginiana Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The common juniper is a tree that grows in Europe, Asia, and North America. The ripe fruit of Juniperus communis and Juniperus oxycedrus is alcohol extracted to produce Juniperus Communis Extract and Juniperus Oxycedrus Extract, respectively. Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar is the volatile oil from the wood of J. oxycedrus. Juniperus Phoenicea Extract comes from the gum of Juniperus phoenicea, and Juniperus Virginiana Extract is extracted from the wood of Juniperus virginiana. Although Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar is produced as a by-product of distillation, no information was available on the manufacturing process for any of the Extracts. Oils derived from these varieties of juniper are used solely as fragrance ingredients; they are commonly produced using steam distillation of the source material, but it is not known if that procedure is used to produce extracts. One report does state that the chemical composition of Juniper Communis Oil and Juniperus Communis Extract is similar, each containing a wide variety of terpenoids and aromatic compounds, with the occasional aliphatic alcohols and aldehydes, and, more rarely, alkanes. The principle component of Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar is cadinene, a sesquiterpene, but cresol and guaiacol are also found. No data were available, however, indicating the extent to which there would be variations in composition that may occur as a result of extraction differences or any other factor such as plant growth conditions. Information on the composition of the other ingredients was not available. All of the Extracts function as biological additives in cosmetic formulations, and Juniperus Oxycedrus Tar is used as a hair-conditioning agent and a fragrance component. Most of the available safety test data are from studies using oils derived from the various varieties of juniper. Because of the expected similarity in composition to the extract, these data were considered. Acute studies using animals show little toxicity of the oil or tar. The oils

  4. Rainfall interception and partitioning by pinus monophylla and juniperus osteosperma

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated canopy interception of simulated rainfall by singleleaf piñon (Pinus monophylla) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma) in central Nevada. Research has shown that although piñon and juniper occurred historically throughout the western United States, the infilling of woodlan...

  5. Long-term climatic variations in the highlands of Western China, as evidenced by a 4650-year-long chronology based on tree-ring cores from Qilian junipers (Juniperus przewalskii Kom)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Yang, Bao; Sonechkin, Dmitry; Datsenko, Nina; Qin, Chun

    2017-04-01

    In order to create a reliable chronology of long-term tree-growth variations that may be due to climate variations, we apply eigenanalysis to a large dataset of tree-ring width records (1263 records sampled from Qilian junipers [Juniperus przewalskii Kom]), a species endemic to the highlands of Western China. In order to exclude the so-called growth rate/life span association effect, and to give the possibility of applying the eigenanalysis, tree-ring width records were sorted into six subsets, based on the life spans of the trees sampled: 200-400, 400-600, 600-800, 800-1000, 1000-1500 years old, and trees older than 1500 years. Pairs of partial chronologies were created, pairing the set of all trees (living, dead, archaeological remains) with the living trees belonging to each subset. We compute the contours of tree-growth variations (on both 100-year and longer time scales) for each subset, ending with six pairs of partial subset chronologies. Two sums of all these partial chronologies thus give us a reliable record of tree-growth variations over a period ranging from 2627 BCE up to 2012 CE. These variations are most likely climate-induced. Some of the variations seen over the last two millennia are attributed to effects of the 178-year-long cycle of the Sun rotation around the barycentre of the Solar system, leading to the well-known diminished solar activity events of Oort, Wolf, Spoerer, Maunder, and Dalton. One variation seen early in this long chronology deserves mention: a prolonged (approximately 400 years in length) damping of tree growth, perhaps due to the drought known as the 4.2 kiloyear event (sometimes blamed for the collapse of the Egyptian Old Kingdom, 2500-2100 BCE). The chronology of the only living Qilian junipers also provides a clear picture of the response of these trees to the current period of global climate change. Tree growth seems to have been spurred by rising temperatures until 1998, after which rising global surface air temperatures

  6. Do bark beetle sprays prevent Phloeosinus species from attacking cypress and juniper?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chris Hayes; Tom DeGomez; Karen Clancy; Joel McMillin; John Anhold

    2008-01-01

    (Please note, this is an abstract only) Phloeosinus-caused mortality of Arizona cypress, (Cupressus arizonica), oneseed juniper, (Juniperus monosperma) and alligator juniper, (J. deppeana) has been observed at high levels in Arizona during the past 3 years. Currently, there are limited preventative measures to protect high-value cypress and juniper trees against...

  7. Comparing the above-ground component biomass estimates of western junipers using airborne and full-waveform terrestrial laser scanning data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, R.; Glenn, N. F.; Spaete, L.; Hardegree, S. P.

    2012-12-01

    With the rapid expansion into shrub steppe and grassland ecosystems over the last century, western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis var. occidentalis Hook) is becoming a major component of the regional carbon pool in the Intermountain West. Understanding how biomass is allocated across individual tree components is necessary to understand the uncertainties in biomass estimates and more accurately quantify biomass and carbon dynamics in these ecosystems. Estimates of component biomass are also important for canopy fuel load assessment and predicting rangeland fire behavior. Airborne LiDAR can capture vegetation structure over larger scales, but the high crown penetration and sampling density of terrestrial laser scanner (TLS) instruments can better capture tree components. In this study, we assessed the ability of airborne LiDAR to estimate biomass of tree components of western juniper with validation data from field measured tees and a full-waveform TLS. Sixteen juniper trees (height range 1.5-10 m) were randomly selected using a double sampling strategy from different height classes in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in the Owyhee Mountains, southwestern Idaho, USA. Each tree was scanned with a full-waveform TLS, and the dry biomass of each component (foliage, branches and main stem) were measured by destructive harvesting of the trees. We compare the allometric relationships of biomass estimates of the tree components obtained from field-measured trees and TLS-based estimates with the estimates from discrete-return airborne-LiDAR based estimates.

  8. COMPARISON OF SEED SOURCES OF CRIMEAN JUNIPER (Juniperus excelsa Bieb. IN THE LAKES DISTRICT IN TERMS OF MORPHOLOGICAL SEEDLING QUALITY CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman Güçlü

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, five seed provenances of Crimean Juniper sampled from Lakes District were compared in terms of some seed quality criterions. For this purpose, seeds were collected from Barla, Sultandağı, Tota, Burdur and Söğüt. The seeds from each provenance were sown in Eğirdir Forest Nursery under the open-air environment and the sowing bed was prepared specially. The experiments were carried out according to “Completely Randomized Design” with three replications. Seedling height, root collar diameter and oven-dry stem/root ratios of ten seedlings were measured from each replication after the seedlings were one-year old. Data were analyzed by using SPSS statistical software program. Analysis of variance (ANOVA and Duncan test results showed that the seed provenances were different from each other in terms of measured characteristics. Until the new and extensive study results are obtained, the seeds should be collected from the provenances of Tota and Barla because those seedlings are better than the others. However, these results are valid only Eğirdir Forest Nursery and its environment should not be generalized for the other nurseries.

  9. Western juniper and ponderosa pine ecotonal climate-growth relationships across landscape gradients in southern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, K.C.; Pyke, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Forecasts of climate change for the Pacific northwestern United States predict warmer temperatures, increased winter precipitation, and drier summers. Prediction of forest growth responses to these climate fluctuations requires identification of climatic variables limiting tree growth, particularly at limits of free species distributions. We addressed this problem at the pine-woodland ecotone using tree-ring data for western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis var. occidentalis Hook.) and ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Loud.) from southern Oregon. Annual growth chronologies for 1950-2000 were developed for each species at 17 locations. Correlation and linear regression of climate-growth relationships revealed that radial growth in both species is highly dependent on October-June precipitation events that recharge growing season soil water. Mean annual radial growth for the nine driest years suggests that annual growth in both species is more sensitive to drought at lower elevations and sites with steeper slopes and sandy or rocky soils. Future increases in winter precipitation could increase productivity in both species at the pine-woodland ecotone. Growth responses, however, will also likely vary across landscape features, and our findings suggest that heightened sensitivity to future drought periods and increased temperatures in the two species will predominantly occur at lower elevation sites with poor water-holding capacities. ?? 2008 NRC.

  10. The serrate leaf margined Juniperus (Section Sabina) of the western hemisphere: systematics and evolution based on leaf essential oils and Random Amplified Polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams

    2000-12-01

    The volatile leaf essential compositions of all 17 serrate leaf margin species of Juniperus (sect. Sabina) of the western hemisphere are reported and compared: J. angosturana, J. ashei, J. californica, J. coahuilensis, J. comitana, J. deppeana, J. durangensis, J. flaccida, J. gamboana, J. jaliscana, J. monosperma, J. monticola, J. osteosperma, J. occidentalis, J. pinchotii, J. saltillensis, and J. standleyi. A number of previously unidentified compounds of the leaf essential oils have now been identified. In addition, DNA data (RAPDs) of all these species were analyzed. Both the leaf essential oils and DNA show these species to be quite distinct with few apparent subgroups, such that the species groupings were not strong in either data set. These data support the hypothesis that this group of junipers originated in Mexico as part of the Madro-Tertiary flora by rapid radiation into new arid land habitats, leaving few extant intermediate taxa.

  11. Sage-grouse groceries: forb response to pinon-juniper treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the past 150 years, juniper (Juniperus spp. L.) and piñon (Pinus spp. L.) coniferous woodlands have increased 2 to 10-fold in 9 ecoregions spanning the Intermountain area of the western United States. Control of piñon-juniper woodlands by mechanical treatments and prescribed fire have been appli...

  12. Antifungal and Insecticidal Activity from Two Juniperus Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essential oils of two Tibetan Junipers Juniperus saltuaria and J. squamata var. fargesii (Cupressaceae) were obtained by distilling dried leaves and branches using a Clevenger apparatus. Sixty-seven compounds from J. saltuaria and 58 compounds from J. squamata var. fargesii were identified by gas c...

  13. Landscape dynamics in aspen and western juniper woodlands on the Owyhee Plateau, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Eva K.

    A century of altered fire regimes has affected the landscape vegetation dynamics in the Intermountain West. Suppression of wildfires has resulted in increases in woody plant cover in these semi-arid ecosystems, which has resulted in land cover changes affecting biogeochemical cycling, landscape composition, and habitat diversity. Recent developments in remote sensing technology, computational power, and a rapid development of analysis techniques have enabled us to quantify such changes at the landscape scale. Wavelet analysis is a powerful image analysis technique that is here applied in a novel fashion to fine scale remote sensing imagery to automatically detect the location and crown diameter of individual western juniper plants (Juniperus occidentalis ssp. occidentalis) expanding into sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) steppe at multiple scales. The produced marked point pattern of historical and current spatial juniper distribution was compared regionally and changes in foliar cover and above ground biomass were estimated across a 330,000 ha area on the Owyhee Plateau, Idaho. The above ground carbon accumulation rate from 1946 to 1998 was estimate to be 3.3 gCm-2yr-1 and 10.0 gCm-2yr -1 employing the wavelet and conventional texture analysis methods, respectively, with an additional 25% rise in belowground carbon accumulation in root stock. This research further demonstrates that estimates of carbon accumulation rates as a result of woody encroachment are highly dependent on the spatial and temporal scales of analysis. Conifer species, western juniper and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) on the Owyhee Plateau, have further expanded into the biologically important quaking aspen ( Populus tremuloides) habitats resulting in conifer dominance and occasional loss of aspen clones. Classification of remotely sensed imagery combined with spatially explicit modeling of aspen successional stages indicate that, in the absence of management activity, loss of seral aspen stands

  14. Anchor chaining’s influence on soil hydrology and seeding success in burned piñon-juniper woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadcast seeding is one of the most commonly used rehabilitation treatments for the restoration of burned piñon (Pinus ssp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) woodlands, but the success rate of this treatment is notoriously low. In piñon-juniper woodlands, post-fire soil water repellency can impair rese...

  15. Flavonoid composition of Juniperus oblonga Bieb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarev, D I; Novikov, O O; Novikova, M Yu; Zhilyakova, E T

    2011-04-01

    Juniperus oblonga Bieb is widely spread in the Caucasus Mountains, particularly in its eastern and southern regions. Diuretic effect of juniper berries is determined by the presence of volatile oils and polyphenol complex, particularly flavonoids. Flavonoids were extracted from raw material with 70% ethanol and then with ethyl acetate. Column chromatography of ethyl acetate fraction on polyamide yielded 5 compounds, which were identified on the basis of physicochemical constants of parent compounds and products of acid hydrolysis and alkaline degradation of aglycones and on the basis of UV-spectroscopy as apigenin, isoquercitrin, apigenin-7-glucoside, quercetin-3-rutinoside, and scutellarin-7-glucoside. Quantitative composition of flavonoid in equivalent to rutin concentration in Juniperus oblonga Bieb was 0.910±0.007% (UV-spectrophotometry data).

  16. Juniper tar (cade oil) poisoning in new born after a cutaneous application

    OpenAIRE

    Achour, Sanae; Abourazzak, Sana; Mokhtari, Abdelrhani; Soulaymani, Abdelmjid; Soulaymani, Rachida; Hida, Moustapha

    2011-01-01

    Juniper tar (cade oil) is distilled from the branches and wood of Juniperus oxycedrus. It contains etheric oils, triterpene and phenols, used for many purposes in folk medicine. The authors report a case of a previously healthy new born treated with a topical application of Juniperus oxycedrus for atopic dermatosis The poisoning caused convulsions, collapsus, acute pulmonary oedema, renal failure and hepatotoxicity. The newborn survived after supportive and symptomatic treatment, and discharg...

  17. Implication of Agathic Acid from Utah Juniper Bark as an Abortifacient Compound in Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshly ground Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma (Torr.) Little) bark was given via gavage at a dosage of 2.3 kg/cow twice daily to three pregnant cows starting on day 255 of gestation. All three cows aborted the calves after four, five and six days of treatment. A fourth cow was dosed Utah juni...

  18. Juniper Pollen Hotspots in the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunderson, L. D.; VandeWater, P.; Luvall, J.; Levetin, E.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Juniperus pollen is a major allergen in Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. While the bulk of pollen may be released in rural areas, large amounts of pollen can be transported to urban areas. Major juniper species in the region include: Juniperus ashei, J. virginiana, J. pinchotii, and J. monosperma. Pollen release is virtually continuous beginning in late September with J. pinchotii and ending in May with J. monosperma. Urban areas in the region were evaluated for the potential of overlapping seasons in order to inform sensitive individuals. Methods: Burkard volumetric pollen traps were established for two consecutive spring seasons at 6 sites in northern New Mexico and 6 sites for two consecutive winter and fall seasons in Texas and Oklahoma Standard methods were used in the preparation and analysis of slides. Results: The Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex is home to over 6 million people. It is adjacent to populations of J. pinchotii, J. virginiana, and J. ashei. Peak concentration near Dallas for J. ashei in 2011 was 5891 pollen grains/m3 in January 7th. The peak date for J. pinchotii at an upwind sampling location in San Marcos, TX was November 1, 2010 and peak for J. virginiana at a nearby station in Tulsa, OK was November 1, 2010 and peak for J. virginiana at a nearby station in Tulsa, OK was February 20, 2011. Amarillo, TX is adjacent to J. pinchotii, J. ashei, and J. monosperma populations and may be subject to juniper pollen from September through May. Conclusions: Considering the overlapping distributions of juniper trees and the overlapping temporal release of pollen, sensitive patients may benefit from avoiding hotspots.

  19. Utilizing national agriculture imagery program data to estimate tree cover and biomass of pinyon and juniper woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the encroachment of pinyon (Pinus ssp.) and juniper (Juniperus ssp.) (P-J) woodlands into sagebrush steppe communities, there is an increasing interest in rapid, accurate, and inexpensive quantification methods to estimate tree canopy cover and aboveground biomass over large landscapes. The o...

  20. Hygroscopic weight gain of pollen grains from Juniperus species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunderson, Landon D.; Levetin, Estelle

    2015-05-01

    Juniperus pollen is highly allergenic and is produced in large quantities across Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. The pollen negatively affects human populations adjacent to the trees, and since it can be transported hundreds of kilometers by the wind, it also affects people who are far from the source. Predicting and tracking long-distance transport of pollen is difficult and complex. One parameter that has been understudied is the hygroscopic weight gain of pollen. It is believed that juniper pollen gains weight as humidity increases which could affect settling rate of pollen and thus affect pollen transport. This study was undertaken to examine how changes in relative humidity affect pollen weight, diameter, and settling rate. Juniperus ashei, Juniperus monosperma, and Juniperus pinchotii pollen were applied to greased microscope slides and placed in incubation chambers under a range of temperature and humidity levels. Pollen on slides were weighed using an analytical balance at 2- and 6-h intervals. The size of the pollen was also measured in order to calculate settling rate using Stokes' Law. All pollen types gained weight as humidity increased. The greatest settling rate increase was exhibited by J. pinchotii which increased by 24 %.

  1. Juniper tar (cade oil) poisoning in new born after a cutaneous application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achour, Sanae; Abourazzak, Sana; Mokhtari, Abdelrhani; Soulaymani, Abdelmjid; Soulaymani, Rachida; Hida, Moustapha

    2011-10-28

    Juniper tar (cade oil) is distilled from the branches and wood of Juniperus oxycedrus. It contains etheric oils, triterpene and phenols, used for many purposes in folk medicine. The authors report a case of a previously healthy new born treated with a topical application of Juniperus oxycedrus for atopic dermatosis The poisoning caused convulsions, collapsus, acute pulmonary oedema, renal failure and hepatotoxicity. The newborn survived after supportive and symptomatic treatment, and discharged in a good condition on the eleventh day of hospitalisation in intensive care unit.

  2. Mechanical Mastication of Utah Juniper Encroaching Sagebrush Steppe Increases Inorganic Soil N

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kert R. Young

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Juniper (Juniperus spp. has encroached on millions of hectares of sagebrush (Artemisia spp. steppe. Juniper mechanical mastication increases cover of understory species but could increase resource availability and subsequently invasive plant species. We quantified the effects of juniper mastication on soil resource availability by comparing total C, total N, C : N ratio, Olsen extractable P, sulfate S, and pH using soil samples and inorganic N (NO3-+NH4+ using ion exchange membranes. We compared resource availability in paired masticated and untreated areas in three juniper-dominated sagebrush and bunchgrass ecosystems in the Utah portion of the Great Basin. Inorganic N was 4.7 times higher in masticated than in untreated areas across seasons (P<0.001. Within masticated areas, tree mounds of juniper leaf scales and twigs served as resource islands with 1.9 times higher inorganic N and total C, and 2.8 times higher total N than bare interspaces across seasons (P<0.01. Bare interspaces had 3.0–3.4 times higher inorganic N than interspaces covered with masticated trees during late-summer through winter (P<0.01. Soil fertility changes associated with mastication were not considered sufficient to favor establishment of annual over perennial grasses, and we expect both to increase in cover following juniper mastication.

  3. Ecohydrologic relationships of two juniper woodlands with different precipitation regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, C. G.; Guldan, S. J.; Deboodt, T.; Fernald, A.; Ray, G.

    2015-12-01

    The significant expansion of juniper (Juniperus spp.) woodlands throughout the western U.S. during the last two centuries has disrupted important ecological functions and hydrologic processes. The relationships between water and vegetation distribution are highly impacted by the ongoing shift from shrub steppe and grassland to woodland-dominated landscapes. We investigated vegetation dynamics and hydrologic processes occurring in two distinct juniper landscapes with different precipitation regimes in the Intermountain West region: A winter snow-dominated (Oregon) and a summer rain-dominated with some winter precipitation (New Mexico) landscape. Results from the Oregon site showed marginal differences (1-2%) in soil moisture in treated vs untreated watersheds throughout the dry and wet seasons. In general, soil moisture was greater in the treated watershed in both seasons. Canopy cover affected soil moisture over time. Perennial grass cover was positively correlated with changes in soil moisture, whereas juniper cover was negatively correlated with changes in soil moisture. Shallow groundwater response observed in upland and valley monitoring wells indicate there are temporary hydrologic connections between upland and valley locations during the winter precipitation season. Results from the New Mexico site provided valuable information regarding timing and intensity of monsoon-driven precipitation and the rainfall threshold (5 mm/15 min) that triggers runoff. Long-term vegetation dynamics and hydrologic processes were evaluated based on pre- and post-juniper removal (70%) in three watersheds. In general, less runoff and greater forage response was observed in the treated watersheds. During rainfall events, soil moisture was less under juniper canopy compared with inter-canopy; this difference in soil moisture was intensified during high intensity, short duration rainstorms in the summer months. We found that winter snow precipitation helped recharge soil moisture

  4. Enantiomeric and non-enantiomeric monoterpenes of Juniperus communis L. and Juniperus oxycedrus needles and berries determined by HS-SPME and enantioselective GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foudil-Cherif, Yazid; Yassaa, Noureddine

    2012-12-01

    For the first time, enantiomeric and non-enantiomeric distribution of monoterpenes in the headspace of Juniperus communis L. and Juniperus oxycedrus needles and berries has been determined using HS-SPME combined with enantioselective GC/MS. The essential oils from needles and berries of both Juniperus species obtained by hydrodistillation were also performed. HS-SPME has shown good potential to reproduce the same results as the commonly used hydrodistillation extraction technique. While needles and berries of J. communis showed high contents of sabinene, α-pinene and β-myrcene with 19-30%, 12-24% and 9-20%, respectively, J. oxycedrus was strongly dominated by α-pinene with 85-92% in both needles and berries. Large variations in chiral distribution of monoterpenes within the same plant species and between the two junipers were observed. Interestingly, similar enantiomeric preferences of monoterpenes were obtained between needles and berries of the two junipers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Soil morphology of canopy and intercanopy sites in a pinon-Juniper woodland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davenport, D.W.; Wilcox, B.P.; Breshear, D.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Pinon-juniper woodlands in the semiarid western USA have expanded as much as fivefold during the last 150 yr, often accompanied by losses of understory vegetation and increasing soil erosion. We conducted this study to determine the differences in soil morphology between canopy and intercanopy locations within a pinon (Pinus edulis Engelm.)-juniper [Juniperus monosperma (Engelm.) Sarg.] woodland with uniform parent material, topography, and climate. The woodland studied, located near Los Alamos, NM, has a mean tree age of 135 yr. We examined soil morphology by augering 135 profiles in a square grid pattern and comparing soils under pinon and juniper canopies with intercanopy soils. Only two of the 17 morphological properties compared showed significant differences. The B horizons make up a slightly greater proportion of total profile thickness in intercanopy soils, and there are higher percentages of coarse fragments in the lower portions of canopy soil profiles. Canopy soils have lower mean pH and higher mean organic C than intercanopy soils. Regression analysis showed that most soil properties did not closely correspond with tree size, but total soil thickness and B horizon thickness are significantly greater under the largest pinon trees, and soil reaction is lower under the largest juniper trees. Our findings suggest that during the period in which pinon-juniper woodlands have been expanding, the trees have had only minor effects on soil morphology. 36 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Juniper Encroachment and Management in the Intermountain West Relative to Wildfires Utilizing Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J.; Howerton, R.; Ramos, S.; Simpson, Z.; Weber, K.

    2016-12-01

    One of the most pronounced vegetation changes in recent history is the expansion of junipers (Juniperus spp.) throughout the intermountain west United States. These native species have expanded from their traditional fire-safe habitats into fire-dependent communities as a result of climatic fluctuations, grazing patterns, and wildfire suppression efforts. As junipers expand their range, they begin to dominate plant communities resulting in the recession of shrubs, grasses, and forbs. Land management agencies have a strong commitment to find areas that are vulnerable to juniper encroachment, so that these areas can be studied and more effectively managed. Aiding in this effort, this project used remote sensing to develop two tools that determine fire intensity on a per pixel basis and identify different phases of juniper encroachment, respectively. Landsat 8, representing land cover data was combined with topography information (slope and aspect) in a linear regression model that quantified fire intensity on a per pixel basis, identifying areas that would burn hotter and longer based on fuel type. The overall accuracy of the model was 86% with a kappa coefficient of 0.81. Visual validation using NAIP imagery in comparison with the fuel classification result showed good visual correlation of the fuel model with dense juniper stands. The second output of the project was an image/object based classification tool that uses multispectral imagery and supervised point classification to classify different vegetation types according to the spectral detail of the objects. The goal of the model is to improve phase identification of juniper stands. Initial visual verification with NAIP shows the model to be performing very satisfactorily but is dependent on the spatial resolution of the user fed input imagery. Furnishing land managers with these tools will assist in forecasting areas prone to juniper invasion based upon surrounding seedbanks, as well as, predict the ensuing

  7. Nature's Notebook Provides Phenology Observations for NASA Juniper Phenology and Pollen Transport Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luval, J. C.; Crimmins, T. M.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, E.; Huete, A.; Nickovic, S.; Prasad, A.; Vukovic, A.; VandeWater, P. K.; Budge, A. M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Phenology Network has been established to provide national wide observations of vegetation phenology. However, as the Network is still in the early phases of establishment and growth, the density of observers is not yet adequate to sufficiently document the phenology variability over large regions. Hence a combination of satellite data and ground observations can provide optimal information regarding juniperus spp. pollen phenology. MODIS data was to observe Juniperus supp. pollen phenology. The MODIS surface reflectance product provided information on the Juniper supp. cone formation and cone density. Ground based observational records of pollen release timing and quantities were used as verification. Approximately 10, 818 records of juniper phenology for male cone formation Juniperus ashei., J. monosperma, J. scopulorum, and J. pinchotti were reported by Nature's Notebook observers in 2013 These observations provided valuable information for the analysis of satellite images for developing the pollen concentration masks for input into the PREAM (Pollen REgional Atmospheric Model) pollen transport model. The combination of satellite data and ground observations allowed us to improve our confidence in predicting pollen release and spread, thereby improving asthma and allergy alerts.

  8. Pinyon-juniper woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Gerald J.; Swetnam, Thomas W.; Allen, Craig D.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Chung-MacCoubrey, Alice L.; Finch, Deborah M.; Tainter, Joseph A.

    1995-01-01

    Pinyon-juniper woodlands are one of the largest ecosystems in the Southwest and in the Middle Rio Grande Basin (Fig. 1). The woodlands have been important to the region's inhabitants since prehistoric times for a variety of natural resources and amenities. The ecosystems have not been static; their distributions, stand characteristics, and site conditions have been altered by changes in climatic patterns and human use and, often, abuse. Management of these lands since European settlement has varied from light exploitation and benign neglect, to attempts to remove the trees in favor of forage for livestock, and then to a realization that these lands contain useful resources and should be managed accordingly. Land management agencies are committed to ecosystem management. While there are several definitions of ecosystem management, the goal is to use ecological approaches to create and maintain diverse, productive, and healthy ecosystems (Kaufmann et al. 1994). Ecosystem management recognizes that people are an integral part of the system and that their needs must be considered. Ecological approaches are central to the concept, but our understanding of basic woodland ecology is incomplete, and there are different opinions and interpretations of existing information (Gottfried and Severson 1993). There are many questions concerning proper ecosystem management of the pinyon-juniper woodlands and how managers can achieve these goals (Gottfried and Severson 1993). While the broad concept of ecosystem management generally is accepted, the USDA Forest Service, other public land management agencies, American Indian tribes, and private landowners may have differing definitions of what constitutes desired conditions. Key questions about the pinyon-juniper ecosystems remain unanswered. Some concern the basic dynamics of biological and physical components of the pinyon-juniper ecosystems. Others concern the distribution of woodlands prior to European settlement and changes

  9. Study of the thermohygrometric conditions of Juniperus turbinata habitat in the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salva-Catarineu, Montserrat; Salvador-Franch, Ferran; López-Bustins, Joan Albert; Padrón-Padrón, Perdro A.; Cortés-Lucas, Amparo

    2015-04-01

    The biggest population of Juniperus turbinata throughout the Canary Islands is located in the island of El Hierro. The current extent of juniper woodlands is very small compared with the potential distribution due to heavy exploitation for centuries. Nowadays, the recovery of its natural habitat has such a high environmental and scenic interest since this is a protected species in Europe; however, an improved understanding of the environmental factors that help or limit its recovery is indispensable. Under the JUNITUR project the populations of juniper woodlands in El Hierro are being studied, which are subjected to highly different environments. These environments are mainly determined by their altitude and exposure to NE trade winds. The main objective of this study is to compare the thermohygrometric conditions of three juniper woodlands, located at different altitude and orientation in El Hierro, which present different recovery rates. We are currently using air sensor data loggers fixed to tree branches for recording hourly temperature and humidity data in the three study areas. For this preliminary approach, we analyse daily data of two annual cycles (from September 2012 to August 2014). Our first results show similar thermohygrometric annual cycles among the three study areas. The largest differences are detected in winter temperature and summer humidity between the north (to windward) and south (to leeward) faces of the island. The juniper woodland with a highest recovery rate shows the most extreme temperature conditions in both winter and summer seasons. This last juniper woodland is located leeward to trade winds at 996 m a.s.l. In general terms, the results of this research project might contribute to the knowledge of the juniper bioclimatology in the westernmost of the Canary Islands. Key words: bioclimatology, El Hierro, habitat, Juniperus turbinata, protected species

  10. Pinyon and juniper encroachment into sagebrush ecosystems impacts distribution and survival of greater sage-grouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Peter S.; Prochazka, Brian; Ricca, Mark; Gustafson, K. Ben; Ziegler, Pilar T.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2017-01-01

    In sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystems, encroachment of pinyon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.; hereafter, “pinyon-juniper”) trees has increased dramatically since European settlement. Understanding the impacts of this encroachment on behavioral decisions, distributions, and population dynamics of greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and other sagebrush obligate species could help benefit sagebrush ecosystem management actions. We employed a novel two-stage Bayesian model that linked avoidance across different levels of pinyon-juniper cover to sage-grouse survival. Our analysis relied on extensive telemetry data collected across 6 yr and seven subpopulations within the Bi-State Distinct Population Segment (DPS), on the border of Nevada and California. The first model stage indicated avoidance behavior for all canopy cover classes on average, but individual grouse exhibited a high degree of heterogeneity in avoidance behavior of the lowest cover class (e.g., scattered isolated trees). The second stage modeled survival as a function of estimated avoidance parameters and indicated increased survival rates for individuals that exhibited avoidance of the lowest cover class. A post hoc frailty analysis revealed the greatest increase in hazard (i.e., mortality risk) occurred in areas with scattered isolated trees consisting of relatively high primary plant productivity. Collectively, these results provide clear evidence that local sage-grouse distributions and demographic rates are influenced by pinyon-juniper, especially in habitats with higher primary productivity but relatively low and seemingly benign tree cover. Such areas may function as ecological traps that convey attractive resources but adversely affect population vital rates. To increase sage-grouse survival, our model predictions support reducing actual pinyon-juniper cover as low as 1.5%, which is lower than the published target of 4.0%. These results may represent effects of pinyon-juniper

  11. Avian community responses to juniper woodland structure and thinning treatments on the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Claire; van Riper, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Federal land managers are increasingly implementing fuels-reduction treatments throughout the western United States with objectives of ecological restoration and fire hazard reduction in pinyon-juniper (Pinus spp.-Juniperus spp.) woodlands. The pinyon-juniper woodland ecosystem complex is highly variable across the western landscape, as is bird community composition. We investigated relations between breeding birds and vegetation characteristics in modified pinyon-juniper woodlands at three sites (BLM, USFS, NPS) on the Colorado Plateau. During the breeding seasons of 2005 and 2006, we surveyed birds and measured vegetation in 74 study plots. These plots were each 3.1 hectares (ha; 7.6 acres), located across the range of natural variation, with 41 control sites and 33 plots in areas previously thinned by hand-cutting or chaining. We found that relations of avian pinyon-juniper specialists and priority species to vegetation characteristics were generally in agreement with the findings of previous studies and known nesting and feeding habits of those birds. Relatively high density of pinyon pines was important to species richness and abundance in 6 of 14 species. Abundance of all species was related to treatment method, and we found no difference in bird communities at chaining and hand-cut sites.

  12. Impact of grazing abandonment on floristic diversity in the priority habitat type *9562 Grecian Juniper Woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrahnakis, Michael; Kazoglou, Yannis; Fotiadis, George; Kakouros, Petros; Nasiakou, Stamatia; Soutsas, Konstantinos

    2017-04-01

    The habitat type *9562 Grecian juniper woods (Juniperetum excelsae) includes Greek juniper (Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb.) forests and they are found mainly in the western sector of the Prespa National Park, NW Greece. Greek juniper forests are considered extremely rare for EU-28, recommending a priority habitat type in accordance with Directive 92/43/EEC. In addition, their ecological importance is great given its high plant taxa richness; they harbor most of the 900 plant taxa found in the western sector of the Park, many of them being important for EU or global scale. The accelerated invasion of deciduous hardwoods is the most significant risk for the habitat, since its rich flora is well-adapted to open light conditions produced by the open spaced Greek junipers. Also, the dense vegetated conditions deprive the regeneration of the photophilous Greek juniper. The invasion results from the lack of its natural controller, i.e. the grazing livestock. It is estimated that the total area of juniper forests for the Devas area decreased to 89% of the area of 1945 in favor of invasive hardwoods. The paper presents the analysis of the floristic diversity of the priority habitat type *9562 Grecian Juniper Woods (Juniperetum excelsae) (GJWs). Four (4) types of juniper forest ranges (GJWs) were distinguished in terms of canopy cover: (a) pure GJWs, (b) mixed open GJWs, (c) open GJWs, and (d) mixed dense GJWs. A total of 171 plant taxa were recorded, and distributed within 43 botanical families; the largest one being Leguminosae (26 taxa). The statistically estimated plant taxa richness for pure GJWs was 116.4, for mixed open 152.6, for open 57.9, and for mixed dense 90.2 taxa. The analysis of α-diversity indices did not reveal any specific trend of diversity for the four GJWs. The behavior of the variability of diversity among the four range types of GJWs was depending on the emphasis the used indices place on properties such as taxa richness or abundance. This fact was

  13. Encounters with Pinyon-Juniper influence riskier movements in Greater Sage-Grouse across the Great Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochazka, Brian; Coates, Peter S.; Ricca, Mark; Casazza, Michael L.; Gustafson, K. Ben; Hull, Josh M.

    2016-01-01

    Fine-scale spatiotemporal studies can better identify relationships between individual survival and habitat fragmentation so that mechanistic interpretations can be made at the population level. Recent advances in Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and statistical models capable of deconstructing high-frequency location data have facilitated interpretation of animal movement within a behaviorally mechanistic framework. Habitat fragmentation due to singleleaf pinyon (Pinus monophylla; hereafter pinyon) and Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma; hereafter juniper) encroachment into sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) communities is a commonly implicated perturbation that can adversely influence greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus; hereafter sage-grouse) demographic rates. Using an extensive GPS data set (233 birds and 282,954 locations) across 12 study sites within the Great Basin, we conducted a behavioral change point analysis and subsequently constructed Brownian bridge movement models from each behaviorally homogenous section. We found a positive relationship between modeled movement rate and probability of encountering pinyon-juniper with significant variation among age classes. The probability of encountering pinyon-juniper among adults was two and three times greater than that of yearlings and juveniles, respectively. However, the movement rate in response to the probability of encountering pinyon-juniper trees was 1.5 times greater for juveniles. We then assessed the risk of mortality associated with an interaction between movement rate and the probability of encountering pinyon-juniper using shared frailty models. During pinyon-juniper encounters, on average, juvenile, yearling, and adult birds experienced a 10.4%, 0.2%, and 0.3% reduction in annual survival probabilities. Populations that used pinyon-juniper habitats with a frequency ≥ 3.8 times the overall mean experienced decreases in annual survival probabilities of 71.1%, 0.9%, and 0.9%. This

  14. The batch fractionation of Juniperus communis L. essential oil: experimental study, mathematical simulation and process economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetomir Ž. Milojević

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The separation in a batch vacuum column of the essential oil of common juniper berries (Juniperus communis L., from the southern part of Serbia was analyzed. The main goal of the analyzed separation process was to isolate several fractions from the essential oil which mainly contained α-pinene, sabinene and myrcene. These compounds contain about 65 mass% of the essential oil produced by hydrodistillation from the juniper berries originated from the southern part of Serbia. The results of experimental work in a laboratory column with 36 theoretical stages under vacuum (8.0-3.35 kPa was simulated using Aspen software, and a proposed mathematical model was used to analyze some other operating conditions for fractionation of juniper berry’s oil (number of plates: 25, 36 and 45 and reflux ratio: 2-10. According to the results of performed simulations, the most acceptable separation procedure which takes into account the prices of raw materials and distillate (α-pinene as well as consumed energy was proposed.

  15. Canopy Interception for a Tallgrass Prairie under Juniper Encroachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chris B; Caterina, Giulia L; Will, Rodney E; Stebler, Elaine; Turton, Donald

    2015-01-01

    Rainfall partitioning and redistribution by canopies are important ecohydrological processes underlying ecosystem dynamics. We quantified and contrasted spatial and temporal variations of rainfall redistribution for a juniper (Juniperus virginiana, redcedar) woodland and a tallgrass prairie in the south-central Great Plains, USA. Our results showed that redcedar trees had high canopy storage capacity (S) ranging from 2.14 mm for open stands to 3.44 mm for closed stands. The canopy funneling ratios (F) of redcedar trees varied substantially among stand type and tree size. The open stands and smaller trees usually had higher F values and were more efficient in partitioning rainfall into stemflow. Larger trees were more effective in partitioning rainfall into throughfall and no significant changes in the total interception ratios among canopy types and tree size were found. The S values were highly variable for tallgrass prairie, ranging from 0.27 mm at early growing season to 3.86 mm at senescence. As a result, the rainfall interception by tallgrass prairie was characterized by high temporal instability. On an annual basis, our results showed no significant difference in total rainfall loss to canopy interception between redcedar trees and tallgrass prairie. Increasing structural complexity associated with redcedar encroachment into tallgrass prairie changes the rainfall redistribution and partitioning pattern at both the temporal and spatial scales, but does not change the overall canopy interception ratios compared with unburned and ungrazed tallgrass prairie. Our findings support the idea of convergence in interception ratio for different canopy structures under the same precipitation regime. The temporal change in rainfall interception loss from redcedar encroachment is important to understand how juniper encroachment will interact with changing rainfall regime and potentially alter regional streamflow under climate change.

  16. Canopy Interception for a Tallgrass Prairie under Juniper Encroachment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris B Zou

    Full Text Available Rainfall partitioning and redistribution by canopies are important ecohydrological processes underlying ecosystem dynamics. We quantified and contrasted spatial and temporal variations of rainfall redistribution for a juniper (Juniperus virginiana, redcedar woodland and a tallgrass prairie in the south-central Great Plains, USA. Our results showed that redcedar trees had high canopy storage capacity (S ranging from 2.14 mm for open stands to 3.44 mm for closed stands. The canopy funneling ratios (F of redcedar trees varied substantially among stand type and tree size. The open stands and smaller trees usually had higher F values and were more efficient in partitioning rainfall into stemflow. Larger trees were more effective in partitioning rainfall into throughfall and no significant changes in the total interception ratios among canopy types and tree size were found. The S values were highly variable for tallgrass prairie, ranging from 0.27 mm at early growing season to 3.86 mm at senescence. As a result, the rainfall interception by tallgrass prairie was characterized by high temporal instability. On an annual basis, our results showed no significant difference in total rainfall loss to canopy interception between redcedar trees and tallgrass prairie. Increasing structural complexity associated with redcedar encroachment into tallgrass prairie changes the rainfall redistribution and partitioning pattern at both the temporal and spatial scales, but does not change the overall canopy interception ratios compared with unburned and ungrazed tallgrass prairie. Our findings support the idea of convergence in interception ratio for different canopy structures under the same precipitation regime. The temporal change in rainfall interception loss from redcedar encroachment is important to understand how juniper encroachment will interact with changing rainfall regime and potentially alter regional streamflow under climate change.

  17. Evaluation of antimicrobial and phytochemical screening of Fennel, Juniper and Kalonji essential oils against multi drug resistant clinical isolates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sharmishtha Purkayastha; Rittee Narain; Praveen Dahiya

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The inhibitory effects of essential oils including fennel, juniper and kalonji from Foeniculum Vulgare, Juniperus Osteosperma and Nigella Sativa on multi drug resistant clinical isolates were investigated. All the oils have been evaluated for phytochemical constituents, antibacterial activity and TLC bioautography assay. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical analysis was performed. The antibacterial potential of essential oils from fennel, juniper and kalonji fennel, juniper and kalonji was evaluated by agar well diffusion method against multi drug resistant clinical isolates. The antibacterial effect was investigated using the TLC-bioautographic method. Results: Preliminary phytochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of most of the phytochemicals including saponins, cardiac glycosides, steroids, terpenoids, flavonoids and tannins. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was assessed on eight multi-drug resistant (MDR) clinical isolates from both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and two standard strains. All the oils tested showed significant to moderate antibacterial activity toward all tested strains except Acinetobacter sp and Staphylococcus aureus MRSA. The maximum zone of inhibition was found to be 25依0.12 mm for juniper oil followed by 21依0.085 mm for kalonji oil againstStaphylococcus aureus 2. Thin layer chromatography and bioautography assay demonstrated well-defined growth inhibition zones against Staphylococcus aureus 2 and E. coli for juniper essential oil in correspondence with tannins observed at Rf values of 0.07 and 0.57. Conclusions: Based on the present study, the essential oils from juniper and kalonji possess antibacterial activity against several multi drug resistant pathogenic bacteria and thus can be used as a base for the development of new potent drugs and phytomedicine.

  18. Determine the optimum spectral reflectance of juniper and pistachio in arid and semi-arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadaei, Hadi; Suzuki, Rikie

    2012-11-01

    Arid and semi-arid areas of northeast Iran cover about 3.4 million ha are populated by two main tree species, the broadleaf Pistacia vera. L (pistachio) and the conifer Juniperus excelsa ssp. polycarpos (Persian juniper). Natural stands of pistachio in Iran are not only environmentally important but genetically essential as seed sources for pistachio production in orchards. In this study, we estimated the optimum spectral reflectance of juniper forests and natural pistachio stands using remote sensing to help in the sustainable management and production of pistachio in Iran. In this research spectral reflectance are able to specify of multispectral from Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) that provided by JAXA. These data included PRISM is a panchromatic radiometer with a 2.5 m spatial resolution at nadir, has one band with a wavelength of 0.52-0.77 μm and AVNIR-2 is a visible and near infrared radiometer for observing land and coastal zones with a 10 m spatial resolution at nadir, has four multispectral bands: blue (0.42-0.50 μm), green (0.52-0.60 μm), red (0.61-0.69 μm), and near infrared (0.76-0.89 μm). Total ratio vegetation index (TRVI) of optimum spectral reflectance of juniper and pistachio have been evaluated. The result of TRVI for Pistachio and juniper were (R2= 0.71 and 0.55). I hope this research can provide decision of managers to helping sustainable management for arid and semi-arid regions in Iran.

  19. Juniper for Streambank Stabilization in Eastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy R. Sheeter; Errol W. Claire

    1989-01-01

    Cut juniper trees (Juniperous osteosperma Hook.) anchored along eroded streambanks proved beneficial in stabilizing 96 percent of the erosion on eight streams evaluated in eastern Oregon over a 14-year-period. Juniper revetment was a successful substitute for costly rock structures on straight or slightly curved banks, but failed when placed on outside curves or when...

  20. Component composition of essential oils and ultrastructure of secretory cells of resin channel needles Juniperus communis (Cupressaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Gerling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of determining the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oil Juniperus communis, growing under the canopy of spruce blueberry sphagnum subzone middle taiga. Juniperus communis essential oil is liquid light yellow color. The content of essential oil was 0.46 % in shoots with needles. 37 substances of components identified. Mass fraction of components in the essential oil of Juniperus communis reached 89 %. The highest percentage of occupied fraction of monoterpenes (82.3 %, the proportion of sesquiterpenes less than 0.5 % of the total composition of essential oils, alcohols 3.5 and 0.7 % esters. In monoterpenes fraction predominant α-pinene (24.5–32.6 %, β-pinene (15–20.3 % and α-phellandrene (6.4–8.8 %. Essential oil of Juniperus communis is characterized by high content of monoterpenoids in contrast to other conifers of the taiga zone. All stages of biosynthesis essential oils occur in the epithelial cells of the resin channel (terpenoidogennyh cells. An oval shape have epithelial cells of the resin channel needles in transverse sections the Juniperus communis, which is situated vacuole in the center. Large number of lipid globules (up to 40 noted in the hyaloplasm of explored cells. Leucoplasts surrounded by membranes of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in cross sections of epithelial cells in resin channel of juniper. Endoplasmic reticulum is poorly developed in epithelial cells, which corresponds to the low content of sesquiterpenes in the needles during the study period. Development of large leucoplasts and large number of mitochondria associated with predominance of synthesis monoterpenoids the in the epithelium cells resin channel.

  1. Bioactivity-guided isolation of new antiproliferative compounds from Juniperus foetidissima Willd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmood; Suleimani Dehkordi, Ibrahim; Ghanadian, Mustafa; Shokrollahi, Ardeshir; Aghaei, Mahmoud; Syed Majid, Ayatollahi; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2016-09-01

    Based on a literature survey on cytotoxic medicinal plants, Juniper species were identified as interesting source of antitumor compounds. Using bioassay-guided fractionation against Caov-4 cancer cells on acetone extract of leaves and branchlets of Juniperus foetidissima led to the isolation of a new 3H-benzofuaran-2-one: 4-methyl-3-methoxy-3H-benzofuaran-2-one (1), a new sesquiterpene: 4,9(α)-dihydroxy-nardosin-6-en (2) and an already known labdane-type diterpene: 15-hydroxy-8(17),13(E)-labdadiene-19-carboxilic acid (3). Compounds 1-3 exhibited cytotoxic effects, with moderate cytotoxicity against the EJ-138 bladder and CAOV-4 ovary cancer cell lines.

  2. The Colonization History of Juniperus brevifolia (Cupressaceae) in the Azores Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumeu, Beatriz; Caujapé-Castells, Juli; Blanco-Pastor, José Luis; Jaén-Molina, Ruth; Nogales, Manuel; Elias, Rui B.; Vargas, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    Background A central aim of island biogeography is to understand the colonization history of insular species using current distributions, fossil records and genetic diversity. Here, we analyze five plastid DNA regions of the endangered Juniperus brevifolia, which is endemic to the Azores archipelago. Methodology/Principal Findings The phylogeny of the section Juniperus and the phylogeographic analyses of J. brevifolia based on the coalescence theory of allele (plastid) diversity suggest that: (1) a single introduction event likely occurred from Europe; (2) genetic diversification and inter-island dispersal postdated the emergence of the oldest island (Santa Maria, 8.12 Ma); (3) the genetic differentiation found in populations on the islands with higher age and smaller distance to the continent is significantly higher than that on the younger, more remote ones; (4) the high number of haplotypes observed (16), and the widespread distribution of the most frequent and ancestral ones across the archipelago, are indicating early diversification, demographic expansion, and recurrent dispersal. In contrast, restriction of six of the seven derived haplotypes to single islands is construed as reflecting significant isolation time prior to colonization. Conclusions/Significance Our phylogeographic reconstruction points to the sequence of island emergence as the key factor to explain the distribution of plastid DNA variation. The reproductive traits of this juniper species (anemophily, ornithochory, multi-seeded cones), together with its broad ecological range, appear to be largely responsible for recurrent inter-island colonization of ancestral haplotypes. In contrast, certain delay in colonization of new haplotypes may reflect intraspecific habitat competition on islands where this juniper was already present. PMID:22110727

  3. The colonization history of Juniperus brevifolia (Cupressaceae) in the Azores Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumeu, Beatriz; Caujapé-Castells, Juli; Blanco-Pastor, José Luis; Jaén-Molina, Ruth; Nogales, Manuel; Elias, Rui B; Vargas, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    A central aim of island biogeography is to understand the colonization history of insular species using current distributions, fossil records and genetic diversity. Here, we analyze five plastid DNA regions of the endangered Juniperus brevifolia, which is endemic to the Azores archipelago. The phylogeny of the section Juniperus and the phylogeographic analyses of J. brevifolia based on the coalescence theory of allele (plastid) diversity suggest that: (1) a single introduction event likely occurred from Europe; (2) genetic diversification and inter-island dispersal postdated the emergence of the oldest island (Santa Maria, 8.12 Ma); (3) the genetic differentiation found in populations on the islands with higher age and smaller distance to the continent is significantly higher than that on the younger, more remote ones; (4) the high number of haplotypes observed (16), and the widespread distribution of the most frequent and ancestral ones across the archipelago, are indicating early diversification, demographic expansion, and recurrent dispersal. In contrast, restriction of six of the seven derived haplotypes to single islands is construed as reflecting significant isolation time prior to colonization. Our phylogeographic reconstruction points to the sequence of island emergence as the key factor to explain the distribution of plastid DNA variation. The reproductive traits of this juniper species (anemophily, ornithochory, multi-seeded cones), together with its broad ecological range, appear to be largely responsible for recurrent inter-island colonization of ancestral haplotypes. In contrast, certain delay in colonization of new haplotypes may reflect intraspecific habitat competition on islands where this juniper was already present.

  4. The colonization history of Juniperus brevifolia (Cupressaceae in the Azores Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Rumeu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A central aim of island biogeography is to understand the colonization history of insular species using current distributions, fossil records and genetic diversity. Here, we analyze five plastid DNA regions of the endangered Juniperus brevifolia, which is endemic to the Azores archipelago. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The phylogeny of the section Juniperus and the phylogeographic analyses of J. brevifolia based on the coalescence theory of allele (plastid diversity suggest that: (1 a single introduction event likely occurred from Europe; (2 genetic diversification and inter-island dispersal postdated the emergence of the oldest island (Santa Maria, 8.12 Ma; (3 the genetic differentiation found in populations on the islands with higher age and smaller distance to the continent is significantly higher than that on the younger, more remote ones; (4 the high number of haplotypes observed (16, and the widespread distribution of the most frequent and ancestral ones across the archipelago, are indicating early diversification, demographic expansion, and recurrent dispersal. In contrast, restriction of six of the seven derived haplotypes to single islands is construed as reflecting significant isolation time prior to colonization. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our phylogeographic reconstruction points to the sequence of island emergence as the key factor to explain the distribution of plastid DNA variation. The reproductive traits of this juniper species (anemophily, ornithochory, multi-seeded cones, together with its broad ecological range, appear to be largely responsible for recurrent inter-island colonization of ancestral haplotypes. In contrast, certain delay in colonization of new haplotypes may reflect intraspecific habitat competition on islands where this juniper was already present.

  5. TAP Report - Southwest Idaho Juniper Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gresham, Garold Linn [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    There is explicit need for characterization of the materials for possible commercialization as little characterization data exists. Pinyon-juniper woodlands are a major ecosystem type found in the Southwest and the Intermountain West regions of the United States including Nevada, Idaho and Oregon. These widespread ecosystems are characterized by the presence of several different species of pinyon and juniper as the dominant plant cover. Since the 1800s, pinyon-juniper woodlands have rapidly expanded their range at the expense of existing ecosystems. Additionally, existing woodlands have become denser, progressively creating potential fire hazards as seen in the Soda Fire, which burned more than 400 sq. miles. Land managers responsible for these areas often desire to reduce pinyon-juniper coverage on their lands for a variety of reasons, as stated in the Working Group objectives. However, the cost of clearing thinning pinyon-juniper stands can be prohibitive. One reason for this is the lack of utilization options for the resulting biomass that could help recover some of the cost of pinyon-juniper stand management. The goal of this TAP effort was to assess the feedstock characteristics of biomass from a juniper harvested from Owyhee County to evaluate possible fuel and conversion utilization options.

  6. Is differential use of Juniperus monosperma by small ruminants driven by terpenoid concentration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estell, R E; Utsumi, S A; Cibils, A F; Anderson, D M

    2014-03-01

    Differential plant use by herbivores has been observed for several woody plant species and has frequently been attributed to plant secondary metabolites. We examined the relationship between terpenoid concentration and Juniperus monosperma herbivory by small ruminants. Two groups of animals (10 goats or 5 goats plus 4 sheep) browsed 16 paddocks (20 × 30 m) containing one-seed juniper for six days during two seasons. Juniper leaves were sampled from 311 saplings immediately after browsing. Saplings were categorized by size (short [1.0 m]), and by browsing intensity (light [66 %]). Juniper bark was collected from 12 saplings during spring. Total estimated terpenoid concentrations in leaves and bark were 18.3 ± 0.3 and 8.9 ± 0.8 mg/g, respectively, and the dominant terpene in both tissues was α-pinene (11.1 ± 0.2 and 7.6 ± 0.7 mg/g, respectively). Total terpenoid concentration of juniper leaves was greater in spring than summer (20.6 ± 0.5 vs. 16.7 ± 0.3 mg/g, respectively) and was lower in short saplings than medium or tall saplings (16.5 ± 0.6 vs. 19.8 ± 0.4 and 19.5 ± 0.4 mg/g, respectively). Total terpenoid concentration of leaves also differed among the three defoliation categories (21.2 ± 0.6, 18.7 ± 0.5, and 16.1 ± 0.4 mg/g for light, moderate, and heavy, respectively). The smallest subset of terpenoids able to discriminate between light and heavy browsing intensity categories included eight compounds ([E]-β-farnesene, bornyl acetate, γ-eudesmol, endo-fenchyl acetate, γ-cadinene, α-pinene, cis-piperitol, and cis-p-menth-2-en-1-ol). Our results suggest terpenoid concentrations in one-seed juniper are related to season, sapling size, and browsing by small ruminants.

  7. Increased temperatures negatively affect Juniperus communis seeds: evidence from transplant experiments along a latitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruwez, R; De Frenne, P; Vander Mijnsbrugge, K; Vangansbeke, P; Verheyen, K

    2016-05-01

    With a distribution range that covers most of the Northern hemisphere, common juniper (Juniperus communis) has one of the largest ranges of all vascular plant species. In several regions in Europe, however, populations are decreasing in size and number due to failing recruitment. One of the main causes for this failure is low seed viability. Observational evidence suggests that this is partly induced by climate warming, but our mechanistic understanding of this effect remains incomplete. Here, we experimentally assess the influence of temperature on two key developmental phases during sexual reproduction, i.e. gametogenesis and fertilisation (seed phase two, SP2) and embryo development (seed phase three, SP3). Along a latitudinal gradient from southern France to central Sweden, we installed a transplant experiment with shrubs originating from Belgium, a region with unusually low juniper seed viability. Seeds of both seed phases were sampled during three consecutive years, and seed viability assessed. Warming temperatures negatively affected the seed viability of both SP2 and SP3 seeds along the latitudinal gradient. Interestingly, the effect on embryo development (SP3) only occurred in the third year, i.e. when the gametogenesis and fertilisation also took place in warmer conditions. We found strong indications that this negative influence mostly acts via disrupting growth of the pollen tube, the development of the female gametophyte and fertilisation (SP2). This, in turn, can lead to failing embryo development, for example, due to nutritional problems. Our results confirm that climate warming can negatively affect seed viability of juniper. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  8. DETERMINATION OF SEED GERMINATION, OTHER SEED AND SEEDLING CHARACTERISTICS OF SYRIAN JUNIPER (Arceuthosdrupacea (Labill. Ant. et Kotschy. AND SOME RECOMMENDATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Cemal Gültekin

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Syrian Juniper (Arceuthos drupacea (Labill. Antoine et Kotschy, synonym: Juniperus drupacea Labill. seeds have germination barrier due to its fleshy cone, hard seedcoat, and embryo. Germination under natural conditions can be delayed by this barrier for 4-5 years, while cone flesh alone can postpone it for 1 to 2 years. Seeds freed of this flesh (by animals usually germinate in the 3rd or 4th year. Germination can be seen in the same- or the following year if seeds are mechanically scarred by rodents. During the germination, hardened cone scales which cover the seeds fall out and the embryo becomes free to germinate. Combination used for mass production of Syrian Juniper seedling at the Egirdir Forest Nursery is as follows: Seeding in summer “after stratification at room temperature for a month x breaking of seed coats without harming the embryo” results in 53 % germination. Same seed characteristics of Syrian Juniper; time of seed ripening: October, time needed for seed fipening: 18 month,, mean weight of 1000 seeds: 2674 g, one year old seedling diameter: 3.8 mm, one year old seedling length: 16 cm.

  9. On the detection of thermohygrometric differences of Juniperus turbinata habitat between north and south faces in the island of El Hierro (Canary Islands)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salva-Catarineu, Montserrat; Salvador-Franch, Ferran; Lopez-Bustins, Joan A.; Padrón-Padrón, Pedro A.; Cortés-Lucas, Amparo

    2016-04-01

    The current extent of Juniperus turbinata in the island of El Hierro is very small due to heavy exploitation for centuries. The recovery of its natural habitat has such a high environmental and scenic interest since this is a protected species in Europe. The study of the environmental factors that help or limit its recovery is indispensable. Our research project (JUNITUR) studied the populations of juniper woodlands in El Hierro from different environments. These environments are mainly determined by their altitude and exposure to north-easterly trade winds. The main objective of this study was to compare the thermohygrometric conditions of three juniper woodlands: La Dehesa (north-west face at 528 m a.s.l.), El Julan (south face at 996 m a.s.l.) and Sabinosa (north face at 258 m a.s.l.). They are located at different altitude and orientation in El Hierro and present different recovery rates. We used air sensor data loggers fixed to tree branches for recording hourly temperature and humidity data in the three study areas. We analysed daily data of three annual cycles (from September 2012 to August 2015). Similar thermohygrometric annual cycles among the three study areas were observed. We detected the largest differences in winter temperature and summer humidity between the north (to windward) (Sabinosa and La Dehesa) and south (to leeward) (El Julan) faces of the island. The juniper woodland with a highest recovery rate (El Julan) showed the most extreme temperature conditions in both winter and summer seasons. The results of this project might contribute to the knowledge of the juniper bioclimatology in El Hierro, where there is the biggest population of Juniperus turbinata throughout the Canary Islands.

  10. Soil development mediated by traditional practices shape the stand structure of Spanish juniper woodland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier de la Fuente-Leon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Assessing the effect of soil development on the stand structure of a Spanish juniper forest traditionally shaped by livestock browsing and wood extraction. Area of study: Berlanga de Duero (Soria, Castilla y León, Spain.Material and Methods: A stand inventory served to record stand structure. Tree age, height, DBH, basal area, and overbark volume were determined in each plot. Results were pooled considering two well-differentiated degrees of soil evolution. One-way ANOVAs (and Tukey’s test and regressions between growth parameters were performed to assess significant differences between growth performances on both types of soils. Research highlights: Deeper soils yielded significant higher plant density and stand stock figures than stony shallower profiles despite the intense past livestock activity in the area; and single tree-size was also significantly greater. Non-significant differences were found for merchantable junipers age (≈120-160 years. Wood extraction and livestock browsing should be limited on shallower soils to allow soil and forest evolution; as well as to preserve the genetic pool better adapted to hardest growing conditions.Keywords: livestock browsing; forest development; Juniperus thurifera L.; soil evolution; stand stock.

  11. Estimating pinyon and juniper cover across Utah using NAIP imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darrell B. Roundy

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Expansion of Pinus L. (pinyon and Juniperus L. (juniper (P-J trees into sagebrush (Artemisia L. steppe communities can lead to negative effects on hydrology, loss of wildlife habitat, and a decrease in desirable understory vegetation. Tree reduction treatments are often implemented to mitigate these negative effects. In order to prioritize and effectively plan these treatments, rapid, accurate, and inexpensive methods are needed to estimate tree canopy cover at the landscape scale. We used object based image analysis (OBIA software (Feature AnalystTM for ArcMap 10.1®, ENVI Feature Extraction®, and Trimble eCognition Developer 8.2® to extract tree canopy cover using NAIP (National Agricultural Imagery Program imagery. We then compared our extractions with ground measured tree canopy cover (crown diameter and line point intercept on 309 plots across 44 sites in Utah. Extraction methods did not consistently over- or under-estimate ground measured P-J canopy cover except where tree cover was >45%. Estimates of tree canopy cover using OBIA techniques were strongly correlated with estimates using the crown diameter method (r = 0.93 for ENVI, 0.91 for Feature AnalystTM, and 0.92 for eCognition. Tree cover estimates using OBIA techniques had lower correlations with tree cover measurements using the line-point intercept method (r = 0.85 for ENVI, 0.83 for Feature AnalystTM, and 0.83 for eCognition. All software packages accurately and inexpensively extracted P-J canopy cover from NAIP imagery when the imagery was not blurred, and when P-J cover was not mixed with Amelanchier alnifolia (Utah serviceberry and Quercus gambelii (Gambel’s oak, which had similar spectral values as P-J.

  12. FCH_Strix_occidentalis_caurina_20121204

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This layer contains critical habitat polygons designated by the USFWS for the Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) in November 2012.

  13. Microstrobiles morphology in Juniperus subgen. Sabina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Antonova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and anatomical investigations on male strobiles of Juniperus subgen. Sabina were carried out using of fresh material. Changes and varieties in coloration of microsporangia, as well as anthesis were studied. It was ascertained that number of microsporangia correlates with the position of sporophylles in strobile.

  14. Crossdating Juniperus procera from North Gondar, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wils, T.; Robertson, I.; Eshetu, Z.; Touchan, R.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Koprowski, M.

    2011-01-01

    The application of dendrochronology in (sub)tropical regions has been limited by the difficulty in finding trees with distinct annual rings that can be crossdated. Here, we report successful crossdating of Juniperus procera trees from North Gondar, Ethiopia. The trees form annual rings in response t

  15. Crossdating Juniperus procera from North Gondar, Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wils, T.; Robertson, I.; Eshetu, Z.; Touchan, R.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Koprowski, M.

    2011-01-01

    The application of dendrochronology in (sub)tropical regions has been limited by the difficulty in finding trees with distinct annual rings that can be crossdated. Here, we report successful crossdating of Juniperus procera trees from North Gondar, Ethiopia. The trees form annual rings in response

  16. Antimicrobial activity of the essential oil and different fractions of Juniperus communis L. and a comparison with some commercial antibiotics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANDRA B. GLIIC

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil of common juniper (Juniperus communis L., from the southern part of Serbia and its fractions of different composition, as well as commercial antibiotics were used for testing their antimicrobial activity against bacteria, yeast and fungi. The essential oil was produced by hydro-distillation in a pilot plant (130 dm3 and then fractionated by distillation over a column, with 36 theoretical stages, under vacuum (26–66 mbar. The essential oil was also fractionated using pure CO2 or CO2 and methanol as co-solvent under supercritical conditions. The native oil showed weak antimicrobial activity, while the fractions with a high content of a-pinene, and mixture of a-pinene and sabinene showed the highest antimicrobial activity, especially against fungi. In comparison to the commercial antibiotics, the oil fractions showed more extensive spectra of antimicrobial activity, as well as wider inhibition zones.

  17. Pinyon-juniper woodlands [chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald J. Gottfried; Thomas W. Swetnam; Craig D. Allen; Julio L. Betancourt; Alice L. Chung-MacCoubrey

    1995-01-01

    Pinyon-juniper woodlands are one of the largest ecosystems in the Southwest and in the Middle Rio Grande Basin (Fig. 1). The woodlands have been important to the region's inhabitants since prehistoric times for a variety of natural resources and amenities. The ecosystems have not been static; their distributions, stand characteristics, and site conditions have...

  18. Quantification of Juniperus Ashei Pollen Production for the Development of Forecasting Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunderson, L. D.; Levetin, E.

    2010-01-01

    Juniperus ashei pollen is considered one of the most allergenic species of Cupressaceae in North America. Juniperus ashei is distributed throughout central Texas, Northern Mexico, the Arbuckle Mountains of south central Oklahoma, and the Ozark Mountains of northern Arkansas and southwestern Missouri. The large amount of airborne pollen that J. ashei produces affects inhabitants of cities and towns adjacent to juniper woodland areas and because juniper pollen can be transported over long distances, it affects populations that are far away. In order to create a dynamic forecast system for allergy and asthma sufferers, pollen production must be estimated. Estimation of pollen production requires the estimation of male cone production. Two locations in the Arbuckle Mountains of Oklahoma and 4 locations in the Edwards Plateau region of Texas were chosen as sampling sites. Trees were measured to determine approximate size. Male to female ratio was determined and pollen cone production was estimated using a qualitative scale from 0 to 2. Cones were counted from harvested 1/8 sections of representative trees. The representative trees were measured and approximate surface area of the tree was calculated. Using the representative tree data, the number of cones per square meter was calculated for medium production (1) and high production (2) trees. These numbers were extrapolated to calculate cone production in other trees sampled. Calibration was achieved within each location's sub-plot by counting cones on 5 branches collected from 5 sides of both high production and medium production trees. The total area sampled in each location was 0.06 hectare and total cone production varied greatly from location to location. The highest production area produced 5.8 million cones while the lowest production area produced 72,000 cones. A single representative high production tree in the Arbuckle Mountains produced 1.38 million cones. The number of trees per location was relatively

  19. Longevity of Juniperus procera seed lots under different storage conditions: implications for ex situ conservation in seed banks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Negash Mamo; Diriba Nigusie; Mulualem Tigabu; Demel Teketay; Miftah Fekadu

    2011-01-01

    Juniperus procera Endl. Is economically important timberspecies, but its populations are extremely small and fragmented in itsnatural habitat, thus, calling for immediate ex situ conservation. Here weexamined the effects of seed sources and storage temperature on thelongevity of Juniperus procera seed lots through collection and preserva-tion of seeds in seed banks. Seeds were collected from nine sites acrossthe species natural distribution in Ethiopia and stored in four warehouses:modern cold room (5℃), mud house (15℃), concrete block house (17℃)or corrugated iron house (20℃) for 42 months. Every three months, arandom sample of stored seeds were drawn and tested for germination. Ahighly significant variation (p 0.80; p<0.01). Cold storage also resulted in enhancement ofgermination through its stratification effect that terminated the non-deepphysiological dormancy of juniper seeds. In conclusion, seed lots withgood initial germination can be effectively stored in cold room (5℃) upto four years. In the absence of modern cold stores, mud houses can beused as a good altemative to store seeds at local level.

  20. Efficiency of pollination and satiation of predators determine reproductive output in Iberian Juniperus thurifera woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezquida, E T; Rodríguez-García, E; Olano, J M

    2016-01-01

    Fruit production in animal-dispersed plants has a strong influence on fitness because large crops increase the number of seeds dispersed by frugivores. Large crops are costly, and environmental control of plant resources is likely play a role in shaping temporal and spatial variations in seed production, particularly in fluctuating environments such as the Mediterranean. The number of fruits that start to develop and the proportion of viable seeds produced are also linked to the number of flowers formed and the efficiency of pollination in wind-pollinated plants. Finally, large fruit displays also attract seed predators, having a negative effect on seed output. We assessed the relative impact of environmental conditions on fruit production, and their combined effect on seed production, abortion and seed loss through three predispersal predators in Juniperus thurifera L., sampling 14 populations across the Iberian Peninsula. Wetter than average conditions during flowering and early fruit development led to larger crop sizes; this effect was amplified at tree level, with the most productive trees during more favourable years yielding fruits with more viable seeds and less empty and aborted seeds. In addition, large crops satiated the less mobile seed predator. The other two predispersal predators responded to plant traits, the presence of other seed predators and environmental conditions, but did not show a satiation response to the current-year crop. Our large-scale study on a dioecious, wind-pollinated Mediterranean juniper indicates that pollination efficiency and satiation of seed predators, mediated by environmental conditions, are important determinants of reproductive output in this juniper species. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. Anti-mycobacterial natural products from the Canadian medicinal plant Juniperus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Caitlyn D; O'Neill, Taryn; Picot, Nadia; Johnson, John A; Robichaud, Gilles A; Webster, Duncan; Gray, Christopher A

    2012-09-28

    Common juniper, Juniperus communis, is amongst the plants most frequently used by the indigenous peoples of North America for medicinal purposes. The First Nations of the Canadian Maritimes use infusions of juniper primarily as a tonic and for the treatment of tuberculosis. Previous investigations of extracts derived from the aerial parts of J. communis have shown it to possess anti-mycobacterial activity. The aim of the study is to isolate and identify anti-mycobacterial constituents from the aerial parts of J. communis. Methanolic extracts of J. communis needles and branches were subjected to bioassay guided fractionation using the microplate resazurin assay (MRA) to assess inhibitory activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Ra. The anti-mycobacterial constituents were identified by NMR, MS and polarimetry. The diterpenes isocupressic acid and communic acid and the aryltetralin lignan deoxypodophyllotoxin were isolated from the J. communis extract. Isocupressic acid and communic acid (isolated as an inseparable 3:2 mixture of cis and trans isomers) displayed MICs of 78 μM and 31 μM and IC(50)s of 46 μM and 15 μM against M. tuberculosis H37Ra respectively. Deoxypodophyllotoxin was less active, with a MIC of 1004 μM and an IC(50) of 287 μM. Isocupressic acid, communic acid and deoxypodophyllotoxin were identified as the principal constituents responsible for the anti-mycobacterial activity of the aerial parts of J. communis. Although further research will be required to evaluate the relative activities of the two communic acid isomers, this work validates an ethnopharmacological use of this plant by Canadian First Nations and Native American communities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The genome of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) is an important specialty fruit crop in the U.S. Pacific Northwest that can hybridize with the globally commercialized red raspberry (R. idaeus). Here we report a 243 Mb draft genome of black raspberry that will serve as a useful reference for the Rosaceae and Ru...

  3. Antimycobacterial terpenoids from Juniperus communis L. (Cuppressaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordien, Andréa Y; Gray, Alexander I; Franzblau, Scott G; Seidel, Véronique

    2009-12-10

    Juniperus communis is a plant which has been reported as a traditional cure for tuberculosis (TB) and other respiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify the constituents responsible for the activity of the n-hexane extract of Juniperus communis roots against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)Rv and Juniperus communis aerial parts against Mycobacterium aurum. Subsequently, it was to evaluate the activity of the pure isolated compounds against (i) drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis variants, (ii) non-replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis and (iii) a range of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The antimycobacterial activity of Juniperus communis extracts, fractions and constituents was determined against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)Rv, and against rifampicin-, isoniazid-, streptomycin- and moxifloxacin-resistant variants, using the microplate broth Alamar Blue assay (MABA) method. Isolated constituents were tested against non-replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)Rv, using the low oxygen recovery assay (LORA), and against NTM (Mycobacterium aurum, Mycobacterium phlei, Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium smegmatis), using a broth microdilution method. Cytotoxicity studies were performed using mammalian Vero cells. The antimycobacterial activity of Juniperus communis was attributed to a sesquiterpene identified as longifolene (1) and two diterpenes, characterised as totarol (2) and trans-communic acid (3). All compounds were identified following analysis of their spectroscopic data (1D- and 2D-NMR, MS) and by comparison with the literature and commercial authentic standards when available. Revised assignments for 3 are reported. Totarol showed the best activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H(37)Rv (MIC of 73.7 microM). It was also most active against the isoniazid-, streptomycin-, and moxifloxacin-resistant variants (MIC of 38.4, 83.4 and 60 microM, respectively). Longifolene and totarol were most active against

  4. Response of bird community structure to habitat management in piñon-juniper woodland-sagebrush ecotones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knick, Steven T.; Hanser, Steve; Grace, James B.; Hollenbeck, Jeff P.; Leu, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    Piñon (Pinus spp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) woodlands have been expanding their range across the intermountain western United States into landscapes dominated by sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) shrublands. Management actions using prescribed fire and mechanical cutting to reduce woodland cover and control expansion provided opportunities to understand how environmental structure and changes due to these treatments influence bird communities in piñon-juniper systems. We surveyed 43 species of birds and measured vegetation for 1–3 years prior to treatment and 6–7 years post-treatment at 13 locations across Oregon, California, Idaho, Nevada, and Utah. We used structural equation modeling to develop and statistically test our conceptual model that the current bird assembly at a site is structured primarily by the previous bird community with additional drivers from current and surrounding habitat conditions as well as external regional bird dynamics. Treatment reduced woodland cover by >5% at 80 of 378 survey sites. However, habitat change achieved by treatment was highly variable because actual disturbance differed widely in extent and intensity. Biological inertia in the bird community was the strongest single driver; 72% of the variation in the bird assemblage was explained by the community that existed seven years earlier. Greater net reduction in woodlands resulted in slight shifts in the bird community to one having ecotone or shrubland affinities. However, the overall influence of woodland changes from treatment were relatively small and were buffered by other extrinsic factors. Regional bird dynamics did not significantly influence the structure of local bird communities at our sites. Our results suggest that bird communities in piñon-juniper woodlands can be highly stable when management treatments are conducted in areas with more advanced woodland development and at the level of disturbance measured in our study.

  5. Fatty acid composition of Juniperus species (Juniperus section) native to Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güvenç, Aysegül; Küçükboyaci, Nurgün; Gören, Ahmet Ceyhan

    2012-07-01

    Fatty acid compositions of seeds of five taxa of the Juniperus section of the genus Juniperus L. (Cupressaceae), i. e. J. drupacea Lab., J. communis L. var. communis, J. communis var. saxatilis Pall., J. oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus, and J. oxycedrus subsp. macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Ball, were investigated. Methyl ester derivatized fatty acids of the lipophylic extracts of the five species were comparatively analyzed by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Juniperus taxa showed uniform fatty acid patterns, among which linoleic (25.8 - 32.5%), pinolenic (11.9 - 24.1%) and oleic acids (12.4 - 17.2%) were determined to be the main fractions in the seed oils. Juniperonic acid was found to be remarkably high in J. communis var. saxatilis (11.4%), J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus (10.4%), and J. communis var. communis (10.1%). To the best of our knowledge, the present work discloses the first report on the fatty acid compositions of seeds of this Juniperus section grown in Turkey.

  6. Diurnal and Seasonal Patterns of Non-Structural Carbohydrates in Pinus edulis and Juniperus monosperma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, D.; Meinzer, F. C.; McDowell, N. G.

    2013-12-01

    Increases in drought-induced tree mortality have recently been documented globally and although less documented, non-lethal reductions in growth that are associated with the observed occurrences of tree mortality could represent an even greater drought-induced loss of net ecosystem productivity. Although carbon starvation has received a great deal of attention recently as a potential cause of drought-related mortality, the role of carbon depletion in the growth reduction and mortality of trees remains unresolved. The difference in mortality rates of piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and one seed juniper (Juniperus monosperma) in response to drought has been hypothesized to be related to their contrasting strategies for avoiding tissue desiccation and hydraulic failure (isohydry for piñon and anisohydry for juniper), and the subsequent impact of these strategies on their carbon balance. Despite intense interest in the role of carbon dynamics in tree survival and productivity, little is known of the short- and long-term consequences of drought on carbon storage and depletion in the context of these two contrasting strategies. Diurnal patterns of concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) were analyzed in piñon and juniper under ambient growing conditions as well as under experimental drought conditions during May, August, and September of 2012. Our objective was to examine differences in storage, depletion and conversion of starch and sugars in these species at multiple points throughout the growing season and to identify any potential patterns of storage or conversion that could represent distinct vulnerabilities or compensatory responses to drought. Differences in total NSC between species were least pronounced at the beginning of the growing season in May and substantially more pronounced in August and September when NSC in piñon was reduced to approximately 2% tissue dry wt., down from 13-16% during May, whereas NSC in juniper was reduced to 4-6 % tissue

  7. Deoxypodophyllotoxin isolated from Juniperus communis induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzina, Sami; Harquail, Jason; Jean, Stephanie; Beauregard, Annie-Pier; Colquhoun, Caitlyn D; Carroll, Madison; Bos, Allyson; Gray, Christopher A; Robichaud, Gilles A

    2015-01-01

    The study of anticancer properties from natural products has regained popularity as natural molecules provide a high diversity of chemical structures with specific biological and medicinal activity. Based on a documented library of the most common medicinal plants used by the indigenous people of North America, we screened and isolated compounds with anti-breast cancer properties from Juniperus communis (common Juniper). Using bioassay-guided fractionation of a crude plant extract, we identified the diterpene isocupressic acid and the aryltetralin lignan deoxypodophyllotoxin (DPT) as potent inducers of caspase-dependent programmed cell death (apoptosis) in malignant MB231 breast cancer cells. Further elucidation revealed that DPT, in contrast to isocupressic acid, also concomitantly inhibited cell survival pathways mediated by the MAPK/ERK and NFκB signaling pathways within hours of treatment. Our findings emphasize the potential and importance of natural product screening for new chemical entities with novel anticancer activities. Natural products research complemented with the wealth of information available through the ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological knowledge of the indigenous peoples of North America can provide new candidate entities with desirable bioactivities to develop new cancer therapies.

  8. Roost habitat of Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) in the canyonlands of Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, David W.; Van Riper, Charles

    2015-01-01

    In large portions of their geographic range, Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) roost in forest-dominated environments, but in some areas the owls use relatively arid rocky canyonlands. We measured habitat characteristics at 133 male roosts (n = 20 males) during 1992-95, and 56 female roosts (n = 13 females) during 1994-95. Across all years and study areas, 44% of Mexican Spotted Owl roosts occurred in mixed-conifer forest patches, 30% in desert scrub habitat, 16% in pinyon-juniper woodlands, and 10% of roosts occurred in riparian vegetation. Two basic substrates were used as perches by owls, including rock ledges or various trees, where roost height averaged 9 m (0.54 SD), and average height of cliffs above perched owls was 50 m (58 SD). For both males and females, trees types used most frequently included various firs (51%), followed by pinyon pine (18%), Utah juniper (15%), and big-tooth maple or box elder combined (15%). Roost sites were located in canyons composed of cliff-forming geologic formations, primarily oriented north-west to south-east. The width of canyons measured at roosts averaged 68 m (105 SD), but ranged from 1-500 m. Canopy cover at roosts used by owls ranged from 44% to 71%, mean tree height of all trees present was 9.5 m and mean diameter of trees was 25.4 cm. Non-roost habitat was warmer, not as steep, and possessed fewer caves and ledges than roost habitat. Trees present in roost plots were taller, and thus showed greater average diameter than trees present in non-roost habitat.

  9. Runoff and erosion in a pinon-juniper woodland: Influence of vegetation patches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, K.D.; Wilcox, B.P.; Breshears, D.D.; MacDonald, L.

    1999-12-01

    In many semiarid regions, runoff and erosion differ according to vegetation patch type. These differences, although hypothesized to fundamentally affect ecological processes, have been poorly quantified. In a semiarid pinion-juniper woodland [Pinus edulis Engelm. and Juniperus monosperma (Engelm) Sarg.] in northern New Mexico, the authors measured runoff and erosion from the three patch types that compose these woodlands: Canopy patches (those beneath woody plants), vegetated patched in intercanopy areas, and bare patches in intercanopy areas. The bare intercanopy patches exhibited the highest rates, followed by vegetated intercanopy patches and then by canopy patches. Large convective summer storms, though relatively infrequent, generated much of the runoff and most of the sediment; prolonged frontal storms were capable of generating considerable runoff but little sediment. A portion of the runoff and most of the sediment generated from bare intercanopy patches was redistributed down-slope, probably to adjacent vegetated intercanopy patches, demonstrating connectivity between these two patch types. Their results indicate that there are significant and important differences in runoff and sediment production from the three patch types; that bare intercanopy patches act as sources of both water and sediment for the vegetated intercanopy patches; and that the transfer of water and sediment at small scales is both frequent enough and substantial enough to be considered ecologically significant.

  10. Use of MODIS Satellite Images and an Atmospheric Dust Transport Model to Evaluate Juniperus spp. Pollen Phenology and Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, E.; Huete, A.; Nickovic, S.; Pejanovic, G. A.; Vukovic, A.; Van de Water, P. K.; Myers, O. B.; Budge, A. M.; Zelicoff, A. P.; Bunderson, L.; Ponce-Campos, G.; Crimmins, T. M.

    2011-01-01

    over large regions. Hence the use of satellite data is critical to observe Juniperus spp. pollen phenology. MODIS data was used to observe Juniperus spp. pollen phenology. The MODIS surface reflectance product(MOD09) provided information on the Juniper spp. cone formation and cone density (Fig 1). Ground based observational records of pollen release timing and quantities were used as verification. Techniques developed using MOD09 surface reflectance products will be directly applicable to the next generation sensors such as VIIRS.

  11. Using publically available forest inventory data in climate-based modes of tree species distribution: Examining effects of true versus altered location coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob Gibson; Gretchen Moisen; Tracey Frescino; Thomas C. Edwards

    2013-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) were built with US Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) publicly available plot coordinates, which are altered for plot security purposes, and compared with SDMs built with true plot coordinates. Six species endemic to the western US, including four junipers (Juniperus deppeana var. deppeana, J. monosperma, J. occidentalis, J....

  12. Resilience and resistance of sagebrush ecosystems: Implications for state and transition models and management treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Richard F. Miller; David I. Board; David A. Pyke; Bruce A. Roundy; James B. Grace; Eugene W. Schupp; Robin J. Tausch

    2014-01-01

    In sagebrush ecosystems invasion of annual exotics and expansion of pinon (Pinus monophylla Torr. and Frem.) and juniper (Juniperus occidentalis Hook., J. osteosperma [Torr.] Little) are altering fire regimes and resulting in large-scale ecosystem transformations. Management treatments aim to increase resilience to disturbance and enhance resistance to invasive species...

  13. The toxicity of Cassia occidentalis to goats

    OpenAIRE

    Suliman, H.B.; Wasfi, I.A.; Adam, S. E. I.

    1982-01-01

    Metadata only record In 8 goats given the leaves or seeds of C. occidentalis , the main signs of poisoning were diarrhea, inappetence, dyspnoea, staggering, ataxia and recumbency. Lesions consisted of hemorrhages and congestion in the heart, lungs, abomasum and spleen, catarrhal enteritis, hepatic fatty change and necrosis, splenic haemosiderosis, pulmonary emphysema, necrosis and/or degeneration of the epithelial cells of the renal convoluted tubule, and packing of the glomeruli with endo...

  14. A new lignan glycoside from Juniperus rigida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Kyeong Wan; Choi, Sang Un; Park, Jong Cheol; Lee, Kang Ro

    2011-12-01

    A new lignan glycoside, named juniperigiside (1) was isolated from the CHCl(3) soluble fraction of the MeOH extract of stems and leaves of Juniperus rigida S.et Z. Compound 1 was identified by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy as well as CD analysis as (2R,3S)-2,3-dihydro-7-methoxy-2-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-3-hydroxymethyl-5-benzofuranpropanol 4'-O-(3-O-methyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside. Five known lignans, icariside E4 (2), desoxypodophyllotoxin (3), savinin (4), thujastandin (5), and (-)-nortrachelogenin (6) in addition to five known labdane diterpenes including trans-communic acid (7), 13-epi-torulosal (8), 13-epi-cupressic acid (9), imbricatoric acid (10), and isocupressic acid (11) were also isolated and their structures were characterized by comparing their spectroscopic data with those in the literature. All compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant, and 5 and 6 were first reported from the genus Juniperus. The isolated compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against four human tumor cell lines in vitro using a Sulforhodamin B bioassay. Compounds 3, 4, 7, and 8 showed considerable cytotoxicity against four human cancer cell lines in vitro.

  15. Estimating juniper cover from NAIP imagery and evaluating relationships between potential cover and environmental variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniper management is constrained by limited tools to estimate juniper cover and potential cover at stand closure across landscapes. We evaluated if remotely sensed imagery (NAIP) could be used to estimate juniper cover and if environmental characteristic could be used to determine potential junipe...

  16. Podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin in Juniperus bermudiana and 12 other Juniperus species: optimization of extraction, method validation, and quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouard, Sullivan; Lopez, Tatiana; Hendrawati, Oktavia; Dupre, Patricia; Doussot, Joël; Falguieres, Annie; Ferroud, Clotilde; Hagege, Daniel; Lamblin, Frédéric; Laine, Eric; Hano, Christophe

    2011-08-10

    The lignans podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin are secondary metabolites with potent pharmaceutical applications in cancer therapy. However, the supply of podophyllotoxin from its current natural source, Podophyllum hexandrum, is becoming increasingly problematic, and alternative sources are therefore urgently needed. So far, podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin have been found in some Juniperus species, although at low levels in most cases. Moreover, extraction protocols deserve optimization. This study aimed at developing and validating an efficient extraction protocol of podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin from Juniperus species and applying it to 13 Juniperus species, among which some had never been previously analyzed. Juniperus bermudiana was used for the development and validation of an extraction protocol for podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin allowing extraction yields of up to 22.6 mg/g DW of podophyllotoxin and 4.4 mg/g DW deoxypodophyllotoxin, the highest values found in leaf extract of Juniperus. The optimized extraction protocol and HPLC separation from DAD or MS detections were established and validated to investigate podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin contents in aerial parts of 12 other Juniperus species. This allowed either higher yields to be obtained in some species reported to contain these two compounds or the occurrence of these compounds in some other species to be reported for the first time. This efficient protocol allows effective extraction of podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin from aerial parts of Juniperus species, which could therefore constitute interesting alternative sources of these valuable metabolites.

  17. A new name for Mabuya Polytropis occidentalis Hoogmoed, 1974

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1978-01-01

    In a revision of West African Mabuya species in 1974, I described Mabuya polytropis occidentalis from Ghana and Liberia. Recently Dr. R. I. Crombie kindly drew my attention to the fact that by doing so, I had created a junior homonym of Euprepes occidentalis W. Peters, 1867, currently considered a v

  18. Insecticide Resistance in the Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sten Erik

    The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is a serious pest on a wide range of crops throughout the world. In Denmark F. occidentalis is a pest in greenhouses. F. occidentalis is difficult to control with insecticides because of its thigmokinetic behaviour and resistance...... to insecticides. Since F. occidentulis spread to become a worldwide pest in 1980’es, resistance to a number of different insecticides has been shown in many populations of F. occidentalis. This flower thrips has the potential of fast development of resistance owing to the short generation time, high fecundity......, and a haplodiploid breeding system. Although resistance in F. occidentalis is a common problem, the underlying mechanisms conferring resistance have only been studied on a few populations. A purpose of this study was to gain more knowledge about possible resistance mechanisms in F. occidentulis and, furthermore...

  19. PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CASIA OCCIDENTALIS (L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkanna Lunavath

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The trend of using natural products has increased and the active plant extracts are frequently screened for new drug discoveries. The present study deals with the screening of Casia occidentalis leaves for their antimicrobial activity against various strains of bacteria. Plant Cassia occidentalis belongs to family Caesalpiniaceae, is a diffuse offensively odorous under shrub. Casia occidentalis were shade dried, powered and was extracted using solvents Methanol. The antimicrobial activity test performed by the disc diffusion method. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of the plant extracts fractions of HXF, CTF, CFF and AQF showed the presence of carbohydrates, amino acids, phytosterols, fixed oils and phenolic compounds. The AQF fraction of C. occidentalis showed high activity across pseudomonas aeuruginosa and staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The present study indicates the potential usefulness of Casia occidentalis leaves in the treatment of various diseases caused by micro-organisms.

  20. Evaluation of the seasonal and annual abortifacient risk of western juniper trees on Oregon rangelands: Abortion risk of western juniper trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western juniper trees can cause late term abortions in cattle, similar to ponderosa pine trees. Analyses of western juniper trees from 35 locations across the state of Oregon suggest that western juniper trees in all areas present an abortion risk in pregnant cattle. Results from this study demonstr...

  1. Is precipitation a trigger for the onset of xylogenesis in Juniperus przewalskii on the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ping; Rossi, Sergio; Gricar, Jozica; Liang, Eryuan; Cufar, Katarina

    2015-03-01

    A series of studies have shown that temperature triggers the onset of xylogenesis of trees after winter dormancy. However, little is known about whether and how moisture availability influences xylogenesis in spring in drought-prone areas. Xylogenesis was monitored in five mature Qilian junipers (Juniperus przewalskii) by microcore sampling from 2009 to 2011 in a semi-arid area of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau. A simple physical model of xylem cell production was developed and its sensitivity was analysed. The relationship between climate and growth was then evaluated, using weekly wood production data and climatic data from the study site. Delayed onset of xylogenesis in 2010 corresponded to a negative standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) value and a continuous period without rainfall in early May. The main period of wood formation was in June and July, and drier conditions from May to July led to a smaller number of xylem cells. Dry conditions in July could cause early cessation of xylem differentiation. The final number of xylem cells was mainly determined by the average production rate rather than the duration of new cell production. Xylem growth showed a positive and significant response to precipitation, but not to temperature. Precipitation in late spring and summer can play a critical role in the onset of xylogenesis and xylem cell production. The delay in the initiation of xylogenesis under extremely dry conditions seems to be a stress-avoidance strategy against hydraulic failure. These findings could thus demonstrate an evolutionary adaptation of Qilian juniper to the extremely dry conditions of the north-eastern Tibetan Plateau. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. The Impact of Ozone Treatment in Dynamic Bed Parameters on Changes in Biologically Active Substances of Juniper Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodowska, Agnieszka Joanna; Śmigielski, Krzysztof; Nowak, Agnieszka; Czyżowska, Agata; Otlewska, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The development of the parameters of ozone decontamination method assuring the least possible losses of biologically active substances (essential oils and polyphenols) and their activity in common juniper (Juniperus communis (L.)) berries was studied. Ozone treatment in dynamic bed was conducted 9 times. The process was conducted under different ozone concentrations (100.0; 130.0; 160.0 g O3/m3) and times (30, 60, 90 min). After each decontamination, the microbiological profile of the juniper berries was studied, and the contaminating microflora was identified. Next to the microbiological profile, the phenolic profile, as well as antioxidant activity of extracts and essential oils were determined. The total polyphenol content (TPC), composition of essential oils, free radical-scavenging capacity, total antioxidant capacity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), beta-carotene bleaching test (BCB) and LC-MS polyphenol analysis were carried out. The study reveals that during short ozone contact times, higher amounts of TPC, 15.47 and 12.91 mg CE/g of extract, for samples 100/30 and 130/30, respectively, were demonstrated. Whereas samples 100/60, 130/60, 100/90, and 160/90 exhibited the lowest amount of phenolics. The highest antioxidant activity was found in the methanol extract obtained from ozonated berries which exhibited the lowest IC50 in all the antioxidant assays, such as DPPH, FRAP, and BCB assays. Ozone treatment showed noteworthy potential and its usage in food manufacturing and as an alternative decontamination method should be considered.

  3. The Impact of Ozone Treatment in Dynamic Bed Parameters on Changes in Biologically Active Substances of Juniper Berries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Joanna Brodowska

    Full Text Available The development of the parameters of ozone decontamination method assuring the least possible losses of biologically active substances (essential oils and polyphenols and their activity in common juniper (Juniperus communis (L. berries was studied. Ozone treatment in dynamic bed was conducted 9 times. The process was conducted under different ozone concentrations (100.0; 130.0; 160.0 g O3/m3 and times (30, 60, 90 min. After each decontamination, the microbiological profile of the juniper berries was studied, and the contaminating microflora was identified. Next to the microbiological profile, the phenolic profile, as well as antioxidant activity of extracts and essential oils were determined. The total polyphenol content (TPC, composition of essential oils, free radical-scavenging capacity, total antioxidant capacity, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, beta-carotene bleaching test (BCB and LC-MS polyphenol analysis were carried out. The study reveals that during short ozone contact times, higher amounts of TPC, 15.47 and 12.91 mg CE/g of extract, for samples 100/30 and 130/30, respectively, were demonstrated. Whereas samples 100/60, 130/60, 100/90, and 160/90 exhibited the lowest amount of phenolics. The highest antioxidant activity was found in the methanol extract obtained from ozonated berries which exhibited the lowest IC50 in all the antioxidant assays, such as DPPH, FRAP, and BCB assays. Ozone treatment showed noteworthy potential and its usage in food manufacturing and as an alternative decontamination method should be considered.

  4. Transpiration and hydraulic strategies in a piñon-juniper woodland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, A G; Hultine, K R; Sperry, J S; Bush, S E; Ehleringer, J R

    2008-06-01

    Anthropogenic climate change is likely to alter the patterns of moisture availability globally. The consequences of these changes on species distributions and ecosystem function are largely unknown, but possibly predictable based on key ecophysiological differences among currently coexisting species. In this study, we examined the environmental and biological controls on transpiration from a piñon-juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus osteosperma) woodland in southern Utah, USA. The potential for climate-change-associated shifts in moisture inputs could play a critical role in influencing the relative vulnerabilities of piñons and junipers to drought and affecting management decisions regarding the persistence of this dominant landscape type in the Intermountain West. We aimed to assess the sensitivity of this woodland to seasonal variations in moisture and to mechanistically explain the hydraulic strategies of P. edulis and J. osteosperma through the use of a hydraulic transport model. Transpiration from the woodland was highly sensitive to variations in seasonal moisture inputs. There were two distinct seasonal pulses of transpiration: a reliable spring pulse supplied by winter-derived precipitation, and a highly variable summer pulse supplied by monsoonal precipitation. Transpiration of P. edulis and J. osteosperma was well predicted by a mechanistic hydraulic transport model (R2 = 0.83 and 0.92, respectively). Our hydraulic model indicated that isohydric regulation of water potential in P. edulis minimized xylem cavitation during drought, which facilitated drought recovery (94% of pre-drought water uptake) but came at the cost of cessation of gas exchange for potentially extended periods. In contrast, the anisohydric J. osteosperma was able to maintain gas exchange at lower water potentials than P. edulis but experienced greater cavitation over the drought and showed a lesser degree of post-drought recovery (55% of pre-drought uptake). As a result, these species

  5. Does plant colour matter? Wax accumulation as an indicator of decline in Juniperus thurifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, R; Fernández-Marín, B; Olano, J M; Becerril, J M; García-Plazaola, J I

    2014-03-01

    The photosynthesis in evergreen trees living in Mediterranean ecosystems is subjected to multiple climatic stresses due to water shortage and high temperatures during the summer and to low temperatures during the winter. Mediterranean perennials deploy different photoprotective mechanisms to prevent damage to the photosynthetic system. Wax accumulation in leaves is a primary response which by enhancing light scattering in the leaf surface reduces incident radiation in the mesophyll. The existence of high variability in wax accumulation levels between coexisting individuals of a species has a visual effect on colour that provides distinguishable green and glaucous phenotypes. We explored this variability in a Mediterranean evergreen tree Juniperus thurifera (L.) to evaluate the impact of epicuticular wax on optical and ecophysiological properties and on the abundance of photoprotective pigments throughout an annual cycle. Because of light attenuation by waxes, we expected that glaucous phenotypes would lower the need for photoprotective pigments. We evaluated the effect of phenotype and season on reflectance, defoliation levels, photochemical efficiency and photoprotective pigment contents in 20 green and 20 glaucous junipers. Contrary to our expectations, the results showed that glaucous trees suffered from a diminution in photochemical efficiency, but there was no reduction in photoprotective pigments. Differences between glaucous and green phenotypes were greater in winter, which is the most stressful season for this species. Glaucous individuals also showed the highest levels of leaf defoliation. The lower photochemical efficiency of glaucous trees, together with higher defoliation rates and equal or greater number of physiological photoprotective mechanisms, suggests that in spite of wax accumulation, glaucous trees suffer from more severe stress than green ones. This result suggests that changes in colouration in Mediterranean evergreens may be a decline

  6. Physico-mechanical properties of Spanish juniper wood considering the effect of heartwood formation and the presence of defects and imperfections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier de la Fuente-Leon

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Determining the main physical and mechanical properties of Spanish juniper wood from Soria (Spain considering the effects of heartwood formation and the presence of defects and imperfections; and comparing the resulting characteristics with similar existing data for other regional softwood species of commercial interest. Area of study: Berlanga de Duero (Soria, Castilla y León, Spain.Material and Methods: Wood physico-mechanical performance was determined by Spanish UNE standards in order to provide proper comparisons to other regional softwood species. An individual tree representing average plot characteristics was selected in all eight 10 m radius circular plots that were established well-representing the heterogeneity of this woodland. The age of every tree was determined reading the number of growth rings at the base of each sampled tree. Every physico-mechanical property was assessed at least 4 times for every wood sample type (sapwood and heartwood, whether clear or with the presence of defects of each tree. Two-way ANOVA was run to assess significant differences in the results. Post hoc all pairwise comparisons were performed using Tukey's test (p < 0.05.Research highlights: Spanish juniper wood resulted harder than other regional commercial conifers, and showed semi-heavyweight heartwood and lightweight sapwood; whereas shrinkage figures remarked its great dimensional stability. The high presence of knots within heartwood made it even heavier, harder, and more resistant to compression parallel to grain. A commercial use of this rare precious wood may contribute to juniper forests preservation in the frame of forest sustainable management plans. Key words: heartwood effect; Juniperus thurifera L.; physico-mechanical wood properties; wood classification; wood defects.

  7. Tyrosinase inhibitory flavonoid from Juniperus communis fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegal, Jonghwan; Park, Sang-A; Chung, KiWung; Chung, Hae Young; Lee, Jaewon; Jeong, Eun Ju; Kim, Ki Hyun; Yang, Min Hye

    2016-12-01

    The fruits of Juniperus communis have been traditionally used in the treatment of skin diseases. In our preliminary experiment, the MeOH extract of J. communis effectively suppressed mushroom tyrosinase activity. Three monoflavonoids and five biflavonoids were isolated from J. communis by bioassay-guided isolation and their inhibitory effect against tyrosinase was evaluated. According to the results of all isolates, hypolaetin 7-O-β-xylopyranoside isolated from J. communis exhibited most potent effect of decreasing mushroom tyrosinase activity with an IC50 value of 45.15 μM. Further study provided direct experimental evidence for hypolaetin 7-O-β-D-xylopyranoside-attenuated tyrosinase activity in α-MSH-stimulated B16F10 murine melanoma cell. Hypolaetin 7-O-β-D-xylopyranoside from the EtOAc fraction of J. communis was also effective at suppressing α-MSH-induced melanin synthesis. This is the first report of the enzyme tyrosinase inhibition by J. communis and its constituent. Therapeutic attempts with J. communis and its active component, hypolaetin 7-O-β-D-xylopyranoside, might be useful in treating melanin pigmentary disorders.

  8. Plant Tissue Cultures of Juniperus virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kašparová, Marie; Spilková, Jirina; Cvak, Ladislav; Siatka, Tomáš; Martin, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Callus cultures of Juniperus virginiana L. (varieties 'Hetzii', 'Glauca', 'Grey Owl') were derived from fresh leaves of garden-grown trees on Schenk and Hildebrandt medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/L of α-naphthaleneacetic acid, 0.2 mg/L of kinetin and 15 mg/L of ascorbic acid. The growth characteristics of one-year-old and two-years-old cultures were determined. The maximum biomass in all varieties was achieved on the 35th day of the cultivation period. The increase in fresh weights of two-years-old callus cultures, when compared with one-year-old callus cultures, was as follows: variety 'Hetzii' by 25%, variety 'Glauca' by 29% and variety 'Grey Owl' by 49%. J. virginiana suspension cultures (varieties 'Hetzii', 'Glauca', 'Grey Owl') were derived from two-years-old callus cultures on Schenk and Hildebrandt medium supplemented with 3.0 mg/L of α-naphthaleneacetic acid, 0.2 mg/L of kinetin and 15 mg/L of ascorbic acid. The maximum biomass of all varieties was found on the 21st day of the cultivation period. These results indicate that a sub-cultivation interval of 35 days for callus cultures and of 21st days for suspension cultures can be recommended. The callus and suspension cultures of J. virginiana of the variety 'Glauca' have the best survivability and thus provide the most biomass.

  9. NEUROPHARMACOLOGICAL EXPLORATION OF THUJA OCCIDENTALIS LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deb Lokesh

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In present study, oral administration of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg doses of the aqueous extract of Thuja occidentalis Linn in rats and mice were evaluated for its anxiolytic, nootropic, anticonvulsant and motor coordination activity by using different animal models. The number of entries as well as the duration of stay in the open arms significantly increased (***p<0.001 in Elevated plus-maze test and in Open field test showed significant (*p<0.5, ***p<0.001 increase of open field Ambulation, Rearing, Self grooming activity at centre in dose dependent manner when comparison to vehicle treated rats, moreover, the open field faecal dropping was also decreased that indicate anxiolytic activity of extract. Significant retention and recovery as compare to control group has been recorded in scopolamine induced amnesia that support nootropic activity of extract. In Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ - induced seizures, extract dose dependently inhibited the incidence of convulsions and significantly (*p<0.5, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001 delayed the onset of spasm and clones in PTZ treated mice compare to vehicle treated mice. Significant (***p<0.001 motor in-coordination and increased in immobility time was recorded in case of Rota rod test and Tail suspension test respectively that indicate CNS depression activity of the extract. On the basis of these investigations, we may partially conclude that aqueous extract of Thuja occidentalis Linn aerial part can not recommend to patients in day time or before bed due to its CNS activity, but it could be a potent anxiolytic, nootropic, anticonvulsant and CNS depressant for next generation.

  10. Aerobiology of Juniperus Pollen in Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levetin, Estelle; Bunderson, Landon; VandeWater, Pete; Luvall, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Pollen from members of the Cupressaceae are major aeroallergens in many parts of the world. In the south central and southwest United States, Juniperus pollen is the most important member of this family with J. ashei (JA) responsible for severe winter allergy symptoms in Texas and Oklahoma. In New Mexico, pollen from J. monosperma (JM) and other Juniperus species are important contributors to spring allergies, while J. pinchotii (JP) pollinates in the fall affecting sensitive individuals in west Texas, southwest Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico. Throughout this region, JA, JM, and JP occur in dense woodland populations. Generally monitoring for airborne allergens is conducted in urban areas, although the source for tree pollen may be forested areas distant from the sampling sites. Improved pollen forecasts require a better understanding of pollen production at the source. The current study was undertaken to examine the aerobiology of several Juniperus species at their source areas for the development of new pollen forecasting initiatives.

  11. Responses of a Federally Endangered Songbird to Understory Thinning in Oak-Juniper Woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ashley M.; Marshall, Mike E.; Morrison, Michael L.; Hays, K. Brian; Farrell, Shannon L.

    2017-04-01

    Wildlife conservation and management on military lands must be accomplished in the context of military readiness, which often includes ground-based training that is perceived to conflict with wildlife needs and environmental regulations. From 2008‒2012, we examined territory density, pairing success, and fledging success of the federally endangered golden-cheeked warbler ( Setophaga chrysoparia; hereafter warbler) in relation to removal of small-diameter trees from the understory of mature oak-juniper ( Quercus-Juniperus) woodland at the 87,890 ha Fort Hood Military Reservation in central Texas. Understory thinning created troop maneuver lanes, but left canopy vegetation intact. Warbler density, pairing success, and fledging success were similar across thinned and control sites. We found that warbler pairing and fledging success were best predicted by Ecological site (hereafter Ecosite), an indicator of hardwood tree species composition. Warbler pairing and fledging success were about 1.5 and 1.6 times higher, respectively, for territories dominated by the Low Stony Hill Ecosite than territories dominated by the Redlands Ecosite. Our results indicate that understory thinning for military training purposes did not have a negative effect on warblers at Fort Hood in the manner tested, and suggest that removal of smaller trees from the understory in a way that replicates historic conditions may elicit neutral responses from this forest-dependent songbird. Quantifying wildlife responses to military activities provides the Department of Defense and US Fish and Wildlife Service with data to guide conservation of threatened and endangered species on Department of Defense facilities while maintaining the military mission, and supports wildlife management efforts on other public and private lands.

  12. Restoring mountain big sagebrush communities after prescribed fire in juniper encroached rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western juniper encroachment into sagebrush steppe communities has reduced livestock forage production, increased erosion and runoff risk, and degraded sagebrush-associated wildlife habitat. We evaluated seeding perennial herbaceous vegetation and sagebrush at five sites where juniper was controlle...

  13. Historical fire and multidecadal drought as context for piñon-juniper woodland restoration in western Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinneman, Douglas J; Baker, William L

    2009-07-01

    Fire is known to structure tree populations, but the role of broad-scale climate variability is less clear. For example, the influence of climatic "teleconnections" (the relationship between oceanic-atmospheric fluctuations and anomalous weather patterns across broad scales) on forest age structure is relatively unexplored. We sampled semiarid piñon-juniper (Pinus edulis-Juniperus osteosperma) woodlands in western Colorado, U.S.A., to test the hypothesis that woodland age structures are shaped by climate, including links to oceanic-atmospheric fluctuations, and by past fires and livestock grazing. Low-severity surface fire was lacking, as fire scars were absent, and did not influence woodland densities, but stand-replacing fires served as long-rotation (>400-600 years), stand-initiating events. Old-growth stands (>300 years old) were found in 75% of plots, consistent with a long fire rotation. Juniper and piñon age structures suggest contrasting responses during the past several centuries to dry and wet episodes linked to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). Juniper density increased slightly during periods of drought, positive (warm) AMO (after approximately 10-year lag), and negative (cool) PDO. In contrast, piñon populations may still be recovering from a long, drought-filled period (AD 1620-1820), with pulses of recovery favored during cool AMO, warm PDO, and above-average moisture periods. Analysis of 20th-century tree establishment and instrumental climate data corroborate the long-term relationships between age structure and climate. After Euro-American settlement (AD 1881), livestock grazing reduced understory grasses and forbs, reducing competition with tree seedlings and facilitating climate-induced increases in piñons. Thus tree populations in these woodlands are in flux, affected by drought and wet periods linked to oceanic-atmospheric variability, Euro-American livestock grazing, and long-rotation, high

  14. Predominant and substoichiometric isomers of the plastid genome coexist within Juniperus plants and have shifted multiple times during cupressophyte evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenhu; Grewe, Felix; Cobo-Clark, Amie; Fan, Weishu; Duan, Zelin; Adams, Robert P; Schwarzbach, Andrea E; Mower, Jeffrey P

    2014-03-01

    Most land plant plastomes contain two copies of a large inverted repeat (IR) that promote high-frequency homologous recombination to generate isomeric genomic forms. Among conifer plastomes, this canonical IR is highly reduced in Pinaceae and completely lost from cupressophytes. However, both lineages have acquired short, novel IRs, some of which also exhibit recombinational activity to generate genomic structural diversity. This diversity has been shown to exist between, and occasionally within, cupressophyte species, but it is not known whether multiple genomic forms coexist within individual plants. To examine the recombinational potential of the novel cupressophyte IRs within individuals and between species, we sequenced the plastomes of four closely related species of Juniperus. The four plastomes have identical gene content and genome organization except for a large 36 kb inversion between approximately 250 bp IR containing trnQ-UUG. Southern blotting showed that different isomeric versions of the plastome predominate among individual junipers, whereas polymerase chain reaction and high-throughput read-pair mapping revealed the substoichiometric presence of the alternative isomeric form within each individual plant. Furthermore, our comparative genomic studies demonstrate that the predominant and substoichiometric arrangements of this IR have changed several times in other cupressophytes as well. These results provide compelling evidence for substoichiometric shifting of plastomic forms during cupressophyte evolution and suggest that substoichiometric shifting activity in plastid genomes may be adaptive.

  15. Evolutionary origin and demographic history of an ancient conifer (Juniperus microsperma) in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Hui-Ying; Li, Zhong-Hu; Dong, Miao; Adams, Robert P; Miehe, Georg; Opgenoorth, Lars; Mao, Kang-Shan

    2015-05-15

    All Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) endemic species are assumed to have originated recently, although very rare species most likely diverged early. These ancient species provide an excellent model to examine the origin and evolution of QTP endemic plants in response to the QTP uplifts and the climate changes that followed in this high altitude region. In this study, we examined these hypotheses by employing sequence variation from multiple nuclear and chloroplast DNA of 239 individuals of Juniperus microsperma and its five congeners. Both phylogenetic and population genetic analyses revealed that J. microsperma diverged from its sister clade comprising two species with long isolation around the Early Miocene, which corresponds to early QTP uplift. Demographic modeling and coalescent tests suggest that J. microsperma experienced an obvious bottleneck event during the Quaternary when the global climate greatly oscillated. The results presented here support the hypotheses that the QTP uplifts and Quaternary climate changes played important roles in shaping the evolutionary history of this rare juniper.

  16. Influence of crude extract of root of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of crude extract of root of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) on the cytoarchitecture of the rat kidney and body weight. ... The control group received distilled water throughout the duration of experiment. The administration lasted ...

  17. Etude chimique et biologique des huiles essentielles de Juniperus phoenicea ssp. lycia et Juniperus phoenicea ssp. turbinata du Maroc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansouri, N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical and biological study of essential oils of Moroccan Juniperus phoenicea ssp. lycia and Juniperus phoenicea ssp. turbinata. The composition of the essential oils of the branches and berries of Juniperus phoenicea (Cupressaceae, J. phoenicea ssp. lycia (plain and J. phoenicea ssp. turbinata (mountain, obtained by hydrodistillation, collected from Morocco, was analyzed by GC and GC/MS. The yields of essential oils were varying in function of the subspecies and of the part of the plant studied. The essential oils of these tree species are largely dominated by α-pinene and may be an important source of this component of a great interest on the international market. The effectiveness of essential oils from branches of the subspecies lycia against fungi decay wood has also been emphasized.

  18. Effects of Senna occidentalis on chick bursa of Fabricius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Tereza C; Gorniak, Silvana L; Oloris, Silvia C S; Raspantini, Paulo C; Haraguchi, Mitsue; Dagli, Maria L Z

    2003-12-01

    Senna occidentalis (L) Link (formerly called Cassia occidentalis) is a toxic leguminous plant found ubiquitously as a contaminant of crops. All parts of the plant are toxic, but most of the S. occidentalis toxicity is found in the seeds. S. occidentalis has been shown to be toxic to several animal species, causing degenerative lesions mainly in muscles. This is the first report describing alterations in chick lymphoid organs caused by S. occidentalis seeds. The objectives of this study were to describe the effects of the treatment with seeds and its fraction external tegument (TE) on the development of chicks and their lymphoid organs bursa of Fabricius and spleen. Chicks that received a commercial ration with 1% TE had reduced body and lymphoid organ weights. The bursa of Fabricius presented reduction in the diameters of the follicles, and in the thickness of the cortical and medullary regions. The spleen presented depleted lymphoid tissue in the white pulp. These results indicate that the active principle of S. occidentalis is more concentrated on its TE fraction, and that it can cause weight loss as well as alterations in the lymphoid organs in chicks. The consequences of these alterations should be further investigated.

  19. Seed dispersal of two juniper species: Do scatter-hoarding rodents play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge of seed dispersal processes is vital for understanding the ongoing expansion of the range and increase in density of juniper woodlands. Juniper seeds develop within fruit-like female cones often called “berries.” Juniper seed dispersal has largely been attributed to frugivores and endozooc...

  20. Biological soil crust response to late season prescribed fire in a Great Basin juniper woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven D. Warren; Larry L. St.Clair; Jeffrey R. Johansen; Paul Kugrens; L. Scott Baggett; Benjamin J. Bird

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of juniper on U.S. rangelands is a significant environmental concern. Prescribed fire is often recommended to control juniper. To that end, a prescribed burn was conducted in a Great Basin juniper woodland. Conditions were suboptimal; fire did not encroach into mid- or late-seral stages and was patchy in the early-seral stage. This study evaluated the effects...

  1. Assessing Pinyon Juniper Feedstock Properties and Utilization Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gresham, Garold Linn [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Kenney, Kevin Louis [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Pinyon-juniper woodlands are a major ecosystem type found in the Southwest and the Intermountain West regions of the United States. These ecosystems are characterized by the presence of several different species of pinyon pine and juniper as the dominant plant cover. Since the 1800s, pinyon-juniper woodlands have rapidly expanded their range at the expense of existing ecosystems. Additionally, existing woodlands have become more dense, potentially increasing fire hazards. Land managers responsible for these areas often desire to reduce pinyonjuniper coverage on their lands for a variety of reasons, including restoration to previous vegetative cover, mitigation of fire risk, and improvement in wildlife habitat. However, the cost of clearing or thinning pinyon-juniper stands can be prohibitive. One reason for this is the lack of utilization options for the resulting biomass that could help recover some of the cost of pinyonjuniper stand management. The goal of this project was to assess the feedstock characteristics of biomass from a pinyon-juniper harvest so that potential applications for the biomass may be evaluated.

  2. Antiparasitic, Nematicidal and Antifouling Constituents from Juniperus Berries

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Juniperus procera berries yielded antiparasitic, nematicidal and antifouling constituents, including a wide range of known abietane, pimarane and labdane diterpenes. Among these, abieta-7,13-diene (1) demonstrated in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium f...

  3. Molecular characterization and RAPD analysis of Juniperus species from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasaian, J; Behravan, J; Hassany, M; Emami, S A; Shahriari, F; Khayyat, M H

    2011-06-07

    The genus Juniperus L. (Cupressaceae), an aromatic evergreen plant, consists of up to 68 species around the world. We classified five species of Juniperus found in Iran using molecular markers to provide a means for molecular identification of Iranian species. Plants were collected (three samples of each species) from two different provinces of Iran (Golestan and East Azarbayejan). The DNA was extracted from the leaves using a Qiagen Dneasy Plant Mini Kit. Amplification was performed using 18 ten-mer RAPD primers. Genetic distances were estimated based on 187 RAPD bands to construct a dendrogram by means of unweighted pair group method of arithmetic means. It was found that J. communis and J. oblonga were differentiated from the other species. Genetic distance values ranged from 0.19 (J. communis and J. oblonga) to 0.68 (J. communis and J. excelsa). Juniperus foetidissima was found to be most similar to J. sabina. Juniperus excelsa subspecies excelsa and J. excelsa subspecies polycarpos formed a distinct group.

  4. The genome of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanBuren, Robert; Bryant, Doug; Bushakra, Jill M; Vining, Kelly J; Edger, Patrick P; Rowley, Erik R; Priest, Henry D; Michael, Todd P; Lyons, Eric; Filichkin, Sergei A; Dossett, Michael; Finn, Chad E; Bassil, Nahla V; Mockler, Todd C

    2016-09-01

    Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) is an important specialty fruit crop in the US Pacific Northwest that can hybridize with the globally commercialized red raspberry (R. idaeus). Here we report a 243 Mb draft genome of black raspberry that will serve as a useful reference for the Rosaceae and Rubus fruit crops (raspberry, blackberry, and their hybrids). The black raspberry genome is largely collinear to the diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) with a conserved karyotype and few notable structural rearrangements. Centromeric satellite repeats are widely dispersed across the black raspberry genome, in contrast to the tight association with the centromere observed in most plants. Among the 28 005 predicted protein-coding genes, we identified 290 very recent small-scale gene duplicates enriched for sugar metabolism, fruit development, and anthocyanin related genes which may be related to key agronomic traits during black raspberry domestication. This contrasts patterns of recent duplications in the wild woodland strawberry F. vesca, which show no patterns of enrichment, suggesting gene duplications contributed to domestication traits. Expression profiles from a fruit ripening series and roots exposed to Verticillium dahliae shed insight into fruit development and disease response, respectively. The resources presented here will expedite the development of improved black and red raspberry, blackberry and other Rubus cultivars.

  5. California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) habitat use patterns in a burned landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyes, Stephanie; Roberts, Susan L.; Johnson, Matthew D.

    2017-01-01

    Fire is a dynamic ecosystem process of mixed-conifer forests of the Sierra Nevada, but there is limited scientific information addressing wildlife habitat use in burned landscapes. Recent studies have presented contradictory information regarding the effects of stand-replacing wildfires on Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis) and their habitat. While fire promotes heterogeneous forest landscapes shown to be favored by owls, high severity fire may create large canopy gaps that can fragment the closed-canopy habitat preferred by Spotted Owls. We used radio-telemetry to determine whether foraging California Spotted Owls (S. o. occidentalis) in Yosemite National Park, California, USA, showed selection for particular fire severity patch types within their home ranges. Our results suggested that Spotted Owls exhibited strong habitat selection within their home ranges for locations near the roost and edge habitats, and weak selection for lower fire severity patch types. Although owls selected high contrast edges with greater relative probabilities than low contrast edges, we did not detect a statistical difference between these probabilities. Protecting forests from stand-replacing fires via mechanical thinning or prescribed fire is a priority for management agencies, and our results suggest that fires of low to moderate severity can create habitat conditions within California Spotted Owls' home ranges that are favored for foraging.

  6. RESTORATION OF QUAKING ASPEN WOODLANDS INVADED BY WESTERN JUNIPER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaking aspen woodlands are important plant communities in the interior mountains of the western United States, providing essential habitat for many wildlife species and contain a high diversity of understory plants. Western juniper woodlands are rapidly replacing lower elevation (<6800 ft) quaking...

  7. Adsorption mechanism of cadmium on juniper bark and wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun Woo Shin; K. G. Karthikeyan; Mandla A. Tshabalala

    2007-01-01

    In this study the capacity of sorbents prepared from juniper wood (JW) and bark (JB) to adsorb cadmium (Cd) from aqueous solutions at different pH values was compared. Adsorption behavior was characterized through adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherms, and adsorption edge experiments. Results from kinetics and isotherm experiments showed that JB (76.3–91.6 lmol Cd...

  8. Genetic structure and seed-mediated dispersal rates of an endangered shrub in a fragmented landscape: a case study for Juniperus communis in northwestern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanden-Broeck, An; Gruwez, Robert; Cox, Karen; Adriaenssens, Sandy; Michalczyk, Inga M; Verheyen, Kris

    2011-08-22

    Population extinction risk in a fragmented landscape is related to the differential ability of the species to spread its genes across the landscape. The impact of landscape fragmentation on plant population dynamics will therefore vary across different spatial scales. We quantified successful seed-mediated dispersal of the dioecious shrub Juniperus communis in a fragmented landscape across northwestern Europe by using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Furthermore we investigated the genetic diversity and structure on two spatial scales: across northwestern Europe and across Flanders (northern Belgium). We also studied whether seed viability and populations size were correlated with genetic diversity. Unexpectedly, estimated seed-mediated dispersal rates were quite high and ranged between 3% and 14%. No population differentiation and no spatial genetic structure were detected on the local, Flemish scale. A significant low to moderate genetic differentiation between populations was detected at the regional, northwest European scale (PhiPT = 0.10). In general, geographically nearby populations were also genetically related. High levels of within-population genetic diversity were detected but no correlation was found between any genetic diversity parameter and population size or seed viability. In northwestern Europe, landscape fragmentation has lead to a weak isolation-by-distance pattern but not to genetic impoverishment of common juniper. Substantial rates of successful migration by seed-mediated gene flow indicate a high dispersal ability which could enable Juniperus communis to naturally colonize suitable habitats. However, it is not clear whether the observed levels of migration will suffice to counterbalance the effects of genetic drift in small populations on the long run.

  9. Genetic structure and seed-mediated dispersal rates of an endangered shrub in a fragmented landscape: a case study for Juniperus communis in northwestern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaenssens Sandy

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population extinction risk in a fragmented landscape is related to the differential ability of the species to spread its genes across the landscape. The impact of landscape fragmentation on plant population dynamics will therefore vary across different spatial scales. We quantified successful seed-mediated dispersal of the dioecious shrub Juniperus communis in a fragmented landscape across northwestern Europe by using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP markers. Furthermore we investigated the genetic diversity and structure on two spatial scales: across northwestern Europe and across Flanders (northern Belgium. We also studied whether seed viability and populations size were correlated with genetic diversity. Results Unexpectedly, estimated seed-mediated dispersal rates were quite high and ranged between 3% and 14%. No population differentiation and no spatial genetic structure were detected on the local, Flemish scale. A significant low to moderate genetic differentiation between populations was detected at the regional, northwest European scale (PhiPT = 0.10. In general, geographically nearby populations were also genetically related. High levels of within-population genetic diversity were detected but no correlation was found between any genetic diversity parameter and population size or seed viability. Conclusions In northwestern Europe, landscape fragmentation has lead to a weak isolation-by-distance pattern but not to genetic impoverishment of common juniper. Substantial rates of successful migration by seed-mediated gene flow indicate a high dispersal ability which could enable Juniperus communis to naturally colonize suitable habitats. However, it is not clear whether the observed levels of migration will suffice to counterbalance the effects of genetic drift in small populations on the long run.

  10. Eland browsing of Grewia occidentalis in semi-arid shrubland: the influence of bush clumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H. Watson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Grewia occidentalis plants in the study area generally occurred in bush clumps with other shrub species. Grewia occidentalis commonly occurred with Diospyros austro-africana, Rhus longispina and Rhus pollens (nurse shrubs, but seldom with Acacia kar-roo and Lycium cinereum (non-nurse shrubs. Eland browsed G. occidentalis plants at higher levels than other shrub species, but browsing was not evenly spread across all plants. Grewia occidentalis plants associated with nurse shrubs had lower levels of browsing than those growing alone and those growing with non-nurse shrubs, while G. occidentalis plants in the centre of nurse shrubs experienced the lowest levels of browsing. The latter group of plants also produced the most fruit. Eland browsing is consid-ered an important factor determining the distribution of G. occidentalis plants in the study area, while the presence of nurse shrubs is considered essential for the establishment and maintenance of the G. occidentalis population in the study area.

  11. Optimum Density and Space Structure of Kyrgyzstan’s Juniper Stands for Identifying Water Protective Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zayirbek; Toktoraliev; Okke; Batelaan; Pichang; YUE; Heng; ZHANG

    2014-01-01

    Central Asia including Kyrgyzstan is a disaster prone area,suffering from snow avalanches,landslides and flooding.Within the Tyan- Shan region,a mountainous region in Southern Kyrgyzstan,there is an increasing number of natural hazards over the last years.One of the possible causes of the increase in natural disasters in the region is the deterioration of the Juniper forests in the region.Juniper forests have a large economical and ecological importance for Kyrgyzstan.However,the conditions worsened for these juniper forests.Since 1980 approximately 20% of the juniper forests were lost due to intensive deforestation,forest fires and excessive cattle grazing and possibly also climate changes are affecting the juniper trees and their soil properties.The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of the juniper forest on the local hydrology and to characterize the water protective properties.

  12. Cardiotoxicity of Senna occidentalis in sheep (Ovis aries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.I.S. Lopes

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The cardiotoxicity of Coffee senna (Senna occidentalis was investigated in sheep that were fed diets containing its seeds, which are recognized as the most poisonous part of such weed. Dianthrone, the main toxic component of S. occidentalis, is known to impair mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, leading to myofiber degeneration. In this study, fifteen ewes were fed 0%, 2% or 4% of seeds of S. occidentalis for 63 days. Non-specific markers of myocyte injury and electrocardiograms were undertaken at baseline, and at 14, 35, and 63 days after the animals were first fed the diets, while histopathology of heart samples was performed at the very end of the study. Our results showed an increase in serum AST and LDH over time, while CK-MB did not change significantly. Changes that could be ascribed to myocardial damage were not documented in the electrocardiograms. Cardiac histopathology demonstrated only mild-to-moderate vacuolar degeneration, myofiber edema and disarray, structural disorganization, and cellular necrosis. In conclusion, S. occidentalis caused myocardial fiber degeneration in a dose-dependent fashion, but the electrocardiogram was not able to identify these lesions non-invasively. Because the markers of myofiber injury used in this study lack specificity, they may not be used to support cardiac impairment objectively, despite some of them did change over time.

  13. Effects of Telfairia Occidentalis Seed Oil on Female Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S.T Shittu

    occidentalis seed oil when compared with the control group (p < 0.05). The results of this study ... where ugu is not consumed in daily meal due to its ..... Conservation studies of. Telfairia .... reducing fat mass: a meta-analysis in humans. Am.

  14. Food items and general condition of Hyperopisus bebe occidentalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREG

    Key words: Food items, Hyperopisus bebe occidentalis, Warri River, condition factor. INTRODUCTION ... as supplement in aquaculture (Malami et al., 2004). Sufficient ... length; hence, the formula was logarithmically transformed for the purpose of ..... River, Nigeria part 11: Seasonal trend in physiochemical limnology. Trop.

  15. effect of oral administration of aqueous extract of cassia occidentalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 3(1): 183 - 187 ... Department of Biochemistry, Bayero University, P.M.B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria. .... Indiscriminate usage of C. occidentalis seeds in treatment ... rats were allowed free access to normal feed and drinking ... in the flame, thus moving to a higher energy state and.

  16. Phytotoxic potential of Senna occidentalis and Senna obtusifolia = Potencial fitotóxico de Senna occidentalis e Senna obtusifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marize Terezinha Lopes Pereira Peres

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to investigate the phytotoxic potential of the aerial and underground parts of Senna occidentalis and S. obtusifolia on the germination and initial growth of lettuce and onion. Four concentrations were used of each ethanol extract (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg L-1, with four replications of 50 seeds. From the investigated species, the aerial part of S. occidentalis interfered in onion germination and the aerial part of S. obtusifolia interfered in the germinations of lettuce and onion. The ethanol extract from the aerial and underground parts of the studied species inhibited the root growth of lettuce and onion. The hypocotyl/coleoptile growth in lettuce and onion was inhibited by the extract of S. obtusifolia aerial part and the underground part of S. occidentalis and S. obtusifolia. The results obtained make it possible to infer that the studied species contain substances that influence the germination and growth of the target seedlings.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi investigar o potencial fitotóxico das partes aérea e subterrânea de Senna occidentalis e S. obtusifolia sobre a germinação e o crescimento inicial de alface e cebola.Utilizaram-se quatro concentrações de cada extrato etanólico (0, 250, 500 e 1000 mg L-1, com quatro repetições de 50 sementes. Das espécies investigadas, a parte aérea de S. occidentalis interferiu na germinação de cebola e a parte aérea de S. obtusifolia, na germinação de alface e cebola. O extrato etanólico da parte aérea e subterrânea, das espécies em estudo, inibiu o crescimento da raiz de alface e de cebola. O crescimento do hipocótilo/coleóptilo de alface e cebola foi inibido pelo extrato da parte aérea de S. obtusifolia e da subterrânea de S. occidentalis e S. obtusifolia. Os resultados obtidos permitem inferir que as espécies em estudo contêm substâncias que influenciam a germinação e o crescimento das plântulas-alvo.

  17. Removal of toxic heavy metal ions in runoffs by modified alfalfa and juniper

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.S. Han; J.K. Park; S.H. Min

    2000-01-01

    A series of batch isotherm tests was performed with alfalfa and juniper fibers to evaluate the effectiveness in filtering toxic heavy metals from stormwater. The adsorption of the heavy metal ions on the alfalfa and juniper fibers was strongly dependent on the equilibrium pH value of the solution. The change in sorption rate over time showed that two different sorption...

  18. Impacts of pinyon and juniper control on ecosystems processes in the Porter Canyon Experimental Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The opportunistic encroachment of native pinyon and juniper trees into areas formerly dominated by sagebrush has reduced the presence of shrubs and grasses, impacting critical habitat and forage availability. Pinyon and juniper currently occupy 19 million ha in the Intermountain West and prior to 18...

  19. Digging Deeper: Analyzing root traits to characterize juniper expansion into rangelands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniper expansion into sagebrush communities is a widespread phenomenon occurring across large regions of the western U.S. over the past century. The primary concerns of juniper encroachment are the decrease in forage for wildlife and livestock and potential changes in water quantity. Management of ...

  20. Analysis of the salivary gland transcriptome of Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice A Stafford-Banks

    Full Text Available Saliva is known to play a crucial role in insect feeding behavior and virus transmission. Currently, little is known about the salivary glands and saliva of thrips, despite the fact that Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (the western flower thrips is a serious pest due to its destructive feeding, wide host range, and transmission of tospoviruses. As a first step towards characterizing thrips salivary gland functions, we sequenced the transcriptome of the primary salivary glands of F. occidentalis using short read sequencing (Illumina technology. A de novo-assembled transcriptome revealed 31,392 high quality contigs with an average size of 605 bp. A total of 12,166 contigs had significant BLASTx or tBLASTx hits (E≤1.0E-6 to known proteins, whereas a high percentage (61.24% of contigs had no apparent protein or nucleotide hits. Comparison of the F. occidentalis salivary gland transcriptome (sialotranscriptome against a published F. occidentalis full body transcriptome assembled from Roche-454 reads revealed several contigs with putative annotations associated with salivary gland functions. KEGG pathway analysis of the sialotranscriptome revealed that the majority (18 out of the top 20 predicted KEGG pathways of the salivary gland contig sequences match proteins involved in metabolism. We identified several genes likely to be involved in detoxification and inhibition of plant defense responses including aldehyde dehydrogenase, metalloprotease, glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, and regucalcin. We also identified several genes that may play a role in the extra-oral digestion of plant structural tissues including β-glucosidase and pectin lyase; and the extra-oral digestion of sugars, including α-amylase, maltase, sucrase, and α-glucosidase. This is the first analysis of a sialotranscriptome for any Thysanopteran species and it provides a foundational tool to further our understanding of how thrips interact with their plant hosts and the

  1. Mitochondrial myopathy in Senna occidentalis-seed-fed chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaliere, M J; Calore, E E; Haraguchi, M; Górniak, S L; Dagli, M L; Raspantini, P C; Calore, N M; Weg, R

    1997-07-01

    Plants of the genus Senna (formerly Cassia) have been recognized as the cause of a natural and experimental syndrome of muscle degeneration frequently leading to death in animals. Histologically, it demonstrated skeletal and cardiac muscle necrosis, with floccular degeneration and proliferation of sarcolemmal nuclei. Recently, it was described as an experimental model of mitochondrial myopathy in hens chronically treated with Senna occidentalis. Currently, skeletal muscles of chicks intoxicated with seeds of the poisonous plant S. occidentalis were studied by histochemistry and electron microscopy. Since birth, the birds were fed ground dried seeds of this plant with a regular chicken ration at a dose of 4% for 11 days. Microscopic examination revealed, besides muscle-fiber atrophy, lipid storage in most fibers and a moderate amount of cytochrome oxidase-negative fibers. By electron microscopy, enlarged mitochondria with disrupted or excessively branched cristae were seen. This picture was characteristic of mitochondrial myopathy. These findings have hitherto remained unnoticed in skeletal muscle of young birds treated with S. occidentalis.

  2. Study of cytotoxic activity, podophyllotoxin, and deoxypodophyllotoxin content in selected Juniperus species cultivated in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Och, Marek; Och, Anna; Cieśla, Łukasz; Kubrak, Tomasz; Pecio, Łukasz; Stochmal, Anna; Kocki, Janusz; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna

    2015-06-01

    The demand for podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin is still increasing and commercially exploitable sources are few and one of them, Podophyllum hexandrum Royle (Berberidaceae), is a "critically endangered" species. The first aim was to quantify the amount of podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin in 61 Juniperus (Cupressaceae) samples. Cytotoxic activity of podophyllotoxin and ethanolic leaf extracts of Juniperus scopulorum Sarg. "Blue Pacific" and Juniperus communis L. "Depressa Aurea" was examined against different leukemia cell lines. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) analysis was performed with the use of a Waters ACQUITY UPLC(TM) system (Waters Corp., Milford, MA). The peaks of podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin were assigned on the basis of their retention data and mass-to-charge ratio (m/z). Trypan blue assay was performed to obtain IC50 cytotoxicity values against selected leukemia cell lines. Juniperus scopulorum was characterized with the highest level of podophyllotoxin (486.7 mg/100 g DW) while Juniperus davurica Pall. contained the highest amount of deoxypodophyllotoxin (726.8 mg/100 g DW). Podophyllotoxin IC50 cytotoxicity values against J45.01 and CEM/C1 leukemia cell lines were 0.0040 and 0.0286 µg/mL, respectively. Juniperus scopulorum extract examined against J45.01 and HL-60/MX2 leukemia cell lines gave the respective IC50 values: 0.369-9.225 µg/mL. Juniperus communis extract was characterized with the following IC50 cytotoxity values against J45.01 and U-266B1 cell lines: 3.310-24.825 µg/mL. Juniperus sp. can be considered as an alternative source of podophyllotoxin and deoxypodophyllotoxin. Cytotoxic activity of podophyllotoxin and selected leaf extracts of Juniperus sp. against a set of leukemia cell lines was demonstrated.

  3. Hepatoprotective and nephroprotective activities of Juniperus sabina L. aerial parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maged S. Abdel-Kader

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Previous studies indicated that Juniperus species exhibited promising hepatoprotective activity. Aims: To evaluate the hepatoprotective and nephroprotective activity of the total alcohol extract of the aerial parts of Juniperus sabina against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced toxicity using male Wistar rats as experimental animals. Methods: Daily oral administration of two doses (200 and 400 mg/kg of the total extract of the aerial parts of J. sabina for seven days followed by one dose of CCl4 (1.25 mL/kg at day 6. Liver and kidney functions were monitored via measuring serum and tissue parameters as well as histopathological study. Normal rats, rats treated only with CCl4 and rats treated with CCl4 and silymarin were used as controls. Results: The higher dose showed 47, 50, 38, 17 and 42% decrease in the levels of AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, and bilirubin respectively. Animals received the total extract of J. sabina showed a significant dose-dependent recovery of the NP-SH contents, total proteins, and reduction the level of MDA in both liver and kidney tissues. Histopathological study revealed improvement in the architecture of hepatocytes and kidney cells. Conclusions: The hepatoprotective effect offered by J. sabina crude extract at the two used doses was found to be significant in all serum parameters. Histopathological study revealed moderate improvement in the architecture of the liver cells that add another indication of protection. Improvement of kidney function was less than liver function.

  4. [Juniperus ashei: the gold standard of the Cuppressaceae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, C; Dumur, J P; Hrabina, M; Lefebvre, E; Sicard, H

    2000-03-01

    The non-standardized Cupressus sempervirens allergen extract currently available for the diagnosis of cypress allergy has a low level of activity. The search for an active material consisted of in vitro and in vivo comparison of three Cupressaceae pollen extracts: Cupressus sempervirens (Cs), Cupressus arizonica (Ca) and Juniperus ashei (Ja) (synonyms: Juniperus sabinoides and Mountain Cedar). These 3 trees belong to the same botanical family of Cupressaceae. While Cs and Ca are commonly encountered in Mediterranean regions, Ja is only present in Europe in the Balkans, but is a major cause of allergy in the USA. In vitro, with a similar protein content, the allergenic properties of Ja extract are 20-Fold higher than those of Cs and 11-fold higher than those of Ca. IgE immunoblotting revealed 14, 42 and 70 kDa allergens common to all 3 extracts. The inhibition curves of the 3 extracts were more than 88% parallel. A significant correlation was observed between serum specific IgE titres for Ja and Cs in 23 patients (r = 0.916; p allergy, the mean diameter of the prick test papule at 1/20 W/V of Ja (8.3 mm) was greater than that of the Cs papule (6.3 mm) (p = 0.001) and the Ca papule (6.7 mm) (p allergy.

  5. Genetic population structure of the wind-pollinated, dioecious shrub Juniperus communis in fragmented Dutch heathlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostermeijer, J.G.B.; de Knegt, B

    2004-01-01

    The wind-pollinated, dioecious shrub Juniperus communis L. is declining in Dutch heathlands, mainly because recruitment is scarce. Aside from ecological factors, inbreeding associated with reduced population size and isolation in the currently fragmented landscape might explain this decline.

  6. Influence of resource availability on Juniperus virginiana expansion in a forest–prairie ecotone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite being native to the United States, Juniperus virginiana has rapidly expanded in prairie ecosystems bringing detrimental ecological effects and increased wildfire risk. We transplanted J. virginiana seedlings in three plant communities to investigate mechanisms driving J. ...

  7. Population dynamics of the California Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis): a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, A.B.; Gutierrez, R.J.; Nichols, J.D.; Seamans, M.E.; White, Gary C.; Zimmerman, G.S.; Hines, J.E.; Munton, T.E.; LaHaye, W.S.; Blakesley, J.A.; Steger, G.N.; Noon, B.R.; Shaw, D.W.H.; Keane, J.J.; McDonald, T.L.; Britting, S.

    2004-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis to provide a current assessment of the population characteristics of California Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) resident on four study areas in the Sierra Nevada and one study area in southern California. Our meta-analysis followed rigorous a priori analysis protocols, which we derived through extensive discussion during a week-long analysis workshop. Because there is great interest in the owl?s population status, we used state-of-the-art analytical methods to obtain results as precise as possible. Our meta-analysis included data from five California study areas located on the Lassen National Forest (1990-2000), Eldorado National Forest (1986-2000), Sierra National Forest (1990-2000), Sequoia and Kings Canyon national parks (1990-2000), and San Bernardino National Forest (1987-1998). Four of the five study areas spanned the length of the Sierra Nevada, whereas the fifth study area encompassed the San Bernardino Mountains in southern California. Study areas ranged in size from 343 km2 (Sequoia and Kings Canyon) to 2,200 km (Lassen). All studies were designed to use capture-recapture methods and analysis. We used survival in a meta-analysis because field methods were very similar among studies. However, we did not use reproduction in a meta-analysis because it was not clear if variation among individual study-area protocols used to assess reproductive output of owls would confound results. Thus, we analyzed fecundity only by individual study area. We examined population trend using the reparameterized Jolly-Seber capture-recapture estimator (8t) We did not estimate juvenile survival rates because of estimation problems and potential bias because of juvenile emigration from study areas. We used mark-recapture estimators under an information theoretic framework to assess apparent survival rates of adult owls. The pooled estimate for adult apparent survival for the five study areas was 0.833, which was lower than pooled adult

  8. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of branches extracts of five Juniperus species from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taviano, Maria Fernanda; Marino, Andreana; Trovato, Ada; Bellinghieri, Valentina; La Barbera, Tommaso Massimo; Güvenç, Ayşegül; Hürkul, Muhammed Mesud; Pasquale, Rita De; Miceli, Natalizia

    2011-10-01

    Several Juniperus species (Cupressaceae) are utilized in folk medicine in the treatment of infections and skin diseases. This work was designed to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of methanol and water branches extracts of Juniperus species from Turkey: Juniperus communis L. var. communis (Jcc), Juniperus communis L. var. saxatilis Pall. (Jcs), Juniperus drupacea Labill. (Jd), Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus (Joo), Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Ball. (Jom). Total phenolics, total flavonoids and condensed tannins were spectrophotometrically determined. The antioxidant properties were examined using different in vitro systems. The toxicity was assayed by Artemia salina lethality test. The antimicrobial potential against bacteria and yeasts was evaluated using minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration (MIC/MBC) measurements. The effect on bacteria biofilms was tested by microtiter plate assay. Both in the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and TBA (thiobarbituric acid) test Jom resulted the most active (IC(50) = 0.034 ± 0.002 mg/mL and 0.287 ± 0.166 µg/mL). Joo exhibited the highest reducing power (1.78 ± 0.04 ASE/mL) and Fe(2+) chelating activity (IC(50) = 0.537 ± 0.006 mg/mL). A positive correlation between primary antioxidant activity and phenolic content was found. The extracts were potentially non-toxic against Artemia salina. They showed the best antimicrobial (MIC = 4.88-30.10 µg/mL) and anti-biofilm activity (60-84%) against S. aureus. The results give a scientific basis to the traditional utilization of these Juniperus species, also demonstrating their potential as sources of natural antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds.

  9. Comparison and examination of Bombus occidentalis and Bombus impatiens (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in tomato greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Robin; Winston, Mark L

    2004-08-01

    Experiments were conducted in commercial tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Miller (Solanaceae), greenhouses to compare the relative foraging effort of two bumble bee species, Bombus occidentalis Greene and Bombus impatiens Cresson, to examine interspecific competition between B. occidentalis and B. impatiens, and to determine whether bumble bee colonies grew to their full population potential in commercial tomato greenhouses. B. impatiens colonies had more brood and workers and made more foraging trips per hour than B. occidentalis colonies. However, B. impatiens returned to the colony without pollen loads and left their colonies without dropping off their pollen loads more frequently than B. occidentalis greenhouse colonies. Our data also suggest that the presence of B. impatiens had a detrimental effect on B. occidentalis populations. Furthermore, B. occidentalis colonies did not grow to their full population potential in tomato greenhouses, with fewer workers in greenhouse colonies than in colonies placed outside in a natural environment, or in colonies that were physically enclosed and protected from external mortality. Together, this study suggests that B. impatiens is a better pollinator than B. occidentalis. It also shows that unknown factors are limiting the size of B. occidentalis colonies in tomato greenhouses.

  10. The neuroprotective potential of phenolic-enriched fractions from four Juniperus species found in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Lucélia; McDougall, Gordon J; Fortalezas, Sofia; Stewart, Derek; Ferreira, Ricardo B; Santos, Cláudia N

    2012-11-15

    The increase in population lifespan has enhanced the incidence of neurodegenerative diseases, for which there is, as yet, no cure. We aimed to chemically characterize phenolic-enriched fractions (PEFs) from four wild Juniperus sp. found in Portugal (Juniperus navicularis, Juniperus oxycedrus badia, Juniperus phoenicea and Juniperus turbinata) and address their potential as sources of natural products for treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Leaves from the four Juniperus sp. evaluated contained a range of phenolic components which differed quantitatively between the species. The PEFs obtained were rich sources of phenolic compounds, exhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity and also displayed effective intracellular radical scavenging properties in neurons submitted to oxidative injury but showed a different order of effectiveness compared to AChE inhibition. These properties made them good candidates for testing in a neurodegeneration cell model. Pre-incubation with J. oxycedrus badia PEF for 24h protected neurons from injury in the neurodegeneration cell model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Insights into cholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of five Juniperus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Nilufer; Orhan, Ilkay Erdogan; Ergun, Fatma

    2011-09-01

    In vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory and antioxidant activities of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves, ripe fruits, and unripe fruits of Juniperus communis ssp. nana, Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus, Juniperus sabina, Juniperus foetidissima, and Juniperus excelsa were investigated in the present study. Cholinesterase inhibition of the extracts was screened using ELISA microplate reader. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was tested by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radical scavenging, ferrous ion-chelating, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. The extracts had low or no inhibition towards AChE, whereas the leaf aqueous extract of J. foetidissima showed the highest BChE inhibition (93.94 ± 0.01%). The leaf extracts usually exerted higher antioxidant activity. We herein describe the first study on anticholinesterase and antioxidant activity by the methods of ferrous ion-chelating, superoxide radical scavenging, and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays of the mentioned Juniperus species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. RNA interference tools for the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badillo-Vargas, Ismael E; Rotenberg, Dorith; Schneweis, Brandi A; Whitfield, Anna E

    2015-05-01

    The insect order Thysanoptera is exclusively comprised of small insects commonly known as thrips. The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, is an economically important pest amongst thysanopterans due to extensive feeding damage and tospovirus transmission to hundreds of plant species worldwide. Geographically-distinct populations of F. occidentalis have developed resistance against many types of traditional chemical insecticides, and as such, management of thrips and tospoviruses are a persistent challenge in agriculture. Molecular methods for defining the role(s) of specific genes in thrips-tospovirus interactions and for assessing their potential as gene targets in thrips management strategies is currently lacking. The goal of this work was to develop an RNA interference (RNAi) tool that enables functional genomic assays and to evaluate RNAi for its potential as a biologically-based approach for controlling F. occidentalis. Using a microinjection system, we delivered double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) directly to the hemocoel of female thrips to target the vacuolar ATP synthase subunit B (V-ATPase-B) gene of F. occidentalis. Gene expression analysis using real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed significant reductions of V-ATPase-B transcripts at 2 and 3 days post-injection (dpi) with dsRNA of V-ATPase-B compared to injection with dsRNA of GFP. Furthermore, the effect of knockdown of the V-ATPase-B gene in females at these two time points was mirrored by the decreased abundance of V-ATPase-B protein as determined by quantitative analysis of Western blots. Reduction in V-ATPase-B expression in thrips resulted in increased female mortality and reduced fertility, i.e., number of viable offspring produced. Survivorship decreased significantly by six dpi compared to the dsRNA-GFP control group, which continued decreasing significantly until the end of the bioassay. Surviving female thrips injected with dsRNA-V-ATPase-B produced

  13. Mercury in Pelecanus occidentalis of the Cispata bay, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saudith Burgos N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Assessment the total concentration of mercury in the liver and feathers of Pelecanus occidentalis of the Cispata bay, Colombia. Materials and methods. Mercury concentrations in liver and feather of Pelecanus occidentalis residents in the Cispata bay – Colombia were evaluated by digestion with an acidic mixture of H2SO4–HNO3 and KMnO4 to eliminate organic matter. The concentration of mercury was determined by the Atomic Absorption - Cold Vapor method (CVAAS. Results. Total mercury levels found in this study were higher in feathers (0.31-9.17 mgHg/kg than in the liver (0.63–6.29 mgHg/kg, being higher than those reported in other seabirds studies. Conclusions. The high levels of total mercury in feathers and liver can be explained by the feeding habits of the organisms under study, showing the utility of feathers as a potential non-invasive tool for the monitoring of the ecosystem and thereby preventing the sacrifice of specimens.

  14. Contamination and browning in tissue culture of Platanus occidentalis L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Feng-jie; Zhang Zhi-yi; Zhou Jun; Yao Na; Wang Dong-mei

    2007-01-01

    Twigs of 2-3-year-old Platanus occidentalis L. were used as experimental material to find the causes for the contamination and browning in the initial stages of tissue cultures. To compare the degree of browning of explants picked off from different growing seasons,the experimental material was excised from trees on each of the first ten days in January, March,May and July,2006. The results indicated that the contamination and browning rates of the material cut off in January (14. 2% and 30. 6%. respectively)and March were somewhat lower than those in July. The pretreatment of soaking the explants in different anti-oxidants and absorbents at the same time could diminish some side effects. The pretreatment of using 10 g·L-1 vitamin C reduced the contamination and browning rate effectively. An orthogonal experiment showed that the optimal factor and level arrangement is 0. 5 mg·L-1 BA,2. 0 g·L-1 active carbon and 1. 5 g·L-1 PVP which resulted in a browning rate of only 16. 5%. In general,sampling period,physical properties and pretreatment of explants are the main factors responsible for the contamination and browning of material in the initial stages of P. occidentalis tissue cultures.

  15. Effects of inorganic lead on Western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salice, Christopher J., E-mail: chris.salice@ttu.ed [US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Suski, Jamie G., E-mail: jamie.suski@ttu.ed [US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Bazar, Matthew A., E-mail: matthew.bazar@us.army.mi [US Army Center for Health Promotion and Preventive Medicine, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Talent, Larry G., E-mail: larry.talent@okstate.ed [Oklahoma State University, Department of Natural Resource Ecology and Management, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Although anthropogenic pollutants are thought to threaten reptilian species, there are few toxicity studies on reptiles. We evaluated the toxicity of Pb as lead acetate to the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis). The acute lethal dose and sub-acute (14-day) toxicity studies were used to narrow exposure concentrations for a sub-chronic (60-day) study. In the sub-chronic study, adult and juvenile male lizards were dosed via gavage with 0, 1, 10 and 20 mg Pb/kg-bw/day. Mortality was limited and occurred only at the highest dose (20 mg Pb/kg-bw/d). There were statistically significant sub-lethal effects of 10 and 20 mg Pb/kg-bw/d on body weight, cricket consumption, organ weight, hematological parameters and post-dose behaviors. Of these, Pb-induced changes in body weight are most useful for ecological risk assessment because it is linked to fitness in wild lizard populations. The Western fence lizard is a useful model for reptilian toxicity studies. - The Western fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis, is sensitive to Pb and is a useful laboratory model for ecotoxicological testing of reptiles.

  16. Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kevin P.; Ridd, Merrill K.

    1991-01-01

    The sensitivity of Landsat TM data for detecting soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands, and the potential of the spectral data for assigning the universal soil loss equation (USLE) crop managemnent (C) factor to varying cover types within the woodlands are assessed. Results show greatly accelerated rates of soil erosion on pinyon-juniper sites. Percent cover by pinyon-juniper, total soil-loss, and total nonliving ground cover accounted for nearly 70 percent of the variability in TM channels 2, 3, 4, and 5. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion than the biotic and abiotic field variables. Satellite data were more sensitive to vegetation variation than the USLE C factor, and USLE was found to be a poor predictor of soil loss on pinyon-juniper sites. A new string-to-ground soil erosion prediction technique is introduced.

  17. 75 FR 44281 - Public Land Order No. 7747; Partial Revocation, Juniper Butte Range; Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-28

    ... United States Air Force in Owyhee County, Idaho for the Juniper Butte Range. This order also opens the.... 13, lot 1. The area described contains 5 acres, more or less, in Owyhee County. 2. At 9 a.m.,...

  18. 75 FR 27550 - Electrical Interconnection of the Juniper Canyon I Wind Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Bonneville Power Administration Electrical Interconnection of the Juniper Canyon I Wind Project AGENCY: Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Department of Energy (DOE). ACTION: Notice of Availability of...

  19. 安全永续携手共赢-Juniper Solution Day Juniper Networks召开行业用户解决方案分享大会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗志刚

    2007-01-01

    2007年4月3日Juniper Networks在北京新世纪只航酒店举行盛大的以“安全永续携手共赢--Juniper Solution Day”为主题的行业用户解决方案分享大会.全面展示了Juniper Networks新近推出的产品及各行业的优秀解决方案。来自于国内的政府、教育、电信、金融、石化等各行业用户参加了此次会议,会场座无虚席,气氛热烈。

  20. Detection of soil erosion with Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data within Pinyon-Juniper woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kevin Paul

    1987-01-01

    Pinyon-Juniper woodlands dominate approximately 24.3 million hectares (60 million acres) in the western United States. The overall objective was to test the sensitivity of the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) spectral data for detecting varying degrees of soil erosion within the Pinyon-Juniper woodlands. A second objective was to assess the potential of the spectral data for assigning the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) crop management (C) factor values to varying cover types within the woodland. Thematic Mapper digital data for June 2, 1984 on channels 2, 3, 4, and 5 were used. Digital data analysis was performed using the ELAS software package. Best results were achieved using CLUS, an unsupervised clustering algorithm. Fifteen of the 40 Pinyon-Juniper signatures were identified as being relatively pure Pinyon-Juniper woodland. Final analysis resulted in the grouping of the 15 signatures into three major groups. Ten study sites were selected from each of the three groups and located on the ground. At each site the following field measurements were taken: percent tree canopy and percent understory cover, soil texture, total soil loss, and soil erosion rate estimates. A technique for measuring soil erosion within Pinyon-Juniper woodlands was developed. A theoretical model of site degradation after Pinyon-Juniper invasion is presented.

  1. In vitro effect of branch extracts of Juniperus species from Turkey on Staphylococcus aureus biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Andreana; Bellinghieri, Valentina; Nostro, Antonia; Miceli, Natalizia; Taviano, Maria Fernanda; Güvenç, Ayşegül; Bisignano, Giuseppe

    2010-08-01

    Methanol and aqueous branch extracts of five Juniperus species were examined for their effects on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P and S. aureus 810 biofilm. The Turkish plant material was Juniperus communis L. var. communis, J. communis L. var. saxatilis Pall., Juniperus drupacea Labill., Juniperus oxycedrus L. ssp. oxycedrus, J. oxycedrus L. ssp. macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Ball. The Juniperus extracts were subjected to preliminary phytochemical analysis by thin-layer chromatography. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated using the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The effects of the extracts on biofilm formation and preformed biofilm were quantified by both biomass OD and the CFU counting method. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of polyphenols, coumarins, lignans, steroids, alkaloids and terpenes. For both strains, the MICs of all extracts were in the range of 4.88-78.12 microg mL(-1). On S. aureus ATCC 6538P, the effects of subinhibitory concentration (0.5 MIC) of the extracts were minimal on planktonic growth and on adhering cells, whereas they were greater on biofilm formation. Differently, on S. aureus 810, they showed only a rather low efficacy on biofilm formation. The extracts at 2 MIC demonstrated a good activity on a preformed biofilm of S. aureus ATCC 6538P.

  2. Study of the hepatoprotective effect of Juniperus phoenicea constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqasoumi, Saleh Ibrahim; Farraj, Abdallah Ibrahim; Abdel-Kader, Maged Saad

    2013-09-01

    Different fraction obtained from the aerial parts of Juniperus phoenicea showed significant activity as hepatoprotective when investigated against carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury. The hepatoprotective activity was evaluated through the quantification of biochemical parameters and confirmed using histopathology study. Phytochemical investigation of the petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol fractions utilizing different chromatographic techniques resulted in the isolation of five known diterpenoids namely: 13-epicupressic acid (1), imbricatolic acid (2), 7α-hydroxysandaracopimaric acid (3), 3β-hydroxysandaracopimaric acid (4), isopimaric acid (5), four flavonoid derivatives: cupressuflavone (6), hinokiflavone (7), hypolaetin-7-O-β-xylopyranoside (9), (-) catechin (10), inaddition to sucrose (8). Both physical and spectral data were used for structure determination and all isolates were evaluated for their hepatoprotective activity. Compounds 2 and 6 were effective, however; 7 was the most active. Hepatoprotective activity of 7 is comparable with the standard drug silymarin in reducing the elevated liver enzymes and restoring normal appearance of hepatocytes. Hepatoprotective effect of combination of 6, 7 and silymarin with the diterpene sugiol was also explored.

  3. [Systematics and genegeography of Juniperus communis inferred from isoenzyme data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khantemirova, E V; Berkutenko, A N; Semerikov, V L

    2012-09-01

    Using isoenzyme analysis, 35 populations of Juniperus communis L. from various parts of the Russian species range and by one population from Sweden and Alaska were studied. The total sample size was 1200 plants. As a result, the existence ofJ. communis var. oblonga in North Caucasus and J. communis var. depressa in North America was confirmed, but genetic differences between J. communis var. communis and J. communis var. saxatilis were not detected in the main part of the Russian species range (European part of Russia, Ural, Siberia). These populations proved to be genetically uniform with the same predominant allelic frequencies, which may evidence recent settling of this species from one of Central or East European refugium. J. communis var. saxatilis from northeastern Russia inhabiting the region behind Verkhoyansk mountain and Russian Far East showed considerable differentiation in frequencies of alleles at three loci and geographical subdivision. These populations also exhibit high intrapopulation variation. This can be connected with the refugium in this territory. The origin of this group is probably connected with migrations from Central Asia (Tibet) in the direction to northeastern Russia along mountains connecting Central and North Asia. It is also assumed that migrations of this species previously proceeded across the Beringian land bridge.

  4. Some seasonal carbohydrate fluctuations in coppiced rootstocks of Platanus occidentalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, M.R.; Steinbeck, K.

    Carbohydrate concentrations were determined in 11-year-old rootstocks of American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) which had been coppiced on one- or two-year rotations for the preceding eight years. Sixty rootstocks were destructively sampled periodically between September 1976 and April 1977. Root starch concentrations declined erratically from 21 percent of dry weight in autumn to 14 percent by late April. Sugar levels rose from 1.5 percent in autumn to 5 percent in winter and declined to 3 percent in spring. Considerable variation in root starch levels from tree to tree was observed, and differences in starch and sugar concentrations between rootstocks coppiced on an annual or biannual basis were unimportant. These data suggest that while differences in above-ground biomass yields encountered in short rotation coppice forestry are not due to differences in rootstocks carbohydrate concentrations, the total quantity of reserve carbohydrate stored in a root system is probably a controlling factor for sprout regrowth potential.

  5. Lipids Characterization and Industrial Potentials of Pumpkin Seeds (Telfairia occidentalis and Cashew Nuts (Anacardium occidentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. O. Eddy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil from Telfaria occidentalis and Anarcardium occidentale has been extracted and characterized. The lipid content of the Telfaria occidentalis and Anarcardium occidentalis were 58.41% and 42.15% respectively. The physicochemical parameters of Telfaria occidentalis and Anarcardium occidentale seeds were; boiling point; (58.90, 62.60 °C, melting point; (18.50, 21.80 °C, refractive index; (1.462, 1.498, specific gravity; (0.87, 0.69 saponification value; (91.16, 92.57 iodine value; (51.52, 47.20, acid value; (0.76, 3.74 ester value; (90.40, 88.87, % free fatty acid; (.38, 1.88 and peroxide value; (11.75, 15.23 respectively. Oils from these seeds were found to exhibit the needed potentials for utilization in paint and food industries and as biofuel.

  6. [Study on chemical constituents from twig and leaf of Juniperus sabina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang; Zhao, Jun; Xu, Fang; Ji, Teng-fei; Ma, Long

    2013-12-01

    To isolate and determine chemical constituents from twig and leaf of Juniperus sabina. Five compounds were isolated and purified by extraction and different kinds of column chromatography. The structures were determined on the basis of the physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. The structures were elucidated as quercetin-3-O-(6"-O-acetyl)-beta-D-glucopyranoside(1), hypolaetin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside(2), isoquercetin(3),4-epi-abietic acid(4), beta-sitosterol(5). Compounds 1-3 are obtained from Juniperus genus for the first time.

  7. Elucidating phytochemical production in Juniperus sp.: seasonality and response to stress situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Lucélia; Pimpão, Rui; McDougall, Gordon; Stewart, Derek; Ferreira, Ricardo B; Santos, Cláudia N

    2013-05-01

    Phenolic-enriched extracts from Portuguese junipers were described as potential neuroprotective natural products. However, evaluation of plants for pharma/nutraceutical industry is based on secondary metabolite content, which is influenced by the environmental conditions. Therefore, it became important to elucidate the metabolic response of the junipers to seasonality and to stress conditions with regard to polyphenol production. Seasonal conditions modulated total phenolic and flavonoids contents of the four juniper species. Higher levels of phytochemicals were obtained when plants were not actively growing. However, only a few differences were registered in the relative contents of psydrin and a procyanidin dimer, according to species. Salt stress and methyl jasmonate elicitation promote different responses within the species. They were effective in enhancing phenolic accumulation, with just a few alterations in the relative contents of procyanidins, epicatechin, and quercetin derivatives. These differences were also reflected in gene expression of important enzymes from biosynthetic pathways.

  8. Pharmacognostic standardization of Homoeopathic drug: Juniperus virginiana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Padma Rao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Juniperus virginiana L., commonly known as ′red cedar′ in English is a well-known evergreen tree belonging to the family Cupressaceae. The leaves and young aerial shoots are used for preparation of medicine in Homoeopathy. Objective: Standardization is the quintessential aspect which ensures purity and quality of drugs. Hence, the pharmacognostic and physico-chemical studies are carried out to facilitate the use of authentic and correct species of raw drug plant material with established parametric standards for manufacturing the drug. Materials and Methods: Pharmacognostic studies on leaves and young aerial parts of authentic samples of J. virginiana L. have been carried out; physico-chemical parameters of raw drug viz., extractive values, ash values, formulation, besides weight per mL, total solids, alcohol content along with High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC and ultraviolet visible studies have been worked out for mother tincture. Results: The leaves are needles, narrow and sharp at tips; stems are round with greyish white to brown bark possessing small lenticels and covered by imbricate leaves. Epidermal cells in the surface have polygonal linear sides with pitted walls containing crystals and starch. Stomata exclusively occur on the adaxial surface in linear rows. Hypodermis of leaf in T.S. is marked with 1-2 layered lignified sclerenchyma. 2-4 secretory canals are present with one conspicuously beneath midvein bundle. The young terminal axis is sheathed by two closely surrounding leaves while the mature stem possess four leaf bases attached. Vascular tissue of stem possesses predominant xylem surrounded by phloem containing sphaeraphides, prismatic crystals and starch grains. Uniseriate rays occur in the xylem. Mature stem possess shrivelled cork, followed by the cortex. Physicochemical properties and HPTLC values of the drug are standardized and presented. Conclusion: The powder microscopic features and

  9. Pollination Drop in Juniperus communis: Response to Deposited Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnaini, Serena; Nepi, Massimo; Guarnieri, Massimo; Piotto, Beti; Pacini, Ettore

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The pollination drop is a liquid secretion produced by the ovule and exposed outside the micropyle. In many gymnosperms, pollen lands on the surface of the pollination drop, rehydrates and enters the ovule as the drop retracts. The objective of this work was to study the formation of the pollination drop in Juniperus communis, its carbohydrate composition and the response to deposition of conspecific pollen, foreign pollen and other particulate material, in an attempt to clarify the mechanism of pollination drop retraction. Method Branches with female cones close to pollination drop secretion were collected. On the first day of pollination drop exposure, an eyelash mounted on a wooden stick with paraffin was used to collect pollen or silica gel particles, which were then deposited by contact with the drop. Volume changes in pollination drops were measured by using a stereomicroscope with a micrometer eyepiece 3 h after deposition. The volume of non-pollinated control drops was also recorded. On the first day of secretion, drops were also collected for sugar analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. Key Results The pollination drop persisted for about 12 d if not pollinated, and formed again after removal for up to four consecutive days. After pollination with viable conspecific pollen, the drop retracted quickly and did not form again. Partial withdrawal occurred after deposition of other biological and non-biological material. Fructose was the dominant sugar; glucose was also present but at a much lower percentage. Conclusions Sugar analysis confirmed the general trend of fructose dominance in gymnosperm pollination drops. Complete pollination drop withdrawal appears to be triggered by a biochemical mechanism resulting from interaction between pollen and drop constituents. The results of particle deposition suggest the existence of a non-specific, particle-size-dependent mechanism that induces partial pollination drop withdrawal

  10. Modeling wind fields and fire propagation following bark beetle outbreaks in spatially-heterogeneous pinyon-juniper woodland fuel complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodman R. Linn; Carolyn H. Sieg; Chad M. Hoffman; Judith L. Winterkamp; Joel D. McMillin

    2013-01-01

    We used a physics-based model, HIGRAD/FIRETEC, to explore changes in within-stand wind behavior and fire propagation associated with three time periods in pinyon-juniper woodlands following a drought-induced bark beetle outbreak and subsequent tree mortality. Pinyon-juniper woodland fuel complexes are highly heterogeneous. Trees often are clumped, with sparse patches...

  11. Characterizating western juniper expansion via a fusion of Landsat 5 thematic mapper and LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniper encroachment into shrub steppe and grassland systems is one of the most prominent changes occurring in rangelands of western North America. Most studies on juniper change are conducted over small areas, although encroachment is occurring across large regions. Development of image-based met...

  12. 75 FR 18201 - Juniper Canyon Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Juniper Canyon Wind Power, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Juniper Canyon Wind Power, LLC's application for...

  13. Histomorphometric studies of the effects of Telfairia occidentalis on alcohol-induced gonado-toxicity in male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. Akang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: T. occidentalis attenuated the deleterious effects of alcohol to the cyto-architecture of the testis, protected the seminiferous epithelium, reduced oxidative stress and promoted spermatogenesis.

  14. Entoloma juniperinum: a new species from Juniperus heaths in North-Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barkman, J.J.; Noordeloos, M.E.

    1986-01-01

    During a long-term mycological investigation of Juniperus communities in north-western Europe by the first author, a small Entoloma species was found, which did not seem to fit with one of the known species of Entoloma with a brownish pileus and bluish stipe, because of the small, almost

  15. Soil seed bank composition along a gradient from dry alvar grassland to Juniperus shrubland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.S; Rosén, E; Verweij, G.L.; Bekker, R.M.; Bakker, J.P.

    Dry alvar grasslands on limestone on the Baltic island of Oland, SE Sweden, are very species-rich as long as the traditional agricultural exploitation of grazing and fire wood collection continues. After abandonment, encroachment of Juniperus communis starts and a closed woodland can develop within

  16. Anatomical studies of Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis and J. communis L. ssp. nana Syme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    The wood descriptions of Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis are compared with those of earlier authors. The average and maximum tracheid lengths and the ray height distribution frequencies offer a means of separating the wood of the erect J. communis L. ssp. communis from that of the subspecies

  17. MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL STUDY OF SHOOTS OF JUNIPERUS COMMUNIS L. FROM CUPRESSACEAE FAMILY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. K. Serebryanaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have conducted morphological and anatomical studies of Juniperus communis, revealed diagnostic indices of the stamina, stalk, and needle. The leaf is sessile, linear awe shaped, pointed. Stalk form at cross section is cylindrical. Needles are lanceolar with one whitish vertical stripe, with paracytic stomata. 

  18. Anatomical studies of Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis and J. communis L. ssp. nana Syme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    The wood descriptions of Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis are compared with those of earlier authors. The average and maximum tracheid lengths and the ray height distribution frequencies offer a means of separating the wood of the erect J. communis L. ssp. communis from that of the subspecies nan

  19. Periodicity of growth rings in Juniperus procera from Ethiopia inferred from crossdating and radiocarbon dating.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wils, T.; Robertson, I.; Eshetu, Z.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Koprowski, M.

    2009-01-01

    African pencil cedar (Juniperus procera Hochst. ex Endlicher 1847) is a tropical, irregularly growing species that can produce annual growth rings in response to an annual cycle of wet and dry seasons. In this paper, we assess the periodicity of growth-ring formation for 13 stem discs from a site in

  20. IIMPLICATIONS OF INVASION BY JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA ON SMALL MAMMALS IN THE SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in landscape cover in the Great Plains are resulting from the range expansion and invasion of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana). By altering the landscape and local vegetation, red cedar is changing the structure and function of habitat for small mammals. We examin...

  1. Diversification and biogeography of Juniperus (Cupressaceae): variable diversification rates and multiple intercontinental dispersals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Kangshan; Hao, Gang; Liu, Jianquan; Adams, Robert P; Milne, Richard I

    2010-10-01

    • A central aim of biogeography is to understand when and how modern patterns of species diversity and distribution developed. Many plant groups have disjunct distributions within the Northern Hemisphere, but among these very few have been studied that prefer warm semi-arid habitats. • Here we examine the biogeography and diversification history of Juniperus, which occurs in semi-arid habitats through much of the Northern Hemisphere. A phylogeny was generated based on > 10,000 bp of cpDNA for 51 Juniperus species plus many outgroups. Phylogenies based on fewer species were also constructed based on nuclear internal transcribed spacer (nrITS) and combined nrITS/cpDNA data sets to check for congruence. Divergence time-scales and ancestral distributions were further inferred. • Both long dispersal and migration across land bridges probably contributed to the modern range of Juniperus, while long-term climatic changes and the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau probably drove its diversification. Diversification apparently slowed down during climate-stable period of the Oligocene, and then speeded up from the Miocene onwards. • Juniperus probably originated in Eurasia, and was a part of the south Eurasian Tethyan vegetation of the Eocene to Oligocene. It reached America once at this time, once in the Miocene and once more recently.

  2. A bioactivity guided study on the antidiabetic activity of Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Nilüfer; Aslan, Mustafa; Demirci, Betül; Ergun, Fatma

    2012-03-27

    Juniperus (Cupressaceae) species are widely used as folk medicine in spreading countries. Decoction of Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus L. leaves is used internally to lower blood glucose levels in Turkey. To determine hypoglycaemic and antidiabetic activities of Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus leaves and to identify active compounds through bioactivity guided isolation technique. Ethanol and water extracts of Juniperus oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus (Joso), leaves on oral administration were studied using in vivo models in normal, glucose-hyperglycemic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Through in vivo bioactivity-guided fractionation processes, a nonpolar fraction was separated from the n-hexane subextract by silica gel column chromatography as the main active fraction. Subfractions of this fraction was found to possess antidiabetic activity and their chemical composition was investigated by GC-FID and GC-MS, simultaneously. This is the first report on the antidiabetic constituents of Joso leaves. Fatty acids, such as palmitic, linoleic and linolenic acid were found as the major compounds in subfractions. Results indicated that Joso leaf extract and its active constituents might be beneficial for diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anatomical studies of Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis and J. communis L. ssp. nana Syme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    The wood descriptions of Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis are compared with those of earlier authors. The average and maximum tracheid lengths and the ray height distribution frequencies offer a means of separating the wood of the erect J. communis L. ssp. communis from that of the subspecies nan

  4. Evidence of recovery of Juniperus virginiana trees from sulfur pollution after the Clean Air Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Richard B; Spal, Scott E; Smith, Kenneth R; Nippert, Jesse B

    2013-09-17

    Using dendroisotopic techniques, we show the recovery of Juniperus virginiana L. (eastern red cedar) trees in the Central Appalachian Mountains from decades of acidic pollution. Acid deposition over much of the 20th century reduced stomatal conductance of leaves, thereby increasing intrinsic water-use efficiency of the Juniperus trees. These data indicate that the stomata of Juniperus may be more sensitive to acid deposition than to increasing atmospheric CO2. A breakpoint in the 100-y δ(13)C tree ring chronology occurred around 1980, as the legacy of sulfur dioxide emissions declined following the enactment of the Clean Air Act in 1970, indicating a gradual increase in stomatal conductance (despite rising levels of atmospheric CO2) and a concurrent increase in photosynthesis related to decreasing acid deposition and increasing atmospheric CO2. Tree ring δ(34)S shows a synchronous change in the sources of sulfur used at the whole-tree level that indicates a reduced anthropogenic influence. The increase in growth and the δ(13)C and δ(34)S trends in the tree ring chronology of these Juniperus trees provide evidence for a distinct physiological response to changes in atmospheric SO2 emissions since ∼1980 and signify the positive impacts of landmark environmental legislation to facilitate recovery of forest ecosystems from acid deposition.

  5. IMPLICATIONS OF INVASION BY JUNIPERUS VIRGINIANA ON SMALL MAMMALS IN THE SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in landscape cover in the Great Plains are resulting from the range expansion and invasion of eastern red cedar (Juniperus virginiana). By altering the landscape and local vegetation, red cedar is changing the structure and function of habitat for small mammals. We exam...

  6. Periodicity of growth rings in Juniperus procera from Ethiopia inferred from crossdating and radiocarbon dating.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wils, T.; Robertson, I.; Eshetu, Z.; Sass-Klaassen, U.; Koprowski, M.

    2009-01-01

    African pencil cedar (Juniperus procera Hochst. ex Endlicher 1847) is a tropical, irregularly growing species that can produce annual growth rings in response to an annual cycle of wet and dry seasons. In this paper, we assess the periodicity of growth-ring formation for 13 stem discs from a site in

  7. Combining dendrochronology and matrix modelling in demographic studies: An evaluation for Juniperus procera in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Couralet, C.; Sass, U.G.W.; Sterck, F.J.; Zuidema, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Tree demography was analysed by applying dendrochronological techniques and matrix modelling on a static data set of Juniperus procera populations of Ethiopian dry highland forests. Six permanent sample plots were established for an inventory of diameters and 11 stem discs were collected for

  8. Studies on the optimal extraction of flavonoids from the fruit of Juniperus virginiana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunči Svetlana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolation and quantitative determination of flavonoid compounds in fruit of Juniperus virginiana L. (Cupressaceae are described. A method for the detection of those flavonoids was high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Rutin and kaempferol were determined in accordingly extracts and quercetin only in hydrolysated extracts.

  9. Molecular approaches for the analysis of airborne pollen: A case study of Juniperus pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Rashmi Prava; Buchheim, Mark Alan; Levetin, Estelle

    2017-02-01

    Pollen monitoring is a common and vital tool in the field of allergy, creating awareness in pollen sensitive individuals. Traditionally, pollen monitoring has been based on conventional microscopic counting techniques that are labor intensive and limited in the identification to the genus or family level. Molecular techniques provide an alternative approach that is less labor intensive and enable identification of any species by its genetic fingerprint. To use quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to evaluate pollen concentrations in air samples. Juniperus pollen was selected as our model because of the importance of this pollen in the southcentral United States. We analyzed 105 air samples collected with a Burkard spore trap from 2013 to 2015 using species-specific primers and probes. To evaluate the feasibility of a molecular approach, we used duplicate air samples that allowed us to compare results from classical identification based on light microscopy with our qPCR results. Pollen concentrations from the qPCR data were significantly correlated with concentrations determined through light microscopy (R = 0.902, P Juniperus ashei and Juniperus pinchotii and between J ashei and Juniperus virginiana. We found that this method correctly identified different Juniperus species present in mixed air samples in the southcentral United States, an accomplishment that cannot be achieved using microscopic identification. We conclude that the qPCR method is more accurate and sensitive than current pollen monitoring techniques and, therefore, has the potential to be used in various pollen monitoring stations. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Diplodia africana causing dieback disease on Juniperus phoenicea: a new host and first report in the northern hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENEDETTO LINALDEDDU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Branch dieback was observed on Phoenicean juniper trees, in a natural growing area on Caprera Island (Italy, during 2009 and 2010. Fungal isolates obtained from symptomatic twigs and branches show­ing dieback and bark necrosis were identified as Diplodia africana by analysis of morphological features and genomic DNA sequences of the ITS region and translation elongation factor 1-α gene. Pathogenicity was verified by stem inoculation of 3-year-old saplings of Phoenicean juniper. This is the first report of D. africana in the northern hemisphere, and of this fungus as a pathogen of Phoenicean juniper

  11. Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn. against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn. against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn. belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. Results. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn. was observed at 200 and 300 ppm (parts per million. The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment. Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn. is claimed as more selective and biodegradable agent. Conclusion. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis (Linn. has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control.

  12. Larvicidal Activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the Larvae of Bancroftian Filariasis Vector Mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Chawla, Rakesh; Dhamodaram, P.; Balakrishnan, N.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Objectives. The plan of this work was to study the larvicidal activity of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus. These larvae are the most significant vectors. They transmit the parasites and pathogens which cause a deadly disease like filariasis, dengue, yellow fever, malaria, Japanese encephalitis, chikungunya, and so forth, which are considered harmful towards the population in tropic and subtropical regions. Methods. The preliminary laboratory trail was undertaken to determine the efficacy of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of dried whole plant of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) belonging to the family Caesalpiniaceae at various concentrations against the late third instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus by following the WHO guidelines. Results. The results suggest that 100% mortality effect of petroleum ether and N-butanol extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) was observed at 200 and 300 ppm (parts per million). The results obviously showed use of plants in insect control as an alternative method for minimizing the noxious effect of some pesticide compounds on the environment. Thus the extract of Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) is claimed as more selective and biodegradable agent. Conclusion. This study justified that plant Cassia occidentalis (Linn.) has a realistic mortality result for larvae of filarial vector. This is safe to individual and communities against mosquitoes. It is a natural weapon for mosquito control. PMID:24688786

  13. Effects of Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin; Cucurbitaceae) in mouse models of convulsion, muscle relaxation, and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akindele, Abidemi J; Ajao, Mutiu Y; Aigbe, Flora R; Enumah, Uchenna S

    2013-09-01

    Telfairia occidentalis (Cucurbitaceae) is a leafy vegetable used in soup and folk medicine in southern Nigeria. Ethnobotanical survey revealed that preparations of the plant are used in the treatment of central nervous system-related disorders including convulsion. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of T. occidentalis in mouse models of convulsion, muscle relaxation, and depression. The strychnine and isoniazid convulsion, traction and climbing muscle relaxation, and forced swim and tail suspension depression tests were used in this study. The extract was administered orally (p.o.) at dose range of 25-800 mg/kg while distilled water (10 mL/kg p.o.) served as negative control. Diazepam (5 mg/kg p.o.) was used as positive control in the convulsion and muscle relaxation models while imipramine (64 mg/kg p.o.) served the same purpose in the depression tests. T. occidentalis significantly increased the onset (Pconvulsion (P<.05, .01) in the strychnine test and increased the time to death (P<.05, .01, .001) in the isoniazid model. The extract insignificantly increased the reaction time in the traction test while it significantly increased the time in the climbing test (P<.001). In the forced swim and tail suspension models, T. occidentalis significantly (P<.001) and dose-dependently increased the duration of immobility. The results obtained in this study suggest that the hydroethanolic leaf extract of T. occidentalis possesses anticonvulsant and muscle relaxant properties, thus justifying its folkloric use.

  14. Enhanced fumigant toxicity of p-cymene against Frankliniella occidentalis by simultaneous application of elevated levels of carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janmaat, A.F.; Kogel, de W.J.; Woltering, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    The fumigant toxicity of the essential oil component p-cymene was assessed against Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. F occidentalis adult females, first- and second-instar larvae and eggs were exposed for 2, 24 and 48h to combinations of three p-cymene doses and two carbon dioxide

  15. Enhanced fumigant toxicity of p-cymene against Frankliniella occidentalis by simultaneous application of elevated levels of carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janmaat, A.F.; Kogel, de W.J.; Woltering, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    The fumigant toxicity of the essential oil component p-cymene was assessed against Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. F occidentalis adult females, first- and second-instar larvae and eggs were exposed for 2, 24 and 48h to combinations of three p-cymene doses and two carbon dioxide l

  16. Evaluating mountain meadow groundwater response to pinyon-juniper and temperature in a great basin watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expansion of deeply-rooted Pinyon-Juniper (PJ) has altered water partitioning and reduced water availability to discharging meadows. Research highlights the development and application of GSFLOW to a semi-arid, snow-dominated watershed in the Great Basin to evaluate PJ and temperature controls on mo...

  17. Hydrology and ecology of pinyon-juniper woodlands: Conceptual framework and field studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, B.P.; Breshears, D.D.

    1994-09-01

    Pinyon-juniper woodlands represent an important ecosystem in the semiarid western United States. Concern over the sustainability of, and management approaches for, these woodlands is increasing. As in other semiarid environments, water dynamics and vegetation patterns in pinyon-juniper woodlands are highly interrelated. An understanding of these relationships can aid in evaluating various management strategies. In this paper we describe a conceptual framework designed to increase our understanding of water and vegetation in pinyon-juniper woodlands. The framework comprises five different scales, at each of which the landscape is divided into {open_quotes}functional units{close_quotes} on the basis of hydrologic characteristics. The hydrologic behavior of each unit and the connections between units are being evaluated using an extensive network of hydrological and ecological field studies on the Pajarito Plateau in northern New Mexico. Data from these studies, coupled with application of the conceptual model, have led to the development of a number of hypotheses concerning the interrelationships of water and vegetation in pinyon-juniper woodlands.

  18. The Effect of Anthropogenic Disturbance in the Ecohydrology of Pinyon Juniper Woodlands with Soil Biocrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebron, I.; Chandler, D. G.; Robinson, D. A.; Belnap, J.; Madsen, M.

    2005-12-01

    The canopy and intercanopy in pinyon-juniper woodlands are intrinsically related and constitute an ecosystem of great importance in the arid lands in the United States. The integrity of this ecosystem is continually challenged by anthropogenic disturbances as oil exploration and recreation activities in these environments. An important feature in the intercanopy of pinyon juniper drylands is the soil biological crust or biocrust. Biocrust is important to the nutrient cycles and hydrology and sediment production of this system. To quantify the effect of disturbances in the soil physical properties in the interspace of a pinion-juniper woodland we measured soil bulk density, water content, and hydraulic conductivity in undisturbed and disturbed areas of sandy soil. The disturbance had minimal impact on the bulk soil properties in the interspace soils. We also analyzed chlorophyll and other pigments related with bacterial activity in top 4mm of the soil and found chlorophyll activity to be almost zero in the disturbed areas while the undisturbed ones showed several orders of magnitude higher concentrations. Subsequent analysis of the soil surface properties indicates that a drastic change in the surface roughness and structure at the surface due to disturbances can alter the microenvironment characteristics critical for the bacterial survival. Since cyanobacteria colonization is the first step in the formation of biocrust, we conclude that surface properties are critical for the preservation and establishment of biocrust in the intercanopy space of the pinyon-juniper woodlands ecosystems.

  19. Soil water repellency within a burned pinon-juniper woodland: spatial distribution, severity, and ecohydrologic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post-fire recovery of juniper-dominated ecosystems is dependent on the extent that ecological processes have been altered. Soil water repellency is a common condition in these ecosystems that may limit site recovery. In this study we examined the extent, severity, and ecohydrologic implications of p...

  20. Influence of Prescribed Fire on Ecosystem Biomass, Carbon, and Nitrogen in a Pinyon Juniper Woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinyon and juniper woodland encroachment associated with climate change and land use history in the Great Basin is thought to provide offsets for carbon emissions. However, the largest pools of carbon in arid landscapes are typically found in soils, and aboveground biomass cannot be considered long ...

  1. Decreased carbon limitation of litter respiration in a mortality-affected pinon-juniper woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin Berryman; John D. Marshall; Thom Rahn; Marcie Litvak; John Butnor

    2013-01-01

    Microbial respiration depends on microclimatic variables and carbon (C) substrate availability, all of which are altered when ecosystems experience major disturbance. Widespread tree mortality, currently affecting pinon-juniper ecosystems in southwestern North America, may affect C substrate availability in several ways, for example, via litterfall pulses and loss of...

  2. Wildlife associations in Rocky Mountain juniper in the northern Great Plains, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark A. Rumble; John E. Gobeille

    1995-01-01

    Rocky Mountain juniper is an important habitat component in the northern Great Plains. These woodlands provide vertical and horizontal vegetative structure that enhances wildlife use. Ecological approaches to managing habitats require understanding relationships between wildlife species and succession in plant communities. We determined bird, small mammals and large...

  3. Why is cultural resource site density high in the pinon-juniper woodland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarah Schlanger; Signa Larralde

    2008-01-01

    (Please note, this is an extended abstract only) Hunter gatherers relied on healthy pinon-juniper woodland because it supports a wide variety of small game, large game, and bird species that shelter in the trees and forage on pinon nuts, a rich food source for humans as well as game.

  4. Western Juniper Field Guide: Asking the Right Questions to Select Appropriate Management Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rapid expansion of western juniper into neighboring plant communities during the past 130 years has been linked to increased soil erosion; reduced forage production; altered wildlife habitat; changes in plant community composition, structure, and biodiversity. Impacts of post-settlement woodland...

  5. Climate Change Increases Drought Stress of Juniper Trees in the Mountains of Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, Andrea; Omurova, Gulzar; Azisov, Erlan; Musuraliev, Kanaat; Aliev, Kumar; Tulyaganov, Timur; Nikolyai, Lyutsian; Botman, Evgeniy; Helle, Gerd; Dorado Liñan, Isabel; Jivcov, Sandra; Linderholm, Hans W

    2016-01-01

    Assessments of climate change impacts on forests and their vitality are essential for semi-arid environments such as Central Asia, where the mountain regions belong to the globally important biodiversity hotspots. Alterations in species distribution or drought-induced tree mortality might not only result in a loss of biodiversity but also in a loss of other ecosystem services. Here, we evaluate spatial trends and patterns of the growth-climate relationship in a tree-ring network comprising 33 juniper sites from the northern Pamir-Alay and Tien Shan mountain ranges in eastern Uzbekistan and across Kyrgyzstan for the common period 1935-2011. Junipers growing at lower elevations are sensitive to summer drought, which has increased in intensity during the studied period. At higher elevations, juniper growth, previously favored by warm summer temperatures, has in the recent few decades become negatively affected by increasing summer aridity. Moreover, response shifts are observed during all seasons. Rising temperatures and alterations in precipitation patterns during the past eight decades can account for the observed increase in drought stress of junipers at all altitudes. The implications of our findings are vital for the application of adequate long-term measures of ecosystem conservation, but also for paleo-climatic approaches and coupled climate-vegetation model simulations for Central Asia.

  6. A demonstration project to test ecological restoration of a pinyon-juniper ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Huffman; Michael T. Stoddard; Peter Z. Fule; W. Wallace Covington; H. B. Smith

    2008-01-01

    To test an approach for restoring historical stand densities and increasing plant species diversity of a pinyon-juniper ecosystem, we implemented a demonstration project at two sites (CR and GP) on the Grand Canyon-Parashant National Monument in northern Arizona. Historical records indicated that livestock grazing was intensive on the sites beginning in the late 1800s...

  7. Development of Near-Isogenic Lines in a Parthenogenetically Reproduced Thrips Species, Frankliniella occidentalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Guangdi; Wan, Yanran; Li, Xiaoyu; He, Bingqing; Zhang, Youjun; Xu, Baoyun; Wang, Shaoli; Xie, Wen; Zhou, Xuguo; Wu, Qingjun

    2017-01-01

    Although near-isogenic lines (NILs) can standardize genetic backgrounds among individuals, it has never been applied in parthenogenetically reproduced animals. Here, through multiple rounds of backcrossing and spinosad screening, we generated spinosad resistant NILs in the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), with a haplo-diploid reproduction system. The resultant F. occidentalis NIL-R strain maintained a resistance ratio over 30,000-fold, which was comparable to its parental resistant strain, Spin-R. More importantly, F. occidentalis NIL-R shared 98.90% genetic similarity with its susceptible parental strain Ivf03. By developing this toolset, we are able to segregate individual resistance and facilitate the mechanistic study of insecticide resistances in phloem-feeding arthropods, a group of devastating pest species reproducing sexually as well as asexually. PMID:28348528

  8. Fermentation of grain sorghum starch by co-cultivation of Schwanniomyces occidentalis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, C.H.; Preez, J.C. du; Kilian, S.G. (Orange Free State Univ., Bloemfontein (ZA). Dept. of Microbiology and Biochemistry)

    1992-01-01

    The amylases of a Schwanniomyces occidentalis mutant hydrolysed grain sorghum starch completely. Heat pretreatment to effect gelatinization was essential for total starch hydrolysis. Ethanol fermentations were conducted by using a stationary-phase culture of S. occidentalis in conjunction with Saccharomyces cerevisiae to ferment the sugars liberated from the grain sorghum starch by the amylases of S. occidentalis. Increasing the grain sorghum concentration from 8 to 28% (m/v) did not affect the final ethanol yield of 0.45 g ethanol/g glucose equivalents, although the fermentation rate decreased considerably at the higher slurry concentration, requiring 8 days for completion of the fermentation. A 28% grain sorghum slurry yielded 12.5% (w/v) ethanol, indicating that nearly 390 1 of ethanol could be produced per tonne grain sorghum, with about 430 kg residual biomass containing 43% crude protein. (Author).

  9. Comparative Antioxidant Activity of Water Extract of ,em>Azadiractha indica Stem Bark and Telfairia occidentalis Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Anokwuru

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant activity of Azadirachta indica stem bark and Telfairia occidentalis leaf aqueous extract was studied. The Total Phenolic Content (TPC was determined using folin Ciocalteu method while the Total Flavonoid Content (TFC was determined using aluminum chloride method. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazine (DPPH inhibition. Telfairia occidentalis extracted more phenols (11.32g GAE/ 100g than Azadirachta indica stem bark (10.74g GAE/100g but not significantly different (p<0.05. Azadirachta indica stem bark extracted more flavonoid content (5.21g QE/100g than Telfairia occidentalis leaf (0.96g QE/100g. Azadirachta indica stem bark inhibited more free radicals (83% than Telfairia occidentalis leaf (65%. This study showed that Azadirachta indica stem bark had higher antioxidant activity compared to Telfairia occidentalis leaf.

  10. Antiangiogenic and antihepatocellular carcinoma activities of the Juniperus chinensis extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Zong-Keng; Lin, Mei-Wei; Lu, I-Huang; Yao, Hsin-Jan; Wu, Hsin-Chieh; Wang, Chun-Chung; Lin, Shyh-Horng; Wu, Si-Yuan; Tong, Tien-Soung; Cheng, Yi-Cheng; Yen, Jui-Hung; Ko, Ching-Huai; Chiou, Shu-Jiau; Pan, I-Horng; Tseng, Hsiang-Wen

    2016-08-08

    To identify a novel therapeutic agent for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), for which no promising therapeutic agent exists, we screened a panel of plants and found that Juniperus chinensis exhibited potential antiangiogenic and anti-HCC activities. We further investigated the antiangiogenic and anti-HCC effects of the active ingredient of J. chinensis extract, CBT-143-S-F6F7, both in vitro and in vivo. A tube formation assay conducted using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was first performed to identify the active ingredient of CBT-143-S-F6F7. A series of angiogenesis studies, including HUVEC migration, Matrigel plug, and chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays, were then performed to confirm the effects of CBT-143-S-F6F7 on angiogenesis. The effects of CBT-143-S-F6F7 on tumor growth were investigated using a subcutaneous and orthotopic mouse model of HCC. In vitro studies were performed to investigate the effects of CBT-143-S-F6F7 on the cell cycle and apoptosis in HCC cells. Moreover, protein arrays for angiogenesis and apoptosis were used to discover biomarkers that may be influenced by CBT-143-S-F6F7. Finally, nuclear magnetic resonance analysis was conducted to identify the compounds of CBT-143-S-F6F7. CBT-143-S-F6F7 showed significantly antiangiogenic activity in various assays, including HUVEC tube formation and migration, CAM, and Matrigel plug assays. In in vivo studies, gavage with CBT-143-S-F6F7 significantly repressed subcutaneous Huh7 tumor growth in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, and prolonged the survival of orthotopic Huh7 tumor-bearing SCID mice (a 40 % increase in median survival duration compared with the vehicle-treated mice). Immunohistochemical staining of subcutaneous Huh7 tumors in CBT-143-S-F6F7-treated mice showed a significantly decrease in the cell cycle regulatory protein cyclin D1, cellular proliferation marker Ki-67, and endothelial marker CD31. CBT-143-S-F6F7 caused arrest of the G2/M phase and induced Huh

  11. Radical-Scavenging Activity and Ferric Reducing Ability of Juniperus thurifera (L.), J. oxycedrus (L.), J. phoenicea (L.) and Tetraclinis articulata (L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Meryem El Jemli; Rabie Kamal; Ilias Marmouzi; Asmae Zerrouki; Yahia Cherrah; Katim Alaoui

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this work is to study and compare the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of aqueous leaf extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus Phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata from Morocco. Methods. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging ability, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Also the total phenolic ...

  12. Leptophis santamartensis (Serpentes, Colubridae), a junior synonym of Leptophis ahaetulla occidentalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Nelson R.; de Passos, Paulo; Gotte, Steve W.

    2012-01-01

    Leptophis santamartensis, known only from Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia, is one of the more poorly known species of the genus Leptophis. The characters used for its diagnosis largely overlap with those of other Leptophis, mainly with Leptophis ahaetulla occidentalis, the only other Leptophis known to occur in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. A detailed comparison of L. a. occidentalis with the two known specimens of L. santamartensis leads to the conclusion that the latter should be relegated to the synonymy of the former.

  13. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION OF THUJA OCCIDENTALIS LINN. (CUPRESSACEAE DRIED LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhan Meenu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Thuja occidentalis is a monoecious coniferous plant having a wide variety of medicinal value. It has hepatoprotective, anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic activity etc. In the present paper, T. occidentalis leaves has been standardized on the basis of organoleptic, physical and physico-chemical characteristics. Methanolic and hydro-alcoholic extracts have been prepared by microwave assisted extraction technique and subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening and thin layer chromatography (TLC. TLC fingerprinting profile has been obtained using different solvent systems.

  14. AN APPRAISAL ON PHARMACOGNOSY, PHYTOCHEMISTRY AND BIOACTIVITY OF THUJA OCCIDENTALIS LINN. (CUPRESSACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Dhiman

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Thuja occidentalis Linn. (Cupressaceae has been widely used for many ailments in the traditional system like hepatoprotection, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetic, anti-arthritic, anti-microbial, anti-cancer etc. because of its medicinal properties. In the nineteenth century, Thuja was commonly used as an externally applied tincture or ointment for the treatment of warts, ringworm and thrush, and a local injection of the tincture was used for treating venereal warts. The present paper summarizes a concise detail about pharmacognostic, phytohemistry and bioactivities of T. occidentalis Linn.

  15. Successful treatment of verruca vulgaris with Thuja occidentalis in a renal allograft recipient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus-driven verruca vulgaris infection is common in solid organ transplant recipients and increases the risk for squamous cell carcinoma. The available treatment modalities have limited response. We report a renal allograft recipient who presented with multiple warts not responding to cryotherapy and radiosurgery with one turning malignant, needing amputation of the finger. An extract from Thuja occidentalis (White cedar tree cured the resistant warts on the other fingers, leaving only superficial scars and without affecting allograft function. We have reviewed the pharmacological and clinical properties of T. occidentalis.

  16. Palynological evidence for the historic expansion of juniper and desert shrubs in Arizona, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, O.K.; Turner, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of the sediment of Pecks Lake, Yavapai County, Arizona, has permitted the first reported palynological evidence for the historic expansion of juniper and desert shrubs in the American Southwest. The palynological evidence is supported by the comparison of modern and historical photographs, which shows the regional expansion of pinyon-juniper woodland, and the local increase of mesquite and creosote bush. A gradual increase in juniper pollen percentages began over 2000 years ago, but the rate of increase abruptly accelerated after the historic introduction of grazing animals. In contrast, juniper percentages did not increase during a prehistoric interval of intense disturbance by humans, about A.D. 1200, and a different weed flora was present. Prehistorically, water depth was greatest at ca. 600 B.C. and was lowest just prior to the arrival of Europeans. Regional climate has gradually cooled since the beginning of the record at 2630 B.P. ?? 1986.

  17. Inhibition of protein glycation by essential oils of branchlets and fruits of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica

    OpenAIRE

    S Asgary; G.A NADERI; Shams Ardekani, M.R.; A. Sahebkar; Airin,A.; S. Aslani; Kasher,T.; Emami, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and protein glycation play pivotal roles in the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-glycation properties of essential oils obtained from different parts of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica. The branchlets of male tree (BMT) and branchlets of female (BFT) tree, and fruits of J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica were extracted using steam distillation method. The oils were phytochemically analyz...

  18. Molecular analysis confirms the long-distance transport of Juniperus ashei pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Rashmi Prava; Buchheim, Mark Alan; Anderson, James; Levetin, Estelle

    2017-01-01

    Although considered rare, airborne pollen can be deposited far from its place of origin under a confluence of favorable conditions. Temporally anomalous records of Cupressacean pollen collected from January air samples in London, Ontario, Canada have been cited as a new case of long-distance transport. Data on pollination season implicated Juniperus ashei (mountain cedar), with populations in central Texas and south central Oklahoma, as the nearest source of the Cupressacean pollen in the Canadian air samples. This finding is of special significance given the allergenicity of mountain cedar pollen. While microscopy is used extensively to identify particles in the air spora, pollen from all members of the Cupressaceae, including Juniperus, are morphologically indistinguishable. Consequently, we implemented a molecular approach to characterize Juniperus pollen using PCR in order to test the long-distance transport hypothesis. Our PCR results using species-specific primers confirmed that the anomalous Cupressacean pollen collected in Canada was from J. ashei. Forward trajectory analysis from source areas in Texas and the Arbuckle Mountains in Oklahoma and backward trajectory analysis from the destination area near London, Ontario were completed using models implemented in HYSPLIT4 (Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory). Results from these trajectory analyses strongly supported the conclusion that the J. ashei pollen detected in Canada had its origins in Texas or Oklahoma. The results from the molecular findings are significant as they provide a new method to confirm the long-distance transport of pollen that bears allergenic importance.

  19. Structure of salvioccidentalin, a diterpenoid with a rearranged neo-clerodane skeleton from Salvia occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime-Vasconcelos, Miguel Ángel; Frontana-Uribe, Bernardo Antonio; Morales-Serna, José Antonio; Salmón, Manuel; Cárdenas, Jorge

    2011-10-31

    From the aerial parts of Salvia occidentalis (Labiatae) a new diterpenoid with a rearranged neo-clerodane skeleton was isolated. This new compound was named salvioccidentalin and its structure was established by spectroscopic means. A probable biogenetic relationship with salvigenolide from S. fulgens and salvileucalin A and spiroleucantholide from Salvia leucantha is proposed.

  20. Structure of Salvioccidentalin, a Diterpenoid with a Rearranged neo-Clerodane Skeleton from Salvia occidentalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cárdenas

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available From the aerial parts of Salvia occidentalis (Labiatae a new diterpenoid with a rearranged neo-clerodane skeleton was isolated. This new compound was named salvioccidentalin and its structure was established by spectroscopic means. A probable biogenetic relationship with salvigenolide from S. fulgens and salvileucalin A and spiroleucantholide from Salvia leucantha is proposed.

  1. Structure of Salvioccidentalin, a Diterpenoid with a Rearranged neo-Clerodane Skeleton from Salvia occidentalis

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Cárdenas; José Antonio Morales-Serna; Bernardo Antonio Frontana-Uribe; Manuel Salmón; Miguel Ángel Jaime-Vasconcelos

    2011-01-01

    From the aerial parts of Salvia occidentalis (Labiatae) a new diterpenoid with a rearranged neo-clerodane skeleton was isolated. This new compound was named salvioccidentalin and its structure was established by spectroscopic means. A probable biogenetic relationship with salvigenolide from S. fulgens and salvileucalin A and spiroleucantholide from Salvia leucantha is proposed.

  2. Effects of cysteine protease inhibitors on oviposition rate of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annadana, S.; Peters, J.; Jongsma, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Proteolytic activity in whole insect extracts of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, was found to belong predominantly to the class of cysteine proteases. The pH optimum of the general proteolytic activity was determined to be 3.5, which is low when compared to other insects using

  3. Biological control potential of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides for coffee senna (Cassia occidentalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fungal pathogen, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was isolated from a greenhouse-grown seedling of coffee senna (Cassia occidentalis) and evaluated as a mycoherbicide for that weed. Host range tests revealed that coffee senna, wild senna (C. pilosa),and sicklepod (C. obtusifolia) were also affected...

  4. The effects of Ostertagia occidentalis somatic antigens on ovine TLR2 and TLR4 expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan BORJI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recognition of helminth-derived pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs, including toll like recep­tors (TLRs is the first step towards initiating anti–helminth immune re­sponses.Methods: Using somatic antigens of Ostertagia occidentalis, an important abomasal parasite of ruminants, the expression of ovine TLR2 and TLR4 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs was analyzed by real-time quatitative reverse-transcrip­tion polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Somatic antigens of O. occidentalis were prepared to stimulate ovine PBMCs in a time and dose dependent manner.Results: A high expression of TLR2 and TLR4 was observed in PBMCs cultured with somatic antigens of the parasites specially when PBMCs were cultured with 100 µg/ml of somatic antigens and incubated for 2h. Up-regulation of TLR2 expres­sion was more pronounced and evident in our study.Conclsusion: Somatic antigens of O. occidentalis have immunostimulatory and domi­nant role on peripheral immune cells. This study provide for the first time evidence of induction of TLRs in ovine PBMCs by somatic antigen of O. occidentalis

  5. Study of Calamus occidentalis J.R. Witono & J. Dransf. Species Commercial Values and Possible Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JASNI

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The selection of appropriate rattan for a certain use must be based on adequate information about its potency, anatomical structure, and chemical properties. Standards methods of inventory development by Curtis method was used to obtain data on its density and frequency. To know the anatomical structure of preparation were made according to Schultze method and microtome preparation according to Staining Paraffin Section with Safranin. While to know the chemical component of rattan stem the analyzed by Standard Industry Indonesia procedures. Calamus occidentalis is one among other Java rattan species which its distribution is limited in the area of Ujung Kulon National Park, West Java. C. occidentalis may be utilized for various purposes based on the following characteristics: species density of 21 cane/ha; and anatomical structure: fiber length of 2204 m, fiber-wall thickness of 4.26 m, vascular bundle diameter of 812.5 m, metaxylem diameter of 293.75 m, proxylem diameter of 43.5 m, and phloem diameter of 37.5 m. Its chemical components are cellulose (49.95%, lignin (22.39%, and air-dry moisture (12.27%. Based on the above information, C. occidentalis rattan species possibly can be used as an alternative substitute of Calamus manan, an endangered rattan species, because several properties of C. occidentalis has similar with that of C. manan.

  6. Fitness Trade-Off Associated With Spinosad Resistance in Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyu; Wan, Yanran; Yuan, Guangdi; Hussain, Sabir; Xu, Baoyun; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Zhang, Youjun; Wu, Qingjun

    2017-08-01

    Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is an economically important pest of agricultural crops. High resistance has been detected in field populations of F. occidentalis against the insecticide spinosad. In this study, we compared life history traits, body sizes, and feeding behaviors (recorded via an electrical penetration graph) of spinosad-susceptible (Ivf03) and spinosad-resistant (NIL-R) near-isogenic lines of F. occidentalis. Life table analysis showed that NIL-R had reduced female longevity and reduced fecundity. The relative fitness of NIL-R (0.43) was less than half that of Ivf03. NIL-R individuals were smaller than Ivf03 individuals, both in body length and body width at every stage. The number and duration of feeding activities were significantly reduced in NIL-R, with the exception of total duration of long-ingestion probes. These results suggest that there is a fitness trade-off associated with spinosad resistance in F. occidentalis, and that the development of resistance in this pest species may be reduced by rotating spinosad with other pesticides lacking cross-resistance. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Performance and phenology of wild black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) germplasm in a common garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    A lack of genetic diversity in cultivated black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) germplasm has been widely recognized as a major factor limiting progress towards breeding improved cultivars. Despite this, little effort has been made since the early twentieth century to systematically collect and ev...

  8. De invasieve Noord-Amerikaanse wants Leptoglossus occidentalis bereikt ook Nederland (Heteroptera: Coreidae).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aukema, B.

    2008-01-01

    The North American bug Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann, 1910 is recorded from the Netherlands for the first time. All specimens were observed in or near potential overwintering sites far away from suitable breeding sites and mainly in coastal areas, suggesting large distance dispersal.

  9. Irrigation and nitrogen use efficiency of Thuja occidentalis grown on sandy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, A.A.

    2004-01-01

    A combined conifer growth - soil water and nitrogen balance model was calibrated to simulate dry mass production and partitioning, water and nitrogen demand and nitrogen losses for Thuja occidentalis grown for two years on a sandy soil. Light interception was successfully described by the row-of-cub

  10. Growth and Transmission of Gut Bacteria in the Western Flower Thrips Frankliniella occidentalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, E.J.; Jacobs, G.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis), a polyphagous insect with global distribution, has a permanent association with a near Erwinia species TAC bacterium in its hindgut. Since this bacterium is able to grow outside the thrips, it is a facultative symbiont that is not completely

  11. Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus and Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Ball. "berries" from Turkey: comparative evaluation of phenolic profile, antioxidant, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taviano, Maria Fernanda; Marino, Andreana; Trovato, Ada; Bellinghieri, Valentina; Melchini, Antonietta; Dugo, Paola; Cacciola, Francesco; Donato, Paola; Mondello, Luigi; Güvenç, Ayşegül; De Pasquale, Rita; Miceli, Natalizia

    2013-08-01

    This work aimed to evaluate and compare the phenolic profile and some biological properties of the ripe "berries" methanol extracts of Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. oxycedrus (Joo) and Juniperus oxycedrus L. subsp. macrocarpa (Sibth. & Sm.) Ball. (Jom) from Turkey. The total phenolic content resulted about 3-fold higher in Jom (17.89±0.23 mg GAE/g extract) than in Joo (5.14±0.06 mg GAE/g extract). The HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS analysis revealed a similar flavonoid fingerprint in Joo and Jom, whereas a difference in their quantitative content was found (4632 μg/g extract and 12644 μg/g extract). In addition, three phenolic acids were detected in Jom only (5765 μg/g extract), and protocatechuic acid was the most abundant one. The antioxidant capacity of the extracts was evaluated by different in vitro assays: in the DPPH and in the TBA tests a stronger activity in Jom was highlighted, while Joo exhibited higher reducing power and metal chelating activity. Joo and Jom did not affect HepG2 cell viability and both extracts resulted virtually non-toxic against Artemia salina. The extracts were also studied for their antimicrobial potential, displaying efficacy against Gram-positive bacteria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. You Can Run, But You Can't Hide Juniper Pollen Phenology and Dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et. al., 2003 reported Juniperus spp. pollen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model, Nickovic et al. 2001) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and quantities of dust. We are modified the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport. Pollen release is estimated based on MODIS derived phenology of Juniperus spp. communities. Ground based observational records of pollen release timing and quantities are used as verification. This information will be used to support the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program and the State of New Mexico environmental public health decision support for asthma and allergies alerts.

  13. Effect of heat shock on the susceptibility ofFrankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera:Thripidae) to insecticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bin; ZUO Tai-qiang; LI Hong-gang; SUN Li-juan; WANG Si-fang; ZHENG Chang-ying; WAN Fang-hao

    2016-01-01

    Currently, insecticides are considered as the primary approach for controling western lfower thrips,Frankliniela occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). However, the heavy use of insecticides resulted in high insect resistance and serious environmental polution. Given its characteristics of ease of operation and environmental friendliness, insect control using high temperature is receiving considerable renewed research interest. However, although the combination of insecticides and high temperature to controlF. occidentalis has been studied before, few studies have focused on the short-term effect of such treatment. In a laboratory study,F. occidentalis adults and second-instar nymphs were exposed to 45°C for 2 h. Then, their susceptibility to acetamiprid, spinosad, methomyl, and beta-cypermethrin was tested after different periods of recovery time (2–36 h). Additionaly, the speciifc activity of three detoxiifcation enzymes (esterase, glutathioneS-trans-ferase, and cytochrome p450 (CYP) monooxygenase) of the treated insects was determined. The results indicated that the lfuctuation of susceptibility to insecticides and detoxiifcation enzyme activity duringF. occidentalis recovery from heat shock are related. Furthermore, several recovery time points (2, 30, and 36 h) of signiifcant susceptibility to four tested insecticides compared with the control were found during the treatment of adults that were heat-shocked. Recovery time points of higher susceptibility compared with the control depended on different insecticides during the second-instar nymph recovery from heat shock. Interestingly, the lfuctuation of CYP monooxygenase activity exhibited a trend that was similar to the lfuctuation of susceptibility to insecticides (especialy spinosad) during the recovery from heat shock of adults. In addition, the glutathioneS-transferase and CYP monooxygenase activity trend was similar to the trend of susceptibility to spinosad during the recovery from heat

  14. Viewpoint: Sustainability of pinon-juniper ecosystems - A unifying perspective of soil erosion thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, D.W.; Breshears, D.D.; Wilcox, B.P.; Allen, C.D.

    1998-01-01

    Many pinon-juniper ecosystem in the western U.S. are subject to accelerated erosion while others are undergoing little or no erosion. Controversy has developed over whether invading or encroaching pinon and juniper species are inherently harmful to rangeland ecosystems. We developed a conceptual model of soil erosion in pinon-jumper ecosystems that is consistent with both sides of the controversy and suggests that the diverse perspectives on this issue arise from threshold effects operating under very different site conditions. Soil erosion rate can be viewed as a function of (1) site erosion potential (SEP), determined by climate, geomorphology and soil erodibility; and (2) ground cover. Site erosion potential and cove act synergistically to determine soil erosion rates, as evident even from simple USLE predictions of erosion. In pinon-juniper ecosystem with high SEP, the erosion rate is highly sensitive to ground cover and can cross a threshold so that erosion increases dramatically in response to a small decrease in cover. The sensitivity of erosion rate to SEP and cover can be visualized as a cusp catastrophe surface on which changes may occur rapidly and irreversibly. The mechanisms associated with a rapid shift from low to high erosion rate can be illustrated using percolation theory to incorporate spatial, temporal, and scale-dependent patterns of water storage capacity on a hillslope. Percolation theory demonstrates how hillslope runoff can undergo a threshold response to a minor change in storage capacity. Our conceptual model suggests that pinion and juniper contribute to accelerated erosion only under a limited range of site conditions which, however, may exist over large areas.

  15. Runoff and erosion from a rapidly eroding pinyon-juniper hillslope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, B.P.; Davenport, D. W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Pitlick, J. [Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO (United States); Allen, C.D. [National Biological Survey, Los Alamos, NM (United States). Jemez Mountain Field Station

    1996-02-01

    The dramatic acceleration of erosion associated with the expansion of pinyon-juniper woodlands over the past 100 years has been a widely recognized but poorly understood phenomenon. A more complete understanding will come only through long-term observations of erosion and related factors. To this end, we are conducting a study of a small (1-ha) catchment in a rapidly eroding pinyon-juniper woodland. Since July 1993, we have been collecting data on runoff, erosion, and weather conditions in the catchment, as well as on the topography, soils, and vegetation. Our preliminary results suggest that (1) the catchment is currently in a cycle of accelerated erosion that began concomitant with a shift from ponderosa pine forest to pinyon-juniper woodland that was initiated by a prolonged drought; (2) the intercanopy soils cannot be sustained at the current erosion rates and will be mostly stripped away in about a century; (3) large summer thunderstorms are the most important agents of erosion (4) erosion increases dramatically as the scale increases; (5) runoff makes up <10% of the water budget.

  16. Red Mud Catalytic Pyrolysis of Pinyon Juniper and Single-Stage Hydrotreatment of Oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agblevor, Foster A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Burton, Sarah D.; Swita, Marie; Beis, Sedat H.; Christian, Kyle; Sargent, Brandon

    2016-10-20

    Pinyon juniper biomass feedstocks, which cover a large acreage of rangeland in the western United States, are being eradicated and, therefore, considered as a convenient biomass feedstock for biofuel production. Pinyon juniper whole biomass (wood, bark, and leaves) were pyrolyzed in a pilot-scale bubbling fluidized-bed reactor at 450 °C, and the noncondensable gases were recycled to fluidize the reactor. Red mud was used as the in situ catalyst for the pyrolysis of the pinyon juniper biomass. The pyrolysis products were condensed in three stages, and products were analyzed for physicochemical properties. The condenser oil formed two phases with the aqueous fraction, whereas the electrostatic precipitator oils formed a single phase. The oil pH was 3.3; the higher heating value (HHV) was 28 MJ/kg; and the viscosity was less than 100 cP. There was a direct correlation between the viscosity of the oils and the alcohol/ether content of the oils, and this was also related to the aging rate of the oils. The catalytic pyrolysis oils were hydrotreated in a continuous single-stage benchtop hydrotreater to produce hydrocarbon fuels with a density of 0.80$-$0.82 cm3/g. The hydrotreater ran continuously for over 300 h with no significant catalyst deactivation or coke formation. This is the first time that such a long single-stage hydrotreatment has been demonstrated on biomass catalytic pyrolysis oils.

  17. Development of an Aerial Breeding Pair Survey of Dusky Canada Geese (Branta canadensis occidentalis) on the Copper River Delta, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The dusky Canada goose (Branta canadensis occidentalis) population has declined for several years (Cornely and Jarvis 1984 Cornely et al. 1985; Campbell 1984, 1988;...

  18. Hypoglycemic potential of alcoholic root extract of Cassia occidentalis Linn. in streptozotocin induced diabetes in albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surbhi Sharma

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: The results suggest that ethanolic roots extract of C. occidentalis Linn. possesses hypoglycemic potential for the NIDDM and support the traditional use of the roots of plant as hypoglycemic agent.

  19. Intoxicação por Senna occidentalis (Leg. Caesalpinoideae em bovinos em pastoreio Poisoning by Senna occidentalis (Leg. Caesalpinoideae in grazing cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio S.L. Barros

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available São descritos três surtos da intoxicação por Senna occidentalis em bovinos em criação extensiva, exclusivamente em pastoreio, durante o outono e início do inverno, em três estabelecimentos do estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Os bovinos afetados tinham acesso a antigas lavouras de soja ou restevas de lavouras de soja e milho altamente infestados por fedegoso (S. occidentalis. No estabelecimento 1, de um total de 34 novilhas (de aprox. 18 meses de idade, 10 morreram (29,1%; no estabelecimento 2, morreram 9 (4,2% de um total de 212 vacas prenhes e, no estabelecimento 3, morreram 6 (12,0% de um total de 50 animais. O curso clínico variou de 3 a 6 dias, e os sinais clínicos incluíam urina marrom-escura, fraqueza muscular, tremores, andar cambaleante, decúbito esternal e morte. Os animais, mesmo em decúbito, permaneciam alerta e com reflexos normais, alimentando-se e bebendo água até poucas horas antes da morte. No estabelecimento 2, os bovinos começaram a adoecer 7 dias após terem sido retirados do campo infestado pela planta. As principais alterações observadas na necropsia foram áreas claras na musculatura esquelética, principalmente nos músculos dos membros posteriores e estrias esbranquiçadas na musculatura cardíaca. A principal lesão microscópica era de degeneração e necrose nos músculos esqueléticos (miopatia degenerativa tóxica multifocal multifásica. Os dados epidemiológicos, clínicos, de necropsia e histopatológico permitiram concluir pelo diagnóstico de intoxicação por S. occidentalis, nesses três surtos.Three outbreaks of Senna occidentalis poisoning in cattle exclusively at pasture are described. The outbreaks occurred in the fall and early winter on three farms of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Affected cattle had access to pastures previously used as culture fields for soybean and corn, which were heavily infested by coffee senna (S. occidentalis. On farm 1, 10 (29,1% out of a total of 34

  20. The Researches on the Terpenoids from Juniperus%圆柏属植物中萜类研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文蜀; 冯金朝; 卢鹏

    2008-01-01

    The studies of the tepennoids in Juniperus from 1980 - 2006 are summarized here. All the terpenoids in Juniperus have complicated structures, including changeful skeletons and abundant functional groups. Furthermore, some of those compounds show kinds of hioactivities. It can be concluded that studies on Juniperus is valuable and continuable.%对1980-2006年期间国内外园柏属植物中的萜类化学成分研究进行综述.园柏属中的所有萜类都有复杂的结构:包括不稳定的碳链和大量的官能团.此外,它们中的一些化合物还显示出较丰富的生物活性.

  1. Comparative Antioxidant Activity of Water Extract of ,em>Azadiractha indica Stem Bark and Telfairia occidentalis Leaf

    OpenAIRE

    C.P. Anokwuru; O. Ajibaye; A. Adesuyi

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of Azadirachta indica stem bark and Telfairia occidentalis leaf aqueous extract was studied. The Total Phenolic Content (TPC) was determined using folin Ciocalteu method while the Total Flavonoid Content (TFC) was determined using aluminum chloride method. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazine (DPPH) inhibition. Telfairia occidentalis extracted more phenols (11.32g GAE/ 100g) than Azadirachta indica stem bark (10.74g GAE/100g) but ...

  2. Aspectos étnicos, biológicos e químicos de Senna occidentalis (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. KANEKO

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Senna occidentalis (sin. Cassia occidentalis é um arbusto perene nativo da América do Sul e distribuída em regiões tropicais ao redor do mundo, frequentemente contaminando pastos e culturas de cereais. Inúmeros estudos demonstraram que esta planta é tóxica para animais. Na medicina popular, tribos americanas, africanas e indianas usam preparações da S. occidentalis como tônico, estomáquico, febrífugo, laxante e antimicrobiano. Diversas propriedades biológicas da espécie já foram comprovadas, tais como a antibacteriana, antifúngica, antimalárica, antitumoral e hepatoprotetora. As análises fitoquímicas evidenciaram que as antraquinonas, os flavonóides e outros derivados fenólicos são os seus principais constituintes. Esta revisão apresenta dados etnofarmacológicos, químicos e biológicos publicados na literatura sobre S. occidentalis. Palavras-chave: Senna occidentalis. Cassia occidentalis. Fabaceae. Leguminosae. Caesalpinioideae. Fedegoso.

  3. Evaluation of in vitro biological properties of Senna occidentalis (L. Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Lombardo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Senna species have been widely used by American, African and Indian ethic groups mainly in the treatment of feebleness, constipation, liver disorders and skin infections. Senna occidentalis (L. Link is a perennial shrub native to South America and indigenous to tropical regions throughout the world. Current study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts from S. occidentalis prepared from different parts of the plant. Antimicrobial activity was assessed against standard pharmaceutical microorganisms by spectrophotometry and microdilution technique. Escherichia coli was sensitive only to compounds extracted from seeds which may be proteinaceous. A broader antimicrobial spectrum was demonstrated by the hydroalcoholic extract of seeds, mostly against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The in vitro toxicity using mouse fibroblasts indicated that the extract might be a biocompatible ingredient for topical formulations, while the hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts demonstrated to be potentially cytotoxic.

  4. Senna leaf curl virus: a novel begomovirus identified in Senna occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jitesh; Alok, Anshu; Kumar, Jitendra; Tuli, Rakesh

    2016-09-01

    Begomoviruses are whitefly-transmitted, single-stranded DNA viruses that infect a variety of cultivated (crop) and non-cultivated (weed) plants. The present study identified a novel begomovirus and satellites (alpha- and betasatellite) in Senna occidentalis (syn. Cassia occidentalis) showing leaf curl symptoms. The begomovirus shared a maximum sequence identity of 88.6 % with french bean leaf curl virus (JQ866297), whereas the alphasatellite and the betasatellite shared identities of 98 % and 90 % with ageratum yellow vein India alphasatellite (LK054802) and papaya leaf curl betasatellite (HM143906), respectively. No other begomovirus or satellites were detected in the suspected plants. We propose to name the virus "senna leaf curl virus" (SenLCuV).

  5. Phagocytosis of sperm by follicle cells of the carnivorous sponge Asbestopluma occidentalis (Porifera, Demospongiae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesgo, Ana

    2010-06-01

    During spermatogenesis of the carnivorous sponge Asbestopluma occidentalis, follicle cells that lined the spermatocysts phagocytosed unreleased mature sperm. Such follicle cells are part of the complex envelope that limits spermatocysts of A. occidentalis, which is also comprised of a collagen layer, a thick layer of intertwined cells, and spicules. Follicle cells showed vesicles containing single phagocytosed spermatozoa within their cytoplasm. Additionally, lipids and other inclusions were observed within the cytoplasm of follicle cells. It is likely that follicle cells recapture nutrients by phagocytosing spermatozoa and use them to form lipids and other inclusions. Such sperm phagocytosis is usually performed in higher invertebrates and vertebrates by Sertoli cells that are located in the testis wall. While Sertoli cells develop a wide range of functions such as creating a blood-testis barrier, providing crucial factors to ensure correct progression of spermatogenesis, and phagocytosis of aberrant, degenerating, and unreleased sperm cells, sponge follicle cells may only display phagocytotic activity on spermatogenic cells.

  6. Historical and modern disturbance regimes, stand structures, and landscape dynamics in pinon-juniper vegetation of the western U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. Romme; Craig D. Allen; John D. Bailey; William L. Baker; Brandon T. Bestelmeyer; Peter M. Brown; Karen S. Eisenhart; Lisa Floyd-Hanna; Dustin W. Huffman; Brian F. Jacobs; Richard F. Miller; Esteban H. Muldavin; Thomas W. Swetnam; Robin J. Tausch; Peter J. Weisberg

    2008-01-01

    Pinon-juniper is one of the major vegetation types in western North America. It covers a huge area, provides many resources and ecosystem services, and is of great management concern. Management of pinon-juniper vegetation has been hindered, especially where ecological restoration is a goal, by inadequate understanding of the variability in historical and modern...

  7. Nicotiana Occidentalis Chloroplast Ultrastructure imaged with Transmission Electron Microscopes Working at Different Accelerating Voltages

    OpenAIRE

    SVIDENSKÁ, Silvie

    2010-01-01

    The main goal of this thesis is to study and compare electron microscopy images of Nicotiana Occidentalis chloroplasts, obtained from two types of transmission electron microscopes,which work with different accelerating voltage of 80kV and 5kV. The two instruments, TEM JEOL 1010 and low voltage electron microscope LVEM5 are employed for experiments. In the first theoretical part, principle of electron microscopy and chloroplast morphology is described. In experimental part, electron microscop...

  8. Germination of Senna Occidentalis link: seed at different osmotic potential levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delachiave Maria Elena Aparecida

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the effect of osmotic potential and salinity on the germination of seeds of Senna occidentalis, with and without a change of solutions. The percentage and rates of germination decreased according to decrease of potential, being more drastic when the substitutions of solutions were not made. The largest reductions were observed with the PEG solutions, with and without substitutions.

  9. Constrained body shape among highly genetically divergent allopatric lineages of the supralittoral isopod Ligia occidentalis (Oniscidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, Carlos A; Mateos, Mariana; DeWitt, Thomas J; Hurtado, Luis A

    2016-03-01

    Multiple highly divergent lineages have been identified within Ligia occidentalis sensu lato, a rocky supralittoral isopod distributed along a ~3000 km latitudinal gradient that encompasses several proposed marine biogeographic provinces and ecoregions in the eastern Pacific. Highly divergent lineages have nonoverlapping geographic distributions, with distributional limits that generally correspond with sharp environmental changes. Crossbreeding experiments suggest postmating reproductive barriers exist among some of them, and surveys of mitochondrial and nuclear gene markers do not show evidence of hybridization. Populations are highly isolated, some of which appear to be very small; thus, the effects of drift are expected to reduce the efficiency of selection. Large genetic divergences among lineages, marked environmental differences in their ranges, reproductive isolation, and/or high isolation of populations may have resulted in morphological differences in L. occidentalis, not detected yet by traditional taxonomy. We used landmark-based geometric morphometric analyses to test for differences in body shape among highly divergent lineages of L. occidentalis, and among populations within these lineages. We analyzed a total of 492 individuals from 53 coastal localities from the southern California Bight to Central Mexico, including the Gulf of California. We conducted discriminant function analyses (DFAs) on body shape morphometrics to assess morphological variation among genetically differentiated lineages and their populations. We also tested for associations between phylogeny and morphological variation, and whether genetic divergence is correlated to multivariate morphological divergence. We detected significant differences in body shape among highly divergent lineages, and among populations within these lineages. Nonetheless, neither lineages nor populations can be discriminated on the basis of body shape, because correct classification rates of cross

  10. Evaluation of Cassia occidentalis for in vitro cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines and antibacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagat Madhulika

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity and antibacterial properties of Cassia occidentalis (whole plant via alcoholic, hydro-alcoholic, and aqueous extracts against eight human cancer cell lines from six different tissues and four bacterial strains. Material and Methods : In vitro cytotoxicity against the human cancer cells, cultured for 48h in presence of different concentrations C. occidentalis extracts and percentage of cell viability, was evaluated using the sulforhodamine-B (SRB assay. The antibacterial activity was performed using the standard protocol against bacterial strains. Results : It was observed that aqueous extract of C. occidentalis (whole plant had more potential than hydro-alcoholic and alcoholic extracts against HCT-15, SW-620, PC-3, MCF-7, SiHa, and OVCAR-5 human cancer cell lines at 100, 30, and 10 μg/ml in a dose-dependent manner. The hydro-alcoholic extract showed potential against Bacillus subtillis. Conclusion : The plant can be explored for the possible development of lead molecules for drug discovery.

  11. Blood parasites in Owls with conservation implications for the Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, H.D.; Dumbacher, J.P.; Anderson, N.L.; Keane, J.J.; Valkiunas, G.; Haig, S.M.; Tell, L.A.; Sehgal, R.N.M.

    2008-01-01

    The three subspecies of Spotted Owl (Northern, Strix occidentalis courina; California, S. o. occidentalis; and Mexican, S. o. lucida) are all threatened by habitat loss and range expansion of the Barred Owl (S. varia). An unaddressed threat is whether Barred Owls could be a source of novel strains of disease such as avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) or other blood parasites potentially harmful for Spotted Owls. Although Barred Owls commonly harbor Plasmodium infections, these parasites have not been documented in the Spotted Owl. We screened 111 Spotted Owls, 44 Barred Owls, and 387 owls of nine other species for haemosporidian parasites (Leucocytozoon, Plasmodium, and Haemoproteus spp.). California Spotted Owls had the greatest number of simultaneous multi-species infections (44%). Additionally, sequencing results revealed that the Northern and California Spotted Owl subspecies together had the highest number of Leucocytozoon parasite lineages (n=17) and unique lineages (n=12). This high level of sequence diversity is significant because only one leucocytozoon species (L. danilewskyi) has been accepted as valid among all owls, suggesting that L. danilewskyi is a cryptic species. Furthermore, a Plasmodium parasite was documented in a Northern Spotted Owl for the first time. West Coast Barred Owls had a lower prevalence of infection (15%) when compared to sympatric Spotted Owls (S. o. caurina 52%, S. o. occidentalis 79%) and Barred Owls from the historic range (61%). Consequently, Barred Owls on the West Coast may have a competitive advantage over the potentially immune compromised Spotted Owls. ?? 2008 Ishak et al.

  12. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide inhibitory constituents from Cassia occidentalis roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neeraj K; Pulipaka, Sravani; Dubey, Shashi P; Bhutani, Kamlesh K

    2014-05-01

    The anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic activity of thirty-six extracts of nine Indian medicinal plants were determined by measuring the inhibition of production of nitric oxide (NO), interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Their cytotoxic activity against macrophages was determined by MTT assay. The ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of Cassia occidentalis L. (roots) (IC50 = 21.3 to 43.1 microg/mL) and Mimosa pudica (whole plant) (1C50= 31.7 to 47.2 microg/mL) and the dichloromethane (DCM) extract of Leucas cephalotes (whole plant) (IC50 = 46.8 to 49.3 microg/mL) exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity by in vitro inhibition of the production of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and NO in LPS stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, the five compounds isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Cassia occidentalis roots were found to suppress LPS-induced IL-1beta, TNF-alpha and NO production in a concentration-dependent manner in these cells at 1C50 values ranging from 22.5 to 97.4 microM. Emodin and chrysophanol were also found active in inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines in vivo. These findings justify an ethnopharmacological use of C occidentalis roots as an effective herbal remedy for the treatment and prevention of inflammation and associated ailments.

  13. Muscle atrophy induced in broiler chicks by parts of Senna occidentalis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraguchi, M; Calore, E E; Dagli, M L; Cavaliere, M J; Calore, N M; Weg, R; Raspantini, P C; Górniak, S L

    1998-06-01

    Senna occidentalis (formerly Cassia occidentalis) is a common contaminant of agricultural commodities. It is toxic to cattle and poultry, reportedly being responsible for skeletal myodegeneration in these animals. All parts of the plant present toxicity, but the seeds are the most toxic. The toxin(s) responsible for the myodegeneration have not been definitively identified, nor is it known which part of the seeds is most toxic. Intoxication by this plant leads to weight loss with considerable economic repercussions. The effects of the whole seed and of parts of S. occidentalis seeds (1% in commercial feed) were compared on the pectoralis major muscle of broiler chicks intoxicated from birth until 22 days of life. There were severe clinical signals and reduced body weight in birds that received the external tegment of the seed, whereas no adverse effects were observed in birds that received the whole seed or other parts of the seed. Histological and morphometric studies showed an intense muscle fibre atrophy (both type 1 and type 2 fibres were affected) in the group that received 1% external tegment. This study may be the first step to identifying the substance(s) involved in this pathological process.

  14. NOVEL INVESTIGATIONS ON THUJA OCCIDENTALIS EXTRACT ON RABBIT HEMATOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS

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    Mansoor Ahmad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Thuja occidentalis (family: Cupressaceae has been used as antiseptic, expectorant, diuretic and in the treatment of cancer and removal of kidney stones in different systems of medicine. The present studies were carried out on T. occidentalis leaves extract to evaluate the hematological and biochemical effects on rabbits. The animals were divided in to control (A and B and treated (C and D male and female groups (n=5. There was a slight decrease in Hemoglobin, Red blood cell count and Hematocrit/Packed cell volume values, while a significant increase in platelet count was observed in male and female treated groups. However, slight increase in total leukocyte count value in male treated group and decrease count with female treated group was also observed. Urea, Creatine phospho kinase, Creatine phospho kinase iso-enzyme, Direct Bilirubin, Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, Cholesterol and Albumin/Globulin ratio values were elevated in male treated group. While Phosphorus, Uric acid, Lactate dehydrogenase, Serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, Alkaline Phosphatase, Cholesterol, Triglycerides, High density lipoprotein, Low density lipoprotein, Very-low-density lipoprotein, Globulin and Blood Glucose values were found low. In female treated group almost same results were observed like male treated group except that hypoglycemic effect was more pronounced in female treated group. These findings suggested that when results of hematological and biochemical parameters of test groups (C & D were compared with their respective controls (A & B, significant changes were observed which contributes towards the diversified therapeutic effect of T. occidentalis.

  15. Resistance of Biomphalaria occidentalis from Varzea das Flores dam, Minas Gerais, to Schistosoma mansoni infection detected by low stringency polymerase chain reaction

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    Cecilia Pereira de Souza

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Biomphalaria occidentalis Paraense, 1981 from Varzea das Flores dam, MG, Brazil, was exposed to infection with Schistosoma mansoni. Individual infection was performed with 140 B. occidentalis and 100 B. glabrata snails using LE and SJ strains. Two groups of B. occidentalis were killed after seven day-miracidia exposure to detect S. mansoni DNA, through the low stringency polymerase chain reaction (LS-PCR, and were negative. The infection rates were 69.2% (LE strain and 96.7% (SJ strain for B. glabrata and 0% for B. occidentalis. LS-PCR enabled early resistance diagnosis.

  16. Radical-Scavenging Activity and Ferric Reducing Ability of Juniperus thurifera (L.), J. oxycedrus (L.), J. phoenicea (L.) and Tetraclinis articulata (L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Jemli, Meryem; Kamal, Rabie; Marmouzi, Ilias; Zerrouki, Asmae; Cherrah, Yahia; Alaoui, Katim

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this work is to study and compare the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of aqueous leaf extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus Phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata from Morocco. Methods. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging ability, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Also the total phenolic and flavonoids contents of the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. Results. All the extracts showed interesting antioxidant activities compared to the standard antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), quercetin, and Trolox). The aqueous extract of Juniperus oxycedrus showed the highest antioxidant activity as measured by DPPH, TEAC, and FRAP assays with IC50 values of 17.91 ± 0.37 μg/mL, 19.80 ± 0.55 μg/mL, and 24.23 ± 0.07 μg/mL, respectively. The strong correlation observed between antioxidant capacities and their total phenolic contents indicated that phenolic compounds were a major contributor to antioxidant properties of these plants extracts. Conclusion. These results suggest that the aqueous extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata can constitute a promising new source of natural compounds with antioxidants ability.

  17. Radical-Scavenging Activity and Ferric Reducing Ability of Juniperus thurifera (L., J. oxycedrus (L., J. phoenicea (L. and Tetraclinis articulata (L.

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    Meryem El Jemli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this work is to study and compare the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of aqueous leaf extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus Phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata from Morocco. Methods. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical-scavenging ability, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC, and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. Also the total phenolic and flavonoids contents of the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. Results. All the extracts showed interesting antioxidant activities compared to the standard antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, quercetin, and Trolox. The aqueous extract of Juniperus oxycedrus showed the highest antioxidant activity as measured by DPPH, TEAC, and FRAP assays with IC50 values of 17.91±0.37 μg/mL, 19.80±0.55 μg/mL, and 24.23±0.07 μg/mL, respectively. The strong correlation observed between antioxidant capacities and their total phenolic contents indicated that phenolic compounds were a major contributor to antioxidant properties of these plants extracts. Conclusion. These results suggest that the aqueous extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata can constitute a promising new source of natural compounds with antioxidants ability.

  18. Radical-Scavenging Activity and Ferric Reducing Ability of Juniperus thurifera (L.), J. oxycedrus (L.), J. phoenicea (L.) and Tetraclinis articulata (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Rabie; Marmouzi, Ilias; Zerrouki, Asmae; Cherrah, Yahia; Alaoui, Katim

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this work is to study and compare the antioxidant properties and phenolic contents of aqueous leaf extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus Phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata from Morocco. Methods. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging ability, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Also the total phenolic and flavonoids contents of the extracts were determined spectrophotometrically. Results. All the extracts showed interesting antioxidant activities compared to the standard antioxidants (butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), quercetin, and Trolox). The aqueous extract of Juniperus oxycedrus showed the highest antioxidant activity as measured by DPPH, TEAC, and FRAP assays with IC50 values of 17.91 ± 0.37 μg/mL, 19.80 ± 0.55 μg/mL, and 24.23 ± 0.07 μg/mL, respectively. The strong correlation observed between antioxidant capacities and their total phenolic contents indicated that phenolic compounds were a major contributor to antioxidant properties of these plants extracts. Conclusion. These results suggest that the aqueous extracts of Juniperus thurifera, Juniperus oxycedrus, Juniperus phoenicea, and Tetraclinis articulata can constitute a promising new source of natural compounds with antioxidants ability. PMID:27293428

  19. Essential oil composition and antioxidant activity of two Juniperus communis L. varieties growing wild in Serbia

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    Rajčević Nemanja F.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Juniperus L. (Cupressaceae consists of ca. 67 species and 34 varieties. Juniperus communis L. grows on dry hills or mountainous tracts and is widely distributed in the northern hemisphere. A typical variety J. communis L. var. communis was collected in Deliblatska peščara (Deliblato Sands and variety J. communis L. var. saxatilis Pall. in Kopaonik Mountain. Needle essential oils were obtained using Clevenger apparatus and analyzed using GC/MS and GC/FID. Antioxidant activity of essential oils was evaluated using DPPH assay. A total of 78 compounds were detected and identified. Both oils are characterized by high abundance of monoterpenes. The main constituents of J. communis var. communis essential oil were sabinene (39.4%, α-pinene (13.3%, myrcene (4.7% and terpinen-4-ol (3.7%, while J. communis var. saxatilis essential oil had α-pinene (34.9%, sabinene (20.3%, δ-3-carene (6.4% and germacrene B (6.3% as the most abundant components. DPPH test showed IC50 values 0.66 mg/ml for J. communis var. communis and 0.32 mg/ml for J. communis var. saxatilis. Although antioxidant activity was weaker than used standards (BHT and L-ascorbic acid it is still significant.

  20. Cytotoxicologic Studies of the Extracts of Iranian Juniperus Sabina and Platycladus Orientalis on Cancer Cells

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    A Jafarian-Dehkordi

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Isolation and identification of some potent anti-tumor compounds from medicinal plants, has motivated researchers to screen different parts of plant species for anti-tumor effects. It has been reported that several conifers posses cytotoxic activities on some human tumor cell lines. Methods: In this study male and female branchlets or fruits of two different species of Iranian conifers were collected from the northern parts of Iran and identified. Hydroalcoholic extracts of them were prepared by perculation. The cytotoxic effects of the extracts on three human tumor cell lines (Hela, KB, and MDA-MB-468 were determined. Different concentrations of extracts were added to cultured cells and incubated for 72 h. Cell survival was evaluated using MTT-based cytotoxicity assay. Cytotoxicity was considered when mor than 50% decrese was seen in cell survival. Results: Although the extracts from Platycladus orientalis significantly decreased Hela and MDA-MB-468 cell curvival, their effects were not considerable. Extracts from fruit and branchlets of male and female Juniperus sabina showed cytotoxic activities against Hela and MDA-MB-468 cells. Conclusion: It is concluded that extracts of J. sabin have cytotoxic effects on cancer cells. Keywords: Juniperus sabina, Platycladus orientalis, Cytotoxicity, MTT assay, Cancer cells.

  1. Neuroprotective Effect of Juniperus communis on Chlorpromazine Induced Parkinson Disease in Animal Model

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    Souravh Bais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated anti-Parkinson’s activity of methanolic extract of Juniperus communis (MEJC leaves in chlorpromazine (CPZ induced experimental animal model. In this study effects of Juniperus communis (100 and 200 mg/kg, i.p. were studied using various behavior parameters like catalepsy (bar test, muscle rigidity (rotarod test, and locomotor activity (actophotometer and its effect on neurochemical parameters (TBARS, GSH, nitrite, and total protein in rats. The experiment was designed, by giving chlorpromazine (3 mg/kg, i.p. for 21 days to induce Parkinson’s disease-like symptoms. Chlorpromazine significantly induced motor dysfunctions (catalepsy, muscle rigidity, and hypolocomotion in a period of 21 days. The MEJC significantly (P<0.001 reduced catalepsy and muscle rigidity and significantly (P<0.001 increased locomotor activity in rats. The maximum reduction was observed on the 21st day at a dose of 200 mg/kg (i.p.. The MEJC extract also showed an increase in the level of reduced gutathione (GSH (P<0.001 and total protein (P<0.001 and decreased the elevated levels of TBARS (P<0.001 and nitrite (P<0.001 preferably at a higher dose (200 mg/kg as compared to chlorpromazine group. Thus the present study showed the neuroprotective effect of MEJC against CPZ induced Parkinson’s disease-like symptoms or anti-Parkinson’s activity.

  2. Pharmacological explanation for the medicinal use of Juniperus excelsa in hyperactive gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Munasib; Khan, Arif-ullah; Najeeb-ur-Rehman; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan

    2012-04-01

    Crude extract of Juniperus excelsa (JeExt), which tested positive for the presence of anthraquinone, flavonoids, saponins, sterols, terpenes and tannin, exhibited a protective effect against castor oil-induced diarrhoea in mice at 100-1000 mg/kg. In rabbit jejunum preparations, JeExt (0.01-1.0 mg/mL) caused relaxation of spontaneous and K(+) (80 mM)-induced contractions at similar concentrations to papaverine, whereas verapamil was relatively more potent against K(+). JeExt (0.03-0.3 mg/mL) shifted Ca(2+) concentration-response curves to the right, like papaverine or verapamil. JeExt (0.003-0.01 mg/mL) caused a leftward shift of isoprenaline-induced inhibitory concentration-response curves, similar to papaverine. JeExt (1.0-30 mg/kg) caused suppression of carbachol (CCh, 100 μg/kg)-induced increase in inspiratory pressure of anaesthetized rats. In guinea-pig trachea, JeExt (0.001-3.0 mg/mL) relaxed CCh (1 μM)- and high K(+)-induced contractions and shifted isoprenaline-induced inhibitory curves to the left. This study suggests that Juniperus excelsa possibly exhibits a combination of Ca(2+) antagonist and phosphodiesterase inhibitory effects, which provides a pharmacological basis for its traditional use in disorders of gut and airways hyperactivity, such as diarrhoea, colic and asthma.

  3. High genetic diversity with moderate differentiation in Juniperus excelsa from Lebanon and the eastern Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douaihy, Bouchra; Vendramin, Giovanni G.; Boratyński, Adam; Machon, Nathalie; Bou Dagher-Kharrat, Magda

    2011-01-01

    Background and aims Juniperus excelsa is an important woody species in the high mountain ecosystems of the eastern Mediterranean Basin where it constitutes the only coniferous species found at the tree line. The genetic diversity within and among J. excelsa populations of the eastern Mediterranean Basin is studied in the light of their historical fragmentation. Methodology Nuclear microsatellites originally developed for Juniperus communis and J. przewalskii were tested on 320 individuals from 12 different populations originating from Lebanon, Turkey, Cyprus, Greece and the Ukraine. Principal results Among the 31 nuclear microsatellite primers tested, only three produced specific amplification products, with orthology confirmed by sequence analysis. They were then used for genetic diversity studies. The mean number of alleles and the expected heterozygosity means were Na=8.78 and He=0.76, respectively. The fixation index showed a significant deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium and an excess of homozygotes (FIS=0.27–0.56). A moderate level of genetic differentiation was observed among the populations (FST=0.075, P2000 m) in Lebanon. These populations were differentiated from the other populations that are grouped into three sub-clusters. Conclusions High levels of genetic diversity were observed at species and population levels. The high level of differentiation in the high-mountain Lebanese populations reflects a long period of isolation or possibly a different origin. The admixture observed in other populations from Lebanon suggests a more recent separation from the Turkish–southeastern European populations. PMID:22476474

  4. Evaluation of fruit extracts of six Turkish Juniperus species for their antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Mehmet; Tümen, İbrahim; Uğur, Aysel; Aydoğmuş-Öztürk, Fatma; Topçu, Gülaçtı

    2011-03-30

    Juniperus L. (Cupressaceae) species are mostly spread out in the Northern Hemisphere of the world, and some of them are used as folkloric medicines. The fruits of some species are eaten. Since oxidative stress is one of the reasons for neurodegeneration and is associated with the Alzheimer's disease (AD), the extracts prepared from the fruits of six Juniperus species were screened for their antioxidant activity. Therefore, the extracts were also evaluated against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), which are chief enzymes in the pathogenesis of AD. In addition, antimicrobial activity was also evaluated. In the β-carotene-linoleic acid assay, acetone extracts of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, J. sabina and J. excelsa, and methanol extracts of J. phoenicea and J. sabina, effectively inhibited oxidation of linoleic acid. The hexane extracts of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, J. foetidissima and J. phoenicea showed remarkable inhibitory effect against AChE and BChE. Because of their high antioxidant activity, J. excelsa, J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus, J. sabina and J. phoenicia might be used in the food industry as preservative agents or extension of the shelf-life of raw and processed foods. Since the hexane extracts of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus and J. foetidissima demonstrated significant anticholinesterase activity they should be considered as a potential source for anticholinesterase agents. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Composition and antimicrobial properties of Sardinian Juniperus essential oils against foodborne pathogens and spoilage microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Sofia; Barra, Andrea; Pisano, Barbara; Cabizza, Maddalena; Pirisi, Filippo Maria; Palmas, Francesca

    2003-07-01

    In this work, the chemical compositions and antimicrobial properties of Juniperus essential oils and of their main components were determined. Five berry essential oils obtained from different species of Juniperus growing wild in Sardinia were analyzed. The components of the essential oils were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. The antimicrobial activities of the oils and their components against food spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms were determined by a broth microdilution method. The GC-MS analysis showed a certain variability in the concentrations of the main constituents of the oils. Alpha-pinene was largely predominant in the oils of the species J. phoenicea subsp. turbinata and J. oxycedrus. Alpha-pinene and myrcene constituted the bulk (67.56%) of the essential oil of J. communis. Significant quantitative differences were observed for myrcene, delta-3-carene, and D-germacrene. The results of the antimicrobial assay show that the oils of J. communis and J. oxycedrus failed to inhibit any of the microorganisms at the highest concentrations tested (MLC > or = 900 microg/ml), while the oils extracted from J. turbinata specimens were active against fungi, particularly against a strain of Aspergillus flavus (an aflatoxin B1 producer). Of the single compounds tested, delta-3-carene was found to possess the broadest spectrum of activity and appeared to contribute significantly to the antifungal activity observed for J. turbinata oils. This activity may be helpful in the prevention of aflatoxin contamination for many foods.

  6. High genetic diversity with moderate differentiation in Juniperus excelsa from Lebanon and the eastern Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douaihy, Bouchra; Vendramin, Giovanni G; Boratyński, Adam; Machon, Nathalie; Bou Dagher-Kharrat, Magda

    2011-01-01

    Juniperus excelsa is an important woody species in the high mountain ecosystems of the eastern Mediterranean Basin where it constitutes the only coniferous species found at the tree line. The genetic diversity within and among J. excelsa populations of the eastern Mediterranean Basin is studied in the light of their historical fragmentation. Nuclear microsatellites originally developed for Juniperus communis and J. przewalskii were tested on 320 individuals from 12 different populations originating from Lebanon, Turkey, Cyprus, Greece and the Ukraine. Among the 31 nuclear microsatellite primers tested, only three produced specific amplification products, with orthology confirmed by sequence analysis. They were then used for genetic diversity studies. The mean number of alleles and the expected heterozygosity means were N(a)=8.78 and H(e)=0.76, respectively. The fixation index showed a significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and an excess of homozygotes (F(IS)=0.27-0.56). A moderate level of genetic differentiation was observed among the populations (F(ST)=0.075, P2000 m) in Lebanon. These populations were differentiated from the other populations that are grouped into three sub-clusters. High levels of genetic diversity were observed at species and population levels. The high level of differentiation in the high-mountain Lebanese populations reflects a long period of isolation or possibly a different origin. The admixture observed in other populations from Lebanon suggests a more recent separation from the Turkish-southeastern European populations.

  7. Differential Consumption of Eastern Red Cedar (Juniperus virginiana) by Avian and Mammalian Guilds: Implications for Tree Invasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased abundance of eastern redcedar (Juniperus virginianus), a native but invasive species in the Great Plains, has been associated with changes in ecosystem functioning and landscape cover. Knowledge of the main consumers and dispersal agents of eastern redcedar fruits is e...

  8. Tree Removal as a Mechanism to Reverse Ecohydrologic Thresholds in Pinyon- and Juniper-Encroached Shrublands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. J.; Pierson, F. B.; Nouwakpo, S.; Weltz, M.

    2016-12-01

    Pinyon and juniper encroachment has altered vegetation structure, ecological condition, hydrologic function, and delivery of ecosystem goods and services on millions of hectares of sagebrush rangelands in the western US. Pinyon and juniper out-compete shrubs and herbaceous vegetation for water and nutrients and facilitate a decline in vigor and cover of understory plants. These cover declines educe a shift from biotic-controlled resource retention to abiotic-driven losses of critical soil resources over time (soil erosion feedback). Our research objective was to evaluate tree removal by mastication, burning, and cutting as a threshold-reversal mechanism for restoration of sagebrush steppe ecohydrologic resilience over a ten year period. We examined vegetation, soils, infiltration, runoff, and erosion from artificial rainfall and concentrated flow experiments across multiple scales in two late succession woodlands before and 1, 2, and 10 yr after tree removal to address two research questions: 1) Can tree removal decrease late-succession woodland ecohydrologic resilience by increasing vegetation and ground cover within the first 10 yr post-treatment?, and 2) Is the soil erosion feedback reversible in the later stages of woodland encroachment? Distributing shredded tree debris into bare areas improved infiltration and reduced soil erosion in the first few years following tree mastication. Cutting and placing downed trees in bare patches had no initial effect on runoff and erosion. Burning initially reduced infiltration and increased runoff and erosion at the sites, but favorable grass and forb cover recruitment 2 yr after burning reduced erosion from the mostly bare intercanopy between tree mounds. Our presentation of the overall study will chronicle these published pre-fire, 1 yr, and 2 yr responses and preliminary results from the 10th yr post-treatment to address the questions outlined above. The collective results advance understanding of pinyon and juniper

  9. Presence and structure of the wart layer in tracheids of some junipers as visualised in the scanning electron micscope

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    Józef Kocoń

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence and structure of the wart layer was investigated in the tracheids of the following juniper species: J. communis L., J. communis var. saxatilis Pall., J. sabina L., J. virginiana L., J. chinensis L. and J. squamata Lamb. The wart layer was found to be present in the tracheids of the stem, roots and branches of spring and summer growths, thus, it is an integral element of their structure. It would seem that this layer is a trait of these juniper species and may be one of the taxonomic features of their wood.

  10. High Endoatmospheric Defense Interceptor (HEDI) Technology Testing Program Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-31

    deppeana ), and one variety of seed juniper ( Juniperus monosperma) are the visually dominant tree species in this community. However, a large number of...outcrops, with intervening benches and slopes containing the pinyon juniper plant community. Pinyon pine (Plni edulii), alligator juniper ( Juniperus

  11. Ineficiência da Thuja occidentalis no tratamento dos poxvirus aviários Thuja occidentalis ineficiency in avian poxviruses treatment

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    Thaís Castelo Branco Chaves

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Medicações à base de Tuia (Thuja occidentalis são comuns em tratamentos homeopáticos e fitoterápicos, na medicina humana e veterinária. Suas propriedades imunoestimulantes e antivirais são descritas e sua utilização empírica no tratamento das poxviroses aviárias é recomendada por criadores e veterinários. Para avaliar o potencial terapêutico da Tuia sobre estas infecções, dois grupos (controle e teste de dez aves jovens foram inoculados por escarificação, com uma amostra de campo de poxvírus aviário. As aves inoculadas foram examinadas diariamente, quanto ao início e evolução das lesões, registrando-se o número e tamanho destas, até a cicatrização. Após o surgimento das lesões, o grupo teste recebeu a tintura alcoólica diluída na água de consumo. A análise experimental indicou que, nas condições empregadas, a utilização da Tuia não favoreceu a regressão ou restrição no desenvolvimento das lesões de pele promovidas pela infecção experimental.Arbor Vitae (Thuja occidentalis is widely used in homoeopathic and phytotherapic treatments,either for human or for animals. Its immunestimulating and antiviral properties have been described and its empiric use in the treatment of the avian poxvirosis is recommended by animal breeders and veterinarians. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of Arbor Vitae in these infections, two groups (control and test of 10 young birds were inoculated by scarification with a field sample of avian poxvirus. When lesions were first observed the test group received the Arbor Vitae alcoholic extract diluted in the drinking water. The birds were examined daily, from the beginning and evolution of the lesions to the healing. The results indicated that, in our experimental conditions, the use of T. occidentalis did not favor the regression or restriction in the development of the skin lesions promoted by the experimental infection.

  12. Comparative biology and pesticide susceptibility of Amblydromella caudiglans and Galendromus occidentalis as spider mite predators in apple orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Jeffris, Rebecca A; Beers, Elizabeth H

    2015-09-01

    The successful integrated mite management program for Washington apples was based on conservation of the mite predator Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt). In the 1960s, this mite was assumed to be the only phytoseiid in Washington commercial apple orchards, due to its preference for the most common mite pest of that period, Tetranychus mcdanieli McGregor, as well as its resistance to organophosphate pesticides. A recent survey of phytoseiids in Washington apple found that another phytoseiid, Amblydromella caudiglans (Schuster) has become common. It is a more generalized predator than G. occidentalis (it is not a Tetranychus spp. specialist) and is not known to be organophosphate-resistant. A series of experiments was conducted to compare the life history, prey consumption, and pesticide tolerance of these two species. Galendromus occidentalis developed more quickly than A. caudiglans, but had slightly lower egg survival. Although A. caudiglans attacked more Tetranychus urticae Koch eggs than G. occidentalis, it could not reproduce on this diet. Both predators performed equally well on a diet of T. urticae protonymphs. Unlike G. occidentalis, A. caudiglans experienced significant mortality when exposed to carbaryl, azinphosmethyl, and bifenazate. Both predators experienced significant mortality due to imidacloprid and spinetoram. These results highlight the key differences between these two predators; the shift away from organophosphate use as well as the change in dominant mite pest to Panonychus ulmi (Koch) may be driving factors for the observed increased abundance of A. caudiglans in Washington apple.

  13. Genetic differentiation and inferred dynamics of a hybrid zone between Northern Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis caurina) and California Spotted Owls (S. o. occidentalis) in northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark P.; Mullins, Tom; Forsman, Eric D.; Haig, Susan M.

    2017-01-01

    Genetic differentiation among Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis) subspecies has been established in prior studies. These investigations also provided evidence for introgression and hybridization among taxa but were limited by a lack of samples from geographic regions where subspecies came into close contact. We analyzed new sets of samples from Northern Spotted Owls (NSO: S. o. caurina) and California Spotted Owls (CSO: S. o. occidentalis) in northern California using mitochondrial DNA sequences (mtDNA) and 10 nuclear microsatellite loci to obtain a clearer depiction of genetic differentiation and hybridization in the region. Our analyses revealed that a NSO population close to the northern edge of the CSO range in northern California (the NSO Contact Zone population) is highly differentiated relative to other NSO populations throughout the remainder of their range. Phylogenetic analyses identified a unique lineage of mtDNA in the NSO Contact Zone, and Bayesian clustering analyses of the microsatellite data identified the Contact Zone as a third distinct population that is differentiated from CSO and NSO found in the remainder of the subspecies' range. Hybridization between NSO and CSO was readily detected in the NSO Contact Zone, with over 50% of individuals showing evidence of hybrid ancestry. Hybridization was also identified among 14% of CSO samples, which were dispersed across the subspecies' range in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. The asymmetry of hybridization suggested that the hybrid zone may be dynamic and moving. Although evidence of hybridization existed, we identified no F1 generation hybrid individuals. We instead found evidence for F2 or backcrossed individuals among our samples. The absence of F1 hybrids may indicate that (1) our 10 microsatellites were unable to distinguish hybrid types, (2) primary interactions between subspecies are occurring elsewhere on the landscape, or (3) dispersal between the subspecies' ranges is reduced relative to

  14. Pinus monophylla establishment in an expanding Pinus-Juniperus woodland: Environmental conditions, facilitation and interacting factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chambers, Jeanne C. [USDA Forest Service, Reno, NV (United States). Rocky Mountain Research Station

    2001-02-01

    The tree species comprising Pinus-Juniperus woodlands are rapidly expanding into shrub-grasslands throughout their range. Observational studies indicate that establishment is facilitated by nurse plants, but little information exists on the mechanisms involved. I examined both abiotic and biotic factors influencing Pinus monophylla establishment in Artemisia tridentata steppe with expanding populations of P. monophylla and Juniperus osteosperma. I also examined the effects of seed burial and predation on seedling establishment. Microhabitats under trees and shrubs had higher extractable P and K, higher organic matter, total nitrogen and cation exchange capacity than interspace microhabitats. Soil water contents (0-15 cm) were lower in interspaces than under shrubs or trees due to dry surface (0-5 cm) soils. Soil temperatures (at 1 and 15 cm) were lowest under trees, intermediate under shrubs, and highest in interspaces. Timing and rate of seedling emergence were temperature dependent with the order of emergence paralleling mean growing season temperatures: tree interspace = shrub interspace > under shrub > under Juniperus {>=} under Pinus. Seed burial was required for rooting and the highest emergence occurred from depths of 1 and 3 cm indicating that caching by birds and rodents is essential and that animals bury seeds at adequate if not optimal depths for emergence. Seedlings required micro-environmental modification for survival; all seedlings, including those that emerged from seeds and transplants, died within the first year in interspace microhabitats. Survival in under-tree or under-shrub microhabitats depended on soil water availability and corresponded closely to soil water contents over the 3-yr study. Under-shrub microhabitats had more favourable soil and micro-environmental characteristics than under-tree microhabitats and had the highest seedling life spans for the first-year seedling cohort. Predation of Pinus seedlings by rodents was a significant

  15. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Potential of Phenol-Rich Fraction of Juniperus communis Linn. Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ved, Akash; Gupta, Amresh; Rawat, Ajay Kumar Singh

    2017-01-01

    Background: Juniperus communis Linn. is an important plant in India traditional system of medicine which is widely used by different tribes in many countries. Objective: In the present study, the antioxidant, cytotoxic and hepatoprotective activities of Juniperus communis leaves were investigated against various models. Materials and Methods: ethanolic extract (70% v/v) of J. communis leaves was successively extracted using hexane and ethyl acetate to prepare various fractions. Total phenol content was resolute by the Folin-Ciocalteau's process. The antioxidant properties of the different fractions/extract of leaves of J. communis were examined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and Fe2+ chelating ability. Cytotoxic activity was examined by cell viability assay on HepG2 cells. Hepatoprotective activity of ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) evaluated against PCM-Paracetamol-induced hepatic damage in Wistar albino rats. Results: Total phenol content was found maximum 315.33 mg/GAE/g in EAF. Significant scavenging activity were found for EAF (IC50 = 177 μg/ml) as compared to standard BHT (IC50 = 138 μg/ml), while EAF showed good Fe2+ chelating ability having an IC50 value of 261 mg/ML compared to standard ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (7.7 mg/mL). It was found that EAF treated group shows remarkable decrease in serum Aspartate aminotransferase, serum Alanine aminotransferase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase level in treatment group as compared to the hepatotoxic group. Conclusion: EAF of J. communis leaves is found to be potent antioxidant and hepatoprotective without any cytotoxicity and it can also be included in nutraceuticals with notable benefits for mankind or animal health. SUMMARY Phenol-rich fraction (PRF) and other fractions/extract of Juniperus communis leaves were screened for antioxidant, cytotoxic, and hepatoprotective activity.Significant antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity without any

  16. Frijolito Watershed: Integrated investigations of a rapidly eroding pinyon-juniper hillslope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, B.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Pitlick, J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Geography; Allen, C.D. [National Biological Survey, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The dramatic acceleration of erosion associated with the expansion of pinyon-juniper woodlands over the past 100 years has been widely recognized, but few process-based studies of this phenomenon have been undertaken. In an attempt to identify the underlying causes, and the factors that affect erosion processes, we have initiated an interdisciplinary study of a rapidly eroding pinyon-juniper woodland in northern New Mexico. Since July 1993, we have collected data on runoff, erosion, and weather conditions from a 1-ha catchment study area and have conducted surveys of topography, soils, and vegetation. Our preliminary results indicate that although runoff makes up less than 10% of the annual water budget, runoff events - which are frequent in the summer - are capable of moving large amounts of sediment. We estimate that between July 1993 and October 1994, between 25,000 and 50,000 kg of sediment has eroded and been transported from the catchment. The information gained from such studies is essential to our ability to formulate effective strategies for managing these rapidly eroding woodlands.

  17. Detection of soil erosion within pinyon-juniper woodlands using Thematic Mapper (TM) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Kevin P.

    1993-01-01

    Multispectral measurements collected by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) were correlated with field measurements, direct soil loss estimates, and Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) estimates to determine the sensitivity of TM data to varying degrees of soil erosion in pinyon-juniper woodland in central Utah. TM data were also evaluated as a predictor of the USLE Crop Management C factor for pinyon-juniper woodlands. TM spectral data were consistently better predictors of soil erosion factors than any combination of field factors. TM data were more sensitive to vegetation variations than the USLE C factor. USLE estimates showed low annual rates of erosion which varied little among the study sites. Direct measurements of rate of soil loss using the SEDIMENT (Soil Erosion DIrect measureMENT) technique, indicated high and varying rates of soil loss among the sites since tree establishment. Erosion estimates from the USLE and SEDIMENT methods suggest that erosion rates have been severe in the past, but because significant amounts of soil have already been eroded, and the surface is now armored by rock debris, present erosion rates are lower. Indicators of accelerated erosion were still present on all sites, however, suggesting that the USLE underestimated erosion within the study area.

  18. Genetic structure, introgression, and a narrow hybrid zone between northern and California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrowclough, G F; Groth, J G; Mertz, L A; Gutiérrez, R J

    2005-04-01

    The northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) is a threatened subspecies and the California spotted owl (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) is a subspecies of special concern in the western United States. Concern for their continued viability has arisen because of habitat loss caused by timber harvesting. The taxonomic status of the northern subspecies has been the subject of continuing controversy. We investigated the phylogeographical and population genetic structure of northern and California spotted owls with special reference to their region of contact. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences confirmed the existence of two well-differentiated lineages connected by a narrow hybrid zone in a region of low population density in north central California. Maximum-likelihood estimates indicated bidirectional gene flow between the lineages but limited introgression outside the region of contact. The lengths of both the mtDNA hybrid zone and the reduced density patch were similar and slightly exceeded estimates of natal dispersal distances. This suggests that the two subspecies were in secondary contact in a hybrid zone trapped by a population density trough. Consequently, the zone of interaction is expected to be geographically stable. We discovered a third, rare clade of haplotypes, which we interpreted to be a result of incomplete lineage sorting; those haplotypes result in a paraphyletic northern spotted owl with respect to the California spotted owl. A congeneric species, the barred owl (Strix varia), occasionally hybridizes with spotted owls; our results indicated an upper bound for the frequency of barred owl mtDNA haplotypes in northern spotted owl populations of 3%.

  19. Sublethal Effects of Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) on Life Table Parameters of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Reitz, Stuart R; Wang, Haihong; Lei, Zhongren

    2015-06-01

    We assessed effects of parental exposure to Beauveria bassiana on life history traits of subsequent generations of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Progeny from individuals that survived fungal exposure as second instars had significantly shorter egg stages, but longer prepupal development times than corresponding untreated controls. However, survivorship to adulthood of these progeny groups did not differ. Although fecundities of the parental types did not differ, the sex ratio of progeny from fungal-treated parents was male-biased, whereas sex ratio of progeny from untreated control parents was even. We calculated life table parameters for the progeny and found that all parameters, except for generation time, were significantly less for the progeny of fungal-treated parents than for progeny of untreated parents. The intrinsic rate of increase, finite rate of increase, net reproductive rate, mean generation time, and gross reproductive rate were 0.199 d(-1), 1.229 d(-1), 21.84, 15.48 d, and 27.273, respectively, for progeny of treated thrips, and 0.266 d(-1), 1.316 d(-1), 52.540, 14.92 d, and 70.64, respectively, for progeny of control thrips. Consequently, population projections demonstrated that offspring of parents exposed to B. bassiana would increase their population more slowly than those from untreated parents. These results demonstrate that B. bassiana has sublethal effects that reduce the reproductive success of F. occidentalis and these effects should be taken into account when evaluating its use in management programs for F. occidentalis.

  20. Phytochemical screening and acute toxicity evaluation of Telfairia occidentalis aqueous extracts on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Ogbonnaya Enyinnaya; Ojeifo, Uadia Patrick

    2016-05-01

    The phytochemical composition and acute toxicity of Telfairia occidentalis aqueous extracts were investigated in this study. Phytochemical screening was carried out on the pulverized leaf, root, pod and stem samples. Proximate analysis was also conducted for the root to ascertain the effect of drying procedures on its composition. Fifty-six (56) Wister albino rats, male and female were divided into two broad groups of 28 animals per group. The first group was randomly separated into seven (7) groups of four (4) animals per group. The control group received distilled water alone while the other groups received varied doses (1500mg/kg, 2250mg/kg and 3000mg/kg) of the Soluble and Insoluble Tefairia occidentalis root fraction. The second group of 28 animals was also distributed into 7 groups of 4 animals per group. Six test groups received varied doses (1500mg/kg, 2250mg/kg and 3000mg/kg) of Telfairia occidentalis fruit and stem extracts. The animals were observed for the first 12hr for any toxic symptoms and for 48 hr for mortality rate. Surviving animals were sacrificed after 48 hours. Phytochemical screening results reveal the presence of tannins, flavonoid, steroid, terpenoids, saponin, alkaloid, glycosides, proteins and carbohydrates. Flavonoid and saponin was not detected in stem sample; alkaloid is present in all samples except pod; and cyanogenic glycoside was found in both root and pod samples. Except for the fibre content, the method of preparation of the root had no significant effect on the proximate composition of the sample. The root extracts cause insignificant reduction in Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, except for the significant reduction in ALT activity at highest dose. The pod extract significantly increased the ALT and AST activities, which is dose dependent, while the stem extract only caused increased activity of ALT, but not AST. None of the extracts administered had any significant effect on the

  1. Rubus occidentalis: The black raspberry--its potential in the prevention of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Marta; Krauze-Baranowska, Mirosława

    2016-01-01

    Rubus occidentalis is a black-fruited raspberry originating from North America. Its popularity and demand has been growing over the years, as studies outline its high anthocyanin and ellagitannin content and significance for human health. Interaction between chemical composition and pharmacological activity, mechanisms of action at cellular and molecular levels are all active areas of study. The vast majority of research concerning black raspberries is focused on chemoprevention and anticancer effects. This review summarizes the data on chemical composition and anticancer activity of black raspberry fruits throughout the years.

  2. Botanical and genetic characteristics of Celtis australis L. and Celtis occidentalis L. grown in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Shahat M.A. El-Alfy

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Celtis australis L. and Celtis occidentalis L. are deciduous ornamental trees, grown in Egypt. This study presents a comparative investigation of the botanical features of the stems, stem barks and leaves of both plants. Furthermore, the DNA of both plants was extracted from leaf samples and analyzed using 10 decamer random primers. A total of 159 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers were identified. Seed protein profiling was also performed and revealed low variation in both plants’ SDS–PAGE profiles.

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal community composition associated with Juniperus brevifolia in native Azorean forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Catarina Drumonde; Luna, Sara; Krüger, Claudia; Walker, Christopher; Mendonça, Duarte; Fonseca, Henrique M. A. C.; Jaizme-Vega, Maria; da Câmara Machado, Artur

    2017-02-01

    The communities of glomeromycotan fungi (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, AMF) under native Juniperus brevifolia forest from two Azorean islands, Terceira and São Miguel, were compared, mainly by spore morphology, and when possible, by molecular analysis. Thirty-nine morphotypes were detected from 12 genera. Glomeromycotan fungal richness was similar in Terceira and São Miguel, but significantly different among the four fragments of native forest. Spore diversity and community composition differed significantly between the two islands. The less degraded island, Terceira, showed 10 exclusive morphotypes including more rare types, whereas the more disturbed forest on São Miguel showed 13 morphs, mostly of common types. Forests from Terceira were dominated by Acaulosporaceae and Glomeraceae. Whereas members of Acaulosporaceae, Glomeraceae and Ambisporaceae were most frequent and abundant in those from São Miguel. Spore abundance was greatest on Terceira, and correlated with soil chemical properties (pH), average monthly temperature and relative humidity.

  4. Chemical composition and antibacterial activities of the essential oils isolated from Juniperus thurifera L. var. Africana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, F; Harrak, R; Achak, N; Romane, A

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the chemical composition and antibacterial activities of essential oils of Moroccan Juniperus thurifera L. var. Africana (Cupressaceae). The essential oil of dried leaves was isolated by hydrodistillation, vapohydrodistillation and microwaves. Sixty-four compounds in J. thurifera L. var. Africana oils were identified (79.9%, 92.4% and 98.4% of the oil, respectively). The most abundant compound in J. thurifera L. var. Africana oils is sabinene (38%, 36.2% and 39.4%). Antibacterial activities of J. thurifera essential oils was tested against bacteria Gram ( - ) and Gram (+). The oil is very active against all bacteria tested except Pseudomonas, which turned out to be very resistant.

  5. Isolation of deoxypodophyllotoxin and podophyllotoxin from Juniperus sabina by high speed counter current chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y.; Yang, Y.; Chen, Q.; Kasimu, R.; Aisa, H.A.

    2016-11-01

    Deoxypodophyllotoxin and podophyllotoxin are known for their excellent anti-proliferative and anti-tumor activities, therefore large amount of pure compounds is urgently needed as authentic standards for various in vivo and in vitro studies. In this paper, an effective, rapid separation and purification method of deoxypodophyllotoxin and podophyllotoxin from the crude extract of Juniperus sabina was established using high speed counter current chromatography (HSCCC). HSCCC was performed with atwo phase solvent system comprising of n-hexane-ethylacetate-methanol-water (3:5:3:5, v/v) at the flow rate of 2mL/min at the speed of 850 rpm. 34.8 mg of deoxypodophyllotoxin and 7.9 mg of podophyllotoxin were obtained from 200 mg crude sample with a purity of 96.5% and 94.4%, respectively, as determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). (Author)

  6. Female Cone Development in Fokienia, Cupressus, Chamaecyparis and Juniperus (Cupressaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGQuan; Sodmergen; HUYu-Shi; LINJin-Xing

    2004-01-01

    The ontogeny and vascular systems of female cones of the Fokienia, Oupressus, Ohamaecyparis and Juniperus were investigated in detail using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and conventional light microscopy. In the species examined, in the axils of the bracts, the first recognizable structure was a broad meristematic swelling, from which ovules developed. No ovuliferous scales developed during the ontogeny of the female cones. The number of ovules and ovule developing sequence displayed considerable variation in different species. However, development of the bracts was similar in all of the investigated species. Following pollination, the foliage-like bracts became peltate bract scales due to intercalary expansion, and global cones formed. In addition, the vascular system in the bract scales became intricate, and inverted vascular bundles emerged in the adaxial of the mature bracts. Based on these observations, a morphological interpretation and possible evolutionary trend of the Cupressaceae female reproductive structures was discussed.

  7. The hydraulic architecture of Juniperus communis L. ssp. communis: shrubs and trees compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beikircher, Barbara; Mayr, Stefan

    2008-11-01

    Juniperus communis ssp. communis can grow like a shrub or it can develop a tree-like habit. In this study, the hydraulic architecture of these contrasting growth forms was compared. We analysed the hydraulic efficiency (leaf-specific conductivity, k(l); specific conductivity, k(s); Huber value, HV) and the vulnerability to cavitation (the water potential corresponding to a 50% loss of conductivity, Psi(50)), as well as anatomical parameters [mean tracheid diameter, d; mean hydraulic diameter, d(h); cell wall reinforcement (t/b)(h)(2)] of shrub shoots, tree stems and tree branches. Shrub shoots were similar to tree branches (especially to lower branches) in growth form and conductivity (k(l) = 1.93 +/- 0.11 m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1) 10(-7), k(s) = 5.71 +/- 0.19 m(2) s(-1) MPa(-1) 10(-4)), but were similar to tree stems in their vulnerability to cavitation (Psi(50) = -5.81 +/- 0.08 MPa). Tree stems showed extraordinarily high k(l) and k(s) values, and HV increased from the base up. Stem xylem was more vulnerable to cavitation than branch xylem, where Psi(50) increased from lower (Psi(50) = -6.44 +/- 0.19 MPa) to upper branches (Psi(50) = -5.98 +/- 0.13 MPa). Conduit diameters were correlated with k(l) and k(s). Data indicate that differences in hydraulic architecture correspond to changes in growth form. In some aspects, the xylem hydraulics of tree-like Juniperus communis differs from that of other coniferous tree species.

  8. Chemical composition of the essential oils of the berries of Juniperus oxycedrus L. ssp. rufescens (L. K.) and Juniperus oxycedrus L. ssp. macrocarpa (S. & m.) Ball. and their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanène, Medini; Ameur, Elaissi; Larbi, Khouja Med; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Falconieri, Danilo; Marongiu, Bruno; Farhat, Farhat; Chemli, Rachid

    2012-01-01

    This study is outlined to probe the chemical composition of essential oil and in vitro antioxidant activity of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa (S. & m.) Ball. and Juniperus oxycedrus L. ssp. rufescens (L. K.) berries, collected from four sites, according to their maturity phase. The chemical composition of the hydrodistilled essential oil was analysed by GC-MS. Forty-eight compounds were identified, accounting for approximately 79.8-98.9% of the oil. The main constituents were α-pinene, germacrene D, myrcene, abietadiene and cis-calamenene, their mean percentage vary according to their phenological stage. The antioxidant activity of the samples was determined by the ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities. Hawaria essential oil extracted from mature berries showed the highest antioxidant capacity.

  9. Notes on the breeding ecology and conservation of snowy plovers Charadrius nivosus occidentalis in Paracas, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Küpper

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The snowy plover is a shorebird endemic to the Americas. It consists of three subspecies. In South America the subspecies occidentalis is found along the coast of the Pacific ocean. Although breeding behaviour,population demography and reproductive success are well established in North America, little is known about these ecological parameters for occidentalis snowy plovers. In October 2008 we studied breeding ecology of snowy plovers in the National Reserve Paracas, Ica, Peru. Snowy plovers were found at all nine sandy beaches and coastal wetlands visited. Based on counts we estimate the population in Paracas to consist of a minimum of 500 snowy plovers. Evidence for breeding activity was found at six of nine sites. Most breeding activity was observed at Playón/Mendieta, surrounding a temporal salt lagoon. Two nests and ten families were found in the entire reserve. In total 24 chicks, eight males and seven females were captured and marked. Families were tended by both parents. Twenty-one of the chicks had perished by the end of the study. During the intense study period none of the marked chicks reached the fledgling age of 25 days and only one chick was confirmed to have fledged during a subsequent visit. Our observations highlight threads during the snowy plover reproduc- tive period that need to be addressed through conservation management and we suggest direct actions to counter the threads identified.

  10. Cloning, sequencing and expression of the Schwanniomyces occidentalis NADP-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Zoysa, P A; Connerton, I F; Watson, D C; Johnston, J R

    1991-08-01

    The cloned NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) genes of Aspergillus nidulans (gdhA) and Neurospora crassa (am) have been shown to hybridize under reduced stringency conditions to genomic sequences of the yeast Schwanniomyces occidentalis. Using 5' and 3' gene-specific probes, a unique 5.1 kb BclI restriction fragment that encompasses the entire Schwanniomyces sequence has been identified. A recombinant clone bearing the unique BclI fragment has been isolated from a pool of enriched clones in the yeast/E. coli shuttle vector pWH5 by colony hybridization. The identity of the plasmid clone was confirmed by functional complementation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae gdh-1 mutation. The nucleotide sequence of the Schw. occidentalis GDH gene, which consists of 1380 nucleotides in a continuous reading frame of 459 amino acids, has been determined. The predicted amino acid sequence shows considerable homology with GDH proteins from other fungi and significant homology with all other available GDH sequences.

  11. Anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and anti-lipidperoxidant effects of Cassia occidentalis Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreejith, G; Latha, P G; Shine, V J; Anuja, G I; Suja, S R; Sini, S; Shyama, S; Pradeep, S; Shikha, P; Rajasekharan, S

    2010-05-01

    Cassia occidentalis Linn. mast cell degranulation at a dose of 250 mg/kg, showed dose dependent stabilizing activity towards human RBC, with is widely used in traditional medicine of India to treat a number of clinical conditions including allergy and inflammatory manifestations. In the present study anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of C. occidentalis whole plant ethanolic extract (CO) was investigated. Effects of CO on rat mast cell degranulation inhibition and human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization were studied in vitro following standard methods. The anti lipidperoxidant effects of CO were also studied in vitro. Effect of CO on carrageenan-induced mouse paw oedema inhibition was also assessed. CO significantly decreased maximum protection of 80.8% at 15 microg/ml. The extract also caused significant reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of murine hepatic microsomes at 100 microg/ml (56%) and significantly reduced carrageenan induced inflammation in mice at a dose of 250 mg/kg. Results of the present study indicated that CO inhibited mast cell degranulation, stabilized HRBC membrane thereby alleviating immediate hypersensitivity besides showing anti oxidant activity.

  12. Cloning and characterization of cinnamate-4-hydroxylase gene from Rubus occidentalis L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Mi; Lee, Seung Sik; An, Byung Chull; Barampuram, Shyamkuma; Kim, Jae Sung; Chung, Byung Yeoup [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Young [Dept. of Applied Life Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Chul [Senior Industry Cluster Agency, Youngdong University, Youngdong (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) is a key enzyme of phenylpropanoid pathway, which leads a variety of secondary metabolites to participate in differentiation and protection of plant against environmental stresses. In this study, we isolated a full-length cDNA of the C4H gene from a black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.), using a reverse transcriptase-PCR and rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR. The full-length cDNA of the RocC4H gene contained a 1,515 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 504 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of about 57.9 kDa and an isoelectric point (pI) value of 9.1. The genomic DNA analysis revealed that RocC4H gene had three exons and two introns. By multiple sequence alignment, RocC4H protein was highly homologous with other plant C4Hs, and the cytochrome P450-featured motifs, such as the heme-binding domain, the T-containing binding pocket motif (AAIETT), the ERR triad, and the tetrapeptide (PPGP) hinge motif, were highly conserved. Southern blot analysis revealed that RocC4H is a single copy gene in R. occidentalis.

  13. Avian trichomonosis in spotted owls (Strix occidentalis): Indication of opportunistic spillover from prey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Krysta H; Girard, Yvette A; Woods, Leslie; Johnson, Christine K

    2016-12-01

    Avian trichomonosis, caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae, has variable pathogenicity among bird species ranging from asymptomatic infections to severe disease periodically manifesting in epidemic mortality. Traditionally, columbids are identified as highly susceptible to infection with occasional spillover into raptors that prey on infected birds. We identified avian trichomonosis in two dead California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis) and three dead northern spotted owls (S. o. caurina) in California during 2011-2015; infection was confirmed in four owls by PCR. Pathologic lesions associated with trichomonosis in the owls included caseonecrotic lesions of the upper palate accompanied by oropharyngitis, cellulitis, myositis, and/or sinusitis. Spotted owls are known to mainly feed on small mammals; therefore, the source of infection as well as the significance of the disease in spotted owls is unclear. These owl trichomonosis cases coincided temporally and spatially with three trichomonosis epidemics in band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis). The same parasite, T. gallinae subtype A2, was isolated from the spotted owls and band-tailed pigeons, suggesting the owls became infected when opportunistically feeding on pigeons during mortality events. Avian trichomonosis is an important factor in the decline of the Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeon population with near-annual mortality events during the last 10 years and could have conservation implications for raptor species at risk, particularly those that are facing multiple threats.

  14. Avian trichomonosis in spotted owls (Strix occidentalis: Indication of opportunistic spillover from prey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krysta H. Rogers

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Avian trichomonosis, caused by the flagellated protozoan parasite Trichomonas gallinae, has variable pathogenicity among bird species ranging from asymptomatic infections to severe disease periodically manifesting in epidemic mortality. Traditionally, columbids are identified as highly susceptible to infection with occasional spillover into raptors that prey on infected birds. We identified avian trichomonosis in two dead California spotted owls (Strix occidentalis occidentalis and three dead northern spotted owls (S. o. caurina in California during 2011–2015; infection was confirmed in four owls by PCR. Pathologic lesions associated with trichomonosis in the owls included caseonecrotic lesions of the upper palate accompanied by oropharyngitis, cellulitis, myositis, and/or sinusitis. Spotted owls are known to mainly feed on small mammals; therefore, the source of infection as well as the significance of the disease in spotted owls is unclear. These owl trichomonosis cases coincided temporally and spatially with three trichomonosis epidemics in band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis. The same parasite, T. gallinae subtype A2, was isolated from the spotted owls and band-tailed pigeons, suggesting the owls became infected when opportunistically feeding on pigeons during mortality events. Avian trichomonosis is an important factor in the decline of the Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeon population with near-annual mortality events during the last 10 years and could have conservation implications for raptor species at risk, particularly those that are facing multiple threats.

  15. Spatial and seasonal trends of a natural population of Biomphalaria occidentalis in northeastern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Rumi

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the age of a population of Biomphalaria occidentalis on a pound of Riachuelo river basin, wich is one of the three most important Middle Paraná river affluents in Corrientes province. Samples were drawn from three stations, were spatial and temporal numerical variations of the snail, as well as its relation with different environmental parameters, mainly temperature, rainfall, pH and conductivity, were analyzed. Snail abundance is given in number of individuals/hour. The differences between the three sampling stations, estimated by nonparametric tests, was nonsignificant. A relative scale to the greatest shell diameter was employed to build the age pyramids. Temporal fluctuations of snail abundance correlated negatively with the highest monthly accumulated temperatures (P < 0.05. Although different floristic compositions were observed at the three stations, no significant numerical variations were detected in B. occidentalis spatial distribution. Reproductive activity took place between March-April and November with overlapping cohort system. During summer (December-Febuary mortality increased along with temperature and reproductive activity was not evident.

  16. Host egg age of Leptoglossus occidentalis (Heteroptera, Coreidae) and parasitism by Gryon pennsylvanicum (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peverieri, Giuseppino Sabbatini; Furlan, Paola; Benassai, Daniele; Caradonna, Sarah; Strong, Ward B; Roversi, Pio Federico

    2013-04-01

    Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann (Heteroptera, Coreidae) is native to Western North America and is a serious pest for seed production of conifers. The pest was accidentally introduced into Europe in the 1990s. Since then, seed loss has been recorded in Pinus pinea (L.) forests, with a negative impact on the commercial production of pine nuts. Classical biological control of this pest in P. pinea stands is an attractive proposition. Previous work showed that the egg-parasitoid Gryon pennsylvanicum (Ashmead) (Hymenoptera, Platygastridae) had promising life history traits in laboratory studies using L. occidentalis eggs as host. In the present work, the effect of host egg age on parasitization rate was evaluated in the laboratory, using choice and no-choice tests. Host eggs ranged in age from < 24 h to within a day of hatching. Results showed that parasitization rate, juvenile survival rate, sex ratio, and longevity of female G. pennsylvanicum were not significantly affected by the age of the host eggs. However, egg-parasitoid development time was longer in older host eggs, and females were smaller than those that developed in younger host eggs. Parasitization behaviors (drumming, oviposition, and marking) were not affected by the age of the host. G. pennsylvanicum females tended to parasitize all available host eggs within a cluster before moving to a new cluster, without displaying a preferences for host egg age. The ability to exploit host eggs of any age class improves the prospect of successful classical biological control using this egg-parasitoid.

  17. Use of MODIS Satellite Images and an Atmospheric Dust Transport Model To Evaluate Juniperus spp. Pollen Phenology and Dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, Estelle; Huete, Alfredo; Nickovic, S.; Pejanovic, G. A.; Vukovic, A.; VandeWater, P. K.; Myers, O. B.; Budge, A. M.; Zelicoff, A. P.; Bunderson, L.; Crimmins, T. M.

    2011-01-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et. al., 2003 reported Juniperus spp. pollen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model, Nickovic et al. 2001) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and quantities of dust. We are modifying the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport. Pollen release will be estimated based on MODIS derived phenology of Juniperus spp. communities. Ground based observational records of pollen release timing and quantities will be used as verification. This information will be used to support the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program and the State of New Mexico environmental public health decision support for asthma and allergies alerts.

  18. A Therapeutic Approach for Wound Healing by Using Essential Oils of Cupressus and Juniperus Species Growing in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Tumen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juniperus and Cupressus genera are mainly used as diuretic, stimulant, and antiseptic, for common cold and wound healing in Turkish folk medicine. In the present study, essential oils obtained from cones of Cupressus and berries of Juniperus were evaluated for their wound healing and anti-inflammatory effects. In vivo wound healing activity was evaluated by linear incision and circular excision experimental wound models, assessment of hydroxyproline content, and subsequently histopathological analysis. The healing potential was comparatively assessed with a reference ointment Madecassol. Additionally acetic-acid-induced capillary permeability test was used for the oils' anti-inflammatory activity. The essential oils of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus and J. phoenicea demonstrated the highest activities, while the rest of the species did not show any significant wound healing effect. The experimental study revealed that J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus and J. phoenicea display remarkable wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities, which support the folkloric use of the plants.

  19. A therapeutic approach for wound healing by using essential oils of cupressus and juniperus species growing in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumen, Ibrahim; Süntar, Ipek; Keleş, Hikmet; Küpeli Akkol, Esra

    2012-01-01

    Juniperus and Cupressus genera are mainly used as diuretic, stimulant, and antiseptic, for common cold and wound healing in Turkish folk medicine. In the present study, essential oils obtained from cones of Cupressus and berries of Juniperus were evaluated for their wound healing and anti-inflammatory effects. In vivo wound healing activity was evaluated by linear incision and circular excision experimental wound models, assessment of hydroxyproline content, and subsequently histopathological analysis. The healing potential was comparatively assessed with a reference ointment Madecassol. Additionally acetic-acid-induced capillary permeability test was used for the oils' anti-inflammatory activity. The essential oils of J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus and J. phoenicea demonstrated the highest activities, while the rest of the species did not show any significant wound healing effect. The experimental study revealed that J. oxycedrus subsp. oxycedrus and J. phoenicea display remarkable wound healing and anti-inflammatory activities, which support the folkloric use of the plants.

  20. Pharmacological Screening of Arceuthobium oxycedri (Dwarf Mistletoe of Juniper Forest of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidney A. Crow

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The local population of Balochistan, Pakistan considers the Juniperus excelsa an important medicinal plant. The species is facing a grave threat by a parasitic and epiphytic angiosperm, dwarf mistletoe, Arceuthobium oxycedri (DC M. Bieb (Viscaceae. The methanolic extract of A. oxycedri was studied for its chemical composition and biologically active compounds for the first time. The extract was assayed for antibacterial, antifungal, phytotoxic, cytotoxic and insecticidal activities. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the extract were determined against ten bacterial and ten fungal strains by agar well diffusion and disc diffusion assay. The extract was highly effective against three bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherchia coli, Bacillus subtillis and a fungus Candida albicans.. The phytotoxic effects showed that it was extremely toxic for Lemna acquinoctialis. It showed high cytoxicity for brine shrimps at all concentrations and was found to be significantly cytotoxic against Candida albicans when checked by flow cytometer. However, the extract was not effective against the pests tested.

  1. Pinon and Juniper Field Guide: Asking the Right Questions to Select Appropriate Management Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tausch, R.J.; Miller, R.F.; Roundy, B.A.; Chambers, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    Pinon-juniper woodlands are an important vegetation type in the Great Basin. Old-growth and open shrub savanna woodlands have been present over much of the last several hundred years. Strong evidence indicates these woodlands have experienced significant tree infilling and major expansion in their distribution since the late 1800s by encroaching into surrounding landscapes once dominated by shrubs and herbaceous vegetation. Both infilling and expansion affects soil resources, plant community structure and composition, water and nutrient cycles, forage production, wildlife habitat, biodiversity, and fire patterns across the landscape. Another impact is the shift from historic fire regimes to larger and more intense wildfires that are increasingly determining the future of this landscape. This publication helps biologists and land managers consider how to look at expansion of woodlands and determine what questions to ask to develop a management strategy, including prescribed fire or other practices.

  2. Seasonal variation and bioactivity of the essential oils of two Juniperus species against Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1894).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evergetis, E; Michaelakis, A; Papachristos, D P; Badieritakis, E; Kapsaski-Kanelli, V N; Haroutounian, S A

    2016-06-01

    The seasonal variation in respect to the yield and chemical composition of 24 essential oils (EOs) isolated from various parts (leaves and fruits) of two indigenous Greece Juniperus species (family Cupressaceae), namely Juniperus drupacea and Juniperus phoenica, were determined by GC and GC/MS analysis. The larvicidal properties of these EOs were evaluated against 3rd and early 4th instar larvae of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse, 1894) at one screening dose (29 mg L(-1)). Moreover, the repellent activity against adult mosquitoes was also evaluated at one screening dose. The analytical data indicated that the EOs mainly consisted of monoterpenes, mostly cyclic and only occasionally aliphatic and to a lesser percent diterpenes. The EOs yield was sharply increased when the plant material was subjected to pre-treatment before steam distillation. Finally, the influence of plant material collection period on their yield and chemical content was also determined. Bioactivity assessments indicated that three EOs possess very potent larvicidal properties and 12 EOs display significant repellent activities since they were proved to be "DEET-like." Therefore, they represent an inexpensive source of natural mixtures of larvicidal and repellent mixture of natural compounds, with potentials for application for utilization in mosquito control schemes in order to prevent the expansion of viral infections.

  3. Phytochemical screening and GC-MS determination of bioactive constituents from methanol leaf extract of Senna occidentalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha Mohammad Ibrahim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the active ingredients presented in methanol extract of Senna occidentalis (S. occidentalis. Methods: Dried powdered leaves of S. occidentalis were extracted with methanol by Soxhlet extraction and the extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening by using standard procedure and methods. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS analysis was performed by comprising a GC-MS (model: QP2010 Plus Shimadzu, Japan comprising an AOC-20i auto-sampler and gas-chromatograph interfaced to a mass spectrometer. Results: The phytochemical study revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, glycoside, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, anthraquinones and phlobatannins while cardiac glycoside was not detected. GC-MS chromatogram showed nine peaks. A total of 31 compounds were identified when the mass spectra of the constituents was compared with the National Institute Standard and Technology library. The first compounds identified with less retention time (15.929 s were n-hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid and pentadecanoic acid while decanoic acid, decyl ester, ether, octadecyl vinyl, oleic acid, hexyl ester, stearic acid, octadecyl ester and decyl fluoride took the longest retention time (20.600 s for identification. Conclusions: The presence of these compounds in the plant extract may at least be responsible for one of the pharmacological properties of S. occidentalis and thus could be of considerable interest to the development of new drugs.

  4. Isolation and molecular characterization of cathepsin L-like cysteine protease cDNAs from Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, A.G.J.; Jongsma, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Cysteine proteases are predominant in thrips guts (TGs) and, therefore, a suitable target for selecting effective protease inhibitors against western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). We report the isolation of four full-length cysteine protease cDNA clones from thrips in a two-step PCR ap

  5. Specific cysteine protease inhibitors act as deterrents of Western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) in transgenic potato

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Outchkourov, N.S.; Kogel, de J.; Bruin, de A.; Abrahamson, M.; Jongsma, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the effects of the accumulation of cysteine protease inhibitors on the food preferences of adult female western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), were investigated. Representative members of the cystatin and thyropin gene families (stefin A, cystatin C, kininogen d

  6. Phytochemical screening and GC-MS determination of bioactive constituents from methanol leaf extract ofSenna occidentalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Aisha Mohammad Ibrahim; Bashir Lawal; Ndababru Amos Tsado; Abubakar Awwal Yusuf; Adisa Mohammed Jimoh

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To identify the active ingredients presented in methanol extract ofSenna occidentalis(S. occidentalis). Methods: Dried powdered leaves ofS. occidentalis were extracted with methanol by Soxhlet extraction and the extract was subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening by using standard procedure and methods. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) analysis was performed by comprising aGC-MS (model: QP2010 Plus Shimadzu, Japan) comprising an AOC-20i auto-sampler and gas-chromatograph interfaced to a mass spectrometer. Results: The phytochemical study revealed the presence of tannins, alkaloids, glycoside, flavonoids, steroids, saponins, anthraquinones and phlobatannins while cardiac glycoside was not detected.GC-MS chromatogram showed nine peaks. A total of 31 compounds were identified when the mass spectra of the constituents was compared with the National Institute Standard and Technology library. The first compounds identified with less retention time (15.929 s) were n-hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid and pentadecanoic acid while decanoic acid, decyl ester, ether, octadecyl vinyl, oleic acid, hexyl ester, stearic acid, octadecyl ester and decyl fluoride took the longest retention time (20.600 s) for identification. Conclusions:The presence of these compounds in the plant extract may at least be responsible for one of the pharmacological properties ofS. occidentalis and thus could be of considerable interest to the development of new drugs.

  7. Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum) mediated competition via induced resistance: Interaction between Gratiana boliviana, Spodoptera exigua and Frankliniella occidentalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Survival assays were conducted with beet armyworm (BAW) Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), a tortoise beetle Gratiana bolivana Spaeth and western flower thrips (WFT) Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) on tropical soda apple (TSA) Solanum viarum Dunal, a relative of tomato. Both S. exigua and G. bolivia...

  8. Symbiotic bacteria (Erwinia sp.) in the gut of Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) do not affect its ability to transmit tospovirus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, E.J.; van de Wetering, F.; van der Hoek, M.M.; Jacobs, G.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is one of the most harmful plant viruses and one of its most important vectors is the western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)]. Recently, we reported the close association of Erwinia sp. gut bacteria with this species of

  9. Mitochondrial genome analysis of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis and a revisit of the Metaseiulus occidentalis mitochondrial genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dermauw, Wannes; Vanholme, Bartel; Tirry, Luc; Van Leeuwen, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    In this study we sequenced and analysed the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome of the Chilean predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Chelicerata: Acari: Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae: Amblyseiinae). The 16 199 bp genome (79.8% AT) contains the standard set of 13 protein-coding and 24 RNA genes. Compared with the ancestral arthropod mtDNA pattern, the gene order is extremely reshuffled (35 genes changed position) and represents a novel arrangement within the arthropods. This is probably related to the presence of several large noncoding regions in the genome. In contrast with the mt genome of the closely related species Metaseiulus occidentalis (Phytoseiidae: Typhlodrominae) - which was reported to be unusually large (24 961 bp), to lack nad6 and nad3 protein-coding genes, and to contain 22 tRNAs without T-arms - the genome of P. persimilis has all the features of a standard metazoan mt genome. Consequently, we performed additional experiments on the M. occidentalis mt genome. Our preliminary restriction digests and Southern hybridization data revealed that this genome is smaller than previously reported. In addition, we cloned nad3 in M. occidentalis and positioned this gene between nad4L and 12S-rRNA on the mt genome. Finally, we report that at least 15 of the 22 tRNAs in the M. occidentalis mt genome can be folded into canonical cloverleaf structures similar to their counterparts in P. persimilis.

  10. Rootstock mass of coppiced Platanus occidentalis as affected by spacing and rotation length

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, K.; Nwoboshi, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    The root mass per unit land area for Platanus occidentalis was determined 9 years after planting 1-0 seedlings. Trees had been planted at 0.3 X 1.2, 0.6 X 1.2 and 1.2 X 1.2 m spacings and coppiced after two growing seasons in the field. Rotations of 1, 2, and 7 years were then imposed. Rootstocks coppiced annually had significantly less rootstock mass (16.0 tons/ha) than those harvested on longer cycles. No significant difference was found between the 2- and 7-year rotations, which averaged 22.8 and 25.2 tons of dry rootstock mass per hectare, respectively. Spacing did not affect rootstock mass per unit land area. Rotations of 2 years or longer and relatively wide spacings are recommended for short rotation forestry.

  11. Mechanisms of resistance to spinosad in the western flower thrip, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera:Thripidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shu-Yun Zhang; Satoshi Kono; Tamotsu Murai; Tadashi Miyata

    2008-01-01

    Cross-resistance, resistance mechanisms, and mode of inheritance of spinosad resistance were studied in the western flower thrip, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande).Spinosad (naturalyte insecticide) showed low cross-resistance to prothiophos (organophosphorus insecticide) and chlorphenapyr (respiratory inhibitor) showed some cross-resistance to thiocyclam (nereistoxin). The synergists PBO (piperonyl butoxide),DEM (diethyl maleate), and DEF (s,s,s-tributyl phosphorotrithioate) did not show any synergism on the toxicity of spinosad in the resistant strain (ICS), indicating that metabolicmediated detoxification was not responsible for the spinosad resistance, suggesting that spinosad may reduce sensitivity of the target site: the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and GABA receptor. Following reciprocal crosses, dose-response lines and dominance ratios indicated that spinosad resistance was incompletely dominant and there were no maternal effects. The results of backcross showed that spinosad resistance did not fit a single-gene hypothesis, suggesting that resistance was influenced by several genes.

  12. Effects of cysteine protease inhibitors on oviposition rate of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annadana, S; Peters, J; Gruden, K; Schipper, A; Outchkourov, N S; Beekwilder, M J.; Udayakumar, M; Jongsma, M A.

    2002-07-01

    Proteolytic activity in whole insect extracts of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, was found to belong predominantly to the class of cysteine proteases. The pH optimum of the general proteolytic activity was determined to be 3.5, which is low when compared to other insects using cysteine proteases for protein digestion. The proteinaceous cysteine protease inhibitors chicken cystatin, potato cystatin and sea anemone equistatin inhibited in vitro more than 90% of the protease activity. To test in vivo the biological effect of such inhibitors on the oviposition rate of western flower thrips, recombinant potato cystatin and equistatin were fed to adult females. A gradual reduction in oviposition rate to about 45% of control was observed when reared on these PIs for a period of 5 days, with no increase in mortality. These results are discussed in the light of the application of protease inhibitors in transgenic plants to control this insect pest.

  13. Complete genome sequence of a new bipartite begomovirus infecting fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) plants in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leke, Walter N; Khatabi, Behnam; Fondong, Vincent N; Brown, Judith K

    2016-08-01

    The complete genome sequence was determined and characterized for a previously unreported bipartite begomovirus from fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis, family Cucurbitaceae) plants displaying mosaic symptoms in Cameroon. The DNA-A and DNA-B components were ~2.7 kb and ~2.6 kb in size, and the arrangement of viral coding regions on the genomic components was like those characteristic of other known bipartite begomoviruses originating in the Old World. While the DNA-A component was more closely related to that of chayote yellow mosaic virus (ChaYMV), at 78 %, the DNA-B component was more closely related to that of soybean chlorotic blotch virus (SbCBV), at 64 %. This newly discovered bipartite Old World virus is herein named telfairia mosaic virus (TelMV).

  14. Mating for variety increases foraging activity in the harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiernasz, Diane C; Hines, Jessica; Parker, Dara G; Cole, Blaine J

    2008-02-01

    Multiple mating by females characterizes most insect species, but is relatively uncommon in social insects. Females may mate with multiple mates because they experience the direct benefits of increased survival or fecundity, to acquire high quality mates, or to lower the risk of reduced fecundity by mating with incompatible males. We used the extensive natural variation in mating frequency in the western harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex occidentalis, to test the hypothesis that increased mating by the queen leads to an increase in colony performance. Colonies with greater genetic diversity began to forage earlier in the day and foraged for longer time periods. The workers which initiated foraging were a nonrandom subset of the genotypes present in the colony. We used a statistical approach to correctly predict the direction and magnitude of the correlation between genetic diversity and colony foraging activity.

  15. Occurrence, Parasitism, and Pathogenicity of Nematodes Associated with Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, R C; Ruehle, J L

    1971-04-01

    Ten species of stylet-bearing nematodes were recovered in a survey of sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L. ) stands in Georgia. Helicotylenchus, Xiphinema, and Criconemoides were the genera found most frequently. Populations of Hoplolaimus galeatus, Scutellonema brachyurum, Helicotylenchus dihystera and H. pseudorobustus increased on greenhouse-grown sycamore, but Trichodorus christiei, Xiphinema americanum, Meloidogyne hapla, M. arenaria and M. incognita did not. Hoplolaimus galeatus and S. brachyurum are semi-endoparasites; H. dihystera and H. pseudorobustus are migratory endoparasites. Hoplolaimus galeatus caused extensive root necrosis and marked decrease of fresh weights of seedling roots and tops. Helicotylenchus dihystera and S. brachyurum produced only qualitatively different sparse and unhealthy root growth. Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus caused only a reduction in root surface area.

  16. Meteorological, snow, streamflow, topographic, and vegetation height data from four western juniper-dominated experimental catchments in southwestern Idaho, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Patrick R.; Marks, Danny G.; Pierson, Frederick B.; Williams, C. Jason; Hardegree, Stuart P.; Boehm, Alex R.; Havens, Scott C.; Hedrick, Andrew; Cram, Zane K.; Svejcar, Tony J.

    2017-02-01

    Meteorological, snow, streamflow, topographic, and vegetation height data are presented from the South Mountain experimental catchments. This study site was established in 2007 as a collaborative, long-term research laboratory to address the impacts of western juniper encroachment and woodland treatments in the interior Great Basin region of the western USA. The data provide detailed information on the weather and hydrologic response from four highly instrumented catchments in the late stages of woodland encroachment in a sagebrush steppe landscape. Hourly data from six meteorologic stations and four weirs have been carefully processed, quality-checked, and are serially complete. These data are ideal for hydrologic, ecosystem, and biogeochemical modeling. Data presented are publicly available from the USDA National Agricultural Library administered by the Agricultural Research Service (https://data.nal.usda.gov/dataset/data-weather-snow-and-streamflow-data-four-western-juniper-dominated-experimental-catchments" target="_blank">https://data.nal.usda.gov/dataset/data-weather-snow-and-streamflow-data-four-western-juniper-dominated-experimental-catchments, doi:10.15482/USDA.ADC/1254010).

  17. Contact and Repellent Activities of the Essential Oil from Juniperus formosana against Two Stored Product Insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shanshan; Zhang, Wenjuan; Liang, Junyu; You, Chunxue; Geng, Zhufeng; Wang, Chengfang; Du, Shushan

    2016-04-16

    The chemical composition of the essential oil from Juniperus formosana leaves and its contact and repellent activities against Tribolium castaneum and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults were investigated. The essential oil of J. formosana leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 28 components were identified and the main compounds in the essential oil were α-pinene (21.66%), 4-terpineol (11.25%), limonene (11.00%) and β-phellandrene (6.63%). The constituents α-pinene, 4-terpineol and d-limonene were isolated from the essential oil. It was found that the essential oil exhibited contact activity against T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila adults (LD50 = 29.14 μg/adult and 81.50 µg/cm², respectively). The compound 4-terpineol exhibited the strongest contact activity (LD50 = 7.65 μg/adult). In addition, data showed that at 78.63 nL/cm², the essential oil and the three isolated compounds strongly repelled T. castaneum adults. The compounds α-pinene and d-limonene reached the same level (Class V) of repellency as DEET (p = 0.396 and 0.664) against L. bostrychophila at 63.17 nL/cm² after 2 h treatment. The results indicate that the essential oil and the isolated compounds have potential to be developed into natural insecticides and repellents to control insects in stored products.

  18. Inhibition of protein glycation by essential oils of branchlets and fruits of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, S; Naderi, G A; Shams Ardekani, M R; Sahebkar, A; Airin, A; Aslani, S; Kasher, T; Emami, S A

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress and protein glycation play pivotal roles in the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus and its vascular complications. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-glycation properties of essential oils obtained from different parts of Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica. The branchlets of male tree (BMT) and branchlets of female (BFT) tree, and fruits of J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica were extracted using steam distillation method. The oils were phytochemically analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anti-glycation properties were evaluated using hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays. Overall, 18 volatile components were identified in the J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica oils, amounting to 82.1%, 100.0% and 96.4% of the BMT, BFT and fruit oils, respectively. Promising inhibitory activity was observed from all concentrations of the tested oils in the hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays. The inhibitory activities peaked to 89.9% (BFT oil; 200 μg mL(-1)) and 81.0% (BFT oil; 600 μg mL(-1)) in the hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays, respectively. The evidence from this study suggests that essential oils obtained from the fruits and branchlets of J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica possess anti-glycation properties. These activities may find implication for the prevention and treatment of diabetic complications.

  19. Antioxidant activities of Juniperus foetidissima essential oils against several oxidative systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Emami

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity of essential oils obtained from branchlets of male and female trees as well as fruits of Juniperus foetidissima Willd., Cupressaceae, from Iran. For this purpose, essential oils of J. foetidissima were phytochemically analyzed and different concentrations of them were tested in five oxidative systems: 1 low-density lipoprotein oxidation; 2 linoleic acid peroxidation; 3 red blood cell hemolysis; 4 hemoglobin glycation; and 5 insulin glycation assays. In all employed systems, antioxidant effects were observed from the three tested oils though in varying degrees. The most promising activities of the oils were observed against hemoglobin and insulin glycation. Antioxidant activities of the oils did not appear to be dose-dependent. In addition, no consistent superiority in antioxidant effects was observed from a single oil in different assays. In view of the current results, J. foetidissima branchlet and fruit oils could be regarded as effective natural products with anti-glycation activity.

  20. Secondary Growth and Carbohydrate Storage Patterns Differ between Sexes in Juniperus thurifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSoto, Lucía; Olano, José M.; Rozas, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Differences in reproductive costs between male and female plants have been shown to foster sex-related variability in growth and C-storage patterns. The extent to which differential secondary growth in dioecious trees is associated with changes in stem carbohydrate storage patterns, however, has not been fully assessed. We explored the long-term radial growth and the seasonal variation of non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) content in sapwood of 40 males and 40 females Juniperus thurifera trees at two sites. NSC content was analyzed bimonthly for 1 year, and tree-ring width was measured for the 1931–2010 period. Sex-related differences in secondary growth and carbohydrate storage were site-dependent. Under less restrictive environmental conditions females grew more and stored more non-soluble sugars than males. Our results reinforce that sex-related differences in growth and resource storage may be a consequence of local adaptation to environmental conditions. Seasonal variation in soluble sugars concentration was opposite to cambial activity, with minima seen during periods of maximal secondary growth, and did not differ between the sexes or sites. Trees with higher stem NSC levels at critical periods showed higher radial growth, suggesting a common mechanism irrespective of site or sex. Sex-related patterns of secondary growth were linked to differences in non-soluble sugars content indicating sex-specific strategies of long-term performance. PMID:27303418

  1. Increased intake of Juniperus phoenicea L. by supplementation with barley and Optigen® in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Šarić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dry littoral grasslands and rocky ground pastures throughout the Mediterranean basin are a significant source of forage for small ruminants and as such associated with traditional grazing practices. During the last decade, dissemination of terpene-rich Mediterranean shrubs, Juniperus phoenicea L., onto pastures in Adriatic region of Croatia have caused reduction in forage production and plant diversity. In order to facilitate the intake of this new plant by small ruminants, we investigated the effects of barley and Optigen® (a source of controlled-release non-protein nitrogen mixture to increase consumption of J. phoenicea by sheep. The preliminary results suggest that barley alone, or in combination with Optigen® enhance the intake of J. phoenicea by sheep. Furthermore, this model can be used as an environmentally safe and economically affordable approach to reduce the abundance of less palatable J. phoenicea in the environment and to increase growth of alternate, better quality forage (grasses and forbs on Mediterranean pastures.

  2. Contact and Repellent Activities of the Essential Oil from Juniperus formosana against Two Stored Product Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Guo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition of the essential oil from Juniperus formosana leaves and its contact and repellent activities against Tribolium castaneum and Liposcelis bostrychophila adults were investigated. The essential oil of J. formosana leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 28 components were identified and the main compounds in the essential oil were α-pinene (21.66%, 4-terpineol (11.25%, limonene (11.00% and β-phellandrene (6.63%. The constituents α-pinene, 4-terpineol and d-limonene were isolated from the essential oil. It was found that the essential oil exhibited contact activity against T. castaneum and L. bostrychophila adults (LD50 = 29.14 μg/adult and 81.50 µg/cm2, respectively. The compound 4-terpineol exhibited the strongest contact activity (LD50 = 7.65 μg/adult. In addition, data showed that at 78.63 nL/cm2, the essential oil and the three isolated compounds strongly repelled T. castaneum adults. The compounds α-pinene and d-limonene reached the same level (Class V of repellency as DEET (p = 0.396 and 0.664 against L. bostrychophila at 63.17 nL/cm2 after 2 h treatment. The results indicate that the essential oil and the isolated compounds have potential to be developed into natural insecticides and repellents to control insects in stored products.

  3. Relictual distribution reaches the top: Elevation constrains fertility and leaf longevity in Juniperus thurifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesinos, D.; García-Fayos, P.; Verdú, M.

    2010-01-01

    Juniperus thurifera populations are scattered throughout the western Mediterranean basin and are relictual from its Tertiary distribution due to progressive climatic warming since the last glacial period. To disentangle the factors responsible for its extremely low fertility we combined a microscale experimental design with a macroscale study. At the microscale we experimentally alleviated environmental stress by watering and fertilizing during two years a set of trees in one population. At macroscale we selected 11 populations across a geographical range and sampled them for three years. Macroscale patterns evidenced that both plant fertility and leaf longevity diminished with increasing elevation. Both microscale and macroscale illustrated the importance of water and nutrient availability on leaf growth and plant fertility: On the microscale experiments, regular supply of water and nutrients increased fruit-set by 300%. Macroscale showed that increases in resource availability (precipitation) resulted in reductions of seed abortion, although paralleled by increases in seed predation. Altogether, our results indicate that fertility is constrained both by elevation and by resource limitation. Therefore any potential lift in the elevational distribution limits will result in synergistic fertility reductions due to harder physical conditions and lower water and nutrient availability. Both will compromise future regeneration of this relictual species, although population decline might be buffered temporary thanks to longevity of adult trees.

  4. Multilocus Analyses Reveal Postglacial Demographic Shrinkage of Juniperus morrisonicola (Cupressaceae), a Dominant Alpine Species in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Chun; Hsu, Tsai-Wen; Wang, Hao-Ven; Liu, Zin-Huang; Chen, Yi-Yen; Chiu, Chi-Te; Huang, Chao-Li; Hung, Kuo-Hsiang; Chiang, Tzen-Yuh

    2016-01-01

    Postglacial climate changes alter geographical distributions and diversity of species. Such ongoing changes often force species to migrate along the latitude/altitude. Altitudinal gradients represent assemblage of environmental, especially climatic, variable factors that influence the plant distributions. Global warming that triggered upward migrations has therefore impacted the alpine plants on an island. In this study, we examined the genetic structure of Juniperus morrisonicola, a dominant alpine species in Taiwan, and inferred historical, demographic dynamics based on multilocus analyses. Lower levels of genetic diversity in north indicated that populations at higher latitudes were vulnerable to climate change, possibly related to historical alpine glaciers. Neither organellar DNA nor nuclear genes displayed geographical subdivisions, indicating that populations were likely interconnected before migrating upward to isolated mountain peaks, providing low possibilities of seed/pollen dispersal across mountain ranges. Bayesian skyline plots suggested steady population growth of J. morrisonicola followed by recent demographic contraction. In contrast, most lower-elevation plants experienced recent demographic expansion as a result of global warming. The endemic alpine conifer may have experienced dramatic climate changes over the alternation of glacial and interglacial periods, as indicated by a trend showing decreasing genetic diversity with the altitudinal gradient, plus a fact of upward migration.

  5. Chemical variability of the essential oil of Juniperus phoenicea var. turbinata from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhechi, Chahrazed; Atik Bekkara, Fewzia; Consiglio, Danaë; Bighelli, Ange; Tomi, Félix

    2012-12-01

    The chemical composition of 50 samples of leaf oil isolated from Algerian Juniperus phoenicea var. turbinata L. harvested in eight locations (littoral zone and highlands) was investigated by GC-FID (in combination with retention indices), GC/MS, and (13) C-NMR analyses. The composition of the J. phoenicea var. turbinata leaf oils was dominated by monoterpenes. Hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses confirmed the chemical variability of the leaf oil of this species. Indeed, three clusters were distinguished on the basis of the α-pinene, α-terpinyl acetate, β-phellandrene, and germacrene D contents. In most oil samples, α-pinene (30.2-76.7%) was the major compound, associated with β-phellandrene (up to 22.5%) and α-terpinyl acetate (up to 13.4%). However, five out of the 50 samples exhibited an atypical composition characterized by the predominance of germacrene D (16.7-22.7%), α-pinene (15.8-20.4%), and α-terpinyl acetate (6.1-22.6%). Copyright © 2012 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  6. Antimicrobial Activity and Chemical Analysis of the Essential Oil of Algerian Juniperus phoenicea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyahyaoui, Ahmed; Bahri, Fouad; Romane, Abderrahmane; Höferl, Martina; Wanner, Juergen; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2016-04-01

    The essential oils of Juniperus phoenicea L. from Algeria were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Concerning their chemical composition, 74, 61 and 72 volatile compounds were identified from fresh leaves, dried leaves and berries, representing 88.8%, 91.3% and 94.7% of the total composition, respectively. The main monoterpene in the oils of fresh leaves, dried leaves and berries was a-pinene (29.6% / 55.9% / 56.6%), accompanied by lesser amounts of the sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene (2.6% / 1.6% /1.2%) and germacrene D (2.01% / 1.7% / 1.5%), respectively. Antibacterial activity of J. phoenicea essential oils was tested against one Gram-negative and four Gram-positive bacterial strains and the yeast Candida albicans, responsible for nosocomial infections. As references, 14 antibiotics and 5 antifungal agents were evaluated. The berry essential oil was ineffective against all but two of the strains tested, whereas the essential oil of dried leaves significantly inhibited all strains but Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which turned out to be the most resistant strain overall. However, Escherichia coli was the most susceptible to the essential oils tested. The essential oil of dry leaves was highly active against Candida albicans, outclassing even the standard antifungal substances. These promising results could substantiate the use of essential oils in the treatment of hospital-acquired infections.

  7. Genetic diversity and differentiation of Juniperus thurifera in Spain and Morocco as determined by SSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Helena; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana; Nabais, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Juniperus thurifera L. is an important tree endemic to the western Mediterranean basin that it is able to grow in semi-arid climates. It nowadays exhibits a disjunct distribution pattern, occurring in North Africa, Spain, France and the Italian Alps. The Strait of Gibraltar has acted as an efficient barrier against gene flow between African and European populations, which are considered different subspecies by some authors. We aimed at describing the intraspecific genetic diversity of J. thurifera in populations from the Iberian Peninsula and Morocco and the phylogeographical relationships among these populations. The ploidy level of J. thurifera was examined and eleven nuclear microsatellites (nSSRs) developed for J. thurifera were assessed for genotyping this species. Six nSSRs were polymorphic and subsequently used to assess the genetic diversity and structure of the studied populations. Genotyping of the tetraploid J. thurifera using nuclear microsatellites supports the separation of Moroccan and Spanish populations into two genetically differentiated groups that correspond to the proposed subspecies africana and thurifera. High values of within population genetic diversity were found, that accounted for 90% of the total genetic variance, while population structure was weak. The estimators of genetic diversity were higher in populations of Spain than in populations of Morocco pointing for a possible loss of genetic diversity during the spread of this species to Africa from Europe.

  8. Biogeographic variation of foliar n-alkanes of Juniperus communis var. saxatilis Pallas from the Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajčević, Nemanja; Janaćković, Pedja; Dodoš, Tanja; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D

    2014-12-01

    The composition of the epicuticular n-alkanes isolated from the leaves of ten populations of Juniperus communis L. var. saxatilis Pallas from central (continental) and western (coastal) areas of the Balkan Peninsula was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the leaf waxes, 14 n-alkane homologues with chain-lengths ranging from C22 to C35 were identified. All samples were dominated by n-tritriacontane (C33 ), but differences in two other dominant n-alkanes allowed separating the coastal from the continental populations. Several statistical methods (ANOVA, principal component, discriminant, and cluster analyses as well as the Mantel test) were deployed to analyze the diversity and variability of the epicuticular-leaf-n-alkane patterns of the ten natural populations of J. communis var. saxatilis and their relation to different geographic and bioclimatic parameters. Cluster analysis showed a high correlation of the leaf-n-alkane patterns with the geographical distribution of the investigated samples, differentiating the coastal from the continental populations of this taxon. Several bioclimatic parameters related to aridity were highly correlated with this differentiation. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  9. Antioxidant activity and chemical composition of Juniperus excelsa ssp. polycarpos wood extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinihashemi, S K; Dadpour, A; Lashgari, A

    2017-03-01

    Extracts from the wood of Juniperus excelsa ssp. polycarpos were analysed for their antioxidant activity using the DPPH method and compared with ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxytoluene. The most active extracts were analysed for their chemical composition using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Acetone extract was found to be moderately active as an antioxidant agent at 58.38%, which was lower than the value of vitamin C (98.56%) at the concentration of 14.20 mg/mL. The major components identified in the acetone extract as trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives were pimaric acid TMS (24.56%), followed by α-d-glucopyranoside,1,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS)-β-d-fructofuranosyl 2,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS) (21.39%), triflouromethyl-bis-(TMS)methyl ketone (9.32%), and cedrol (0.72%). The dissolved water:methanol (1:1 v/v) partitioned from acetone extract afforded 12 fractions; among them, the F9 fraction was found to have good antioxidant activity (88.49%) at the concentration of 14.20 mg/mL. The major compounds identified in F9 fraction were α-d-glucopyranoside, 1,3,4,6-tetrakis-O-(TMS) (20.22%) and trifluoromethyl-bis-(TMS)methyl ketone (5.10%).

  10. Effects of pre-treatments and temperature on seed viability and germination of Juniperus macrocarpa Sm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Maria Silvia; Mattana, Efisio; Cañadas, Eva Maria; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2014-05-01

    The effects of collecting season, collection site, laboratory pre-treatments and temperatures on seed viability and germination of Juniperus macrocarpa were investigated. Ripe cones were collected in four Sardinian dune systems, in two seasons, from plant and soil. Warm (W) and cold (C) stratifications, two combinations of them (W+C, C+W), and no pre-treatment (0) were applied. Seeds were incubated in a range of constant (10-25°C) and an alternating (25/10°C) temperature regime. Seed viability was low (ca. 40%) and varied significantly according to the collecting season. Seed germination was also low (ca. 10%), the 0 and W were the most effective pre-treatments on stimulating germination. The best germination temperature, without any pre-treatment, was 15°C (ca. 20%). J. macrocarpa seeds are dormant and the achieved results suggested that the presence of secondary dormancy is induced by cold stratification. Spring appeared to be the best season for seed collecting, whereas autumn was the best for sowing. These results give new findings for restoration activities on this species. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  11. Genders in Juniperus thurifera have different functional responses to variations in nutrient availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesinos, D; Villar-Salvador, P; García-Fayos, P; Verdú, M

    2012-02-01

    • Differences in reproductive investment can trigger asymmetric, context-dependent, functional strategies between genders in dioecious species. However, little is known about the gender responses of dioecious species to nutrient availability. • We experimentally fertirrigated a set of male and female Juniperus thurifera trees monthly for 2 yr. Water potential, photosynthesis rate and stomatal conductance were measured monthly for 2 yr, while shoot nitrogen (N) concentration, carbon isotopic composition (δ(13) C), branch growth, trunk radial growth and reproductive investment per branch were measured yearly. • Control males had lower gas exchange rates and radial growth but greater reproductive investment and higher water use efficiency (WUE; as inferred from more positive δ(13) C values) than females. Fertirrigation did not affect water potential or WUE but genders responded differently to increased nutrient availability. The two genders similarly increased shoot N concentration when fertilized. The increase in shoot N was associated with increased photosynthesis in males but not in females, which presented consistently high photosynthetic rates across treatments. • Our results suggest that genders invest N surplus in different functions, with females presenting a long-term strategy by increasing N storage to compensate for massive reproductive masting events, while males seem to be more reactive to current nutrient availability, promoting gas-exchange capacity. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. Low temperature phosphine fumigation of pre-chilled iceberg lettuce under insulation cover for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumigation of chilled iceberg lettuce under an insulation cover was studied to develop economical alternatives to conduct low temperature phosphine fumigation for control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), on exported lettuce. Vacuum cooled commercial iceberg lettuce o...

  13. Interaction of Phytophagous Insects with Salmonella enterica on Plants and Enhanced Persistence of the Pathogen with Macrosteles quadrilineatus Infestation or Frankliniella occidentalis Feeding: e79404

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José Pablo Soto-Arias; Russell Groves; Jeri D Barak

    2013-01-01

    ... S. enterica populations were found on leaves infested with Macrosteles quadrilineatus. In contrast, pathogen populations among plants exposed to Frankliniella occidentalis or Myzus persicae were similar to those without insects...

  14. Potential use of the fungus Beauveria bassiana against the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis without reducing the effectiveness of its natural predator Orius sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orius sauteri (Poppius) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) is an important predator of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Orius sauteri would be directly exposed to the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuillemin in the field should the fu...

  15. Detecção e monitoramento da resistência do tripes Frankliniella occidentalis ao inseticida espinosade Detection and monitoring of resistance to the insecticide spinosad in the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Soller Rais

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O tripes Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae é uma das pragas mais importantes em cultivos protegidos, principalmente de plantas ornamentais e hortícolas. Entre os problemas enfrentados pelos agricultores estão a dificuldade de seu controle com o uso de inseticidas devido à sua preferência pelas partes internas das flores e a evolução de resistência aos agroquímicos. O objetivo da pesquisa foi caracterizar a resistência de F. occidentalis a espinosade e avaliar a frequência de insetos resistentes ao inseticida, em áreas comerciais de crisântemo de diversos municípios do Estado de São Paulo. Seleções para resistência a espinosade foram realizadas em laboratório, utilizando-se uma população de F. occidentalis, coletada em 2007 de um cultivo comercial de crisântemo em Campinas (SP. No decorrer de sete seleções para resistência, a CL50 de espinosade passou de 8,41 mg i.a. L-1 para 1111 mg i.a. L-1. Comparando-se a linhagem resistente (R (selecionada e a suscetível (S, a razão de resistência (CL50 R/CL50 S atingiu valores de ≈280 vezes. Estabeleceu-se uma concentração discriminatória de 98 mg i.a. L-1 para o monitoramento da resistência de F. occidentalis a espinosade. O monitoramento foi realizado coletando-se 19 populações do tripes em áreas comerciais de crisântemo no Estado de São Paulo. Os bioensaios foram realizados com ninfas de segundo ínstar de F. occidentalis, colocadas em arenas de folha de feijão. As aplicações de espinosade, na sua concentração discriminatória, foram realizadas sobre as ninfas em torre de Potter. Os resultados indicaram alta variabilidade entre as populações com relação à suscetibilidade a espinosade. Foram observadas populações com até 40,7% de insetos resistentes. Este é o primeiro relato de resistência de F. occidentalis a espinosade no Brasil.The thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae is one of the major

  16. Detecção e monitoramento da resistência do tripes Frankliniella occidentalis ao inseticida espinosade Detection and monitoring of resistance to the insecticide spinosad in the thrips Frankliniella occidentalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Soller Rais

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O tripes Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae é uma das pragas mais importantes em cultivos protegidos, principalmente de plantas ornamentais e hortícolas. Entre os problemas enfrentados pelos agricultores estão a dificuldade de seu controle com o uso de inseticidas devido à sua preferência pelas partes internas das flores e a evolução de resistência aos agroquímicos. O objetivo da pesquisa foi caracterizar a resistência de F. occidentalis a espinosade e avaliar a frequência de insetos resistentes ao inseticida, em áreas comerciais de crisântemo de diversos municípios do Estado de São Paulo. Seleções para resistência a espinosade foram realizadas em laboratório, utilizando-se uma população de F. occidentalis, coletada em 2007 de um cultivo comercial de crisântemo em Campinas (SP. No decorrer de sete seleções para resistência, a CL50 de espinosade passou de 8,41 mg i.a. L-1 para 1111 mg i.a. L-1. Comparando-se a linhagem resistente (R (selecionada e a suscetível (S, a razão de resistência (CL50 R/CL50 S atingiu valores de ≈280 vezes. Estabeleceu-se uma concentração discriminatória de 98 mg i.a. L-1 para o monitoramento da resistência de F. occidentalis a espinosade. O monitoramento foi realizado coletando-se 19 populações do tripes em áreas comerciais de crisântemo no Estado de São Paulo. Os bioensaios foram realizados com ninfas de segundo ínstar de F. occidentalis, colocadas em arenas de folha de feijão. As aplicações de espinosade, na sua concentração discriminatória, foram realizadas sobre as ninfas em torre de Potter. Os resultados indicaram alta variabilidade entre as populações com relação à suscetibilidade a espinosade. Foram observadas populações com até 40,7% de insetos resistentes. Este é o primeiro relato de resistência de F. occidentalis a espinosade no Brasil.The thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae is one of the major

  17. Genetic structure and diversity in Juniperus communis populations in Saxony, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reim Stefanie

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, land use changes led to a rapid decline and fragmentation of J. communis populations in Germany. Population isolation may lead to a restricted gene flow and, further, to negative effects on genetic variation. In this study, genetic diversity and population structure in seven fragmented J. communis populations in Saxony, Germany, were investigated using nuclear microsatellites (nSSR and chloroplast single nucleotide polymorphism (cpSNP. In all Saxony J. communis populations, a high genetic diversity was determined but no population differentiation could be detected whatever method was applied (Bayesian cluster analysis, F-statistics, AMOVA. The same was true for three J. communis out-group samples originating from Italy, Slovakia and Norway, which also showed high genetic diversity and low genetic differences regarding other J. communis populations. Low genetic differentiation among the J. communis populations ascertained with nuclear and chloroplast markers indicated high levels of gene flow by pollen and also by seeds between the sampled locations. Low genetic differentiation may also provide an indicator of Juniper survival during the last glacial maximum (LGM in Europe. The results of this study serve as a basis for the implementation of appropriate conservation measures in Saxony.

  18. Anti-arthritic Effects of Total Flavonoids from Juniperus sabina on Complete Freund's Adjuvant Induced Arthritis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jun; Liu, Tao; Xu, Fang; You, Shuping; Xu, Fang; Li, Chenyang; Gu, Zhengyi

    2016-01-01

    Context: Twigs and leaves of Juniperus sabina L. have been traditionally used as the medicinal herb in China for the treatment of many ailments including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Aims: To confirm the therapeutic effect of total flavonoids from J. sabina (JSTF) on RA-induced by Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) in rats. Settings and Design: Wistar rats (200 ± 20 g) were immunized by intradermal injection of 0.1 mL of CFA into the right hind metatarsal footpad. JSTF was administered orally at the dose of 125,250 and 500 mg/kg on 14 days after the induction of adjuvant arthritis. Tripterygium glycoside (20 mg/kg) was used as a positive control. Paw swelling, arthritic score, body weight loss, serum cytokines, inflammatory mediators, and histological change were measured. Results: We found that JSTF could ameliorate paw swelling of CFA rats, and significantly inhibit arthritic score (P Juniperus sabina L. have been traditionally used as the medicinal herb in China for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritisJSTF could ameliorate paw swelling of CFA rats, and significantly inhibit arthritic scoreHistopathological studies showed a marked decrease of synovial inflammatory infiltration and synovial lining hyperplasia in the joints of JSTF-treated animalsSix flavonoids were isolated and from JSTF including: Catechin, quercitrin, isoquercitrin, isoscutellarein 7-O-β-D-xylopyranoside, isoscutellarein 7-O-β-D-xylopyranose-(1 → 3)-α-L- rhamnoside, and rutin. Abbreviations used: JSTF: Total flavonoids from Juniperus sabina; CFA: Complete Freund's Adjuvant; TG: Tripterygium glycoside; TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor alpha; IL-1β: Interleukin 1beta; IL-6: Interleukin 6; H and E: Hematoxylin and eosin. PMID:27601846

  19. Role of the Insect Supervectors Bemisia tabaci and Frankliniella occidentalis in the Emergence and Global Spread of Plant Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbertson, Robert L; Batuman, Ozgur; Webster, Craig G; Adkins, Scott

    2015-11-01

    Emergence of insect-transmitted plant viruses over the past 10-20 years has been disproportionately driven by two so-called supervectors: the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, and the Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis. High rates of reproduction and dispersal, extreme polyphagy, and development of insecticide resistance, together with human activities, have made these insects global pests. These supervectors transmit a diversity of plant viruses by different mechanisms and mediate virus emergence through local evolution, host shifts, mixed infections, and global spread. Associated virus evolution involves reassortment, recombination, and component capture. Emergence of B. tabaci-transmitted geminiviruses (begomoviruses), ipomoviruses, and torradoviruses has led to global disease outbreaks as well as multiple paradigm shifts. Similarly, F. occidentalis has mediated tospovirus host shifts and global dissemination and the emergence of pollen-transmitted ilarviruses. The plant virus-supervector interaction offers exciting opportunities for basic research and global implementation of generalized disease management strategies to reduce economic and environmental impacts.

  20. Distribution of tadpoles of Ollotis occidentalis (Amphibia: Anura: Bufonidae along the Río Salado, Puebla, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo A. Woolrich-Piña

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined monthly variation in the characteristics of river sections along the Río Salado (Puebla, Mexico and how these factors were associated with the dis- tribution of the tadpoles of the toad Ollotis occidentalis. Tadpoles were observed in the river in March 2007, and from November 2007 through February 2008 and were only found in the main river channel. Sections of the Río Salado with tadpoles were deeper, wider, and longer than sections without tadpoles. Dissolved oxygen levels were higher and salinity was lower in river sections with tadpoles compared to the sections without tadpoles. There was no difference in temperature between sections with and without tadpoles. Tadpoles were found in river sections that contained more vegeta- tion than river section without tadpoles. Our results suggest that the distribution of tadpoles of O. occidentalis is related to the permanence of water, the chemical nature of the water, and the presence of vegetation.

  1. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Telfairia occidentalis Leaf on the Performance and Haematological Indices of Starter Broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. N., Onu

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aqueous extract of Telfairia occidentalis (Fluted Pumpkin) leaf on the performance and haematological indices of starter broilers. A total of 200, 8-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to five (5) treatments, each with 4 replicate groups containing 10 chicks and fed with standard starter broiler diets. Telfaria occidentalis leaves extract (FPLE) was added at 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 mL/litre of drinking water. Growth performance and haematological indices were evaluated. Results showed that there was significant (P 0.05) variations in the feed and water intakes of the birds. Results also show no significant (P > 0.05) difference in haematological indices of birds among the treatments. The results of this study indicate that, for enhanced weight gain and feed conversion efficiency, birds should be fed 80 mL FPLE/litre of water. PMID:23738128

  2. Postfire soil water repellency in piñon-juniper woodlands: Extent, severity, and thickness relative to ecological site characteristics and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvirzdin, Daniel L; Roundy, Bruce A; Barney, Nicholas S; Petersen, Steven L; Anderson, Val J; Madsen, Matthew D

    2017-07-01

    Wildfires can create or intensify water repellency in soil, limiting the soil's capacity to wet and retain water. The objective of this research was to quantify soil water repellency characteristics within burned piñon-juniper woodlands and relate this information to ecological site characteristics. We sampled soil water repellency across forty-one 1,000 m(2) study plots within three major wildfires that burned in piñon-juniper woodlands. Water repellency was found to be extensive-present at 37% of the total points sampled-and strongly related to piñon-juniper canopy cover. Models developed for predicting SWR extent and severity had R(2)adj values of 0.67 and 0.61, respectively; both models included piñon-juniper canopy cover and relative humidity the month before the fire as coefficient terms. These results are important as they suggest that postfire water repellency will increase in the coming years as infilling processes enhance piñon-juniper canopy cover. Furthermore, reductions in relative humidity brought about by a changing climate have the potential to link additively with infilling processes to increase the frequency and intensity of wildfires and produce stronger water repellency over a greater spatial extent. In working through these challenges, land managers can apply the predictive models developed in this study to prioritize fuel control and postfire restoration treatments.

  3. Predictive Models for Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Spread Dynamics, Considering Frankliniella occidentalis Specific Life Processes as Influenced by the Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Pamella Akoth; Moualeu, Dany Pascal; Poehling, Hans-Michael

    2016-01-01

    Several models have been studied on predictive epidemics of arthropod vectored plant viruses in an attempt to bring understanding to the complex but specific relationship between the three cornered pathosystem (virus, vector and host plant), as well as their interactions with the environment. A large body of studies mainly focuses on weather based models as management tool for monitoring pests and diseases, with very few incorporating the contribution of vector's life processes in the disease dynamics, which is an essential aspect when mitigating virus incidences in a crop stand. In this study, we hypothesized that the multiplication and spread of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) in a crop stand is strongly related to its influences on Frankliniella occidentalis preferential behavior and life expectancy. Model dynamics of important aspects in disease development within TSWV-F. occidentalis-host plant interactions were developed, focusing on F. occidentalis' life processes as influenced by TSWV. The results show that the influence of TSWV on F. occidentalis preferential behaviour leads to an estimated increase in relative acquisition rate of the virus, and up to 33% increase in transmission rate to healthy plants. Also, increased life expectancy; which relates to improved fitness, is dependent on the virus induced preferential behaviour, consequently promoting multiplication and spread of the virus in a crop stand. The development of vector-based models could further help in elucidating the role of tri-trophic interactions in agricultural disease systems. Use of the model to examine the components of the disease process could also boost our understanding on how specific epidemiological characteristics interact to cause diseases in crops. With this level of understanding we can efficiently develop more precise control strategies for the virus and the vector.

  4. Predictive Models for Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus Spread Dynamics, Considering Frankliniella occidentalis Specific Life Processes as Influenced by the Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamella Akoth Ogada

    Full Text Available Several models have been studied on predictive epidemics of arthropod vectored plant viruses in an attempt to bring understanding to the complex but specific relationship between the three cornered pathosystem (virus, vector and host plant, as well as their interactions with the environment. A large body of studies mainly focuses on weather based models as management tool for monitoring pests and diseases, with very few incorporating the contribution of vector's life processes in the disease dynamics, which is an essential aspect when mitigating virus incidences in a crop stand. In this study, we hypothesized that the multiplication and spread of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV in a crop stand is strongly related to its influences on Frankliniella occidentalis preferential behavior and life expectancy. Model dynamics of important aspects in disease development within TSWV-F. occidentalis-host plant interactions were developed, focusing on F. occidentalis' life processes as influenced by TSWV. The results show that the influence of TSWV on F. occidentalis preferential behaviour leads to an estimated increase in relative acquisition rate of the virus, and up to 33% increase in transmission rate to healthy plants. Also, increased life expectancy; which relates to improved fitness, is dependent on the virus induced preferential behaviour, consequently promoting multiplication and spread of the virus in a crop stand. The development of vector-based models could further help in elucidating the role of tri-trophic interactions in agricultural disease systems. Use of the model to examine the components of the disease process could also boost our understanding on how specific epidemiological characteristics interact to cause diseases in crops. With this level of understanding we can efficiently develop more precise control strategies for the virus and the vector.

  5. Endosymbiont interference and microbial diversity of the Pacific coast tick, Dermacentor occidentalis, in San Diego County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfield, Nikos; Grewal, Saran; Cua, Lynnie S; Torres, Pedro J; Kelley, Scott T

    2017-01-01

    The Pacific coast tick, Dermacentor occidentalis Marx, is found throughout California and can harbor agents that cause human diseases such as anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, tularemia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever and rickettsiosis 364D. Previous studies have demonstrated that nonpathogenic endosymbiotic bacteria can interfere with Rickettsia co-infections in other tick species. We hypothesized that within D. occidentalis ticks, interference may exist between different nonpathogenic endosymbiotic or nonendosymbiotic bacteria and Spotted Fever group Rickettsia (SFGR). Using PCR amplification and sequencing of the rompA gene and intergenic region we identified a cohort of SFGR-infected and non-infected D. occidentalis ticks collected from San Diego County. We then amplified a partial segment of the 16S rRNA gene and used next-generation sequencing to elucidate the microbiomes and levels of co-infection in the ticks. The SFGR R. philipii str. 364D and R. rhipicephali were detected in 2.3% and 8.2% of the ticks, respectively, via rompA sequencing. Interestingly, next generation sequencing revealed an inverse relationship between the number of Francisella-like endosymbiont (FLE) 16S rRNA sequences and Rickettsia 16S rRNA sequences within individual ticks that is consistent with partial interference between FLE and SFGR infecting ticks. After excluding the Rickettsia and FLE endosymbionts from the analysis, there was a small but significant difference in microbial community diversity and a pattern of geographic isolation by distance between collection locales. In addition, male ticks had a greater diversity of bacteria than female ticks and ticks that weren't infected with SFGR had similar microbiomes to canine skin microbiomes. Although experimental studies are required for confirmation, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that FLEs and, to a lesser extent, other bacteria, interfere with the ability of D. occidentalis to be infected with certain SFGR. The

  6. Toxic effects of oral 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene in the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarland, Craig A., E-mail: craig.a.mcfarland@us.army.mi [US Army Public Health Command (Prov), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Quinn, Michael J. [US Army Public Health Command (Prov), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Boyce, John [Biotechnics, LLC, Hillsborough, NC 27278 (United States); LaFiandra, Emily M.; Bazar, Matthew A. [US Army Public Health Command (Prov), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States); Talent, Larry G. [Oklahoma State University, Department of Natural Resource Ecology and Management, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Johnson, Mark S. [US Army Public Health Command (Prov), Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    The compound 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2A-DNT) was evaluated under laboratory conditions in the Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) to assess the potential for reptile toxicity. Oral LD{sub 50} values were 1406 and 1867 mg/kg for male and female lizards, respectively. Based on responses from a 14-day subacute study, a 60-day subchronic experiment followed where lizards were orally dosed at 0, 5, 15, 20, 25, 30 mg/kg-d. At day 60, number of days and survivors, food consumption, and change in body weight were inversely related to dose. Signs of toxicity were characterized by anorexia and generalized cachexia. Significant adverse histopathology was observed in hepatic tissue at {>=}15 mg/kg-d, consistent with hepatocellular transdifferentiation. Based on survival, loss of body weight, diminished food intake, changes in liver, kidney, and testes, and increased blood urea nitrogen, these data suggest a LOAEL of 15 mg/kg-d and a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg-d in S. occidentalis. - Research highlights: Oral LD{sub 50} (mg/kg) values were 1406 for male and 1867 for female lizards. Dose-dependent hepatocellular transdifferentiation was observed at {>=}5 mg/kg-d. Chromaturia in 2A-DNT and the parent TNT suggest biomarkers of exposure and effect. Health effects of metabolites support comprehensive ecological risk assessments. - The Western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis) is a suitable reptile model for assessing the toxicity of energetic compounds and their metabolites.

  7. Croissance de Auchenoglanis occidentalis (Pisces, Claroteidae dans le Delta Central du Niger (Mali, Afrique de l'ouest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niaré, T.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth of Auchenoglanis occidentalis (Pisces, Claroteidae in the Central Delta of Niger River Flood Plain (Mali, West Africa. Growth biology of Auchenoglanis occidentalis (Valenciennes, 1840 is studied from individuals monthly sampled on two different annual cycles (1991 and 1997 in the fishing port of Mopti. Individual age of fishes was determined by squelettochronology. Chronological follow-up of relative margin diameter (dr of spine ray section was used for validation of the periodicity of annulus formation. Only one annulus is formed annually. Period of growth recovery shows an individual variability with an early starting up from the lowwater level, in May. The seasonal cycle of growth of this benthic fish, A. occidentalis, depends more on the availability of the trophic resources than of abiotic factors. However, the optimal period of growth always remains the high-water one in this river with flood plain. Fishes condition factor's varies between 1.97±0.27 à 2.57±0.41. Year x season interaction affects this parameter. Growth realized during the first year (189.17±4.57 and 261.25±12.19 mm as well as the later growths depend on hydrological conditions and are influenced by fishing pressure. Presence of 3+ age class fishes shows that demographic structure is not qualitatively modified despite changes arisen in the Delta.

  8. Protective role of Juniperus phoenicea and Cupressus sempervirens against CCl4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sanaa; Ahmed; Ali; Maha; Zaki; Rizk; Nabawia; Ali; Ibrahim; Mohga; Shafik; Abdallah; Hayat; Mohamed; Sharara; Magda; Mohamed; Moustafa

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of Cupressus sempervirens (C. sempervirens) and Juniperus phoenicea (J. phoe-nicea) extracts as therapeutic effect against CCl4 with biochemical, histopathological evaluations. METHODS: A single intraperitoneal dose of 10% CCl4 in olive oil (1 mL/kg body weight) was administered to a group of female Wister rats, sacrificed after 24 h (as the injury group). The other groups were given CCl4 as de-scribed above and divided as follows: two groups of ten rats each were orally administered either J. phoenicea extract or C. sempervirens extract three times per week for six weeks and a further group administered CCl4 was left for six weeks to allow self-recovery. At the end of experiment, the rats from all groups were sacrificed for sampling and for biochemical and histological analysis. RESULTS: Remarkable disturbances were observed in the levels of all tested parameters. On the other hand,rats injected with the toxic agent and left for one and a half month to self recover showed moderate improve-ments in the studied parameters while, treatment with both medicinal herbal extracts ameliorated the levels of the disturbed biochemical parameters. The group treated with J. phoenicea extract showed a remarkable improvement in comparison to the CCl4 treated group. The C. sempervirens group revealing an even more re-markable effect showing histopathological liver& kidney profiles close to those of the control group.CONCLUSION: C. sempervirens and J. phoenicea leaf extracts show a remarkable effect in enhancing liver and kidney functions and may thus be of therapeutic potential in treatment hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of berries and leaves essential oils of Macedonian Juniperus foetidissima Willd. (Cupressaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floresha Sela

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of leaves and berries essential oils from Juniperus foetidissima Willd. (Cupressaceae grown in R. Macedonia (RM was investigated. GC/FID/MS analysis was carried out and 93 components were identified, representing 89.7-96.5% of the oils. The major components of the berries essential oil were α-pinene (19.2%, limonene (24.9% and cedrol (23.1%, followed by smaller amounts of b-funebrene, trans-caryophyllene, germacrene D and d-cadinene. The composition of the leaves essential oil was variable depending on the region of collection. Accordingly, samples originated from southeastern RM contained essential oil with α-pinene (67.6% and limonene (10.0%, from central part of RM with limonene (17.9-27.1% and cedrol (28.8-33.9%, while samples from southwestern RM contained oil with terpinen-4-ol (19.1%, cis-thujone (8.3%, germacrene D (11.0% and d-cadinene (6.3% as predominant components in the oil. Antimicrobial screening of the essential oils was made by disc diffusion and broth dilution method against 16 bacterial strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and one strain of Candida albicans. The leaves essential oil showed stronger antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Haemophilus influenzae (MIC = 125 ml/ml and moderate activity against Campylobacter jejuni (MIC > 500 ml/ml. Other investigated bacterial strains and Candida albicans were completely resistant to the antimicrobial activity of J. foetidissima essential oils.

  10. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of Juniperus thurifera L. essential oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AZZEDDINE ZERAIB

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative and quantitative composition of the essential oils obtained from male and female leaves of Juniperus thurifera L., (growing in Algeria has been investigated for the first time. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation (0.45% from female trees and 0.53% from male trees, v/w dried material and analyzed by gas choromatography (GC and gas choromatography-mass spectrometery (GC-MS. Seventy-seven compounds were identified, representing more than 97% of the oils. The major components were Sabinene, α-pinene and terpinene-4-ol. The concentrations of the oil constituents: α-thujene, α-pinene, α-phellandrene, p-cymene, linalyl acetate, Δ-amorphene, germacrene D-4-ol, and 4-epi-abietal were greater in the oil of the female tree than in the oil of the male tree. Conversely, the concentrations of α-terpinene, γ-terpinene, terpinene-4-ol, elemol, α-epi-cadinol and α-eudesmol were greater in the oil of the male tree than in the oil of the female tree. However, the concentration gradient trends for both female and male trees were similar for sabinene, myrcene, linalool, β-pinene, limonene, cis-sabinene hydrate terpinolene, α-terpineol. The antimicrobial activity of male and female J. thurifera essential oils was evaluated against 14 bacteria. The results showed a variable degree of antibacterial activity depending from the type of the oil (extracted from male or female trees. Essential oils of female trees were most effective.

  11. Morphological versus molecular markers to describe variability in Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa (Cupressaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douaihy, Bouchra; Sobierajska, Karolina; Jasińska, Anna Katarzyna; Boratyńska, Krystyna; Ok, Tolga; Romo, Angel; Machon, Nathalie; Didukh, Yakiv; Bou Dagher-Kharrat, Magda; Boratyński, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Juniperus excelsa M.-Bieb. is a major forest element in the mountains of the eastern part of Mediterranean and sub-Mediterranean regions. This study comprises the first morphological investigation covering a large part of the geographical range of J. excelsa and aims to verify the congruency between the morphological results and molecular results of a previous study. Methodology We studied 14 populations sampled from Greece, Cyprus, Ukraine, Turkey and Lebanon, 11 of which have previously been investigated using molecular markers. Three hundred and ninety-four individuals of J. excelsa were examined using nine biometric features characterizing cones, seeds and shoots, and eight derived ratios. Statistical analyses were conducted in order to evaluate the intra- and inter-population morphological variability. Principal results The level of intra-population variability observed did not show any geographical trends. The total variation mostly depended on the ratios of cone diameter/seed width and seed width/seed length. The discrimination analysis, the Ward agglomeration method and barrier analysis results showed a separation of the sampled populations into three main clusters. These results confirmed, in part, the geographical differentiation revealed by molecular markers with a lower level of differentiation and a less clear geographical pattern. The most differentiated populations using both markers corresponded to old, isolated populations in the high altitudes of Lebanon (>2000 m). Moreover, a separation of the northern Turkish population from the southern Turkish populations was observed using both markers. Conclusions Morphological variation together with genetic and biogeographic studies make an effective tool for detecting relict plant populations and also populations subjected to more intensive selection. PMID:22822421

  12. Protective role of Juniperus phoenicea and Cupressus sempervirens against CCl4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sanaa Ahmed; Rizk, Maha Zaki; Ibrahim, Nabawia Ali; Abdallah, Mohga Shafik; Sharara, Hayat Mohamed; Moustafa, Magda Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of Cupressus sempervirens (C. sempervirens) and Juniperus phoenicea (J. phoenicea) extracts as therapeutic effect against CCl4 with biochemical, histopathological evaluations. METHODS: A single intraperitoneal dose of 10% CCl4 in olive oil (1 mL/kg body weight) was administered to a group of female Wister rats, sacrificed after 24 h (as the injury group). The other groups were given CCl4 as described above and divided as follows: two groups of ten rats each were orally administered either J. phoenicea extract or C. sempervirens extract three times per week for six weeks and a further group administered CCl4 was left for six weeks to allow self-recovery. At the end of experiment, the rats from all groups were sacrificed for sampling and for biochemical and histological analysis. RESULTS: Remarkable disturbances were observed in the levels of all tested parameters. On the other hand, rats injected with the toxic agent and left for one and a half month to self recover showed moderate improvements in the studied parameters while, treatment with both medicinal herbal extracts ameliorated the levels of the disturbed biochemical parameters. The group treated with J. phoenicea extract showed a remarkable improvement in comparison to the CCl4 treated group. The C. sempervirens group revealing an even more remarkable effect showing histopathological liver& kidney profiles close to those of the control group. CONCLUSION: C. sempervirens and J. phoenicea leaf extracts show a remarkable effect in enhancing liver and kidney functions and may thus be of therapeutic potential in treatment hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. PMID:21577307

  13. Prevalence and real clinical impact of Cupressus sempervirens and Juniperus communis sensitisations in Tuscan "Maremma", Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sposato, Bruno; Scalese, Macro

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the impact of Cupressus sempervirens (Cs) and Juniperus communis (Jc) sensitisations in "Maremma" in southern Tuscany. 811 consecutive outpatients (357 F - 57.86%; age: 36.9 ± 16.6) with suspected allergic respiratory symptoms underwent skin prick tests (SPT) for common allergens and for Cs and Jc. SPT resulted negative in 295 (36.37%) subjects. A Cs/Jc sensitisation was found in 294 (36.25%): 289 (98.3%) were sensitised to Cs whereas 198 (67.34%) to Jc. There was a co-sensitisation between Cs and Jc in 193 (65.6%) subjects. Cs/Jc mono-sensitisation was found in 39 (13.6%) subjects. A higher number (p<0.0001) of Cs/Jc sensitised subjects reported winter (131-44.55%) and spring (124-42.2%) symptoms compared to Cs/Jc non-sensitised and non-allergic subjects. Most Cs/Jc sensitised subjects reported rhinitis and conjunctivitis (p<0.0001), whereas only few reported coughing and asthma (p<0.01). The most frequent co-sensitisation was with grass, olive and other trees in Cs/Jc subjects (p<0.001). Those who reported winter symptoms, likely influenced by Cupressaceae, rhinitis was the main symptom whereas asthma was less frequent. Cs/Jc sensitisation resulted to be a risk factor (OR: 1.73 [CI95% 1.18-2.55]) for rhinitis whereas the probability of being asthmatic was reduced (OR: 0.62 [CI95% 0.44-0.85]). The prevalence of Cs/Jc sensitisation is about 36% in "Maremma". However, only in 44% of the patients, Cs/Jc seem to cause typical winter symptoms. Rhinitis is the predominant symptom, whereas asthma is less frequent. Testing Cupressaceae sensitisation using Jc pollen extract, rather than Cs, may result to be less sensitive. Copyright © 2011 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling stem increment in individual Pinus occidentalis Sw. trees in La Sierra, Dominican Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueno, S.; Bevilacqua, E.

    2010-07-01

    One of the most common and important tree characteristics used in forest management decision-making is tree diameter-at-breast height (DBH). This paper presents results on an evaluation of two growth functions developed to model stem diameter increases in individual Pinus occidentalis Sw. trees in La Sierra, Dominican Republic. The first model was developed in order to predict future DBH (FDM) at different intervals of time and the other for predicting growth, that is, periodic annual diameter increment (PADIM). Each model employed two statistical techniques for fitting model parameters: stepwise ordinary least squares (OLS) regression, and mixed models. The two statistical approaches varied in how they accounted for the repeated measurements on individual trees over time, affecting standard error estimates and statistical inference of model parameters. Each approach was evaluated based on six goodness of- fit statistics, using both calibration and validation data sets. The objectives were 1) to determine the best model for predicting future tree DBH; 2) to determine the best model for predicting periodic annual diameter increment, both models using tree size, age, site index and different indices of competitive status; and 3) compare which of these two modeling approaches predicts better the future DBH. OLS provided a better fit for both of the growth functions, especially in regards to bias. Both models showed advantages and disadvantages when they were used to predict growth and future diameter. For the prediction of future diameter with FDM, accuracy of predictions were within one centimeter for a five-year projection interval. The PADIM presented negligible bias in estimating future diameter, although there was a small increase in bias as time of prediction increased. As expected, each model was the best in estimating the response variable it was developed for.. However, a closer examination of the distribution of errors showed a slight advantage of the FDM

  15. Comparative genome sequence analysis of Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman and C. rosaceana Harris (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae alphabaculoviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David K Thumbi

    Full Text Available The complete genome sequences of Choristoneura occidentalis and C. rosaceana nucleopolyhedroviruses (ChocNPV and ChroNPV, respectively (Baculoviridae: Alphabaculovirus were determined and compared with each other and with those of other baculoviruses, including the genome of the closely related C. fumiferana NPV (CfMNPV. The ChocNPV genome was 128,446 bp in length (1147 bp smaller than that of CfMNPV, had a G+C content of 50.1%, and contained 148 open reading frames (ORFs. In comparison, the ChroNPV genome was 129,052 bp in length, had a G+C content of 48.6% and contained 149 ORFs. ChocNPV and ChroNPV shared 144 ORFs in common, and had a 77% sequence identity with each other and 96.5% and 77.8% sequence identity, respectively, with CfMNPV. Five homologous regions (hrs, with sequence similarities to those of CfMNPV, were identified in ChocNPV, whereas the ChroNPV genome contained three hrs featuring up to 14 repeats. Both genomes encoded three inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP-1, IAP-2, and IAP-3, as reported for CfMNPV, and the ChocNPV IAP-3 gene represented the most divergent functional region of this genome relative to CfMNPV. Two ORFs were unique to ChocNPV, and four were unique to ChroNPV. ChroNPV ORF chronpv38 is a eukaryotic initiation factor 5 (eIF-5 homolog that has also been identified in the C. occidentalis granulovirus (ChocGV and is believed to be the product of horizontal gene transfer from the host. Based on levels of sequence identity and phylogenetic analysis, both ChocNPV and ChroNPV fall within group I alphabaculoviruses, where ChocNPV appears to be more closely related to CfMNPV than does ChroNPV. Our analyses suggest that it may be appropriate to consider ChocNPV and CfMNPV as variants of the same virus species.

  16. Antimicrobial activities of several parts of Pinus brutia, Juniperus oxycedrus, Abies cilicia, Cedrus libani and Pinus nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diğrak, M; Ilçim, A; Hakki Alma, M

    1999-11-01

    In this study, the antimicrobial activities of several parts of various trees grown in the Kahramanmaraş region of Turkey were investigated by the disc diffusion method. Chloroform, acetone and methanol extracts of leaves, resins, barks, cones and fruits of Pinus brutia Ten., Juniperus oxycedrus L., Abies cilicia Ant. & Kotschy Carr., Cedrus libani A. Rich. and Pinus nigra Arn. were prepared and tested against Bacillus megaterium DSM 32, Bacillus subtilis IMG 22, Bacillus cereus FMC 19, Escherichia coli DM, Klebsiella pneumoniae FMC 3, Enterobacter aerogenes CCM 2531, Staphylococcus aureus Cowan 1, Mycobacterium smegmatis RUT, Proteus vulgaris FMC 1, Listeria monocytogenes Scoot A, Pseudomonas aeruginosa DSM 5007, Candida albicans CCM 314, Candida tropicalis MDC 86 and Penicillium italicum K. The results showed that antifungal effects were not observed for the whole extracts, E. coli was not inhibited by any of the plant extracts except by the chloroform and acetone extracts of the leaves of A. cilicia, which showed inhibition zones of 16-18 mm, respectively. All the plant extracts used in this study inhibited the development of the other bacteria studied. When the results of this study were compared with an ampicillin standard, it was found that the microorganisms studied were generally susceptible, intermediate or resistant to the extracts of species when compared with the ampicillin standard. On the other hand, the acetone and methanol extracts of Juniperus fruits were found to be quite resistant.

  17. Genetic Variation in Five Mediterranean Populations of Juniperus phoenicea as Revealed by Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    MELONI, MARILENA; PERINI, DAVIDE; FILIGHEDDU, ROSSELLA; BINELLI, GIORGIO

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The assessment of the genetic variability and the identification of isolated populations within a given species represent important information to plan conservation strategies on a genetic basis. In this work, the genetic variability in five natural populations of Juniperus phoenicea, three from Sardinia, one from Cyprus and the last one in the Maritime Alps was analysed by means of ISSRs, on the hypothesis that the latter could have been a refugial one during the last glaciation. • Methods ISSRs were chosen because of their ability to detect variation without any prior sequence information. The use of three primers yielded 45 reproducible, polymorphic bands, which were utilized to estimate the basic parameters of genetic variability and diversity. • Key Results All of the populations analysed harboured an adequate amount of genetic variability, with HS = 0·1299. The proportion of genetic diversity between populations has been estimated by GST = 0·12. The three Sardinian populations are separated, as tested by AMOVA, from the Cyprus and the continental ones. • Conclusions The results indicate that geographical isolation has represented a major barrier to gene flow in Juniperus phoenicea. This work represents a first step towards a full genetic characterization of a conifer from the Mediterranean, a world biodiversity hotspot confronted with climate change, and thus contributes towards the planning of genetics-informed conservation strategies. PMID:16311272

  18. Variability of the needle essential oils of Juniperus deltoides R.P.ADAMS from different populations in Serbia and Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajčević, Nemanja; Janaćković, Peđa; Bojović, Srđan; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D

    2013-01-01

    The essential-oil compositions of one Croatian and three Serbian populations of Juniperus deltoides R.P.ADAMS have been determined by GC/MS analysis. In total, 147 compounds were identified, representing 97.3-98.3% of the oil composition. The oils were dominated by monoterpenes, which are characteristic components for the species of the section Juniperus. Two monoterpenes, α-pinene and limonene, were the dominant constituents, with a summed-up average content of 49.45%. Statistical methods were used to determine the diversity of the terpene classes and the common terpenes between the newly described J. deltoides populations from Serbia and Croatia. Only reports on several specimens from this species have been reported so far, and there are no studies that treat population diversity. Cluster analysis of the oil contents of 21 terpenes showed high correlation with the geographical distribution of the populations, separating the Croatian from the Serbian populations. The comparison of the essential-oil compositions obtained in the present study with literature data, showed the separation of J. deltoides and J. oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus from the western Mediterranean region. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  19. Cymbidium mosaic virus coat protein gene in antisense confers resistance to transgenic Nicotiana occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S H; Ko, M K; Lee, S J; La, Y J; Kim, B D

    1999-12-31

    The nucleotide sequence of the 3'-terminal region of the Korean isolate of cymbidium mosaic virus (CyMV-Ca) from a naturally infected cattleya was determined. The sequence contains an open reading frame (ORF) coding for the viral coat protein (CP) at the 3'-end and three other ORFs (triple gene block or movement protein) of CyMV. The CP gene encodes a polypeptide chain of 220 amino acids with a molecular mass of 23,760 Da. The deduced CP sequence showed a strong homology with those of two CyMVs reported. A construct of the CyMV-Ca CP gene in the antisense orientation in the plant expression vector pMBP1 was transferred via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation into Nicotiana occidentalis which is a propagation host of CyMV. The T1 progeny of the transgenic plants were inoculated with CyMV and found to be highly resistant to CyMV infection.

  20. Compatibility of Beauveria bassiana with Neoseiulus barkeri for Control of Frankliniella occidentalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Sheng-yong; GAO Yu-lin; XU Xue-nong; Mark S Goettel; LEI Zhong-ren

    2015-01-01

    The entomopathogenic fungusBeauveriabassiana (Balsamo) Vuilemin and predatory miteNeoseiulusbarkeri Hughes are effective biological control agents ofFranklinielaoccidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), one of the most important pests of ornamentals and vegetables world-wide. Combined application of both may enhance control efifciency. The functional response forN.barkeri on the ifrst instar larvae of western lfower thrips which were infected byB.bassiana for 12 and 24 h in the laboratory ((25±1)°C, (70±5)% RH, L:D=16 h:8 h) was determined. The virulence ofB.bassiana against the second instar and pupae of the thrips attacked byN.barkeri were also tested. The results showed that N.barkeri exhibited a Holing type II functional response on treated thrips. After having been treated with the fungus for 12 h and then offered to the predator, thrips were more vulnerable to be kiled byN.barkeri. The second instar larvae and pupae of the thrips which had been attacked by predatory mites were markedly more susceptible toB.bassiana infection than normal thrips; the cumulative corrected mortality ofB.bassiana of the second instar and pupae which were attacked byN.barkeri were 57 and 94%, respectively, compared to 35 and 80% in controls on the day 8. These ifndings highlight the potential use ofB.bassiana in combination withN.barkeri to controlF. occidentalis.

  1. Post-release survival and movement of Western Grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis) implanted with intracoelomic satellite transmitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Kyra L.; Gaydos, Joseph K.; Fiorello, Christine V.; Whitmer, Emily; De La Cruz, Susan; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Vilchis, L. Ignacio; Ziccardi, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to gain knowledge on post-release survival and movement of Western Grebes (Aechmophorus occidentalis) using a modified technique for implanting satellite transmitters. This technique had improved post-surgical survival in an earlier study. Nine Western Grebes, implanted with intracoelomic (within the body cavity) satellite transmitters with percutaneous antennae, were released close to their capture site in San Francisco Bay, California, USA. Eight survived at least 25 days (average number of transmittal days was 140.8), while two had transmitters that provided data for greater than 1 year (436 and 454 days). The average cumulative distance recorded for all Western Grebes (n = 9) was 829 km with two round-trip movements documented. One individual Western Grebe traveled a cumulative round-trip distance of 2,144 km in July and November 2011, while another individual traveled a round-trip distance of 1,514 km between 8 and 14 December 2011. This study provides a step forward in testing implantable satellite transmitters in Western Grebes and highlights the need to further improve tracking methods, potentially improving our understanding of their population threats.

  2. Biogenic Nanoparticles from Schwanniomyces occidentalis NCIM 3459: Mechanistic Aspects and Catalytic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohite, Pallavi; Apte, Mugdha; Kumar, Ameeta Ravi; Zinjarde, Smita

    2016-06-01

    When cells of Schwanniomyces occidentalis NCIM 3459 were incubated with 1 mM tetrachloroauric acid (HAuCl4) or silver nitrate (AgNO3), cell-associated nanoparticles were obtained. Their presence was confirmed by scanning electron microscope observations. The cell-free supernatant (CFS) of the yeast mediated the synthesis of gold nanoparticles. On account of the difficulties associated with the use of cell-bound nanoparticles, further work was restricted to extracellular nanoparticles. It was hypothesized that the CFS contained thermostable biomolecule(s) that mediated metal reduction reactions. Extraction of the CFS with chloroform/methanol (2:1) and subsequent separation by preparative thin layer chromatography led to the activity-guided purification of a glycolipid. The glycolipid was hydrolyzed and the glycone (glucose) and aglycone components (palmitic acid and oleic acid) were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The purified glycolipid mediated the synthesis of gold and silver nanoparticles that were characterized by using an X-ray diffractometer and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The extracellular nanoparticles displayed catalytic activities and reduced 4-nitroaniline to benzene-1,4-diamine. This paper thus highlights nanoparticle synthesis by a hitherto unreported yeast culture, identifies the biomolecules involved in the process, and describes a potential application of the nanostructures.

  3. Thuja occidentalis (Arbor vitae: A Review of its Pharmaceutical, Pharmacological and Clinical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belal Naser

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Arbor vitae (Thuja occidentalis L. is a native European tree widely used in homeopathy and evidence-based phytotherapy. Many reviews and monographs have been published on the herbal substance's description, mode of action and clinical use. However, no comprehensive evidence-based review is available. Therefore, our aim was to search MEDLINE databases and survey manufacturers for further details or unpublished data. This review presents the botany, ethnobotany and phytochemistry, especially the different contents of essential oil (Thujone in relation to different extraction procedures of this medicinal plant. Thuja's antiviral action and immunopharmacological potential, such as stimulatory and co-stimulatory effects on cytokine and antibody production and activation of macrophages and other immunocompetent cells, have been evaluated in numerous in vitro and in vivo investigations. Although no controlled trials have been conducted on Thuja occ alone, many clinical studies have been performed with a herbal medicinal product containing a special extract of Thuja occ and other immunostimulants, demonstrating its therapeutic efficacy and safety in respiratory tract infections.

  4. Homology modeling and molecular dynamics study on Schwanniomyces occidentalis alpha-amylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefidbakht, Yahya; Ranaei Siadat, Omid; Taheri, Fatemeh

    2017-02-01

    With consumers growing increasingly aware of environmental issues, industries find enzymes as a reasonable alternative over physical conditions and chemical catalysts. Amylases are important hydrolase enzymes, which have been widely used in variety of industrial process such as pharmaceutical, food, and fermentation industries. Among amylases α-Amylase is in maximum demand due to its wide range of applications. The homology modeling study on Schwanniomyces occidentalis amylase (AMY1, UniProt identifier number: P19269) was performed by Modeller using Aspergillus oryzae (6TAA) as the template. The resulting structure was analyzed for validity and subjected to 14 ns of molecular dynamics (MD) simulation trough GROMACS. The validity of obtained model may represent that utilized OPLS force field is suitable for calcium-containing enzymes. DSSP secondary structure and contact map analysis represent the conservation of domain A TIM barrel feature together with calcium ion coordination sphere. Investigating the covariance matrix followed by principle component analyses for the first five eigenvectors of both trajectories indicate a little more flexibility for AMY1 structure. The electrostatic calculation for the final structures shows similar isoelectric point and superimposed buffering zone in the 5-8 pH range.

  5. Cadmium hyperaccumulation protects Thlaspi caerulescens from leaf feeding damage by thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, R F; Ma, D Y; Zhao, F J; McGrath, S P

    2005-09-01

    Metal hyperaccumulation has been proposed as a plant defensive strategy. Here, we investigated whether cadmium (Cd) hyperaccumulation protected Thlaspi caerulescens from leaf feeding damage by thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis). Two ecotypes differing in Cd accumulation, Ganges (high) and Prayon (low), were grown in compost amended with 0-1000 mg Cd kg(-1) in two experiments under glasshouse conditions. F2 and F3 plants from the Prayon x Ganges crosses were grown with 5 mg Cd kg(-1). Plants were naturally colonized by thrips and the leaf feeding damage index (LFDI) was assessed. The LFDI decreased significantly with increasing Cd in both ecotypes, and correlated with shoot Cd concentration in a log-linear fashion. Prayon was more attractive to thrips than Ganges, but the ecotypic difference in the LFDI was largely accounted for by the shoot Cd concentration. In the F2 and F3 plants, the LFDI correlated significantly and negatively with shoot Cd, but not with shoot zinc (Zn) or sulphur (S) concentrations. We conclude that Cd hyperaccumulation deters thrips from feeding on T. caerulescens leaves, which may offer an adaptive benefit to the plant.

  6. Geographic genetic differentiation of a malaria parasite, Plasmodium mexicanum, and its lizard host, Sceloporus occidentalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Jennifer M; Vardo-Zalik, Anne M; Schall, Jos J

    2010-04-01

    Gene flow, and resulting degree of genetic differentiation among populations, will shape geographic genetic patterns and possibly local adaptation of parasites and their hosts. Some studies of Plasmodium falciparum in humans show substantial differentiation of the parasite in locations separated by only a few kilometers, a paradoxical finding for a parasite in a large, mobile host. We examined genetic differentiation of the malaria parasite Plasmodium mexicanum, and its lizard host, Sceloporus occidentalis, at 8 sites in northern California, with the use of variable microsatellite markers for both species. These lizards are small and highly territorial, so we expected local genetic differentiation of both parasite and lizard. Populations of P. mexicanum were found to be differentiated by analysis of 5 markers (F(st) values >0.05-0.10) over distances as short as 230-400 m, and greatly differentiated (F(st) values >0.25) for sites separated by approximately 10 km. In contrast, the lizard host had no, or very low, levels of differentiation for 3 markers, even for sites >40 km distant. Thus, gene flow for the lizard was great, but despite the mobility of the vertebrate host, the parasite was locally genetically distinct. This discrepancy could result if infected lizards move little, but their noninfected relatives were more mobile. Previous studies on the virulence of P. mexicanum for fence lizards support this hypothesis. However, changing prevalence of the parasite, without changes in density of the lizard, could also result in this pattern.

  7. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-active metabolites from Platanus occidentalis (American Sycamore).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Mansoor, Arsala A; Gross, Amanda; Ashfaq, M Khalid; Jacob, Melissa; Khan, Shabana I; Hamann, Mark T

    2009-12-01

    One known and three new potent, selective, and nontoxic anti-MRSA metabolites, kaempferol 3-O-alpha-l-(2'',3''-di-E-p-coumaroyl)rhamnoside (1) (IC(50) 2.0 microg/mL), kaempferol 3-O-alpha-l-(2''-E-p-coumaroyl-3''-Z-p-coumaroyl)rhamnoside (2) (IC(50) 0.8 microg/mL), kaempferol 3-O-alpha-l-(2''-Z-p-coumaroyl-3''-E-p-coumaroyl)rhamnoside (3) (IC(50) 0.7 microg/mL), and kaempferol 3-O-alpha-l-(2'',3''-di-Z-p-coumaroyl)rhamnoside (4) (IC(50) 0.4 microg/mL), were isolated from the leaves of the common American sycamore, Platanus occidentalis. Compounds 2-4 are new. Due to the unusual selectivity, potency, and safety of the pure compounds and the semipure glycoside mixture against MRSA, it is clear that this represents a viable class of inhibitors to prevent growth of MRSA on surfaces and systemically.

  8. Decreased carbon limitation of litter respiration in a mortality-affected piñon-juniper woodland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Berryman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Microbial respiration depends on microclimatic variables and carbon (C substrate availability, all of which are altered when ecosystems experience major disturbance. Widespread tree mortality, currently affecting piñon-juniper ecosystems in Southwestern North America, may affect C substrate availability in several ways; for example, via litterfall pulses and loss of root exudation. To determine piñon mortality effects on C and water limitation of microbial respiration, we applied field amendments (sucrose and water to two piñon-juniper sites in central New Mexico, USA: one with a recent (< 1 yr, experimentally-induced mortality event and a nearby site with live canopy. We monitored the respiration response to water and sucrose applications to the litter surface and to the underlying mineral soil surface, testing the following hypotheses: (1 soil respiration in a piñon-juniper woodland is water- and labile C-limited in both the litter layer and mineral soil; (2 water and sucrose applications increase temperature sensitivity of respiration; (3 the mortality-affected site will show a reduction in C limitation in the litter; (4 the mortality-affected site will show an enhancement of C limitation in the mineral soil. Litter respiration at both sites responded to increased water availability, yet surprisingly, mineral soil respiration was not limited by water. Temperature sensitivity was enhanced by some of the sucrose and water treatments. Consistent with hypothesis 3, C limitation of litter respiration was lower at the recent mortality site compared to the intact canopy site. Results following applications to the mineral soil suggest the presence of abiotic effects of increasing water availability, precluding our ability to measure labile C limitation in soil. Widespread piñon mortality may decrease labile C limitation of litter respiration, at least during the first growing season following mortality.

  9. Essential oils of Cupressus funebris, juniperus communis, and j. chinensis (cupressaceae) as repellents against ticks (Acari; Ixodidae) and mosquitoes (diptera; Culicidae) and as toxiants against mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juniperus communis leaf oil, J. chinensis wood oil and Cupressus funebris wood oil (Cupressaceae) from China were analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We identified 104 compounds representing 66.8-95.5% of the oils. The major components of J. communis were a-pinen...

  10. Afritoxinones A and B, dihydrofuropyran-2-ones produced by Diplodia africana the causal agent of branch dieback on Juniperus phoenicea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidente, Antonio; Masi, Marco; Linaldeddu, Benedetto T; Franceschini, Antonio; Scanu, Bruno; Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna; Motta, Andrea; Maddau, Lucia

    2012-05-01

    Two phytotoxic dihydrofuropyran-2-ones, named afritoxinones A and B, were isolated from liquid culture of Diplodia africana, a fungal pathogen responsible for branch dieback of Phoenicean juniper in Italy. Additionally, six others known metabolites were isolated and characterized: oxysporone, sphaeropsidin A, epi-sphaeropsidone, R-(-)-mellein, (3R,4R)-4-hydroxymellein and (3R,4S)-4-hydroxymellein. The structures of afritoxinones A and B were established by spectroscopic and optical methods and determined to be as (3aS(*),6R(*),7aS)-6-methoxy-3a,7a-dihydro-3H,6H-furo[2,3-b]pyran-2-one and (3aR(*),6R(*),7aS)-6-methoxy-3a,7a-dihydro-3H,6H-furo[2,3-b]pyran-2-one, respectively. The phytotoxic activity of afritoxinones A and B and oxysporone was evaluated on host (Phoenicean juniper) and non-host plant (holm oak, cork oak and tomato) by cutting and leaf puncture assay. Oxysporone proved to be the most phytotoxic compound. This study represents the first report of secondary metabolites produced by D. africana. In addition, the taxonomic implications of secondary metabolites in Botryosphaeriaceae family studies are discussed.

  11. Net changes in aboveground woody carbon stock in western juniper woodlands, 1946-1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Eva K.; Vierling, Lee A.; Smith, Alistair M. S.; Bunting, Stephen C.

    2008-03-01

    Although regional increases in woody plant cover in semiarid ecosystems have been identified as a worldwide phenomenon affecting the global carbon budget, quantifying the impact of these vegetation shifts on C pools and fluxes is challenging. Challenges arise because woody encroachment is governed by ecological processes that occur at fine spatial resolutions (1-10 m) and, in many cases, at slow (decadal-scale) temporal rates over large areas. We therefore analyzed time series aerial photography, which exhibits both the necessary spatial precision and temporal extent, to quantify the expansion of western juniper into sagebrush steppe landscapes in southwestern Idaho. We established upper and lower bounds of aboveground woody carbon change across the landscape via two-dimensional spatial wavelet analysis, image texture analysis, and field data collection. Forty-eight 100-ha blocks across a 330,000-ha region were stratified by topography, soil characteristics, and land stewardship for analyses. Across the area we estimate aboveground woody carbon accumulation rates of 3.3 gCm-2yr-1 and 10.0 gCm-2yr-1 using the wavelet and texture method, respectively, during the time period 1946-1998. Carbon accumulation rates were significantly affected by soil properties and were highly dependent on the spatial and temporal scales of analysis. For example, at a 100-ha scale the aboveground carbon accumulation varied from -1.7 to 9.9 gCm-2yr-1, while at the 1-ha scale the range of variability increased to -11 to 22 gCm-2yr-1. These values are an order of magnitude lower than those previously suggested due to woody encroachment, highlighting the need for examining multiple spatial scales when accounting for changes in terrestrial carbon storage.

  12. Evaluating mountain meadow groundwater response to Pinyon-Juniper and temperature in a great basin watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Rosemary W.H.; Huntington, Justin L.; Snyder, Keirith A.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Morton, Charles; Stringham, Tamzen K.

    2017-01-01

    This research highlights development and application of an integrated hydrologic model (GSFLOW) to a semiarid, snow-dominated watershed in the Great Basin to evaluate Pinyon-Juniper (PJ) and temperature controls on mountain meadow shallow groundwater. The work used Google Earth Engine Landsat satellite and gridded climate archives for model evaluation. Model simulations across three decades indicated that the watershed operates on a threshold response to precipitation (P) >400 mm/y to produce a positive yield (P-ET; 9%) resulting in stream discharge and a rebound in meadow groundwater levels during these wetter years. Observed and simulated meadow groundwater response to large P correlates with above average predicted soil moisture and with a normalized difference vegetation index threshold value >0.3. A return to assumed pre-expansion PJ conditions or an increase in temperature to mid-21st century shifts yielded by only ±1% during the multi-decade simulation period; but changes of approximately ±4% occurred during wet years. Changes in annual yield were largely dampened by the spatial and temporal redistribution of evapotranspiration across the watershed: Yet the influence of this redistribution and vegetation structural controls on snowmelt altered recharge to control water table depth in the meadow. Even a small-scale removal of PJ (0.5 km2) proximal to the meadow will promote a stable, shallow groundwater system resilient to droughts, while modest increases in temperature will produce a meadow susceptible to declining water levels and a community structure likely to move toward dry and degraded conditions.

  13. Comparación anatómica de Nitrophila australis var. australis y Nitrophila occidentalis (Chenopodiaceae: Su importancia taxonómica Anatomic comparison between Nitrophila australis var. australis and Nitrophila occidentalis (Chenopodiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Pérez Cuadra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrophila australis es una halófita endémica de la Argentina mientras que Nitrophila occidentalis es una halófita nativa de Norteamérica; ambas pertenecen a las Polycnemoideae (Chenopodiaceae. Su anatomía foliar es similar: epidermis uniestratificada, clorénquima homogéneo, tejido acuífero y un haz vascular central con un número variable de haces menores a cada lado del mismo; la principal diferencia reside en las estrías cuticulares y carenas marginales. El tallo de ambas especies posee una epidermis uniestratificada, colénquima angular subepidérmico y parénquima cortical aerenquimatoso. La estela de N. australis posee cuatro haces vasculares mientras que la de N. occidentalis tiene ocho; ambas especies presentan casquetes de colénquima asociados a los haces vasculares. En el rizoma de la especie argentina el felógeno es superficial mientras que el de la americana se diferencia más profundamente. En ambas especies se observa un número variable de haces vasculares en la estela. Si bien las características morfológicas y anatómicas generales son similares en estas especies, cada una presenta algunas variaciones específicas, por lo cual su estudio anatómico reviste valor taxonómico a nivel de especie.Its taxonomic importance. Nitrophila australis is an endemic halophyte species of Argentina while Nitrophila occidentalis is a native halophyte of North America, both belonging to Polycnemoideae (Chenopodiaceae. They are similar in foliar anatomy: one-layered epidermis, homogeneous chlorenchyma, acqueous tissue and one large central bundle with a variable number of smaller ones on each side of the latter; the main difference stands in the cuticular striae and marginal ribs on each side of the leaf. The stem of both species shows a one-layered epidermis, subepidermic angular collenchyma and a cortical aerenchymatous parenchyma. Four bundles occur in the stele of N. australis while in N. occidentalis there are eight; both show

  14. Proposal to endorse the award of a contract for the supply of a juniper T320 network router

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a contract for the supply of a JUNIPER T320 Network Router. The Finance Committee is invited to endorse the CERN Management's decision to negotiate a contract with QWEST COMMUNICATION (USA) for the supply of a JUNIPER T320 Network Router for a total amount not exceeding 265 000 US dollars (350 000 Swiss francs). The Finance Committee is also requested to approve the negotiation of a maintenance contract for a value not exceeding 50 000 US dollars (66 000 Swiss francs) for three years and the option to purchase additional network interfaces for a value not exceeding 100 000 US dollars (132 000 Swiss francs) bringing the total amount to 415 000 US dollars (548 000 Swiss francs), not subject to revision. CERN's contribution will not exceed 90 000 Swiss francs. The amounts in Swiss francs have been calculated using the present rate of exchange. The firm has indicated the following distribution by country of the contract value covered by this adjudication proposal: CA - 100%.

  15. Decreased carbon limitation of litter respiration in a mortality-affected piñon–juniper woodland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Berryman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Microbial respiration depends on microclimatic variables and carbon (C substrate availability, all of which are altered when ecosystems experience major disturbance. Widespread tree mortality, currently affecting piñon–juniper ecosystems in southwestern North America, may affect C substrate availability in several ways, for example, via litterfall pulses and loss of root exudation. To determine piñon mortality effects on C and water limitation of microbial respiration, we applied field amendments (sucrose and water to two piñon–juniper sites in central New Mexico, USA: one with a recent (2 flux on the girdled site and a non-significant increase on the control. We speculate that the reduction may have been driven by water-induced carbonate dissolution, which serves as a sink for CO2 and would reduce the net flux. Widespread piñon mortality may decrease labile C limitation of litter respiration, at least during the first growing season following mortality.

  16. Arginine kinase from the Tardigrade, Macrobiotus occidentalis: molecular cloning, phylogenetic analysis and enzymatic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uda, Kouji; Ishida, Mikako; Matsui, Tohru; Suzuki, Tomohiko

    2010-10-01

    Arginine kinase (AK), which catalyzes the reversible transfer of phosphate from ATP to arginine to yield phosphoarginine and ADP, is widely distributed throughout the invertebrates. We determined the cDNA sequence of AK from the tardigrade (water bear) Macrobiotus occidentalis, cloned the sequence into pET30b plasmid, and expressed it in Escherichia coli as a 6x His-tag—fused protein. The cDNA is 1377 bp, has an open reading frame of 1080 bp, and has 5′- and 3′-untranslated regions of 116 and 297 bp, respectively. The open reading frame encodes a 359-amino acid protein containing the 12 residues considered necessary for substrate binding in Limulus AK. This is the first AK sequence from a tardigrade. From fragmented and non-annotated sequences available from DNA databases, we assembled 46 complete AK sequences: 26 from arthropods (including 19 from Insecta), 11 from nematodes, 4 from mollusks, 2 from cnidarians and 2 from onychophorans. No onychophoran sequences have been reported previously. The phylogenetic trees of 104 AKs indicated clearly that Macrobiotus AK (from the phylum Tardigrada) shows close affinity with Epiperipatus and Euperipatoides AKs (from the phylum Onychophora), and therefore forms a sister group with the arthropod AKs. Recombinant 6x His-tagged Macrobiotus AK was successfully expressed as a soluble protein, and the kinetic constants (K(m), K(d), V(ma) and k(cat)) were determined for the forward reaction. Comparison of these kinetic constants with those of AKs from other sources (arthropods, mollusks and nematodes) indicated that Macrobiotus AK is unique in that it has the highest values for k(cat) and K(d)K(m) (indicative of synergistic substrate binding) of all characterized AKs.

  17. Yield and utilization of hardwood fiber grown on short rotations. [Platanus occidentalis, Liquidambar styraciflua, Liriodendron tulipifera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbeck, K.; Brown, C.L.

    1976-01-01

    Plantations of broad-leaved tree species harvested in cycles of less than 10 years can help meet man's increasing cellulose and energy needs. A system of growing hardwoods like an agricultural row crop, harvested with equipment equivalent to corn silage cutters and using the ensuing sprout growth as the next crop, was conceived by foresters in Georgia in 1965. Research has focused on the tree species, sites, and cultural practices suited for this concept as well as the biomass yields and the utility of the fiber that was produced. About 70 hectares of American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.), sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.), and yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.) test plantings have been established in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain regions of Georgia. These species, when given proper care, can be grown successfully on many sites previously deemed unsuitable for hardwood growth. Stumps will resprout throughout the year, ensuring a continuous flow of raw material to the user. The biomass yields from hardwood fields vary with species, site, cultural practices, and rotation age. Fresh weight yields of unfoliated sycamore sprouts grown on an upland site varied from 14.3 tons/ha/yr when harvested annually to 21.8 tons/ha/yr with harvest at age four. When sprouts were harvested every two years, 46 kg/ha/2 yrs of nitrogen, 35 kg calcium, 22 kg potassium, and 6 kg phosphorus were removed in the harvested material. Juvenile American sycamore stump sprouts have been successfully converted into corrugating medium, particleboard, fiberboard, hardboard, and newsprint. It can be cooked by the Kraft and NSSC processes. One-, two-, and four-year-old sycamore sprouts presented no unusual problems in the Kraft process, and yields ranged from 45 to 57 percent with an average yield of 52 percent. Cooking times were relatively short.

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of a flavanone-3-hydroxylase gene from rubus occidentalis L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Sik; Lee, Eun Mi; An, Byung Chull; Barampuram, Shyamkumar; Kim, Jae Sung; Chung, Jae Sung [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jae Young [Dept. of Applied Life Sciences, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Lee, In Chul [Senior Industry Cluster Agency, Youngdong University, Youngdong (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    Flavanone-3-hydroxylase (F3H) is one of the key enzymes for the biosynthesis of flavonals, anthocyanins, catechins and proanthocyanins. F3H catalyzes the 3β-hydroxylation of (2S)-flavonones to form (2R, 3R)-dihydroflavonols. In this report, we isolated a full-length cDNA of RocF3H from black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) using a reverse transcriptase-PCR and rapid amplification of the cDNA ends (RACE)-PCR. The full-length cDNA of RocF3H contains a 1,098 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 365 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of about 41.1 kDa and isoelectric point (pI) of 5.45. The genomic DNA analysis revealed that the RocF3H gene had three exons and two introns. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of the RocF3H with other F3Hs revealed that the protein is highly homologous with various plant species. The conserved amino acids ligating the ferrous iron and the residues participating in the 2-oxoglutarate binding (R-X-S) were found in RocF3H at the similar positions to other F3Hs. Southern blot analysis indicated that RocF3H exist a multi-gene family. The isolation of RocF3H gene will be helpful to further study the role of F3H gene in the biosynthesis of flavonoids in R. occidnetalis.

  19. Antibacterial Activities of Metabolites from Platanus occidentalis (American sycamore) against Fish Pathogenic Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Kevin K; Hamann, Mark T; McChesney, James D; Rodenburg, Douglas L; Ibrahim, Mohamed A

    2016-01-01

    One approach to the management of common fish diseases in aquaculture is the use of antibiotic-laden feed. However, there are public concerns about the use of antibiotics in agriculture and the potential development of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Therefore, the discovery of other environmentally safe natural compounds as alternatives to antibiotics would benefit the aquaculture industries. Four natural compounds, commonly called platanosides, [kaempferol 3-O-α-L-(2″,3″-di-E-p-coumaroyl)rhamnoside (1), kaempferol 3-O-α-L-(2″-E-p-coumaroyl-3″-Z-p-coumaroyl)rhamnoside (2), kaempferol 3-O-α-L-(2″-Z-p-coumaroyl-3″-E-p-coumaroyl)rhamnoside (3), and kaempferol 3-O-α-L-(2″,3″-di-Z-p-coumaroyl)rhamnoside (4)] isolated from the leaves of the American sycamore (Platanus occidentalis) tree were evaluated using a rapid bioassay for their antibacterial activities against common fish pathogenic bacteria including Flavobacterium columnare, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Streptococcus iniae. The four isomers and a mixture of all four isomers were strongly antibacterial against isolates of F. columnare and S. iniae. Against F. columnare ALM-00-173, 3 and 4 showed the strongest antibacterial activities, with 24-h 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) values of 2.13 ± 0.11 and 2.62 ± 0.23 mg/L, respectively. Against S. iniae LA94-426, 4 had the strongest antibacterial activity, with 24-h IC50 of 1.87 ± 0.23 mg/L. Neither a mixture of the isomers nor any of the individual isomers were antibacterial against isolates of E. ictaluri and A. hydrophila at the test concentrations used in the study. Several of the isomers appear promising for the potential management of columnaris disease and streptococcosis in fish.

  20. Detecting mortality induced structural and functional changes in a pinon-juniper woodland using Landsat and RapidEye time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan J. Krofcheck; Jan U. H. Eitel; Lee A. Vierling; Urs Schulthess; Timothy M. Hilton; Eva Dettweiler-Robinson; Rosemary Pendleton; Marcy E. Litvak

    2014-01-01

    Pinon-juniper (PJ) woodlands have recently undergone dramatic drought-induced mortality, triggering broad scale structural changes in this extensive Southwestern US biome. Given that climate projections for the region suggest widespread conifer mortality is likely to continue into the next century, it is critical to better understand how this climate-induced change in...

  1. Effects of one-seed juniper and polyethylene glycol on intake, rumen fermentation, and plasma amino acids in sheep and goats fed supplemental protein and tannins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    We tested the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on juniper and total intake, rumen fermentation, and plasma amino acids (AA) of 12 does and 12 ewes fed sudangrass and basal diets containing 10% quebracho tannins with no protein supplement (Control; 5% CP) or high rumen degradable (RDP 15% CP) or u...

  2. Effects of adding protein, condensed tannins, and polyethylene glycol to diets of sheep and goats fed one-seed juniper and low quality roughage

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biochemical mechanisms that limit voluntary intake of one-seed juniper by browsing ruminants are not well understood. Twelve Rambouillet ewes (78 ± 2.3 kg BW) and 12 Boer-Spanish does (54 ± 1.4 kg BW) were used in a split-plot sequence design to investigate the effects of adding protein, quebrac...

  3. Analisis Elemen Visual Pada Promosi Busana Muslimah di Instagram (Studi Kasus Merek Hijab Juniper Lane, Zaha, dan Zysku Xena di Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadita Fetrianggi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of Visual Elements on Muslimah Clothing Promotion in Instagram (Case Study on Brands of Hijab Juniper Lane, Zaha, and Zysku Xena in Bandung. Muslim clothing in the form of hijab has become popular as a religious lifestyle and identity. The popularity of hijab is due to the promotion of marketing through instagram displaying muslim fashion clothing that is designed very interesting, so that consumers become interested and marketing becomes increasing. This study aims to examine muslim clothing photos on instagram hijab with brands of Juniper Lane, Zaha, and Zysku Xena in Bandung seen from the visual elements of photography. The research method used case study with descriptive approach through visual analysis. The research subjects are instagram photos on Juniper Lane hijab brand, Zaha, and Zysku Xena in Bandung. Data collection techniques were collected by observation, instagram photo documentation study, and interviews with local brand owners of hijab and consumers. Data were analyzed by visual analysis, content analysis, and qualitative analysis. The results show that muslim clothing photos on instagram with brands of hijab Juniper Lane, Zaha, and Zysku Xena in Bandung have fulfilled the visual elements of photography, so the photo design becomes attractive, the consumers become interested in them, and the marketing becomes increasing.

  4. Effects of using ground redberry juniper and dried distillers grains with solubles in lamb feedlot diets: growth, blood serum, fecal, and wool characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, T R; Lupton, C J; Muir, J P; Adams, R P; Stewart, W C

    2014-03-01

    Effects of using ground redberry juniper and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in Rambouillet lamb (n = 45) feedlot diets on growth, blood serum, fecal, and wool characteristics were evaluated. In a randomized design study with 2 feeding periods (Period 1 = 64% concentrate diet, 35 d; Period 2 = 85% concentrate diet, 56 d), lambs were individually fed 5 isonitrogenous diets: a control diet (CNTL) that contained oat hay but not DDGS or juniper or DDGS-based diets in which 0 (0JUN), 33 (33JUN), 66 (66JUN), or 100% (100JUN) of the oat hay was replaced by juniper. During Period 1, lambs fed CNTL had greater (P diets. Lamb DMI, ADG, and G:F quadratically increased (P diets. During Period 2, lambs fed CNTL had greater (P diets, but ADG was similar (P > 0.41). Compared to 0JUN, lambs fed CNTL had similar (P = 0.12) G:F and tended to have less G:F (P = 0.07) than lambs fed DDGS-based diets. Among lambs fed DDGS-based diets, DMI was similar (P > 0.19), ADG increased linearly (P = 0.03), and G:F tended to decrease quadratically (P = 0.06) as juniper increased in the diet. Serum IGF-1, serum urea N (SUN), and fecal N were greater (P 0.13) for lambs fed CNTL vs. lambs fed DDGS-based diets (CNTL). Within lambs fed DDGS-based diets, SUN increased quadratically (P = 0.01) and fecal N increased linearly (P = 0.004), which can partially be attributed to increased dietary urea and condensed tannin intake. Most wool characteristics were not affected, but wool growth per kilogram of BW decreased quadratically (P = 0.04) as percentage of juniper increased in the DDGS-based diets. When evaluating the entire 91-d feeding trial, results indicated that replacing all of the ground oat hay with ground juniper leaves and stems in lamb growing and finishing diets is not detrimental to animal performance and that DDGS-based diets can reduce total feedlot costs, as compared to sorghum grain and cottonseed meal-based diets. However, compared to using juniper or oat hay as the sole

  5. A landscape-scale assessment of plant communities, hydrologic processes, and state-and-transition theory in a western juniper dominated ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Steven L.

    Western juniper has rapidly expanded into sagebrush steppe communities in the Intermountain West during the past 120 years. This expansion has occurred across a wide range of soil types and topographic positions. These plant communities, however, are typically treated in current peer-reviewed literature generically. The focus of this research is to investigate watershed level response to Western juniper encroachment at multiple topographic positions. Data collected from plots used to measure vegetation, soil moisture, and infiltration rates show that intercanopy sites within encroached Western juniper communities generally exhibit a significant decrease in intercanopy plant density and cover, decreased infiltration rates, increased water sediment content, and lower soil moisture content. High-resolution remotely sensed imagery and Geographic Information Systems were used with these plot level measurements to characterize and model the landscape-scale response for both biotic and abiotic components of a Western juniper encroached ecosystem. These data and their analyses included an inventory of plant density, plant cover, bare ground, gap distance and cover, a plant community classification of intercanopy patches and juniper canopy cover, soil moisture estimation, solar insulation prediction, slope and aspect. From these data, models were built that accurately predicted shrub density and shrub cover throughout the watershed study area, differentiated by aspect. We propose a new model of process-based plant community dynamics associated with current state-and-transition theory. This model is developed from field measurements and spatially explicit information that characterize the relationship between the matrix mountain big sagebrush plant community and intercanopy plant community patterns occurring within a Western juniper dominated woodland at a landscape scale. Model parameters (states, transitions, and thresholds) are developed based on differences in shrub

  6. Antihyperglycemic effect ofJuniperus phoenicea L. on alloxan-induced diabetic rats and diterpenoids isolated from the fruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salma Ahmed El-Sawi; Hemaia Mohamed Motawae; Abdel-Rahman Omar El-Shabrawy; Mohamed Aboul-Fotouh Sleem; Amani Ameen Sleem; Maii Abdel Naby Ismail Maamoun

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the traditional use ofJuniperus phoenicea L. (J. phoenicea) growing in Egypt as antidiabetic herb. Methods: The antihyperglycemic activities of the crude 80% ethanol and successive extracts of leaves and fruits of the plant were investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats after collecting blood samples through retro-orbital puncture technique. As a consequence of the biological results, phytochemical investigation of the chloroform fraction of fruits was carried out by column chromatography and thin layer chromatography. Results: Results revealed the reduction in blood glucose levels in rats, which were significantly different from control at 4 and 8 weeks (P Conclusions: It has become clear that leaves and fruits of the EgyptianJ. phoenicea provide effective antihyperglycemic action in diabetic rats as was reported in folk medicine. The high contents of terpenoids in the non-polar fractions may attribute to the antidiabetic effect of the plant.

  7. Seasonal and geographical influences on the chemical composition of Juniperus phoenicea L. essential oil leaves from the Northern Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medini, Hanene; Elaissi, Ameur; Farhat, Farhat; Khouja, Mohamed Larbi; Chemli, Rachid; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fathia

    2009-09-01

    The essential-oil composition of 60 individual trees of Juniperus phoenicea L. from four Tunisian populations in three different periods were investigated by GC and GC/MS analyses. 59 Compounds were identified in the oils, and a relatively high variation in their contents was found. All the oils were dominated by the terpenic hydrocarbon fraction, and the main component was alpha-pinene (20.28-40.86%). The results of the oil compositions were processed by hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis (PCA) allowing establishing four groups of essential-oils differentiated by one compound or more. Pattern of geographic variation in essential-oil composition indicated that individuals from the continental site (Makthar) were clearly distinguished from those from littoral localities (Tabarka, Hawaria, and Rimel).

  8. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Juniperus excelsa Bieb. (Cupressaceae grown in R. Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floresha Sela

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are no information of the yield, chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of berries (EOB or leaves (EOL of Juniperus excelsa Bieb. (Cupressaceae growing wild in R. Macedonia. Materials and Methods: Plant material was collected from two localities during two seasons. Essential oil composition was analyzed by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector/mass spectrometry (GC/FID/MS and antimicrobial screening was made by disc diffusion and broth dilution method. Results and Discussion: EOB yield ranged from 1.6-9.4 ml/kg and from 8.9-13.9 ml/kg for EOL. Two chemotypes of essential oil were differentiated, α-pinene-type (with 70.81% α-pinene in EOB and 33.83% in EOL, also containing limonene, β-pinene and β-myrcene while the sabinene-type (with 58.85-62.58% sabinene in EOB and 28.52-29.49% in EOL, was rich in α-pinene, β-myrcene, limonene, cis-thujone, terpinolene and α-thujene. The most sensitive bacteria to the antimicrobial activity of EOB was Haemophilus influenzae (MIC = 31 μl/ml. EOL have showed high activity towards: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Haemophilus influenzae (MIC = 125 μl/ml. The pinene-type of essential oil showed moderate activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Corynebacterium spp. and Campylobacter jejuni (MIC >50%. The sabinene-type of the oil showed moderate activity to Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemopilus influenzae, Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli (MIC >50%. No activity was observed toward Candida albicans. Conclusion : The analysis of EOB and EOL revealed two chemotypes (α-pinene and sabinene type clearly depended on the geographical origin of the Macedonian Juniperus excelsa which also affected the antimicrobial activity of these oils.

  9. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Juniperus excelsa Bieb. (Cupressaceae) grown in R. Macedonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Floresha; Karapandzova, Marija; Stefkov, Gjose; Cvetkovikj, Ivana; Kulevanova, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are no information of the yield, chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils of berries (EOB) or leaves (EOL) of Juniperus excelsa Bieb. (Cupressaceae) growing wild in R. Macedonia. Materials and Methods: Plant material was collected from two localities during two seasons. Essential oil composition was analyzed by gas chromatography/flame ionization detector/mass spectrometry (GC/FID/MS) and antimicrobial screening was made by disc diffusion and broth dilution method. Results and Discussion: EOB yield ranged from 1.6-9.4 ml/kg and from 8.9-13.9 ml/kg for EOL. Two chemotypes of essential oil were differentiated, α-pinene-type (with 70.81% α-pinene in EOB and 33.83% in EOL), also containing limonene, β-pinene and β-myrcene while the sabinene-type (with 58.85-62.58% sabinene in EOB and 28.52-29.49% in EOL), was rich in α-pinene, β-myrcene, limonene, cis-thujone, terpinolene and α-thujene. The most sensitive bacteria to the antimicrobial activity of EOB was Haemophilus influenzae (MIC = 31 μl/ml). EOL have showed high activity towards: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and Haemophilus influenzae (MIC = 125 μl/ml). The pinene-type of essential oil showed moderate activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Corynebacterium spp. and Campylobacter jejuni (MIC >50%). The sabinene-type of the oil showed moderate activity to Streptococcus pyogenes, Haemopilus influenzae, Campylobacter jejuni and Escherichia coli (MIC >50%). No activity was observed toward Candida albicans. Conclusion: The analysis of EOB and EOL revealed two chemotypes (α-pinene and sabinene type) clearly depended on the geographical origin of the Macedonian Juniperus excelsa which also affected the antimicrobial activity of these oils. PMID:25598638

  10. Chemometric evaluation of the anti-cancer pro-drug podophyllotoxin and potential therapeutic analogues in Juniperus and Podophyllum species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusari, Souvik; Zühlke, Sebastian; Spiteller, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Podophyllotoxin, deoxypodophyllotoxin, demethylpodophyllotoxin and podophyllotoxone are four therapeutically potent secondary metabolites. There is a dearth of information on the holistic analysis of their distribution pattern in both phylogenetic and ecological contexts. To analyse the continuum of the above metabolites in Juniperus and Podophyllum species collected from natural populations in Himalayan environments and the botanical gardens of Rombergpark and Haltern (Germany) using multi-component LC-ESI-MS/MS, coupled with statistically relevant chemometric assessment. We evaluated the individual and holistic metabolite profiles and chemometrically correlated the phytochemical loads between various species (infraspecific), organic and aqueous extracts, and populations of the same species from different locations, different species from same location, different species from different locations and infrageneric populations from same and different locations. Multivariate analysis revealed Juniperus x-media Pfitzeriana as a suitable alternative to Podophyllum hexandrum for commercial exploitation. A significant positive correlation of podophyllotoxone with both podophyllotoxin and demethylpodophyllotoxin, and a negative correlation of podophyllotoxin with both deoxypodophyllotoxin and demethylpodophyllotoxin (infraspecific among Podophyllum), were observed by Kruskal's multidimensional scaling and corroborated by principal component analysis, indicating probable similarity and/or difference between the biosynthetic pathways, and synergistic and/or antagonistic principles, respectively. Finally, linear discriminant analysis and hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis revealed considerable infrageneric and infraspecific variability in secondary compound spectra and load of the different populations under study. Such holistic studies of plants and their therapeutic metabolites ought to assist in selecting plants, geographical areas and environmental conditions for

  11. Buticulotrema stenauchenus n. gen., n. sp. (Digenea: Opecoelidae) from Malacocephalus occidentalis and Nezumia aequalis (Macrouridae) from the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blend, C K; Dronen, N O; McEachran, J D

    1993-10-01

    Buticulotrema stenauchenus n. gen., n. sp. (Opecoelidae: Opecoelinae) is described from the macrourid fishes Malacocephalus occidentalis Goode and Bean, 1885, and Nezumia aequalis Günther, 1878, collected in June 1971 from the DeSoto Canyon area of the Gulf of Mexico at a depth of 495 m. Eight of 25 (32%) M. occidentalis and 1 of 8 (13%) N. aequalis examined were infected with the new opecoelid. Specimens of Bathygadus macrops Goode and Bean, 1886, and Coelorhynchus coelorhynchus Risso, 1810, collected at the same time were not infected with B. stenauchenus. The new genus most closely resembles Genitocotyle Park, 1937, but differs in that it lacks an accessory sucker behind the genital pore, contains a blind rather than canalicular seminal receptacle, and has a slightly pedunculate acetabulum, a pharynx that is longer than wide, and a distinctive, long-necked, bottle-shaped body. Buticulotrema stenauchenus is also similar to Pseudopecoelus von Wicklen, 1946, but the latter lacks a blind seminal receptacle.

  12. Differentiation of the sibling species Biomphalaria occidentalis and Biomphalaria tenagophila by the electrophoretic patterns of their hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Bailey

    1986-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple and rapid method for differentialing the sibling species Biomphalaria tenagophila and Biomphalaria occidentalis by agarose gel electrophoresis (AGE is described. Snail hemolymph is used as the test sample and the red colaration of the hemoglobin fraction permits visualization of the migration patterns without resorting to specific stains. Moreover, hemolymph samples may be obtained without killing the snail, thus permitting its use for other studies for breeding.É descrito um método simples e rápido para distinguir as espécies crípticas Biomphalaria tenagophila e B. occidentalis por eletroforese em gel de agarose. A prova é feita com hemolinfa do molusco, permitindo a cor vermelha da fração hemoglobina visualizar os padrões de migração sem necessidade de recorrer a colorações específicas. Além disso, as amostras de hemolinfa podem ser obtidas sem sacrificar o molusco, que poderá ser usado para outros estudos ou para criação.

  13. Final report: Hydraulic mechanisms of survival and mortality during drought in pinon-juniper woodlands of southwestern USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pockman, William [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-23

    The goal of this project was to use rainfall manipulation of an intact pinon-juniper woodland in central New Mexico to understand the mechanisms that control the response of these species to extremes of rainfall. Experimental plots were installed in a pinon-juniper woodland at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge and treatments were imposed in August 2007. Treatments consisted of 1) a Drought treatment imposed by diverting approximately 45% of precipitation away from the plot, 2) and Irrigation treatment imposed by applying six 19 mm simulated rainfall events at regular intervals during the growing season, 3) a Cover Control treatment designed to assess the impact of the plastic troughs constructed on Drought plots without imposing the rainfall diversion, and 4) an untreated control that received no modification. Extensive pinon mortality was observed beginning one year after the start of drought treatment on hillslope plots, while a third drought plot on deeper soils did not exhibit pinon mortality until the fifth year of drought treatment. Pinon mortality occurred in the context of high levels of bark beetle activity, motivating the installation of two additional plots in 2010: a control plot and a drought plot built to the same standards as the original treatments but with bark beetle control maintained by pesticide application to the bole of target trees from 2010 - 2016. Although the drought treatment created similar conditions to those experienced on hillslope drought plots, the drought plot with bark beetle control exhibited no pinon mortality for 5 years even in the presence of high regional bark beetle activity in 2012/13. One of the goals of the research was to identify the mechanism of drought-induced mortality in pinon and juniper: 1) mortality due to catastrophic failure of water transport through plant tissues (hydraulic failure), 2) mortality due to limitations in carbon uptake (carbon starvation) and 3) either of the first two mechanisms with the

  14. Use of MODIS Satellite Data to Evaluate Juniperus spp. Pollen Phenology to Support a Pollen Dispersal Model, PREAM, to Support Public Health Allergy Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, E.; Huete, A. R.; Nickovic, S.; Prasad, A. K.; Pejanovic, G.; Vukovic, A.; Van De Water, P. K.; Budge, A.; Hudspeth, W. B.; Krapfl, H.; Toth, B.; Zelicoff, A.; Myers, O.; Bunderson, L.; Ponce-Campos, G.; Menache, M.; Crimmins, T. M.; Vujadinovic, M.

    2012-12-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et. al., 2003 reported Juniperus spp. pollen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model, Nickovic et al. 2001) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and concentrations of dust. We are modifying the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport. Pollen emission is based on MODIS-derived phenology of Juniperus spp. communities. Ground-based observational records of pollen release timing and quantities will be used as model verification. This information will be used to support the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program and the State of New Mexico environmental public health decision support for asthma and allergies alerts.

  15. Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oils of Different Parts of Juniperus excelsa M. Bieb. subsp. excelsa and J. excelsa M. Bieb. subsp. polycarpos (K. Koch) Takhtajan (Cupressaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emami, Sayyed Ahmad; Abedindo, Bibi Fatemeh; Hassanzadeh-Khayyat, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    The essential oils of branchlets and fruits of Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa and Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos were examined for their antioxidant activity. The compositions of the essential oils were studied by GC and GC-MS. To evaluation the antioxidants activity of the volatile oils, pure components and positive controls at different concentrations, thin-layer chromatography (TLC) screening methods, diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay, deoxyribose degradation test and modified deoxyribose degradation test were employed. The results of the present study demonstrate some antioxidant activity for the tested essential oils obtained from various parts of both plants. It indicates that the use of these essential oils, in very low concentrations, may be useful as a natural preservative. However before any final conclusion, it is suggested that the antioxidant activity of these oils should also be evaluated by using lipid solvent system methods. PMID:24250416

  16. Essential-oil variability of Juniperus deltoides R.P.Adams along the east Adriatic coast - how many chemotypes are there?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajčević, Nemanja; Janaćković, Peđa; Dodoš, Tanja; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D

    2015-01-01

    The composition of the essential oils isolated from twigs of ten Juniperus deltoides R.P. Adams populations from the east Adriatic coast was determined by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. Altogether, 169 compounds were identified, representing 95.6-98.4% of the total oil composition. The oils were dominated by monoterpenes (average content of 61.6%), which are characteristic oil components of species of the Juniperus section. Two monoterpenes, α-pinene and limonene, were the dominant constituents, comprising on average 46.78% of the essential oils. Statistical methods were deployed to determine the diversity of the terpene classes and the common terpenes between the investigated populations. These statistical analyses revealed the existence of three chemotypes within all populations, i.e., a α-pinene, limonene, and limonene/α-pinene type. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  17. Genetic variability and differentiation among populations of the Azorean endemic gymnosperm Juniperus brevifolia: baseline information for a conservation and restoration perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luís; Elias, Rui B; Moura, Mónica; Meimberg, Harald; Dias, Eduardo

    2011-12-01

    The Azorean endemic gymnosperm Juniperus brevifolia (Seub.) Antoine is a top priority species for conservation in Macaronesia, based on its ecological significance in natural plant communities. To evaluate genetic variability and differentiation among J. brevifolia populations from the Azorean archipelago, we studied 15 ISSR and 15 RAPD markers in 178 individuals from 18 populations. The average number of polymorphic bands per population was 65 for both ISSR and RAPD. The majority of genetic variability was found within populations and among populations within islands, and this partitioning of variability was confirmed by AMOVA. The large majority of population pairwise F(ST) values were above 0.3 and below 0.6. The degree of population genetic differentiation in J. brevifolia was relatively high compared with other species, including Juniperus spp. The genetic differentiation among populations suggests that provenance should be considered when formulating augmentation or reintroduction strategies.

  18. Chemical Composition and Biological Activity of Essential Oils from Wild Growing Aromatic Plant Species of Skimmia laureola and Juniperus macropoda from Western Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stappen, Iris; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Ali, Abbas; Wedge, David E; Wanner, Jürgen; Kaul, Vijay K; Lal, Brij; Jaitak, Vikas; Gochev, Velizar K; Schmidt, Erich; Jirovetz, Leopold

    2015-06-01

    The Himalayan region is very rich in a great variety of medicinal plants. In this investigation the essential oils of two selected species are described for their antimicrobial and larvicidal as well as biting deterrent activities. Additionally, the odors are characterized. Analyzed by simultaneous GC-MS and GC-FID, the essential oils' chemical compositions are given. The main components of Skimmia laureola oil were linalool and linalyl acetate whereas sabinene was found as the main compound for Juniperus macropoda essential oil. Antibacterial testing by agar dilution assay revealed highest activity of S. laureola oil against all tested bacteria, followed by J. macropoda oil. Antifungal activity was evaluated against the strawberry anthracnose causing plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides. Juniperus macropoda essential oil indicated higher antifungal activity against all three pathogens than S. laureola oil. Both essential oils showed biting deterrent activity above solvent control but low larvicidal activity.

  19. Use of MODIS Satellite Data to Evaluate Juniperus spp. Pollen Phenology to Support a Pollen Dispersal Model, PREAM, to Support Public Health Allergy Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luvall, J. C.; Sprigg, W. A.; Levetin, E.; Huete, A.; Nickovic, S.; Prasad, A.; Pejanovic, G. A.; Vukovic, A.; VandeWater, P. K.; Budge, A. M.; Hudspeth, W.; Krapfl, H.; Toth, B.; Zelicoff, A. P.; Myers, O. B.; Bunderson, L.; Ponce-Campos, G.; Crimmins, T. M.; Menache, M.; Vujadinovic, M.

    2013-01-01

    Pollen can be transported great distances. Van de Water et. al., 2003 reported Juniperus spp. pollen was transported 200-600 km. Hence local observations of plant phenology may not be consistent with the timing and source of pollen collected by pollen sampling instruments. The DREAM (Dust REgional Atmospheric Model) is a verified model for atmospheric dust transport modeling using MODIS data products to identify source regions and concentrations of dust. We are modifying the DREAM model to incorporate pollen transport. Pollen emission is based on MODIS-derived phenology of Juniperus spp. communities. Ground-based observational records of pollen release timing and quantities will be used as model verification. This information will be used to support the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention s National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program and the State of New Mexico environmental public health decision support for asthma and allergies alerts

  20. Modulatory effect of standardised amentoflavone isolated from Juniperus communis L. agianst Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis in rats (histopathological and X Ray anaysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bais, Souravh; Abrol, Naveena; Prashar, Yash; Kumari, Renu

    2017-02-01

    Juniperus communis. L. is a shrub or small evergreen tree, native to Europe, South Asia, and North America, and belongs to family Cupressaceae. It has been used traditionally in unani system and in Swedish medicine as a decoction in inflammatory diseases. The main chemical constituents, which were reported in J. communis L. was α-pinene,, apigenin, sabinene, β-sitosterol, campesterol, limonene, Amentoflavone (AF), cupressuflavone, and many others. The aim of present study was to isolate the amentoflavone from the plant juniperus communis L. extracts and its protective effects against Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis in rats. Adjuvant arthritis was induced by an injection of 1mg heat killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis (CFA) into the left hind paw of rat by sub planter route (at day 0). The experiment was designed and modified as per method available in literature. The study showed that at a dose of 40mg/kg of amentoflavone (AF) from methanolic extract of Juniperus Communis L. possessed potentially useful anti-arthritic activity as it gave a positive result in controlling inflammation in the adjuvant induced experimental model. From the present experimental findings of both pharmacological and biochemical parameters observed, it had been concluded that at the doses of 20mg/kg and 40mg/kg of AF fraction from methanolic extract of Juniperus communis L. It possesses useful anti-arthritic activity since it gives a positive result in controlling inflammation in the adjuvant induced arthritic model in rats. The drug is a promising anti-arthritic agent of plant origin in the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Advances of classification and identification in Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)%西花蓟马分类鉴定方法的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高燕; 齐国君; 钟锋; 赵成银; 吕利华

    2011-01-01

    西花蓟马FranklinieUa occidentalis(Pergande)是一种危险性外来人侵害虫,虫体小,鉴定困难.本文总结了国内外西花蓟马分类鉴定方法的研究进展,包括形态学鉴别、分子生物学方法以及基于表皮碳氢化合物分析的生化分类方法,并讨论了各种分类方法的优势和弊端,最后对西花蓟马的分类研究前景进行了展望.%It is difficult to identify the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), which is a dangerous invasive species because of its minute body. In this review, we analyzed the research progress of classification and identification in F. Occidentalis, including morphological characters, molecular biotechnology and cuticular hydrocarbon analysis. The advantages and disadvantages of three classified technology were also discussed. Finally, we looked into the future of classification in F. Occidentalis.

  2. Back-transmission of a virus associated with apple stem pitting and pear vein yellows from Nicotiana occidentalis to apple and pear indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leone, G.; Lindner, J.L.; Jongedijk, G.; Meer, van der F.

    1995-01-01

    The successful back-transmission of the mechanically transmissible virus associated with apple stem pitting and pear vein yellows, from Nicotiana occidentalis to apple seedlings "Golden Delicious" under greenhouse conditions is reported. This result enabled a field experiment where isolates of apple

  3. Symptoms on apple and pear indicators after back-transmission from Nicotiana occidentalis confirm the identity of apple stem pitting virus with pear vein yellows virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leone, G.; Lindner, J.L.; Meer, van der F.A.; Schoen, C.D.; Jongedijk, G.

    1998-01-01

    Isolates of apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) from diseased apple trees were maintained in Nicotiana occidentalis then back-transmitted mechanically from the herbaceous host to apple seedlings and indexed by double budding on apple and pear indicators for the following syndromes: apple stem pitting,

  4. Symptoms on apple and pear indicators after back-transmission from Nicotiana occidentalis confirm the identity of apple stem pitting virus with pear vein yellows virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leone, G.; Lindner, J.L.; Meer, van der F.A.; Schoen, C.D.; Jongedijk, G.

    1998-01-01

    Isolates of apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) from diseased apple trees were maintained in Nicotiana occidentalis then back-transmitted mechanically from the herbaceous host to apple seedlings and indexed by double budding on apple and pear indicators for the following syndromes: apple stem pitting, p

  5. Mosquitocidal and antiplasmodial activity of Senna occidentalis (Cassiae) and Ocimum basilicum (Lamiaceae) from Maruthamalai hills against Anopheles stephensi and Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Aarthi, Narayanan; Kovendan, Kalimuthu; Panneerselvam, Chellasamy; Chandramohan, Balamurugan; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Amerasan, Duraisamy; Paulpandi, Manickam; Chandirasekar, Ramachandran; Dinesh, Devakumar; Suresh, Udaiyan; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Higuchi, Akon; Alarfaj, Abdullah A; Nicoletti, Marcello; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Each year, mosquito-borne diseases infect nearly 700 million people, resulting to more than 1 million deaths. In this study, we evaluated the larvicidal, pupicidal, and smoke toxicity of Senna occidentalis and Ocimum basilicum leaf extracts against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi. Furthermore, the antiplasmodial activity of plant extracts was evaluated against chloroquine (CQ)-resistant (CQ-r) and CQ-sensitive (CQ-s) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. In larvicidal and pupicidal experiments, S. occidentalis LC50 ranged from 31.05 (I instar larvae) to 75.15 ppm (pupae), and O. basilicum LC50 ranged from 29.69 (I instar larvae) to 69 ppm (pupae). Smoke toxicity experiments conducted against adults showed that S. occidentalis and O. basilicum coils evoked mortality rates comparable to the pyrethrin-based positive control (38, 52, and 42%, respectively). In antiplasmodial assays, Senna occidentalis 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) were 48.80 μg/ml (CQ-s) and 54.28 μg/ml (CQ-r), while O. basilicum IC50 were 68.14 μg/ml (CQ-s) and 67.27 μg/ml (CQ-r). Overall, these botanicals could be considered as potential sources of metabolites to build newer and safer malaria control tools.

  6. A genetic linkage map of black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis) and the mapping of Ag4 conferring resistance to the aphid Amphorophora agathonica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) is a high-value crop in the Pacific Northwest of North America with an international marketplace. Few genetic resources are readily available and little improvement has been achieved through breeding efforts to address production challenges involved in growing...

  7. Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci, have gut bacteria that are closely related to the symbionts of the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de E.J.; Wurff, van der A.W.G.; Jacobs, G.; Breeuwer, J.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown that many insects have Enterobacteriaceae bacteria in their gut system. The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande [Thysanoptera: Thripidae], has a symbiotic relation with Erwinia species gut bacteria. To determine if other Thripidae species have similar bacteri

  8. Back-transmission of a virus associated with apple stem pitting and pear vein yellows from Nicotiana occidentalis to apple and pear indicators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leone, G.; Lindner, J.L.; Jongedijk, G.; Meer, van der F.

    1995-01-01

    The successful back-transmission of the mechanically transmissible virus associated with apple stem pitting and pear vein yellows, from Nicotiana occidentalis to apple seedlings "Golden Delicious" under greenhouse conditions is reported. This result enabled a field experiment where isolates of apple

  9. Cuticles of Mariopteris occidentalis White nov. emend. from the Middle Pennsylvanian of Oklahoma (USA), and a new type of climber hook for mariopteroid pteridosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krings, M; Taylor, T N.; Taylor, E L.; Axsmith, B J.; Kerp, H

    2001-04-01

    Cuticles of Mariopteris occidentalis are described from the Desmoinesian (Middle Pennsylvanian) of Oklahoma (USA). This species, like other mariopteroids, had a vine- to liana-like growth habit and climbed with specialized climber hooks. However, M. occidentalis is different from other mariopteroids in having small recurved hooks on the abaxial surfaces of the pinna axes. The diagnosis for M. occidentalis White 1899 is emended based on additional macroscopical observations and data on the epidermal anatomy; a lectotype is designated. M. occidentalis is compared with Pseudomariopteris cordato-ovata from the Stephanian and Autunian of Europe and North America, a taxon which is considered very similar and may be related. Although the two taxa indeed display similarities, significant evidence for a closer relationship could not be found. Finally, some features, e.g. marginal water pits and the stomatal structure, are considered with regard to their palaeoautecological significance where they are interpreted as adaptations to special physiological requirements of a vine- to liana-like life form.

  10. No transmission of Potato spindle tuber viroid shown in experiments with thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis, Thrips tabaci), honey bees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus terrestris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen Lykke; Enkegaard, Annie; Nicolaisen, Mogens;

    2012-01-01

    and Thrips tabaci by leaf sucking. The F. occidentalis experiments also included feeding on pollen prior to feeding on PSTVd-infected leaf. No thrips-mediated transmission of PSTVd was recorded. The possibility of PSTVd transmission by Apis mellifera and Bombus terrestris during their feeding...

  11. An entomopathogenic strain of Beauveria bassiana against Frankliniella occidentalis with no detrimental effect on the predatory mite Neoseiulus barkeri: evidence from laboratory bioassay and scanning electron microscopic observation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengyong Wu

    Full Text Available Among 28 isolates of Beauveria bassiana tested for virulence against F. occidentalis in laboratory bioassays, we found strain SZ-26 as the most potent, causing 96% mortality in adults at 1×10(7 mL(-1conidia after 4 days. The effect of the strain SZ-26 on survival, longevity and fecundity of the predatory mite Neoseiulus (Amblyseius barkeri Hughes were studied under laboratory conditions. The bioassay results showed that the corrected mortalities were less than 4 and 8% at 10 days following inoculation of the adult and the larvae of the predator, respectively, with 1×10(7 conidia mL(-1 of SZ-26. Furthermore, no fungal hyphae were found in dead predators. The oviposition and postoviposition durations, longevity, and fecundity displayed no significant differences after inoculation with SZ-26 using first-instar larvae of F. occidentalis as prey in comparison with untreated predator. In contrast, the preoviposition durations were significantly longer. Observations with a scanning electron microscope, revealed that many conidia were attached to the cuticles of F. occidentalis at 2 h after treatment with germ tubes oriented toward cuticle at 24 h, penetration of the insect cuticle at 36 h, and finally, fungal colonization of the whole insect body at 60 h. In contrast, we never observed penetration of the predator's cuticle and conidia were shed gradually from the body, further demonstrating that B. bassiana strain SZ-26 show high toxicity against F. occidentalis but no pathogenicity to predatory mite.

  12. Ecohydrologic Implications and Management of Post-fire Soil Water Repellency in Burned Pinon-Juniper Woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Matthew; Zvirzdin, Daniel; Fernelius, Kaitlynn; McMillan, Mica; Kostka, Stanley

    2014-05-01

    Erosion and weed dominance often limit the recovery of piñon-juniper woodlands of western North America after high intensity wildfires. Soil water repellency (SWR) is one factor that may promote overland flow and impede seedling establishment. In spite of these effects, the influence of post-fire SWR on site recovery is poorly understood. Our presentation summarizes data collected within studies on burned piñon-juniper woodlands that provide new insight on: 1) the spatial distribution and severity of SWR, 2) influence of SWR on soil hydrology, nitrogen cycling, and site revegetation, and 3) the suitability of soil surfactants as a post-fire restoration tool. We demonstrate how patterns of SWR are highly correlated to pre-fire woodland canopy structure. At sites where SWR is present, infiltration, soil water content, and plant establishment is significantly less than at non-hydrophobic sites. We show how newly developed soil surfactants can significantly improve ecohydrologic properties required for plant growth by overcoming SWR; thus, increasing the amount and duration of available water for seed germination and plant growth. However, the application of soil surfactants in wildfire-affected ecosystems has been limited due to logistical and economic constraints associated with the standard practice of using large quantities of irrigation water as the surfactant carrier. We have developed a potential solution to this problem by using seed coating technology to use the seed as the carrier for the delivery of soil surfactant. Through this approach, precipitation leaches the surfactant from the seed into the soil where it absorbs onto the soil particles and ameliorates water repellency within the seeds microsite. We present findings from laboratory and field evaluations of surfactant seed coatings, which provide evidence that it may be plausible for the technology to improve post-fire seeding efforts by restoring soil hydrologic function and increasing seedling

  13. Modeling the shrub and juniper encroachment in the western north America grasslands with a Cellular Automata model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caracciolo, D.; Istanbulluoglu, E.; Noto, L. V.

    2013-12-01

    Arid and semiarid grasslands of western North America have experienced dramatic changes over the last 150 years as a result of woody plant encroachment (WPE). WPE is characterized as increase in density, cover and biomass of indigenous tree or shrubby plants in grasslands. In this study we examine the environmental factors that trigger and further the progress of WPE at two semiarid sites using the CATGraSS ecohydrologic plant coexistence model. CATGraSS is a spatially distributed model driven by spatially explicit irradiance and runs on a fine-resolution gridded domain. In CATGraSS each cell can hold a single plant type or can remain empty. Plant competition is modeled by keeping track of mortality and establishment of plants, both calculated probabilistically based on soil moisture stress. For this study CATGraSS is improved with a stochastic fire and a grazing function, and its plant establishment algorithm is modified. Using CATGraSS shrub encroachment is studied in the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR), New Mexico, located in the northern Chihuahuan desert. The area shows a dramatic encroachment front of Larrea tridentata (shrub) into native desert grassland. The model is implemented in a small area (7.3 km2) in SNWR. The second study site is a small catchment (11.8 km2) located within the Ochoco National Forest, Crook County, OR, where Juniper encroachment has been observed since the mid 1800s. The outcome of the changes in observed climate, fire frequency, and grazing intensity are investigated through numerical modeling scenarios. While in the Ochoco National Forest basin, the Western Juniper encroaches all the study area and the shrub disappears. In the SNWR basin, the model is able to reproduce the encroachment, simulating an increasing of the shrub from 2% in 1860 to 42% in 2010 (actual shrub percentage) highlighting as more influent factors the reduced fire frequency and the increased grazing intensity.

  14. Essential oils of indigenous in Greece six Juniperus taxa: chemical composition and larvicidal activity against the West Nile virus vector Culex pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vourlioti-Arapi, F; Michaelakis, A; Evergetis, E; Koliopoulos, G; Haroutounian, S A

    2012-05-01

    The chemical composition of 14 essential oils (EOs), obtained from various parts (leaves, fruits, wood) of the six indigenous in Greece Juniperus family taxa, was determined by GC and GC/MS analysis. The insecticidal properties of these EOs were evaluated against Culex pipiens L. larvae of 3rd and early 4th instars, in order to delineate the relationship between the phytochemical content of the EOs and their larvicidal activities. The analytical data indicated that the EOs mainly consisted of monoterpenes, mostly cyclic and only occasionally aliphatic, and to a lesser percent, of diterpenes. The larvicidal bioassays against C. pipiens larvae revealed that the most active EO was derived from the wood of Juniperus drupacea and contains mainly non-oxygenated monoterpenes and a significant amount of diterpenes, displaying the highest chemodiversity. Its initial LC(50) value was 26.47 mg L(-1). On the contrary, the EO isolated from J. phoenicea berries, which consisted of monoterpenes (non-oxygenated, cyclic), was the less active displaying an LC(50) value of 96.69 mg L(-1). In respect to the contained phytochemicals, myrcene was assayed as the most toxic, displaying an LC(50) value of 33.83 mg L(-1), while the four isomers of pinene abundant in all EOs were less active exhibiting LC(50) values ranging from 70.40 to 94.88 mg L(-1). Results herein reveal that the EOs isolated from the studied Juniperus family taxa represent an inexpensive source of natural mosquito control mixtures.

  15. Human Disturbance Threats the Red-Listed Macrolichen Seirophora villosa (Ach.) Frödén in Coastal Juniperus Habitats: Evidence From Western Peninsular Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesperi, Renato; Lastrucci, Lorenzo; Nascimbene, Juri

    2013-10-01

    In Europe, coastal dune systems with Juniperus spp. (Natura 2000 habitat code 2250) are a priority habitat for conservation according to the Natura 2000 policies. Currently, anthropogenic pressure is threatening the biodiversity of this habitat. While the impact of human pressure on animals and vascular plants is already documented, information is still scanty for other organisms such as epiphytic lichens. The main aim of this study is to test the effect of human disturbance on the occurrence and abundance of the red-listed macrolichen Seirophora villosa. We also tested the effect of human disturbance on the whole community of epiphytic lichens in terms of species richness and composition. The study was performed along the coast of Tuscany by comparing both disturbed and undisturbed Juniperus stands according to a stratified random sampling design. Our results provided evidence that in coastal systems the long-term conservation of the red-listed macrolichen S. villosa and its characteristic community composed by several Mediterranean species of conservation concern depends on the maintenance of undisturbed Juniperus habitats. Results also support the possibility of using S. villosa as an indicator species of habitat conservation importance and habitat integrity since its occurrence is predicted on nestedness in term of species composition, assemblages of species poor disturbed stands being subsets of those of richer undisturbed stands.

  16. Rinnovazione agamica e produttività degli eucalitteti di E. occidentalis e di E. x trabutii della fascia ionica crotonese nei primi quattro cicli colturali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvano Avolio

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Agamic regeneration and wood productivity in the E. occidentalis and E. x trabutii plantation of the ionian area of Crotone at the first four cultivation cycles. Here are explained the results of clear cutting without the release of standards trials conducted in stands of E. occidentalis and E. x trabutii of the ionian area of Crotone (Calabria at the end of the first four cultivation cycles: gamic (April 1974 and agamic (April 1984, 1993, 2001. The plantations, even if partially expressing their productive potentialities for the environment, objectively difficult where there have been plantings, have guaranteed, in the first three agamic cycles, a low mortality of the stumps, a discrete ability of regeneration, a good shooting faculty. The mortality in the E. x trabutii is higher than the one in the E. occidentalis, both in the gamic phase and in the group of the agamic cycles. The ability of agamic regeneration and the shooting faculty in the E. occidentalis are higher than in the E. x trabutii . As regards the bearing of the coppice shoots, the first class (vertical stems are a prerogative of the E. x trabutii. The average diameter and height in the E. x trabutii coppice shoots are higher than in the E. occidentalis ones. The ipsodiametrical ratio of the coppice shoots is high both in the E. x trabutii and in the E. occidentalis, so the agamic stems, in comparison with seed plants, are at greater risk of weather damage. In the last two agamic cycles the regeneration of the radical coppice shoots with an invasive feature and short and worn out crowns, appeared in some areas of both species. The cormometrical volume per hectare produced by the two species in the agamic cycles is sensibly higher than the one found in the gamic phase and, in the last cycle, still slightly growing. In the coppices the eight-year-old wood stands vary from 42-49 m3ha-1 for the E. occidentalis, to 59-83 m3ha-1 for the E. x trabutii. The plantations of eucalypts of

  17. Female Cone Development in Fokienia, Cupressus, Chamaecyparis and Juniperus ( Cupressaceae)%柏科4个属(Fokienia、Cupressus、Chamaeyparis 和Juniperus)植物雌球果的发育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泉; 苏都莫日根; 胡玉熹; 林金星

    2004-01-01

    通过扫描电镜和常规石蜡切片技术,观察了柏科4个属(Fokienia、Cupressus、Chamaeyparis 和Juniperus)植物雌球果中胚珠的发育及苞片的结构变化.在所有研究的种类中,可育苞片腋部最先观察到的结构是一扁平的突起,并在其上分化出发育为胚珠的胚珠原基.在雌球果的发育过程中,未观察到独立的珠鳞发育.不同的种中,胚珠怕数量和发育顺序有所不同,但苞片的发育是相似的.传粉前,苞片的结构与叶相似.传粉后,由于剧烈的居间维管束发育.我们还对柏科植物雌球果的形态学特性及其可能的演化趋势进行了讨论.%The ontogeny and vascular systems of female cones of the Fokienia, Cupressus, Chamaecyparis and Juniperus were investigated in detail using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and conventional light microscopy. In the species examined, in the axils of the bracts, the first recognizable structure was a broad meristematic swelling, from which ovules developed. No ovuliferous scales developed during the ontogeny of the female cones. The number of ovules and ovule developing sequence displayed considerable variation in different species. However, development of the bracts was similar in all of the investigated species.Following pollination, the foliage-like bracts became peltate bract scales due to intercalary expansion, and global cones formed. In addition, the vascular system in the bract scales became intricate, and inverted vascular bundles emerged in the adaxial of the mature bracts. Based on these observations, a morphological interpretation and possible evolutionary trend of the Cupressaceae female reproductive structures was discussed.

  18. Biphasic calcium phosphate–casein bone graft fortified with Cassia occidentalis for bone tissue engineering and regeneration

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Santhosh Kumar; T Hemalatha; R Deepachitra; R Narasimha Raghavan; P Prabu; T P Sastry

    2015-02-01

    Research on traditional herbs is gaining momentum owing to their potent medical properties, among which Cassia occidentalis (CO) is a promising herb, with osteogenic potential. The study investigates the efficacy of CO extract incorporated biphasic calcium phosphate as an osteoinductive material. Prepared bone implants were characterized physico-chemically using FT-IR, TGA, XRD, SEM and EDX. The implants were analysed further for mechanical and biological properties. The results revealed that CO extract-incorporated bone implants possessed better compression strength and it was able to induce proliferation and enhance alkaline phosphatase activity in SaOS-2 cells. The implant proves to be promising for bone tissue engineering, and hence it demands further in vivo evaluation.

  19. NMR-based metabolomic investigation of bioactivity of chemical constituents in black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) fruit extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Liladhar; Wyzgoski, Faith J; Giusti, M Monica; Johnson, Jodee L; Rinaldi, Peter L; Scheerens, Joseph C; Chanon, Ann M; Bomser, Joshua A; Miller, A Raymond; Hardy, James K; Reese, R Neil

    2014-02-26

    Black raspberry (Rubus occidentalis L.) (BR) fruit extracts with differing compound profiles have shown variable antiproliferative activities against HT-29 colon cancer cell lines. This study used partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis to develop a high-resolution (1)H NMR-based multivariate statistical model for discerning the biological activity of BR constituents. This model identified specific bioactive compounds and ascertained their relative contribution against cancer cell proliferation. Cyanidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-xylosylrutinoside were the predominant contributors to the extract bioactivity, but salicylic acid derivatives (e.g., salicylic acid glucosyl ester), quercetin 3-glucoside, quercetin 3-rutinoside, p-coumaric acid, epicatechin, methyl ellagic acid derivatives (e.g., methyl ellagic acetyl pentose), and citric acid derivatives also contributed significantly to the antiproliferative activity of the berry extracts. This approach enabled the identification of new bioactive components in BR fruits and demonstrates the utility of the method for assessing chemopreventive compounds in foods and food products.

  20. Tumor inhibitory activity of methanolic and ethyl acetate soluble extracts of Thuja occidentalis L. on mice bearing Ehrlich ascites carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana M Navale

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Thuja occidentalis (Cupressaceae is an ornamental plant of European origin. It has been used in folk medicine for the treatment of cancer. Mice bearing Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC mice were treated with methanolic extract (165 mg/kg, ethyl acetate soluble fraction (30 mg/kg and combination of both extracts of TO. Inhibition of tumor growth, increase in survival time of animal with treatment, and hematological parameters were determined. Both methanolic and ethyl acetate soluble fractions of TO exerted tumor growth inhibitory activity in mice bearing EAC. Combination treatment of two extracts showed more pronounced effect. In conclusion, Methanolic and ethyl acetate soluble extracts of TO exhibit anticancer activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in mice. Thus, it has anticancer potential and should be further evaluated in higher models.

  1. Data Report: Meteorological and Evapotranspiration Data from Sagebrush and Pinyon Pine/Juniper Communities at Pahute Mesa, Nevada National Security Site, 2011-2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasoni, Richard L [DRI; Larsen, Jessica D [DRI; Lyles, Brad F. [DRI; Healey, John M [DRI; Cooper, Clay A [DRI; Hershey, Ronald L [DRI; Lefebre, Karen J [DRI

    2013-04-01

    Pahute Mesa is a groundwater recharge area at the Nevada National Security Site. Because underground nuclear testing was conducted at Pahute Mesa, groundwater recharge may transport radionuclides from underground test sites downward to the water table; the amount of groundwater recharge is also an important component of contaminant transport models. To estimate the amount of groundwater recharge at Pahute Mesa, an INFIL3.0 recharge-runoff model is being developed. Two eddy covariance (EC) stations were installed on Pahute Mesa to estimate evapotranspiration (ET) to support the groundwater recharge modeling project. This data report describes the methods that were used to estimate ET and collect meteorological data. Evapotranspiration was estimated for two predominant plant communities on Pahute Mesa; one site was located in a sagebrush plant community, the other site in a pinyon pine/juniper community. Annual ET was estimated to be 310±13.9 mm for the sagebrush site and 347±15.9 mm for the pinyon pine/juniper site (March 26, 2011 to March 26, 2012). Annual precipitation measured with unheated tipping bucket rain gauges was 179 mm at the sagebrush site and 159 mm at the pinyon pine/juniper site. Annual precipitation measured with bulk precipitation gauges was 222 mm at the sagebrush site and 227 mm at the pinyon pine/juniper site (March 21, 2011 to March 28, 2012). A comparison of tipping bucket versus bulk precipitation data showed that total precipitation measured by the tipping bucket rain gauges was 17 to 20 percent lower than the bulk precipitation gauges. These differences were most likely the result of the unheated tipping bucket precipitation gauges not measuring frozen precipitation as accurately as the bulk precipitation gauges. In this one-year study, ET exceeded precipitation at both study sites because estimates of ET included precipitation that fell during the winter of 2010-2011 prior to EC instrumentation and the precipitation gauges started

  2. Actividad de rastreo en Boa constrictor occidentalis (Serpentes: Boidae, un mecanismo de localización de la especie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmara Cervantes, Raquel

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se experimentó sobre la habilidad de Boa constrictor occidentalis para discriminar y seguir olores feromonales conespecíficos y heteroespecíficos. Las hembras presentaron elevada frecuencia de extrusiones de lengua hacia los estímulos de olor de piel de macho, piel de hembra y glándula de hembra, mostrando un mayor desplazamiento hacia el estímulo piel de hembra. Los machos respondieron con un incremento en el número de lengüeteos y búsqueda activa de los rastros frente a las secreciones de macho. Ambos sexos manifestaron preferencia por los olores conespecíficos aumentando la intensidad del lengüeteo y el seguimiento activo de rastros, mientras que exhibieron una marcada disminución de la frecuencia de extrusiones de lengua y escaso desplazamiento frente al estímulo heteroespecífico. Los resultados sugieren la estrecha relación existente entre la identificación de un estímulo mediante el lengüeteo y la actividad de rastreo. The ability in adult Boa constrictor occidentalis to discriminate between species and sexes and follow pheromonal trails was tested. Females presented elevated tongue flick rate (T.F.R. to male skin odor, female skin odor and female cloacal secretion. Trailing activity was higher to female skin odor. Males answered with elevated T.F.R. and exhibited active movements and searching of trails to their own secretions —male skin and male cloacal musk—. Both sexes had preferences to conespecific stimuli showing higher T.F.R. and active trailing while they were not interested in heterospecific trails presenting lower T.F.R. and limited movements. Results suggest the relationship between stimuli recognition by tongue flicking and trailing activity.

  3. Chemical Composition of Juniperus communis L. Cone Essential Oil and Its Variability among Wild Populations in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdari, Avni; Mustafa, Behxhet; Nebija, Dashnor; Miftari, Elheme; Quave, Cassandra L; Novak, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    Ripe cones of Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae) were collected from five wild populations in Kosovo, with the aim of investigating the chemical composition and natural variation of essential oils between and within wild populations. Ripe cones were collected, air dried, crushed, and the essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation. The essential-oil constituents were identified by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. The yield of essential oil differed depending on the population origins and ranged from 0.4 to 3.8% (v/w, based on the dry weight). In total, 42 compounds were identified in the essential oils of all populations. The principal components of the cone-essential oils were α-pinene, followed by β-myrcene, sabinene, and D-limonene. Taking into consideration the yield and chemical composition, the essential oil originating from various collection sites in Kosovo fulfilled the minimum requirements for J. communis essential oils of the European Pharmacopoeia. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to determine the influence of the geographical variations on the essential-oil composition. These statistical analyses suggested that the clustering of populations was not related to their geographic location, but rather appeared to be linked to local selective forces acting on the chemotype diversity. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  4. Investigation of antioxidant and anti-glycation properties of essential oils from fruits and branchlets of Juniperus oblonga

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    Seyed A. Emami

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants represent the best and most extensively studied source of natural antioxidants. The present study investigated the antioxidant and anti-glycation properties of different concentrations of essential oils obtained from fruits and branchlets of Juniperus oblonga M. Bieb., Cupressaceae, using different assays. The essential oils were obtained by steam distillation of the branchlets of male tree (BMT, branchlets of female tree (BFT and fruits of J. oblonga. Compositional analysis of oils was performed using a gas chromatography-mass method. Antioxidant activity was assessed using linoleic acid peroxidation, peroxyl radical mediated hemolysis of red blood cells (RBC and low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation assays. Anti-glycation properties of oils were evaluated using hemoglobin and insulin glycation assays. Seventeen, eighteen and fifteen compounds were identified in the BMT, BFT and fruit oil, which represented 82.51, 55.69 and 96.89% of the total oils, respectively. α-Pinene was the major component of all three oils. All three oils possessed antioxidant effects against LDL oxidation, linoleic acid peroxidation and peroxyl radical mediated RBC hemolysis. Anti-glycation activities against hemoglobin and insulin glycation were also observed from all tested oils. Overall, there was no unique pattern of dose-dependence for the antioxidant properties of oils in different employed systems. The findings of this study suggest that essential oils from fruits and branchlets of J. oblonga possess antioxidant and anti-glycation properties. Therefore, these oils might be of therapeutic efficacy against diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  5. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of berry essential oil of Juniperus oxycedrus L. (Cupressaceae grown wild in Republic of Macedonia

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    Floresha Sela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oil isolated from berries from 2 different samples of Juniperus oxycedrus L. (Cupressaceae, growing wild in Republic of Macedonia was investigated. Performing GC/FID/MS analysis, one hundred components were identified, representing 96.0-98.95% of the oil. The major components were α-pinene (22.54- 27.12%, myrcene (11.26- 15.13% and limonene (2.78-18.06%. Antimicrobial screening of the J. oxycedrus essential oils was made by disc diffusion and broth dilution method against 16 bacterial isolates of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and one strain of Candida albicans. The most sensitive bacteria was Haemophilus influenzae (MIC = 125 ml/ml. The essential oils showed moderate antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Corynebacterium spp., Escherichia coli and Campilobacter jejuni (MIC > 500 ml/ml and no activity against Candida albicans, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Acinetobacter spp., Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella flexnery, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus and Proteus mirabilis.

  6. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Essential Oils and Methanol Extracts of Different Parts from Juniperus rigida Siebold & Zucc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qiaoxiao; Li, Dengwu; Wang, Wei; Wang, Dongmei; Meng, Xiaxia; Wang, Yongtao

    2016-09-01

    The chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils and MeOH extracts of stems, needles, and berries from Juniperus rigida were studied. The results indicated that the yield of essential oil from stems (2.5%) was higher than from needles (0.8%) and berries (1.0%). The gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) analysis indicated that 21, 17, and 14 compounds were identified from stems, needles, and berries essential oils, respectively. Caryophyllene, α-caryophyllene, and caryophyllene oxide were primary compounds in both stems and needles essential oils. However, α-pinene and β-myrcene mainly existed in berries essential oils and α-ionone only in needles essential oils. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that the phenolic profiles of three parts exhibited significant differences. Needles extracts had the highest content of chlorogenic acid, catechin, podophyllotoxin, and amentoflavone, and for berries extracts, the content of those compounds was the lowest. Meanwhile, three in vitro methods (DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP) were used to evaluate antioxidant activity. Stems essential oil and needles extracts exhibited the powerful antioxidant activity than other parts. This is the first comprehensive study on the different parts of J. rigida. The results suggested that stems and needles of J. rigida are useful supplements for healthy products as new resources.

  7. Leaf n-alkanes as characters differentiating coastal and continental Juniperus deltoides populations from the Balkan Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajčević, Nemanja; Janaćković, Pedja; Dodoš, Tanja; Tešević, Vele; Bojović, Srdjan; Marin, Petar D

    2014-07-01

    The composition of the cuticular n-alkanes isolated from the leaves of nine populations of Juniperus deltoides R.P.Adams from continental and coastal areas of the Balkan Peninsula was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the leaf waxes, 14 n-alkane homologues with chain-lengths ranging from C22 to C35 were identified. n-Tritriacontane (C33 ) was dominant in the waxes of all populations, but variations between the populations in the contents of all n-alkanes were observed. Several statistical methods (ANOVA, principal component, discriminant, and cluster analyses) were used to investigate the diversity and variability of the cuticular-leaf-n-alkane patterns of the nine J. deltoides populations. This is the first report on the n-alkane composition for this species. The multivariate statistical analyses evidenced a high correlation of the leaf-n-alkane pattern with the geographical distribution of the investigated samples, differentiating the coastal from the continental populations of this taxon.

  8. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of leaves essential oil of Juniperus communis (Cupressaceae grown in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floresha Sela

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of essential oils isolated from leaves of three different samples of wild growing Juniperus communis L. (Cupressaceae from R. Macedonia was investigated. Essential oil yield ranged from 7.3 to 9.0 ml/kg. Performing GC/ FID/MS analysis, ninety components were identified, representing 86.07-93.31% of the oil. The major components of the leaves essential oil (LEO were α-pinene (21.37-28.68% and sabinene (2.29-16.27%, followed by limonene, terpinen-4-ol, β-elemene, trans-(E-caryophyllene, germacrene D and δ-cadinene. Antimicrobial screening of the LEO was made by disc diffusion and broth dilution method against 16 bacterial isolates of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and one strain of Candida albicans. Two bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes were sensitive to antimicrobial activity of LEO (MIC = 125 µl/ml. Additionally, LEO showed moderate antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus agalactiae, Haemophilus influnzae, Corynebacterium spp. and Campylobacter jejuni (MIC > 500 µl/ml. Candida albicans, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Acinetobacter spp., Salmonella enteritidis, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumonia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis were completely resistant to the antimicrobial effects of this.

  9. Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oil from Juniperus communis L. subsp. hemisphaerica (Presl Nyman against Two Stored Product Beetles

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    Seyed Mehdi Hashemi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, insecticidal activity of essential oil from fruits of Juniperus communis L. subsp. hemisphaerica (Presl Nyman was evaluated against Rhyzopertha dominica (F. and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst by fumigation at 24, 48, and 72 h exposure times. Dry fruits were subjected to hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and the chemical composition of the volatile oil studied by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The major components were identified α−pinene (59.70%, and limonene (9.66%. Insecticidal activity was varying with essential oil concentration and exposure time. Results showed that R. dominica is more susceptible than T. castaneum for all exposure times. LC50 values at 24 h were estimated 36.96 μl/l air for R. dominica, and 107.96 μl/l air for T. castaneum. These results suggested that J. communis subsp. hemisphaerica fruit oil may have potential as a control agent against R. dominica, and T. castaneum.

  10. Podophyllotoxin Extracted from Juniperus sabina Fruit Inhibits Rat Sperm Maturation and Fertility by Promoting Epididymal Epithelial Cell Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoting; Qu, Lijuan; Chen, Ping; Lu, Zhigang; Zhou, Jieyun; Guo, Xiangjie; Li, Zhao; Ma, Aying

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the antifertility effect of Juniperus sabina fruit on male rats and its possible mechanism, and hence it might be developed as a potential nonhormonal male contraceptive. Male rats were intragastrically fed for consecutive 8-week and 4-week recovery with the fruit of J. Sabina, and sperm maturation, serum testosterone level, and histopathology were analyzed. Epididymal epithelial cell culture was prepared for detection of podophyllotoxin activities. Furthermore, cell proliferation, transmission electron microscopy, Annexin V/Propidium iodide, TUNEL, RT-PCR, ELISA, and western blotting were examined. The results showed that rat sperm motility and fertility were remarkably declined after feeding the fruit. Moreover, the fruit targeted the epididymis rather than the testis. After 4-week recovery, more than half of the male rats resumed normal fertility. It was found that podophyllotoxin significantly inhibited epididymal epithelial cell proliferation, promoted cell apoptosis, and increased the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α and the expression levels of cytochrome c, caspase-8, caspase-9, and caspase-3. Our findings suggest that the fruit of J. sabina could inhibit male rat sperm maturation and fertility. The potential mechanism might be related to podophyllotoxin, inducing epididymal epithelial cell apoptosis through TNF-α and caspase signaling pathway. PMID:28744317

  11. Anticholinesterase and β-Site Amyloid Precursor Protein Cleaving Enzyme 1 Inhibitory Compounds from the Heartwood of Juniperus chinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hee Jin; Jung, Hyun Ah; Min, Byung-Sun; Choi, Jae Sue

    2015-01-01

    Two new compounds (2, 3) and 20 known compounds (1, 4-22) were isolated from the heartwood of Juniperus chinensis LINNE (Cupressaceae), and their structures were elucidated as 9'-methoxycalocedrin (1); α-methyl artoflavanocoumarin (2); 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-2-styrylchromone (3); cedrol (4); widdrol (5); savinin (6); calocedrin (7); 10-oxowiddrol (8); 12-hydroxywiddrol (9); (+)-naringenin (10); vanillic acid methyl ester (11); (+)-taxifolin (12); (+)-aromadendrin (13); kaempferol (14); quercetin (15); (7S,8R)-dihydro-3'-hydroxy-8- hydroxymethyl-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1'-benzofuranpropanol (16); styraxlignolide C (17); protocatechuic acid (18); vanillic acid (19); (7R,8S)-dihydro-3'-methoxy-8-hydroxymethyl-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1'-benzofuranpropanol 4-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (20); (7S,8S)-dihydro-3'-hydroxy-8-hydroxymethyl-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1'-benzofuranpropanol 4-O-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (21); and (+)-catechin (22) on the basis of spectroscopic evidence. The new compounds (2, 3) exhibited good inhibitory activities against β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), with IC50 values of 6.25, and 11.91 µM, respectively.

  12. Late Miocene lineage divergence and ecological differentiation of rare endemic Juniperus blancoi: clues for the diversification of North American conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Letelier, Alejandra; Mastretta-Yanes, Alicia; Barraclough, Timothy G

    2014-07-01

    Western North America and Mexico contain a large number of conifer species. This diversity could be the product of orographic and climate changes of the late Tertiary and Quaternary. In this study, we focus on the evolutionary history of Juniperus blancoi, in order to determine the impact of climate change and environmental heterogeneity on population differentiation. We estimated the population structure, phylogenetic relationships and historical demography of J. blancoi populations using nuclear genes. We correlated genetic structure with ecological differentiation, divergence times and changes in population size. Populations of J. blancoi are differentiated into three lineages that correspond to low-, mid- and high-altitude populations. The three groups diversified in the late Miocene, early Pliocene, with only a few events of gene flow since then. Two lineages in the north exhibited a pattern of population growth during the Pleistocene that could be linked to climate changes. Populations of J. blancoi experienced significant ecological differentiation and early divergence events, which correspond to periods of global cooling and mountain uplift during the Miocene. This suggests that mountain ranges in tropical and subtropical latitudes play an important role in the speciation and persistence of conifer taxa in diversity hotspots, by providing diverse environmental conditions. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Adjustment of the tree-ring response of Juniperus thurifera to climate in the Western Mediterranean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varino, Filipa; DeSoto, Lucia; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Gouveia, Célia; Andrade, José; campelo, Filipe; Nabais, Cristina

    2013-04-01

    Juniperus thurifera L. is a long-lived conifer tree endemic to western Mediterranean region. It is well adapted to continental Mediterranean weather conditions such as negative winter temperatures or summer drought and is capable to maintain the photosynthetic activity all year round, making it a suitable species to study tree-ring sensitivity to climate change. In this work we have used tree-ring width data of J. thurifera trees from six stands located in northern Spain (Soria, Barrios de Luna and Desert of Monegros) and High Atlas in Morocco (Armd, Oukaimeden and Ourika) and correlated with climatic information (temperature and precipitation) from the Climate Research Unity (CRU) database. We have evaluated separately the growth patterns and climatic response of the populations from Spain and Morocco as they showed distinct seasonal dependence to temperature and precipitation. Afterwards, according to the length of both databases (ring-width and surface climate variables), we evaluated the role played by the climatic variables on the species growth pattern through time. We observed an increase of growth sensitivity to summer drought in Spain, whereas such sensitivity was not verify in Morocco"

  14. Comprehensive thin-layer chromatography mass spectrometry of flavanols from Juniperus communis L. and Punica granatum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrke, Samo; Vovk, Irena

    2013-05-10

    The coupling of thin-layer chromatography with mass spectrometry (TLC-MS) for the analysis of monomeric flavanols and proanthocyanidins in samples presented as complex matrices has been studied. The elution conditions for TLC-MS were optimised and full scans were compared with selected reaction monitoring for the MS detection of compounds. The performance of silica gel and cellulose plates with different developing solvents in TLC-MS was assessed. Cellulose plates provided superior sensitivity while ionisation suppression was encountered with silica plates. The use of a HILIC guard column beyond the elution head was found to facilitate detection of monomer compounds on silica plates. A new comprehensive TLC×MS procedure for screening flavanols in the entire chromatogram was developed as an alternative to the use of 4-dimethylaminocinnamaldehyde to determine the locations of compounds on the plate. This new procedure was applied to detect flavanols in the peel of Punica granatum L. fruits and in seeds of Juniperus communis L., in which flavanols and proanthocyanidin dimers and trimers were detected for the first time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Linking nonstructural carbohydrate dynamics to gas exchange and leaf hydraulic behavior in Pinus edulis and Juniperus monosperma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, David R; Meinzer, Frederick C; Marias, Danielle E; Sevanto, Sanna; Jenkins, Michael W; McDowell, Nate G

    2015-04-01

    Leaf hydraulics, gas exchange and carbon storage in Pinus edulis and Juniperus monosperma, two tree species on opposite ends of the isohydry-anisohydry spectrum, were analyzed to examine relationships between hydraulic function and carbohydrate dynamics. Leaf hydraulic vulnerability, leaf water potential (Ψl ), leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf ), photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (gs) and nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) content were analyzed throughout the growing season. Leaf hydraulic vulnerability was significantly lower in the relatively anisohydric J. monosperma than in the more isohydric P. edulis. In P. edulis, Ψl dropped and stayed below 50% loss of leaf hydraulic conductance (P₅₀) early in the day during May, August and around midday in September, leading to sustained reductions in Kleaf . In J. monosperma, Ψl dropped below P₅₀ only during August, resulting in the maintenance of Kleaf during much of the growing season. Mean A and gs during September were significantly lower in P. edulis than in J. monosperma. Foliar total NSC was two to three times greater in J. monosperma than in P. edulis in June, August and September. Consistently lower levels of total NSC in P. edulis suggest that its isohydric strategy pushes it towards the exhaustion of carbon reserves during much of the growing season. No claim to original US Government works New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  16. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Juniperus excelsa M.Bieb. growing wild in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Madona; El Beyrouthy, Marc; Ouaini, Naïm; Iriti, Marcello; Eparvier, Véronique; Stien, Didier

    2014-05-01

    The essential oils (EOs) isolated from the leaves and twigs of Juniperus excelsa M.Bieb. growing wild in Lebanon were characterized, and their antimicrobial activity and antiradical capacity were evaluated. The EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation using a Clevenger-type apparatus and characterized by GC and GC/MS analyses. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated by determining minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against a Gram-positive and a Gram-negative bacterium, a yeast, and a dermatophyte with the broth microdilution technique. A total of 28 constituents was identified and accounted for 90.1 and 95.6% of the twig and leaf EO composition, respectively. Both EOs were essentially composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons (46.7 and 59.6% for twig and leaf EOs, resp.) and sesquiterpenes (39.4 and 32.1%, resp.). The main components were α-pinene, α-cedrol, and δ-car-3-ene. The J. excelsa EOs did not show any antiradical potential, but revealed interesting in vitro antimicrobial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Trichophyton rubrum (MICs of 64 and 128 μg/ml, resp.). The three major compounds were tested separately and in combination according to their respective amounts in the oil. δ-Car-3-ene was the most active component and is undoubtedly one of the constituents driving the antifungal activity of J. excelsa essential oil, even though synergies are probably involved. Copyright © 2014 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  17. Widdrol, a sesquiterpene isolated from Juniperus chinensis, inhibits angiogenesis by targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Soojung; Yun, Hee Jung; Jeong, Hyun Young; Oh, You Na; Park, Hyun-Jin; Yun, Seung-Geun; Kim, Byung Woo; Kwon, Hyun Ju

    2015-09-01

    Widdrol is an odorous compound derived from Juniperus chinensis that is widely used in traditional medicine to treat fever, inflammation and cancer. It was previously reported that widdrol has antitumor activity by apoptosis induction in cancer cells in vitro. However, its anti-angiogenic activity remains elusive. In the present study, we investigated the anti‑angiogenic activity of widdrol and the molecular mechanisms involved. Widdrol inhibited cell proliferation via G1 phase arrest induction in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, it was associated with a decreased expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and an increased expression of p21, a CDK inhibitor. Widdrol significantly inhibited the cell migration and tube formation of HUVECs using an in vitro angiogenesis assay. The results showed that widdrol suppressed phosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and its downstream proteins, such as AKT, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Moreover, widdrol effectively reduced tumor growth and blood vessel formation in colon tumor xenograft mice. Collectively, these results suggested that widdrol may act as a potential anti-angiogenic agent by inhibiting vessel sprouting and growth, which may have implications for angioprevention.

  18. Investigation of Antiulcer and Antioxidant Activity of Juniperus phoenicea L. (1753) Essential Oil in an Experimental Rat Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ali, Manel Jemaї; Guesmi, Fatma; Harrath, Abdel Halim; Alwasel, Saleh; Hedfi, Amor; Ncib, Sana; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Aldahmash, Badr; Ben-Attia, Mossadok

    2015-01-01

    Juniperus phoenicea is a tree of the Cupressaceae family that is popularly known in the south of Tunisia because of its wide application in herbal medicine, including the use of its leaves to treat many diseases such as diarrhea, rheumatism, and intestinal disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ulceroprotective and antioxidant activity of essential oil extracted from the leaves of J. phoenicea (EOJp) against hydrogen chloride (HCl)/ethanol-induced ulcers in rats. The antiulcer activities of 50, 75 and 100 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) EOJp were investigated on 0.3 M HCl/ethanol-induced ulcers in rats. The essential oil yield was 0.69% with 48 compounds; α-pinene was the principal component (20.24%). In vivo pretreatment with EOJp given orally provided dose-dependent protection against HCl/ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Furthermore, pretreatment with EOJp significantly decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) content and increased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The activity of the antiulcerogenic EOJp could be from synergistic antioxidant and anti-secretory effects. Oral use of EOJp has excellent preventive effects on induced gastric ulcers comparable to those of the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) omeprazole.

  19. Leaf essential oil of Juniperus oxycedrus L. (Cupressaceae) harvested in northern Tunisia: composition and intra-specific variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medini, Hanen; Elaissi, Ameur; Khouja, Mohamed L; Chraief, Imed; Farhat, Farhat; Hammami, Mohamed; Chemli, Rachid; Harzallah-Skhiri, Fethia

    2010-05-01

    The essential oil composition of leaves of 60 individual trees of Juniperus oxycedrus L. growing in four locations in Tunisia harvested in three different seasons were investigated by GC and GC/MS. Seventy compounds were identified in the oils, and a relatively high variation in their contents were found. All the oils were dominated by terpenic hydrocarbons, with alpha-pinene (27.35-58.03%) as the main component, followed by geranyl acetone (13; 1.96-7.14%), 13-epimanoyl oxide (16; 1.35-6.95%), and eudesma-4(15),7-dien-1-ol (11; 1.39-4.18%). The 18 major oil components were processed by hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis (PCA) allowing to establish four groups, one divided into two subgroups, of populations according to the location and season of harvest. Their oils were differentiated by one compound or more, showing a clear seasonal and geographical polymorphism in their chemical composition allowing the identification of specific chemotypes. The pattern of geographic variation in the essential oil composition indicated that the oils of the populations from the continental site (Makthar) were clearly distinguished from those of the littoral localities (Tabarka, Hawaria, and Rimel).

  20. Efeito fitotóxico do óleo volátil de Cleome guianensis Aubl. sobre o crescimento inicial de Senna occidentalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C.S.S. VENTURA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Aleloquímicos são substâncias liberadas por certas espécies vegetais no ambiente que influenciam a germinação e o desenvolvimento de outras plantas. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar o potencial fitotóxico de Cleome guianensis Aubl., bem como determinar o grau de estresse oxidativo causado em Senna occidentalis L. Para isso, o óleo das folhas de C. guianensis, nas concentrações 0,5 µg/mL, 1,0 µg/mL, 2,5 µg/mL e 5,0 µg/mL, em solução de 5 ml foi testado em bioensaios de germinação e de crescimento da raiz primária e do hipocótilo de S. occidentalis. Os indivíduos de S. occidentalis foram macerados, homogeneizados e submetidos a ensaios de quantificação da catalase, peroxidase, SOD e de peroxidação lipídica. Os resultados indicam que todas as concentrações do óleo volátil causaram um efeito negativo sobre a germinação e crescimento de S. occidentalis. Na concentração 5,0 µg/mL, houve 56% de inibição da germinação e 83% de inibição de crescimento do hipocótilo. Ainda, o óleo aumentou a atividade das enzimas induzidas pelo estresse oxidativo catalase, peroxidase e superóxido dismutase (SOD. Quanto à peroxidação lipídica, o óleo nas concentrações 1,0 µg/mL, 2,5 µg/mL e 5,0 µg/mL aumentou a produção de malondialdeído. Sendo assim, conclui-se que C. guianensis apresenta aleloquímicos que influenciam na germinação e no crescimento de S. occidentalis, além de aumentar a atividade das enzimas catalase, peroxidase, SOD e a produção de malondialdeído em S. occidentalis. Dessa forma, sugere-se a realização de estudos sobre o perfil químico do óleo a fim de descobrir as substâncias responsáveis por tais resultados e consolidar o potencial fitotóxico de C. guianensis.

  1. Soil moisture, temperature, and carbon substrate influences on soil respiration in a piñon-juniper woodland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, E.; Marshall, J. D.; Rahn, T.; Litvak, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    Arid and semi-arid ecosystems may be more vulnerable to climate change than mesic systems, having potentially large consequences for ecosystem carbon balance of the US southwest. Specifically, piñon-juniper woodlands cover much of the land area in the SW US, and they have experienced widespread piñon mortality in the past ten years. The impact of this mortality on carbon cycling in these ecosystems has yet to be fully examined. Of particular current interest is how soil temperature, soil moisture, and substrate availability interact to influence short-term variability of soil respiration rates. In this study, we examined the dependence of soil respiration on recent piñon photosynthate, temperature, and moisture in a piñon-juniper woodland in central New Mexico. We utilized phloem-girdling to study the importance of recently-fixed photosynthate as substrate for respiration, and we treated the stable carbon isotope ratio of soil respiration as indicative of different substrate sources contributing to soil respiration. Due to the presence of C3, C4, and CAM photosynthetic pathways in the ecosystem, we were able to infer changing contribution of different sources to soil respiration. We found that soil-respired δ13C depended on both soil moisture and lagged precipitation, although in dissimilar manners, suggesting different mechanisms are triggered by rainfall events compared to elevated soil moisture. C3-source respiration responded quickly to precipitation events. Over a ten-day period following girdling of piñon trees, soil-respired δ13C did not significantly change compared to a reference plot. There were also distinct differences in carbon isotope signatures and temporal patterns of such signatures of soil respiration collected in open spaces compared to underneath piñon canopies, emphasizing the importance of considering spatial variability when sampling soil-respired CO2 in patchy ecosystems. Overall, we found little evidence that soil respiration in

  2. Compatibility assessment between four ethanolic plant extracts with a bug predator Orius horvathi (Reuter (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae used for controlling the western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae

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    Razavi Nooshin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande attacks a large number of crop plants. The current insecticides have caused resistance in insects and have caused outbreaks of thrips. In many instances, alternative methods of insect management and natural products, offer adequate pest control and pose fewer hazards. Several species of minute pirate bugs of the genus Orius play a significant role in the biological control of a large number of thrips species, such as F. occidentalis. In this study, the insecticidal activity of four ethanolic plant extracts (Cercis siliquastrum L., Calendula officinalis L., Peganum harmala L., Melia azedarach L. in integration with Orius horvathi (Reuter were evaluated for controlling F. occidentalis. The present research aimed to find plant extracts with a good impact on F. occidentalis but which have fewer side effects on O. horvathi. The results showed that P. harmala extract can be considered compatible with the natural enemy for controlling thrips. When the predatory bugs O. horvathi, were released three days after P. harmala extract spraying, the integration was more effective. While the P. harmala plant extract plays an important role in thrips control, it is necessary to consider the specified time interval between the application of the P. harmala plant extract and the release of the O. horvathi predatory bugs. The ethanolic extract of M. azedarach caused a balance between the pest population and the natural enemy. This result is very important in an Integrated Pest Management (IPM program because this ethanolic extract of M. azedarach had lower side effects on the natural enemy. This means that an integration of plant derived chemicals and the natural enemy, O. horvathi, can effectively control thrips.

  3. No transmission of Potato spindle tuber viroid shown in experiments with thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis, Thrips tabaci), honey bees (Apis mellifera) and bumblebees (Bombus terrestris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen Lykke; Enkegaard, Annie; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to investigate whether Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd) can be transmitted intra- and inter-species from infected Solanum jasminoides to non-infected S. jasminoides and S. esculentum and from infected Brugmansia sp. to S. esculentum by Frankliniella occidentalis an....../pollinating activities within ornamentals and from ornamentals to S. esculentum was included, and no bee-mediated transmission was recorded....

  4. Annual precipitation since 515 BC reconstructed from living and fossil juniper growth of northeastern Qinghai Province, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, P.R.; Graumlich, L.J. [University of Arizona, Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research, AZ (United States); Tarasov, P.E. [Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research, Potsdam Department, Potsdam (Germany); Heussner, K.-U.; Wagner, M. [German Archaeological Institute, Department of Eurasian Archaeology, Berlin (Germany); Oesterle, H. [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Telegrafenberg, P. O. Box 60 12 03, Potsdam (Germany); Thompson, L.G. [Ohio State University, Byrd Polar Research Center, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2004-12-01

    Annual precipitation for the last 2,500 years was reconstructed for northeastern Qinghai from living and archaeological juniper trees. A dominant feature of the precipitation of this area is a high degree of variability in mean rainfall at annual, decadal, and centennial scales, with many wet and dry periods that are corroborated by other paleoclimatic indicators. Reconstructed values of annual precipitation vary mostly from 100 to 300 mm and thus are no different from the modern instrumental record in Dulan. However, relatively dry years with below-average precipitation occurred more frequently in the past than in the present. Periods of relatively dry years occurred during 74-25 BC, AD51-375, 426-500, 526-575, 626-700, 1100-1225, 1251-1325, 1451-1525, 1651-1750 and 1801-1825. Periods with a relatively wet climate occurred during AD376-425, 576-625, 951-1050, 1351-1375, 1551-1600 and the present. This variability is probably related to latitudinal positions of winter frontal storms. Another key feature of precipitation in this area is an apparently direct relationship between interannual variability in rainfall with temperature, whereby increased warming in the future might lead to increased flooding and droughts. Such increased climatic variability might then impact human societies of the area, much as the climate has done for the past 2,500 years. (orig.)

  5. Difference in Tree Growth Responses to Climate at the Upper Treeline: Qilian Juniper in the Anyemaqen Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianfeng Peng; Xiaohua Gou; Fahu Chen; Jinbao Li; Puxing Liu; Yong Zhang; Keyan Fang

    2008-01-01

    Three ring-width chronologies were developed from Qilian Juniper (Sabina przewalskii Kom.) at the upper treeline along a west-east gradient in the Anyemaqen Mountains.Most chronological statistics,except for mean sensitivity (MS),decreased from west to east.The first principal component (PC1) Ioadings indicated that stands in a similar climate condition were most important to the variability of radial growth.PC2 Ioadings decreased from west to east,suggesting the difference of tree-growth between eastern and western Anyemaqen Mountains.Correlations between standard chronologies and climatic factors revealed different climatic influences on radial growth along a west-east gradient in the study area.Temperature of warm season (July-August) was important to the radial growth at the upper treeline in the whole study area.Precipitation of current May was an important limiting factor of tree growth only in the western (drier) upper treeline,whereas precipitation of current September limited tree growth in the eastern (wetter) upper treeline.Response function analysis results showed that there were regional differences between tree growth and climatic factors in various sampling sites of the whole study area.Temperature and precipitation were the important factors influencing tree growth in western (drier) upper treeline.However,tree growth was greatly limited by temperature at the upper treeline in the middle area,and was more limited by precipitation than temperature in the eastern (wetter) upper treeline.

  6. Difference in tree growth responses to climate at the upper treeline: Qilian Juniper in the Anyemaqen Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jianfeng; Gou, Xiaohua; Chen, Fahu; Li, Jinbao; Liu, Puxing; Zhang, Yong; Fang, Keyan

    2008-08-01

    Three ring-width chronologies were developed from Qilian Juniper (Sabina przewalskii Kom.) at the upper treeline along a west-east gradient in the Anyemaqen Mountains. Most chronological statistics, except for mean sensitivity (MS), decreased from west to east. The first principal component (PC1) loadings indicated that stands in a similar climate condition were most important to the variability of radial growth. PC2 loadings decreased from west to east, suggesting the difference of tree-growth between eastern and western Anyemaqen Mountains. Correlations between standard chronologies and climatic factors revealed different climatic influences on radial growth along a west-east gradient in the study area. Temperature of warm season (July-August) was important to the radial growth at the upper treeline in the whole study area. Precipitation of current May was an important limiting factor of tree growth only in the western (drier) upper treeline, whereas precipitation of current September limited tree growth in the eastern (wetter) upper treeline. Response function analysis results showed that there were regional differences between tree growth and climatic factors in various sampling sites of the whole study area. Temperature and precipitation were the important factors influencing tree growth in western (drier) upper treeline. However, tree growth was greatly limited by temperature at the upper treeline in the middle area, and was more limited by precipitation than temperature in the eastern (wetter) upper treeline.

  7. Vitamin, Trace Element, and Fatty Acid Levels of Vitex agnus-castus L., Juniperus oxycedrus L., and Papaver somniferum L. Plant Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ozkaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of fat-soluble vitamin, trace element and fatty acid of Vitex agnus-castus L., Juniperus oxycedrus L., and Papaver somniferum L. seeds in Turkey were determined by using HPLC, ICP-OES, and GC, respectively. In the Vitex agnus-castus L., Juniperus oxycedrus L., and Papaver somniferum L. seeds, linoleic acid (18 : 2 was determined with the highest level rates (%54.11, %28.03, and %72.14, resp.. In the Vitex agnus-castus L. seeds, R-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, and K1 levels were determined as 9.70 μg/g, 18.20 μg/g, and 24.79 μg/g, respectively; In the Juniperus oxycedrus L. seeds, R-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, and K1 were determined as 18.50 μg/g, 0.84 μg/g, and 5.00 μg/g, respectively, and in the Papaver somniferum L. seeds, R-tocopherol, α-tocopherol, K1, and D2 levels were determined as 43.25 μg/g, 122.05 μg/g, 12.01 μg/g, and 0.62 μg/g, respectively. In the Vitex agnus-castus L., Juniperus oxycedrus L., and Papaver somniferum L. seeds, nickel (Ni, zinc (Zn, and iron (Fe were determined with the trace element level rates (4.42 mg/kg, 10.43 mg/kg, 3.71 mg/kg for Ni, 7.00 mg/kg, 7.70 mg/kg, and 24 mg/kg for Zn and 93.73 mg/kg, 187.95 mg/kg, and 149.64 mg/kg for Fe, resp.. These parameters in seeds are very important for human life.

  8. Etude phytochimique et pouvoir antîmicrobien de Juniperusphoenicea L., Juniperus oxycedrus L. et Cupressus sempervirens L. de la région de Tlemcen.

    OpenAIRE

    MAZARI, Khadidja

    2014-01-01

    Ce travail est consacré à l'étude pliytochimique et biologique de trois plantes: Juniperusphoenicea L., Juniperus oxycedrus L. et Cupressus J sempervirens L., poussant à l'état spontané dans la région de Tlemcen. P Des tests phytochimiques réalisés lors de cette étude ont permis de détecter les différentes familles de composés chimiques existantes dans les feuilles de ces plantes. L'extraction des huiles essentielles nous a révélé que le rendement en huile essentielle de J. phoeni...

  9. Molecular characterization and evolutionary insights into potential sex-determination genes in the western orchard predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis (Chelicerata: Arachnida: Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Aaron F; Hoy, Marjorie A; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the process of sex determination at the molecular level in species belonging to the subclass Acari, a taxon of arachnids that contains mites and ticks. The recent sequencing of the transcriptome and genome of the western orchard predatory mite Metaseiulus occidentalis allows investigation of molecular mechanisms underlying the biological processes of sex determination in this predator of phytophagous pest mites. We identified four doublesex-and-mab-3-related transcription factor (dmrt) genes, one transformer-2 gene, one intersex gene, and two fruitless-like genes in M. occidentalis. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted to infer the molecular relationships to sequences from species of arthropods, including insects, crustaceans, acarines, and a centipede, using available genomic data. Comparative analyses revealed high sequence identity within functional domains and confirmed that the architecture for certain sex-determination genes is conserved in arthropods. This study provides a framework for identifying potential target genes that could be implicated in the process of sex determination in M. occidentalis and provides insight into the conservation and change of the molecular components of sex determination in arthropods.

  10. An important invasive pest, Frankliniella occidentalis, inspected in Tibet%西藏发现重要外来入侵害虫——西花蓟马

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海鸿; 雷仲仁; 李雪; 代安国; 陈翰秋

    2013-01-01

    西花蓟马是一种世界性的重要害虫,中国大陆地区2003年首次在北京发现并报道.作者对拉萨市区及堆龙德庆县蔬菜上采集到的蓟马进行形态学和分子生物学鉴定,证明此种蓟马为西花蓟马,这是西花蓟马在西藏发生的首次报道.%The western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, is one of the most dangerous pests around the world. In the mainland of China, this pest was firstly reported in Beijing in 2003. The thrips collected from the vegetables in Lhasa City and Duilongdeqing County were identified as F. Occidentalis (Pergande) by morphologi-cal and molecular methods. It was the first report that F. Occidentalis occurred in Tibet.

  11. Effects of Telfairia occidentalis (Hook F. Methanol Leaf Extract on the Haematological Indices and Histomorphology of the Endometrium and Liver of Female Albino Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidozie Nwabuisi OKOYE

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of administration of Telfairia occidentalis (Hook f. methanol leaf extract on some hematological indices and histomorphology of the uterus and liver of female albino rats. Acute toxicity study of the extract was performed with female rats, following standard procedure. They were randomly assigned into 3 groups. The first group (A served as the untreated control and received distilled water, while the second group (B and third (C received 200 and 800 mg/kg mg/kg body weight of the methanol leaf extract of T. occidentalis respectively. Administration of the extract was done daily via the oral route for 21 days. Blood was collected for hematological evaluation at weekly intervals. Hematological parameters assessed were the packed cell volume (PCV, red blood cell (RBC count, hemoglobin concentration (HB and total white blood cell (TWBC count. At the end of the study period uterine and liver tissues were excised and prepared for histological examination. Results showed that there was a significant decrease (P 0.05 in the mean total WBC throughout the duration of the study. Histological examination of uterine and liver tissues of the different groups did not show any lesions. It was concluded that the T. occidentalis leaf methanolic extract does not adversely affect the reproductive functions of the uterus.

  12. Different growth sensitivity to climate of the conifer Juniperus thurifera on both sides of the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSoto, Lucía; Varino, Filipa; Andrade, José P; Gouveia, Celia M; Campelo, Filipe; Trigo, Ricardo M; Nabais, Cristina

    2014-12-01

    Mediterranean plants cope with cold wet winters and dry hot summers, with a drought gradient from northwest to southeast. Limiting climatic conditions have become more pronounced in the last decades due to the warming trend and rainfall decrease. Juniperus thurifera L., a long-lived conifer tree endemic to the western Mediterranean region, has a disjunct distribution in Europe and Africa, making it a suitable species to study sensitivity to climate in both sides of the Mediterranean Basin. Tree-ring width chronologies were built for three J. thurifera stands at Spain (Europe) and three in Morocco (Africa) and correlated with monthly temperature and precipitation. The temporal stability of climate-growth relationships was assessed using moving correlations; the drought effect on growth was calculated using the monthly standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) at different temporal scales. In the wettest stands, increasing spring temperature and summer precipitation enhanced growth, while in the driest stands, growth was enhanced by higher spring precipitation and lower summer temperature. The climate-growth correlations shifted during the twentieth century, especially since the 1970s. Particularly noticeable is the recent negative correlation with previous autumn and winter precipitation in the wettest stands of J. thurifera, probably related with an effect of cloud cover or flooding on carbon storage depletion for next year growth. The driest stands were affected by drought at long time scales, while the wettest stands respond to drought at short time scales. This reveals a different strategy to cope with drought conditions, with populations from drier sites able to cope with short periods of water deficit.

  13. Colonization of abandoned land by Juniperus thurifera is mediated by the interaction of a diverse dispersal assemblage and environmental heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Escribano-Avila

    Full Text Available Land abandonment is one of the most powerful global change drivers in developed countries where recent rural exodus has been the norm. Abandonment of traditional land use practices has permitted the colonization of these areas by shrub and tree species. For fleshy fruited species the colonization of new areas is determined by the dispersal assemblage composition and abundance. In this study we showed how the relative contribution to the dispersal process by each animal species is modulated by the environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure. This complex interaction caused differential patterns on the seed dispersal in both, landscape patches in which the process of colonization is acting nowadays and mature woodlands of Juniperus thurifera, a relict tree distributed in the western Mediterranean Basin. Thrushes (Turdus spp and carnivores (red fox and stone marten dispersed a high amount of seeds while rabbits and sheeps only a tiny fraction. Thrushes dispersed a significant amount of seeds in new colonization areas, however they were limited by the presence of high perches with big crop size. While carnivores dispersed seeds to all studied habitats, even in those patches where no trees of J. thurifera were present, turning out to be critical for primary colonization. The presence of Pinus and Quercus was related to a reduced consumption of J. thurifera seeds while the presence of fleshy fruited shrubs was related with higher content of J. thurifera seeds in dispersers' faeces. Therefore environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure had a great influence on dispersers feeding behaviour, and should be considered in order to accurately describe the role of seed dispersal in ecological process, such as regeneration and colonization. J. thurifera expansion is not seed limited thanks to its diverse dispersal community, hence the conservation of all dispersers in an ecosystem enhance ecosystems services and resilience.

  14. Enhanced growth of Juniperus thurifera under a warmer climate is explained by a positive carbon gain under cold and drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, Teresa E; Camarero, J Julio; Granda, Elena; Pías, Beatriz; Valladares, Fernando

    2012-03-01

    Juniperus thurifera L. is an endemic conifer of the western Mediterranean Basin where it is subjected to a severe climatic stress characterized by low winter temperatures and summer drought. Given the trend of increased warming-induced drought stress in this area and the climatic sensitivity of this species, we expect a negative impact of climate change on growth and ecophysiological performance of J. thurifera in the harsh environments where it dominates. To evaluate this, we measured long- and short-term radial growth using dendrochronology, photosynthesis and water-use efficiency in males, females and juveniles in three sites in Central Spain. Climate was monitored and completed with historical records. Mean annual temperature has increased +0.2 °C per decade in the study area, and the main warming trends corresponded to spring (+0.2 °C per decade) and summer (+0.3 °C per decade). Radial growth and maximum photosynthesis peaked in spring and autumn. Positive photosynthetic rates were maintained all year long, albeit at reduced rates in winter and summer. Radial growth was enhanced by wet conditions in the previous autumn and by warm springs and high precipitation in summer of the year of tree-ring formation. Cloud cover during the summer increased growth, while cloudy winters led to impaired carbon gain and reduced growth in the long term. We argue that maintenance of carbon gain under harsh conditions (low winter temperatures and dry summer months) and plastic xylogenesis underlie J. thurifera's ability to profit from changing climatic conditions such as earlier spring onset and erratic summer rainfall. Our results highlight that not only the magnitude but also the sign of the impact of climate change on growth and persistence of Mediterranean trees is species specific.

  15. In vitro anti-diabetic, anti-obesity and antioxidant proprieties of Juniperus phoenicea L. leaves from Tunisia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine chemical composition and antioxidant activity as well as the in vitroα-amylase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities of the essential oil and various extracts of Juniperus phoenicea (J. phoenicea). Methods: Essential oil obtained by steam distillation were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil and various extracts of J. phoenicea were determined by DPPH andβ-carotene bleaching methods. Results: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the J. phoenicea essential oil resulted in the identification of 37 compounds, representing 96.98% of the oil; α-Pinene (24.02%), limonene (7.94%), D-3-Carene (16.9%), Germacrene D (11.98%), Germacrene B (5.40%) and δ-cadinene (6.52%) were the major compounds. The IC50 values of essential oil, hexane and methanol extracts against α-amylase were 35.44, 30.15 and 53.76 µg/mL respectively, and those against pancreatic lipase were 66.15, 68.47 and 60.22 µg/mL respectively, suggesting powerful anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effects. Antioxidant activity (IC50=2 µg/mL) and total phenolics content (265 mg as gallic acid equivalent/g extract) of the methanol extract were found to be the highest compared to the other extracts. Conclusions:The findings showed that the extents ofα-amylase and pancreatic lipase inhibitory activities of the J. phoenicea extracts as well as their antioxidant activity are in accordance with total phenolics contents. Leaves of J. phoenicea being rich in phenolics may provide a good source of natural products with interesting medicinal properties.

  16. Colonization of abandoned land by Juniperus thurifera is mediated by the interaction of a diverse dispersal assemblage and environmental heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano-Avila, Gema; Sanz-Pérez, Virginia; Pías, Beatriz; Virgós, Emilio; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Land abandonment is one of the most powerful global change drivers in developed countries where recent rural exodus has been the norm. Abandonment of traditional land use practices has permitted the colonization of these areas by shrub and tree species. For fleshy fruited species the colonization of new areas is determined by the dispersal assemblage composition and abundance. In this study we showed how the relative contribution to the dispersal process by each animal species is modulated by the environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure. This complex interaction caused differential patterns on the seed dispersal in both, landscape patches in which the process of colonization is acting nowadays and mature woodlands of Juniperus thurifera, a relict tree distributed in the western Mediterranean Basin. Thrushes (Turdus spp) and carnivores (red fox and stone marten) dispersed a high amount of seeds while rabbits and sheeps only a tiny fraction. Thrushes dispersed a significant amount of seeds in new colonization areas, however they were limited by the presence of high perches with big crop size. While carnivores dispersed seeds to all studied habitats, even in those patches where no trees of J. thurifera were present, turning out to be critical for primary colonization. The presence of Pinus and Quercus was related to a reduced consumption of J. thurifera seeds while the presence of fleshy fruited shrubs was related with higher content of J. thurifera seeds in dispersers' faeces. Therefore environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure had a great influence on dispersers feeding behaviour, and should be considered in order to accurately describe the role of seed dispersal in ecological process, such as regeneration and colonization. J. thurifera expansion is not seed limited thanks to its diverse dispersal community, hence the conservation of all dispersers in an ecosystem enhance ecosystems services and resilience.

  17. Different growth sensitivity to climate of the conifer Juniperus thurifera on both sides of the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSoto, Lucía; Varino, Filipa; Andrade, José P.; Gouveia, Celia M.; Campelo, Filipe; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Nabais, Cristina

    2014-12-01

    Mediterranean plants cope with cold wet winters and dry hot summers, with a drought gradient from northwest to southeast. Limiting climatic conditions have become more pronounced in the last decades due to the warming trend and rainfall decrease. Juniperus thurifera L., a long-lived conifer tree endemic to the western Mediterranean region, has a disjunct distribution in Europe and Africa, making it a suitable species to study sensitivity to climate in both sides of the Mediterranean Basin. Tree-ring width chronologies were built for three J. thurifera stands at Spain (Europe) and three in Morocco (Africa) and correlated with monthly temperature and precipitation. The temporal stability of climate-growth relationships was assessed using moving correlations; the drought effect on growth was calculated using the monthly standardized precipitation-evapotranspiration index (SPEI) at different temporal scales. In the wettest stands, increasing spring temperature and summer precipitation enhanced growth, while in the driest stands, growth was enhanced by higher spring precipitation and lower summer temperature. The climate-growth correlations shifted during the twentieth century, especially since the 1970s. Particularly noticeable is the recent negative correlation with previous autumn and winter precipitation in the wettest stands of J. thurifera, probably related with an effect of cloud cover or flooding on carbon storage depletion for next year growth. The driest stands were affected by drought at long time scales, while the wettest stands respond to drought at short time scales. This reveals a different strategy to cope with drought conditions, with populations from drier sites able to cope with short periods of water deficit.

  18. When, How and How Much: Gender-specific Resource-use Strategies in the Dioecious Tree Juniperus thurifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    MONTESINOS, D.; DE LUÍS, M.; VERDÚ, M.; RAVENTÓS, J.; GARCÍA-FAYOS, P.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims In dioecious species male and female plants experience different selective pressures and often incur different reproductive costs. An increase in reproductive investment habitually results in a reduction of the resources available to other demands, such as vegetative growth. Tree-ring growth is an integrative measure that tracks vegetative investment through the plant's entire life span. This allows the study of gender-specific vegetative allocation strategies in dioecious tree species thoughout their life stages. • Methods Standard dendrochronological procedures were used to measure tree-ring width. Analyses of time-series were made by means of General Mixed Models with correction of autocorrelated values by the use of an autoregressive covariance structure of order one. Bootstrapped correlation functions were used to study the relationship between climate and tree-ring width. • Key Results Male and female trees invest a similar amount of resources to ring growth during the early life stages of Juniperus thurifera. However, after reaching sexual maturity, tree-ring growth is reduced for both sexes. Furthermore, females experience a significantly stronger reduction in growth than males, which indicates a lower vegetative allocation in females. In addition, growth was positively correlated with precipitation from the current winter and spring in male trees but only to current spring precipitation in females. • Conclusions Once sexual maturity is achieved, tree rings grow proportionally more in males than in females. Differences in tree-ring growth between the genders could be a strategy to respond to different reproductive demands. Therefore, and responding to the questions of when, how and how much asked in the title, it is shown that male trees invest more resources to growth than female trees only after reaching sexual maturity, and they use these resources in a different temporal way. PMID:16905569

  19. Juniperus rigida Sieb. extract inhibits inflammatory responses via attenuation of TRIF-dependent signaling and inflammasome activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ji-Won; Shim, Do-Wan; Shin, Woo-Young; Kim, Myong-Ki; Shim, Eun-Jeong; Sun, Xiao; Koppula, Sushruta; Kim, Tack-Joong; Kang, Tae-Bong; Lee, Kwang-Ho

    2016-08-22

    Juniperus rigida Sieb. (J. rigida) is used for medicinal purposes in Asian countries to treat inflammation-related disorders, such as neuralgia, dropsy, and gout. The anti-inflammatory effects of J. rigida extract (JR) and its underlying mechanisms were explored both in in vitro cell lines and in vivo metabolic disease models. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 murine macrophages were used to study the changes in inflammatory responses in vitro. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) were used to study the regulatory effect of JR on inflammasome activation. The murine model for monosodium urate (MSU)-induced peritonitis and high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetes were employed to study the effect of JR on in vivo efficacy. JR suppressed the MSU-induced in vivo inflammatory response by attenuation of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α). In the in vitro study, JR suppressed IL-1β secretion via regulation of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) oligomerization, leading to the inhibition of inflammasome activation. JR also inhibited the LPS-stimulated release of proinflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), TNF-α, and IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells. The inhibitory effects of JR were mediated through the regulation of the TRIF-dependent signaling pathway from JAK1/STAT1 phosphorylation. Furthermore, JR showed inhibitory effects on HFD-induced type 2 diabetes in a mouse model through the regulation of blood glucose and serum IL-1β. Our results indicate that JR attenuates both LPS-stimulated and danger-signal-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages via regulation of the key inflammatory mechanisms, providing scientific support for its traditional use in the treatment of various inflammation-related metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. LC-MS-MS and GC-MS analyses of biologically active extracts and fractions from Tunisian Juniperus phoenice leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskes, Henda; Belhadj, Sahla; Jlail, Lobna; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Damak, Mohamed; Sayadi, Sami; Allouche, Noureddine

    2017-12-01

    Despite some studies related to Juniperus phoenicea L. (Cupressaceae), phytochemical and biological investigations of this plant remain unexplored. This work is the first report dealing with the identification and characterization of volatile components and flavonoids in hexane and methanol extracts from J. phoenicea leaves Materials and methods: Antioxidant activity of hexane, and methanol extracts from J. phoenicea leaves were determined by DPPH-radical scavenging assay. α-Amylase inhibitory activity was evaluated by enzyme inhibition using in vitro assay (each extract was dissolved in DMSO to give concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 mg/mL). The chemical composition of fractions (Fr1-Fr3) from methanol extract was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy (HPLC-MS) analysis. The hexane extract was analyzed by GC-MS technique which allowed the identification of 32 compounds. The main constituents were α-humulene (16.9%), pentadecane (10.2%) and α-cubebene (9.7%). Fraction Fr 2 exhibited a strong DPPH radical-scavenging activity (IC50 = 20.1 μg/mL) compared to that of BHT as well as the highest α-amylase inhibitory activity (IC50 = 28.4 μg/mL). Three flavonoids were identified in these fractions using HPLC-MS analysis: Quercetin 3-O-glucoside, isoscutellarein 7-O-pentoside and quercetin 3-O-pentoside. In addition, the more active fraction (Fr 2) was purified with semi-preparative HPLC affording one pure compound (amentoflavone) using (1)H NMR analysis. This compound exhibited powerful DPPH radical-scavenging (IC50 = 14.1 μg/mL) and α-amylase inhibition (IC50 = 20.4 μg/mL) effects. This study provides scientific support to some medicinal uses of J. phoenicea found in North Africa.

  1. Colonization of Abandoned Land by Juniperus thurifera Is Mediated by the Interaction of a Diverse Dispersal Assemblage and Environmental Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escribano-Avila, Gema; Sanz-Pérez, Virginia; Pías, Beatriz; Virgós, Emilio; Escudero, Adrián; Valladares, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Land abandonment is one of the most powerful global change drivers in developed countries where recent rural exodus has been the norm. Abandonment of traditional land use practices has permitted the colonization of these areas by shrub and tree species. For fleshy fruited species the colonization of new areas is determined by the dispersal assemblage composition and abundance. In this study we showed how the relative contribution to the dispersal process by each animal species is modulated by the environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure. This complex interaction caused differential patterns on the seed dispersal in both, landscape patches in which the process of colonization is acting nowadays and mature woodlands of Juniperus thurifera, a relict tree distributed in the western Mediterranean Basin. Thrushes (Turdus spp) and carnivores (red fox and stone marten) dispersed a high amount of seeds while rabbits and sheeps only a tiny fraction. Thrushes dispersed a significant amount of seeds in new colonization areas, however they were limited by the presence of high perches with big crop size. While carnivores dispersed seeds to all studied habitats, even in those patches where no trees of J. thurifera were present, turning out to be critical for primary colonization. The presence of Pinus and Quercus was related to a reduced consumption of J. thurifera seeds while the presence of fleshy fruited shrubs was related with higher content of J. thurifera seeds in dispersers’ faeces. Therefore environmental heterogeneity and ecosystem structure had a great influence on dispersers feeding behaviour, and should be considered in order to accurately describe the role of seed dispersal in ecological process, such as regeneration and colonization. J. thurifera expansion is not seed limited thanks to its diverse dispersal community, hence the conservation of all dispersers in an ecosystem enhance ecosystems services and resilience. PMID:23071692

  2. Essential oil of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak needles: chemical composition, antifungal activity and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, C; Francisco, V; Cavaleiro, C; Gonçalves, M J; Cruz, M T; Sales, F; Batista, M T; Salgueiro, L

    2012-09-01

    Essential oils are known to possess antimicrobial activity against a wide spectrum of bacteria and fungi. In the present work the composition and the antifungal activity of the oils of Juniperus communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Čelak were evaluated. Moreover, the skin cytotoxicity, at concentrations showing significant antifungal activity, was also evaluated. The oils were isolated by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal lethal concentration (MLC) were used to evaluate the antifungal activity of the oil against dermatophytes (Epidermophyton floccosum, Microsporum canis, M. gypseum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, T. mentagrophytes var. interdigitale, T. rubrum, T. verrucosum), yeasts (Candida albicans, C. guillermondii, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, Cryptococcus neoformans) and Aspergillus species (Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger). Cytotoxicity was tested in HaCaT keratinocytes through the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Essential oil of J. communis subsp. alpina needles was predominantly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons (78.4%), with the main compounds being sabinene (26.2%), α-pinene (12-9%) and limonene (10.4%). Results concerning the antifungal activity demonstrated the potential of needle oil against dermatophytes, particularly for Microsporum canis and Trichophyton rubrum with MIC and MLC of 0.32 μL/mL. Furthermore, evaluation of cell viability showed no significant cytotoxicity in HaCaT keratinocytes at concentrations between 0.32 and 0.64 μL/mL. These results show that it is possible to find appropriate doses of J. communis subsp. alpina oil with both antifungal activity and a very low detrimental effect on keratinocytes. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Larvicidal efficacy of Ethiopian ethnomedicinal plant Juniperus procera essential oil against Afrotropical malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kaliyaperumal Karunamoorthi; Askual Girmay; Samuel Fekadu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To screen the essential oil of Juniperus procera (J. procera) (Cupressaceae) for larvicidal activity against late third instar larvae of Anopheles arabiensis (An. arabiensis) Patton, the principle malaria vector in Ethiopia.Methods:the laboratory and semi-field conditions by adopting the World Health Organization standard protocols. The larval mortality was observed for 24 h of post exposure.Results:The essential oil of J. procera has demonstrated varying degrees of larvicidal activity The essential oil of J. procera was evaluated against the larvae of An. arabiensis under against An. arabiensis. The LC50 and LC90 values of J. procera were 14.42 and 24.65 mg/L, respectively under the laboratory conditions, and from this data, a Chi-square value 6.662 was observed to be significant at the P=0.05 level. However, under the semi-field conditions the LC50 and LC90 values of J. procera were 24.51 and 34.21 mg/L, respectively and a Chi-square value 4.615 was significant at the P=0.05 level. The observations clearly showed that larval mortality rate is completely time and dose-dependent as compared with the control.Conclusions:This investigation indicates that J. procera could serve as a potential larvicidal agent against insect vector of diseases, particularly An. arabiensis. However further studies are strongly recommended for the identification of the chemical constituents and the mode of action towards the rational design of alternative promising insecticidal agents in the near future.

  4. Effects of Juniperus species and stage of maturity on nutritional, in vitro digestibility, and plant secondary compound characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, W C; Whitney, T R; Scholljegerdes, E J; Naumann, H D; Cherry, N M; Muir, J P; Lambert, B D; Walker, J W; Adams, R P; Welch, K D; Gardner, D R; Estell, R E

    2015-08-01

    Rising feed costs and recurring feed shortages necessitate the investigation into alternative and underutilized feed resources. Nutritional characteristics of species are either unknown or limited to leaves and ground material from small stems. Therefore, the objective was to quantify nutritional characteristics, 48-h true IVDMD (tIVDMD), microbial gas production, and secondary compound characteristics of entire woody plant material of 4 species-, , , and -at immature and mature stages of growth. Immature plants had greater CP concentrations and lower NDF concentrations ( < 0.001) than mature plants regardless of species. Mature plants also had greater ( < 0.001) concentrations of ADF compared with immature plants with the exception of . In general, immature , , and had greater ( < 0.02) tIVDMD and total 48-h and asymptotic gas production than mature plants. Immature and plants were more digested (tIVDMD; < 0.001) than immature and , but tIVDMD did not differ in mature plant material across species. Condensed tannins (CT) were greater ( < 0.001) in immature and than mature plants; differences in CT concentrations among immature species were also detected ( < 0.04). Volatile oil yields were similar across maturity and species with 1 exception: immature yielded more ( < 0.02) volatile oil than mature material. Volatile oil composition across species varied and contained a range of 65 to 70 terpene compounds. The dominant terpenes across species were generally greater ( < 0.05) in immature vs. mature plant material with the exception of . Labdane acids were negligible in , , and and greater in ( < 0.001). Ground material from mature juniper species, although inferior in nutritional quality compared with immature plants, is comparable to traditional low-quality roughage ingredients. Given that has been successfully fed in lamb feedlot diets, the similarities of , and suggest that all three species have potential to be effective roughage ingredients.

  5. Differences in prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi and Anaplasma spp. infection among host-seeking Dermacentor occidentalis, Ixodes pacificus, and Ornithodoros coriaceus ticks in northwestern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Robert S.; Mun, Jeomhee; Peribáñez, Miguel A.; Fedorova, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies revealed that the Pacific Coast tick (Dermacentor occidentalis) is infected occasionally with the agents of Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi) or human granulocytic anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum) and that it is an inefficient experimental vector of B. burgdorferi. The relationship of the pajahuello tick (Ornithodoros coriaceus) to each of these bacterial zoonotic agents has not been reported. The primary bridging vector of both bacterial zoonotic agents to humans is the western black-legged tick (Ixodes pacificus). Because of the spatial and temporal overlap of D. occidentalis and O. coriaceus populations with those of I. pacificus in natural foci of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum in northwestern California, we conducted field and laboratory studies to determine if the Pacific Coast tick or the pajahuello tick potentially may serve as secondary vectors of either bacterium. Our findings reconfirmed that wild-caught D. occidentalis ticks are infected infrequently with B. burgdorferi or A. phagocytophilum, but some adult ticks from dense woodlands or chaparral were found to contain 2 important veterinary pathogens for the first time (Anaplasma bovis, A. ovis). The high prevalence of A. bovis infection (4.3%, n=185 ticks) within chaparral-derived ticks suggests that D. occidentalis could be an efficient vector of this rickettsia. Experimental attempts to transmit borreliae or Anaplasma spp. that may have been present in >100 wild-caught D. occidentalis adults to naïve rabbits were unsuccessful. Anaplasma spp. were not detected in O. coriaceus, but one (4.3%) of 23 nymphs was infected with B. bissettii. This finding and an antecedent report of a B. burgdorferi-like spirochete from the same tick species demonstrate that O. coriaceus sometimes acquires and transstadially passes Lyme disease group spirochetes. I. pacificus nymphs inhabiting a woodland nidus of B. burgdorferi and A. phagocytophilum had a 5-fold higher prevalence of

  6. POTENCIAL FITOTÓXICO DE Pterodon polygalaeflorus BENTH (LEGUMINOSAE SOBRE Acanthospermum australe (LOEFL. O. KUNTZE E Senna occidentalis (L. LINK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALDENIR JOSÉ BELINELO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were synthesize and characterize the allelopatic activity of 6a,7bdi-hydroxyvouacapan-17b-oic acid derivatives, isolated from seeds of Pterodon polygalaeflorus Benth (Leguminosae. The compound characterization processes involve in infrared spectrometry (IR and hydrogen and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (1H and 13C NMR including experiments in double dimensions (COSY 1H 1H, HMQC and HMBC. Allellopathic effects were evaluated by bioassays, carried out at controlled 25 °C temperature and photoperiod (12h light/12h dark, during 72 hours. Sample concentrations of 1,0, 100,0 and 1000,0 mg.L-1 were tested. Senna occidentalis (fedegoso and Acanthospermum australe (carrapichinho were used as the target weed plants. Was observed that the allelopatic effect of the compounds increased as a function of the enhancement of concentration, thus showing a relation dose dependence. The N-ethyl-6a-acethoxy- 7b-hydroxyvouacapan-17b-amide and N,N-diethyl-6a-acethoxy-7b-hydroxyvouacapan 17b-amide were the derivatives that present the biggest inhibitory effect on seed germination and root growth of fedegoso and carrapichinho. Therefore, these compounds represent the most allelochemical potential against these weeds.

  7. Resistance to spinosad in the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), in greenhouses of south-eastern Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielza, Pablo; Quinto, Vicente; Contreras, Josefina; Torné, María; Martín, Alberto; Espinosa, Pedro J

    2007-07-01

    Susceptibility to spinosad of western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), from south-eastern Spain was determined. LC(50) values of the field populations without previous exposure to spinosad collected in Murcia in 2001 and 2002 ranged from 0.005 to 0.077 mg L(-1). The populations collected in Almeria in 2003 in greenhouses were resistant to spinosad (LC(50) > 54 mg L(-1)) compared with the authors' highly susceptible laboratory strain. The highly sensitive laboratory strain leads to very high resistance ratios for the field populations (>13 500), but these ratios do not necessarily mean resistance problems and control failures (spinosad field rate 90-120 mg L(-1)). The populations collected in Murcia from some greenhouses in 2004 were also resistant to spinosad (RF > 3682). Spinosad overuse, with more than ten applications per crop, produced these resistant populations in some greenhouses. Spinosad showed no cross-resistance to acrinathrin, formetanate or methiocarb in laboratory strains selected for resistance towards each insecticide. Correlation analysis indicated no cross-resistance among spinosad and the other three insecticides in 13 field populations and in nine laboratory strains. The synergists piperonyl butoxide (PBO), S,S,S-tributyl phosphorotrithioate (DEF) and diethyl maleate (DEM) did not enhance the toxicity of spinosad to the resistant strains, indicating that metabolic-mediated detoxification was not responsible for the spinosad resistance. These findings suggest that rotation with spinosad may be an effective resistance management strategy.

  8. Recruitment in Swarm-Founding Wasps: Polybia occidentalis Does not Actively Scent-Mark Carbohydrate Food Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Scent marking food resources is expected to enhance foraging efficiency reducing search time. Many social bees exhibit this behavior, but scent-marking is absent in social wasps, except for Vespa mandarinia. We tested for scent marking in the swarm-founding wasp, Polybia occidentalis. This wasp has moderately large colonies and utilizes resources that are concentrated in time and space, making scent marking profitable. Also, this wasp uses chemical markings to lead nestmates to a new nest site during swarm emigration, making it possible that it could use the same behavior to recruit nestmates to a food source. Foragers from 11 colonies were given a choice between a previously visited feeder and an unvisited one, both containing a rich, unscented sucrose solution. There was no difference in the number of visits to the two treatments. However, some individuals chose the feeder on one side more often. We conclude that foragers of this species of wasp do not use odor marks left behind by nestmates to find food, but they do exhibit the tendency, when returning to a food source that has not been depleted, to choose a resource based on its relative position, presumably by using visual cues.

  9. Tricholeiperia peruensis n. sp. (Nematoda, Molineidae del quiróptero Lophostoma silvicolum occidentalis (Phyllostomidae en Tumbes, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vargas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo, se describe a Tricholeiperia peruensis n. sp. (Nematoda, Molineidae en base a 25 especímenes colectados del intestino de 5 murciélagos de la especie Lophostoma silvicolum occidentalis de la localidad de Angostura, distrito Pampas de Hospital, departamento de Tumbes, Perú. La nueva especie se caracteriza por la morfología de la vesícula cefálica en forma de capuchón con escotaduras, por el tamaño y forma de las espículas cuyo extremo distal de la rama externa se divide en dos, de las cuales la rama interna sufre una nueva división; por la disposición de las costillas de la bolsa copulatríz donde, entre otros detalles, las antero y postero-ventrales están separadas y las externo-dorsales nacen cerca de la parte media del tronco dorsal y son gruesas.

  10. Effects of repeated exposure to malathion on growth, food consumption, and locomotor performance of the western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holem, Ryan R. [University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States); ENTRIX, Inc., Okemos, MI 48864 (United States); Hopkins, William A. [University of Georgia, Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States); Department of Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)], E-mail: hopkinsw@vt.edu; Talent, Larry G. [Natural Resource Ecology and Management, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Effects of repeated pollutant exposure on growth, locomotor performance, and behavior have rarely been evaluated in reptiles. We administered three doses of malathion (2.0, 20, or 100 mg/kg body weight) to western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis) over an 81 day period. Eight and 23% mortality occurred at 20 and 100 mg/kg (p = 0.079) and 85% of lizards in the 100 mg/kg group exhibited clinical symptoms of poisoning. Growth, food consumption, body condition index, and terrestrial locomotor performance were not significantly influenced by malathion. However, arboreal sprint velocity was significantly reduced in lizards receiving 100 mg/kg. Fifty percent of lizards in the 100 mg/kg group also refused to sprint in the arboreal setting (p = 0.085). Based on these results, arboreal locomotor performance was the most sensitive metric of exposure we evaluated. Further study of compounds such as malathion is warranted due to highly variable application rates and exposure scenarios. - Repeated exposure of western fence lizards to malathion caused reduced arboreal performance and some mortality but growth, food consumption, and terrestrial performance were not affected.

  11. Health assessments of brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) nestlings from colonies in South Carolina and Georgia, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, L.M.; Norton, Terry M.; Cray, C.; Oliva, M.; Jodice, Patrick G.

    2014-01-01

    Health evaluations of brown pelican (Pelecanus occidentalis) nestlings from three colonies along the Atlantic coast of the southeastern United States were performed in 2005, 2007, and 2008. The primary objective of this study was to establish baseline data for hematologic, biochemical, and serologic values from a relatively healthy population of free-living pelicans during early chick development. Relationships among health variables and colony site, ectoparasite infestation, sex, and body condition index were also evaluated. Reference intervals are presented for health variables, including novel analytes for the species, as well as a comparison of these results with previously published values for wild pelicans. No significant relationships were found between health variables and nestling sex or body condition; however, differences between colony sites and the presence of ectoparasites were detected. The inclusion of health assessments as a regular component of management programs for seabirds can provide data to better understand the effect to species of concern when drastic changes occur to the population and its environment.

  12. [Transgenic tobacco plants with ribosome inactivating protein gene cassin from Cassia occidentalis and their resistance to tobacco mosaic virus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Xiao-Lei; Liu, Li-Fang; Li, Hua-Ping

    2007-12-01

    Cassin, the new gene of ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) isolated from Cassia occidentalis, was inserted into expression vector pBI121 to produce plant expression vector pBI121-cassin (Figs.1, 2). pBI121-cassin was introduced into tobacco cultivar 'K326' by the Agrobacteriurm tumefaciens transformation method and more than 100 independent transformants were obtained. Southern blot hybridization analysis showed that a single gene locus was inserted into the chromosome of the transgenic tobacco lines (Fig.5) and PCR analysis of segregation population of progeny indicated that the inheritance of transgene was dominant in transgenic lines (Fig.4, Table 1). Results of RT-PCR and Northern blot hybridization analysis showed that transgene could be transcribed correctly (Figs.5, 6) . Three self-pollination lines of transgenic T(1) and T(2) were challenged with TMV at different concentration titers by mechanical inoculation. The transgenic lines exhibited different levels of resistance to TMV with the nontransgenic plants. After both titers of TMV concentration were inoculated, transgenic lines were considered as the highly resistant type with a delay of 4-13 d in development of symptoms and 10%-25% of test plants were infected, while nontransgenic control plants were susceptible typical symptoms on the newly emerged leaves (Table 2). One T(2) line, T(2)-8-2-1, was regarded as an immune type because it did not show any symptoms during 70 d and all plants were shown to be virus free by ELISA tests.

  13. Comparison of the cytotoxic effects of Juniperus sabina and Zataria multiflora extracts with Taxus baccata extract and Cisplatin on normal and cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokrzadeh, M.; Azadbakht, M.; Ahangar, N.; Naderi, H.; Saeedi Saravi, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    Isolation and identification of some potent anti-tumor compounds from medicinal plants has motivated researchers to screen different parts of plant species for the determination of anti-tumor effects. In this study, cytotoxic effects and IC50 of specific concentrations of hydro-alcoholic extracts of fruits of Juniperus sabina and leaves of Zataria multiflora were compared with hydro-alcoholic extract of bark of Taxus baccata and Cisplatin, well-known anticancer compounds, on normal (CHO and rat fibroblast) and cancer (HepG2 and SKOV3) cell lines. The hydro-alcoholic extracts of the plants were prepared by percolation. The cytotoxic effects and IC50 of the extracts on the cell lines were studied followed by colonogenic assay after 72 h incubation. The results showed that the extract of Juniperus sabina possesses lower IC50 in comparison with Zataria multiflora extract on all 4 normal and cancer cell lines (PJuniperus sabina extract was significantly higher than the Taxus baccata extract and Cisplatin on all 4 normal and cancer cell lines (P<0.05). As a result, it is concluded that the extract of J. sabina has almost similar cytotoxicity with the extract of Taxus baccata on cancer cells. PMID:20668574

  14. Effects of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus on tissue lipid peroxidation, trace elements (Cu, Zn, Fe) and blood glucose levels in experimental diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orhan, Nilüfer; Berkkan, Aysel; Deliorman Orhan, Didem; Aslan, Mustafa; Ergun, Fatma

    2011-01-27

    Juniperus oxycedrus L. (Cupressaceae) fruits and leaves are used internally and pounded fruits are eaten for diabetes in Turkey. To evaluate the interrelationships between the levels of chosen trace elements (copper, iron, and zinc) and hepatic, renal lipid peroxidation (TBARS) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus (J.o.s.o.) leaf and fruit extracts for 10 days. J.o.s.o. fruit and leaf extracts were administered in STZ-induced diabetic rats, at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg. The blood glucose levels were measured in the 1st, 4th, 7th and 10th day of experiment. Fe, Cu, and Zn contents and lipid peroxidation levels of liver and kidney tissues were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and ultraviolet spectrophotometry, respectively. Treatment of diabetic rats with the J.o.s.o. fruit and leaf extracts decreased the blood glucose levels and both the levels of lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney tissues. J.o.s.o. extracts have augmented Zn concentrations in liver of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results indicated that J.o.s.o. fruit and leaf extracts might be beneficial for diabetes and its complications. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigating uranium distribution in surface sediments and waters: a case study of contamination from the Juniper Uranium Mine, Stanislaus National Forest, CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayzar, Theresa M; Villa, Adam C; Lobaugh, Megan L; Gaffney, Amy M; Williams, Ross W

    2014-10-01

    The uranium concentrations and isotopic compositions of waters, sediment leachates and sediments from Red Rock Creek in the Stanislaus National Forest of California were measured to investigate the transport of uranium from a point source (the Juniper Uranium Mine) to a natural surface stream environment. The ((234)U)/((238)U) composition of Red Rock Creek is altered downstream of the Juniper Mine. As a result of mine-derived contamination, water ((234)U)/((238)U) ratios are 67% lower than in water upstream of the mine (1.114-1.127 ± 0.009 in the contaminated waters versus 1.676 in the clean branch of the stream), and sediment samples have activity ratios in equilibrium in the clean creek and out of equilibrium in the contaminated creek (1.041-1.102 ± 0.007). Uranium concentrations in water, sediment and sediment leachates are highest downstream of the mine, but decrease rapidly after mixing with the clean branch of the stream. Uranium content and compositions of the contaminated creek headwaters relative to the mine tailings of the Juniper Mine suggest that uranium has been weathered from the mine and deposited in the creek. The distribution of uranium between sediment surfaces (leachable fraction) and bulk sediment suggests that adsorption is a key element of transfer along the creek. In clean creek samples, uranium is concentrated in the sediment residues, whereas in the contaminated creek, uranium is concentrated on the sediment surfaces (∼70-80% of uranium in leachable fraction). Contamination only exceeds the EPA maximum contaminant level (MCL) for drinking water in the sample with the closest proximity to the mine. Isotopic characterization of the uranium in this system coupled with concentration measurements suggest that the current state of contamination in Red Rock Creek is best described by mixing between the clean creek and contaminated upper branch of Red Rock Creek rather than mixing directly with mine sediment.

  16. Consequences of Widespread Piñon Mortality for Water Availability and Water Use Dynamics in Piñon-Juniper Woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas, L.; Pangle, R. E.; Krofcheck, D. J.; Pockman, W.; Litvak, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Tree die-off events have showed a rapid increase in the last decade as a result of warmer temperatures and more severe drought. In the southwestern US, where piñon-juniper (PJ) woodlands occupy 24 million ha, the turn of the century drought (1999-2002) triggered 40-95% mortality of piñon pine (Pinus edulis) and 2-25% mortality of juniper (Juniperous monosperma). To determine the consequences of this disturbance on surface water balance we conducted a girdling experiment where all piñon trees above 7 cm of diameter at breast height in an area of 200 m2 were girdled in September 2009. We compared water and energy fluxes in this girdled site (PJG) using open-path eddy covariance (EC) to fluxes measured simultaneously in an intact PJ woodland less than 3 km away (PJC). In addition to evapotranspiration (ET) measurements from EC, canopy transpiration (ETc) was measured using sap flow probes (Granier thermal dissipation method) installed on five juniper and five piñon trees at each site. Soil water content (SWC) was also monitored using TDR probes (CS610, Campbell Scientific) under the three main cover types ( bare soil, under juniper and under piñon) and at three depths (5,10 and 30 cm depths) in both sites. Total ET at PJG decreased slowly, but progressively, relative to PJC following the girdling, with annual ET 5%, 10% and 19% lower in 2010, 2011 and 2012, respectively, in the girdled site. Following the girdling, canopy transpiration was significantly reduced at PJG, with an observed reduction of annual ETc at PJG of 45%, 59% and 71% from 2010 to 2012 compared to the PJC site. Our results suggest that girdling triggered a significant increase of soil evaporation and understory transpiration (not directly measured) as a result of canopy cover loss. This agrees with significant higher establishment of annual forbs seen at PJG relative to PJC and the increase of solar radiation reaching the soil surface as a result of canopy cover loss. Our results suggest pi

  17. Environmental Monitoring Supported by Aerial Photography – a Case Study of the Burnt Down Bugac Juniper Forest, Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szatmári József

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Wildfire poses a serious risk in several regions of the world threatening urban, agricultural areas and natural ecosystems as well. Nature conservation has important role to be prepared for the management of postfire environmental degradation and restoration for protected areas preserving valuable ecosystems. The improving temporal and spatial resolution of remote sensing and GIS methods significantly contributes to map the changes for accelerating management steps of restoration. In this study a severe wildfire and its impacts were assessed in case of a protected area of the Kiskunság National Park in Hungary, which was partly burnt down in 2012. The aim of this research was to efficiently and accurately assess the damages and to plan and execute the restoration works using remote sensing tools. Aerial data collection was performed one month, and one year after the fire. In 2014 the regenerated vegetation was surveyed and mapped in the field. Using the aerial photographs and the field data, the degree and extent of the fire damages, the types and the state of the vegetation and the presence and proportion of the invasive species were determined. Semi-automatic methods were used for the classification of completely, partially damaged and undamaged areas. Based on the results, the reforestation of the burnt area is suggested to prevent the overspreading of white poplar against common junipers and to clean the area from the most frequent invasive species. To monitor the regeneration of the vegetation and the spreading of the invasive species, further aerial photography and field campaigns are planned.

  18. Water limitations on forest carbon cycling and conifer traits along a steep climatic gradient in the Cascade Mountains, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, L. T.; Law, B. E.

    2015-11-01

    Severe droughts occurred in the western United States during recent decades, and continued human greenhouse gas emissions are expected to exacerbate warming and drying in this region. We investigated the role of water availability in shaping forest carbon cycling and morphological traits in the eastern Cascade Mountains, Oregon, focusing on the transition from low-elevation, dry western juniper (Juniperus occidentalis) woodlands to higher-elevation, wetter ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and grand fir (Abies grandis) forests. We examined 12 sites in mature forests that spanned a 1300 mm yr-1 gradient in mean growing-year climate moisture index (CMIgy ), computed annually (1964 to 2013) as monthly precipitation minus reference evapotranspiration and summed October to September. Maximum leaf area, annual aboveground productivity, and aboveground live tree biomass increased with CMIgy (r2 = 0.67-0.88, P gy (r2 = 0.53, P gy and extensive insect outbreak. Traits of stress-tolerant juniper included short stature, high wood density for cavitation resistance, and high investment in water transport relative to leaf area. Species occupying wetter areas invested more resources in height growth in response to competition for light relative to investment in hydraulic architecture. Consequently, maximum tree height, leaf area : sapwood area ratio, and stem wood density were all correlated with CMIgy . The tight coupling of forest carbon cycling and species traits with water availability suggests that warmer and drier conditions projected for the 21st century could have significant biogeochemical, ecological, and social consequences in the Pacific Northwest.

  19. 提高桧柏成活率关键技术措施%Key Technology for Upgrading Survival Rate of Juniper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    化荣; 顾跃龙; 张月钦

    2012-01-01

    宁夏气候条件恶劣,春季干旱少雨,风沙大,夏季高温干燥,年降水量少,土壤盐碱化程度高。桧柏苗木在移栽时,往往因移植方法不当导致成活率低,不能达到预期的生态景观效果。结合多年的实践经验及在宁夏发电集团新能源研究所绿化施工中的技术总结,摸索出了一些适合宁夏地区提高桧柏成活率的关键技术措施。%The climate conditions in Ningxia are very bad. It is droughty and sandy with little rain in Spring and dry with high temperature in Summer. The annual average precipitation is little and the soil salinization is severe. The survival rate transplantation methods of juniper seedlings was usually low which couldn't achieve expected ecological landscape effect. Based on years of practical experiences and the technological summarization of the greening works at Ningxia Power Generation Group New Energy Institute, some key technology suitable for upgrading the survival rate of juniper in Ningxia area were found out.

  20. Evaluation of Thr(6)-bradykinin purified from Polybia occidentalis wasp venom in the choline uptake of mammal cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortari, Márcia Renata; Cunha, Alexandra Olimpio Siqueira; Carolino, Ruither Oliveira Gomes; Silva, Juliana de Castro E; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Santos, Wagner Ferreira Dos

    2016-12-01

    Thr(6)-bradykinin is a peptide found in the venom of social and solitary wasps. This kinin, along with other bradykinin-like peptides, is known to cause irreversible paralysis in insects by presynaptic blockade of cholinergic transmission. However, this activity has never been tested in mammals. As such, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of Thr(6)-bradykinin on the cholinergic system of rats. The peptide was isolated from the venom of the Neotropical social wasp Polybia occidentalis Olivier (Vespidae). After correct identification and quantification by ESI-MS and MS/MS, the peptide was tested in [(14)C]-choline uptake using rat cortical synaptosomes. Each uptake assay was accompanied by lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) activity measurement to evaluate synaptosome integrity in the presence of six increasing concentrations of BK or Thr(6)-BK (0.039, 0.156, 0.625, 2.500, 10.000 and 40.000 μM). Data revealed that neither BK nor Thr(6)-BK at any of the six concentrations tested (from 0.039 to 40.000 μM) affected [(14)C]-choline uptake in synaptosomes. Moreover, there was no increase in LDH in the supernatants, indicating that BK and Thr(6)-BK did not disrupt the synaptosomes. In contrast to previous reports for the insect central nervous system (CNS), Thr(6)-BK had no effect on mammalian cholinergic transmission. Nevertheless, this selectivity for the insect CNS, combined with its irreversible mode of action may be relevant to the discovery of new sources of insecticides and could contribute to understanding the role of kinins in the mammalian CNS.