WorldWideScience

Sample records for junior rugby union

  1. Star Excursion Balance Test performance and application in elite junior rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Garrett F; Delahunt, Eamonn; O'Sullivan, Eoghan; Fullam, Karl; Green, Brian S; Caulfield, Brian M

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate performance on selected reach directions of the Start Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) in an elite underage rugby union population, and determine if differences exist between the forward and back position units. This information may have implications for the application of this test in player injury prevention and management. Descriptive study. Gymnasium at an elite junior rugby union screening camp. 102 healthy male elite rugby union players (age = 17.9 ± 1.1 years, height = 1.83 ± 0.07 m, body mass = 90.5 ± 11.3 kg). Participants were assessed on the Anterior (A), Posterior-medial (PM), and Posterior-lateral (PL) reach directions of the SEBT. Normative data for SEBT performance in the A, PM and PL reach directions were established for an elite junior rugby union population. No significant differences in dynamic postural stability were observed between the forward and back position units. This study provides normative SEBT data on an elite junior rugby union population, which enables clinicians to compare player dynamic postural stability and has implications for use in the prevention and management of player injuries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A Review of the Anthropometric Characteristics, Grading and Dispensation of Junior and Youth Rugby Union Players in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Declan Alexander; McIntosh, Andrew Stuart; Denny, Greg

    2016-08-01

    The grading of Australian junior and youth rugby union players has received substantial media attention in recent years. Media reports have focussed on size mismatches observed between players, especially players with Polynesian heritage, and the concerned parents who fear for the safety of their child owing to perceived mismatches. Although such concerns are well meaning, few media reports recognise the need for substantial evidence to determine the best grading system for junior and youth rugby union players. The current study reviewed relevant literature pertinent to the grading and dispensation of junior and youth rugby union players. Using primary and secondary search strategies, a total of 33 articles reporting the anthropometric characteristics of junior and youth rugby players were identified. Anthropometric data from the literature were compared with normative population data and currently used dispensation criteria. Junior and youth rugby players were found to be taller and heavier than normative population data. Current dispensation criteria, in terms of body mass, were found to vary and it is suggested that criteria be revised and standardised across rugby unions throughout Australia. Although it is acknowledged that other factors are important for grading players, anthropometric characteristics should be considered as potential dispensation criteria to supplement current age-based grading for junior and youth rugby union players. Measuring the body mass and stature of each junior player upon pre-season registration is suggested, which would provide data to establish valid dispensation criteria for the following season.

  3. Lower-extremity isokinetic strength profiling in professional rugby league and rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott R; Brughelli, Matt; Griffiths, Peter C; Cronin, John B

    2014-03-01

    While several studies have documented isokinetic knee strength in junior and senior rugby league players, investigations of isokinetic knee and hip strength in professional rugby union players are limited. The purpose of this study was to provide lower-extremity strength profiles and compare isokinetic knee and hip strength of professional rugby league and rugby union players. 32 professional rugby league and 25 professional rugby union players. Cross-sectional analysis. Isokinetic dynamometry was used to evaluate peak torque and strength ratios of the dominant and nondominant legs during seated knee-extension/ flexion and supine hip-extension/flexion actions at 60°/s. Forwards from both codes were taller and heavier and had a higher body-mass index than the backs of each code. Rugby union forwards produced significantly (P rugby league forwards. Rugby league backs produced significantly greater hip-extension peak torque in the dominant and nondominant legs (ES = 0.83 and 0.77) compared with rugby union backs. There were no significant differences in hamstring-to-quadriceps ratios between code, position, or leg. Rugby union forwards and backs produced significantly greater knee-flexion-to-hip-extension ratios in the dominant and nondominant legs (ES = 1.49-2.26) than rugby union players. It seems that the joint torque profiles of players from rugby league and union codes differ, which may be attributed to the different demands of each code.

  4. Similar head impact acceleration measured using instrumented ear patches in a junior rugby union team during matches in comparison with other sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Doug A; Hume, Patria A; Gissane, Conor; Clark, Trevor N

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Direct impact with the head and the inertial loading of the head have been postulated as major mechanisms of head-related injuries, such as concussion. METHODS This descriptive observational study was conducted to quantify the head impact acceleration characteristics in under-9-year-old junior rugby union players in New Zealand. The impact magnitude, frequency, and location were collected with a wireless head impact sensor that was worn by 14 junior rugby players who participated in 4 matches. RESULTS A total of 721 impacts > 10g were recorded. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) number of impacts per player was 46 (IQR 37-58), resulting in 10 (IQR 4-18) impacts to the head per player per match. The median impact magnitudes recorded were 15g (IQR 12g-21g) for linear acceleration and 2296 rad/sec(2) (IQR 1352-4152 rad/sec(2)) for rotational acceleration. CONCLUSIONS There were 121 impacts (16.8%) above the rotational injury risk limit and 1 (0.1%) impact above the linear injury risk limit. The acceleration magnitude and number of head impacts in junior rugby union players were higher than those previously reported in similar age-group sports participants. The median linear acceleration for the under-9-year-old rugby players were similar to 7- to 8-year-old American football players, but lower than 9- to 12-year-old youth American football players. The median rotational accelerations measured were higher than the median and 95th percentiles in youth, high school, and collegiate American football players.

  5. Do force-time and power-time measures in a loaded jump squat differentiate between speed performance and playing level in elite and elite junior rugby union players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Keir T; Cronin, John B; Pickering, Stuart L; Douglas, Lee

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the discriminative ability of rebound jump squat force-time and power-time measures in differentiating speed performance and competition level in elite and elite junior rugby union players. Forty professional rugby union players performed 3 rebound jump squats with an external load of 40 kg from which a number of force-time and power-time variables were acquired and analyzed. Additionally, players performed 3 sprints over 30 m with timing gates at 5, 10, and 30 m. Significant differences (p rugby union players; however, a number of force and power variables including peak force, PP, force at 100 milliseconds from minimum force, and force and impulse 200 milliseconds from minimum force were significantly (p rugby union players. For speed development in rugby union players, training strategies should aim to optimize the athlete's power to weight ratio, and lower body resistance training should focus on movement velocity. For player development to transition elite junior players to elite status, adding lean mass is likely to be most beneficial.

  6. Increasing mouthguards usage among junior rugby and basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalleh, G; Donovan, R J; Clarkson, J; March, K; Foster, M; Giles-Corti, B

    2001-06-01

    To evaluate a Western Australian mouthguard promotion campaign, launched at the start of the 1997/98 junior rugby union and junior basketball seasons, aimed at increasing mouthguard usage at competition and training. A quasi-experimental field design was used to assess the impact of the mouthguard campaign on behavioural change. Observational data were collected pre- and post-campaign on mouthguard usage by players present at a rugby and basketball competition event and at a training session. Junior Australian Rules Football players were used as a control group. Pre-post observational surveys showed a significantly greater increase in mouthguard usage in competition games among rugby union (77% to 84%) and basketball players (23% to 43%) compared with the control group (72% to 73%). All codes showed a post-campaign increase in mouthguard usage at training, but the intervention codes' increases were greater than the control's increase (rugby union: 29% to 40%; basketball: 11% to 36%; football: 34% to 40%). The campaign had a significant and substantial effect on behaviour and provides evidence of the benefits of leveraging a sponsorship to modify the behaviour of the target group. This campaign provides a model for promoting mouthguard usage in other sports among junior players.

  7. Epidemiology of concussion in men's elite Rugby-7s (Sevens World Series) and Rugby-15s (Rugby World Cup, Junior World Championship and Rugby Trophy, Pacific Nations Cup and English Premiership).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W; Taylor, Aileen; Raftery, Martin

    2015-04-01

    To determine the incidence, nature and causes of concussions sustained during men's elite professional Rugby-7s and Rugby-15s. A prospective cohort study recording injuries classified as a time-loss concussion. Players competing in the following tournaments: Rugby 15s-English Premiership (2007/2008 to 2010/2011), Rugby World Cup (2007, 2011), Pacific Nations Cup (2012, 2013), Junior World Championship (2008, 2010-2013), Junior World Rugby Trophy (2008, 2010-2013); Rugby 7s-Sevens World Series (2008/2009, 2010/2011 to 2012/2013). The study was implemented according to the international consensus statement for epidemiological studies in rugby union; the main outcome measures included the number, incidence (number of concussions/1000 player-match-hours), mean and median severity (days absence) and cause of concussion. The incidence of concussion in Rugby-7s was significantly higher than that in Rugby-15s (risk ratio=1.84; pRugby-7s than Rugby-15s (mean-Rugby-7s: 19.2, Rugby-15s: 10.1; median-Rugby 7s: 20, Rugby-15s: 7; pRugby-7s and collisions (43.6%) in Rugby-15s. Significantly more (risk ratio=1.49; p=0.004) concussed players were removed immediately from the game in Rugby-7s (69.7%) compared to Rugby-15s (46.7%). Six actions were identified to improve the management of concussion in rugby: implement a pitch-side concussion assessment protocol; improve compliance with return-to-play protocols; work with referees to review the nature and consequences of collisions; improve players' tackle technique; investigate the forces involved in tackles and collisions; and evaluate reasons for the higher incidence of concussions in Rugby-7s. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Epidemiological Review of Injuries in Rugby Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Kaux

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rugby is a sport that is growing in popularity. A contact sport par excellence, it causes a significant number of injuries. In Rugby Union, there are 30 to 91 injuries per 1000 match hours. This epidemiological review of injuries incurred by rugby players mentions the position and type of injuries, the causes, time during the match and season in which they occur and the players’ positions as well as the length of players’ absences following the injury.

  9. Mechanical Properties of Sprinting in Elite Rugby Union and Rugby League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Matt R; Brughelli, Matt; Brown, Scott R; Samozino, Pierre; Gill, Nicholas D; Cronin, John B; Morin, Jean-Benoît

    2015-09-01

    To compare mechanical properties of overground sprint running in elite rugby union and rugby league athletes. Thirty elite rugby code (15 rugby union and 15 rugby league) athletes participated in this cross-sectional analysis. Radar was used to measure maximal overground sprint performance over 20 or 30 m (forwards and backs, respectively). In addition to time at 2, 5, 10, 20, and 30 m, velocity-time signals were analyzed to derive external horizontal force-velocity relationships with a recently validated method. From this relationship, the maximal theoretical velocity, external relative and absolute horizontal force, horizontal power, and optimal horizontal force for peak power production were determined. While differences in maximal velocity were unclear between codes, rugby union backs produced moderately faster split times, with the most substantial differences occurring at 2 and 5 m (ES 0.95 and 0.86, respectively). In addition, rugby union backs produced moderately larger relative horizontal force, optimal force, and peak power capabilities than rugby league backs (ES 0.73-0.77). Rugby union forwards had a higher absolute force (ES 0.77) despite having ~12% more body weight than rugby league forwards. In this elite sample, rugby union athletes typically displayed greater short-distance sprint performance, which may be linked to an ability to generate high levels of horizontal force and power. The acceleration characteristics presented in this study could be a result of the individual movement and positional demands of each code.

  10. Injury Risk in International Rugby Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Isabel S.; Ranson, Craig; Mathema, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Background: Within international Rugby Union, only injury rates during the Rugby World Cup have been reported. Therefore, injury rates and types during other international tournaments are unknown. Purpose: To assess the 3-year incidence, severity, nature, and causes of match and training injuries sustained during different international tournaments played by the Welsh national Rugby Union team. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Injury data for all players (n = 78) selected for 1 national Rugby Union team over a 3-year period were analyzed using the international consensus statement methods. Player height (cm) and mass (kg) were recorded. Tournaments were grouped for comparisons as: autumn tournaments (2012 and 2013), Rugby World Cup (RWC; 2011), Six Nations (2012, 2013, and 2014), and summer tournaments (2012, 2013, and 2014). Injury incidence (injuries/1000 hours), prevalence (% of players unavailable), and severity (days lost) were calculated for each tournament. Injury location, type, and cause of match and training injuries were analyzed. Results: Match injury incidence was highest during autumn tournaments (262.5/1000 match-hours) and lowest during the RWC (178.6/1000 match-hours). Summer tournaments had the highest training incidence (5.5 injuries/1000 training-hours). Mild injuries were most likely during the RWC (risk ratio [RR], 2.02; 95% CI, 1.26-3.24), while severe injuries were most likely during autumn tournaments (RR, 3.27; 95% CI, 1.70-6.29). Quadriceps hematomas (18.8/1000 match-hours; 95% CI, 11.3-31.1) and concussions (13.8/1000 match-hours; 95% CI, 7.6-24.8) were the most common match injuries, with shoulder dislocations being the most severe (111 mean days lost per injury). Conclusion: Injury rates were considerably higher than those previously reported for multiple teams during RWC tournaments. Further investigation of injury rates and risk factors is recommended to accurately gauge their impact within international Rugby

  11. Evaluation of RugbySmart: a rugby union community injury prevention programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, Simon M; Quarrie, Ken L; Hume, Patria A

    2009-05-01

    RugbySmart, a rugby union injury prevention programme, was launched in New Zealand in 2001. It was compulsory for all coaches and referees to complete RugbySmart requirements annually in order to continue coaching or refereeing. After 5 years of implementation the programme partners, Accident Compensation Corporation and New Zealand Rugby Union, evaluated RugbySmart to determine its effectiveness in reducing injuries. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of RugbySmart on reducing injury rates per 100,000 players and resulting injury prevention behaviours. The RugbySmart programme was associated with a decrease in injury claims per 100,000 players in most areas the programme targeted; the programme had negligible impact on non-targeted injury sites. The decrease in injury claims numbers was supported by results from the player behaviour surveys pre- and post-RugbySmart. There was an increase in safe behaviour in the contact situations of tackle, scrum and ruck technique.

  12. Injury trends and prevention in rugby union football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, Amy E; Dexter, William W

    2010-01-01

    Rugby union football has long been one of the most popular sports in the world. Its popularity and number of participants continue to increase in the United States. Until 1995, rugby union primarily was an amateur sport. Worldwide there are now flourishing professional leagues in many countries, and after a long absence, rugby union will be returning to the Olympic games in 2016. In the United States, rugby participation continues to increase, particularly at the collegiate and high school levels. With the increase in rugby professional athletes and the reported increase in aggressive play, there have been changes to the injury patterns in the sport. There is still significant need for further epidemiologic data as there is evidence that injury prevention programs and rule changes have been successful in decreasing the number of catastrophic injuries in rugby union.

  13. Concussion in youth rugby union and rugby league: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Graham; Parekh, Nikesh; Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Pollock, Allyson M

    2015-04-01

    Children and adolescents who play rugby are at increased risk of concussion and its effects. Competitive rugby union and rugby league feature as major sports in the school sport curriculum in the UK. There is a need for a thorough understanding of the epidemiology of concussion in youth rugby, the mechanisms involved in injuries and predisposing risk factors. The publication databases Pubmed, Embase and SportDISCUS were searched in April 2014 for primary research studies of child and adolescent rugby union and rugby league (under 20 years) in English language with data on concussion injuries. The review was conducted within a larger all injury systematic review on rugby union and rugby league where key words used in the search included rugby, injury and concussion with child, adolescent, paediatric and youth. There were 25 studies retrieved with data on child or adolescent rugby and concussion, 20 were on rugby union, three on rugby league and in two the code of rugby was unspecified. There was significant heterogeneity in the definitions of injuries and of concussion. The incidence of child and adolescent match concussion ranged from 0.2 to 6.9 concussions per 1000 player-hours for rugby union and was 4.6 and 14.7 concussions per 1000 player-hours for rugby league, equivalent to a probability of between 0.3% and 11.4% for rugby union and of 7.7% and 22.7% for rugby league. There is a significant risk of concussion in children and adolescents playing rugby union and rugby league evident from the studies included in this systematic review. There is a need for reliable data through routine monitoring and reporting in schools and clubs and in hospital emergency departments in order to inform prevention. Concussion protocols should be implemented and tested. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Genomics in rugby union: A review and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Shane M; Kilduff, Liam P; Day, Stephen H; Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Williams, Alun G

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces some aspects of sports genomics in a rugby union context, considers the rugby-specific genetic data in the published literature and outlines the next research steps required if the potential applications of genetic technology in rugby union, also identified here, are to become possible. A substantial proportion of the inter-individual variation for many traits related to rugby performance, including strength, short-term muscle power, VO2 max, injury susceptibility and the likelihood of being an elite athlete is inherited and can be investigated using molecular genetic techniques. In sports genomics, significant efforts have been made in recent years to develop large DNA biobanks of elite athletes for detailed exploration of the heritable bases of those traits. However, little effort has been devoted to the study of rugby athletes, and most of the little research that has focused on rugby was conducted with small cohorts of non-elite players. With steadily growing knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underpinning complex performance traits and the aetiology of injury, investigating sports genomics in the context of rugby is now a viable proposition and a worthwhile endeavour. The RugbyGene project we describe briefly in this article is a multi-institutional research collaboration in rugby union that will perform molecular genetic analyses of varying complexity. Genetic tests could become useful tools for rugby practitioners in the future and provide complementary and additional information to that provided by the non-genetic tests currently used.

  15. The Epidemiology of Injuries in Australian Professional Rugby Union 2014 Super Rugby Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Timothy; Orr, Robin; Fitzgerald, Edward; Harries, Simon; McLellan, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rugby union is a collision-based ball sport played at the professional level internationally. Rugby union has one of the highest reported incidences of injury of all team sports. Purpose: To identify the characteristics, incidence, and severity of injuries occurring in Australian professional Super Rugby Union. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: The present study was a prospective epidemiology study on a cohort of 180 professional players from 5 Australian Super Rugby teams during the 2014 Super Rugby Union Tournament. Team medical staff collected and submitted daily training and match-play injury data through a secure, web-based electronic platform. The injury data included the main anatomic location of the injury, specific anatomic structure of the injury, injury diagnosis, training or match injury occurrence, main player position, mechanism of injury, and the severity of the injury quantified based on the number of days lost from training and/or competition due to injury. Results: The total combined incidence rate for injury during training and match-play across all Australian Super Rugby Union teams was 6.96 per 1000 hours, with a mean injury severity of 37.45 days lost from training and competition. The match-play injury incidence rate was 66.07 per 1000 hours, with a mean severity of 39.80 days lost from training and competition. No significant differences were observed between forward- and back-playing positions for match or training injury incidence rate or severity. Conclusion: The incidence of injury for the present study was lower during match-play than has previously been reported in professional rugby union; however, the overall time loss was higher compared with previous studies in professional rugby union. The high overall time loss was due fundamentally to a high incidence of injuries with greater than 28 days’ severity. PMID:27069947

  16. Understanding mismatches in body size, speed and power among adolescent rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Lyndon M; Naughton, Geraldine A; Denny, Greg; Patton, Declan; Hartwig, Tim; Gabbett, Tim J

    2015-05-01

    With adolescent sport increasingly challenged by mismatches in size, new strategies are important to maximize participation. The objectives were to (1) improve the understanding of mismatches in physical size, speed and power in adolescent rugby union players, (2) explore associations between size and performance with demographic, playing-history, and injury profiles, and (3) explore the applicability of existing criteria for age/body mass-based dispensation (playing-down) strategies. Cross-sectional study. Four hundred and eighty-five male community rugby union players were recruited from three Australian states selected to represent community-based U12, U13, U14 and U15 players. Body mass, stature, speed (10, 30, and 40 m sprints) and lower-leg power (relative peak power and relative peak force) were measured. Independent student t-tests, linear regressions and Chi square analyses were undertaken. Mean values in age groups for size, speed and power masked considerable overlap in the ranges within specific age groups of adolescent rugby players. Only a small proportion of players (approximately 5%) shared the highest and lowest tertiles for speed, relative peak power and body mass. Physical size was not related to injury. The mean body mass of current community rugby union players was above the 75th percentile on normative growth-charts. The notion that bigger, faster, and more powerful characteristics occur simultaneously in adolescent rugby players was not supported in the present study. Current practices in body mass-based criteria for playing down an age group lack a sufficient evidence for decision-making. Dispensation solely based on body mass may not address mismatch in junior rugby union. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The kinetics of rugby union scrummaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, P D

    1990-01-01

    Two rugby union forward packs of differing ability levels were examined during scrummaging against an instrumented scrum machine. By systematically moving the front-row of the scrum along the scrum machine, kinetic data on each front-row forward could be obtained under all test conditions. Each forward pack was tested under the following scrummaging combinations: front-row only; front-row plus second-row; full scrum minus side-row, and full scrum. Data obtained from each scrum included the three orthogonal components of force at engagement and the sustained force applied by each front-row player. An estimate of sub-unit contributions was made by subtracting the total forward force on all three front-row players from the total for the complete scrum. Results indicated the primary role of the second-row appeared to be application of forward force. The back-row ('number eight') forward did not substantially contribute any additional forward force, and added only slightly to the lateral and vertical shear force experienced by the front-row. The side-row contributed an additional 20-27% to the forward force, but at the expense of increased vertical forces on all front-row forwards. Results of this investigation are discussed in relation to rule modification, rule interpretation and coaching.

  18. Distribution of fat, non-osseous lean and bone mineral mass in international Rugby Union and Rugby Sevens players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, D G; Pyne, D B; Anson, J M; Dziedzic, C E; Slater, G J

    2014-06-01

    Differences in the body composition of international Rugby Union and Rugby Sevens players, and between players of different positions are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the quantity and regional distribution of fat, non-osseous lean and bone mineral mass between playing units in Rugby Union and Rugby Sevens. Male Rugby Union (n=21 forwards, 17 backs) and Rugby Sevens (n=11 forwards, 16 backs) players from the Australian national squads were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The digital image of each player was partitioned into anatomical regions including the arms, legs, trunk, and android and gynoid regions. Compared with backs, forwards in each squad were heavier and exhibited higher absolute regional fat (Union 43-67%; ±~17%, range of % differences; ±~95% confidence limits (CL); Sevens 20-26%; ±~29%), non-osseous lean (Union 14-22%; ±~5.8%; Sevens 6.9-8.4%; ±~6.6%) and bone mineral (Union 12-26%; ±~7.2%; Sevens 5.0-11%; ±~7.2%) mass. When tissue mass was expressed relative to regional mass, differences between Rugby Sevens forwards and backs were mostly unclear. Rugby Union forwards had higher relative fat mass (1.7-4.7%; ±~1.9%, range of differences; ±~95% CL) and lower relative non-osseous lean mass (-4.2 to -1.8%; ±~1.8%) than backs in all body regions. Competing in Rugby Union or Rugby Sevens characterized the distribution of fat and non-osseous lean mass to a greater extent than a player's positional group, whereas the distribution of bone mineral mass was associated more with a player's position. Differences in the quantity and distribution of tissues appear to be related to positional roles and specific demands of competition in Rugby Union and Rugby Sevens.

  19. Trainability of junior Rugby Union players

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    adolescence, and to optimise training adaptation for the child to reach his/her full ... developmental stages for sport have received some review.1-5 In particular, the ..... Malina R. Physical growth and biological maturation of young athletes.

  20. Prevalence of and Attitudes about Concussion in Irish Schools' Rugby Union Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahunty, Sinéad E.; Delahunt, Eamonn; Condon, Brian; Toomey, David; Blake, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Youth rugby players represent 45.2% (N?=?69,472) of the Irish rugby union playing population. The risk and consequences of concussion injury are of particular concern in these young athletes, but limited epidemiological data exists. This study investigated annual and lifetime prevalence of concussion in an Irish schoolboy rugby union…

  1. Prevalence of and Attitudes about Concussion in Irish Schools' Rugby Union Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahunty, Sinéad E.; Delahunt, Eamonn; Condon, Brian; Toomey, David; Blake, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Youth rugby players represent 45.2% (N?=?69,472) of the Irish rugby union playing population. The risk and consequences of concussion injury are of particular concern in these young athletes, but limited epidemiological data exists. This study investigated annual and lifetime prevalence of concussion in an Irish schoolboy rugby union…

  2. Prevalence of and Attitudes about Concussion in Irish Schools' Rugby Union Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahunty, Sinéad E.; Delahunt, Eamonn; Condon, Brian; Toomey, David; Blake, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Youth rugby players represent 45.2% (N?=?69,472) of the Irish rugby union playing population. The risk and consequences of concussion injury are of particular concern in these young athletes, but limited epidemiological data exists. This study investigated annual and lifetime prevalence of concussion in an Irish schoolboy rugby union…

  3. Running demands and heart rate response in rugby union referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Portillo, Luis J; García, Jose M; Calvo-Lluch, Africa; Roberts, Simon P; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the match physical demands and exercise intensity associated with men rugby union refereeing using global positioning system technology. Ten male rugby union referees (age, 37.1 ± 5.9 years; body mass, 83.7 ± 4.8 kg; height, 175.5 ± 6.2 cm) were analyzed 2-4 times during a total of 30 national level matches. The average total distance covered by the referees throughout the game was 6,322.2 ± 564.9 m. As a percentage of total distance, 37.3% (2,356.9 ± 291.3 m) was spent walking, 24.1% (1,524.4 ± 229.4 m) jogging, 10.4% (656.2 ± 130.7 m) running at low intensity, 17.6% (1,110.3 ± 212.2 m) at medium intensity, 5.5% (347.1 ± 27.1 m) at high intensity, and 5.2% (328.1 ± 230.3 m) at sprint. A significant decrease (p 0.05) in the first (157 ± 7 b · min; 85% HRmax) and second half (155 ± 7 b · min; 84% HRmax). This study provides evidence of reduced high-intensity running toward the end of the game. These findings offer important information to design better training strategies adapted to the requirements and demands of rugby union refereeing.

  4. Force production in the rugby union scrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrie, K L; Wilson, B D

    2000-04-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between anthropometric, strength and power characteristics of rugby forwards, their body position when scrummaging, and their ability to apply force when scrummaging. Force applied to an instrumented scrum machine was measured for 56 players, both individually and as scrum packs. Measurements of body position for individuals were made by digitizing videotape records of the trials. Forty players subsequently had their anthropometry assessed and completed several strength and power tests. Body mass, each component of somatotype, maximal anaerobic power developed on a cycle ergometer, and isokinetic knee extension strength correlated significantly with individual scrummaging force. A regression model (P scrum pack to develop technique and coordination as a unit to maximize scrummaging force.

  5. Evaluation of goal kicking performance in international rugby union matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrie, Kenneth L; Hopkins, Will G

    2015-03-01

    Goal kicking is an important element in rugby but has been the subject of minimal research. To develop and apply a method to describe the on-field pattern of goal-kicking and rank the goal kicking performance of players in international rugby union matches. Longitudinal observational study. A generalized linear mixed model was used to analyze goal-kicking performance in a sample of 582 international rugby matches played from 2002 to 2011. The model adjusted for kick distance, kick angle, a rating of the importance of each kick, and venue-related conditions. Overall, 72% of the 6769 kick attempts were successful. Forty-five percent of points scored during the matches resulted from goal kicks, and in 5.7% of the matches the result of the match hinged on the outcome of a kick attempt. There was an extremely large decrease in success with increasing distance (odds ratio for two SD distance 0.06, 90% confidence interval 0.05-0.07) and a small decrease with increasingly acute angle away from the mid-line of the goal posts (odds ratio for 2 SD angle, 0.44, 0.39-0.49). Differences between players were typically small (odds ratio for 2 between-player SD 0.53, 0.45-0.65). The generalized linear mixed model with its random-effect solutions provides a tool for ranking the performance of goal kickers in rugby. This modelling approach could be applied to other performance indicators in rugby and in other sports in which discrete outcomes are measured repeatedly on players or teams. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Impact of the national prevention policy and scrum law changes on the incidence of rugby-related catastrophic cervical spine injuries in French Rugby Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reboursiere, E; Bohu, Y; Retière, D; Sesboüé, B; Pineau, V; Colonna, J P; Hager, J P; Peyrin, J C; Piscione, J

    2016-07-25

    Catastrophic cervical spine injuries are rare in rugby union but require close monitoring. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence of severe cervical spine injuries and determine the impact of a national prevention programme and new scrum rules implemented by the French Rugby Union. A prospective study was performed between 2006 and 2013 including all players affiliated to the French Rugby Union. All cervical spine injuries resulting in death, tetraplegia or a permanent neurological deficit were included. Prevention programmes were implemented from 2007 to 2013 and a change in scrum rules in 2010. To measure the impact of rule changes, results between 2006-2010 and 2010-2013 were compared using a Poisson regression. Altogether, 31 injuries were observed and the mean annual incidence was 1.6 per 100 000 players. There were significantly more injuries in senior players compared to junior players (3.5 vs 0.6 per 100 000 players; CI 95% (2.1 to 4.9) vs (0.1 to 1.0)). Incidence decreased from 1.8 in 2006 to 1.0 per 100 000 players in 2013 (pscrums (p=0.02). In contrast, there were significantly more injuries in backs during 2010-2013 compared to 2006-2010 (p=0.003). The incidence of catastrophic cervical spine injuries has declined in French Rugby Union. The implementation of specific prevention programmes and scrum law changes has notably resulted in a decrease in scrum injuries in forwards. This prospective study should be continued to monitor the future progression of injuries and adapt prevention programmes accordingly. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. The movement characteristics of English Premiership rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Nicola; Lamb, Kevin; Worsfold, Paul; Headey, Roy; Murray, Stafford

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to quantify the movement characteristics of elite rugby union players during competitive play and identify whether position-related differences exist. Ninety-eight elite players from eight English Premiership Clubs were tracked using global positioning systems (GPS) during 44 competitive matches throughout the 2010/2011 season. Player positions were defined as: (1) backs or forwards; (2) front, second and back rows, scrum half, inside and outside backs; (3) 15 individual positions (numbers 1-15). Analysis revealed the game is predominantly played at low speeds with little distance covered 'sprinting' by either the backs (50 ± 76 m) or the forwards (37 ± 64 m). The backs travelled greater (P scrum half covered the greatest total distance during a match (7098 ± 778 m) and the front row the least (5158 ± 200 m). The back row covered the greatest distances at 'sprinting' speeds, particularly the number 8 position (77 m). These findings reflect notable differences in the movement characteristics displayed by elite rugby union players in specific positional roles, and reinforce the contemporary view that training programmes for such players ought to be structured with this in mind.

  8. Movement Demands of Elite U20 International Rugby Union Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawer, Scott; Eager, Robin; Taylor, Neil; Cook, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify movement demands of elite international age grade (U20) rugby union players during competitive tournament match play. Forty elite professional players from an U20 international performance squad were monitored using 10Hz global positioning systems (GPS) during 15 international tournament matches during the 2014/15 and 2015/16 seasons. Data on distances, velocities, accelerations, decelerations, high metabolic load (HML) distance and efforts, and number of sprints were derived. Data files from players who played over 60 min (n = 161) were separated firstly into Forwards and Backs, and more specifically into six positional groups; FR—Front Row (prop & hooker), SR—Second Row, BR—Back Row (Flankers & No.8), HB—Half Backs (scrum half & outside half), MF—Midfield (centres), B3 –Back Three (wings & full back) for match analysis. Analysis revealed significant differences between forwards and backs positions. Backs scored higher on all variables measured with the exception of number of moderate accelerations, decelerations (no difference). The centres covered the greatest total distance with the front row covering the least (6.51 ± 0.71 vs 4.97 ± 0.75 km, p rugby union players specific to positional roles. PMID:27055230

  9. Scrum injury risk in English professional rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Aileen E; Kemp, Simon; Trewartha, Grant; Stokes, Keith A

    2014-07-01

    To assess and evaluate the injury risk associated with the scrum in English professional rugby union in the 2011-2012 season. Prospective, cohort. Players at English Premiership rugby union clubs. Frequency of team scrum-events per match; incidence (injuries per 1000 player-hours; propensity (injuries/1000 events); risk (days absence per 1000 player-hours and days absence per 1000 events). 31% of scrums in competitive matches resulted in collapse. Injury incidence associated with collapsed scrum-events (incidence: 8.6 injuries/1000 scrum-events) was significantly higher than those scrums that did not collapse (incidence: 4.1/1000 scrum-events). The injury risk associated with collapsed scrum supports the continued focus on reducing scrum collapse through changes in, and strict application of, the laws surrounding the scrum. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. A new approach to quantifying physical demand in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacome, Mathieu; Piscione, Julien; Hager, Jean-Philippe; Bourdin, Muriel

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to describe an original approach to assessing individual workload during international rugby union competitions. The difference between positional groups and between the two halves was explored. Sixty-seven files from 30 French international rugby union players were assessed on a computerised player-tracking system (Amisco Pro(®), Sport Universal Process, Nice, France) during five international games. Each player's action was split up into exercise and recovery periods according to his individual velocity threshold. Exercise-to-recovery (E:R) period ratios and acceleration were calculated. Results indicated that about 65% of exercise periods lasted less than 4 s; half of the E:Rs were less than 1:4, and about one-third ranged between 1 and 1:4 and about 40% of exercise periods were classified as medium intensity. Most acceleration values were less than 3 m·s(-2) and started from standing or walking activity. Back row players showed the highest mean acceleration values over the game (P games except for back rows, who showed a significant decrease in mean acceleration (P < 0.05). The analysis of results emphasised the specific activity of back rows and tended to suggest that the players' combinations of action and recovery times were optimal for preventing large decrease in the physical performance.

  11. Consensus statement on injury definitions and data collection procedures for studies of injuries in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W; Molloy, Michael G; Bagate, Christian; Bahr, Roald; Brooks, John H M; Donson, Hilton; Kemp, Simon P T; McCrory, Paul; McIntosh, Andrew S; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Quarrie, Kenneth L; Raftery, Martin; Wiley, Preston

    2007-05-01

    Wide variations in the definitions and methodologies used for studies of injuries in rugby union have created inconsistencies in reported data and made interstudy comparisons of results difficult. The International Rugby Board established a Rugby Injury Consensus Group (RICG) to reach an agreement on the appropriate definitions and methodologies to standardise the recording of injuries and reporting of studies in rugby union. The RICG reviewed the consensus definitions and methodologies previously published for football (soccer) at a meeting in Dublin in order to assess their suitability for and application to rugby union. Following this meeting, iterative draft statements were prepared and circulated to members of the RICG for comment; a follow-up meeting was arranged in Dublin, at which time all definitions and procedures were finalised. At this stage, all authors confirmed their agreement with the consensus statement. The agreed document was presented to and approved by the International Rugby Board Council. Agreement was reached on definitions for injury, recurrent injury, non-fatal catastrophic injury, and training and match exposures, together with criteria for classifying injuries in terms of severity, location, type, diagnosis and causation. The definitions and methodology presented in this consensus statement for rugby union are similar to those proposed for football. Adoption of the proposals presented in this consensus statement should ensure that more consistent and comparable results will be obtained from studies of injuries within rugby union.

  12. Consensus statement on injury definitions and data collection procedures for studies of injuries in rugby union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W; Molloy, Michael G; Bagate, Christian; Bahr, Roald; Brooks, John H M; Donson, Hilton; Kemp, Simon P T; McCrory, Paul; McIntosh, Andrew S; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Quarrie, Kenneth L; Raftery, Martin; Wiley, Preston

    2007-01-01

    Wide variations in the definitions and methodologies used for studies of injuries in rugby union have created inconsistencies in reported data and made interstudy comparisons of results difficult. The International Rugby Board established a Rugby Injury Consensus Group (RICG) to reach an agreement on the appropriate definitions and methodologies to standardise the recording of injuries and reporting of studies in rugby union. The RICG reviewed the consensus definitions and methodologies previously published for football (soccer) at a meeting in Dublin in order to assess their suitability for and application to rugby union. Following this meeting, iterative draft statements were prepared and circulated to members of the RICG for comment; a follow‐up meeting was arranged in Dublin, at which time all definitions and procedures were finalised. At this stage, all authors confirmed their agreement with the consensus statement. The agreed document was presented to and approved by the International Rugby Board Council. Agreement was reached on definitions for injury, recurrent injury, non‐fatal catastrophic injury, and training and match exposures, together with criteria for classifying injuries in terms of severity, location, type, diagnosis and causation. The definitions and methodology presented in this consensus statement for rugby union are similar to those proposed for football. Adoption of the proposals presented in this consensus statement should ensure that more consistent and comparable results will be obtained from studies of injuries within rugby union. PMID:17452684

  13. Scientific production in Rugby union betwen 1998-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Villarejo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractQuantitative scientific production analysis is used to detect the activity, structure, and evolution of an area of knowledge and to quantify their results. The purpose of this study was to identify, classify, and categorize the scientific literature in the field of rugby union that was indexed on the ISI Web of Knowledge (WOK between 1998 and 2007. A total of 136 papers were found. The characteristics of the studies that were found were: a 99.3% were in English; b 83.5% were research studies; c 51.4% were about injuries in the sport; d the majority of the publications were from anglosaxon institutions, and e; an increase in the number of publications in the last five years (15-20 publications per year was found.Key words: team sport, bibliometrics, research, database

  14. Home advantage in the Six Nations Rugby Union tournament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Sion; Reeves, Colin; Bell, Andrew

    2008-02-01

    This study examined whether home advantage occurred in the Six Nations Rugby Union tournament. Data were gathered using the final championship standings from the tournament's inception in 2000 to the recently completed 2007 season. Home advantage for each championship season was defined as the number of points won by teams playing at home, expressed as a percentage of all points gained either at home or away. An analysis of home advantage for each of eight seasons of competition ranged from 53% (2005) to 70% (2006). There was an overall statistically significant home advantage of 61% for 120 matches played in the Six Nations tournament between 2000 and 2007. Also analysed were the percentage of points won at home by each country. Again, evidence supported home advantage amongst all competing nations regardless of the team's quality.

  15. Substance use and misuse and potential doping behaviour in rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Damir; Bjelanovic, Luka; Pehar, Miran; Pelivan, Katarina; Zenic, Natasa

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this investigation were to compile evidence on substance-use-and-misuse (SUM) and to identify factors related to potential-doping-behaviour (PDB) in rugby union. The subjects were 105 rugby athletes (all males; 23.4 ± 4.1 years; 99% respondents). The variables included socio-demographic factors, SUM-data, sport-factors, knowledge-on-doping (KD), and PDB. Data showed high alcohol consumption, with more than 30% of the athletes binge drinking at least once per week. Approximately 52% of the subjects used dietary-supplementation (DS) and 23% reported PDB, whereas 55% believed that doping is present in rugby. Forward conditional logistic regression revealed that less rugby experience (OR:1.286; 95%CI:1.058-1.563; p rugby (OR:0.305; 95%CI:0.066-0.638; p rugby.

  16. Movement Demands of Elite U20 International Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Daniel; Shearer, David A; Drawer, Scott; Eager, Robin; Taylor, Neil; Cook, Christian; Kilduff, Liam P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify movement demands of elite international age grade (U20) rugby union players during competitive tournament match play. Forty elite professional players from an U20 international performance squad were monitored using 10 Hz global positioning systems (GPS) during 15 international tournament matches during the 2014/15 and 2015/16 seasons. Data on distances, velocities, accelerations, decelerations, high metabolic load (HML) distance and efforts, and number of sprints were derived. Data files from players who played over 60 min (n = 161) were separated firstly into Forwards and Backs, and more specifically into six positional groups; FR--Front Row (prop & hooker), SR--Second Row, BR--Back Row (Flankers & No.8), HB--Half Backs (scrum half & outside half), MF--Midfield (centres), B3--Back Three (wings & full back) for match analysis. Analysis revealed significant differences between forwards and backs positions. Backs scored higher on all variables measured with the exception of number of moderate accelerations, decelerations (no difference). The centres covered the greatest total distance with the front row covering the least (6.51 ± 0.71 vs 4.97 ± 0.75 km, p < 0.001). The front row also covered the least high speed running (HSR) distance compared to the back three (211.6 ± 112.7 vs 728.4 ± 150.2 m, p < 0.001) who covered the most HSR distance, affirming that backs cover greater distances but forwards have greater contact loads. These findings highlight for the first time differences in the movement characteristics of elite age grade rugby union players specific to positional roles.

  17. Repeated high-intensity exercise in professional rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Damien; Gabbett, Tim; Jenkins, David

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the frequency, duration, and nature of repeated high-intensity exercise in Super 14 rugby union. Time-motion analysis was used during seven competition matches over the 2008 and 2009 Super 14 seasons; five players from each of four positional groups (front row forwards, back row forwards, inside backs, and outside backs) were assessed (20 players in total). A repeated high-intensity exercise bout was considered to involve three or more sprints, and/or tackles and/or scrum/ruck/maul activities within 21 s during the same passage of play. The range of repeated high-intensity exercise bouts for each group in a match was as follows: 11-18 for front row forwards, 11-21 for back row forwards, 13-18 for inside backs, and 2-11 for outside backs. The durations of the most intense repeated high-intensity exercise bouts for each position ranged from 53 s to 165 s and the minimum recovery periods between repeated high-intensity exercise bouts ranged from 25 s for the back row forwards to 64 s for the front row forwards. The present results show that repeated high-intensity exercise bouts vary in duration and activities relative to position but all players in a game will average at least 10 changes in activity in the most demanding bouts and complete at least one tackle and two sprints. The most intense periods of activity are likely to last as long as 120 s and as little as 25 s recovery may separate consecutive repeated high-intensity exercise bouts. The present findings can be used by coaches to prepare their players for the most demanding passages of play likely to be experienced in elite rugby union.

  18. Anthropometric and Physical Profiles of English Academy Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrall-Jones, Joshua D; Jones, Ben; Till, Kevin

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric and physical characteristics of English regional academy rugby union players by age category (under 16s, under 18s and under 21s). Data were collected on 67 academy players at the beginning of the preseason period and comprised anthropometric (height, body mass, and sum of 8 skinfolds) and physical (5-, 10-, 20-, and 40-m sprint, acceleration, velocity, and momentum; agility 505; vertical jump; Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1; 30-15 intermittent fitness test; absolute and relative 3 repetition maximum front squat, split squat, bench press, prone row, and chin; and isometric mid-thigh pull). One-way analysis of variance demonstrated significant increases across the 3 age categories (p ≤ 0.05) for height (e.g., 16s = 178.8 ± 7.1; 18s = 183.5 ± 7.2; 21s = 186.7 ± 6.61 cm), body mass (e.g., 16s = 79.4 ± 12.8; 18s = 88.3 ± 11.9; 21s = 98.3 ± 10.4 kg), countermovement jump height and peak power, sprint momentum, velocity, and acceleration; absolute, relative, and isometric (e.g., 16s = 2,157.9 ± 309.9; 18s = 2,561.3 ± 339.4; 21s = 3,104.5 ± 354.0 N) strength. Momentum, maximal speed, and the ability to maintain acceleration were all discriminating factors between age categories, suggesting that these variables may be more important to monitor rather than sprint times. These findings highlight that anthropometric and physical characteristics develop across age categories and provide comparative data for English Academy Rugby Union players.

  19. Does padded headgear prevent head injury in rugby union football?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Andrew S; McCrory, Paul; Finch, Caroline F; Best, John P; Chalmers, David J; Wolfe, Rory

    2009-02-01

    Concussion is a serious problem in many contact sports, including rugby union football. The study's primary aim was to measure the efficacy of padded headgear in reducing the rates of head injury or concussion. A cluster randomized controlled trial with three arms was conducted with rugby union football teams as the unit of randomization. Teams consisted of males participating in under 13-, 15-, 18-, and 20-yr age group competitions. The interventions were "standard" and "modified" padded headgear. Headgear wearing and injury were measured for each study team at each game over two seasons. Eighty-two teams participated in year 1 and 87 in year 2. A total of 1493 participants (10,040 player hours) were in the control group, 1128 participants (8170 player hours) were assigned to the standard headgear group, and 1474 participants (10,650 player hours) were assigned to the modified headgear group. The compliance rates were low in all groups, but 46% of participants wore standard headgear. An intention-to-treat analysis showed no differences in the rates of head injury or concussion between controls and headgear arms. Incidence rate ratios for standard headgear wearers referenced to controls were 0.95 and 1.02 for game and missed game injuries. Analyses of injury rates based on observed wearing patterns also showed no significant differences. Incidence rate ratios for standard headgear wearers referenced to nonwearers were 1.11 and 1.10 for game and missed game injuries. Padded headgear does not reduce the rate of head injury or concussion. The low compliance rates are a limitation. Although individuals may choose to wear padded headgear, the routine or mandatory use of protective headgear cannot be recommended.

  20. Anthropometric, Sprint, and High-Intensity Running Profiles of English Academy Rugby Union Players by Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrall-Jones, Joshua D; Jones, Ben; Till, Kevin

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anthropometric, sprint, and high-intensity running profiles of English academy rugby union players by playing positions, and to investigate the relationships between anthropometric, sprint, and high-intensity running characteristics. Data were collected from 67 academy players after the off-season period and consisted of anthropometric (height, body mass, sum of 8 skinfolds [∑SF]), 40-m linear sprint (5-, 10-, 20-, and 40-m splits), the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-Yo IRTL-1), and the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (30-15 IFT). Forwards displayed greater stature, body mass, and ∑SF; sprint times and sprint momentum, with lower high-intensity running ability and sprint velocities than backs. Comparisons between age categories demonstrated body mass and sprint momentum to have the largest differences at consecutive age categories for forwards and backs; whereas 20-40-m sprint velocity was discriminate for forwards between under 16s, 18s, and 21s. Relationships between anthropometric, sprint velocity, momentum, and high-intensity running ability demonstrated body mass to negatively impact on sprint velocity (10 m; r = -0.34 to -0.46) and positively affect sprint momentum (e.g., 5 m; r = 0.85-0.93), with large to very large negative relationships with the Yo-Yo IRTL-1 (r = -0.65 to -0.74) and 30-15 IFT (r = -0.59 to -0.79). These findings suggest that there are distinct anthropometric, sprint, and high-intensity running ability differences between and within positions in junior rugby union players. The development of sprint and high-intensity running ability may be impacted by continued increases in body mass as there seems to be a trade-off between momentum, velocity, and the ability to complete high-intensity running.

  1. Biomechanics of rugby union scrummaging. Technical and safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, P D

    1993-09-01

    In the game of ruby union, the scrum epitomises the physical nature of the game. It is both a powerful offensive skill, affording a base for attacking play, and a defensive skill in denying the opposition clean possession. However, the scrum has also been implicated in a large proportion of serious spinal injuries in rugby union. The majority of injuries are found to occur at engagement where the forces experienced by front-row players (more than two-thirds of a tonne shared across the front-row) can exceed the structural limits of the cervical spine. These large forces are a consequence of the speed of engagement and the weight (and number) of players involved in the scrum. This highlights not only the need for physical preparation of all forwards but particularly player restraint at engagement, and justifies the 'crouch-pause-engage' sequence recently introduced to 'depower' the scrum. As the hooker is the player exposed to the greatest loads throughout the scrum and subsequently most at risk, he should determine the timing of engagement of the 2 front-rows. Stability of the scrum is an indication of front-row players' ability to utilise their strength to transmit the force to their opponents as well as the push of second-row and back-row players behind them in the scrum. This appears to be independent of the size of players. Equally, it reflects the risk of chronic degeneration of the musculoskeletal system through repeated exposure to these large stresses. However, not only are older and more experienced players better able to generate and transmit these forces, they are also able to maintain the integrity of the scrum. A large proportion of individual players' efforts to generate force is lost in their coordinated effort in a normal scrum. It is assumed these forces are dissipated through players re-orientating their bodies in the scrum situation as well as to less efficient shear forces and to the elastic and compressive tissues in the body. It again

  2. Using anthropometric and performance characteristics to predict selection in junior UK Rugby League players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Kevin; Cobley, Steve; O'Hara, John; Brightmore, Amy; Cooke, Carlton; Chapman, Chris

    2011-05-01

    Research examining the factors influencing selection within talented junior Rugby League players is limited. The aims of this study were firstly to determine whether differences existed for anthropometric and performance characteristics between regional and national selection in high performance UK junior Rugby League players, and secondly to identify variables that discriminated between these selection levels. Regional representative (n=1172) selected junior players (aged 13-16 years) undertook an anthropometric and fitness testing battery with players split according to selection level (i.e., national, regional). MANCOVA analyses, with age and maturation controlled, identified national players as having lower sum of 4 skinfolds scores compared to regional players, and also performed significantly better on all physical tests. Stepwise discriminant analysis identified that estimated maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), chronological age, body mass, 20 m sprint, height, sum of 4 skinfolds and sitting height discriminated between selection levels, accounting for 28.7% of the variance. This discriminant analysis corresponded to an overall predictive accuracy of 63.3% for all players. These results indicate that performance characteristics differed between selection levels in junior Rugby League players. However, the small magnitude of difference between selection levels suggests that physical qualities only partially explain higher representative selection. The monitoring and evaluation of such variables, alongside game related performance characteristics, provides greater knowledge and understanding about the processes and consequences of selection, training and performance in youth sport. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Reliability and Usefulness of Linear Sprint Testing in Adolescent Rugby Union and League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrall-Jones, Joshua D; Jones, Ben; Roe, Gregory; Till, Kevin

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate (a) whether there were differences in sprint times at 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 m between rugby union and rugby league players, (b) determine the reliability and usefulness of linear sprint testing in adolescent rugby players. Data were collected on 28 rugby union and league academy players over 2 testing sessions, with 3-day rest between sessions. Rugby league players were faster at 5 m than rugby union players, with further difference unclear. Sprint time at 10, 20, 30, and 40 m was all reliable (coefficient of variation [CV] = 3.1, 1.8, 2.0, and 1.3%) but greater than the smallest worthwhile change (SWC [0.2 × between-subject SD]), rating the test as marginal for usefulness. Although the test was incapable of detecting the SWC, we recommend that practitioners and researchers use Hopkins' proposed method; whereby plotting the change score of the individual at each split (±typical error [TE] expressed as a CV) against the SWC and visually inspecting whether the TE crosses into the SWC are capable of identifying whether a change is both real (greater than the noise of the test, i.e., >TE) and of practical significance (>SWC). Researchers and practitioners can use the TE and SWC from this study to assess changes in performance of adolescent rugby players when using single beam timing gates.

  4. The epidemiology, morbidity and outcome of fractures in rugby union from a standard population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Greg A J; Wood, Alexander M; Heil, Kieran; Aitken, Stuart A; Court-Brown, Charles M

    2014-04-01

    Rugby union is the second commonest cause of sporting fracture in the UK, yet little is known about patient outcomes following such fractures. To describe the epidemiology of fractures in rugby union, their morbidity and the likelihood of return to rugby post-injury in a known UK population at all skill levels. All rugby union fractures sustained during 2007-2008 in the Edinburgh, Mid and East Lothian populations were prospectively recorded, when patients attended the only adult orthopaedic service in Lothian. The diagnosis was confirmed by an orthopaedic surgeon. Patients living outside the region were excluded from the study. Patients were contacted by telephone in February 2012 to ascertain their progress in return to rugby. A total of 145 fractures were recorded over the study period in 143 patients. The annual incidence of rugby-related fractures was 0.28/1000 of the general population and 29.86/1000 of the adult registered rugby playing population. 120 fractures were of the upper limb and 25 were of the lower limb. 117 fractures (81%) in 115 patients (80%) were followed up at a mean interval of 50 months (range 44-56 months). 87% of the cohort returned to rugby post-injury (87% of upper limb fractures and 86% of lower limb fractures), with 85% returning to rugby at the same level or higher. Of those who returned, 39% did so by 1 month post-injury, 77% by 3 months post-injury and 91% by 6 months post-injury. For those who returned following upper limb fractures, 48% did so by 1 month post-injury, 86% by 3 months post-injury and 94% by 6 months post-injury. In patients who returned following lower limb fractures, 0% did so by 1 month post-injury, 42% by 3 months post-injury and 79% by 6 months post-injury. From the whole cohort, 32% had ongoing fracture related problems, yet only 9% had impaired rugby ability secondary to these problems. Most patients sustaining a fracture playing rugby union will return to rugby at a similar level. While one third of them will

  5. Momentum and kinetic energy before the tackle in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Sharief; Karpul, David; Lambert, Mike

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the physical demands of a tackle in match situations is important for safe and effective training, developing equipment and research. Physical components such as momentum and kinetic energy, and it relationship to tackle outcome is not known. The aim of this study was to compare momenta between ball-carrier and tackler, level of play (elite, university and junior) and position (forwards vs. backs), and describe the relationship between ball-carrier and tackler mass, velocity and momentum and the tackle outcome. Also, report on the ball-carrier and tackler kinetic energy before contact and the estimated magnitude of impact (energy distributed between ball-carrier and tackler upon contact). Velocity over 0.5 seconds before contact was determined using a 2-dimensional scaled version of the field generated from a computer alogorithm. Body masses of players were obtained from their player profiles. Momentum and kinetic energy were subsequently calculated for 60 tackle events. Ball-carriers were heavier than the tacklers (ball-carrier 100 ± 14 kg vs. tackler 93 ± 11 kg, d = 0.52, p = 0.0041, n = 60). Ball-carriers as forwards had a significantly higher momentum than backs (forwards 563 ± 226 Kg(.)m(.)s(-1) n = 31 vs. backs 438 ± 135 Kg(.)m(.)s(-1), d = 0.63, p = 0.0012, n = 29). Tacklers dominated 57% of tackles and ball-carriers dominated 43% of tackles. Despite the ball-carrier having a mass advantage before contact more frequently than the tackler, momentum advantage and tackle dominance between the ball-carrier and tackler was proportionally similar. These findings may reflect a characteristic of the modern game of rugby where efficiently heavier players (particularly forwards) are tactically predetermined to carry the ball in contact. Key PointsFirst study to quantify momentum, kinetic energy, and magnitude of impact in rugby tackles across different levels in matches without a device attached to a player.Physical components alone, of either ball

  6. Motion analyses of adolescent rugby union players: a comparison of training and game demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Timothy B; Naughton, Geraldine; Searl, John

    2011-04-01

    This research described the physiological demands of participation in adolescent rugby union including positional differences and the degree to which training practices replicate game demands. Between 2003 and 2008, 118 male adolescent rugby players aged 14 to 18 years were recruited from 10 teams representing 3 levels of adolescent rugby. Time-motion analyses using global positioning satellite tracking devices (SPI10; GPSports Systems Pty Ltd 2003) and computer-based tracking software (Trak Performance; Sports Tec Pty Ltd) applied to video footage determined player movement patterns 161 times during rugby training sessions and 53 times during rugby games. Compared with rugby training, rugby games were consistently characterized by more time spent jogging (14 vs. 8%), striding (3.2 vs. 1.3%), and sprinting (1.3 vs. 0.1%) (p games compared with training (p games and training; however, the frequency of sprint efforts in training sessions was low (1 per hour). A major finding of this study is the disparity between physical game demands and on-field rugby training practices in adolescent players determined using time-motion analyses. Sprint pattern differences between games and training in particular could have important implications for player performance during competition. Results of this study should assist in the development of game-specific training sessions and drills that provide the kinds of physically demanding experiences observed in games. Additionally, coaches could assist in the management of adolescent players' participation loads by increasing the intensity and specificity and decreasing the volume of training.

  7. Momentum and Kinetic Energy Before the Tackle in Rugby Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharief Hendricks, David Karpul, Mike Lambert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the physical demands of a tackle in match situations is important for safe and effective training, developing equipment and research. Physical components such as momentum and kinetic energy, and it relationship to tackle outcome is not known. The aim of this study was to compare momenta between ball-carrier and tackler, level of play (elite, university and junior and position (forwards vs. backs, and describe the relationship between ball-carrier and tackler mass, velocity and momentum and the tackle outcome. Also, report on the ball-carrier and tackler kinetic energy before contact and the estimated magnitude of impact (energy distributed between ball-carrier and tackler upon contact. Velocity over 0.5 seconds before contact was determined using a 2-dimensional scaled version of the field generated from a computer alogorithm. Body masses of players were obtained from their player profiles. Momentum and kinetic energy were subsequently calculated for 60 tackle events. Ball-carriers were heavier than the tacklers (ball-carrier 100 ± 14 kg vs. tackler 93 ± 11 kg, d = 0.52, p = 0.0041, n = 60. Ball-carriers as forwards had a significantly higher momentum than backs (forwards 563 ± 226 Kg.m.s-1 n = 31 vs. backs 438 ± 135 Kg.m.s-1, d = 0.63, p = 0.0012, n = 29. Tacklers dominated 57% of tackles and ball-carriers dominated 43% of tackles. Despite the ball-carrier having a mass advantage before contact more frequently than the tackler, momentum advantage and tackle dominance between the ball-carrier and tackler was proportionally similar. These findings may reflect a characteristic of the modern game of rugby where efficiently heavier players (particularly forwards are tactically predetermined to carry the ball in contact.

  8. Incidence and severity of neck injury in Rugby Union: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Michael S; Lystad, Reidar P; Pollard, Henry; Bonello, Rod

    2011-09-01

    Objectives. To collate and appraise incidence and severity data for neck injury in Rugby Union. To report risk factors for neck injury in Rugby Union that are supported by incidence and severity data. Design. Systematic review. Methods. Original journal articles were retrieved from electronic searches of AusportMed, AUSPORT, Scopus, Medline (Ovid), CINAHL, Mantis, and Pubmed databases and relevant bibliographic hand searches. Selection criteria were restricted to: (a) prospective study designs including cohort, case-control, and intervention methodologies; (b) populations of Rugby Union players, either male or female of any age; (c) studies must report on neck injury incidence and/or severity specifically; (d) articles with republished neck injury data were excluded. The STROBE Statement was adapted for the quality assessment of included studies and categorised as either poor, moderate or good. Results. Thirty-three original articles met the selection criteria. Wide variation of injury and exposure definitions and population sampling was identified in the included articles. Neck injury incidence ranged between 0.26 (CI: 0.08, 0.93) and 9.17 (CI: 1.89, 26.81) per 1000 player hours for mixed populations that adopted an all inclusive sports injury definition. There is a paucity of severity data and analytical data which evaluates causal roles of risk factors for neck injury in Rugby Union. Conclusions. Meaningful understanding of neck injury incidence and severity in Rugby Union is restricted to a few studies which adopt comparable methodological construct. This paper provides an index for future neck injury studies in Rugby Union.

  9. The epidemiology of 1345 shoulder dislocations and subluxations in French Rugby Union players: a five-season prospective study from 2008 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohu, Yoann; Klouche, Shahnaz; Lefevre, Nicolas; Peyrin, Jean-Claude; Dusfour, Bernard; Hager, Jean-Philippe; Ribaut, Aurélie; Herman, Serge

    2015-12-01

    An understanding of the epidemiology of shoulder dislocation/subluxation in rugby union players could help develop targeted prevention programmes and treatment. We performed a multiyear epidemiological survey of shoulder dislocation/subluxation in a large cohort of rugby players. A descriptive epidemiological study was performed prospectively for five playing seasons (2008-2013) in all players licensed in the French Rugby Union. Rugby players were categorised into five groups by age. The player and the team physician reported the injury to the club insurance company if it occurred during training or a match. The goals of the study were to define the rate, type and causes of shoulder dislocation/subluxation. 88,044 injuries were reported, including 1345 (1.5%) episodes of dislocation/subluxation in 1317 men and 28 women, mean age 22.5±5.9 years. About 10/10,000 men and 5/10,000 women reported an episode of shoulder dislocation/subluxation per season, including 83/10,000 senior professionals, 17/10,000 senior amateurs, 21/10,000 juniors, 12/10,000 cadets and rugby school players. Shoulder dislocation/subluxation was significantly more frequent in senior and junior players (prugby players with a history of shoulder dislocation/subluxation should receive special attention from sports medicine professionals and orthopaedic surgeons. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Prevalence and determinants of symptoms of common mental disorders in retired professional Rugby Union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Lambert, Mike

    2016-08-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD) (distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance, adverse nutrition behaviour, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking) among retired professional Rugby Union players. The secondary aim was to explore the associations between stressors (life events, Rugby Union career dissatisfaction) and the health conditions under study. Therefore, cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study of retired professional Rugby Union players. An electronic questionnaire was established using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of CMD and stressors. The electronic questionnaire was subsequently distributed to retired players by the national Rugby Union players' associations in France, Ireland and South Africa. Among 295 retired professional Rugby Union players (mean age of 38 years), prevalence rates were 25% for distress, 28% for anxiety/depression, 29% for sleeping disturbance, 62% for adverse nutrition behaviour, 15% for smoking and 24% for adverse alcohol behaviour. A higher number of life events were associated with distress (OR = 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.4), anxiety/depression (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1), sleeping disturbance (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1) and adverse nutrition behaviour (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.3-2.5). A higher level of dissatisfaction of the player's Rugby Union career was associated with distress (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.8-1.0), sleeping disturbance (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.9-1.0), smoking (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.9-1.0) and adverse nutrition behaviour (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.8-0.9). In conclusion, our study suggests that prevalence of symptoms of CMD is high among retired professional Rugby Union players, being associated with both a higher number of life events and a higher level of Rugby Union career dissatisfaction.

  11. Fitness Profiles of Elite Portuguese Rugby Union Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz Luís

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the fitness profiles of senior elite Portuguese rugby players. Forty-six senior Portuguese rugby players, classified as backs (n=22; age 26.2±2.8 and forwards (n=24; age 26.7±2.9 were assessed during physical testing sessions carried out for the Portuguese National rugby team. The body composition, maximum strength and anaerobic capacity of players are hypothesized to be important physical characteristics as successful performance in rugby is predicated on the ability to undertake skilled behaviours both quickly and whilst withstanding large forces when in contact situations. No absolute differences were found between the backs and forwards for the speed performance variables although positional differences were found across all speeds when assessed relative to body mass since the forwards were significantly heavier. Coaches and the management team can use this information for monitoring progressive improvements in the physiological capacities of rugby players. These physical characteristics of elite rugby players provide normative profiles for specific positions and should form the basis of developmental programmes for adolescents.

  12. Fitness Profiles of Elite Portuguese Rugby Union Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Luís; Morais, Tomaz; Rocha, Henrique; James, Nic

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the fitness profiles of senior elite Portuguese rugby players. Forty-six senior Portuguese rugby players, classified as backs (n=22; age 26.2±2.8) and forwards (n=24; age 26.7±2.9) were assessed during physical testing sessions carried out for the Portuguese National rugby team. The body composition, maximum strength and anaerobic capacity of players are hypothesized to be important physical characteristics as successful performance in rugby is predicated on the ability to undertake skilled behaviours both quickly and whilst withstanding large forces when in contact situations. No absolute differences were found between the backs and forwards for the speed performance variables although positional differences were found across all speeds when assessed relative to body mass since the forwards were significantly heavier. Coaches and the management team can use this information for monitoring progressive improvements in the physiological capacities of rugby players. These physical characteristics of elite rugby players provide normative profiles for specific positions and should form the basis of developmental programmes for adolescents. PMID:25114750

  13. Differences and changes in the physical characteristics of professional and amateur rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Daniel J; Hopkins, Will G; Gill, Nicholas D

    2013-11-01

    Numerous studies have highlighted differences between playing levels and positions in rugby union; however, few studies have investigated longitudinal progressions of body composition and physical performance. Between-player differences and within-player changes in body composition, strength, power, speed, and repeated sprint ability, from 1,161 New Zealand rugby union players from 2004 to 2007, were estimated using a mixed modeling procedure. Props had the highest mass, percent body fat, strength, and slowest speed times compared with the other positions, whereas outside backs had the fastest speed time and lowest percent body fat. For most measures, there were small-to-moderate differences (range, 1.1-14%) between players selected and not selected for provincial teams and small-to-large differences (range, 1.8-15%) between provincial and Super Rugby (professional) players. The faster 20-m sprint times in international compared with Super Rugby players was small in magnitude for both the forwards (1.9%) and backs (2.2%). The average annual improvements were small to moderate for strength (range, 2.1-15%) and small for repeated sprint ability within the lower playing levels (~1.5%). Small increases occurred in lower body strength (~7.0%) as players moved from Super Rugby to provincial competition. Small decreases in sprint time (~1.6%) and small increases in strength (~6.3%) occurred as players moved from Super Rugby to midyear international competition. The differences between levels in performance provide level-specific characteristics from Super Rugby and below, but international players may be selected because of greater skill and experience. Changes in physical performance between competitions may be a result of reduced training loads because of regular high-intensity matches and greater travel involved in the Super Rugby competition.

  14. Epidemiology of injuries in senior male rugby union sevens: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ferreira, Antonio; Cruz-Ferreira, Eduardo; Santiago, Luiz; Taborda Barata, Luis

    2017-02-01

    In 2016 the Rugby Union variant of sevens will enter the official Olympic Programme. Until now, most of injury surveillance studies in Rugby Union focus on elite 15-a-side cohorts, with reported injury incidence rates reaching 96 per 1000 player-match-hours, and mean severity set at 20 days. Sparse data is available regarding rugby sevens. The aim of this study was to systematically review available data regarding the epidemiology of injuries in senior male rugby sevens. Electronic databases (Pubmed, Google Scholar, SCOPUS, Scielo and IndexRMP) were searched in September 2015, complemented by manual searches of bibliographies and relevant "grey literature". Seven prospective cohort original articles addressing injuries in senior male rugby sevens players were included in this review. Overall injury incidence rates in elite rugby sevens tournaments ranged 101.5 to 119.8 per 1000 player-match-hours. Mean severity was greater than 34.1 days. Lower limb and joint/ligament injuries were the most frequent in elite players. The only study on amateur players revealed a lower injury incidence rate (74.7 per 1000 player-match-hours), and a higher proportion of muscle/tendon (37.5 %) injuries. Injury incidence rates in rugby sevens are higher than those reported for the 15-a-side variant, at the same level of competition. Injuries are also more severe, resulting in longer absence periods. This might result from the fact that rugby sevens is played with greater speed, leading to an increase in energy transfers during tackles, more running and turning manoeuvers, that can possibly cause more severe injuries.

  15. Catastrophic injury in rugby union: is the level of risk acceptable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W

    2008-01-01

    Rugby union is a full contact sport with a relatively high overall risk of injury and a small specific risk of fatal and catastrophic spinal injury. Although catastrophic injuries in rugby union cause public concern and generate strong emotive reactions, the magnitude of society's concern about this type of injury is often dominated by people's perceptions rather than by actual levels of risk. This article assesses published values for the risk of catastrophic injuries in rugby union, evaluates these against the risk standards of the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and compares the values with the risks associated with other common sport and non-sport activities. The assessment showed that the risks of sustaining a catastrophic injury in rugby union in England (0.8/100,000 per year), Ireland (0.9/100,000 per year) and Argentina (1.9/100,000 per year) were within the HSE's 'acceptable' region of risk (0.1-2/100,000 per year), whilst the risks in New Zealand (4.2/100,000 per year), Australia (4.4/100,000 per year) and Fiji (13/100,000 per year) were within the 'tolerable' region of risk (2-100/100,000 per year). The risk of sustaining a catastrophic injury in rugby union was generally lower than or comparable with the levels reported for a wide range of other collision sports, such as ice hockey (4/100,000 per year), rugby league (2/100,000 per year) and American Football (2/100,000 per year). In addition, the risk of catastrophic injury in rugby union was comparable with that experienced by most people in work-based situations and lower than that experienced by motorcyclists, pedestrians and car occupants. Whilst ranking risks provides an effective way of assessing their acceptability, it is recognized that representing risks by a single risk value can be misleading, as account must also be taken of the public's perception of the risks and the inherent differences in the types of risk being considered. However, an acceptable level of risk is often regarded as

  16. A systematic review of education programmes to prevent concussion in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraas, Michael R; Burchiel, Jessica

    2016-11-01

    There is a high incidence of concussion sustained by athletes participating in rugby union, many of which go unreported. A lack of sufficient knowledge about concussion injuries may explain athletes' failure to report. Several rugby union-playing countries have developed injury education and prevention programmes to address this issue. The aim of the current review was to systematically assess the content and level of evidence on concussion education/prevention programmes in rugby union and to make recommendations for the quality, strength, and consistency of this evidence. We searched PubMed, PsycInfo, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscuss, Webofscience, and conducted a manual search for articles. Ten articles were included for review. Of these, six focused on the BokSmart injury prevention programme in South Africa, two focused on the RugbySmart injury prevention programme in New Zealand, one was an analysis of prevention programmes, and one was a systematic review of rugby injury prevention strategies. Despite the initiative to develop concussion education and prevention programmes, there is little evidence to support the effectiveness of such programmes. There is evidence to support education of coaches and referees. In addition, there is scant evidence to suggest that education and rule changes may have the benefit of changing athlete behaviours resulting in a reduction in catastrophic injury.

  17. RUGBY

    CERN Document Server

    Rugby Club

    2013-01-01

    Women's rugby has been gaining popularity for some years now. The ‘’Wildcats’’, the women's rugby Club of CERN Meyrin St-Genis (RC CMSG), is the only women's team currently present in Geneva area. This year, the Wildcats will host the final of the Swiss Super Seven (rugby tournament 7). The tournament will be held on Saturday, May 4, 2013, at the Rugby Field in St-Genis-Pouilly, near the Golf de Serves. A dozen teams are expected to compete for the first place in the championship. The games will be played all day starting from 10 a.m. There will be refreshment stalls and meals will be sold , as well as bands will play music all day. Admission is free for all ages. Contact : wildcats@cern-rugby.ch Info : page facebook Wildcats women’s rugby

  18. Dehydration and hyponatremia in professional rugby union players: a cohort study observing english premiership rugby union players during match play, field, and gym training in cool environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benjamin L; OʼHara, John P; Till, Kevin; King, Roderick F G J

    2015-01-01

    Fluid and sodium balance is important for performance and health; however, limited data in rugby union players exist. The purpose of the study was to evaluate body mass (BM) change (dehydration) and blood[Na] change during exercise. Data were collected from 10 premiership rugby union players, over a 4-week period. Observations included match play (23 subject observations), field (45 subject observations), and gym (33 subject observations) training sessions. Arrival urine samples were analyzed for osmolality, and samples during exercise were analyzed for [Na]. Body mass and blood[Na] were determined pre- and postexercise. Sweat[Na] was analyzed from sweat patches worn during exercise, and fluid intake was measured during exercise. Calculations of fluid and Na loss were made. Mean arrival urine osmolality was 423 ± 157 mOsm·kg, suggesting players were adequately hydrated. After match play, field, and gym training, BM loss was 1.0 ± 0.7, 0.3 ± 0.6, and 0.1 ± 0.6%, respectively. Fluid loss was significantly greater during match play (1.404 ± 0.977 kg) than field (1.008 ± 0.447 kg, p = 0.021) and gym training (0.639 ± 0.536 kg, p 1.0%. The findings demonstrate that rugby union players are adequately hydrated on arrival, fluid intake is excessive compared with fluid loss, and some players are at risk of developing hyponatremia.

  19. Relationship Between Maximum Aerobic Speed Performance and Distance Covered in Rugby Union Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaby, Rick; Jones, Paul A; Comfort, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Swaby, R, Jones, PA, and Comfort, P. Relationship between maximum aerobic speed performance and distance covered in rugby union games. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2788-2793, 2016-Researchers have shown a clear relationship between aerobic fitness and the distance covered in professional soccer, although no research has identified such a relationship in rugby union. Therefore, the aim of the study was to identify whether there was a relationship between maximal aerobic speed (MAS) and the distance covered in rugby union games. Fourteen professional rugby union players (age = 26 ± 6 years, height = 1.90 ± 0.12 m, mass = 107.1 ± 24.1 kg) participated in this investigation. Each player performed a MAS test on 3 separate occasions during the preseason, to determine reliability and provide baseline data, and participated in 6 competitive games during the early stages of the season. Game data were collected using global positioning system technology. No significant difference (p > 0.05) in total distance covered was observed between games. Relationships between players' MAS and the average distance covered from 6 competitive games were explored using Pearson's correlation coefficients, with MAS performance showing a strong relationship with distance covered during match play (r = 0.746, p aerobic fitness to increase the distance that the athlete covers in the game.

  20. Anthropometric profile and body composition of Irish adolescent rugby union players aged 16-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahunt, Eamonn; Byrne, Risteard B; Doolin, Rachel K; McInerney, Rory G; Ruddock, Ciaran T J; Green, Brian S

    2013-12-01

    The literature suggests that one of the key determinants of success at rugby union international competitions is the anthropometric profile of players. The Irish Rugby Football Union (IRFU) long-term player development (LTPD) model is a framework designed to guide the development of the tactical, physical, and psychological domains of sporting participation. In Ireland, the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model is a critical stage, whereby the next developmental progression would include the transition of players into professional academies. To date, no previously published studies have examined the anthropometric profile of Irish Schools' rugby union players at the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model. The anthropometric profile of 136 male adolescent rugby union players at the Train-to-Train stage of the IRFU model was assessed using total-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Significant differences in height, body mass, body fat percentage, fat mass, lean mass, and fat-free mass were observed between players assigned to the forward and back units, and for specific position categorizations within each unit. Direct logistic regression revealed that body mass was a statistically significant (p anthropometric profiles. Furthermore, anthropometric differentiation also exists within specific position categorizations within each of these playing units. Thus, anthropometric profiling should be carried out on a systematic and periodic basis, because this will allow for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the implementation strategies of the IRFU model on a national basis.

  1. Training activities and injuries in English youth academy and schools rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Green, Deborah S; Stokes, Keith A; Fuller, Colin W; England, Michael; Kemp, Simon P T; Trewartha, Grant

    2015-02-01

    All rugby training activities carry an injury risk, but in the training environment these injury risks should be more controllable than during matches. To (1) describe the incidence, severity, anatomic location, and type of youth rugby training injuries; (2) determine the injury events and type of training activities associated with injuries; and (3) compare 2 levels of play (professional academy vs school) within English youth rugby union. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A 2-season (2006-2007 and 2007-2008) study recorded exposure to training activities and time-loss injuries in male youth rugby union players (age range, 16-18 years) from 12 English Premiership academies (250 player-seasons) and 7 schools (222 player-seasons). Players from the Premiership academies, associated with the top-level professional clubs in England, represented the elite level of youth rugby; the school players were from established rugby-playing schools but were overall considered at a lower level of play. There was a trend for training injury incidence to be lower for the academy group (1.4/1000 player-hours; 95% CI, 1.0-1.7) compared with the school group (2.1/1000 player-hours; 95% CI, 1.4-2.9) (P = .06). Injuries to the ankle/heel and thigh were most common in academy players and injuries to the lumbar spine and ankle/heel region most common in school players. The training activities responsible for injury differed between the 2 groups: technical skills (scrummaging) for school players and contact skills (defense and ruck/maul drills) for academy players. For injury risk management in youth rugby, coaches of school players should focus on the development of the correct technique during practice of technical skills such as scrummaging, weight training, and skills training, and coaches of academy players should consider the extent to which contact drills are necessary during training. © 2014 The Author(s).

  2. Eccentric Knee Flexor Strength and Risk of Hamstring Injuries in Rugby Union: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Matthew N; Opar, David A; Williams, Morgan D; Shield, Anthony J

    2015-11-01

    Hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) represent the most common cause of lost playing time in rugby union. Eccentric knee flexor weakness and between-limb imbalance in eccentric knee flexor strength are associated with a heightened risk of HSIs in other sports; however, these variables have not been explored in rugby union. To determine if lower levels of eccentric knee flexor strength or greater between-limb imbalance in this parameter during the Nordic hamstring exercise are risk factors for HSIs in rugby union. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. This prospective study was conducted over the 2014 Super Rugby and Queensland Rugby Union seasons. In total, 178 rugby union players (mean age, 22.6 ± 3.8 years; mean height, 185.0 ± 6.8 cm; mean weight, 96.5 ± 13.1 kg) had their eccentric knee flexor strength assessed using a custom-made device during the preseason. Reports of previous hamstring, quadriceps, groin, calf, and anterior cruciate ligament injuries were also obtained. The main outcome measure was the prospective occurrence of HSIs. Twenty players suffered at least 1 HSI during the study period. Players with a history of HSIs had a 4.1-fold (95% CI, 1.9-8.9; P = .001) greater risk of subsequent HSIs than players without such a history. Between-limb imbalance in eccentric knee flexor strength of ≥15% and ≥20% increased the risk of HSIs by 2.4-fold (95% CI, 1.1-5.5; P = .033) and 3.4-fold (95% CI, 1.5-7.6; P = .003), respectively. Lower eccentric knee flexor strength and other prior injuries were not associated with an increased risk of future HSIs. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that the risk of reinjuries was augmented in players with strength imbalances. Previous HSIs and between-limb imbalance in eccentric knee flexor strength were associated with an increased risk of future HSIs in rugby union. These results support the rationale for reducing imbalance, particularly in players who have suffered a prior HSI, to mitigate the risk of future

  3. The state of women's rugby union in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    all sporting codes is the long-term athlete or participant development. (LTAD or ... 1 2013 29 introduce the game of rugby to young girls, participation is mostly ..... maximal speed development in children aged 5 - 9 years; therefore, there is no ...

  4. The Occurrence of Referee Abuse in Rugby Union: Evidence and Measures Through an Online Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Rayner

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many national governing bodies are experiencing difficulties retaining referees at the grass roots level, especially young referees (Warner, Tingle & Kellett, 2013. Abuse and aggression from players and spectators are the most commonly given reasons for referees leaving. Without consideration of the development, nurturing and management needs of the referee there could be a decline in the participation numbers within the sport. This research paper used an online questionnaire to explore the levels of abuse that rugby union referees are subjected to in the counties of Dorset, Wiltshire, Somerset and Hampshire. The results indicated that referees from various levels on the Rugby Football Union’s referee continuum were subjected to a significant level of abuse. The sources of this abuse ranged from the players, coaches and spectators. Furthermore, the research illustrates that the referees believe that there has been an erosion of the ‘core values’ of rugby union specifically indicating a decline in the enjoyment factor of officiating within rugby union and its effect on the retention of referees.

  5. Concussion history and reporting rates in elite Irish rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraas, Michael R; Coughlan, Garrett F; Hart, Emily C; McCarthy, Conor

    2014-08-01

    To determine the self-reported, seasonal rates of concussion and the reporting practices among Irish rugby union players. Descriptive epidemiology study. The study was conducted at the training grounds of four professional Irish rugby union clubs. One hundred seventy-two players (24.97 ± 4.11 years of age, 13.49 ± 5.79 years playing experience) gave consent to participate. Number of concussions reported during the 2010-2011 season, reasons for not reporting, and positions of concussed players. Forty-five percent of players reported at least one concussion during the 2010-2011 season, but only 46.6% of these presented to medical staff. The reasons for not reporting their concussions included, not thinking the injury was serious enough, and not wanting to be removed from the game. The relative proportion of concussions was higher for backs than forwards; however, the severity of injury was greater for forwards. Scrum-halves (12.0%) and flankers (10.9%) accounted for the majority of concussions reported. The self-reported rate of concussion in elite rugby union players in Ireland is higher than reported in other countries or other sports. Many concussions remain unreported and, therefore, unmanaged. However, recent changes in concussion management guidelines by the International Rugby Board may impact future reporting practices of players. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Specificity of Rugby Union Training Sessions in Preparation for Match Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Patrick G; Peake, Jonathan M; Minett, Geoffrey M

    2017-09-05

    Investigations into the specificity of rugby union training practices in preparation for competitive demands has predominantly focussed on physical and physiological demands. The evaluation of the contextual variance in perceptual strain or skill requirements between training and matches in rugby union is unclear, yet holistic understanding may assist to optimise training design. This study evaluated the specificity of physical, physiological, perceptual and skill demands of training sessions compared with competitive match-play in pre-professional, elite club rugby union. Global positioning system (GPS) devices, video capture, heart rate (HR), and session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE) were used to assess movement patterns, skill completions, physiologic, and perceptual responses, respectively. Data were collected across a season (training sessions n=29; matches n=14). Participants (n=32) were grouped in playing positions as: outside backs, centres, halves, loose forwards, lock forwards, and front row forwards. Greater total distance, low-intensity activity, maximal speed and metres per min were apparent in matches compared to training in all positions (P0.90). Similarly, match HR, and sRPE responses were higher than those recorded in training (P0.8). Key skill completions for forwards (i.e., scrums, rucks and lineouts) and backs (i.e., kicks) were greater under match conditions than in training (P1.50). Considerable disparities exist between the perceptual, physiological, and key skill demands of competitive matches versus training sessions in pre-professional rugby union players. Practitioners should consider the specificity of training tasks for pre-professional rugby players to ensure the best preparation for match demands.

  7. Effect of in-season creatine supplementation on body composition and performance in rugby union football players

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Magnus, Charlene; Chilibeck, Philip D; Anderson, Matthew

    2007-01-01

    .... The purpose of this study was to determine if creatine supplementation during 8 weeks of a season of rugby union football can increase muscular performance, without negatively affecting aerobic endurance...

  8. The use of heart rates and graded maximal test values to determine rugby union game intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, Martinique; Coetzee, Ben

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the intensities of university rugby union games using heart rates and graded maximal test values. Twenty-one rugby players performed a standard incremental maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) test to the point of exhaustion in the weeks between 3 rugby matches. The heart rates that corresponded to the first and second ventilatory thresholds were used to classify the heart rates into low-, moderate-, and high-intensity zones. The heart rates recorded through heart rate telemetry during the matches were then categorized into the different zones. The average heart rates for the different intensity zones as well the percentages of the maximum heart rate (HRmax) were as follows: low, 141-152 b·min(-1) (76.2-82.0% HRmax); moderate, 153-169 b·min(-1) (82.7-91.4% HRmax); and high, 170-182 b·min(-1) (91.9-100% HRmax). The percentages of time players spent in the different intensity zones were as follows: 22.8% for the low-intensity, 33.6% for the moderate-intensity, and 43.6% for the high-intensity zones. The dependant t-test revealed significant differences (p rugby union games. It also revealed that university rugby games are categorized by significantly more high-intensity activities than was previously reported by other rugby match analyzing-related studies. Thus, sport scientists and conditioning coaches should concentrate more on high-intensity activities for longer periods during training sessions.

  9. Mechanisms for Triceps Surae Injury in High Performance Front Row Rugby Union Players: A Kinematic Analysis of Scrummaging Drills

    OpenAIRE

    Flavell, Carol A.; Sayers, Mark G.L.; Gordon, Susan J; Lee, James B.

    2013-01-01

    The front row of a rugby union scrum consists of three players. The loose head prop, hooker and tight head prop. The objective of this study was to determine if known biomechanical risk factors for triceps surae muscle injury are exhibited in the lower limb of front row players during contested scrummaging. Eleven high performance front row rugby union players were landmarked bilaterally at the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS), greater trochanter, lateral femoral epicondyle, midline of t...

  10. A systematic review and meta-analysis of concussion in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andrew J; Iverson, Grant L; Williams, W Huw; Baker, Stephanie; Stanwell, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Rugby Union, a popular full-contact sport played throughout the world, has one of the highest rates of concussion of all full-contact sports. The aim of the current review was to systematically evaluate the available evidence on concussion in Rugby Union and to conduct a meta-analysis of findings regarding the incidence of concussion. Articles were retrieved via a number of online databases. The current review examined all articles published in English up to May 2014 pertaining to concussion in Rugby Union players. The key search terms included 'Rugby Union', 'rugby', 'union', and 'football', in combination with the injury terms 'athletic injuries', 'concussion', 'sports concussion', 'sports-related concussion', 'brain concussion', 'brain injury', 'brain injuries', 'mild traumatic brain injury', 'mTBI', 'traumatic brain injury', 'TBI', 'craniocerebral trauma', 'head injury', and 'brain damage'. The final search outcome following the eligibility screening process resulted in the inclusion of 96 articles for this review. The meta-analysis included a total of 37 studies. The results of the meta-analysis revealed an overall incidence of match-play concussion in men's rugby-15s of 4.73 per 1,000 player match hours. The incidence of concussion during training was 0.07 per 1,000 practice hours. The incidence of concussion in women's rugby-15s was 0.55 per 1,000 player match hours. In men's rugby-7s match-play, concussion incidence was 3.01 per 1,000 player match hours. The incidence of concussion varied considerably between levels of play, with elite level play recording a rate of 0.40 concussions per 1,000 player match hours, schoolboy level 0.62 concussions per 1,000 player match hours, and the community or sub-elite level recording a rate of 2.08 concussions per 1,000 player match hours. The incidence of concussion in men's rugby-15s as a function of playing position (forwards vs. backs) was 4.02 and 4.85 concussions per 1,000 player match hours, respectively

  11. Incidence, severity, aetiology and type of neck injury in men's amateur rugby union: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollard Henry P

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a paucity of epidemiological data on neck injury in amateur rugby union populations. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, severity, aetiology and type of neck injury in Australian men's amateur rugby union. Methods Data was collected from a cohort of 262 participants from two Australian amateur men's rugby union clubs via a prospective cohort study design. A modified version of the Rugby Union Injury Report Form for Games and Training was used by the clubs physiotherapist or chiropractor in data collection. Results The participants sustained 90 (eight recurrent neck injuries. Exposure time was calculated at 31143.8 hours of play (12863.8 hours of match time and 18280 hours of training. Incidence of neck injury was 2.9 injuries/1000 player-hours (95%CI: 2.3, 3.6. As a consequence 69.3% neck injuries were minor, 17% mild, 6.8% moderate and 6.8% severe. Neck compression was the most frequent aetiology and was weakly associated with severity. Cervical facet injury was the most frequent neck injury type. Conclusions This is the first prospective cohort study in an amateur men's rugby union population since the inception of professionalism that presents injury rate, severity, aetiology and injury type data for neck injury. Current epidemiological data should be sought when evaluating the risks associated with rugby union football.

  12. The Efficacy of Repeated Cold Water Immersion on Recovery Following a Simulated Rugby Union Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sean; John, Pattison; Brown, Freddy; Hill, Jessica

    2017-09-06

    Training and athletic competition frequently results in exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of repeated cold water immersion (CWI) on recovery following a simulated rugby union match. Sixteen male, club level rugby players were matched for body mass and randomly assigned to either a CWI group or control (CON) group. Following the simulated rugby match the CWI group underwent 2 x 5 min immersions at a temperature of 10°C separated by 2.5 min seated at room temperature, whilst the CON group remained seated for 15 min. Creatine kinase (CK), perceived muscle soreness, counter movement jump (CMJ) and maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of the knee extensors were measured pre-exercise, post-exercise, 24 h and 48 h following exercise. Large effect sizes were observed for muscle soreness at 24 and 48 h post exercise with lower soreness values observed in the CWI group. Large effect sizes were observed for CMJ at all time points and at 24 and 48 h post for MVIC with improved recovery of muscle function observed in the CWI group compared to the CON group. Lastly a moderate effect size was observed for CK immediately post exercise followed by large effect sizes at 24 and 48h post exercise, with CK concentration blunted in the CWI group. Overall these findings provide some support for the use of CWI to enhance recovery from EIMD following a simulated rugby union match.

  13. Coupling tendencies during exploratory behaviours of competing players in rugby union dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Vanda; Passos, Pedro; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith; Diniz, Ana; Kelso, J A Scott

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated interpersonal coordination tendencies in 1vs.1 dyads in rugby union, here expressed by participants' movement velocity towards or away from the sideline as they competed to score or prevent a try. We examined whether coupling tendencies of members of each dyad shaped key performance outcomes (try or successful tackle). Data on movement displacement trajectories of eight male rugby union players (aged 11-12 years) were analysed during performance in 47 trials. To assess coordination tendencies during exploratory behaviours in the dyads, analyses of performance time series data were undertaken using variable time graphs, running correlations and cross-correlations. Results revealed distinct coupling patterns characterised by shifts between synchronous coordination and asynchronous coordination tendencies and uncoordinated actions. Observed behaviours were interpreted as attempts of competing participants to create and perceive possibilities for action while seeking to achieve specific performance goals. Findings also revealed that a variety of patterned relations between participants resulted in different performance outcomes.

  14. Position Affects Performance in Multiple-Object Tracking in Rugby Union Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Martín

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We report an experiment that examines the performance of rugby union players and a control group composed of graduate student with no sport experience, in a multiple-object tracking task. It compares the ability of 86 high level rugby union players grouped as Backs and Forwards and the control group, to track a subset of randomly moving targets amongst the same number of distractors. Several difficulties were included in the experimental design in order to evaluate possible interactions between the relevant variables. Results show that the performance of the Backs is better than that of the other groups, but the occurrence of interactions precludes an isolated groups analysis. We interpret the results within the framework of visual attention and discuss both, the implications of our results and the practical consequences.

  15. Rugby union injuries to the cervical spine and spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrie, Kenneth L; Cantu, Robert C; Chalmers, David J

    2002-01-01

    Injuries to the cervical spine are among the most serious injuries occurring as a result of participation in rugby. Outcomes of such injuries range from complete recovery to death, depending on the degree of spinal cord damage sustained. Much information has been gained regarding the mechanisms and frequency of such injuries, from case reports and case series studies. The most commonly reported mechanism of injury has been hyperflexion of the cervical spine, resulting in fracture dislocation of C4-C5 or C5-C6. Tracking both the trends of incidence of spinal injuries, and the effectiveness of injury prevention initiatives has proved difficult because of a lack of properly conducted epidemiological studies. Within the constraints of the research published to date, it appears that hookers and props have been at disproportionate risk of cervical spine injury, predominantly because of injuries sustained during scrummaging. While the scrum was the phase of play most commonly associated with spinal injuries throughout the 1980s in most rugby playing countries, there has been a trend through the 1990s of an increasing proportion of spinal injuries occurring in the tackle situation. The majority of injuries have occurred early in the season, when grounds tend to be harder, and players are lacking both practice and physical conditioning for the physical contact phases of the sport. A number of injury prevention measures have been launched, including changes to the laws of the game regarding scrummaging, and education programmes aimed at enforcing safe techniques and eliminating illegal play. Calls for case-registers and effective epidemiological studies have been made by researchers and physicians in most countries where rugby is widespread, but it appears to be only recently that definite steps have been made towards this goal. Well-designed epidemiological studies will be able to provide more accurate information about potential risk factors for injury such as age, grade

  16. Changes in strength over a 2-year period in professional rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Brendyn; Newton, Robert U; Cormie, Prue

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the magnitude of upper and lower body strength changes in highly trained professional rugby union players after 2 years of training. An additional purpose was to examine if the changes in strength were influenced by the starting strength level, lean mass index (LMI), or chronological age. This longitudinal investigation tracked maximal strength and body composition over 3 consecutive years in 20 professional rugby union athletes. Maximal strength in the bench press and back squat and body composition was assessed during preseason resistance training sessions each year. The athletes completed a very rigorous training program throughout the duration of this study consisting of numerous resistance, conditioning and skills training sessions every week. The primary findings of this study were as follows: (a) Maximal upper and lower body strength was increased by 6.5-11.5% after 2 years of training (p = 0.000-0.002 for bench press; p = 0.277-0.165 for squat); (b) magnitude of the improvement was negatively associated with initial strength level (r = -0.569 to -0.712, p ≤ 0.05); (c) magnitude of improvement in lower body maximal strength was positively related to the change in LMI (an indicator of hypertrophy; r = 0.692-0.880, p ≤ 0.05); and (d) magnitude of improvement was not associated with the age of professional rugby union athletes (r = -0.068 to -0.345). It appears particularly important for training programs to be designed for continued muscle hypertrophy in highly trained athletes. Even in professional rugby union athletes, this must be achieved in the face of high volumes of aerobic and skills training if strength is to be increased.

  17. Movement and physical demands of school and university rugby union match-play in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Dale; Weaving, Daniel; Phibbs, Padraic; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Roe, Gregory; Weakley, Jonathon; Hendricks, Sharief; Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben

    2017-01-01

    Background In England, rugby union is a popular sport and is widely played within schools. Despite the large participation numbers, the movement and physical demands of the sport and how they progress by age have not been explored. Method Ninety-six male rugby union players wore microtechnology devices during six rugby union matches within the education pathway to investigate the movement and physical demands of match-play. To quantify the positional differences and progression by age, data were obtained for participants at the under 16 (U16) (n=31 participants), under 18 (U18) (n=34 participants) and university (n=31 participants) levels. Players were further divided in forwards and backs. Data were analysed using magnitude-based inferences. Results For the movement demands, U16 total distance and ‘striding’ was likely higher for forwards than backs, whereas at U18, unclear differences were observed and from university players the inverse was observed (very likely). In all age groups sprint distance was likely to very likely greater for backs than forwards. Forwards had greater physical demands than backs at all age groups. For consecutive age groups, U16 had a likely higher relative distance than U18, and U18 had a likely lower relative distance than university players. Physical demands were similar across age groups for forwards, and greater for backs at older age groups. Conclusion The movement and physical demands of rugby union players participating in schools (U16 and U18), may not be as expected, however, the findings from university players show a similar pattern to the senior game. PMID:28879027

  18. Contact events in rugby union and their propensity to cause injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W; Brooks, John H M; Cancea, Rebecca J; Hall, John; Kemp, Simon P T

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of contact events in professional rugby union matches and to assess their propensity to cause injury. The study was a two-season (2003/2004 and 2005/2006) prospective cohort design. It included 645 professional rugby union players from 13 English Premiership rugby union clubs. The main outcome measures were: incidence of match contact events (events per game); incidence (injuries per 1000 player-hours and per 1000 contact events), risk (days lost per 1000 player-hours and per 1000 contact events) and diagnosis of injury; referee's decision. Risk factors were player-player contact, position on pitch and period of play. Tackles (221.0 events/game) and rucks (142.5 events/game) were the most common events and mauls (13.6%) and scrums (12.6%) the most penalised. Tackles (701.6 days/1000 player-hours) were responsible for the greatest loss of time but scrums (213.2 days lost/1000 events) and collisions (199.8 days lost/1000 events) presented the highest risk per event. Tackles were the game event responsible for the highest number of injuries and the greatest loss of time in rugby union because they were by far the most common contact event. Collisions were 70% more likely to result in an injury than a tackle and scrums carried a 60% greater risk of injury than a tackle. The relative propensities for contact events to cause injury were rated as: lineout--very low; ruck--low; maul and tackle--average; collision and scrum--high.

  19. Unsanctioned aggression in rugby union: relationships among aggressiveness, anger, athletic identity, and professionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, J P; Visek, A J

    2009-01-01

    Aggressive players who intentionally cause injury to their opponents are common in many sports, particularly collision sports such as Rugby Union. Although some acts of aggression fall within the rules (sanctioned), others do not (unsanctioned), with the latter tending to be less acceptable than the former. This study attempts to identify characteristics of players who are more likely to employ unsanctioned methods in order to injure an opponent. Male Rugby Union players completed questionnaires assessing aggressiveness, anger, past aggression, professionalization, and athletic identity. Players were assigned to one of two groups based on self-reported past unsanctioned aggression. Results indicated that demographic variables (e.g., age, playing position, or level of play) were not predictive of group membership. Measures of aggressiveness and professionalization were significant predictors; high scores on both indicated a greater probability of reporting the use of unsanctioned aggressive force for the sole purpose of causing injury or pain. In addition, players who had been taught how to execute aggressive illegal plays without detection were also more likely to report using excessive force to injure an opponent. Results provide further support that highly professionalized players may be more likely to use methods outside the constitutive rules of Rugby Union in order to intentionally injure their opponents. Results are discussed within the context of the increasing win-at-all-cost attitude that is becoming more prevalent in sport and its implications for youth athletes. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Physiological demands of women's rugby union: time-motion analysis and heart rate response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virr, Jody Lynn; Game, Alex; Bell, Gordon John; Syrotuik, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physical demands of women's rugby union match play using time-motion analysis and heart rate (HR) response. Thirty-eight premier club level female rugby players, ages 18-34 years were videotaped and HRs monitored for a full match. Performances were coded into 12 different movement categories: 5 speeds of locomotion (standing, walking, jogging, striding, sprinting), 4 forms of intensive non-running exertion (ruck/maul/tackle, pack down, scrum, lift) and 3 discrete activities (kick, jump, open field tackle). The main results revealed that backs spend significantly more time sprinting and walking whereas forwards spend more time in intensive non-running exertion and jogging. Forwards also had a significantly higher total work frequency compared to the backs, but a higher total rest frequency compared to the backs. In terms of HR responses, forwards displayed higher mean HRs throughout the match and more time above 80% of their maximum HR than backs. In summary, women's rugby union is characterised by intermittent bursts of high-intensity activity, where forwards and backs have similar anaerobic energy demands, but different specific match demands.

  1. Head impacts in a junior rugby league team measured with a wireless head impact sensor: an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Doug; Hume, Patria; Gissane, Conor; Clark, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency, magnitude, and distribution of head impacts sustained by players in a junior rugby league over a season of matches. METHODS The authors performed a prospective cohort analysis of impact magnitude, frequency, and distribution on data collected with instrumented XPatches worn behind the ear of players in an "under-11" junior rugby league team (players under 11 years old). RESULTS A total of 1977 impacts were recorded. Over the course of the study, players sustained an average of 116 impacts (average of 13 impacts per player per match). The measured linear acceleration ranged from 10g to 123g (mean 22g, median 16g, and 95th percentile 57g). The rotational acceleration ranged from 89 rad/sec(2) to 22,928 rad/sec(2) (mean 4041 rad/sec(2), median 2773 rad/sec(2), and 95th percentile 11,384 rad/sec(2)). CONCLUSIONS The level of impact severity based on the magnitude of impacts for linear and rotational accelerations recorded was similar to the impacts reported in studies of American junior and high school football, collegiate football, and youth ice hockey players, but the players in the rugby league cohort were younger, had less body mass, and played at a slower speed than the American players. Junior rugby league players are required to tackle the player to the ground and use a different tackle technique than that used in American football, likely increasing the rotational accelerations recorded at the head.

  2. Shoulder injuries in elite rugby union football matches: Epidemiology and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Juliana; McIntosh, Andrew S; Quarrie, Kenneth; Targett, Stephen

    2015-09-01

    Shoulder injuries in rugby union football have been the focus of few in-depth studies, despite their frequency and severity. The study's objective was to describe the incidence, patterns and mechanisms of shoulder injuries in rugby. Prospective cohort study of shoulder injury incidence and retrospective case-series study of shoulder injury mechanisms. Data were collected from Super Rugby matches from 2005 to 2010 involving elite level adult male rugby players. 7920 player participation hours and 100 shoulder injuries were recorded during 397 Super Rugby matches. The shoulder injury incidence rate was 13 per 1000 player hours (95% confidence interval 10-16). The mean number of days unavailable for selection due to these injuries was 37 (95% confidence interval 25-54). Tacklers sustained shoulder injuries at a higher rate than ball carriers (Rate Ratio=1.7 (95% confidence interval 0.5-5.3)). The most frequently reported injuries were those to the acromio-clavicular joint; dislocations resulted in the greatest amount of missed play. Using video analysis, 47 of the 100 shoulder injury events were successfully identified and analyzed. The main mechanisms of shoulder injury were contact with the ground with the shoulder/arm in horizontal adduction, flexion, and internal rotation; and impact to the lateral aspect of the shoulder with the elbow flexed and arm at the side. Direct impact to the shoulder, either through player-to-player contact or contact with the ground, is the main cause of shoulder injury. Methods to reduce injury risk, such as shoulder pads and tackle skills, require consideration. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Upper limb injury in rugby union football: results of a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Juliana; McIntosh, Andrew Stuart

    2013-04-01

    There have been few in-depth studies of upper limb injury epidemiology in rugby union football, despite reports that they accounted for between 14% and 28% of all rugby injuries. To report on upper limb injury incidence, injury severity and to identify the risk factors associated with upper limb injuries, for example, level of play, season (years) and playing position. Prospective cohort study across five rugby seasons from 2004 to 2008. Formal rugby competitions-suburban, provincial and international. 1475 adult male rugby players in Colts, Grade and Elite competitions. An upper limb injury resulting in a missed game and its characteristics. A total of 61 598 athletic exposures (AE) and 606 upper limb injuries were recorded. About 66% of the injuries were to the shoulder. The overall upper limb injury incidence rate (IIR) was 9.84 injuries/1000 AE (95% CI 9.06 to 10.62). Statistically significant associations were found between upper limb injuries and level of play; and between shoulder injuries and playing position (p<0.05). No association was found between upper limb and shoulder injuries and study year. The overall upper limb IIR decreased as the level of play increased; 10.74 upper limb injuries/1000 AE (95% CI 9.93 to 11.56) in Colts to 6.07 upper limb injuries/1000 AE (95% CI 5.46 to 6.69) in Elite. The upper limb IIR decreased as the level of play increased indicating that age, level of skill and playing experience may be risk factors for upper limb injury.

  4. Jejunal tackle: a case report of complete jejunal transection in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, William; Fischer, Jesse; Wakeman, Christopher

    2014-09-01

    Jejunal perforation as a result of blunt abdominal trauma during sport is particularly rare. We are aware of 6 reported cases of jejunal perforation in sport: 1 in hockey, 2 in football (soccer), and 3 in American football. This report presents the case of a 25-year-old professional rugby union player, who presented to an "After Hours" general practice clinic with increasing central abdominal and epigastric pain after a heavy tackle during an international match in New Zealand. Despite suffering complete jejunal transection, the patient continued to play on, only presenting to an After Hours general practice clinic 3 hours after the injury. The case demonstrates the remarkable physiological resilience of professional rugby players and acts as a reminder to maintain a high degree of suspicion for small bowel injury despite normal vital signs in healthy young patients with abdominal pain secondary to blunt trauma.

  5. Quantifying positional and temporal movement patterns in professional rugby union using global positioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Marc R; West, Daniel J; Crewther, Blair T; Cook, Christian J; Kilduff, Liam P

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the positional and temporal movement patterns of professional rugby union players during competition using global positioning system (GPS) units. GPS data were collected from 33 professional rugby players from 13 matches throughout the 2012-2013 season sampling at 10 Hz. Players wore GPS units from which information on distances, velocities, accelerations, exertion index, player load, contacts, sprinting and repeated high-intensity efforts (RHIE) were derived. Data files from players who played over 60 min (n = 112) were separated into five positional groups (tight and loose forwards; half, inside and outside backs) for match analysis. A further comparison of temporal changes in movement patterns was also performed using data files from those who played full games (n = 71). Significant positional differences were found for movement characteristics during performance (P drills that elicit specific adaptations and provide objective measures of preparedness. Knowledge of performance changes may be used when developing drills and should be considered when monitoring and evaluating performance.

  6. Movement patterns and heart rate recordings of South African Rugby Union referees during actual match–play refereeing / Kraak W.J.

    OpenAIRE

    Kraak, Wilbur Julio

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide research regarding the movement patterns, heart rate recordings and work–to–rest ratios of rugby union referees is very limited. It is therefore very important to extend research regarding this topic. The first objective of this dissertation was to determine the frequency, duration and intensity of movement patterns and work–to–rest ratio of different refereeing panels of South African Rugby Union referees during match–refereeing at the National Club Rugby Championship in Stellenbos...

  7. Effect of varied recovery interventions on markers of psychophysiological stress in professional rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Angus; Lewis, John; Gill, Nicholas; Gieseg, Steven P; Draper, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Rugby union is a physical demanding sport that requires optimum recovery between games to maintain performance levels. Analysis of four unique biochemical markers of stress is measured here to determine which recovery strategy currently in use by a professional team provides the necessary requirements for sustained performance. Urine and saliva samples were collected from 37 professional rugby players before, immediately after and 36 hours after five home games, and analysed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and high performance liquid chromatography for urinary myoglobin, total neopterin (NP; NP + 7,8-dihydroneopterin), salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A. Subjects completed a cold water immersion (CWI) or pool session (PS), donned compression garments, consumed protein and carbohydrate food and fluid, and slept for 8 hours post-game. The following day subjects choose from one or a combination of CWI, PS or active recovery/stretching to complete. There was no difference between the recovery protocols for cortisol, total NP, immunoglobulin A concentration or myoglobin at 36 hours post-game. Immunoglobulin A secretion rate significantly increased above pre-game levels at 36 hours post-game for all protocols; however, protocol three did not increase as much (p = 0.038). Total NP was also significantly increased above pre-game levels at 36 hours post-game for all protocols. This study provides evidence that the immediate post-game recovery intervention following a game of professional rugby union may be the most important aspect of psychophysiological player recovery, irrespective of the "next-day" intervention. The concentrations of total NP and immunoglobulin A suggest these professional rugby players are still in a state of recovery 36 hours post-game.

  8. Physiological and anthropometric characteristics of junior elite and sub-elite rugby league players, with special reference to starters and non-starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim; Kelly, Jason; Ralph, Steve; Driscoll, Damian

    2009-01-01

    While several studies have documented the physiological and anthropometric characteristics of senior rugby league players, investigations of the physical qualities of junior rugby league players are limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physical qualities of junior rugby league players competing at the elite and sub-elite level, and determine if pre-season fitness measures were significantly different for the players selected to play in the first game of the season (i.e. starters) compared to the players not selected (i.e. non-starters). Thirty-six junior sub-elite and 28 junior elite rugby league players participated in this study. All sub-elite players were registered with the same junior recreational rugby league club, while elite players were members of a National Rugby League club junior development program. Subjects underwent measurements of anthropometry (height, body mass, and sum of seven skinfolds), speed (10m, 20m, and 40m sprint), change of direction speed (505 test), estimated lower body power (vertical jump), and estimated maximal aerobic power (multi-stage fitness test) at the beginning of the competitive season. Elite players had better developed speed, change of direction speed, vertical jump, and maximal aerobic power than sub-elite players. Elite starters were taller and heavier than non-starters, while sub-elite starters were taller and had greater change of direction speed than non-starters. A high estimated maximal aerobic power was a common discriminator between starters and non-starters for both elite and sub-elite competitors. These findings demonstrate that some physical qualities can discriminate starters and non-starters in elite and sub-elite junior rugby league teams.

  9. Mechanisms and Factors Associated With Tackle-Related Injuries in South African Youth Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Nicholas; Lambert, Mike Ian; Viljoen, Wayne; Brown, James Craig; Readhead, Clint; den Hollander, Steve; Hendricks, Sharief

    2017-02-01

    The majority of injuries in rugby union occur during tackle events. The mechanisms and causes of these injuries are well established in senior rugby union. To use information from an injury database and assess video footage of tackle-related injuries in youth rugby union matches to identify environmental factors and mechanisms that are potentially confounding to these injuries. Descriptive epidemiological study. Injury surveillance was conducted at the under-18 Craven Week rugby tournament. Tackle-related injury information was used to identify injury events in match video footage (role-matched noninjury tackle events were identified for the cohort of injured players). Events were coded using match situational variables (precontact, contact, and postcontact). Relative risk ratio (RRR; ratio of probability of an injury or noninjury outcome occurring when a characteristic was observed) was reported by use of logistic regression. In comparison with the first quarter, injury risk was greater in the third (RRR = 9.75 [95% CI, 1.71-55.64]; P = .010) and fourth quarters (RRR = 6.97 [95% CI, 1.09-44.57]; P = .040) for ball carriers and in the fourth quarter (RRR = 9.63 [95% CI, 1.94-47.79]; P = .006) for tacklers. Ball carriers were less likely to be injured when they were aware of impending contact (RRR = 0.14 [95% CI, 0.03-0.66]; P = .012) or when they executed a moderate fend (hand-off) (RRR = 0.22 [95% CI, 0.06-0.84]; P = .026). Tacklers were less likely to be injured when performing shoulder tackles (same side as leading leg) in comparison to an arm-only tackle (RRR = 0.02 [95% CI, 0.001-0.79]; P = .037). Ball carriers (RRR = 0.09 [95% CI, 0.01-0.89]; P = .040) and tacklers (RRR = 0.02 [95% CI, 0.001-0.32]; P =.006) were less likely to be injured when initial contact was made with the tackler's shoulder/arm instead of his head/neck. The relative risk of tackle-related injury was higher toward the end of matches. Incorrect technique may contribute to increased injury

  10. Skills Associated with Line Breaks in Elite Rugby Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve den Hollander, James Brown, Michael Lambert, Paul Treu, Sharief Hendricks

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability of the attacking team to break through the defensive line is a key indicator of success as it creates opportunities to score tries. The aim of this study was to analyse line breaks and identify the associated skills and playing characteristics. The 2013 Super Rugby season (125 games was analysed, in which 362 line breaks were identified and coded using variables that assessed team patterns and non-contact attacking skills in the phases preceding the line break. There was an average of 3 line breaks per game, with 39% of line breaks resulting in a try. Line breaks occurred when the ball-carrier was running fast [61%, x2(4 = 25.784, p = 0.000, Cramer’s v = 0.1922, weak]. At a moderate distance, short lateral passes (19% and skip passes (15% attributed to the highest percentage of line breaks [x2(26 = 50.899, p = 0.036, Cramer’s v = 0.2484, moderate]. Faster defensive line speeds resulted in more line breaks [x2(12 = 61.703, p < 0.001, Cramer’s v = 0.3026, moderate]. Line breaks are associated with overall team success and try scoring opportunities. Awareness of the defenders line speed and depth, fast running speed when receiving the ball and quick passing between attackers to the outside backs creates line break opportunities. During training, coaches should emphasise the movement speed of the ball between attackers and manipulate the speed and distance of the defenders.

  11. Training volume and soft tissue injury in professional and non-professional rugby union players: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Shane; Halaki, Mark; Orr, Rhonda

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between training volume and soft tissue injury incidence, and characterise soft tissue injury in rugby union players. A systematic search of electronic databases was performed. The search strategy combined terms covering: training volume and injury, and rugby union, and players of all levels. Medline, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Embase, PubMed. Studies were included if they reported: male rugby union players, a clear definition of a rugby union injury, the amount of training volume undertaken by participants, and epidemiological data for soft-tissue injuries including the number or incidence. 15 studies were eligible for inclusion. Overall match and training injury incidence ranged from 3.3 to 218.0 injuries/1000 player match hours and 0.1-6.1 injuries/1000 player training hours, respectively. Muscle and tendon as well as joint (non-bone) and ligament injuries were the most frequently occurring injuries. The lower limb was the most prevalent injury location. Injury incidence was higher in professional rugby union players than non-professional players. Contact events were responsible for the greatest injury incidence. For non-contact mechanisms, running was responsible for the highest injury incidence. Inconsistent injury definitions hindered reliable comparison of injury data. The lack of reporting training volumes in hours per player per week limited the ability to investigate associations between training volume and injury incidence. A higher level of play may result in higher match injury incidence. Muscle and tendon injuries were the most common type of soft tissue injury, while the lower limb was the most common location of injury in rugby union players, and running was responsible for the highest injury incidence during non-contact events. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Time loss injuries compromise team success in Elite Rugby Union: a 7-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sean; Trewartha, Grant; Kemp, Simon P T; Brooks, John H M; Fuller, Colin W; Taylor, Aileen E; Cross, Matthew J; Stokes, Keith A

    2016-06-01

    A negative association between injuries and team success has been demonstrated in professional football, but the nature of this association in elite Rugby Union teams is currently unclear. To assess the association between injury burden measures and team success outcomes within professional Rugby Union teams. A seven-season prospective cohort design was used to record all time-loss injuries incurred by English Premiership players. Associations between team success measures (league points tally and Eurorugby Club Ranking (ECR)) and injury measures (injury burden and injury days per team-match) were modelled, both within (changes from season to season) and between (differences averaged over all seasons) teams. Thresholds for the smallest worthwhile change in league points tally and ECR were 3 points and 2.6%, respectively. Data from a total of 1462 players within 15 Premiership teams were included in the analysis. We found clear negative associations between injury measures and team success (70-100% likelihood), with the exception of between-team differences for injury days per team-match and ECR, which was unclear. A reduction in injury burden of 42 days (90% CI 30 to 70) per 1000 player hours (22% of mean injury burden) was associated with the smallest worthwhile change in league points tally. Clear negative associations were found between injury measures and team success, and moderate reductions in injury burden may have worthwhile effects on competition outcomes for professional Rugby Union teams. These findings may be useful when communicating the value of injury prevention initiatives within this elite sport setting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. On-field Performances of Rugby Union Players--A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziv, Gal; Lidor, Ronnie

    2016-03-01

    A review of 16 studies examining on-field performances of rugby union players was conducted. Based on this review, we discuss a number of methodological and measurement concerns, and provide practical implications for practitioners who develop training programs for rugby players. Among the main findings that emerged from our review were (a) rugby is an intermittent sport in nature with many tempo changes, ranging from high-intensity sprints and static exertion to jogging, standing, and walking, and (b) differences in on-field performance among players playing different positions are common, and are especially apparent among forwards, who are involved in more static high-intensity efforts, and backs, who spend more time in high-intensity running. Among the methodological concerns in these studies are the lack of a standardized method of coding movement categories and the lack of data about the opposing team. We suggest that practitioners design training programs, which reflect the specific needs of players playing different positions, and that they use up-to-date technology to accurately assess players' on-field efforts.

  14. Scientific production in Rugby union betwen 1998-2007 LA PRODUCCIÓN CIENTÍFICA EN RUGBY UNION ENTRE 1998-2007 [Scientific production in Rugby union betwen 1998-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Ortega

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractQuantitative scientific production analysis is used to detect the activity, structure, and evolution of an area of knowledge and to quantify their results. The purpose of this study was to identify, classify, and categorize the scientific literature in the field of rugby union that was indexed on the ISI Web of Knowledge (WOK between 1998 and 2007. A total of 136 papers were found. The characteristics of the studies that were found were: a 99.3% were in English; b 83.5% were research studies; c 51.4% were about injuries in the sport; d the majority of the publications were from anglosaxon institutions, and e; an increase in the number of publications in the last five years (15-20 publications per year was found.Key words: team sport, bibliometrics, research, databaseResumenEl análisis de la producción científica por medios cuantitativos sirve para detectar la actividad, estructura, y evolución de un área del conocimiento y cuantificar sus resultados. El objetivo del presente estudio fue identificar, clasificar y categorizar la literatura científica en el campo del rugby union, indexada en la plataforma Isi Web Of Knowledge (WOK entre los años 1998 y 2007. Se analizaron las siguientes variables: a Idiomas; b Temas de investigación (condición física, psicología, sociología, técnica-táctica deportiva, fisiología, materiales, gestión, enseñanza, y teoría del entrenamiento; c Revistas; d Instituciones; y e Año. El muestra final objeto de estudio fueron 136 trabajos. Las características principales de estos estudios fueron que: a el 99,3% eran en ingles; b el 83,5% eran estudios de investigación; c el 51,4% era sobre lesiones del deporte; d la mayoría de las publicaciones son de instituciones anglosajonas, y; e se observa un incremento del número de publicaciones en los últimos cinco años (15-20 publicaciones al año. Palabras clave: deporte, bibliometría, investigación, base de datos

  15. Long-term training-induced changes in sprinting speed and sprint momentum in elite rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Matthew J; Sheppard, Jeremy M; Gabbett, Tim J; Newton, Robert U

    2014-10-01

    Speed and sprint momentum are considered to be important physical qualities for rugby. The purpose of the study was to understand the development of these qualities in senior and junior international rugby players. In part 1 of the study, a group of senior (n = 38) and junior (n = 31) players were tested for speed over 40 m. Initial sprint velocity (ISV), maximal sprint velocity (MSV), initial sprint momentum (ISM), and maximal sprint momentum (MSM) were calculated using 10-m splits. In part 2 of the study, a group of junior (n = 12) and senior (n = 15) players were tracked over a 2-year period for body mass, ISV, MSV, ISM, and MSM. In part 1, senior backs and forwards were not found to have significantly greater ISV and MSV than junior players but were found to have greater ISM and MSM. Forwards were found to have significantly greater ISM and MSM than backs but significantly lower ISV and MSV than backs. In part 2, no significant differences were found over the 2 years between senior and junior players, but greater effect sizes for juniors were generally found when compared with seniors for improvements in ISV (d = 0.73 vs. 0.79), MSV (d = 1.09 vs. 0.68), ISM (d = 0.96 vs. 0.54), and MSM (d = 1.15 vs. 0.50). Sprint momentum is a key discriminator between senior and junior players, and large changes can be made by junior players as they transition into senior rugby. Speed appears to peak for players in their early 20s but sprint momentum appears to be more trainable.

  16. Complex dynamics in the distribution of players’ scoring performance in Rugby Union world cups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuront, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    The evolution of the scoring performance of Rugby Union players is investigated over the seven rugby world cups (RWC) that took place from 1987 to 2011, and a specific attention is given to how they may have been impacted by the switch from amateurism to professionalism that occurred in 1995. The distribution of the points scored by individual players, Ps, ranked in order of performance were well described by the simplified canonical law Ps∝(, where r is the rank, and ϕ and α are the parameters of the distribution. The parameter α did not significantly change from 1987 to 2007 (α=0.92±0.03), indicating a negligible effect of professionalism on players’ scoring performance. In contrast, the parameter ϕ significantly increased from ϕ=1.32 for 1987 RWC, ϕ=2.30 for 1999 to 2003 RWC and ϕ=5.60 for 2007 RWC, suggesting a progressive decrease in the relative performance of the best players. Finally, the sharp decreases observed in both α(α=0.38) and ϕ(ϕ=0.70) in the 2011 RWC indicate a more even distribution of the performance of individuals among scorers, compared to the more heterogeneous distributions observed from 1987 to 2007, and suggest a sharp increase in the level of competition leading to an increase in the average quality of players and a decrease in the relative skills of the top players. Note that neither α nor ϕ significantly correlate with traditional performance indicators such as the number of points scored by the best players, the number of games played by the best players, the number of points scored by the team of the best players or the total number of points scored over each RWC. This indicates that the dynamics of the scoring performance of Rugby Union players is influenced by hidden processes hitherto inaccessible through standard performance metrics; this suggests that players’ scoring performance is connected to ubiquitous phenomena such as anomalous diffusion.

  17. Spinal muscle activity in simulated rugby union scrummaging is affected by different engagement conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzola, D; Stone, B; Holsgrove, T P; Trewartha, G; Preatoni, E

    2016-04-01

    Biomechanical studies of rugby union scrummaging have focused on kinetic and kinematic analyses, while muscle activation strategies employed by front-row players during scrummaging are still unknown. The aim of the current study was to investigate the activity of spinal muscles during machine and live scrums. Nine male front-row forwards scrummaged as individuals against a scrum machine under "crouch-touch-set" and "crouch-bind-set" conditions, and against a two-player opposition in a simulated live condition. Muscle activities of the sternocleidomastoid, upper trapezius, and erector spinae were measured over the pre-engagement, engagement, and sustained-push phases. The "crouch-bind-set" condition increased muscle activity of the upper trapezius and sternocleidomastoid before and during the engagement phase in machine scrummaging. During the sustained-push phase, live scrummaging generated higher activities of the erector spinae than either machine conditions. These results suggest that the pre-bind, prior to engagement, may effectively prepare the cervical spine by stiffening joints before the impact phase. Additionally, machine scrummaging does not replicate the muscular demands of live scrummaging for the erector spinae, and for this reason, we advise rugby union forwards to ensure scrummaging is practiced in live situations to improve the specificity of their neuromuscular activation strategies in relation to resisting external loads. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effect of in-season creatine supplementation on body composition and performance in rugby union football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilibeck, Philip D; Magnus, Charlene; Anderson, Matthew

    2007-12-01

    Rugby union football requires muscular strength and endurance, as well as aerobic endurance. Creatine supplementation may enhance muscular performance, but it is unclear if it would interfere with aerobic endurance during running because of increased body mass. The purpose of this study was to determine if creatine supplementation during 8 weeks of a season of rugby union football can increase muscular performance, without negatively affecting aerobic endurance. Rugby union football players were randomized to receive 0.1 g.kg(-1).d(-1) creatine monohydrate (n=9) or placebo (n=9) during 8 weeks of the rugby season. Players practiced twice per week for approximately 2 h per session and played one 80 min game per week. Before and after the 8 weeks, players were measured for body composition (air displacement plethysmography), muscular endurance (number of repetitions at 75% of one repetition maximum (1 RM) for bench press and leg press), and aerobic endurance (Leger shuttle-run test with 1 min stages of progressively increasing speed). There were time main effects for body mass (-0.7+/-0.4 kg; p=0.05), fat mass (-1.9+/-0.8 kg; prugby union football season is effective for increasing muscular endurance, but has no effect on body composition or aerobic endurance.

  19. Physical game demands in elite rugby union: a global positioning system analysis and possible implications for rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Garrett F; Green, Brian S; Pook, Paul T; Toolan, Eoin; O'Connor, Sean P

    2011-08-01

    Descriptive. To evaluate the physical demands of an international Rugby Union-level game using a global positioning system (GPS). Elite Rugby Union teams currently employ the latest technology to monitor and evaluate physical demands of training and games on their players. GPS data from 2 players, a back and a forward, were collected during an international Rugby Union game. Locomotion speed, total body load, and body load sustained in tackles and scrums were analyzed. Players completed an average distance of 6715 m and spent the major portion of the game standing or walking, interspersed with medium- and high-intensity running activities. The back performed a higher number of high-intensity sprints and reached a greater maximal speed. Body load data revealed that high levels of gravitational force are sustained in tackling and scrum tasks. The current study provides a detailed GPS analysis of the physical demands of international Rugby Union players. These data, when combined with game video footage, may assist sports medicine professionals in understanding the demands of the game and mechanism of injury, as well as improving injury rehabilitation.

  20. Concussions and Head Injuries in English Community Rugby Union Match Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Simon P; Trewartha, Grant; England, Michael; Goodison, William; Stokes, Keith A

    2017-02-01

    Previous research has described general injury patterns in community-level rugby union, but specific information on time-loss head injuries has not been reported. To establish the incidence and nature of significant time-loss head injuries in English community rugby match play, and to identify the injury risk for specific contact events. Descriptive epidemiology study. Over 6 seasons, injury information was collected from 46 (2009-2010), 67 (2010-2011), 76 (2011-2012), 50 (2012-2013), 67 (2013-2014), and 58 (2014-2015) English community rugby clubs (Rugby Football Union levels 3-9) over a total of 175,940 hours of player match exposure. Club injury management staff reported information for all head injuries sustained during match play whereby the player was absent for 8 days or greater. Clubs were subdivided into semiprofessional (mean player age, 24.6 ± 4.7 years), amateur (24.9 ± 5.1 years), and recreational (25.6 ± 6.1 years) playing levels. Contact events from a sample of 30 matches filmed over seasons 2009-2010, 2010-2011, and 2011-2012 provided mean values for the frequency of contact events. The overall incidence for time-loss head injuries was 2.43 injuries per 1000 player match hours, with a higher incidence for the amateur (2.78; 95% CI, 2.37-3.20) compared with recreational (2.20; 95% CI, 1.86-2.53) ( P = .032) playing level but not different to the semiprofessional (2.31; 95% CI, 1.83-2.79) playing level. Concussion was the most common time-loss head injury, with 1.46 per 1000 player match hours. The tackle event was associated with 64% of all head injuries and 74% of all concussions. There was also a higher risk of injuries per tackle (0.33 per 1000 events; 95% CI, 0.30-0.37) compared with all other contact events. Concussion was the most common head injury diagnosis, although it is likely that this injury was underreported. Continuing education programs for medical staff and players are essential for the improved identification and management of

  1. Tackle characteristics and injury in a cross section of rugby union football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Andrew S; Savage, Trevor N; McCrory, Paul; Fréchède, Bertrand O; Wolfe, Rory

    2010-05-01

    The tackle is the game event in rugby union most associated with injury. This study's main aims were to measure tackle characteristics from video using a qualitative protocol, to assess whether the characteristics differed by level of play, and to measure the associations between tackle characteristics and injury. A cohort study was undertaken. The cohort comprised male rugby players in the following levels: younger than 15 yr, 18 yr, and 20 yr, grade, and elite (Super 12 and Wallabies). All tackle events and technique characteristics were coded in 77 game halves using a standardized qualitative protocol. Game injuries and missed-game injuries were identified and correlated with tackle events. A total of 6618 tackle events, including 81 resulting in a game injury, were observed and coded in the 77 game halves fully analyzed (145 tackle events per hour). An increase in the proportion of active shoulder tackles was observed from younger than 15 yr (13%) to elite (31%). Younger players engaged in more passive tackles and tended to stay on their feet more than experienced players. Younger than 15 yr rugby players had a significantly lower risk of tackle game injury compared with elite players. No specific tackle technique was observed to be associated with a significantly increased risk of game injury. There was a greater risk of game injury associated with two or more tacklers involved in the tackle event, and the greatest risk was associated with simultaneous contact by tacklers, after adjusting for level of play. Tackle characteristics differed between levels of play. The number of tacklers and the sequence of tackler contact with the ball carrier require consideration from an injury prevention perspective.

  2. Does player time-in-game affect tackle technique in elite level rugby union?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Gregory J; Denvir, Karl; Farrell, Garreth; Simms, Ciaran K

    2017-07-04

    It has been hypothesised that fatigue may be a major factor in tackle-related injury risk in rugby union and hence more injuries occur in the later stages of a game. The aim of this study is to identify changes in ball carrier or tackler proficiency characteristics, using elite level match video data, as player time-in-game increases. Qualitative observational cohort study. Three 2014/15 European Rugby Champions Cup games were selected for ball carrier and tackler proficiency analysis. Analysis was only conducted on players who started and remained on the field for the entire game. A separate analysis was conducted on 10 randomly selected 2014/15 European Rugby Champions Cup/Pro 12 games to assess the time distribution of tackles throughout a game. A Chi-square test and one-way way ANOVA with post-hoc testing was conducted to identify significant differences (pgame, respectively. Player time-in-game did not affect tackle proficiency for both the ball carrier and tackler. Any results that showed statistical significance did not indicate a trend of deterioration in proficiency with increased player time-in-game. The time distribution of tackles analysis indicated that more tackles occurring in the final quarter of the game than the first (p=0.04) and second (p=game does not affect tackler or ball carrier tackle technique proficiency at the elite level. More tackles occurring in the final quarter of a game provides an alternative explanation to more tackle-related injuries occurring at this stage. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of competition on the sleep patterns of elite rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, David A; Jones, Rhys M; Kilduff, Liam P; Cook, Christian J

    2015-01-01

    No published research has assessed sleep patterns of elite rugby union players following match-play. The present study examined sleep patterns of professional rugby union players, prior and post-match-play, to assess the influence of competition. Twenty-eight male rugby union players (24.4 ± 2.9 years, 103.9 ± 12.2 kg) competed in one of four competitive home matches. Player's sleep behaviours were monitored continuously using an Actiwatch® from two days before the match, until three days post-match. Repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant differences across the time points measured for time to bed (F = 26.425, η(2)  = 0.495, p < .001), get up time (F = 21.175, η(2) = 0.440, p < .001), time spent in bed (F = 10.669, η(2) = 0.283, p < .001), time asleep (F = 8.752, η(2) = 0.245, p < .001) and percentage of time moving (F = 4.602, η(2) = 0.146 p < .05). Most notable, post hocs revealed a significant increase for time in bed the night before the match (p < .01; 95% CI = 0 : 10-1 : 28 h; 9.7 ± 13.5%) compared with the reference night sleep. Furthermore, time asleep significantly decreased post-match (p < .05; 95% CI = -0:03 to -1:59 h; -19.5 ± 19.8%) compared to two nights pre-match. Across all time points, sleep latency and efficiency for most players were considered abnormal compared to that expected in normal populations. The results demonstrate that sleep that is deprived post-match may have detrimental effects on the recovery process.

  4. MODIFICATION OF AGILITY RUNNING TECHNIQUE IN REACTION TO A DEFENDER IN RUGBY UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keane W. Wheeler

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional kinematic analysis examined agility running technique during pre-planned and reactive performance conditions specific to attacking ball carries in rugby union. The variation to running technique of 8 highly trained rugby union players was compared between agility conditions (pre-planned and reactive and also agility performance speeds (fast, moderate and slow. Kinematic measures were used to determine the velocity of the centre of mass (COM in the anteroposterior (running speed and mediolateral (lateral movement speed planes. The position of foot-strike and toe-off was also examined for the step prior to the agility side- step (pre-change of direction phase and then the side-step (change of direction phase. This study demonstrated that less lateral movement speed towards the intended direction change occurred during reactive compared to pre-planned conditions at pre-change of direction (0.08 ± 0.28 m·s-1 and 0.42 ± 0.25 m·s-1, respectively and change of direction foot-strikes (0.25 ± 0.42 m·s-1 and 0.69 ± 0.43 m·s-1, respectively. Less lateral movement speed during reactive conditions was associated with greater lateral foot displacement (44.52 ± 6.10% leg length at the change of direction step compared to pre-planned conditions (41.35 ± 5.85%. Importantly, the anticipation abilities during reactive conditions provided a means to differentiate between speeds of agility performance, with faster performances displaying greater lateral movement speed at the change of direction foot- strike (0.52 ± 0.34 m·s-1 compared to moderate (0.20 ± 0.37 m·s-1 and slow (-0.08 ± 0.31 m·s-1. The changes to running technique during reactive conditions highlight the need to incorporate decision-making in rugby union agility programs

  5. Incidence and Factors Associated With Concussion Injuries at the 2011 to 2014 South African Rugby Union Youth Week Tournaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Fie, Sarah; Brown, James; Hendricks, Sharief; Posthumus, Michael; Readhead, Clint; Lambert, Mike; September, Alison V; Viljoen, Wayne

    2016-09-01

    To determine the concussion incidence and to identify factors associated with concussion in South African youth rugby union players. Prospective cohort study. Injury surveillance was completed at the South African Rugby Union Youth Week tournaments (under-13, under-16, and under-18 age groups). South African youth rugby union players. A total of 7216 players participated in 531 matches between 2011 and 2014. None. Concussion incidence was calculated per 1000 player-match-hours with 95% CIs. Poisson regression was used to calculate the incidence rate ratio (IRR) between factors (age, time period, playing position, and activity at the time of concussion) potentially associated with concussions. The concussion incidence was 6.8/1000 player-match-hours (95% CI, 5.5-8.1) across all age groups. Under-13s (IRR, 1.5; P = 0.09) and under-16s (IRR, 1.7; P = 0.03) had higher concussion incidence rates than the under-18 age group. The incidence was higher in the third (IRR, 2.1; P = 0.04) and fourth (IRR, 2.5; P = 0.01) quarters of matches compared with the first quarter. Sixty-two percent of concussions occurred in the tackle situation. The tackler had a 4-fold greater concussion rate (IRR, 4.3; P rugby. The evidence highlighted in this study may contribute to targeted concussion prevention strategies and provide a baseline against which the effectiveness of future interventions can be measured.

  6. An investigation of shoulder forces in active shoulder tackles in rugby union football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Juliana; McIntosh, Andrew S; Fréchède, Bertrand

    2011-11-01

    In rugby union football the tackle is the most frequently executed skill and one most associated with injury, including shoulder injury to the tackler. Despite the importance of the tackle, little is known about the magnitude of shoulder forces in the tackle and influencing factors. The objectives of the study were to measure the shoulder force in the tackle, as well as the effects of shoulder padding, skill level, side of body, player size, and experimental setting on shoulder force. Experiments were conducted in laboratory and field settings using a repeated measures design. Thirty-five participants were recruited to the laboratory and 98 to the field setting. All were male aged over 18 years with rugby experience. The maximum force applied to the shoulder in an active shoulder tackle was measured with a custom built forceplate incorporated into a 45 kg tackle bag. The overall average maximum shoulder force was 1660 N in the laboratory and 1997 N in the field. This difference was significant. The shoulder force for tackling without shoulder pads was 1684 N compared to 1635 N with shoulder pads. There was no difference between the shoulder forces on the dominant and non-dominant sides. Shoulder force reduced with tackle repetition. No relationship was observed between player skill level and size. A substantial force can be applied to the shoulder and to an opponent in the tackle. This force is within the shoulder's injury tolerance range and is unaffected by shoulder pads.

  7. KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF LINE-OUT THROWING IN ELITE INTERNATIONAL RUGBY UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark G.L. Sayers

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The rugby union line-out is a key aspect of game play and involves players from both teams contesting for the ball after it has been thrown in from the side line. Successful lines-out throws require the ball to be delivered accurately to the hands of a jumping and/or lifted team mate (approximately 3-3.5 m off the ground over distances of between 5- 18 m. Previous research has suggested considerable inter and intra-individual differences in the throwing techniques of international level players. Accordingly, this project investigated the interrelationships between accuracy and the line-out throwing characteristics of three elite international rugby players, and then analyzed whether these changed for throws over increasing length. Three-dimensional (3D data were developed from video footage (50 Hz of three elite international subjects for 30 throws over three distances (6 m, 10 m, and 15 m. Results showed notable differences between subjects in many variables at each of the key throw phases. However, several variables such as the degree of trunk flexion at the end of the backswing and at ball release, coupled with elbow flexion angle at ball release remained constant as throw length increased. All subjects exhibited high levels of consistency in movement patterns across all throw lengths. Findings indicated that these high performance line-out throwers shared several common characteristics that will provide useful guides in the development of training programs

  8. Neuromuscular performance of elite rugby union players and relationships with salivary hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewther, Blair T; Lowe, Tim; Weatherby, Robert P; Gill, Nicholas; Keogh, Justin

    2009-10-01

    This study compared the neuromuscular performance (speed, power, strength) of elite rugby union players, by position, and examined the relationship between player performance and salivary hormones, by squad and position. Thirty-four professional male rugby players were assessed for running speed (10-m, 20-m or 30-m sprints), concentric mean (MP) and peak power (PP) during a 70-kg squat jump (SJ) and 50-kg bench press throw (BT), and estimated 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength for a box squat (BS) and bench press (BP). Tests were performed on separate days with absolute and normalized (power and strength only) values computed. Saliva was collected before each test and assayed for testosterone (Sal-T) and cortisol (Sal-C). In absolute terms, the backs demonstrated greater speed and BT MP, whereas the forwards produced greater SJ PP and MP and BS 1RM (p 0.05). A comparison (absolute and normalized) of BT PP showed no positional differences (p > 0.05), whereas BP 1RM was greater for the forwards (p neuromuscular performance and hormone secretion patterns. Based on these findings, it was suggested that training to increase whole-body and muscle mass might facilitate general performance improvements. Training prescription might also benefit from acute and chronic hormone monitoring to identify those individuals likely to respond more to hormonal change.

  9. Subclavian Artery Pseudoaneurysm Formation 3 Months after a Game of Rugby Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Evans

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoaneurysms of the subclavian artery remain a rare complication after fracture of the clavicle. We report a case of delayed diagnosis of a subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm after a closed fracture of the clavicle in a 15-year-old patient, 3 months after the original injury while playing rugby union. Despite several attendances to the Emergency Department with vague symptoms, the final diagnosis was confirmed by duplex ultrasound and Computed Tomography of the thorax. Surgical repair was indicated due to acute limb ischaemia from distal embolisation from a large pseudoaneurysm, with the patient making a full recovery. This case highlights the need for clinical vigilance when assessing patients, particularly on repeated occasions when their recovery appears to be impaired. A thorough history and clinical examination can raise suspicion of even rare occurrences and aid prompt management.

  10. Changes in Adductor Strength After Competition in Academy Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Gregory A B; Phibbs, Padraic J; Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben L; Read, Dale B; Weakley, Jonathon J; Darrall-Jones, Joshua D

    2016-02-01

    This study determined the magnitude of change in adductor strength after a competitive match in academy rugby union players and examined the relationship between locomotive demands of match-play and changes in postmatch adductor strength. A within-subject repeated measures design was used. Fourteen academy rugby union players (age, 17.4 ± 0.8 years; height, 182.7 ± 7.6 cm; body mass, 86.2 ± 11.6 kg) participated in the study. Each player performed 3 maximal adductor squeezes at 45° of hip flexion before and immediately, 24, 48, and 72 hours postmatch. Global positioning system was used to assess locomotive demands of match-play. Trivial decreases in adductor squeeze scores occurred immediately (-1.3 ± 2.5%; effect size [ES] = -0.11 ± 0.21; likely, 74%) and 24 hours after match (-0.7 ± 3%; ES = -0.06 ± 0.25; likely, 78%), whereas a small but substantial increase occurred at 48 hours (3.8 ± 1.9%; ES = 0.32 ± 0.16; likely, 89%) before reducing to trivial at 72 hours after match (3.1 ± 2.2%; ES = 0.26 ± 0.18; possibly, 72%). Large individual variation in adductor strength was observed at all time points. The relationship between changes in adductor strength and distance covered at sprinting speed (VO2max ≥ 81%) was large immediately postmatch (p = 0.056, r = -0.521), moderate at 24 hours (p = 0.094, r = -0.465), and very large at 48 hours postmatch (p = 0.005, r = -0.707). Players who cover greater distances sprinting may suffer greater adductor fatigue in the first 48 hours after competition. The assessment of adductor strength using the adductor squeeze test should be considered postmatch to identify players who may require additional rest before returning to field-based training.

  11. Positional demands of international rugby union: evaluation of player actions and movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrie, Kenneth L; Hopkins, Will G; Anthony, Mike J; Gill, Nicholas D

    2013-07-01

    In rugby union, published analyses of actions and movements of players during matches have been limited to small samples of games at regional or national level. To analyse movements and activities of players in international rugby union matches with a sample size sufficient to clearly delineate positional roles. Observational study. Actions of 763 players were coded from video recordings of 90 international matches played by the New Zealand national team (the All Blacks) from 2004 to 2010. Movements of players were coded for 27 of these matches via a semi-automated player-tracking system. Movements and activities of all players from both teams were coded. Cluster analysis of activities and time-motion variables produced five subgroups of forwards (props, hookers, locks, flankers, Number 8 forwards) and five subgroups of backs (scrum-half, fly-half, midfield backs, wings and fullbacks). Forwards sustained much higher contact loads per match than backs, via scrums, rucks, tackles and mauls. Mean distance covered per match ranged from 5400 to 6300m, with backs generally running further than forwards. There were marked differences between positional groups in the amount of distance covered at various speeds. The amount of play per match varies by position due to differences in rates at which players are substituted. The distance covered by players at relatively fast running speeds (in excess of 5ms(-1)) appears to be higher during international matches than when competing at lower levels of the professional game. The specific match demands for positional groups need to be considered when managing player workloads. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Strength and Conditioning and Concurrent Training Practices in Elite Rugby Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Thomas W; Smith, Andrew; Macnaughton, Lindsay S; French, Duncan N

    2016-12-01

    Jones, TW, Smith, A, Macnaughton, LS, and French, DN. Strength and Conditioning and Concurrent Training Practices in Elite Rugby Union. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3354-3366, 2016-There is limited published research on strength and conditioning (S&C) practices in elite rugby union (RU). Information regarding testing batteries and programme design would provide valuable information to both applied practitioners and researchers investigating the influence of training interventions or preperformance strategies. The aim of this study was to detail the current practices of S&C coaches and sport scientists working in RU. A questionnaire was developed that comprised 7 sections: personal details, physical testing, strength and power development, concurrent training, flexibility development, unique aspects of the programme, and any further relevant information regarding prescribed training programmes. Forty-three (41 men, 2 women; age: 33.1 ± 5.3 years) of 52 (83%) coaches responded to the questionnaire. The majority of practitioners worked with international level and/or professional RU athletes. All respondents believed strength training benefits RU performance and reported that their athletes regularly performed strength training. The clean and back squat were rated the most important prescribed exercises. Forty-one (95%) respondents reported prescribing plyometric exercises and 38 (88%) indicated that periodization strategies were used. Forty-two (98%) practitioners reported conducting physical testing, with body composition being the most commonly tested phenotype. Thirty-three (77%) practitioners indicated that the potential muted strength development associated with concurrent training was considered when programming and 27 (63%) believed that strength before aerobic training was more favorable for strength development than vice versa. This research represents the only published survey to date of S&C practices in northern and southern hemisphere RU.

  13. Fluctuations in running and skill-related performance in elite rugby union match-play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacome, Mathieu; Piscione, Julien; Hager, Jean-Philippe; Carling, Chris

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated end-game and transient changes in running activities and whether these were concomitantly associated with reductions in skill-related performance in senior international rugby union match-play. Altogether, 18 official matches were analysed (322 individual observations) using computerised video-based tracking and event coding (Amisco Pro(®), SUP, Nice, France). In forwards and backs, trivial to small reductions (% difference: -2.1, ±1.3 to -10.0, ±4.0%) in total distance and that covered at high speeds (>18.0 km h(-1)) occurred in the second- versus the first-half while there were trivial differences in skill-related performance measures (-2.3, ±4.5 to 7.5, ±14.0%). In both positions, small to moderate declines (-42, ±10 to -21, ±7%) occurred in high-speed running in the final 10-min and 5-min periods versus mean values for all other 10-min and 5-min periods throughout the game while only small changes (-18, ±51 to 13, ±41%) in skill-related performance were observed. Trivial changes in running and skill-related performance (-11, ±74 to 7, ±39%) were observed in the 5-min period immediately following the most intense 5-minute periods of play compared to mean performance over the other 5-min periods. These findings suggest that international rugby union players were generally able to maintain skill-related performance over the course of match-play even when declines in running performance occurred.

  14. Incidence and Nature of Medical Attendance Injuries in English Community Rugby Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Simon P.; Trewartha, Grant; England, Mike; Stokes, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous research has identified injury patterns during community-level rugby union match play, but none have investigated the frequency and reasons for on-field injury management. Purpose: To establish the frequency, reasons, and patterns of on-field injury management in English community rugby, including differences between different levels of play. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Over 3 seasons, injury information was collected from 46 (2009-2010), 67 (2010-2011), and 76 (2011-2012) English community clubs (Rugby Football Union [RFU] levels 3-9). Club injury management staff reported information for all medical attendances during match play, including details on the injury site and type, playing position (seasons 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 only), and whether the player was removed from play. Clubs were subdivided into groups A (RFU levels 3 and 4 [mainly semiprofessional]; n = 39), B (RFU levels 5 and 6 [mainly amateur]; n = 71), and C (RFU levels 7-9 [social and recreational]; n = 79) to differentiate playing levels. Results: The overall medical attendance incidence was 229 per 1000 player-match hours (95% CI, 226-232), with 45 players removed per 1000 player-match hours (95% CI, 44-46). Attendance incidence for group A (294 per 1000 player-match hours; 95% CI, 287-301) was higher compared with group B (213; 95% CI, 208-218; P < .001) and C (204; 95% CI, 200-209; P < .001). There was a higher incidence of attendances to forwards (254; 95% CI, 249-259) compared with backs (191; 95% CI, 187-196; P < .001). The head was the most common specific site of injury (55 per 1000 player-match hours; 95% CI, 53-57) but the lower limb region overall accounted for most attendances (87; 95% CI, 85-89) and the greatest chance of removal from the pitch (22; 95% CI, 21-23). Conclusion: With the likelihood of 1 injury for each team per match severe enough for the player to leave the pitch and with at least 1 attendance for a head injury per match

  15. Preseason changes in markers of lower body fatigue and performance in young professional rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Gregory A B; Darrall-Jones, Joshua D; Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the changes in measures of neuromuscular fatigue and physical performance in young professional rugby union players during a preseason training period. Fourteen young (age: 19.1 ± 1.2 years) professional rugby union players participated in the study. Changes in measures of lower body neuromuscular fatigue (countermovement jump (CMJ) mean power, mean force, flight-time) and physical performance (lower body strength, 40 m sprint velocity) were assessed during an 11-week preseason period using magnitude-based inferences. CMJ mean power was likely to very likely decreased during week 2 (-8.1 ± 5.5% to -12.5 ± 6.8%), and likely to almost certainly decreased from weeks 5 to 11 (-10 ± 4.3% to -14.7 ± 6.9%), while CMJ flight-time demonstrated likely to very likely decreases during weeks 2, and weeks 4-6 (-2.41 ± 1% to -3.3 ± 1.3%), and weeks 9-10 (-1.9 ± 0.9% to -2.2 ± 1.5%). Despite this, possible improvements in lower body strength (5.8 ± 2.7%) and very likely improvements in 40 m velocity (5.5 ± 3.6%) were made. Relationships between changes in CMJ metrics and lower body strength or 40 m sprint velocity were trivial or small (neuromuscular fatigue (as measured by CMJ). The findings of this study question the usefulness of CMJ for monitoring fatigue in the context of strength and sprint velocity development. Future research is needed to ascertain the consequences of negative changes in CMJ in the context of rugby-specific activities to determine the usefulness of this test as a measure of fatigue in this population.

  16. Increased blood pH but not performance with sodium bicarbonate supplementation in elite rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sonya L; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca T; Brown, Rachel C; Gray, Andrew R; Fairbairn, Kirsty A

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of ingesting 0.3 g/kg body weight (BW) of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO₃) on physiological responses, gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability, and sprint performance in elite rugby union players. Twenty-five male rugby players, age 21.6 (2.6) yr, participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Sixty-five minutes after consuming 0.3 g/kg BW of either NaHCO₃ or placebo, participants completed a 25-min warm-up followed by 9 min of high-intensity rugby-specific training followed by a rugby-specific repeated-sprint test (RSRST). Whole-blood samples were collected to determine lactate and bicarbonate concentrations and pH at baseline, after supplement ingestion, and immediately after the RSRST. Acute GI discomfort was assessed by questionnaire throughout the trials, and chronic GI discomfort was assessed during the 24 hr postingestion. After supplement ingestion and immediately after the RSRST, blood HCO₃⁻ concentration and pH were higher for the NaHCO₃ condition than for the placebo condition (p rugby players but did not significantly improve exercise performance. The higher incidence and greater severity of GI symptoms after ingestion of NaHCO₃ may negatively affect physical performance, and the authors strongly recommend testing this supplement during training before use in competitive situations.

  17. SHORT COMMUNICATION ON THE INFLUENCE OF POSITION ON ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT INJURY AND RECONSTRUCTION IN RECREATIONAL RUGBY FOOTBALL UNION PARTICIPANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Dawes

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The different player positions in rugby union may place varying demands on a reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament (ACL in regards to 'cutting manoeuvres', this in turn may effect performance. In order to investigate sporting performance post reconstruction, a questionnaire was sent to amateur rugby clubs affiliated to the Oxfordshire Rugby Football Union (R.F.U. From the returned questionnaires player positions were placed into categories based on similar 'cutting manoeuvre' demands. Seventy five percent of Individuals playing in the category 1 (low 'cutting manoeuvre' demands at slow running speeds could play a full game with a damaged ACL and post-reconstruction the majority returned to play at a higher level. Fifty percent of ACL injuries occurred on category 2 (high 'cutting manoeuvre' demands at medium running speeds suggesting they may be more prone to ACL injury than other positions. The majority of individuals playing in category 3 (high 'cutting manoeuvre' demands at fast speeds played at a lower level of rugby post reconstruction. Positional demands may influence ACL injury and post reconstruction sporting performance. However, more research is needed

  18. Post-warmup strategies to maintain body temperature and physical performance in professional rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel J; Russell, Mark; Bracken, Richard M; Cook, Christian J; Giroud, Tibault; Kilduff, Liam P

    2016-01-01

    We compared the effects of using passive-heat maintenance, explosive activity or a combination of both strategies during the post-warmup recovery time on physical performance. After a standardised warmup, 16 professional rugby union players, in a randomised design, completed a counter-movement jump (peak power output) before resting for 20 min and wearing normal-training attire (CON), wearing a passive heat maintenance (PHM) jacket, wearing normal attire and performing 3 × 5 CMJ (with a 20% body mass load) after 12 min of recovery (neuromuscular function, NMF), or combining PHM and NMF (COMB). After 20 min, participants completed further counter-movement jump and a repeated sprint protocol. Core temperature (Tcore) was measured at baseline, post-warmup and post-20 min. After 20 min of recovery, Tcore was significantly lower under CON and NMF, when compared with both PHM and COMB (P union players.

  19. Neuromuscular function, hormonal, and mood responses to a professional rugby union match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel J; Finn, Charlotte V; Cunningham, Daniel J; Shearer, David A; Jones, Marc R; Harrington, Bradley J; Crewther, Blair T; Cook, Christian J; Kilduff, Liam P

    2014-01-01

    We examined the recovery time-course of neuromuscular function (NMF), the testosterone and cortisol hormonal milieu, and mood for 60 hours after a competitive match in professional rugby union players (n = 14). Thirty-six hours prematch (19:30 hours kick-off), baseline saliva samples (testosterone, cortisol, and testosterone to cortisol [T/C] ratio), countermovement jump performances (peak power output [PPO]), and mood disruption (Brief Assessment of Mood Questionnaire) were collected and was repeated at 12, 36, and 60 hours postmatch. Peak power output decreased below baseline at 12 hours (baseline 6,100 ± 565 W vs. 12 h 5,680 ± 589 W; p = 0.004) and 36 hours (5,761 ± 639 W; p union players. Players and coaches can expect reduced NMF and hormonal disruption for 36 hours before recovering at 60 hours postmatch, with mood recovered by 36 hours postmatch. Knowledge of these recovery time-courses may prove useful for player training program design and postmatch recovery strategies.

  20. Psycho-behaviourally based features of effective talent development in Rugby Union: A coach’s perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, A.; MacNamara, Á.,; Collins, D.

    2015-01-01

    Talent development (TD) is widely recognised as a non-linear and dynamic process, with psychology a key determinant of long-term success in sport. However, given the role that positive characteristics play in the TD process, there is a relative dearth of research examining the psychological characteristics that may derail development. A retrospective qualitative investigation was conducted with academy coaches and directors within rugby union (n = 15), representing nine different elite Englis...

  1. Movement Demands of Elite Under-20s and Senior International Rugby Union Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawer, Scott; Pollard, Ben; Eager, Robin; Taylor, Neil; Cook, Christian J.

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the movement demands of elite international Under-20 age grade (U20s) and senior international rugby union players during competitive tournament match play. Forty elite professional players from an U20 and 27 elite professional senior players from international performance squads were monitored using 10Hz global positioning systems (GPS) during 15 (U20s) and 8 (senior) international tournament matches during the 2014 and 2015 seasons. Data on distances, velocities, accelerations, decelerations, high metabolic load (HML) distance and efforts, and number of sprints were derived. Data files from players who played over 60 min (n = 258) were separated firstly into Forwards and Backs, and more specifically into six positional groups; FR–Front Row (prop & hooker), SR–Second Row, BR–Back Row (Flankers & No.8), HB–Half Backs (scrum half & outside half), MF–Midfield (centres), B3 –Back Three (wings & full back) for match analysis. Linear mixed models revealed significant differences between U20 and senior teams in both the forwards and backs. In the forwards the seniors covered greater HML distance (736.4 ± 280.3 vs 701.3 ± 198.7m, p = 0.01) and severe decelerations (2.38 ± 2.2 vs 2.28 ± 1.65, p = 0.05) compared to the U20s, but performed less relative HSR (3.1 ± 1.6 vs 3.2 ± 1.5, p rugby, however, the current study highlight for the first time that certain positional groups may require more time to be able to match the movement demands required at a higher playing level than others. Conditioning staff must also bear in mind that the U20s players whilst maintaining or improving match movement capabilities may require to gain substantial mass in some positions to match their senior counterparts. PMID:27824865

  2. Application of Individualized Speed Thresholds to Interpret Position Specific Running Demands in Elite Professional Rugby Union: A GPS Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Cillian; Tobin, Daniel P; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have used GPS technology to categorise rugby union locomotive demands. However, the utility of the results of these studies is confounded by small sample sizes, sub-elite player status and the global application of absolute speed thresholds to all player positions. Furthermore, many of these studies have used GPS units with low sampling frequencies. The aim of the present study was to compare and contrast the high speed running (HSR) demands of professional rugby union when utilizing micro-technology units sampling at 10 Hz and applying relative or individualised speed zones. The results of this study indicate that application of individualised speed zones results in a significant shift in the interpretation of the HSR demands of both forwards and backs and positional sub-categories therein. When considering the use of an absolute in comparison to an individualised HSR threshold, there was a significant underestimation for forwards of HSR distance (HSRD) (absolute = 269 ± 172.02, individualised = 354.72 ± 99.22, p rugby union.

  3. Application of Individualized Speed Thresholds to Interpret Position Specific Running Demands in Elite Professional Rugby Union: A GPS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Cillian; Tobin, Daniel P.; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have used GPS technology to categorise rugby union locomotive demands. However, the utility of the results of these studies is confounded by small sample sizes, sub-elite player status and the global application of absolute speed thresholds to all player positions. Furthermore, many of these studies have used GPS units with low sampling frequencies. The aim of the present study was to compare and contrast the high speed running (HSR) demands of professional rugby union when utilizing micro-technology units sampling at 10 Hz and applying relative or individualised speed zones. The results of this study indicate that application of individualised speed zones results in a significant shift in the interpretation of the HSR demands of both forwards and backs and positional sub-categories therein. When considering the use of an absolute in comparison to an individualised HSR threshold, there was a significant underestimation for forwards of HSR distance (HSRD) (absolute = 269 ± 172.02, individualised = 354.72 ± 99.22, p rugby union. PMID:26208315

  4. Evaluation of hydrotherapy, using passive tests and power tests, for recovery across a cyclic week of competitive rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Trevor R; Climstein, Mike; Cameron, Melainie

    2013-04-01

    In team sports, a cycle of training, competition, and recovery occurs weekly during the competitive season. In this research, we evaluated hydrotherapy for recovery from a simulated game of rugby union tracked over a week of training. Twenty-four experienced male rugby union players (mean ± SD age 19.46 ± 0.82 years, weight 82.38 ± 11.12 kg, height 178.54 ± 5.75 cm) were randomly divided into 3 groups: cold water immersion (n = 8), contrast bath therapy (n = 8), and a control group (n = 8). The 2 forms of hydrotherapy were administered immediately after a simulated rugby game. Testing was conducted 1 hour before the game and at 5 intervals postgame: 1, 48, 72, 96, and 144 hours. Dependent variables included countermovement jump, 10- and 40-m sprints, sessional rating of perceived exertion (RPE), flexibility, thigh circumference, and self-reported delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Significant differences in DOMS were found between the cold water immersion and contrast bath groups at 48 hours post intervention (p = 0.02), and between the control and contrast bath groups at 72 (p = 0.03) and 96 (p = 0.04) hours post intervention. Cold water immersion and contrast bath groups reported significantly different RPE at 72 hours (p = ?) and 96 hours post (p = 0.05) intervention. Athletes' perceptions of muscle soreness and sessional RPE scores for training were greater in the contrast bath group (20%) after the simulated game and throughout the training week. Although results from passive and power tests were inconclusive in determining whether cold water immersion or passive recovery was more effective in attenuating fatigue, results indicated contrast baths had little benefit in enhancing recovery during a cyclic week of rugby union.

  5. Instrumented mouthguard acceleration analyses for head impacts in amateur rugby union players over a season of matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Doug; Hume, Patria A; Brughelli, Matt; Gissane, Conor

    2015-03-01

    Direct impacts with the head (linear acceleration or pressure) and inertial loading of the head (rotational acceleration or strain) have been postulated as the 2 major mechanisms of head-related injuries such as concussion. Although data are accumulating for soccer and American football, there are no published data for nonhelmeted collision sports such as rugby union. To quantify head impacts via instrumented mouthguard acceleration analyses for rugby union players over a season of matches. Descriptive epidemiology study. Data on impact magnitude and frequency were collected with molded instrumented mouthguards worn by 38 premier amateur senior rugby players participating in the 2013 domestic season of matches. A total of 20,687 impacts >10g (range, 10.0-164.9g) were recorded over the duration of the study. The mean ± SD number of impacts per player over the duration of the season of matches was 564 ± 618, resulting in a mean ± SD of 95 ± 133 impacts to the head per player, per match over the duration of the season of matches. The impact magnitudes for linear accelerations were skewed to the lower values (Sp = 3.7 ± 0.02; P rugby union players over a season of matches, measured via instrumented mouthguard accelerations, were higher than for most sports previously reported. Mean linear acceleration measured over a season of matches was similar to the mean linear accelerations previously reported for youth, high school, and collegiate American football players but lower than that for female youth soccer players. Mean rotational acceleration measured over a season of matches was similar to mean rotational accelerations for youth, high school, and collegiate American football players but less than those for female youth soccer players, concussed American collegiate players, collegiate American football players, and professional American football players. © 2014 The Author(s).

  6. Running and Metabolic Demands of Elite Rugby Union Assessed Using Traditional, Metabolic Power, and Heart Rate Monitoring Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Romain; Paillard, Thierry; Lyons, Mark; McGrath, David; Maurelli, Olivier; Prioux, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to analyze elite rugby union game demands using 3 different approaches: traditional, metabolic and heart rate-based methods (2) to explore the relationship between these methods and (3) to explore positional differences between the backs and forwards players. Time motion analysis and game demands of fourteen professional players (24.1 ± 3.4 y), over 5 European challenge cup games, were analyzed. Thresholds of 14.4 km·h-1, 20 W.kg-1 and 85% of maximal heart rate (HRmax) were set for high-intensity efforts across the three methods. The mean % of HRmax was 80.6 ± 4.3 % while 42.2 ± 16.5% of game time was spent above 85% of HRmax with no significant differences between the forwards and the backs. Our findings also show that the backs cover greater distances at high-speed than forwards (% difference: +35.2 ± 6.6%; prunning distances of 24.8 ± 17.1% for the backs, and 53.4 ± 16.0% for the forwards with a significant difference (+29.6 ± 6.0% for the forwards; prunning distance (assessed using the traditional approach) and the high-metabolic power distance. The HR monitoring methods demonstrate clearly the high physiological demands of professional rugby games. The traditional and the metabolic-power approaches shows a close correlation concerning their relative values, nevertheless the difference in absolute values especially for the high-intensity thresholds demonstrates that the metabolic power approach may represent an interesting alternative to the traditional approaches used in evaluating the high-intensity running efforts required in rugby union games. Key points Elite/professional rugby union players Heart rate monitoring during official games Metabolic power approach PMID:28344455

  7. Does the new rugby union scrum sequence positively influence the hooker's in situ spinal kinematics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Ramesh; Williams, Jonathan M; Jones, Michael D; Theobald, Peter S

    2016-01-01

    Scrummaging is unique to rugby union and involves 2 'packs' of 8 players competing to regain ball possession. Intending to serve as a quick and safe method to restart the game, injury prevalence during scrummaging necessitates further evaluation of this environment. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of scrummage engagement sequences on spinal kinematics of the hooker. The conditions investigated were: (1) live competitive scrummaging using the new 'crouch, bind, set' sequence; (2) live competitive scrummaging using the old 'crouch touch pause engage' sequence and (3) training scrummaging using a scrum machine. Inertial sensors provided three-dimensional kinematic data across 5 spinal regions. Participants (n=29) were adult, male community club and university-level hookers. Engagement sequence had no effect on resultant kinematics of any spinal region. Machine scrummaging resulted in lesser magnitudes of motion in the upper spinal regions. Around two-thirds of the total available cervical motion was utilised during live scrummaging. This study indicates that the most recent laws do not influence the spinal kinematics of the hooker during live scrummaging; however, there may be other benefits from these law changes that fall outside the scope of this investigation.

  8. Comparison of resistance training progression models on maximal strength in sub-elite adolescent rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Simon K; Lubans, David R; Callister, Robin

    2016-02-01

    To determine changes in maximal strength between two different resistance training progression models, linear (LP) and daily undulating (DUP), over a 12-week resistance training programme in sub-elite adolescent rugby union players. The study used a quasi-experimental study design. Following baseline assessments, participants from Squad 1 were randomised to either LP or DUP; participants from Squad 2 formed a non-randomised comparison group (CON). Participants were 26 sub-elite adolescent rugby union players who were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. Outcomes included 5 repetition maximum (RM) box squat and bench press, height, body weight, skeletal muscle mass, percentage body fat and maturation status. Participants in both the LP and DUP groups significantly increased their squat and bench press strength from baseline to 12 weeks. There were no significant differences between groups for squat and bench press increases after 12 weeks (p>0.05). No significant increases in squat or bench press strength were observed after 12 weeks in the CON group. Increases in lower body strength were large in the LP group (ES: 1.64) and very large in the DUP group (ES: 2.33). Upper body strength changes were small in both groups (LP, ES: 0.57; DUP, ES: 0.31). Twelve weeks of LP or DUP resistance training are both effective at increasing maximal lower and upper body strength in adolescent rugby athletes. Additionally, twice weekly frequency of resistance training in adolescent rugby athletes with greater than 6-months resistance training experience is sufficient to elicit substantial increases in maximal strength. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The economic burden of time-loss injuries to youth players participating in week-long rugby union tournaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James C; Viljoen, Wayne; Lambert, Mike I; Readhead, Clint; Fuller, Chelsea; Van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert

    2015-07-01

    Rugby Union ("rugby") is a popular sport with high injury risk. Burden of injury is described by the incidence and severity of injury. However reports have ignored the monetary cost of injuries. Therefore the aim of this study was to describe the monetary cost associated with youth rugby injuries. This descriptive study quantified medical treatments of injured players at the South African Rugby Union Youth tournaments in 2011/2012 and the days of work parents missed as a result of the injuries. A health insurer used these data to calculate associated costs. Legal guardians of the 421 injured players were contacted telephonically on a weekly basis until they returned to play. Treatments costs were estimated in South African Rands based on 2013 insurance rates and converted to US$ using purchasing power parities. Of the 3652 players, 2% (n=71) sought medical care after the tournament. For these players, average treatment costs were high (US$731 per player, 95% CI: US$425-US$1096), with fractures being the most expensive type of injury. Players with medical insurance had higher costs (US$937, 95% CI: US$486-US$1500) than those without (US$220, 95% CI: US$145-US$302). Although a minority of players sought follow-up treatment after the tournaments, the cost of these injuries was high. Players without medical insurance having lower costs may indicate that these players did not receive adequate treatment for their injuries. Injury prevention efforts should consider injuries with high costs and the treatment of players without medical insurance. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Association of ACTN3 R577X but not ACE I/D gene variants with elite rugby union player status and playing position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, S M; Kilduff, L P; Erskine, R M; Day, S H; McPhee, J S; McMahon, G E; Stebbings, G K; Neale, J P H; Lockey, S J; Ribbans, W J; Cook, C J; Vance, B; Raleigh, S M; Roberts, C; Bennett, M A; Wang, G; Collins, M; Pitsiladis, Y P; Williams, A G

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to quantify the ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) genetic variants in elite rugby athletes (rugby union and league) and compare genotype frequencies to controls and between playing positions. The rugby athlete cohort consisted of 507 Caucasian men, including 431 rugby union athletes that for some analyses were divided into backs and forwards and into specific positional groups: front five, back row, half backs, centers, and back three. Controls were 710 Caucasian men and women. Real-time PCR of genomic DNA was used to determine genotypes using TaqMan probes and groups were compared using χ(2) and odds ratio (OR) statistics. Correction of P values for multiple comparisons was according to Benjamini-Hochberg. There was no difference in ACE I/D genotype between groups. ACTN3 XX genotype tended to be underrepresented in rugby union backs (15.7%) compared with forwards (24.8%, P = 0.06). Interestingly, the 69 back three players (wings and full backs) in rugby union included only six XX genotype individuals (8.7%), with the R allele more common in the back three (68.8%) than controls (58.0%; χ(2) = 6.672, P = 0.04; OR = 1.60) and forwards (47.5%; χ(2) = 11.768, P = 0.01; OR = 2.00). Association of ACTN3 R577X with playing position in elite rugby union athletes suggests inherited fatigue resistance is more prevalent in forwards, while inherited sprint ability is more prevalent in backs, especially wings and full backs. These results also demonstrate the advantage of focusing genetic studies on a large cohort within a single sport, especially when intrasport positional differences exist, instead of combining several sports with varied demands and athlete characteristics.

  11. Effects of 12-weeks resistance training on sprint and jump performance in competitive adolescent rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harries, Simon K; Lubans, David R; Buxton, Anthony; MacDougall, Thomas H J; Callister, Robin

    2017-07-17

    Sprint performance is an important characteristic for success in many sports, including rugby union. Resistance training is used to increase muscular fitness (i.e. strength, endurance and power) and may also be effective for improving sprint and jump performances. The aims of this study were to examine the effects of resistance training using two different periodized programs (linear and daily undulating) on sprint and jump performance and explore relationships between performance measures. Sixteen male (16.9 ± 1.0 y) adolescent rugby union players participated in 12 weeks of resistance training. A further 10 male (15.5 ± 1.0 y) participants were recruited as a control group. Assessments of strength (box squat), 10 and 20 m sprint (electronically timed), and jump height (maximal unloaded (body mass only) and loaded (body mass + 10 kg) countermovement jumps) were conducted before and after 12 weeks training. Large to very large increases in 1RM box squat (linear: 33.9%; p < 0.001; ES = 1.64; daily undulating: 44.5%; p < 0.001; ES = 2.33) were observed after training. Small decreases were seen in 10 (linear: -1.6%; p = 0.171; ES = -0.84; daily undulating: -2.5%; p = 0.038; ES = -0.36) and 20 m (linear: -0.5%; p = 0.506; ES = -0.20; daily undulating: -1.7%; p = 0.047; ES = -0.27) sprint times. Small-to-moderate associations between changes in lower body strength and improvements in 10 and 20 m sprint times were found. Resistance training increases lower body strength in adolescent rugby union players and increases in lower body strength may transfer to improved sprinting performance with improvements following daily undulating periodized resistance training slightly superior.

  12. The Effect of Altitude and Travel on Rugby Union Performance: Analysis of the 2012 Super Rugby Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Tina M; Olsen, Peter D; Kimber, Nick E; Shearman, Jeremy P; Hamilton, Jamie G; Hamlin, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether playing rugby at altitude or after travel (domestic and international) disadvantaged teams. In a retrospective longitudinal study, all matches (N = 125) played in the 2012 Super Rugby Competition were analyzed for key performance indicators (KPI) from coded game data provided by OPTA sports data company. Matches were played in a home-away format in New Zealand, South Africa, and Australia. Teams based at sea level but playing at altitude (1,271-1,753 m) were more likely to miss tackles (mean ± 90% confidence interval, 1.4 ± 1.7) and score fewer points in the first half compared with games at sea level. In the second half of games, sea level teams at altitude were very likely to make fewer gain lines (-4.0 ± 2.7) compared with the second half of games at sea level. The decreased ability to break the defensive line, which may be the result of altitude-induced fatigue, could reduce the likelihood of scoring points and winning a game. Travel also had an effect on KPI, where international travel resulted in more missed tackles (1.7 ± 1.3) and less frequent gain lines (-3.0 ± 1.9) in the first half relative to matches at home; overall, away teams (domestic and international) scored 4 less points in the second half compared with home teams. In conclusion, playing away from home in another country, particularly at altitude, can have a detrimental effect on KPI, which may affect the overall performance and the chances of winning matches.

  13. Reduced processing speed in rugby union players reporting three or more previous concussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andrew; Shores, E Arthur; Batchelor, Jennifer

    2010-05-01

    The issue pertaining to the effect of multiple self-reported sports-related concussions on cognitive function is controversial. Although this topic has received increased attention in the literature recently, the issue remains unresolved. Evidence supporting a detrimental cognitive effect has been reported at a sub-concussive level and following one, two, and three or more previous concussions. However, numerous studies have been unable to replicate these findings. Additionally, discrepancies between neuropsychological testing formats have been identified, where studies utilizing traditional tests tend to support the notion of detrimental cognitive effects whereas studies with computerized tests have tended to demonstrate no effect. The present study sought to examine possible detrimental cognitive effects in a sample of adult male rugby union players who reported a history of three or more concussions (n = 34) compared with those who reported no previous concussions (n = 39). A computerized neuropsychological battery and a traditional neuropsychological measure of processing speed were administered for this purpose. Findings revealed that there were differences between groups on two processing speed measures from both traditional and computerized tests. Athletes with a history of multiple concussions performed significantly lower on these measures than those with no history of concussion. These results provide further evidence to suggest that a history of three or more self-reported concussions in active athletes may have a detrimental effect on cognitive function. Future research may focus on identifying moderating factors in an attempt to resolve some of the conflicting findings and identify potential athletes at risk for sustaining cognitive deficits.

  14. Energy intake and expenditure assessed 'in-season' in an elite European rugby union squad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Warren J; Cavanagh, Bryce; Douglas, William; Donovan, Timothy F; Twist, Craig; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2015-01-01

    Rugby union (RU) is a complex high-intensity intermittent collision sport with emphasis placed on players possessing high lean body mass and low body fat. After an 8 to 12-week pre-season focused on physiological adaptations, emphasis shifts towards competitive performance. However, there are no objective data on the physiological demands or energy intake (EI) and energy expenditure (EE) for elite players during this period. Accordingly, in-season training load using global positioning system and session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE), alongside six-day assessments of EE and EI were measured in 44 elite RU players. Mean weekly distance covered was 7827 ± 954 m and 9572 ± 1233 m with a total mean weekly sRPE of 1776 ± 355 and 1523 ± 434 AU for forwards and backs, respectively. Mean weekly EI was 16.6 ± 1.5 and 14.2 ± 1.2 megajoules (MJ) and EE was 15.9 ± 0.5 and 14 ± 0.5 MJ. Mean carbohydrate (CHO) intake was 3.5 ± 0.8 and 3.4 ± 0.7 g.kg(-1) body mass, protein intake was 2.7 ± 0.3 and 2.7 ± 0.5 g.kg(-1) body mass, and fat intake was 1.4 ± 0.2 and 1.4 ± 0.3 g.kg(-1) body mass. All players who completed the food diary self-selected a 'low' CHO 'high' protein diet during the early part of the week, with CHO intake increasing in the days leading up to a match, resulting in the mean EI matching EE. Based on EE and training load data, the EI and composition seems appropriate, although further research is required to evaluate if this diet is optimal for match day performance.

  15. Analysis of Running and Technical Performance in Substitute Players in International Male Rugby Union Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacome, Mathieu; Piscione, Julien; Hager, Jean-Philippe; Carling, Christopher

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the patterns and performance of substitutions in 18 international 15-a-side men's rugby union matches. A semiautomatic computerized time-motion system compiled 750 performance observations for 375 players (422 forwards, 328 backs). Running and technical-performance measures included total distance run, high-intensity running (>18.0 km/h), number of individual ball possessions and passes, percentage of passes completed, and number of attempted and percentage of successful tackles. A total of 184 substitutions (85.2%) were attributed to tactical and 32 (14.8%) to injury purposes respectively. The mean period for non-injury-purpose substitutions in backs (17.7%) occurred between 70 and 75 min, while forward substitutions peaked equally between 50-55 and 60-65 min (16.4%). Substitutes generally demonstrated improved running performance compared with both starter players who completed games and players whom they replaced (small differences, ES -0.2 to 0.5) in both forwards and backs over their entire time played. There was also a trend for better running performance in forward and back substitutes over their first 10 min of play compared with the final 10 min for replaced players (small to moderate differences, ES 0.3-0.6). Finally, running performance in both forward and back substitutes was generally lower (ES -0.1 to 0.3, unclear or small differences) over their entire 2nd-half time played compared with their first 10 min of play. The impact of substitutes on technical performance was generally considered unclear. This information provides practitioners with practical data relating to the physical and technical contributions of substitutions that subsequently could enable optimization of their impact on match play.

  16. The microstructure of coaching practice: behaviours and activities of an elite rugby union head coach during preparation and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward Thomas; Gray, Shirley; Sproule, John

    2016-01-01

    The activities and behaviours of a female head coach of a national rugby union team were recorded in both training and competition, across a whole rugby season, using the newly developed Rugby Coach Activities and Behaviours Instrument (RCABI). The instrument incorporates 24 categories of behaviour, embedded within three forms of activity (training form (TF), playing form (PF) and competitive match) and seven sub-activity types. In contrast to traditional drill-based coaching, 58.5% of the training time was found to have been spent in PF activities. Moreover, the proportion of PF activities increased to a peak average of 83.8% in proximity to the team's annual international championship. Uniquely, one of the coach's most prolific behaviours was conferring with associates (23.3%), highlighting the importance of interactions with assistant coaches, medical staff and others in shaping the coaching process. Additionally, the frequencies of key behaviours such as questioning and praise were found to vary between the different activity forms and types, raising questions about previous conceptions of effective coaching practice. The findings are discussed in the light of the Game Sense philosophy and the role of the head coach.

  17. Can a Specific Neck Strengthening Program Decrease Cervical Spine Injuries in a Men's Professional Rugby Union Team? A Retrospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naish, Robert; Burnett, Angus; Burrows, Sally; Andrews, Warren; Appleby, Brendyn

    2013-01-01

    Cervical spine injuries in Rugby Union are a concerning issue at all levels of the game. The primary aim of this retrospective analysis conducted in a professional Rugby Union squad was to determine whether a 26-week isometric neck strengthening intervention program (13-week strengthening phase and 13-week maintenance phase) was effective in reducing the number and severity of cervical spine injuries. The secondary aim was to determine whether at week five, where the program had been the similar for all players, there was increased isometric neck strength. All 27 players who were common to both the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 seasons were included in this analysis and data was extracted from a Sports Medicine/Sports Science database which included the squad's injury records. Primary outcome variables included; the number of cervical spine injuries and the severity of these injuries as determined by the total number of days lost from training and competition. Secondary outcome variables included isometric neck strength in flexion, extension and left and right lateral flexion. Using non-parametric statistical methods, no significant differences were evident for the total number of cervical spine injuries (n = 8 in 2007-2008, n = 6 in 2008-2009) or time loss due to these injuries (100 days in 2007-2008, 40 days in 2008-2009). However, a significant (p = 0.03) reduction in the number of match injuries was evident from 2007-2008 (n = 11) to 2008-09 (n = 2). Non-significant increases in isometric neck strength were found in all directions examined. A significant reduction in the number of match injuries was evident in this study. However, no other significant changes to primary outcome variables were achieved. Further, no significant increases in isometric neck strength were found in this well-trained group of professional athletes. Key Points While many authors have proposed that neck strengthening could be an effective strategy in preventing cervical spine injuries in

  18. HAVE RECENT CHANGES TO THE RUGBY UNION LAWS OF SCRUMMAGE REDUCED SERIOUS CERVICAL SPINE INJURIES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence F. McLoughlin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available All areas of play in rugby union are acknowledged to be potentially dangerous but it is in the scrum where the most frequent and serious spinal injuries occur (McIntosh & McCrory, 2005. This letter addresses the questions: what is it about the scrum which accounts for the alleged increased frequency of scrummage associated spinal cord injury (particular in the cervical region and what has the Rugby Football Union [RFU] done to minimise the chance of cervical cord damage by changes to the Laws? Scrums are used to restart play after infringement of Law 20.1. The team which is successful in winning the ball from the scrum can provide quality possession and space to their attacking backs (IRB, 2005.The three front row players are especially vulnerable to serious cervical spine injury. The majority of neck injuries are caused by heads not being properly aligned when opposing front row players make initial contact as the scrum is being formed. If the scrum collapses then excessive forward flexion/rotation of the cervical spine can occur and by wheeling the scrum this can result in increased abnormal lateral flexion/rotation. Added to these possible abnormal increases in directional movement of the cervical spine is the force generated at engagement. It has been calculated that in the front row a static weight of up to 1600kg is placed on each player's neck. Fracture dislocation (usually between C4/C6 of the spine can be the resulting injury which if the cord is involved can cause tetra paresis.In response to this evidence the IRB amended the law of scrummage which was put into effect 2007 in the hope of reducing the incidence of serious cervical spine injury. This is summarised as a 4 step Law of engagement which is: "crouch, touch, pause, engage". The distance between the front rows must now be less than arms length before making contact. Prior to the introduction of this Law with the stipulated distance apart before engagement, the front row

  19. The Diet Quality of Competitive Adolescent Male Rugby Union Players with Energy Balance Estimated Using Different Physical Activity Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Burrows

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of the current study were to comprehensively assess the dietary intakes and diet quality of a sample of Australian competitive adolescent rugby union players and compare these intakes with National and Sports Dietitians Association (SDA Recommendations for adolescent athletes. A secondary aim investigated applying different physical activity level (PAL coefficients to determine total energy expenditure (TEE in order to more effectively evaluate the adequacy of energy intakes. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Anthropometrics and dietary intakes were assessed in 25 competitive adolescent male rugby union players (14 to 18 years old. Diet was assessed using the validated Australian Eating Survey (AES food frequency questionnaire and diet quality was assessed through the Australian Recommended Food Score. Results: The median dietary intakes of participants met national recommendations for percent energy (% E from carbohydrate, protein and total fat, but not carbohydrate intake when evaluated as g/day as proposed in SDA guidelines. Median intakes of fibre and micronutrients including calcium and iron also met national recommendations. Overall diet quality was classified as ‘good’ with a median diet quality score of 34 (out of a possible 73; however, there was a lack of variety within key food groups including carbohydrates and proteins. Non-core food consumption exceeded recommended levels at 38% of the daily total energy intake, with substantial contributions from takeaway foods and sweetened beverages. A PAL coefficient of 1.2–1.4 was found to best balance the energy intakes of these players in their pre-season. Conclusions: Adolescent rugby players met the percent energy recommendations for macronutrients and attained an overall ‘good’ diet quality score. However, it was identified that when compared to specific recommendations for athletes, carbohydrate intakes were below recommendations and these players in their

  20. The Diet Quality of Competitive Adolescent Male Rugby Union Players with Energy Balance Estimated Using Different Physical Activity Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Tracy; Harries, Simon K.; Williams, Rebecca L.; Lum, Cheryl; Callister, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aims of the current study were to comprehensively assess the dietary intakes and diet quality of a sample of Australian competitive adolescent rugby union players and compare these intakes with National and Sports Dietitians Association (SDA) Recommendations for adolescent athletes. A secondary aim investigated applying different physical activity level (PAL) coefficients to determine total energy expenditure (TEE) in order to more effectively evaluate the adequacy of energy intakes. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Anthropometrics and dietary intakes were assessed in 25 competitive adolescent male rugby union players (14 to 18 years old). Diet was assessed using the validated Australian Eating Survey (AES) food frequency questionnaire and diet quality was assessed through the Australian Recommended Food Score. Results: The median dietary intakes of participants met national recommendations for percent energy (% E) from carbohydrate, protein and total fat, but not carbohydrate intake when evaluated as g/day as proposed in SDA guidelines. Median intakes of fibre and micronutrients including calcium and iron also met national recommendations. Overall diet quality was classified as ‘good’ with a median diet quality score of 34 (out of a possible 73); however, there was a lack of variety within key food groups including carbohydrates and proteins. Non-core food consumption exceeded recommended levels at 38% of the daily total energy intake, with substantial contributions from takeaway foods and sweetened beverages. A PAL coefficient of 1.2–1.4 was found to best balance the energy intakes of these players in their pre-season. Conclusions: Adolescent rugby players met the percent energy recommendations for macronutrients and attained an overall ‘good’ diet quality score. However, it was identified that when compared to specific recommendations for athletes, carbohydrate intakes were below recommendations and these players in their pre

  1. Relationship between midweek training measures of testosterone and cortisol concentrations and game outcome in professional rugby union matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaviglio, Christopher M; Cook, Christian J

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the response of salivary-free testosterone and cortisol concentrations across selected midweek skill-based training sessions and their association with subsequent match outcome 3 days later. Twenty-two rugby union players were assessed for salivary-free testosterone and cortisol concentrations before and after a midweek training session over 6 consecutive weeks. The relative percentage change (response) in the testosterone and cortisol concentration and the testosterone to cortisol (T/C) ratio was also determined. Game-day analysis consisted of prematch testosterone concentrations and match outcome. Data were pooled across the winning (n = 3) and losing (n = 3) outcomes. The midweek pretraining T/C ratio was significantly lower (p 0.01). Significant relationships were also demonstrated between game-day pre-testosterone concentrations and the midweek cortisol response (r = -0.90, p = 0.01) and midweek T/C ratio response (r = 0.90, p = 0.01). In conclusion, a midweek measurement of the T/C ratio against a skill-based training session seems to show some potential as an early indicator of subsequent successfully executed performances in competitive rugby union. If this work is subsequently validated, further monitoring of midweek hormone concentrations in response to a mixed psychological-physical training session may assist with assessing competitive readiness leading up to competition.

  2. MECHANISMS FOR TRICEPS SURAE INJURY IN HIGH PERFORMANCE FRONT ROW RUGBY UNION PLAYERS: A KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF SCRUMMAGING DRILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Flavell

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The front row of a rugby union scrum consists of three players. The loose head prop, hooker and tight head prop. The objective of this study was to determine if known biomechanical risk factors for triceps surae muscle injury are exhibited in the lower limb of front row players during contested scrummaging. Eleven high performance front row rugby union players were landmarked bilaterally at the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS, greater trochanter, lateral femoral epicondyle, midline of the calcaneus above the plantar aspect of the heel, midline lower leg 5cm and 20cm proximal to the lateral malleolus, at the axis of subtalar joint, lateral malleolus, and head of the fifth metatarsal. Players were video recorded during a series of 2 on 1 live scrummaging drills. Biomechanical three dimensional analysis identified large angular displacements, and increased peak velocities and accelerations at the ankle joint during attacking scrummaging drill techniques when in the stance phase of gait. This places the triceps surae as increased risk of injury and provides valuable information for training staff regarding injury prevention and scrum training practices for front row players

  3. Cervical range of motion, cervical and shoulder strength in senior versus age-grade Rugby Union International front-row forwards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Mark; Moore, Isabel S; Moran, Patrick; Mathema, Prabhat; Ranson, Craig A

    2016-05-01

    To provide normative values for cervical range of motion (CROM), isometric cervical and shoulder strength for; International Senior professional, and International Age-grade Rugby Union front-row forwards. Cross-sectional population study. All international level front-row players within a Rugby Union Tier 1 Nation. Nineteen Senior and 21 Age-grade front-row forwards underwent CROM, cervical and shoulder strength testing. CROM was measured using the CROM device and the Gatherer System was used to measure multi-directional isometric cervical and shoulder strength. The Age-grade players had significantly lower; cervical strength (26-57% deficits), cervical flexion to extension strength ratios (0.5 vs. 0.6), and shoulder strength (2-36% deficits) than the Senior players. However, there were no differences between front-row positions within each age group. Additionally, there were no differences between age groups or front-row positions in the CROM measurements. Senior Rugby Union front-row forwards have greater cervical and shoulder strength than Age-grade players, with the biggest differences being in cervical strength, highlighting the need for age specific normative values. Importantly, Age-grade players should be evaluated to ensure they have developed sufficient cervical strength prior to entering professional level Rugby Union. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of passive recovery, cold water immersion, and contrast baths for recovery, as measured by game performances markers, between two simulated games of rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Trevor; Cameron, Melainie; Climstein, Mike

    2012-06-11

    ABSTRACT: In team sports, during the competitive season, peak performance in each game is of utmost importance to coaching staff and players. To enhance recovery from training and games a number of recovery modalities have been adopted across professional sporting teams. To date there is little evidence in the sport science literature identifying the benefit of modalities in promoting recovery between sporting competition games. This research evaluated hydrotherapy as a recovery strategy following a simulated game of rugby union and a week of recovery and training, with dependent variables between two simulated games of rugby union evaluated. Twenty-four male players were randomly divided into three groups: one group (n=8) received cold water immersion therapy (2 X 5min at 10oC, whilst one group (n=8) received contrast bath therapy (5 cycles of 10oC/38oC) and the control group (n=8) underwent passive recovery (15mins, thermo neutral environment). The two forms of hydrotherapy were administered following a simulated rugby union game (8 circuits x 11 stations) and after three training sessions. Dependent variables where generated from five physical stations replicating movement characteristics of rugby union and one skilled based station, as well as sessional RPE values between two simulated games of rugby union. No significant differences were identified between groups across simulated games, across dependent variables. Effect size analysis via Cohen's d and ηp2 did identify medium trends between groups. Overall trends indicated that both treatment groups had performance results in the second simulated game above those of the control group of between 2% and 6% across the physical work stations replicating movement characteristics of rugby union. In conclusion, trends in this study may indicate that ice baths and contrasts baths may be more advantageous to athlete's recovery from team sport than passive rest between successive games of rugby union We are pleased to

  5. Validity of the SenseWear Armband to assess energy expenditure during intermittent exercise and recovery in rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Sara; Pumpa, Kate L; Wheeler, Keane W; Pyne, David B

    2014-04-01

    Portable wearable devices that assess energy expenditure during intermittent exercise and recovery would be useful in team sports. Fourteen state-level male rugby union players (mean ± SD: age, 22 ± 4 years; body mass, 88.8 ± 11.2 kg; height, 1.81 ± 0.07 m, body fat, 18 ± 6%) participated in this study. Energy expenditure was measured by the SenseWear Armband (SWA) and validated against indirect calorimetry as the criterion measure during a 42-minute rugby-specific intermittent exercise test and an immediate postexercise 10-minute recovery period. Energy expenditure measurements from indirect calorimetry and the SWA were only moderately correlated during both the exercise test (r = 0.55, ±0.34; mean, ±90% confidence limits) and recovery period (r = 0.58, ±0.33). The SWA estimate of energy expenditure during exercise was unclear, with a mean bias of -1.9% (±5.3%), and during recovery energy expenditure was overestimated, with a mean bias of 17% (±12%) at the mean estimated energy expenditure. Typical error of SWA energy expenditure estimates expressed as a coefficient of variation (±90% confidence interval) was 10% (8-16%) during exercise and 19% (14-30%) during recovery. The SWA did not provide a valid measure of energy expenditure during rugby-specific intermittent exercise or 10-minute postexercise recovery. Further improvements are required in the performance of the SWA before it can be used routinely in intermittent sports and provide worthwhile information in relation to workloads of athletes for sport scientists and coaches.

  6. Enduring Injustice: A Case Study of Retirement from Professional Rugby Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Jim; Thomas, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Garth Armstrong (pseudonym) agreed to participate based on a pre-existing "career-guidance-and-support" relationship with the researcher, to explore the realities of career transition. An account-making approach was used over the last eight months of his professional rugby-playing career (termination) and for a further ten months into his next…

  7. Relative Age Effects in Women's Rugby Union from Developmental Leagues to World Cup Tournaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemez, Srdjan; MacMahon, Clare; Weir, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Annual age cohort groupings promote relative age effects (RAEs), which often, inadvertently, create participation and attainment biases between relatively older and younger players within the same age cohort. In a globally evolving sport, women's rugby team selection practices may potentially bypass qualified players as a result of maturational…

  8. Relative Age Effects in Women's Rugby Union from Developmental Leagues to World Cup Tournaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemez, Srdjan; MacMahon, Clare; Weir, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Annual age cohort groupings promote relative age effects (RAEs), which often, inadvertently, create participation and attainment biases between relatively older and younger players within the same age cohort. In a globally evolving sport, women's rugby team selection practices may potentially bypass qualified players as a result of maturational…

  9. Enduring Injustice: A Case Study of Retirement from Professional Rugby Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Jim; Thomas, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Garth Armstrong (pseudonym) agreed to participate based on a pre-existing "career-guidance-and-support" relationship with the researcher, to explore the realities of career transition. An account-making approach was used over the last eight months of his professional rugby-playing career (termination) and for a further ten months into…

  10. Managing player load in professional rugby union: a review of current knowledge and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrie, Kenneth L; Raftery, Martin; Blackie, Josh; Cook, Christian J; Fuller, Colin W; Gabbett, Tim J; Gray, Andrew J; Gill, Nicholas; Hennessy, Liam; Kemp, Simon; Lambert, Mike; Nichol, Rob; Mellalieu, Stephen D; Piscione, Julien; Stadelmann, Jörg; Tucker, Ross

    2017-03-01

    The loads to which professional rugby players are subjected has been identified as a concern by coaches, players and administrators. In November 2014, World Rugby commissioned an expert group to identify the physical demands and non-physical load issues associated with participation in professional rugby. To describe the current state of knowledge about the loads encountered by professional rugby players and the implications for their physical and mental health. The group defined 'load' as it relates to professional rugby players as the total stressors and demands applied to the players. In the 2013-2014 seasons, 40% of professional players appeared in 20 matches or more, and 5% of players appeared in 30 matches or more. Matches account for ∼5-11% of exposure to rugby-related activities (matches, team and individual training sessions) during professional competitions. The match injury rate is about 27 times higher than that in training. The working group surmised that players entering a new level of play, players with unresolved previous injuries, players who are relatively older and players who are subjected to rapid increases in load are probably at increased risk of injury. A mix of 'objective' and 'subjective' measures in conjunction with effective communication among team staff and between staff and players was held to be the best approach to monitoring and managing player loads. While comprehensive monitoring holds promise for individually addressing player loads, it brings with it ethical and legal responsibilities that rugby organisations need to address to ensure that players' personal information is adequately protected. Administrators, broadcasters, team owners, team staff and the players themselves have important roles in balancing the desire to have the 'best players' on the field with the ongoing health of players. In contrast, the coaching, fitness and medical staff exert significant control over the activities, duration and intensity of training

  11. Application of Individualized Speed Thresholds to Interpret Position Specific Running Demands in Elite Professional Rugby Union: A GPS Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cillian Reardon

    Full Text Available A number of studies have used GPS technology to categorise rugby union locomotive demands. However, the utility of the results of these studies is confounded by small sample sizes, sub-elite player status and the global application of absolute speed thresholds to all player positions. Furthermore, many of these studies have used GPS units with low sampling frequencies. The aim of the present study was to compare and contrast the high speed running (HSR demands of professional rugby union when utilizing micro-technology units sampling at 10 Hz and applying relative or individualised speed zones. The results of this study indicate that application of individualised speed zones results in a significant shift in the interpretation of the HSR demands of both forwards and backs and positional sub-categories therein. When considering the use of an absolute in comparison to an individualised HSR threshold, there was a significant underestimation for forwards of HSR distance (HSRD (absolute = 269 ± 172.02, individualised = 354.72 ± 99.22, p < 0.001, HSR% (absolute = 5.15 ± 3.18, individualised = 7.06 ± 2.48, p < 0.001 and HSR efforts (HSRE (absolute = 18.81 ± 12.25; individualised = 24.78 ± 8.30, p < 0.001. In contrast, there was a significant overestimation of the same HSR metrics for backs with the use of an absolute threshold (HSRD absolute = 697.79 ± 198.11, individualised = 570.02 ± 171.14, p < 0.001; HSR% absolute = 10.85 ± 2.82, individualised = 8.95 ± 2.76, p < 0.001; HSRE absolute = 41.55 ± 11.25; individualised = 34.54 ± 9.24, p < 0.001. This under- or overestimation associated with an absolute speed zone applies to varying degrees across the ten positional sub-categories analyzed and also to individuals within the same positional sub-category. The results of the present study indicated that although use of an individulised HSR threshold improves the interpretation of the HSR demands on a positional basis, inter

  12. The effect of physical contact on changes in fatigue markers following rugby union field-based training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Gregory; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Till, Kevin; Phibbs, Padraic; Read, Dale; Weakley, Jonathon; Rock, Andrew; Jones, Ben

    2017-02-26

    Repeated physical contact in rugby union is thought to contribute to post-match fatigue; however, no evidence exists on the effect of contact activity during field-based training on fatigue responses. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of contact during training on fatigue markers in rugby union players. Twenty academy rugby union players participated in the cross-over study. The magnitude of change in upper- and lower-body neuromuscular function (NMF), whole blood creatine kinase concentration [CK] and perception of well-being was assessed pre-training (baseline), immediately and 24 h post-training following contact and non-contact, field-based training. Training load was measured using mean heart rate, session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) and microtechnology (Catapult Optimeye S5). The inclusion of contact during field-based training almost certainly increased mean heart rate (9.7; ±3.9%) and sRPE (42; ±29.2%) and resulted in likely and very likely greater decreases in upper-body NMF (-7.3; ±4.7% versus 2.7; ±5.9%) and perception of well-being (-8.0; ±4.8% versus  -3.4; ±2.2%) 24 h post-training, respectively, and almost certainly greater elevations in [CK] (88.2; ±40.7% versus 3.7; ±8%). The exclusion of contact from field-based training almost certainly increased running intensity (19.8; ±5%) and distance (27.5; ±5.3%), resulting in possibly greater decreases in lower-body NMF (-5.6; ±5.2% versus 2.3; ±2.4%). Practitioners should be aware of the different demands and fatigue responses of contact and non-contact, field-based training and can use this information to appropriately schedule such training in the weekly microcycle.

  13. An evaluation of mouthguard requirements and dental injuries in New Zealand rugby union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrie, K; Gianotti, S; Chalmers, D; Hopkins, W

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To document the effects of compulsory mouthguard wearing on rugby related dental injury claims made to ACC, the administrator of New Zealand's accident compensation scheme. Methods: An ecological study was conducted. Estimates of mouthguard wearing rates were available from prospective studies conducted in 1993, 2002, and 2003. Rugby related dental injury claims were available for the period 1995–2003. Player numbers were available from 1998. Mouthguard wearing was made compulsory during match play for rugby players at under 19 level and below at the beginning of the 1997 season, and for all grades of domestic rugby at the beginning of the 1998 season. Greater powers of enforcement were provided to referees at the beginning of the 2003 season. Results: The self reported rate of mouthguard use was 67% of player-weeks in 1993 and 93% in 2003. A total of 2644 claims was reported in 1995. There was a 43% (90% confidence interval 39% to 46%) reduction in dental claims from 1995 to 2003. On the reasonable assumption that the number of players and player-matches remained constant throughout the study period, the relative rate of injury claims for non-wearers versus wearers was 4.6 (90% confidence interval 3.8 to 5.6). The cumulative savings in claim costs compared with the cost per year if claim numbers had remained constant from 1995 is $1.87 million NZD. Conclusion: Although ecological studies have acknowledged weaknesses, the findings provide evidence that mouthguard use is a simple and effective injury prevention strategy for rugby players. The use of mouthguards for all players in both matches and contact practice situations is strongly recommended. PMID:16118304

  14. Regional placement of bone mineral mass, fat mass, and lean soft tissue mass in young adult rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, W; Evans, W D; Cobner, D M; Eston, R G

    The purpose of the present study was to ascertain whether differences existed in the regional placement of bone mineral mass (BMM), fat mass (FM) and lean soft tissue mass (LSTM) between playing units in Rugby Union Football and between players and control subjects. Thirty young adult rugby players and 21 controls participated in the study. Players were assigned to groups as either forwards (n = 15) or backs (n = 15). Control subjects were matched (n = 15) to rugby players using the mean BMI of forwards and backs. BMM, FM and LSTM were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The digital image of each subject was partitioned into regional anatomical segments comprising the head, right and left arms, trunk, and right and left legs. Measurements were summed for the arms and legs respectively. One-way ANOVA was used to differentiate between- and within-groups; Tukey's post-hoc test was applied to identify pairwise differences. The alpha level was set throughout at p = 0.01. Principal components analysis was utilized to contrast the regional segments of each tissue in each of the groups. Forwards exhibited larger absolute (kg) amounts of BMM, FM and LSTM than backs or controls. In relative terms (%) there were no significant differences in BMM(%) between forwards, backs and controls in the arms and legs, but differences did occur between backs and controls at the trunk (2.9 vs. 2.5%). Backs had a significantly larger LSTM(%) than forwards at the arms (84.4 vs. 76.5%), legs (80.0 vs. 71.9%) and trunk (89.2 vs. 79.0%), whereas forwards had a greater FM(%) than backs at the arms (18.7 vs. 10.6%), legs (23.1 vs. 14.7%), and trunk (18.4 vs. 8.0%). The distribution of BMM showed a lower body-upper body contrast in forwards, a trunk-extremity contrast in backs and an arm-lower body contrast in controls. FM exhibited a trunk-extremity contrast in all three groups, while LSTM displayed an arm-lower body contrast in all three groups. It is concluded that there are

  15. PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS USAGE AND THE COMPETITIVE ANXIETY RESPONSE AS A FUNCTION OF SKILL LEVEL IN RUGBY UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Neil

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the intensity and direction of competitive anxiety symptoms and psychological skill usage in rugby union players of different skill levels. Elite (n=65 and nonelite (n=50 participants completed measures of competitive anxiety, self- confidence, and psychological skills. The elite group reported more facilitative interpretations of competitive anxiety symptoms, higher levels of self-confidence, lower relaxation usage, and greater imagery and self-talk use than their nonelite counterparts. The findings suggest that nonelite performers primarily use relaxation strategies to reduce anxiety intensity. In contrast, elite athletes appear to maintain intensity levels and adopt a combination of skills to interpret symptoms as facilitative to performance. Potential mechanisms for this process include the use of imagery and verbal persuasion efficacy-enhancement techniques to protect against debilitating symptom interpretations

  16. Mechanisms for triceps surae injury in high performance front row rugby union players: a kinematic analysis of scrummaging drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavell, Carol A; Sayers, Mark G L; Gordon, Susan J; Lee, James B

    2013-01-01

    The front row of a rugby union scrum consists of three players. The loose head prop, hooker and tight head prop. The objective of this study was to determine if known biomechanical risk factors for triceps surae muscle injury are exhibited in the lower limb of front row players during contested scrummaging. Eleven high performance front row rugby union players were landmarked bilaterally at the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS), greater trochanter, lateral femoral epicondyle, midline of the calcaneus above the plantar aspect of the heel, midline lower leg 5cm and 20cm proximal to the lateral malleolus, at the axis of subtalar joint, lateral malleolus, and head of the fifth metatarsal. Players were video recorded during a series of 2 on 1 live scrummaging drills. Biomechanical three dimensional analysis identified large angular displacements, and increased peak velocities and accelerations at the ankle joint during attacking scrummaging drill techniques when in the stance phase of gait. This places the triceps surae as increased risk of injury and provides valuable information for training staff regarding injury prevention and scrum training practices for front row players. Key pointsFront rowers exhibited patterns of single leg weight bearing, in a position of greater ankle plantar flexion and knee extension at toe off during scrummaging, which is a risk position for TS injury.Front rowers also exhibited greater acceleration at the ankle, knee, and hip joints, and greater changes in ankle ROM from toe strike to toe off during attacking scrum drills.These reported accelerations and joint displacements may be risk factors for TS injury, as the ankle is accelerating into plantar flexion at final push off and the muscle is shortening from an elongated state.

  17. CAN A SPECIFIC NECK STRENGTHENING PROGRAM DECREASE CERVICAL SPINE INJURIES IN A MEN'S PROFESSIONAL RUGBY UNION TEAM? A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Naish

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spine injuries in Rugby Union are a concerning issue at all levels of the game. The primary aim of this retrospective analysis conducted in a professional Rugby Union squad was to determine whether a 26-week isometric neck strengthening intervention program (13-week strengthening phase and 13-week maintenance phase was effective in reducing the number and severity of cervical spine injuries. The secondary aim was to determine whether at week five, where the program had been the similar for all players, there was increased isometric neck strength. All 27 players who were common to both the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 seasons were included in this analysis and data was extracted from a Sports Medicine/Sports Science database which included the squad's injury records. Primary outcome variables included; the number of cervical spine injuries and the severity of these injuries as determined by the total number of days lost from training and competition. Secondary outcome variables included isometric neck strength in flexion, extension and left and right lateral flexion. Using non-parametric statistical methods, no significant differences were evident for the total number of cervical spine injuries (n = 8 in 2007-2008, n = 6 in 2008-2009 or time loss due to these injuries (100 days in 2007-2008, 40 days in 2008-2009. However, a significant (p = 0.03 reduction in the number of match injuries was evident from 2007-2008 (n = 11 to 2008-09 (n = 2. Non-significant increases in isometric neck strength were found in all directions examined. A significant reduction in the number of match injuries was evident in this study. However, no other significant changes to primary outcome variables were achieved. Further, no significant increases in isometric neck strength were found in this well-trained group of professional athletes

  18. Changes in the physical fitness of elite women's rugby union players ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in the physical fitness characteristics of women during a season for soccer,[13] .... In male rugby players, desirable changes in body composition. (decrease in .... V ertical jum p (cm), m ean (±SD). 37.80 (±5.29). 38.40 (±5.03). 39.25 (±5.69) .... body composition and performance indices of NCAA Division 1 female soccer.

  19. Risk factors for injury in rugby union football in New Zealand: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, David J; Samaranayaka, Ari; Gulliver, Pauline; McNoe, Bronwen

    2012-02-01

    To identify risk factors for injury in amateur club rugby. Prospective cohort design; with follow-up over the 2004 season. Amateur club rugby in New Zealand. Participants Seven hundred and four male rugby players, aged 13 years and over. Assessment of risk factors The study investigated the independent effect on injury incidence of age, ethnicity, rugby experience, height, weight, body mass index, physical activity, cigarette smoking, previous injury, playing while injured, grade, position, training, time of season, warm-up, foul play, weather conditions, ground conditions and protective equipment. Generalised Poisson regression was used to estimate the effect of each factor after adjusting for all other factors. Game injury, defined as 'any event that resulted in an injury requiring medical attention or causing a player to miss at least one scheduled game or team practice'. A total of 704 players, representing 6263 player-games, contributed information on injury and exposure. Evidence was obtained of the effect on injury incidence of increasing age, Pacific Island versus Maori ethnicity (injury rate ratio (IRR)=1.48, 1.03-2.13), ≥40 h strenuous physical activity per week (IRR=1.54, 1.11-2.15), playing while injured (IRR=1.46, 1.20-1.79), very hard ground condition (IRR=1.50, 1.13-2.00), foul-play (IRR=1.87, 1.54-2.27) and use of headgear (IRR=1.23, 1.00-1.50). Opportunities for injury prevention might include promoting injury-prevention measures more vigorously among players of Pacific Island ethnicity, ensuring injured players are fully rehabilitated before returning to play, reducing the effects of ground hardness through ground preparation and stricter enforcement of the laws relating to foul play.

  20. Running and Metabolic Demands of Elite Rugby Union Assessed Using Traditional, Metabolic Power, and Heart Rate Monitoring Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Dubois, Thierry Paillard, Mark Lyons, David McGrath, Olivier Maurelli, Jacques Prioux

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (1 to analyze elite rugby union game demands using 3 different approaches: traditional, metabolic and heart rate-based methods (2 to explore the relationship between these methods and (3 to explore positional differences between the backs and forwards players. Time motion analysis and game demands of fourteen professional players (24.1 ± 3.4 y, over 5 European challenge cup games, were analyzed. Thresholds of 14.4 km·h-1, 20 W.kg-1 and 85% of maximal heart rate (HRmax were set for high-intensity efforts across the three methods. The mean % of HRmax was 80.6 ± 4.3 % while 42.2 ± 16.5% of game time was spent above 85% of HRmax with no significant differences between the forwards and the backs. Our findings also show that the backs cover greater distances at high-speed than forwards (% difference: +35.2 ± 6.6%; p<0.01 while the forwards cover more distance than the backs (+26.8 ± 5.7%; p<0.05 in moderate-speed zone (10-14.4 km·h-1. However, no significant difference in high-metabolic power distance was found between the backs and forwards. Indeed, the high-metabolic power distances were greater than high-speed running distances of 24.8 ± 17.1% for the backs, and 53.4 ± 16.0% for the forwards with a significant difference (+29.6 ± 6.0% for the forwards; p<0.001 between the two groups. Nevertheless, nearly perfect correlations were found between the total distance assessed using the traditional approach and the metabolic power approach (r = 0.98. Furthermore, there is a strong association (r = 0.93 between the high-speed running distance (assessed using the traditional approach and the high-metabolic power distance. The HR monitoring methods demonstrate clearly the high physiological demands of professional rugby games. The traditional and the metabolic-power approaches shows a close correlation concerning their relative values, nevertheless the difference in absolute values especially for the high

  1. Forced Retirement from Professional Rugby Union is Associated with Symptoms of Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Craig; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Lambert, Mike I; Gouttebarge, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    Rugby has a higher injury burden than other popular sports, such as football. Athletes who are forced to retire as a result of injury are associated with poor mental health. With its high injury burden, professional rugby players might be at risk of mental health conditions associated with injury-related forced retirement. This study aimed to compare mental health between former professional rugby players who were and weren't forced to retire. A questionnaire including the 4DSQ (distress), GHQ-12 (anxiety/depression), PROMIS short-form (sleep disturbance) and AUDIT-C (alcohol misuse) was completed by retired professional players from Ireland, France and South Africa. The questionnaire asked players whether or not they were forced to retire, as well as the reason for retirement. Players forced to retire were more than twice as likely to report symptoms of distress in comparison to those that retired voluntarily (odds ratio: 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.2-3.6, prugby players that were forced to retire may require support structures and longitudinal monitoring. Future studies should begin monitoring players during their careers to accurately assess the effect of retirement on mental health. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Quantification of training load, energy intake, and physiological adaptations during a rugby preseason: a case study from an elite European rugby union squad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Warren J; Cavanagh, Bryce P; Douglas, William; Donovan, Timothy F; Morton, James P; Close, Graeme L

    2015-02-01

    Rugby Union (RU) is a high-speed collision sport consisting of an intermittent activity profile. Given the extreme physical demands of the sport, significant emphasis is placed on players possessing high lean body mass while minimizing body fat. Anecdotally, the most significant changes in body composition are observed during the preseason; however, there are no objective data on the physiological demands and energy intake during this time. We therefore monitored 45 elite European RU players over the 10-week preseason period by assessing training load using Global Positioning System and session rate of perceived exertion (sRPE) while also assessing changes in anthropometry and physical performance. For forwards and backs, respectively, mean weekly distance covered was 9,774 m (1,404) and 11,585 m (1,810) with a total mean weekly sRPE of 3,398 (335) arbitrary units and 2,944 (410) arbitrary units. Mean daily energy intake was 14.8 MJ (1.9) and 13.3 MJ (1.9), carbohydrate (CHO) intake was 3.3 (0.7) and 4.14 (0.4) g·kg body mass, protein intake was 2.52 (0.3) and 2.59 (0.6) g·kg body mass, and fat intake was 1.0 (0.3) and 0.95 (0.3) g·kg body mass for forwards and backs, respectively. Markers of physical performance (1 repetition maximum strength, speed, and repeated sprint tests) and anthropometry (body fat and estimated lean mass) improved in all players. Interestingly, all players self-selected a "low" CHO "high" protein diet. Based on physiological improvements the training load and energy intake seems appropriate, although further research is required to evaluate if such energy intakes would also be suitable for match day performance.

  3. Attitudes and behaviours of top-level junior rugby union coaches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on previous research, surveying attitudes and behaviours towards tackling. Results. Proper ... (items) and response categories, with a 5-point ordinal Likert scale represented .... The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. References.

  4. Epidemiology of time-loss injuries in English community-level rugby union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Simon P; Trewartha, Grant; England, Mike; Shaddick, Gavin; Stokes, Keith A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Using a prospective cohort study design, to establish the incidence and nature of time-loss injuries in English community rugby and to assess the differences between different playing levels. Setting English community rugby clubs. Participants Injury information for 4635 matches was collected during seasons 2009/2010 (46 clubs), 2010/2011(67 clubs) and 2011/2012 (76 clubs). Clubs were subdivided into groups A (semiprofessional), B (amateur) and C (recreational) for analysis. Primary and secondary outcome measures Any injury resulting in 8 days or greater absence from match play was reported by injury management staff at the clubs. The primary outcome measure was injury incidence (per 1000 player match-hours) and the secondary outcome measure was severity (ie, days absence). Results Overall match injury incidence was 16.9 injuries per 1000 player match-hours. Incidence was higher for group A (21.7; 95% CI 19.8 to 23.6) compared with group B (16.6; 95% CI 15.2 to 17.9) and C (14.2; 95% CI 13.0 to 15.5, both prugby. Injury prevention strategies should focus on good technique in the tackle and conditioning exercises for the knee, ankle, hamstrings and shoulder. PMID:24240143

  5. The development, retention and decay rates of strength and power in elite rugby union, rugby league and American football: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Daniel Travis; Gill, Nicholas; Cronin, John; McGuigan, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Strength and power are crucial components to excelling in all contact sports; and understanding how a player's strength and power levels fluctuate in response to various resistance training loads is of great interest, as it will inevitably dictate the loading parameters throughout a competitive season. This is a systematic review of training, maintenance and detraining studies, focusing on the development, retention and decay rates of strength and power measures in elite rugby union, rugby league and American football players. A literature search using MEDLINE, EBSCO Host, Google Scholar, IngentaConnect, Ovid LWW, ProQuest Central, ScienceDirect Journals, SPORTDiscus and Wiley InterScience was conducted. References were also identified from other review articles and relevant textbooks. From 300 articles, 27 met the inclusion criteria and were retained for further analysis. STUDY QUALITY: Study quality was assessed via a modified 20-point scale created to evaluate research conducted in athletic-based training environments. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) quality rating of the included studies was 16.2 ± 1.9; the rating system revealed that the quality of future studies can be improved by randomly allocating subjects to training groups, providing greater description and detail of the interventions, and including control groups where possible. Percent change, effect size (ES = [Post-Xmean - Pre-Xmean)/Pre-SD) calculations and SDs were used to assess the magnitude and spread of strength and power changes in the included studies. The studies were grouped according to (1) mean intensity relative volume (IRV = sets × repetitions × intensity; (2) weekly training frequency per muscle group; and (3) detraining duration. IRV is the product of the number of sets, repetitions and intensity performed during a training set and session. The effects of weekly training frequencies were assessed by normalizing the percent change values to represent the weekly changes in

  6. Injury risk and a tackle ban in youth Rugby Union: reviewing the evidence and searching for targeted, effective interventions. A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Ross; Raftery, Martin; Verhagen, Evert

    2016-08-01

    It has recently been proposed that the tackle, an integral part of Rugby Union, be banned in school rugby, as a means to reduce the risk of injury. This proposal held that harmful contact should be removed in response to what was termed an unacceptably high-injury risk. Such a ban would represent a significant intervention that could change the nature of Rugby Union. As such, the basis and rationale for such a ban is worthy of critical evaluation. This review aims to describe the research on which such a ban is proposed. It does so through an assessment (identification), estimation (understanding of the magnitude and occurrence) and evaluation (determining acceptability) of the risk before decisions can be made about implementing any risk mitigation strategies. The body of literature describing injury risk, particularly among youths, is indeed thin and fraught with methodological differences that makes definitive conclusions impossible. We describe these, and their implications, arguing that the complete ban on the tackle may be unnecessary in young children, in whom injury risk may not be as high as is often argued, but also that it may have detrimental consequences. Finally, we propose alternative strategies and research questions which must be pursued to effectively reduce risk without creating unintended consequences or changing the nature of the sport. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. The influence of playing level on the biomechanical demands experienced by rugby union forwards during machine scrummaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preatoni, E; Stokes, K A; England, M E; Trewartha, G

    2013-06-01

    This study investigated machine scrummaging at different playing levels in rugby union and analysed kinetic factors that might influence performance and injury risk. Thirty-four forward packs from six different playing levels scrummaged against an instrumented scrum machine under real environmental conditions. Applied forces were measured in three orthogonal directions. The peak (SD) of the overall compression forces during engagement ranged between 16.5 (1.4) kN (International-Elite) and 8.7 (0.1) kN (Women), while sustained compression forces spanned between 8.3 (1.0) kN (International) and 4.8 (0.5) kN (Women). The peak of the overall vertical force during the initial engagement phase was between -3.9 (0.7) kN (Elite) and -2.0 (1.0) kN (School), and the range of lateral forces was between 1.8 (0.3) kN (International) and 1.1 (0.3) kN (School). Forces measured across all playing levels, particularly during initial engagement, were generally higher than those measured in the most commonly cited previous studies. This increase may be due to a combination of changes in modern scrummaging technique, changes in players' anthropometrics, and experimental conditions that better respect ecological validity. The magnitude of the measured forces is in the range of values that studies on cadaveric specimens have indicated as potentially hazardous for (chronic) spine injuries.

  8. Pre-binding prior to full engagement improves loading conditions for front-row players in contested Rugby Union scrums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preatoni, E; Cazzola, D; Stokes, K A; England, M; Trewartha, G

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the effect of a "PreBind" engagement protocol on the biomechanics of contested Rugby Union scrummaging at different playing levels. "PreBind" requires front-row props to take a bind on opposing players prior to the engagement, and to maintain the bind throughout the scrum duration. Twenty-seven teams from five different playing levels performed live scrums under realistic conditions. Video analysis, pressures sensors, and inertial measurement units measured biomechanical outcomes as teams scrummaged following different engagement protocols: the CTPE (referee calls "crouch-touch-pause-engage"), the CTS ("crouch-touch-set"), and the PreBind ("crouch-bind-set") variants. PreBind reduced the set-up distance between the packs (-27%) and the speed at which they came into contact by more than 20%. The peak biomechanical stresses acting on front rows during the engagement phase were decreased in PreBind by 14-25% with respect to CTPE and CTS, without reducing the capability to generate force in the subsequent sustained push. No relevant main effects were recorded for playing level due to within-group variability and there were no interaction effects between playing level and engagement protocol. Pre-binding reduced many mechanical quantities that have been indicated as possible factors for chronic and acute injury, and may lead to safer engagement conditions without affecting subsequent performance. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The influence of an artificial playing surface on injury risk and perceptions of muscle soreness in elite Rugby Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S; Trewartha, G; Kemp, S P T; Michell, R; Stokes, K A

    2016-01-01

    This prospective cohort study investigated the influence of an artificial playing surface on injury risk and perceptions of muscle soreness in elite English Premiership Rugby Union players. Time loss (from 39.5 matches) and abrasion (from 27 matches) injury risk was compared between matches played on artificial turf and natural grass. Muscle soreness was reported over the 4 days following one match played on each surface by 95 visiting players (i.e., normally play on natural grass surfaces). There was a likely trivial difference in the overall injury burden relating to time-loss injuries between playing surfaces [rate ratio = 1.01, 90% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-1.38]. Abrasions were substantially more common on artificial turf (rate ratio = 7.92, 90% CI: 4.39-14.28), although the majority of these were minor and only two resulted in any reported time loss. Muscle soreness was consistently higher over the 4 days following a match on artificial turf in comparison with natural grass, although the magnitude of this effect was small (effect sizes ranging from 0.26 to 0.40). These results suggest that overall injury risk is similar for the two playing surfaces, but further surveillance is required before inferences regarding specific injury diagnoses and smaller differences in overall injury risk can be made.

  10. Rugby football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzen, C J; Topping, B R

    1999-02-01

    Rugby union football continues to gain in popularity in the United States. Both men's and women's clubs have been established at several colleges and universities. There has been substantial growth in the number of high school rugby football clubs in recent years. With the increase in numbers of young participants in this sport, it is important that great efforts be mounted to attempt to control the injury rates and severity of injuries in rugby football. Players and coaches must be knowledgeable of the rules of the game, and referees must strictly enforce these rules. Physicians and dentists should be involved in educating parents, coaches, players, and school officials about the inherent risks of injury and the means for injury prevention. Medical personnel must also be instrumental in educating players about alcohol abuse/addiction. Rugby players should be encouraged to use the limited protective gear that is allowed: wraps, tape, joint sleeves, scrum caps, and facial grease to prevent lacerations. Mouthguards are strongly recommended at any level of play and should be mandated. The use of helmets, face masks, and shoulder pads has been suggested by some authors. Such rule changes could actually increase injury rates and severity, because this equipment could be used as weapons as they are in American football. It is recommended that rugby clubs purchase or build equipment to practice scrummage skills. Coaches should be experienced and attend clinics or complete video courses on medical emergencies and safe techniques of the game. Injury frequency and severity can be decreased by adequate preseason training and conditioning, proper tackling and falling techniques, strengthening of neck muscles, and allowing only experienced, fit athletes to play in the front row. Medical surveillance must be improved at matches and, ideally, at practice sessions. At present, it is common for no emergency medical personnel or physicians to be present at matches in the United

  11. Planning the diffusion of a neck-injury prevention programme among community rugby union coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Alex; Poulos, Roslyn G

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a theory-informed and evidence-informed, context-specific diffusion plan for the Mayday Safety Procedure (MSP) among community rugby coaches in regional New South Wales, Australia. Step 5 of Intervention Mapping was used to plan strategies to enhance MSP adoption and implementation. Coaches were identified as the primary MSP adopters and implementers within a system including administrators, players and referees. A local advisory group was established to ensure context relevance. Performance objectives (eg, attend MSP training for coaches) and determinants of adoption and implementation behaviour (eg, knowledge, beliefs, skills and environment) were identified, informed by Social Cognitive Theory. Adoption and implementation matrices were developed and change-objectives for coaches were identified (eg, skills to deliver MSP training to players). Finally, intervention methods and specific strategies (eg, coach education, social marketing and policy and by-law development) were identified based on advisory group member experience, evidence of effective coach safety behaviour-change interventions and Diffusion of Innovations theory. This is the first published example of a systematic approach to plan injury prevention programme diffusion in community sports. The key strengths of this approach were an effective researcher-practitioner partnership; actively engaging local sports administrators; targeting specific behaviour determinants, informed by theory and evidence; and taking context-related practical strengths and constraints into consideration. The major challenges were the time involved in using a systematic diffusion planning approach for the first time; and finding a planning language that was acceptable and meaningful to researchers and practitioners.

  12. The effects of resisted sprint training on acceleration performance and kinematics in soccer, rugby union, and Australian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, Christopher D; Murphy, Aron J; Spinks, Warwick L; Lockie, Robert G

    2007-02-01

    Acceleration is a significant feature of game-deciding situations in the various codes of football. However little is known about the acceleration characteristics of football players, the effects of acceleration training, or the effectiveness of different training modalities. This study examined the effects of resisted sprint (RS) training (weighted sled towing) on acceleration performance (0-15 m), leg power (countermovement jump [CMJ], 5-bound test [5BT], and 50-cm drop jump [50DJ]), gait (foot contact time, stride length, stride frequency, step length, and flight time), and joint (shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee) kinematics in men (N = 30) currently playing soccer, rugby union, or Australian football. Gait and kinematic measurements were derived from the first and second strides of an acceleration effort. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment conditions: (a) 8-week sprint training of two 1-h sessions x wk(-1) plus RS training (RS group, n = 10), (b) 8-week nonresisted sprint training program of two 1-h sessions x wk(-1) (NRS group, n = 10), or (c) control (n = 10). The results indicated that an 8-week RS training program (a) significantly improves acceleration and leg power (CMJ and 5BT) performance but is no more effective than an 8-week NRS training program, (b) significantly improves reactive strength (50DJ), and (c) has minimal impact on gait and upper- and lower-body kinematics during acceleration performance compared to an 8-week NRS training program. These findings suggest that RS training will not adversely affect acceleration kinematics and gait. Although apparently no more effective than NRS training, this training modality provides an overload stimulus to acceleration mechanics and recruitment of the hip and knee extensors, resulting in greater application of horizontal power.

  13. Tackle-related injury rates and nature of injuries in South African Youth Week tournament rugby union players (under-13 to under-18): an observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Nicholas; Lambert, Mike I; Viljoen, Wayne; Brown, James C; Readhead, Clint; Hendricks, Sharief

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The tackle situation is most often associated with the high injury rates in rugby union. Tackle injury epidemiology in rugby union has previously been focused on senior cohorts but less is known about younger cohorts. The aim of this study was to report on the nature and rates of tackle-related injuries in South African youth rugby union players representing their provinces at national tournaments. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Four South African Youth Week tournaments (under-13 Craven Week, under-16 Grant Khomo Week, under-18 Academy Week, under-18 Craven Week). Participants Injury data were collected from 3652 youth rugby union players (population at risk) in 2011 and 2012. Outcome measures Tackle-related injury severity (‘time-loss’ and ‘medical attention’), type and location, injury rate per 1000 h (including 95% CIs). Injury rate ratios (IRR) were calculated and modelled using a Poisson regression. A χ2 analysis was used to detect linear trends between injuries and increasing match quarters. Results The 2012 under-13 Craven Week had a significantly greater ‘time-loss’ injury rate when compared with the 2012 under-18 Academy Week (IRR=4.43; 95% CI 2.13 to 9.21, p<0.05) and under-18 Craven Week (IRR=3.52; 95% CI 1.54 to 8.00, p<0.05). The Poisson regression also revealed a higher probability of ‘overall’ (‘time-loss’ and ‘medical attention’ combined) and ‘time-loss’ tackle-related injuries occurring at the under-13 Craven Week. The proportion of ‘overall’ and ‘time-loss’ injuries increased significantly with each quarter of the match when all four tournaments were combined (p<0.05). Conclusions There was a difference in the tackle-related injury rate between the under-13 tournament and the two under-18 tournaments, and the tackle-related injury rate was higher in the final quarter of matches. Ongoing injury surveillance is required to better interpret these findings. Injury prevention strategies

  14. Match analysis and player characteristics in rugby sevens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alex; Gill, Nicholas; Cronin, John

    2014-03-01

    Rugby sevens is a contact sport contested by two teams of seven players who compete over two 7-min halves, most frequently played in a tournament style. The IRB Sevens World Series is thought of as the preeminent rugby sevens competition in the world and has grown in competitiveness from its inception in 2000. The decision to include rugby sevens in the 2016 Olympics is likely to increase the global profile and participation in the game. Many rugby sevens players concurrently compete in 15-a-side rugby union as backs and loose forwards; however, a continued increase in the popularity of rugby sevens will likely see the emergence of the specialist rugby sevens player. Often thought of as the abbreviated version of rugby union, rugby sevens is played under nearly identical laws and on the same field dimensions as the 15-man code. However, research has shown the movement demands of rugby sevens and rugby union are dissimilar, with rugby sevens players spending a larger proportion of the game running at high intensity (≥ 5 m s(-1)). Given the dissimilarity in match demands in conjunction with differences in the competition structure between the codes, it appears the considerable depth of literature specific to performance in rugby union may be of little value for the preparation of rugby sevens players. Investigations of the physical characteristics of rugby sevens players show backs are lighter and shorter than forwards, while players across all positions possess a lean body composition. International rugby sevens players have similar speed characteristics to rugby union backs across distances of 10-30 m; however, rugby sevens players appear to have superior intermittent aerobic endurance. Despite being of likely importance, little is known of the strength and power characteristics of rugby sevens players. Research into the speed and aerobic endurance characteristics of rugby sevens players has not distinguished between backs and forwards and, as such, it is unclear

  15. A passive heat maintenance strategy implemented during a simulated half-time improves lower body power output and repeated sprint ability in professional Rugby Union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Mark; West, Daniel J; Briggs, Marc A; Bracken, Richard M; Cook, Christian J; Giroud, Thibault; Gill, Nicholas; Kilduff, Liam P

    2015-01-01

    Reduced physical performance has been observed following the half-time period in team sports players, likely due to a decrease in muscle temperature during this period. We examined the effects of a passive heat maintenance strategy employed between successive exercise bouts on core temperature (Tcore) and subsequent exercise performance. Eighteen professional Rugby Union players completed this randomised and counter-balanced study. After a standardised warm-up (WU) and 15 min of rest, players completed a repeated sprint test (RSSA 1) and countermovement jumps (CMJ). Thereafter, in normal training attire (Control) or a survival jacket (Passive), players rested for a further 15 min (simulating a typical half-time) before performing a second RSSA (RSSA 2) and CMJ's. Measurements of Tcore were taken at baseline, post-WU, pre-RSSA 1, post-RSSA 1 and pre-RSSA 2. Peak power output (PPO) and repeated sprint ability was assessed before and after the simulated half-time. Similar Tcore responses were observed between conditions at baseline (Control: 37.06±0.05°C; Passive: 37.03±0.05°C) and for all other Tcore measurements taken before half-time. After the simulated half-time, the decline in Tcore was lower (-0.74±0.08% vs. -1.54±0.06%, psprint times were 1.39±0.17% (prepeated sprint ability in professional Rugby Union players.

  16. A video analysis of head injuries satisfying the criteria for a head injury assessment in professional Rugby Union: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Ross; Raftery, Martin; Fuller, Gordon Ward; Hester, Ben; Kemp, Simon; Cross, Matthew J

    2017-08-01

    Concussion is the most common match injury in professional Rugby Union, accounting for 25% of match injuries. The primary prevention of head injuries requires that the injury mechanism be known so that interventions can be targeted to specifically overall incidence by focusing on characteristics with the greatest propensity to cause a head injury. 611 head injury assessment (HIA) events in professional Rugby Union over a 3-year period were analysed, with specific reference to match events, position, time and nature of head contact. 464 (76%) of HIA events occur during tackles, with the tackler experiencing a significantly greater propensity for an HIA than the ball carrier (1.40 HIAs/1000 tackles for the tackler vs 0.54 HIAs/1000 tackles for the ball carrier, incidence rate ratio (IRR) 2.59). Propensity was significantly greater for backline players than forwards (IRR 1.54, 95% CI 1.28 to 1.84), but did not increase over the course of the match. Head to head contact accounted for the most tackler HIAs, with the greatest propensity. By virtue of its high propensity and frequency, the tackle should be the focus for interventions that may include law change and technique education. A specific investigation of the characteristics of the tackle is warranted to refine the approach to preventative strategies. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. The effects of two equal-volume training protocols upon strength, body composition and salivary hormones in male rugby union players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heke, TOL; Keogh, JWL

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of two equal-volume resistance-training protocols upon strength, body composition and salivary hormones in male rugby union players. Using a crossover design, 24 male rugby players completed a 4-week full-body (FB) and split-body (SB) training protocol of equal volume during the competitive season. One repetition maximum (1RM) strength, body composition via skinfold measurements and salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations were assessed pre and post training. The FB and SB protocols improved upper (7.3% and 7.4%) and lower body 1RM strength (7.4% and 5.4%), whilst reducing body fat (-0.9% and -0.4%) and fat mass (-5.7% and -2.1%), respectively (all p ≤ 0.021). The SB protocol elevated T (21%) and C (50%) concentrations with a higher T/C ratio (28%) after FB training (all p ≤ 0.039). The strength changes were similar, but the body composition and hormonal results differed by protocol. Slope testing on the individual responses identified positive associations (p ≤ 0.05) between T and C concentrations and absolute 1RM strength in stronger (squat 1RM = 150.5 kg), but not weaker (squat 1RM = 117.4 kg), men. A short window of training involving FB or SB protocols can improve strength and body composition in rugby players. The similar strength gains highlight training volume as a key adaptive stimulus, although the programme structure (i.e. FB or SB) did influence the body composition and hormonal outcomes. It also appears that 1RM strength is associated with individual hormonal changes and baseline strength. PMID:27274103

  18. The incidence of rugby-related catastrophic injuries (including cardiac events) in South Africa from 2008 to 2011: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Craig; Lambert, Mike I; Verhagen, Evert; Readhead, Clint; van Mechelen, Willem; Viljoen, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    To establish an accurate and comprehensive injury incidence registry of all rugby union-related catastrophic events in South Africa between 2008 and 2011. An additional aim was to investigate correlates associated with these injuries. Prospective. The South African amateur and professional rugby-playing population. An estimated 529 483 Junior and 121 663 Senior rugby union ('rugby') players (population at risk). Annual average incidences of rugby-related catastrophic injuries by type (cardiac events, traumatic brain and acute spinal cord injuries (ASCIs)) and outcome (full recoveries-fatalities). Playing level (junior and senior levels), position and event (phase of play) were also assessed. The average annual incidence of ASCIs and Traumatic Brain Injuries combined was 2.00 per 100 000 players (95% CI 0.91 to 3.08) from 2008 to 2011. The incidence of ASCIs with permanent outcomes was significantly higher at the Senior level (4.52 per 100 000 players, 95% CI 0.74 to 8.30) than the Junior level (0.24 per 100 000 players, 95% CI 0 to 0.65) during this period. The hooker position was associated with 46% (n=12 of 26) of all permanent ASCI outcomes, the majority of which (83%) occurred during the scrum phase of play. The incidence of rugby-related catastrophic injuries in South Africa between 2008 and 2011 is comparable to that of other countries and to most other collision sports. The higher incidence rate of permanent ASCIs at the Senior level could be related to the different law variations or characteristics (eg, less regular training) compared with the Junior level. The hooker and scrum were associated with high proportions of permanent ASCIs. The BokSmart injury prevention programme should focus efforts on these areas (Senior level, hooker and scrum) and use this study as a reference point for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the programme.

  19. Peak power in the hexagonal barbell jump squat and its relationship to jump performance and acceleration in elite rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Thomas S; Tobin, Daniel P; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2015-05-01

    Recent research suggests that jump squats with a loaded hexagonal barbell are superior for peak power production to comparable loads in a traditional barbell loaded jump squat. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between relative peak power output during performance of the hexagonal barbell jump squat (HBJS), countermovement jump (CMJ) height, and linear acceleration speed in rugby union players. Seventeen professional rugby union players performed 10- and 20-m sprints, followed by a set of 3 unloaded CMJs and a set of 3 HBJS at a previously determined optimal load corresponding with peak power output. The relationship between HBJS relative peak power output, 10- and 20-m sprint time, and CMJ height was investigated using correlation analysis. The contribution of HBJS relative peak power output and CMJ height to 10- and 20-m sprint time was investigated using standard multiple regression. Strong, significant, inverse correlations were observed between HBJS relative peak power output, 10-m sprint time (r = -0.70, p < 0.01), and 20-m sprint time (r = -0.75, p < 0.01). A strong, significant, positive correlation was observed between HBJS relative peak power output and CMJ height (r = 0.80, p < 0.01). Together, HBJS relative peak power output and CMJ height explained 46% of the variance in 10-m sprint time while explaining 59% of the variance in 20-m sprint time. The findings of the current study demonstrate a significant relationship between relative peak power in the HBJS and athletic performance as quantified by CMJ height and 10- and 20-m sprint time.

  20. The effects of different pre-game motivational interventions on athlete free hormonal state and subsequent performance in professional rugby union matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Christian J; Crewther, Blair T

    2012-07-16

    We examined the effect of different pre-match motivational interventions on athlete free testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations and subsequent match performance in professional rugby union. Male participants (n=12) playing at a senior or academy level in rugby union were recruited and each completed three interventions (15 min each) before a competitive game; 1) watching a video clip of successful skill execution by the player with positive coach feedback [VPCF1]; 2) watching a video clip of successful skill execution by an opposing player with cautionary coach feedback [VCCF], 3) the player left alone to self-motivate [SM1]. The first and last interventions were retested [VPCF2 and SM2]. Salivary free T and C measures were taken pre-intervention and pre-game. Within each game, players were rated by coaching staff on a key performance indicator (KPI) from identified skills and an overall performance indicator (OPI), where 1 = best performance to 5 = worst performance. The VPCF1 and VPCF2 interventions both promoted significant T responses (11.8% to 12.5%) before each game and more so than SM1, SM2 and VCCF. The VCCF approach produced the largest C response (17.6%) and this differed from all other treatments. The VPCF interventions were also associated with better game KPI (1.5 to 1.8) and OPI ratings (1.7 to 1.8) than SM1, SM2 and/or VCCF. Across all treatments, greater individual T responses and lower C responses were associated with better KPI and OPI outcomes. In conclusion, the pre-game presentation of motivational strategies to athletes involving specific video footage and coach feedback produced different outcomes on two indicators of match performance, which were also associated with changes in free hormonal state. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Injury in rugby league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, W; Pollard, H; Hough, K; Tully, C

    2006-05-01

    It was the purpose of this review to document the range, incidence, location and mechanism of injury occurring in the sport of rugby league. Rugby league is a collision sport played in Europe and the Pacific regions including Australia. The sport is well established and has competitions ranging from junior to elite professional. Due to the contact nature of the game, injury is relatively common. The most common injuries are musculotendinous in nature and afflict the lower limb more frequently than elsewhere. Despite the high incidence of minor (sprains/strains) to moderate musculoskeletal injury (fracture, ligament and joint injury) and minor head injuries such as lacerations, nasal fractures and concussions, rare more serious spinal cord and other injuries causing death have also been recorded. The literature on rugby league injury is small but growing and suffers from a lack of consistent definition of what an injury is, thereby causing variability in the nature and incidence/prevalence of injury. Information is lacking on the injury profiles of different age groups. Importantly, there has been little attempt to establish a coordinated injury surveillance program in rugby league in the junior or professional levels. The implementation of such programs would require a universal definition of injury and a focus on important events and competitions. The implementation could provide important information in the identification and prevention of risk factors for injury.

  2. Risk factors for head injury events in professional rugby union: a video analysis of 464 head injury events to inform proposed injury prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Ross; Raftery, Martin; Kemp, Simon; Brown, James; Fuller, Gordon; Hester, Ben; Cross, Matthew; Quarrie, Ken

    2017-08-01

    The tackle is responsible for the majority of head injuries during rugby union. In order to address head injury risk, risk factors during the tackle must first be identified. This study analysed tackle characteristics in the professional game in order to inform potential interventions. 464 tackles resulting in a head injury assessment (HIA) were analysed in detail, with tackle type, direction, speed, acceleration, nature of head contact and player body position the characteristics of interest. Propensity to cause an HIA was significantly greater for active shoulder tackles, front-on tackles, high speeder tackles and an accelerating tackler. Head contact between a tackler's head and ball carrier's head or shoulder was significantly more likely to cause an HIA than contact below the level of the shoulder (incident rate ratio (IRR) 4.25, 95%-CI 3.38 to 5.35). The tackler experiences the majority (78%) of HIAs when head-to-head contact occurs. An upright tackler was 1.5 times more likely to experience an HIA than a bent at the waist tackler (IRR 1.44, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.76). This study confirms that energy transfer in the tackle is a risk factor for head injury, since direction, type and speed all influence HIA propensity. The study provides evidence that body position and the height of tackles should be a focus for interventions, since lowering height and adopting a bent at the waist body position is associated with reduced risk for both tacklers and ball carriers. To this end, World Rugby has implemented law change based on the present data. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Serious neck injuries in U19 rugby union players: an audit of admissions to spinal injury units in Great Britain and Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, James G B; Hutchison, James D

    2012-06-01

    To obtain data regarding admissions of U19 rugby players to spinal injury units in Great Britain and Ireland and to compare this with a recent peak in presentation in Scotland. To assess the current state of data collection and subsequent analysis of serious neck injuries. To analyse the mechanism of injury in this group of at-risk players. Retrospective case series. Spinal injury units in Great Britain and Ireland. Annual frequency of serious neck injuries. Analysis of injury types, neurological deficit and mechanism of injury. 36 Injuries were recorded. 10 Of these occurred in Scotland since 1996 of which six have occurred in the past 4 years. This compared with 14 in Ireland over the same period. 12 Cases were traced in England and Wales since 2000; records were not available before this date. No prospective collation of data is performed by the home unions and inconsistency of data collection exists. The mean age was 16.2 years. 16 Of the 36 admissions had complete neurological loss, 9 had incomplete neurological injury and 11 had cervical column injury without spinal cord damage. The mechanism of injury was tackle in 17 (47%), scrum in 13 (36%), two each due to the maul and collision, and one each due to a kick and a ruck. Some degree of spinal cord injury occurred in 92% of scrum injuries (61% complete) and 53% of tackle injuries (29% complete). U19 rugby players continue to sustain serious neck injuries necessitating admission to spinal injury units with a low but persistent frequency. The recent rate of admission in Scotland is disproportionately high when the respective estimated playing populations are considered. While more injuries were sustained in the tackle, spinal cord injury was significantly more common in neck injury sustained in the scrum (pscrum engagement and the tackle can be made safer.

  4. Interim evaluation of the effect of a new scrum law on neck and back injuries in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, S; Hume, P A; Hopkins, W G; Harawira, J; Truman, R

    2008-06-01

    In January 2007 the International Rugby Board implemented a new law for scrum engagement aimed at improving player welfare by reducing impact force and scrum collapses. In New Zealand the new law was included in RugbySmart, an annual compulsory workshop for coaches and referees. To determine the effect of the new law on scrum-related moderate to serious neck and back injury claims in 2007. Claims filed with the Accident Compensation Corporation (the provider of no-fault injury compensation and rehabilitation in New Zealand) were combined with numbers of registered players to estimate moderate to serious scrum-related claims for players who take part in scrums (forwards). Poisson linear regression was used to compare the observed claims per 100 000 forwards for 2007 with the rate predicted from data for 2002-6. The observed and predicted claims per 100 000 forwards were 52 and 76, respectively (rate ratio 0.69; 90% CI 0.42 to 1.12). The likelihoods of substantial benefit (rate ratio 1.1) attributable to the scrum law were 82% and 5%, respectively. The decline in scrum-related injury claims is consistent with a beneficial effect of the new scrum law in the first year of its implementation. Another year of monitoring should provide more evidence for the efficacy of the new law.

  5. A passive heat maintenance strategy implemented during a simulated half-time improves lower body power output and repeated sprint ability in professional Rugby Union players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Russell

    Full Text Available Reduced physical performance has been observed following the half-time period in team sports players, likely due to a decrease in muscle temperature during this period. We examined the effects of a passive heat maintenance strategy employed between successive exercise bouts on core temperature (Tcore and subsequent exercise performance. Eighteen professional Rugby Union players completed this randomised and counter-balanced study. After a standardised warm-up (WU and 15 min of rest, players completed a repeated sprint test (RSSA 1 and countermovement jumps (CMJ. Thereafter, in normal training attire (Control or a survival jacket (Passive, players rested for a further 15 min (simulating a typical half-time before performing a second RSSA (RSSA 2 and CMJ's. Measurements of Tcore were taken at baseline, post-WU, pre-RSSA 1, post-RSSA 1 and pre-RSSA 2. Peak power output (PPO and repeated sprint ability was assessed before and after the simulated half-time. Similar Tcore responses were observed between conditions at baseline (Control: 37.06±0.05°C; Passive: 37.03±0.05°C and for all other Tcore measurements taken before half-time. After the simulated half-time, the decline in Tcore was lower (-0.74±0.08% vs. -1.54±0.06%, p<0.001 and PPO was higher (5610±105 W vs. 5440±105 W, p<0.001 in the Passive versus Control condition. The decline in PPO over half-time was related to the decline in Tcore (r = 0.632, p = 0.005. In RSSA 2, best, mean and total sprint times were 1.39±0.17% (p<0.001, 0.55±0.06% (p<0.001 and 0.55±0.06% (p<0.001 faster for Passive versus Control. Passive heat maintenance reduced declines in Tcore that were observed during a simulated half-time period and improved subsequent PPO and repeated sprint ability in professional Rugby Union players.

  6. Rugby Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Rugby Club

    2012-01-01

    The Wildcats started out in September 2005 and we are currently the only female club in the Geneva. We train on Tuesdays and Thursdays evenings in Meyrin (at the pitch off the chemin de Arbères) from 7-9pm. We have a huge mix of nationalities and levels of experience so don't hesitate to come and join us. Aside from trainings, there are also matches throughout the year in the form of rugby XVs (national women's league) and rugby VIIs (Super Swiss Sevens). We also enjoy the non sporting side of things and often organise events such as pub quizzes (to train the basics) and outings in town as well as ski excursions in winter and also a fun rugby tour in the summer. So, come and check out our Facebook page. Infos, contacts: www.cern-rugby.ch Facebook page : wildcats women's rugby wildcats@cern-rugby.ch

  7. Rugby femenino

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    (…) Mis experiencias personales, que a la vez fueron compartidas con otras jugadoras de rugby, han contribuido de forma especial a desarrollar mi feminidad, una feminidad que, por supuesto, escapa a las definiciones dicotómicas de género. Si socialmente el rugby es visto como un deporte masculino, personalmente el rugby me ha ayudado a no negar mi cuerpo femenino y a apreciar el partir de mí cuando me relaciono con otras jugadoras.

  8. Phoenix Union High School System Freshmen and Juniors Look at High School, November 1974/April 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Coleen

    The Upperclassmen Look at High School Survey was administered in April 1975 to randomly selected junior classes, along with the Vocabulary section of the Iowa Test of Educational Development. This survey was administered, along with the freshman survey in October, as a check on student attitude toward the following: new educational concepts,…

  9. The effectiveness of the nationwide BokSmart rugby injury prevention program on catastrophic injury rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J C; Verhagen, E; Knol, D; Van Mechelen, W; Lambert, M I

    2016-02-01

    Rugby Union ("rugby") participants have a higher than average risk of injury compared with participants of other popular team sports. BokSmart, a nationwide injury prevention program was launched in South Africa in mid-2009, with the goal of reducing catastrophic head/neck (serious) injuries in players. The program provides injury prevention information to coaches and referees. This study investigated if BokSmart has been associated with a reduction in these injuries. The BokSmart program collected data on all South African rugby-related serious injuries since 2008. Using a Poisson regression, injury numbers were compared pre-BokSmart (2008-2009) to the years post-implementation (2010-2013). Player numbers were assumed to be constant throughout this evaluation: junior = 529,483; senior = 121,663. In junior players, the "post-BokSmart" period had 2.5 less annual serious injuries than "pre-BokSmart" (incidence rate ratio: 0.6, 95% confidence interval: 0.5-0.7, P < 0.000). In contrast, there was no significant difference in these periods in seniors. The absence of effect in seniors may be a result of fewer players or of differences in effectiveness of BokSmart in this group--future studies should investigate these questions.

  10. Professional Rugby Union players have a 60% greater risk of time loss injury after concussion: a 2-season prospective study of clinical outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Matthew; Kemp, Simon; Smith, Andrew; Trewartha, Grant; Stokes, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate incidence of concussion, clinical outcomes and subsequent injury risk following concussion. Methods In a two-season (2012/2013, 2013/2014) prospective cohort study, incidence of diagnosed match concussions (injuries/1000 h), median time interval to subsequent injury of any type (survival time) and time spent at each stage of the graduated return to play pathway were determined in 810 professional Rugby Union players (1176 player seasons). Results Match concussion incidence was 8.9/1000 h with over 50% occurring in the tackle. Subsequent incidence of any injury for players who returned to play in the same season following a diagnosed concussion (122/1000 h, 95% CI 106 to 141) was 60% higher (IRR 1.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 1.8) than for those who did not sustain a concussion (76/1000 h, 95% CI 72 to 80). Median time to next injury following return to play was shorter following concussion (53 days, 95% CI 41 to 64) than following non-concussive injuries (114 days, 95% CI 85 to 143). 38% of players reported recurrence of symptoms or failed to match their baseline neurocognitive test during the graduated return to play protocol. Summary and conclusions Players who returned to play in the same season after a diagnosed concussion had a 60% greater risk of time-loss injury than players without concussion. A substantial proportion of players reported recurrence of symptoms or failed to match baseline neurocognitive test scores during graduated return to play. These data pave the way for trials of more conservative and comprehensive graduated return to play protocols, with a greater focus on active rehabilitation. PMID:26626266

  11. ‘It’s Just Such a Class Thing’: Rivalry and Class Distinction Between Female Fans of Men’s Football and Rugby Union

    OpenAIRE

    Stacey Pope

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on 85 interviews with female fans of men’s football and rugby union to explore sporting preferences and social class in one locale in Britain. Although it has been widely contended that social class is no longer a major source of people’s identity and people will usually deny class identities, these findings demonstrate that sport can operate as a unique space in which people openly discuss class distinctions. The findings examine the perceived class differences between...

  12. Detraining Effect of the Post-Season on Selected Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance Variables in National League Rugby Union Players: A Focus on Positional Status

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nirmalendran, Rohaan; Ingle, Lee

    2010-01-01

    ...: 34 English National Division One rugby players (mean age 24.6 ± 3.7 years; stature 184 ± 8 cm) were recruited from one professional club and divided into four groups based on playing positions...

  13. Rugby club

    CERN Multimedia

    Rugby club

    2016-01-01

    Pour le rugby club du CERN… c’est la rentrée ! La fin des vacances rime aussi avec la reprise des activités sportives et le club de rugby du CERN ne fait pas exception : ses 3 sections reprennent du service. L’école de rugby reprend ses entrainements le Mercredi 31 août 2016 à 17h30. Vous voulez faire découvrir à vos enfants un nouveau sport? N’hésitez pas. Le rugby c’est l’école de la vie. L’Ecole de Rugby du Rugby Club CERN Meyrin St Genis et ses éducateurs accueillent les enfants dès l’âge de 5 ans, de tous gabarits et origines et les invitent à découvrir de façon ludique un sport d’équipe. Après trois séances offertes, ils pourront alors décider de transformer l’essai en s’inscrivant...

  14. Rugby Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Rugby Club

    2017-01-01

    L’école de rugby du Rugby Club CERN Meyrin Saint Genis Pouilly organise son tournoi le Dimanche 30 Avril 2017 de 12h à 16h au terrain de rugby situé proche du Golf des Serves à Saint Genis Pouilly. Ne manquez pas de venir encourager nos jeunes rugby(wo)men. C’est également l’occasion de faire découvrir ce sport à votre enfant ! Le reste de l’année, les entraînements des enfants (de 4 à 16 ans) ont lieu le mercredi de 17h30 à 19h au terrain de rugby de Meyrin situé avenue Louis Rendu (jouxtant le parking de la piscine de Meyrin). Après trois séances d’essais offertes, vos enfants pourront alors décider de transformer l’essai en s’inscrivant.    Le Rugby Club CERN Meyrin St Genis c'est aussi une section Masculine et une section F&...

  15. Rugby Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Rugby Club

    2012-01-01

    CERN Wildcats (Women Rugby Team),  Season_2011-2012_act_II   After a booming start of season, the reputed Wildcats team (women team of the RC CMSG) went all around Switzerland to play their away games for the second part of the championship, Basel, Berne, Lucerne and Zurich. The team still motivated and united tried to play its best Rugby and rise up its play level game after game. The statement is promising, indeed our players end up at the forth place just behind the biggest teams gathering most of the Swiss National players. Besides the regular championship, the Wildcats, this year again, acquired experiences at Rugby 7’s in participating to an international Rugby sevens tournament, the famous Amsterdam Sevens and also in being part of the Swiss sevens tournament. To end on a high note this excellent season, the Wildcats organized on June the 9th, a friendly women Rugby tournament at St-Genis-Pouilly pitch. With the attendance of 6 teams, this day was a success; it deligh...

  16. Rugby school

    CERN Multimedia

    Rugby Club

    2015-01-01

    Choosing a sport for your kid? How about Rugby? Rugby is a team sport that allows children to develop their motor skills as well as their intellectual skills in a fun way. The CERN-Meyrin-Saint Genis Pouilly Rugby school, given its international location, welcomes children from the age of 5 from all nationalities and levels. Diversity is welcomed and encouraged to build a strong sense of belonging and team spirit. Training sessions take place on Wednesdays from 17h30 to 19h00 at the pitch by the parking lot of the Meyrin pool. Adding to the training sessions, children are also have the opportunity to participate in several Swiss tournaments. One of these tournaments will be organized by the CERN rugby school on Sunday, October 4th 2015 from 12h-16h in the Saint Genis Pouilly Rugby pitch (by the Gold des Serves). Do not hesitate to come see us for more information and support the kids on the date. The first 2015/2016 practice will take place on Wednesday, 26th of August. Come join us in Meyrin! For more...

  17. New Zealand rugby health study: motor cortex excitability in retired elite and community level rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gwyn N; Hume, Patria A; Stavric, Verna; Brown, Scott R; Taylor, Denise

    2017-01-13

    Rugby union is a high contact sport in which players frequently experience brain injuries. Acute brain injury is associated with altered corticomotor function. However, it is uncertain if long-term exposure to rugby is associated with any alterations in corticomotor function. The aim of the study was to assess measures of corticomotor excitability and inhibition in retired rugby players in comparison to retired non-contact sport players. The design was a cross-sectional study with three groups of retired athletes: elite rugby (n=23), community level rugby (n=28) and non-contact sport control (n=22). Assessments of corticomotor excitability were made using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Resting motor threshold was significantly higher and long-interval intracortical inhibition was greater in the elite rugby group compared to the control group. Participants in the two rugby groups had sustained significantly more concussions than the control group. We provide some evidence of altered corticomotor excitation and inhibition in retired elite rugby players in comparison to retired non-contact sport players. Given the absence of findings in the community rugby group, who had experienced a similar number of concussions, the association with previous brain injury is unclear.

  18. The Effects of Goal Setting on Rugby Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellalieu, Stephen D.; Hanton, Sheldon; O'Brien, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Goal-setting effects on selected performance behaviors of 5 collegiate rugby players were assessed over an entire competitive season using self-generated targets and goal-attainment scaling. Results suggest that goal setting was effective for enhancing task-specific on-field behavior in rugby union. (Contains 1 figure.)

  19. The Effects of Goal Setting on Rugby Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen D. Mellalieu; Hanton, Sheldon; O'Brien, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Goal-setting effects on selected performance behaviors of 5 collegiate rugby players were assessed over an entire competitive season using self-generated targets and goal-attainment scaling. Results suggest that goal setting was effective for enhancing task-specific on-field behavior in rugby union.

  20. Science of rugby league football: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the science of rugby league football at all levels of competition (i.e. junior, amateur, semi-professional, professional), with special reference to all discipline-specific scientific research performed in rugby league (i.e. physiological, psychological, injury epidemiology, strength and conditioning, performance analysis). Rugby league football is played at junior and senior levels in several countries worldwide. A rugby league team consists of 13 players (6 forwards and 7 backs). The game is played over two 30 - 40 min halves (depending on the standard of competition) separated by a 10 min rest interval. Several studies have documented the physiological capacities and injury rates of rugby league players. More recently, studies have investigated the physiological demands of competition. Interestingly, the physiological capacities of players, the incidence of injury and the physiological demands of competition all increase as the playing standard is increased. Mean blood lactate concentrations of 5.2, 7.2 and 9.1 mmol . l(-1) have been reported during competition for amateur, semi-professional and professional rugby league players respectively. Mean heart rates of 152 beats . min(-1) (78% of maximal heart rate), 166 beats . min(-1) (84% of maximal heart rate) and 172 beats . min(-1) (93% of maximal heart rate) have been recorded for amateur, semi-professional and junior elite rugby league players respectively. Skill-based conditioning games have been used to develop the skill and fitness of rugby league players, with mean heart rate and blood lactate responses during these activities almost identical to those obtained during competition. In addition, recent studies have shown that most training injuries are sustained in traditional conditioning activities that involve no skill component (i.e. running without the ball), whereas the incidence of injuries while participating in skill-based conditioning

  1. More than 50% of players sustained a time-loss injury (>1 day of lost training or playing time) during the 2012 Super Rugby Union Tournament: a prospective cohort study of 17,340 player-hours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwellnus, Martin P; Thomson, Alan; Derman, Wayne; Jordaan, Esme; Readhead, Clint; Collins, Rob; Morris, Ian; Strauss, Org; Van der Linde, Ewoudt; Williams, Arthur

    2014-09-01

    Professional Rugby Union is a contact sport with a high risk of injury. To document the incidence and nature of time-loss injuries during the 2012 Super Rugby tournament. Prospective cohort study. 2012 Super Rugby tournament (Australia, New Zealand, South Africa). 152 players from 5 South African teams. Team physicians collected daily injury data through a secure, web-based electronic platform. Data included size of the squad, type of day, main player position, training or match injury, hours of play (training and matches), time of the match injury, mechanism of injury, main anatomical location of the injury, specific anatomical structure of the injury, the type of injury, the severity of the injury (days lost). The proportion (%) of players sustaining a time-loss injury during the tournament was 55%, and 25% of all players sustained >1 injury. The overall incidence rate (IR/1000 player-hours) of injuries was 9.2. The IR for matches (83.3) was significantly higher than for training (2.1) and the IR was similar for forwards and backs. Muscle/tendon (50%) and joint/ligament (32.7%) injuries accounted for >80% of injuries. Most injuries occurred in the lower (48.1%) and upper limb (25.6%). 42% of all injuries were moderate (27.5%) or severe (14.8%), and tackling (26.3%) and being tackled (23.1%) were the most common mechanisms of injury. The IR of injuries was unrelated to playing at home compared with away (locations ≥6 h time difference). 55% of all players were injured during the 4-month Super Rugby tournament (1.67 injuries/match). Most injuries occurred in the lower (knee, thigh) or upper limb (shoulder, clavicle). 42% of injuries were severe enough for players to not play for >1 week. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. A case of an 18-year-old male rugby union forward with a C5/C6 central disc herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broughton, Henare Renata

    2009-01-01

    The patient was an 18-year-old front row forward rugby player who had a history of episodic neck pain for over 2 years following playing games of rugby. The initial event of April 2005 for which the symptoms manifested was a scrum collapse; he continued playing until a front-on tackle occurred when the symptoms dictated that he leave the field and be taken to the local hospital. A diagnosis of a cervical sprain was made and conservative management ensued. During the selections held on January 2008, a medical assessment was made and an MRI found that he had a central disc herniation at C5/C6. He was referred to a spinal orthopaedic surgeon for further treatment. The risks to cervical spinal injuries are illustrated in this case, in a scrum and in the tackle. The prevention of such an injury is discussed.

  3. Rugby Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Rugby Club

    2011-01-01

    Women’s Rugby Team – CERN Wildcats The season 2010/2011 has been a challenging one for the Wildcats, hit by injuries and a lack of players. But the RCMSG women’s Rugby team have never lost heart. At the beginning of the summer 2011, the team welcomed a group of recruits, new to rugby, but bursting with enthusiasm to become part of the Wildcats. The summer is a  moment for the Wildcats to rebuild their team, creating a group of friends willing to train hard, play well and party together.  Early in the season, the coach’s words are clear: for the championship matches it won’t be a question of victory or defeat, but the goal is to gain  experience, confidence and to keep improving and developing the skills and techniques learnt during  training. The work is positive; the Wildcats end this first half of the season with enthusiasm and satisfaction: 3 Victories, 3 defeats. The Wildcats have given everything for each game, whi...

  4. The incidence of rugby-related catastrophic injuries (including cardiac events) in South Africa from 2008 to 2011: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Craig; Lambert, Mike I; Verhagen, Evert; Readhead, Clint; van Mechelen, Willem; Viljoen, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To establish an accurate and comprehensive injury incidence registry of all rugby union-related catastrophic events in South Africa between 2008 and 2011. An additional aim was to investigate correlates associated with these injuries. Design Prospective. Setting The South African amateur and professional rugby-playing population. Participants An estimated 529 483 Junior and 121 663 Senior rugby union (‘rugby’) players (population at risk). Outcome measures Annual average incidences of rugby-related catastrophic injuries by type (cardiac events, traumatic brain and acute spinal cord injuries (ASCIs)) and outcome (full recoveries—fatalities). Playing level (junior and senior levels), position and event (phase of play) were also assessed. Results The average annual incidence of ASCIs and Traumatic Brain Injuries combined was 2.00 per 100 000 players (95% CI 0.91 to 3.08) from 2008 to 2011. The incidence of ASCIs with permanent outcomes was significantly higher at the Senior level (4.52 per 100 000 players, 95% CI 0.74 to 8.30) than the Junior level (0.24 per 100 000 players, 95% CI 0 to 0.65) during this period. The hooker position was associated with 46% (n=12 of 26) of all permanent ASCI outcomes, the majority of which (83%) occurred during the scrum phase of play. Conclusions The incidence of rugby-related catastrophic injuries in South Africa between 2008 and 2011 is comparable to that of other countries and to most other collision sports. The higher incidence rate of permanent ASCIs at the Senior level could be related to the different law variations or characteristics (eg, less regular training) compared with the Junior level. The hooker and scrum were associated with high proportions of permanent ASCIs. The BokSmart injury prevention programme should focus efforts on these areas (Senior level, hooker and scrum) and use this study as a reference point for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the programme. PMID:23447464

  5. Trying Physics: Analyzing the Motion of the Quickest Score in International Rugby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John Eric; Lipscombe, Trevor Davis

    2015-01-01

    The hearts of sports fans were stirred recently by the fastest-ever try scored in international rugby. Welsh winger Dafydd Howells crossed the Fijian try line to score a mere six seconds after Angus O'Brien had started the game with a kickoff, in one of the fixtures in rugby's Junior World Cup played on June 2, 2014, in New Zealand. This…

  6. Rugby contact and collisions--clinical challenges of a global game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricios, Jon S

    2014-01-01

    Rugby Union (rugby) is a sport that evolved from and resembles other forms of football but is unique in many respects and presents distinctive clinical challenges. This article discusses those aspects of rugby that are different from other sports and those injuries that have specific significance to the game as a result of it being a global collision sport with an increasing focus on serious injury prevention. Injury screening and intervention programs, neck injuries, rugby's contribution to evolving concussion protocols, contact and travel-related illnesses, and rugby's drug intervention protocols are discussed.

  7. Rugby World Cup 2015: World Rugby injury surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W; Taylor, Aileen; Kemp, Simon P T; Raftery, Martin

    2017-01-01

    To determine the incidence, severity and nature of injuries sustained during the Rugby World Cup (RWC) 2015 together with the inciting events leading to the injuries. A prospective, whole population study. 639 international rugby players representing 20 countries. The study protocol followed the definitions and procedures recommended in the consensus statement for epidemiological studies in rugby union; output measures included players' age (years), stature (cm), body mass (kg) and playing position, and the group-level incidence (injuries/1000 player-hours), mean and median severity (days-absence), location (%), type (%) and inciting event (%) for match and training injuries. Incidence of injury was 90.1 match injuries/1000 player-match-hours (backs: 100.4; forwards: 81.1) and 1.0 training injuries/1000 player-training-hours (backs: 0.9; forwards: 1.2). The mean severity of injuries was 29.8 days-absence (backs: 30.4; forwards: 29.1) during matches and 14.4 days-absence (backs: 6.3; forwards: 19.8) during training. During matches, head/face (22.0%), knee (16.2%), muscle-strain (23.1%) and ligament-sprain (23.1%) and, during training, lower limb (80.0%) and muscle-strain (60.0%) injuries were the most common locations and types of injury. Being-tackled (24.7%) was the most common inciting event for injury during matches and rugby-skills-contact activities (70.0%) the most common during training. While the incidence, nature and inciting events associated with match injuries at RWC 2015 were similar to those reported previously for RWCs 2007 and 2011, there were increasing trends in the mean severity and total days-absence through injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. sequent participation at the national U16 and U18 rugby tournaments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Rugby Union (SARU) hosts four national competi- tion tournaments ... The national tour- naments are ... Therefore for the purpose of this paper the definition used in a recent review ... These programmes have created the perception held by ... Early research on talent identification of young rugby players.

  9. A Comparison of Rugby Seasons Presented in Traditional and Sport Education Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Tom B. J.; Carlson, Teresa B.; Hastie, Peter A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact that two instructional approaches to teaching rugby had on students' learning, enjoyment and affect. Fifty-three boys (aged 12-13) from a large metropolitan private boy's school in eastern Australia participated in either a 20 lesson unit of rugby union taught using a skill-drill-game approach (n…

  10. A Comparison of Rugby Seasons Presented in Traditional and Sport Education Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Tom B. J.; Carlson, Teresa B.; Hastie, Peter A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact that two instructional approaches to teaching rugby had on students' learning, enjoyment and affect. Fifty-three boys (aged 12-13) from a large metropolitan private boy's school in eastern Australia participated in either a 20 lesson unit of rugby union taught using a skill-drill-game approach (n…

  11. Injury Profile of American Women's Rugby-7s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Richard; Lopez, Victor; Weinstein, Meryle G; Chen, James L; Black, Christopher M; Gupta, Arun T; Harbst, Justin D; Victoria, Christian; Allen, Answorth A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study is to determine incidence (injuries/1000 playing hours (ph)), severity (days of absence), and cause of match injuries in US women's Rugby-7s. We performed a prospective epidemiological study (2010-2013) of injury of 3876 under-19 to elite/national female Rugby-7s players (nonelite = 3324, elite = 552) on 323 teams (nonelite = 277, elite = 46), applying methodology and injury definitions compliant with the international consensus statement on rugby research. Injuries occurred in USA Rugby-sanctioned tournament series: USA Rugby Local Area (2010), Territorial Union (2011-2013), National and All-Star Sevens Series, and USA Sevens Invitational (2011-2012) and Collegiate Rugby Championships (2012). One hundred and twenty time-loss injuries were encountered (elite, n = 15; 13%) with an injury rate of 46.3 injuries/1000 ph. Injury rates in nonelite were 49.3/1000 ph, and in national level (elite) candidates, 32.6/1000 ph (RR = 1.5, P = 0.130). Mean days missed found elite level players at 74.9 d per injury, whereas nonelite at 41.8 d (P = 0.090). Acute injuries were significant (95%, RR = 1.9, P Rugby-7s tournaments. Overall injury rates in US women are lower than those in international elite men and women's Rugby-7s. The head and neck area in our female players was injured at greater rates (16%) than in international male Rugby-7s (5%). Injury prevention in US women's Rugby-7s must focus on injuries of the knee, head, and neck. Understanding risk factors will allow safe return-to-play decisions and formulate injury prevention protocols.

  12. Performance nutrition guidelines for international rugby sevens tournaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziedzic, Christine E; Higham, Dean G

    2014-06-01

    Rugby sevens is an abbreviated version of rugby union, played by teams of seven players over 7-min halves. International competitions are usually played in a tournament format. While shorter in duration, the movement demands of rugby sevens per min of match time are greater than rugby union, resulting in an accentuated load on players. This load can be repeated up to six times over a typical 2- or 3-day competition period. The potential cumulative effect of inadequate carbohydrate, protein and/or fluid intake over the course of a tournament is the greatest nutrition-related concern for players. Nutritional strategies before and during competition are suggested to replenish substrate stores, maintain fluid balance and promote recovery between matches. The use of ergogenic aids known to enhance intermittent, high-intensity activity and/or the execution of motor skills may be advantageous to rugby sevens performance and is discussed. This review provides a best-practice model of nutritional support for international rugby sevens competition based on our current understanding of the sport combined with pragmatic guidelines and considerations for the practitioner.

  13. Practice effects reveal visuomotor vulnerability in school and university rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth-Edwards, Ann B; Radloff, Sarah E; Whitefield-Alexander, Victoria J; Smith, Ian P; Horsman, Mark

    2014-02-01

    This article reports on three pre- versus post-season prospective studies in which male university and high school contact sport players predominantly of Rugby Union (hereafter rugby) were compared with age, education, and IQ equivalent non-contact sport controls on the ImPACT (Immediate Postconcussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing) test. All analyses revealed a relative absence of practice effects on the Visual Motor Speed (VMS) composite for contact sport groups compared with controls. The VMS data for rugby players from each study were pooled and subjected to additional analysis (Rugby, n = 145; Controls, n = 106). Controls revealed significant improvement over the season (p rugby players whose performance remained the same (interaction effect, p = .028). It is apparent that practice effects have diagnostic potential in this context, implicating vulnerability on speeded visuomotor processing in association with participation in rugby. Pointers for further research and concussion management in the individual case are explored.

  14. ECOLE DE RUGBY DE CERN / MEYRIN / ST-GENIS

    CERN Multimedia

    RUGBY CLUB

    2010-01-01

    La période de rentrée des classes coïncide également avec la reprise des activités sportives de nos enfants. L’Ecole de Rugby du CMSG Rugby Club, une des plus grandes de Suisse avec près d’une de licenciés de 6 à 18 ans, profite de cette période pour vous informer sur la réelle alternative que représente le Rugby. Pourquoi le rugby pour mon enfant ? Parce qu’il contribue à l’épanouissement harmonieux des enfants et des jeunes, ainsi qu’à la formation de leur personnalité. C’est même le ‘Sport Collectif par Excellence’ selon le Manuel des Castor Juniors ! Le rugby est un sport complet qui sollicite et développe les capacités motrices, intellectuelles, sociales et affectives de celui qui l’exerce. Le rugby...

  15. Dietary Intakes of Elite 14 - 19 Year Old English Academy Rugby Players During a Pre-Season Training Period.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, DR; Jones, B.; Sutton, L; King, RF; Duckworth, LC

    2016-01-01

    Good nutrition is essential for the physical development of adolescent athletes, however data on dietary intakes of adolescent rugby players are lacking. This study quantified and evaluated dietary intake in 87 elite male English academy rugby league (RL) and rugby union (RU) players by age (under-16 (U16) and under-19 (U19) years old) and code (RL and RU). Relationships of intakes with body mass and composition (sum of 8 skinfolds) were also investigated. Using 4-day diet and physical activi...

  16. Positional demands of professional rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Angus; Draper, Nick; Lewis, John; Gieseg, Steven P; Gill, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Rugby union is a physically intense intermittent sport coupled with high force collisions. Each position within a team has specific requirements which are typically based on speed, size and skill. The aim of this study was to investigate the contemporary demands of each position and whether they can explain changes in psychophysiological stress. Urine and saliva samples were collected before and after five selected Super 15 rugby games from 37 players. Total neopterin (NP), cortisol and immunoglobulin A were analysed by SCX-high performance liquid chromatography and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Global positioning system software provided distance data, while live video analysis provided impact data. All contemporary demands were analysed as events per minute of game time. Forwards were involved in more total impacts, tackles and rucks compared to backs (p cortisol and sIgA. The results indicate distance covered and number of impacts per minute of game time is position-dependent whereas changes in psychophysiological stress are independent. This information can be used to adapt training and recovery interventions to better prepare each position based on the physical requirements of the game.

  17. Contact technique and concussions in the South African under-18 Coca-Cola Craven Week Rugby tournament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Sharief; O'connor, Sam; Lambert, Michael; Brown, James; Burger, Nicholas; Mc Fie, Sarah; Readhead, Clint; Viljoen, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    In rugby union, understanding the techniques and events leading to concussions is important because of the nature of the injury and the severity and potential long-term consequences, particularly in junior players. Proper contact technique is a prerequisite for successful participation in rugby and is a major factor associated with injury. However, the execution of proper contact technique and its relationship to injury has yet to be studied in matches. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare contact techniques leading to concussion with a representative sample of similarly matched non-injury (NI) contact events. Injury surveillance was conducted at the 2011-2013 under-18 Craven Week Rugby tournaments. Video footage of 10 concussive events (5 tackle, 4 ruck and 1 aerial collision) and 83 NI events were identified (19 tackle, 61 ruck and 3 aerial collisions). Thereafter, each phase of play was analysed using standardised technical proficiency criteria. Overall score for ruck proficiency in concussive events was 5.67 (out of a total of 15) vs. 6.98 for NI events (n = 54) (effect size = 0.52, small). Overall average score for tackler proficiency was 7.25 (n = 4) and 6.67 (n = 15) for injury and NI tackles, respectively (out of 16) (effect size = 0.19, trivial). This is the first study to compare concussion injury contact technique to a player-matched sample of NI contact techniques. Certain individual technical criteria had an effect towards an NI outcome, and others had an effect towards a concussive event, highlighting that failure to execute certain techniques may substantially increase the opportunity for concussion.

  18. Injury and biomechanical perspectives on the rugby scrum: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewartha, Grant; Preatoni, Ezio; England, Michael E; Stokes, Keith A

    2015-04-01

    As a collision sport, rugby union has a relatively high overall injury incidence, with most injuries being associated with contact events. Historically, the set scrum has been a focus of the sports medicine community due to the perceived risk of catastrophic spinal injury during scrummaging. The contemporary rugby union scrum is a highly dynamic activity but to this point has not been well characterised mechanically. In this review, we synthesise the available research literature relating to the medical and biomechanical aspects of the rugby union scrum, in order to (1) review the injury epidemiology of rugby scrummaging; (2) consider the evidence for specific injury mechanisms existing to cause serious scrum injuries and (3) synthesise the information available on the biomechanics of scrummaging, primarily with respect to force production. The review highlights that the incidence of acute injury associated with scrummaging is moderate but the risk per event is high. The review also suggests an emerging acknowledgement of the potential for scrummaging to lead to premature chronic degeneration injuries of the cervical spine and summarises the mechanisms by which these chronic injuries are thought to occur. More recent biomechanical studies of rugby scrummaging confirm that scrum engagement forces are high and multiplanar, but can be altered through modifications to the scrum engagement process which control the engagement velocity. As the set scrum is a relatively 'controlled' contact situation within rugby union, it remains an important area for intervention with a long-term goal of injury reduction.

  19. Anthropometric and Physical Qualities of Elite Male Youth Rugby League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Kevin; Scantlebury, Sean; Jones, Ben

    2017-06-03

    Rugby league is a collision team sport played at junior and senior levels worldwide, whereby players require highly developed anthropometric and physical qualities (i.e. speed, change-of-direction speed, aerobic capacity, muscular strength and power). Within junior levels, professional clubs and national governing bodies implement talent identification and development programmes to support the development of youth (i.e. 13-20 years) rugby league players into professional athletes. This review presents and critically appraises the anthropometric and physical qualities of elite male youth rugby league players aged between 13 and 20 years, by age category, playing standard and playing position. Height, body mass, body composition, linear speed, change-of-direction speed, aerobic capacity, muscular strength and power characteristics are presented and demonstrate that qualities develop with age and differentiate between playing standard and playing position. This highlights the importance of anthropometric and physical qualities for the identification and development of youth rugby league players. However, factors such as maturity status, variability in development, longitudinal monitoring and career attainment should be considered to help understand, identify and develop the physical qualities of youth players. Further extensive research is required into the anthropometric and physical qualities of youth rugby league players, specifically considering national standardised testing batteries, links between physical qualities and match performance, together with intervention studies, to inform the physical development of youth rugby league players for talent identification and development purposes.

  20. Mild traumatic brain injuries in early adolescent rugby players: Long-term neurocognitive and academic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D G; Shuttleworth-Edwards, A B; Kidd, M; Malcolm, C M

    2015-01-01

    Information is scant concerning enduring brain injury effects of participation in the contact sport of Rugby Union (hereafter rugby) on early adolescents. The objective was prospectively to investigate differences between young adolescent male rugby players and non-contact sports controls on neurocognitive test performance over 3 years and academic achievement over 6 years. A sample of boys from the same school and grade was divided into three groups: rugby with seasonal concussions (n = 45), rugby no seasonal concussions (n = 21) and non-contact sports controls (n = 30). Baseline neurocognitive testing was conducted pre-season in Grade 7 and post-season in Grades 8 and 9. Year-end academic grades were documented for Grades 6-9 and 12 (pre-high school to year of school leaving). A mixed model repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to investigate comparative neurocognitive and academic outcomes between the three sub-groups. Compared with controls, both rugby groups were significantly lower on the WISC-III Coding Immediate Recall sub-test. There was a significant interaction effect on the academic measure, with improved scores over time for controls, that was not in evidence for either rugby group. Tentatively, the outcome suggests cognitive vulnerability in association with school level participation in rugby.

  1. Video analysis of concussion injury mechanism in under-18 rugby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Sharief; O'Connor, Sam; Lambert, Michael; Brown, James C; Burger, Nicholas; Mc Fie, Sarah; Readhead, Clint; Viljoen, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding the mechanism of injury is necessary for the development of effective injury prevention strategies. Video analysis of injuries provides valuable information on the playing situation and athlete-movement patterns, which can be used to formulate these strategies. Therefore, we conducted a video analysis of the mechanism of concussion injury in junior-level rugby union and compared it with a representative and matched non-injury sample. Methods Injury reports for 18 concussion events were collected from the 2011 to 2013 under-18 Craven Week tournaments. Also, video footage was recorded for all 3 years. On the basis of the injury events, a representative ‘control’ sample of matched non-injury events in the same players was identified. The video footage, which had been recorded at each tournament, was then retrospectively analysed and coded. 10 injury events (5 tackle, 4 ruck, 1 aerial collision) and 83 non-injury events were analysed. Results All concussions were a result of contact with an opponent and 60% of players were unaware of the impending contact. For the measurement of head position on contact, 43% had a ‘down’ position, 29% the ‘up and forward’ and 29% the ‘away’ position (n=7). The speed of the injured tackler was observed as ‘slow’ in 60% of injurious tackles (n=5). In 3 of the 4 rucks in which injury occurred (75%), the concussed player was acting defensively either in the capacity of ‘support’ (n=2) or as the ‘jackal’ (n=1). Conclusions Training interventions aimed at improving peripheral vision, strengthening of the cervical muscles, targeted conditioning programmes to reduce the effects of fatigue, and emphasising safe and effective playing techniques have the potential to reduce the risk of sustaining a concussion injury. PMID:27900149

  2. Incidence of Stingers in Young Rugby Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takayuki; Ota, Chihiro; Yoneda, Takeshi; Maki, Nobukazu; Urayama, Shingo; Nagao, Masashi; Nagayama, Masataka; Kaketa, Takefumi; Takazawa, Yuji; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2015-11-01

    A stinger is a type of neurapraxia of the cervical roots or brachial plexus and represents a reversible peripheral nerve injury. The incidence of and major risk factors for stingers among young rugby players remain uninvestigated. To investigate the incidence, symptoms, and intrinsic risk factors for stingers in elite rugby union teams of young players. Descriptive epidemiology study. A total of 569 male rugby players, including 358 players from 7 high school teams and 211 players from 2 university teams, were investigated using self-administered preseason and postseason questionnaires. The prevalence of a history of stingers was 33.9% (95% CI, 30.3-37.9), and 20.9% (119/569) of players experienced at least 1 episode of a stinger during the season (34.2 [95% CI, 26.2-42.1] events per 1000 player-hours of match exposure). The reinjury rate for stingers per season was 37.3% (95% CI, 30.4-44.2). Using the multivariate Poisson regression method, a history of stingers in the previous season and the grade and position of the player were found to be risk factors for stingers during the current season. The mean severity of injury was 2.9 days, with 79.3% (191/241) of the players not losing any time from playing after sustaining a stinger injury and 5.8% (14/241) of the players recovering within more than 14 days. The most frequent symptom was numbness in the unilateral upper extremity, and the most severe symptom was weakness of grasping (mean severity, 6 days). A logistic regression analysis indicated that a history of stingers in the previous season and an injury with more than 3 symptoms, especially motor weakness, were correlated with the severity of injury. Young rugby players with a history of stingers have a significantly high rate of repeat injuries. Although nearly 80% of the players experienced only minimal (0-1 day) time loss injuries, neurological deficits sometimes last beyond 1 month. A history of stingers was identified to be the strongest risk factor for

  3. Retrospective analysis of anthropometric and fitness characteristics associated with long-term career progression in Rugby League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Kevin; Cobley, Steve; O'Hara, John; Morley, David; Chapman, Chris; Cooke, Carlton

    2015-05-01

    The current study retrospectively investigated the differences in anthropometric and fitness characteristics of junior rugby league players selected onto a talent identification and development (TID) programme between long-term career progression levels (i.e., amateur, academy, professional). Retrospective design. Former junior rugby league players (N=580) selected to a TID programme were grouped according to their career progression level. Anthropometric (height, sitting height, body mass and sum of four skinfolds), maturational and fitness (power, speed, change of direction speed and estimated V̇O2max) assessments were conducted at 13-15 years. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) analyzed differences between career progression levels controlling for chronological age. 57.1% and 12.1% of players selected to the TID programme progressed to academy and professional levels in rugby league, respectively. Sum of four skinfolds (η(2)=0.03), vertical jump (η(2)=0.02), 10 m (η(2)=0.02), 20 m (η(2)=0.02), 30 m (η(2)=0.02), and 60 m (η(2)=0.03) speed, agility 505 left (η(2)=0.06), agility 505 right (η(2)=0.05) and estimated V̇O2max (η(2)=0.03) were superior within junior players who progressed to professional compared to amateur levels. No significant differences were identified between future academy and professional players for any measure. Findings suggest that lower sum of four skinfolds and advanced fitness characteristics within junior (13-15 years) rugby league players may partially contribute to long-term career progression. Therefore, TID programmes within rugby league should aim to assess and develop body composition and fitness characteristics, especially change of direction speed. However, TID programmes should also consider technical, tactical and psycho-social characteristics of junior rugby league players that may be important for long-term career progression. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  4. Evidence in support of the call to ban the tackle and harmful contact in school rugby: a response to World Rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Allyson M; White, Adam John; Kirkwood, Graham

    2017-08-01

    In a paper published in BJSM (June 2016), World Rugby employees Ross Tucker and Martin Raftery and a third coauthor Evert Verhagen took issue with the recent call to ban tackling in school rugby in the UK and Ireland. That call (to ban tackling) was supported by a systematic review published in BJSM Tucker et al claim that: (1) the mechanisms and risk factors for injury along with the incidence and severity of injury in youth rugby union have not been thoroughly identified or understood; (2) rugby players are at no greater risk of injury than other sports people, (3) this is particularly the case for children under 15 years and (4) removing the opportunity to learn the tackle from school pupils might increase rates of injuries. They conclude that a ban 'may be unnecessary and may also lead to unintended consequences such as an increase in the risk of injury later in participation.' Here we aim to rebut the case by Tucker et al We share new research that extends the findings of our original systematic review and meta-analysis. A cautionary approach requires the removal of the tackle from school rugby as the quickest and most effective method of reducing high injury rates in youth rugby, a public health priority. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Kinanthropometry of Group I rugby players in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holway, Francis Edward; Garavaglia, Romina

    2009-09-01

    The large variability in size and structure between playing positions in rugby merits specific kinanthropometric profiling. We aim to report detailed descriptive anthropometric data of a sample of 133 rugby players stratified by field positions (age 24.3 +/- 3.6 years, body mass 89.5 +/- 13.2 kg, and stature 178.8 +/- 7.3 cm) belonging to seven Group I teams competing in the Buenos Aires Rugby Union, and to find out if front row forwards (FR) have larger muscle and skeletal parameters. Body composition was analysed with the five-way fractionation method, expressing tissue masses in absolute terms, relative to weight as percentages and to stature as phantom z-scores. Furthermore, somatotype, body mass index, sum of six skinfolds, and muscle-to-bone ratio were calculated. Players were subsequently grouped into three positional clusters and muscular-skeletal elements compared, showing FR to have larger proportional muscle and skeletal structure than remaining forwards and backs (P < 0.001), albeit a similar muscle-to-bone ratio (P = 0.060). When compared to a sample of the top six teams at the 2003 Rugby World Cup, the Buenos Aires players were considerably smaller, measuring, on average, 3-11 cm less in height and 6-13 kg less in weight.

  6. 77 FR 4458 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rugby, ND

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rugby, ND AGENCY: Federal... Rugby, ND. Decommissioning of the Rugby non-directional beacon (NDB) at Rugby Municipal Airport has made... E airspace for Rugby, ND, reconfiguring controlled airspace at Rugby Municipal Airport (76 FR 66870...

  7. Head, Neck, Face, and Shoulder Injuries in Female and Male Rugby Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havkins, Sabina B.

    1986-01-01

    Injuries to 150 players in the Southern California Rugby Football Union were studied in order to compare head, neck, face, and shoulder injury rates for female and male players. While overall rates did not differ significantly, women received fewer disabling injuries. Ways to decrease injuries are recommended. (Author/MT)

  8. Head, Neck, Face, and Shoulder Injuries in Female and Male Rugby Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havkins, Sabina B.

    1986-01-01

    Injuries to 150 players in the Southern California Rugby Football Union were studied in order to compare head, neck, face, and shoulder injury rates for female and male players. While overall rates did not differ significantly, women received fewer disabling injuries. Ways to decrease injuries are recommended. (Author/MT)

  9. Epidemiology of Adolescent Rugby Injuries: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleakley, Christopher; Tully, Mark; O'Connor, Sean

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Despite recent increases in the volume of research in professional rugby union, there is little consensus on the epidemiology of injury in adolescent players. We undertook a systematic review to determine the incidence, severity, and nature of injury in adolescent rugby union players. Data Sources: In April 2009, we performed a computerized literature search on PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (via Ovid). Population-specific and patient-specific search terms were combined in the form of MEDLINE subject headings and key words (wound$ and injur$, rugby, adolescent$). These were supplemented with related-citation searches on PubMed and bibliographic tracking of primary and review articles. Study Selection: Prospective epidemiologic studies in adolescent rugby union players. Data Synthesis: A total of 15 studies were included, and the data were analyzed descriptively. Two independent reviewers extracted key study characteristics regarding the incidence, severity, and nature of injuries and the methodologic design. Conclusions: Wide variations existed in the injury definitions and data collection procedures. The incidence of injury necessitating medical attention varied with the definition, from 27.5 to 129.8 injuries per 1000 match hours. The incidence of time-loss injury (>7 days) ranged from 0.96 to 1.6 per 1000 playing hours and from 11.4/1000 match hours (>1 day) to 12–22/1000 match hours (missed games). The highest incidence of concussion was 3.3/1000 playing hours. No catastrophic injuries were reported. The head and neck, upper limb, and lower limb were all common sites of injury, and trends were noted toward greater time loss due to upper limb fractures or dislocations and knee ligament injuries. Increasing age, the early part of the playing season, and the tackle situation were most closely associated with injury. Future injury-surveillance studies in rugby union must follow consensus guidelines to facilitate interstudy

  10. Prevalent morphometric vertebral fractures in professional male rugby players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Hind

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing concern about the risk of injury to the spine in professional rugby players. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vertebral fracture using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA imaging in professional male rugby players. Ninety five professional rugby league (n = 52 and union (n = 43 players (n = 95; age 25.9 (SD 4.3 years; BMI: 29.5 (SD 2.9 kg.m2 participated in the research. Each participant received one VFA, and one total body and lumbar spine DXA scan (GE Lunar iDXA. One hundred and twenty vertebral fractures were identified in over half of the sample by VFA. Seventy four were graded mild (grade 1, 40 moderate (grade 2 and 6 severe (grade 3. Multiple vertebral fractures (≥2 were found in 37 players (39%. There were no differences in prevalence between codes, or between forwards and backs (both 1.2 v 1.4; p>0.05. The most common sites of fracture were T8 (n = 23, T9 (n = 18 and T10 (n = 21. The mean (SD lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score was 2.7 (1.3 indicating high player bone mass in comparison with age- and sex-matched norms. We observed a high number of vertebral fractures using DXA VFA in professional rugby players of both codes. The incidence, aetiology and consequences of vertebral fractures in professional rugby players are unclear, and warrant timely, prospective investigation.

  11. Renal Trauma: The Rugby Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Catherine M.; Kelly, Michael E.; Nason, Gregory J.; McGuire, Barry B.; Kilcoyne, Aoife; Ryan, John; Lennon, Gerald; Galvin, David; Quinlan, David; Mulvin, David

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Renal trauma accounts for 5% of all trauma cases. Rare mechanisms of injuries including sports participation are increasingly common. Rugby-related trauma poses a conundrum for physicians and players due to the absence of clear guidelines and a paucity of evidence. Our series highlights traumatic rugby-related renal injuries in our institution, and emphasize the need for international guidelines on management. Methods A retrospective review of all abdominal traumas between January 2006 and April 2013, specifically assessing for renal related trauma that were secondary to rugby injuries was performed. All patients' demographics, computerized tomography results, hematological and biochemical results and subsequent management were recorded. Results Five male patients presented with rugby-related injuries. Mean age was 21 years old. All patients were hemodynamically stable and managed conservatively in acute setting. One patient was detected to have an unknown pre-existing atrophic kidney that had been subsequently injured, and was booked for an elective nephrectomy an 8-week interval. Conclusion Rugby-related trauma has generated essential attention. This paper serves to highlight this type of injury and the need for defined guidelines on role of imaging and international consensus on timing of return to contact sport, in both professional and amateur settings. PMID:26889132

  12. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in elite rugby players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tambe Amol

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rugby is an increasingly popular collision sport. A wide spectrum of injuries can be sustained during training and match play. Rotator cuff injury is uncommon in contact sports and there is little published literature on the treatment of rotator cuff tears in rugby players. Aims: We therefore reviewed the results and functional outcomes of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in elite rugby players. Materials and Methods: Eleven professional rugby players underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair at our hospital over a 2-year period. We collected data on these patients from the operative records. The patients were recalled for outcome scoring and ultrasound scans. Results: There were seven rugby league players and four rugby union players, including six internationals. Their mean age was 25.7 years. All had had a traumatic episode during match play and could not return to the game after the injury. The mean time to surgery was 5 weeks. The mean width of the cuff tear was 1.8 cm. All were full- thickness cuff tears. Associated injuries included two Bankart lesions, one bony Bankart lesion, one posterior labral tear, and two 360° labral tears. The biceps was involved in three cases. Two were debrided and a tenodesis was performed in one. Repair was with suture anchors. Following surgery, all patients underwent a supervised accelerated rehabilitation programme. The final follow-up was at 18 months (range: 6-31 months post surgery. The Constant scores improved from 44 preoperatively to 99 at the last follow-up. The mean score at 3 months was 95. The Oxford shoulder score improved from 34 to 12, with the mean third month score being 18. The mean time taken to return to full match play at the preinjury level was 4.8 months. There were no complications in any of the patients and postoperative scans in nine patients confirmed that the repairs had healed. Conclusion: We conclude that full-thickness rotator cuff tears in the contact athlete can

  13. An evidence-driven approach to scrum law modifications in amateur rugby played in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Sharief; Lambert, Mike I; Brown, James C; Readhead, Clint; Viljoen, Wayne

    2014-07-01

    In 2012, the South African Rugby Union (SARU) approved a new set of scrum laws for amateur rugby played in the country, to be implemented at the start of the 2013 rugby season. These law changes were primarily based on the relatively high proportion of scrum-related catastrophic injury data collected as part of the BokSmart National Rugby Safety Programme (BokSmart) over the preceding 4 years (2008-2011). To describe the scrum-related catastrophic injury data in South Africa over the past 5 years (2008-2012), and to discuss how this evidence justifies the change in the Amateur Scrum Laws to make this aspect of the game safer in South Africa. Catastrophic injury data were collected through BokSmart at amateur and professional levels, during training and matches over 5 years (2008-2012). The scrum phase accounted for 33% (n=20 of 60) of all catastrophic injuries between 2008 and 2012. Eighteen of the 20 scrum injuries (90%) were confirmed as acute spinal cord injuries, with 13 of these being permanent injuries. For the scrum injury mechanisms that were provided (n=19), 'impact on the engagement' was the most frequently reported (n=11 of 19, 58%), followed by 'collapsed scrum' (n=7 of 19, 37%) and 'popping out' (n=1 of 19, 5%). Based on these scrum-related catastrophic injury data, a change in the Amateur Scrum Laws of South African Rugby was justified. The main purpose of these scrum law changes is to reduce the number of scrum-related catastrophic injuries in the country, by minimising the opportunity for impact injury and subsequent scrum collapse in amateur rugby in South Africa, thereby making this aspect of the game of rugby safer. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Rugby-metoden SCRUM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene

    2012-01-01

    En ny måde at bedrive projekter på breder sig i disse år med overraskende fart. Selv om de første tanker om ”Scrum” – hvor navnet og fremgangsmåden er inspireret af Rugby-spillet – blev tænkt for mere end 10 år siden, så er det først nu at fremgangsmåden for alvor har vundet udbredelse i Danmark....... Denne artikel gennemgår metoden og fortæller om både positive resultater og udfordringer i tre danske organisationer: Et softwarehus, en bank, og et universitet. De tre cases illustrer meget forskellige anvendelsessituationer af Scrum set i forhold til projekternes størrelse, karakter og den...... organisatoriske kontekst. Artiklen slutter med at diskutere, hvad det er der gør, at Scrum er blevet så populær, og i dag fremstår som et reelt alternativ til klassisk plandreven projektledelse...

  15. Head, face and neck injury in youth rugby: incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, A S; McCrory, P; Finch, C F; Wolfe, R

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the incidence of head, neck and facial injuries in youth rugby was determined, and the associated risk factors were assessed. Data were extracted from a cluster randomised controlled trial of headgear with the football teams as the unit of randomisation. No effect was observed for headgear use on injury rates, and the data were pooled. General school and club-based community competitive youth rugby in the 2002 and 2003 seasons. Young male rugby union football players participating in under-13, under 15, under 18 and under 21 years competitions. Eighty-two teams participated in year 1 and 87 in year 2. Injury rates for all body regions combined, head, neck and face calculated for game and missed game injuries. 554 head, face and neck injuries were recorded within a total of 28 902 h of rugby game exposure. Level of play and player position were related to injury risk. Younger players had the lowest rates of injury; forwards, especially the front row had the highest rate of neck injury; and inside backs had the highest rate of injuries causing the player to miss a game. Contact events, including the scrum and tackle, were the main events leading to injury. Injury prevention must focus on the tackle and scrum elements of a youth rugby game.

  16. Passing and Catching in Rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namudu, Mike M.

    This booklet contains the fundamentals for rugby at the primary school level. It deals primarily with passing and catching the ball. It contains instructions on (1) holding the ball for passing, (2) passing the ball to the left--standing, (3) passing the ball to the left--running, (4) making a switch pass, (5) the scrum half's normal pass, (6) the…

  17. Passing and Catching in Rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namudu, Mike M.

    This booklet contains the fundamentals for rugby at the primary school level. It deals primarily with passing and catching the ball. It contains instructions on (1) holding the ball for passing, (2) passing the ball to the left--standing, (3) passing the ball to the left--running, (4) making a switch pass, (5) the scrum half's normal pass, (6) the…

  18. Progress of Rugby Hohlraum Experiments on Omega

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Franck; Tassin, Veronique; Casner, Alexis; Gauthier, Pascal; Seytor, Patricia; Monteil, Marie-Christine; Park, Hye-Sook; Robey, Harry; Ross, Steven; Amendt, Peter; Girard, Frederic; Villette, Bruno; Reverdin, Charles; Loiseau, Pascal; Caillaud, Tony; Landoas, Olivier; Li, Chi Kang; Petrasso, Richard; Seguin, Fredrick; Rosenberg, Markus

    2011-10-01

    The rugby hohlraum concept is predicted to enable better coupling and higher gains in the indirect drive approach to ignition. A collaborative experimental program is currently pursued on OMEGA to test this concept in preparation for future megajoule-scale ignition designs. A direct comparison of gas-filled rugby hohlraums with classical cylinders was recently performed, showing a significant (up to ~40%) observed x-ray drive enhancement and neutron yields that are consistently higher in the rugby case. This work extends and confirms our previous findings in empty rugby hohlraums.

  19. The Measurement and Interpretation of Dietary Protein Distribution During a Rugby Preseason.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Kristen; Slater, Gary; King, Neil; Byrne, Nuala

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests that increasing protein distribution may be desirable to promote muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in combination with resistance exercise. However, there is a threshold above which additional protein consumption has limited benefit for MPS and may promote protein loss due to increased oxidation. This study aimed to measure daily protein intake and protein distribution in a cohort of rugby players. Twenty-five developing elite rugby union athletes (20.5 ± 2.3 years, 100.2 ± 13.3 kg, 184.4 ± 7.4 cm) were assessed at the start and end of a rugby preseason. Using a 7-day food diary the reported daily protein intake was 2.2 ± 0.7 g · kg · day(-1) which exceeds daily recommendations. The reported carbohydrate intake was 3.6 ± 1.3 g · kg · day(-1) which may reflect a suboptimal intake or dietary underreporting. In general, the rugby athletes were regularly consuming more than 20 g of protein; 3.8 ± 0.9 times per day (68 ± 18% of eating occasions). In addition to documenting current dietary intakes, an excess protein estimation score was calculated to determine how frequently the rugby athletes consumed protein above a known effective dose with a margin of error. 2.0 ± 0.9 eating occasions contained protein in excess of doses (20 g) known to promote MPS. Therefore, it is currently unclear whether the consumption of regular large doses of protein will benefit rugby athletes via increasing protein distribution, or whether high protein intakes may have unintended effects including a reduction in carbohydrate and/or energy intake.

  20. Injuries at Johannesburg high school rugby festivals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study population were participating rugby players ... 1 Centre for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, School of Therapeutic Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the ... SA data on schoolboy rugby injuries exist[12,13] but given the ..... difficult to compare to previous literature as there was no follow up in.

  1. Teaching and Assessing Tag Rugby Made Simple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Stephen; Hughes, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    The game of rugby is a fast and fluid invasion game, similar to football, that involves scoring with an oval ball into an end zone. The game presents, like other invasion games, a series of highly complex tactical problems so that the ball can be maneuvered into a scoring position. Pugh and Alford (2004) recently indicated that rugby is now…

  2. Sprinting patterns of National Rugby League competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the sprinting demands of National Rugby League (NRL) competition and characterize the sprinting patterns of different rugby league playing positions. Thirty-seven elite rugby league players (mean ± SE age: 23.6 ± 0.5 years) underwent global positioning satellite analysis during 104 NRL appearances. The majority (67.5%) of sprint efforts were across distances of rugby league playing positions for the nature of sprint efforts and the typical distances covered during these efforts. Furthermore, the activities preceding and the recovery periods after sprint efforts were different among playing positions. These findings suggest that rugby league sprint training should be tailored to meet the individual demands of specific playing positions.

  3. A unique insight into the incidence of rugby injuries using referee replacement reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, J C; Murray, G D; Macleod, D A

    2001-02-01

    To obtain further information the incidence of injuries and playing positions affected in club rugby in Scotland. Routine reports of injury (permanent) and blood (temporary) replacements occurring in competitive club rugby matches by referees to the Scottish Rugby Union during seasons 1990-1991 to 1996-1997 were analysed. A total of 3,513 injuries (87 per 100 scheduled matches) and 1,000 blood replacements (34 per 100 scheduled matches) were reported. Forwards accounted for 60% of the injury and 72% of the blood replacements. Flankers and the front row were the most commonly replaced forwards while wing and centre three quarters were the most vulnerable playing positions among backs. The incidence of injury replacements increased as the match progressed up until the last 10 minutes when the trend was reversed. Blood replacements showed a different pattern with 60% occurring during the first half of the match. The most important finding of the study was reliability of referees in documenting the vulnerability of certain playing positions, and the timing when injuries took place, thus assisting coaches and team selectors when choosing replacement players for competitive club and representative rugby matches. This study re-emphasises the need for continuing epidemiological research.

  4. Expertise and talent development in rugby refereeing: an ethnographic enquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollis, Stewart; Macpherson, Alan; Collins, Dave

    2006-03-01

    We explore how expertise is obtained in the domain of rugby refereeing. The research data are qualitative and are drawn from an 18 month period working in collaboration with the Rugby Football Union Elite Referee Unit. Adopting an ethnographic mode of enquiry, the study combined long-term participant observation with in-depth interviewing, indirect observations and the collection of artefacts including existing protocol, coach feedback forms and strategic reports. The diversity of methodologies allowed us to examine how expertise is developed across various domains of analysis, including the intrapersonal, interpersonal, group and social perspectives. Building on expertise studies in "deliberate practice", further prerequisites for expertise, at least in this domain and with these participants, incorporated "deliberate experience" and "transfer of skills". Additionally, a key issue in the findings concerns a shift from "descriptive" towards a "non-linear processes"-oriented model of development. We conclude by identifying opportunities and limitations associated with the adoption of ethnography as a method for studying expertise.

  5. Women’s rugby tournament | 27 September

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Women’s rugby tournament Saint-Genis rugby pitch - Golf des Serves 27 September 2014 - 10 a.m. For the third consecutive year, the women's rugby club of CERN Meyrin St Genis, The Wildcats, are organising a women’s 7's rugby tournament. With the support of the Office Municipal des Sports of St Genis-Pouilly and various other sponsors, we will be welcoming 10 teams ready to fight it out for victory! Bring your family and friends for a great day of rugby! Come and discover the values of team spirit in rugby and support your local team (RC CMSG). An initiation for kids between 4 and 10 years old will be organised by school rugby trainers. There will also be a live music concert. Food and drink will be available all day. Concert schedule 6 p.m.: Bad spirits out of the boot 7 p.m.: SoundHazard 8 p.m.: Miss Proper & the Moving Targets 9 p.m.: Fuzzy Dunlop More information on: http://www.facebook.com/events/509236532536269/

  6. Cervical range of motion and proprioception in rugby players versus non-rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, Sally D; McCarthy, Peter W

    2007-06-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of number of years of playing rugby on neck function. Active cervical spine range of motion and proprioception were assessed in 14 non-rugby-playing but trained sportsmen (mean age 28 years, s = 7) and 46 rugby players (26 rugby forwards: mean age 26 years, s = 5; mean years played 14 years; 20 backs: mean age 24 years, s = 5; mean years played 14 years). Active cervical range of motion in flexion, extension, left and right lateral flexion, plus left and right rotation were measured using a cervical range of motion device. The ability to reposition the head in a central position with eyes closed was taken as a measure of proprioception. Results show that rugby forwards generally had the least active cervical range of motion, particularly neck extension (forwards, 43 degrees ; backs, 55 degrees ; controls, 58 degrees ), with the decrement correlating with the number of years played. In addition, repositioning was significantly worse in rugby players after neck extension than non-rugby players (6 degrees vs. 3 degrees ). The active cervical range of motion of rugby forwards is similar to that of whiplash patients, suggesting that participation in rugby can have an effect on neck range of motion that is equivalent to chronic disability. Reduced active cervical range of motion could also increase the likelihood of injury and exacerbate age-related neck problems.

  7. Expo Junior

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Fort de son succès Expo Juniors revient du 22 au 23 novembre 2014 - Papa & Maman Noël seront présents ! Nous avons le plaisir de  proposer à nos membres des billets d'entrées  à un tarif préférentiel, au prix de CHF 10.- l'unité au lieu de CHF 18.- (gratuit pour les enfants de 0 à 4 ans). Des centaines d’ateliers répartis en 3 villages : Sports & Loisirs, Jeux & Jouets, Éducation & Vie pratique. Cet événement propose aux familles aussi d'autres thèmes : tourisme, idées cadeaux, mode, bien-être, beauté, décoration, ainsi que des services destinés aux familles. Parades, attractions, castings, défilés de mode, dédicaces, séances photos avec Papa Noël, ainsi que de nombre...

  8. Surveillance of injuries among Kenya Rugby Union (KRU) players ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (38.2%) and concussion (8.9%) (table4). The types of ... being linked with dangerous play. A player in KC ... that bigger body sizes are associated with higher rates of injuries (9, 15). ... football Br J Sports Med 1974; 8: 183-187. 3. Nicholl J P ...

  9. Effects of active vs. passive recovery on repeated rugby-specific exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jougla, A; Micallef, J P; Mottet, D

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of active vs. passive recovery on performance of a rugby-specific intermittent test in rugby union players. Seven male rugby players (20.6+/-0.5 yrs; 181.9+/-10.0 cm; 94.5+/-12.8 kg) performed in random order, over two separate sessions, a specific repeated-sprint rugby test, the Narbonne test (6 x 4 consecutive actions: 1, scrummaging; 2, agility sprinting; 3, tackling; 4, straight sprinting) with 30s of passive or active recovery (running at 50% of maximal aerobic speed). The Narbonne tests were completed before (pre-test) and after (post-test) a 30-min rugby match. During the Narbonne test, scrum forces, agility and sprint times, heart rate and rate of perceived exertion were measured. Scrum forces were lower in active (74.9+/-13.4 kg) than in passive recovery (90.4+/-20.9 kg), only during the post-test (p<0.05). Fatigue index (%) (p<0.05) and total sprint time (s) (p<0.01) were significantly greater in active than in passive recovery, both during the pre-test (11.5+/-5.7% vs. 6.7+/-4.5% and 18.1+/-1.3s vs. 16.9+/-0.9s) and the post-test (7.3+/-3.3% vs. 4.3+/-1.5% and 18.3+/-1.6s vs. 16.9+/-1.1s). Consequently, the results indicated that passive recovery enabled better performance during the Narbonne test. However, it is obviously impractical to suggest that players should stand still during and following repeated-sprint bouts: the players have to move to ensure they have taken an optimal position.

  10. Perceived Injury Risk among Junior Cricketers: A Cross Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna J. Gamage

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how junior athletes perceive injury risks when participating in sport and the environment they play in is an important component of injury prevention. This study investigates how Sri Lankan junior cricketers (n = 365, aged 11–14 years, boys perceive injury risks associated with playing cricket. The study used a Sri Lankan modification of an Australian junior cricket injury risk perception survey that considered playing cricket versus other sports, different cricket playing positions and roles, and different ground conditions. The risk of playing cricket was considered to be greater than that for cycling, but lower than that for rugby and soccer. Fast-bowlers, batters facing fast-bowlers, fielding close in the field, and wicket-keeping without a helmet were perceived to pose greater risks of injury than other scenarios. Playing on hard, bumpy and/or wet ground conditions were perceived to have a high risk opposed to playing on a grass field. Fielding in the outfield and wicket-keeping to fast-bowlers whilst wearing a helmet were perceived as low risk actions. The risk perceptions of junior cricketers identified in this study, do not necessarily reflect the true injury risk in some instances. This information will inform the development of injury prevention education interventions to address these risk perceptions in junior cricketers.

  11. Cervical joint position sense in rugby players versus non-rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsault, Nicolas; Anxionnaz, Marion; Vuillerme, Nicolas

    2010-05-01

    To determine whether cervical joint position sense is modified by intensive rugby practice. A group-comparison study. University Medical Bioengineering Laboratory. Twenty young elite rugby players (10 forwards and 10 backs) and 10 young non-rugby elite sports players. Participants were asked to perform the cervicocephalic relocation test (CRT) to the neutral head position (NHP) that is, to reposition their head on their trunk, as accurately as possible, after full active left and right cervical rotation. Rugby players were asked to perform the CRT to NHP before and after a training session. Absolute and variable errors were used to assess accuracy and consistency of the repositioning for the three groups of Forwards, Backs and Non-rugby players, respectively. The 2 groups of Forwards and Backs exhibited higher absolute and variable errors than the group of Non-rugby players. No difference was found between the two groups of Forwards and Backs and no difference was found between Before and After the training session. The cervical joint position sense of young elite rugby players is altered compared to that of non-rugby players. Furthermore, Forwards and Backs demonstrated comparable repositioning errors before and after a specific training session, suggesting that cervical proprioceptive alteration is mainly due to tackling and not the scrum.

  12. Rugby football injuries, 1980-1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, J P

    1985-06-01

    The injuries sustained by the boys at one English public school have been recorded and analysed by age, experience, position, phase, duration of the game and of the season. Few injuries have been serious. Detailed reference is made to concussion, injuries from collapsed scrums and injuries of the cervical spine. The paper emphasises that the tackle leads to most injuries. This paper presents the Rugby football injuries sustained by the boarders of Rugby School in the four seasons 1980-1983. The injury rate was 194 per 10,000 player hours, compared with the rate of 198 per 10,000 player hours for the thirty seasons 1950-1979 (Sparks, 1981). Tables I-VI list the injuries by different criteria. Table VII lists the sites of injury; Table VIII the time off Rugby football after injury; Table IX lists some of the more important injuries; Table XI summarises the playing results of the various school teams; Table XIII compares some of the Rugby School figures with those recorded in the Accident and Emergency Department of Christchurch Hospital during the 1979 New Zealand Rugby football season (Inglis and Stewart, 1981); Table XIV records information on three aspects of Rugby football that have occasioned much recent concern, viz:--Time off playing after concussion, injuries caused by collapsed scrums and neck injuries.

  13. Spatial Awareness is Related to Moderate Intensity Running during a Collegiate Rugby Match

    Science.gov (United States)

    BEYER, KYLE S.; FUKUDA, DAVID H.; MIRAMONTI, AMELIA M.; HOFFMAN, MATTAN W.; WANG, RAN; LA MONICA, MICHAEL B.; RIFFE, JOSH J.; TANIGAWA, SATORU; STOUT, JEFFREY R.; HOFFMAN, JAY R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between spatial awareness, agility, and distance covered in global positioning system (GPS) derived velocity zone classifications during a collegiate rugby match. Twelve American collegiate rugby union players (mean±SD; age: 21.2±1.4 y; weight: 85.0±16.0 kg; 7 forwards & 5 backs) on a single team volunteered to participate in this investigation. The distances travelled at low (walking/jogging; sprinting; >5.0 m/s) were measured for each player using GPS sensors and normalized according to playing time during an official USA Rugby match. Spatial awareness was measured as visual tracking speed from one core session of a 3-dimensional multiple-object-tracking speed (3DMOTS) test (1.35±0.59 cm·sec-1). Agility was assessed utilizing the pro agility (5.05±0.28 sec) and t drill (10.62±0.39 sec). Analysis of variance revealed that athletes travelled the greatest distance during walking/jogging (39.5±4.5 m·min-1) and least distance during running/sprinting (4.9±3.5 m·min-1). Pearson product moment correlations revealed that only distance covered while cruising/striding (20.9±6.5 m·min-1) was correlated to spatial awareness (r=0.798, p=0.002). Agility did not correlate to distance covered at any velocity zone or spatial awareness. Spatial awareness, as determined by 3DMOTS, appears to be related to the moderate intensity movement patterns of rugby union athletes. PMID:27990222

  14. 76 FR 66870 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rugby, ND

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rugby, ND AGENCY... action proposes to amend Class E airspace at Rugby, ND. Decommissioning of the Rugby non-directional beacon (NDB) at Rugby Municipal Airport, Rugby, ND, has made this action necessary for the safety and...

  15. The epidemiology of schoolboy rugby injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, C E; Goedeke, R; Visser, G R; van Zyl, W A; Noakes, T D

    1987-03-07

    During one 18-week season, in which players from 26 high schools played 3,350 rugby matches, 495 injuries prevented players from participating in rugby for at least 1 week; 71% occurred during matches and 29% during practices. Injury was more common during the first 4 weeks of the season and again in the same time period after the mid-season vacation. At all ages, A-team players suffered the greatest number of injuries. The safest playing positions were tight-forward and scrum-half; the most dangerous loose-forward and in the back-line excluding the scrum-half. Overall, eightmen were the most often injured players. Of all injuries 55% occurred while the player was tackling or being tackled and 18% during the loose scrum/maul. The lower limb (37%), the head and neck (29%) and the upper limb (20%) were most commonly injured, and fractures (27%), ligament/tendon injuries (25%) and muscle injuries (17%) were commonest. However, concussion injuries were underreported in 19 of the 26 schools. This study shows: that monitoring rugby injuries through correspondence results in underreporting of injuries; that rugby injuries show specific trends with age, team level, playing position, time of the season and phase of play; and that players in the different positions suffer specific injuries in predictable phases of the game. Speed of play may be the most important aetiological factor in the majority of rugby injuries.

  16. Guidelines for Professional Training of Junior Medical Staff in the Context of European Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnova, Myroslava

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with outlining guidelines for improving professional training of junior medical staff based on European experience. Consequently, guidelines and recommendations on enhancing the efficiency of medical education in general and junior medical specialists' professional training, in particular, published by European Union of Medical…

  17. Effects of gluteal kinesio-taping on performance with respect to fatigue in rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strutzenberger, Gerda; Moore, Joseph; Griffiths, Hywel; Schwameder, Hermann; Irwin, Gareth

    2016-01-01

    Kinesio-tape(®) has been suggested to increase blood circulation and lymph flow and might influence the muscle's ability to maintain strength during fatigue. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gluteal Kinesio-tape(®) on lower limb muscle strength in non-fatigued and fatigued conditions. A total of 10 male rugby union players performed 20-m sprint and vertical jump tests before and after a rugby-specific fatigue protocol. The 20-m sprint time was collected using light gates (SMARTSPEED). A 9-camera motion analysis system (VICON, 100 Hz) and a force plate (Kistler, 1000 Hz) measured the kinematics and kinetics during a counter movement jump and drop-jump. The effect of tape and fatigue on jump height, maximal vertical ground reaction force, reactivity strength index as well as lower limb joint work were analysed via a two-way analysis of variance. The fatigue protocol resulted in significantly decreased performance of sprint time, jump heights and alterations in joint work. No statistical differences were found between the taped and un-taped conditions in non-fatigued and fatigued situation as well as in the interaction with fatigue. Therefore, taping the gluteal muscle does not influence the leg explosive strength after fatiguing in healthy rugby players.

  18. Blunt cerebrovascular injury in rugby and other contact sports: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Trajan A; Lottenberg, Lawrence; Moore, Frederick A

    2014-01-01

    Contact sports have long been a part of human existence. The two earliest recorded organized contact games, both of which still exist, include Royal Shrovetide Football played since the 12(th) century in England and Caid played since 1308 AD in Ireland. Rugby is the premier contact sport played throughout the world with the very popular derivative American football being the premier contact sport of the North American continent. American football in the USA has on average 1,205,037 players at the high school and collegiate level per year while rugby in the USA boasts a playing enrollment of 457,983 at all levels. Recent media have highlighted injury in the context of competitive contact sports including their long-term sequelae such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) that had previously been underappreciated. Blunt cerebrovascular injury (BCVI) has become a recognized injury pattern for trauma; however, a paucity of data regarding this injury can be found in the sports trauma literature. We present a case of an international level scrum-half playing Rugby Union at club level for a local non-professional team, in which a player sustained a fatal BCVI followed by a discussion of the literature surrounding sport related BCVI.

  19. Surgical interventions for anterior shoulder instability in rugby players: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabharwal, Sanjeeve; Patel, Nirav K; Bull, Anthony MJ; Reilly, Peter

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To systematically evaluate the evidence-based literature on surgical treatment interventions for elite rugby players with anterior shoulder instability. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review according to the PRISMA guidelines. A literature search was performed in PubMed, EMBASE and Google Scholar using the following search terms: “rugby” and “shoulder” in combination with “instability” or “dislocation”. All articles published from inception of the included data sources to January 1st 2014 that evaluated surgical treatment of elite rugby players with anterior shoulder instability were examined. RESULTS: Only five studies were found that met the eligibility criteria. A total of 379 shoulders in 376 elite rugby union and league players were included. All the studies were retrospective cohort or case series studies. The mean Coleman Methodological Score for the 5 studies was 47.4 (poor). Owing to heterogeneity amongst the studies, quantitative synthesis was not possible, however a detailed qualitative synthesis is reported. The overall recurrence rate of instability after surgery was 8.7%, and the mean return to competitive play, where reported, was 13 mo. CONCLUSION: Arthroscopic stabilization has been performed successfully in acute anterior instability and there is a preference for open Latarjet-type procedures when instability is associated with osseous defects. PMID:25992318

  20. Common rugby league injuries. Recommendations for treatment and preventative measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, N

    1994-12-01

    Rugby league is the main professional team sport played in Eastern Australia. It is also very popular at a junior and amateur level. However, injuries are common because of the amount of body contact that occurs and the amount of running that is required to participate in the game. Injuries to the lower limbs account for over 50% of all injuries. The most common specific injuries are ankle lateral ligament tears, knee medial collateral and anterior cruciate ligament tears, groin musculotendinous tears, hamstring and calf muscle tears, and quadriceps muscle contusions. Head injuries are common and consist of varying degrees of concussion as well as lacerations and facial fractures. Serious head injury is rare. Some of the more common upper limb injuries are to the acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joints. Accurate diagnosis of these common injuries using appropriate history, examination and investigations is critical in organising a treatment and rehabilitation plan that will return the player to competition as soon as possible. An understanding of the mechanism of injury is also important in order to develop preventative strategies.

  1. Injury incidence and balance in rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Jaco Ras; Puckree, Threethambal

    2014-01-01

    Objective : This study determined and correlated injury incidence and balance in rugby players. A prospective survey with balance testing was conducted on first year rugby academy players (N= 114). Injury incidence, static and dynamic balance were tested pre and post-season using a Biosway portable balance system. The data was analysed using paired and independent samples t-tests at pscrum-half (14.80%) playing position, injuries in the 2nd half of the match (57%), and during contact (67%). Conclusion : Injury incidence was related to static and dynamic balance in forward right direction only.

  2. COMPREHENSIVE JUNIOR COLLEGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIKITAS, CHRISTUS M.; AND OTHERS

    TO MEET THE STATE'S HIGHER EDUCATION NEEDS, THE NEW HAMPSHIRE JUNIOR COLLEGE COMMISSION DEVELOPED A PLAN OF (1) GRADUAL AND SELECTIVE CONVERSION OF THE STATE'S TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS TO COMPREHENSIVE JUNIOR COLLEGES, (2) SELECTIVE ADDITION OF 2-YEAR PROGRAMS AT THE STATE COLLEGES AND INSTITUTES, AND (3) ESTABLISHMENT OF A STATE…

  3. Pacific Island rugby: Histories, mobilities, comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besnier, N.

    2014-01-01

    The migration of rugby players from Fiji and neighbouring Pacific Island nations poses fundamental questions about the way in which sport is embedded in historical, political, social and global dynamics, all of which give specific meanings to sports and those who play it. An approach that bestows a

  4. Teaching Touch Rugby in Physical Education Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Steven F.; Alford, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Physical educators are always looking for new ideas that introduce moderate-to-vigorous activity, involve skill, encourage teamwork, and increase student interest. Touch rugby has the potential to contribute to these outcomes. Though the sport is not new, it is not a mainstream sport. Therefore, students see it as something new. Their motivation…

  5. Incidence of and risk factors for traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation: an epidemiologic study in high-school rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takayuki; Ota, Chihiro; Urayama, Shingo; Maki, Nobukazu; Nagayama, Masataka; Kaketa, Takefumi; Takazawa, Yuji; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2014-11-01

    The incidence of reinjuries due to glenohumeral instability and the major risk factors for primary anterior shoulder dislocation in youth rugby players have been unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence, mechanisms, and intrinsic risk factors of shoulder dislocation in elite high-school rugby union teams during the 2012 season. A total of 378 male rugby players from 7 high-school teams were investigated by use of self-administered preseason and postseason questionnaires. The prevalence of a history of shoulder dislocation was 14.8%, and there were 21 events of primary shoulder dislocation of the 74 overall shoulder injuries that were sustained during the season (3.2 events per 1000 player-hours of match exposure). During the season, 54.3% of the shoulders with at least one episode of shoulder dislocation had reinjury. This study also indicated that the persistence of glenohumeral instability might affect the player's self-assessed condition, regardless of the incidence during the current season. By a multivariate logistic regression method, a history of shoulder dislocation on the opposite side before the season was found to be a risk factor for contralateral primary shoulder dislocation (odds ratio, 3.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-9.97; P = .02). High-school rugby players with a history of shoulder dislocation are not playing at full capacity and also have a significant rate of reinjury as well as a high risk of dislocating the other shoulder. These findings may be helpful in deciding on the proper treatment of primary anterior shoulder dislocation in young rugby players. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The efficacy of a movement control exercise programme to reduce injuries in youth rugby: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hislop, M D; Stokes, K A; Williams, S; McKay, C D; England, M; Kemp, S P T

    2016-01-01

    Background Injuries to youth rugby players have become an increasingly prominent health concern, highlighting the importance of developing and implementing appropriate preventive strategies. A growing body of evidence from other youth sports has demonstrated the efficacy of targeted exercise regimens to reduce injury risk. However, studies have yet to investigate the effect of such interventions in youth contact sport populations like rugby union. Objective To determine the efficacy of an evidence-based movement control exercise programme compared with a sham exercise programme to reduce injury risk in youth rugby players. Exercise programme compliance between trial arms and the effect of coach attitudes on compliance will also be evaluated. Setting School rugby coaches in England will be the target of the researcher intervention, with the effects of the injury prevention programmes being measured in male youth players aged 14–18 years in school rugby programmes over the 2015–2016 school winter term. Methods A cluster-randomised controlled trial with schools randomly allocated to either a movement control exercise programme or a sham exercise programme, both of which are coach-delivered. Injury measures will derive from field-based injury surveillance, with match and training exposure and compliance recorded. A questionnaire will be used to evaluate coach attitudes, knowledge, beliefs and behaviours both prior to and on the conclusion of the study period. Outcome measures Summary injury measures (incidence, severity and burden) will be compared between trial arms, as will the influence of coach attitudes on compliance and injury burden. Additionally, changes in these outcomes through using the exercise programmes will be evaluated. Trial registration number ISRTCNN13422001. PMID:27900148

  7. A model of union participation: the impact of perceived union support, union instrumentality, and union loyalty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetrick, Lois E; Shore, Lynn M; McClurg, Lucy Newton; Vandenberg, Robert J

    2007-05-01

    Perceived union support and union instrumentality have been shown to uniquely predict union loyalty. This study was the first to explicitly examine the relation between perceived union support and union instrumentality. Surveys were completed by 273 union members and 29 union stewards. A comparison of 2 models, 1 based on organizational support theory and 1 based on union participation theories, found that the model based on organizational support theory, in which union instrumentality was an antecedent to perceived union support and led to union loyalty and subsequently union participation, best fit the data. The model based on union participation theories, in which perceived union support was an antecedent of union instrumentality and led to union loyalty and subsequently union participation, was not supported. Union instrumentality was related to union commitment, but the relation was completely mediated by perceived union support.

  8. Recognition and Prevention of Rugby Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasin, J D; Martin, D F; Curl, W W

    1989-06-01

    In brief: Rugby is a popular, strenuous contact sport that demands almost continuous action by the players. Players, coaches, and physicians must be aware of the potential for and types of injuries that occur during matches and of ways to avoid, or at least reduce, this number and severity. Minor and moderate injuries are more frequent than severe injuries, but all must be regarded seriously. Concussions, although relatively rare, can have serious consequences, and cervical spine injuries can be catastrophic. Player fitness and conditioning and a pregame warm-up are all essential for preventing injuries. Equally important are coaching, adherence to the rules of the game, and avoidance of dangerous play. If these measures are practiced consistently, rugby will be safer.

  9. Predictors of calf cramping in rugby league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Katherine M; Snodgrass, Suzanne J; Callister, Robin

    2014-03-01

    Exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMC) in the calf are common in rugby league. To date, the etiology and predictors of calf cramping are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to undertake a prospective investigation to identify predictors of calf cramping in rugby league players. Demographic and anthropometric data and calf cramp and injury history were collected in the preseason. Hydration status, number of games played, and calf cramps were recorded on game days. Male rugby league players (n = 103, mean age 18.8 ± 4.1 years) were classified as either EAMC (experienced at least 1 incident of calf cramps in the season) or no EAMC (no calf cramps). The following were investigated as possible predictors of EAMC using logistic regression modeling: competition level, age, ethnicity, playing position, history of cramping, precramping, low back pain, foot orthotic usage, foot posture, foot strike, muscle flexibility, calf girth, hydration status, and number of games played. Half the players, n = 52, experienced at least 1 incidence of calf cramping. Playing in a senior competition level (odds ratio: 0.21; 95% confidence interval: 0.06-0.75; p = 0.016), a history of calf cramping (10.85; 2.16-54.44; p = 0.004), and a history of low back pain resulting in missed field minutes (4.50, 1.37-14.79; p = 0.013) were found to predict EAMC. This study suggests that there is a high incidence of calf cramping in rugby league, especially at senior competition levels, and supports preseason screening in senior players to idetify those at risk of calf cramping and the development of possible preventative strategies.

  10. Rugby and Shoulder Trauma: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, R.; Tecame, A.; Torre, G.; Narbona, P.; Maffulli, N.; Denaro, V.

    2015-01-01

    Rugby is a popular contact sport worldwide. Collisions and tackles during matches and practices often lead to traumatic injuries of the shoulder. This review reports on the epidemiology of injuries, type of lesions and treatment of shoulder injuries, risk factors, such as player position, and return to sport activities. Electronic searches through PubMed (Medline), EMBASE, and Cochrane Library retrieved studies concerning shoulder injuries in rugby players. Data regarding incidence, type and mechanisms of lesion, risk factors and return to sport were extracted and analyzed. The main reported data were incidence, mechanism of injury and type of lesion. Most of the studies report tackle as the main event responsible for shoulder trauma (between 50% and 85%), while the main lesions reported were Bankart lesions, Superior Labral tear from Anterior to Posterior (SLAP tears), anterior dislocation and rotator cuff tears. Open or arthroscopic repair improve clinical outcomes. Shoulder lesions are common injuries in rugby players. Surgical treatment seems to be effective in for rotator cuff tears and shoulder instability. More and better designed studies are needed for a higher Level of Evidence analysis of this topic. PMID:26535182

  11. High Foot Implosion Experiments in Rugby Hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Joseph; Leidinger, J.-P.; Callahan, D.; Kaiser, P.; Morice, O.; Marion, D.; Moody, J. D.; Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P.; Kritcher, A. L.; Milovich, J. L.; Strozzi, D.; Hinkel, D.; Michel, P.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Pak, A.; Dewald, E. L.; Divol, L.; Khan, S.; Rygg, R.; Hurricane, O.; Lawrence Livermore National Lab Team; CEA/DAM Team

    2015-11-01

    The rugby hohlraum design is aimed at providing uniform x-ray drive on the capsule while minimizing the need for crossed beam energy transfer (CBET). As part of a series of experiments at the NIF using rugby hohlraums, design improvements in dual axis shock tuning experiments produced some of the most symmetric shocks measured on implosion experiments at the NIF. Additionally, tuning of the in-flight shell and hot spot shape have demonstrated that capsules can be tuned between oblate and prolate with measured velocities of nearly 340 km/s. However, these experimental measurements were accompanied by high levels of Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) that may result from the long inner beam path length, reamplification of the inner SRS by the outers, significant (CBET) or a combination of these. All rugby shots results were achieved with lower levels of hot electrons that can preheat the DT fuel layer for increased adiabat and reduced areal density. Detailed results from these experiments and those planned throughout the summer will be presented and compared with results obtained from cylindrical hohlraums. This work performed under the auspices of U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Lab under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  12. Teaching Youth Rugby: Instructional Strategies and Models that Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Edward B.; Caram, Courtney; Griffin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Rookie Rugby is a continuous team invasion game of tag with a ball. It is also inclusive giving every participant an active role regardless of their size, shape, gender, or experience. In essence, all players are quarterbacks who can run, catch, pass, tag, evade, and score. Thus, rugby empowers students to create and react, cooperate and compete,…

  13. Shoulder injuries in rugby players: mechanisms, examination, and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helgeson, Kevin; Stoneman, Paul

    2014-11-01

    The sport of rugby is growing in popularity for players at the high school and collegiate levels. This article will provided the sports therapist with an introduction to the management of shoulder injuries in rugby players. Rugby matches results in frequent impacts and leveraging forces to the shoulder region during the tackling, scrums, rucks and maul components of the game. Rugby players frequently sustain contusion and impact injuries to the shoulder region, including injuries to the sternoclavicular, acromioclavicular (AC), and glenohumeral (GH) joints. Players assessed during practices and matches should be screened for signs of fracture, cervical spine and brachial plexus injuries. A three phase program will be proposed to rehabilitate players with shoulder instabilities using rugby specific stabilization, proprioception, and strengthening exercises. A plan for return to play will be addressed including position-specific activities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Reconceptualising the Standard of Care in Sport: The Case of Youth Rugby in England and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Greenfield

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sport is an important area of civil society in both South Africa and England, and this article is broadly concerned with the relationship between sport and personal injury. More specifically, the article compares how rugby is regulated by the tort of negligence in England and delict in South Africa respectively. Regarding liability, for sport there are very specific factors that need to be taken into account. The article is concerned with, firstly, the broader context of sport as an important social and cultural activity, and secondly the specific sporting context that includes the rules of the game as well as the playing culture, with a focus on rugby at junior level. Through a critical and comparative analysis of how the standards of care in sport have been developed in both jurisdictions, the aim of this article is to consider how sport specific elements can be incorporated into the traditional legal principles. This comparative analysis contextualises the various discussions in the light of the differences between the English tort of negligence and the South African law of delict. Our argument is that the context and specificity of rugby should be more explicitly taken into account when evaluating potential liability. To establish a standard of care for sport is complex, with many factors to be taken into account and balanced against one another. The law of negligence/delict therefore needs to be adaptable and flexible to resolve new situations where injuries have occurred. Even in established situations where liability has been previously determined, novel events do occur and knowledge develops that requires a reconsideration of the principles that govern liability. In junior rugby, the risk of very serious injuries is relatively small and the law needs to tread a cautious path through liability, ensuring it is a vehicle that promotes sport rather than creating barriers to its enjoyment and practice. A greater understanding of sport

  15. Concussion knowledge and management practices among coaches and medical staff in Irish professional rugby teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraas, M R; Coughlan, G F; Hart, E C; McCarthy, C

    2015-06-01

    Self-reported concussion rates among U-20 and elite rugby union players in Ireland are 45-48%. Half of these injuries go unreported. Accurate knowledge of concussion signs and symptoms and appropriate management practices among coaches and medical staff is important to improve the welfare of players. Examine concussion knowledge among coaches, and management techniques among medical staff of professional Irish rugby teams. Surveys were administered to 11 coaches and 12 medical staff at the end of the 2010-2011 season. Coaches demonstrated an accurate knowledge of concussion with a good understanding of concussion-related symptoms. Medical staff reported using a variety of methods for assessing concussion and making return-to-play decisions. Reliance on subjective clinical methods was evident, with less reliance on objective postural stability performance. Overall, the coaches in this investigation have accurate knowledge of concussion and medical staff use effective techniques for managing this injury. On-going education is needed to assist coaches in identifying concussion signs and symptoms. It is recommended that medical staff increase their reliance on objective methods for assessment and return-to-play decision making.

  16. The experience of captaincy in professional sport: The case of elite professional rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterill, Stewart T; Cheetham, Richard

    2017-03-01

    The captain is perceived to be an important member of the leadership structure within teams across many professional sports. However, while there is a general acceptance that this is the case, there is very little research exploring the role and associated demands at an elite level. As a result, the aim of this study was to explore the captaincy experiences of elite professional rugby union captains. The participants were eight male captains purposefully sampled for this study. Participants were interviewed individually to gain an understanding of each participant's captaincy experiences. The data were thematically analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Nine super-ordinate themes emerged in the study: role, skills, requirements, challenges, the coach, development, experience, context, and approach. Results suggest that the captaincy role is broader than previously highlighted, particularly at the elite level. Also, the study highlights inconsistencies in the selection of captains and a lack of formal developmental support for elite rugby captains. As a result, future research should explore the development of specific evidence-based approaches to captain selection and development.

  17. Finger Injuries in Football and Rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzinga, Kate E; Chung, Kevin C

    2017-02-01

    Football and rugby athletes are at increased risk of finger injuries given the full-contact nature of these sports. Some players may return to play early with protective taping, splinting, and casting. Others require a longer rehabilitation period and prolonged time away from the field. The treating hand surgeon must weigh the benefits of early return to play for the current season and future playing career against the risks of reinjury and long-term morbidity, including post-traumatic arthritis and decreased range of motion and strength. Each player must be comprehensively assessed and managed with an individualized treatment plan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Tackle-injury epidemiology in koshuis rugby players at Stellenbosch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Little is known about the epidemiology of tackle injuries in koshuis rugby players. Objectives. To (i) calculate ... Department of Sport Science, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa. Corresponding ..... prevention. Int J Sports Sci ...

  19. Increase in efficiency of game by feet in modern rugby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Mucha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to define the importance of successful carrying out kicks of realization in rugby for the end result of the match. Material & Methods: the analysis of scientifically-methodical literature and the analysis of the developed results of matches in the rugby World Cups. Results: the reasons of the developed structure of effectiveness in rugby are described; the developed analysis of results of the final part of the World Cups in rugby of 2011 and 2015 is submitted. Conclusions: the significant place is taken not only by the brought attempts, and both their successful realization and other game elements by feet because of the high density of the final results and high level of preparedness of teams. The detailed analysis of results of the research demonstrates what not only realization is of great importance in points taking for the final result, but also all kicks by feet what their big percent at points taking testifies to.

  20. Optimizing implosion yields using rugby-shaped hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Sook; Robey, H.; Amendt, P.; Philippe, F.; Casner, A.; Caillaud, T.; Bourgade, J.-L.; Landoas, O.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R.; Seguin, F.; Rosenberg, M.; Glebov, V. Yu.

    2009-11-01

    We present the first experimental results on optimizing capsule implosion experiments by using rugby-shaped hohlraums [1] on the Omega laser, University of Rochester. This campaign compared D2-filled capsule performance between standard cylindrical Au hohlraums and rugby-shaped hohlraums for demonstrating the energetics advantages of the rugby geometry. Not only did the rugby-shaped hohlraums show nearly 20% more x-ray drive energy over the cylindrical hohlraums, but also the high-performance design of the capsules provided nearly 20 times more DD neutrons than in any previous Omega hohlraum campaigns, thereby enabling use of neutron temporal diagnostics. Comparison with simulations on neutron burn histories, x-ray core imaging, backscattered laser light and radiation temperature are presented. [1] P. Amendt et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 012702 (2008)

  1. A rugby tournament for CERN's 50th anniversary

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 4 April the rugby pitch at the Meyrin sports centre will be the venue for the Swiss Rugby Schools' tournament, organised by the CERN-Meyrin-St Genis Rugby Club. The organisers will be unmistakable, kitted out in CERN Staff Association t-shirts specially dedicated to the CERN clubs for the Organization's 50th anniversary. Come along and cheer on the 250 players from Switzerland and neighbouring France, aged from 6 to 18, who will do battle on the rugby field over the course of 50 matches from 11.00 a.m. to 3.30 p.m. At the end of the tournament, the winners will be presented with 50th anniversary memorabilia by the Mayor and a CERN representative who will say a few words about the Laboratory.

  2. Laser-plasma interactions and implosion symmetry in rugby hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Pierre; Berger, R. L.; Lasinski, B. F.; Ross, J. S.; Divol, L.; Williams, E. A.; Meeker, D.; Langdon, B. A.; Park, H.; Amendt, P.

    2011-10-01

    Cross-beam energy transfer is studied in the context of ``rugby''-hohlraum experiments at the Omega laser facility in FY11, in preparation for future NIF experiments. The transfer acts in opposite direction between rugby and cylinder hohlraums due to the different beam pointing geometries and flow patterns. Its interaction with backscatter is also different as both happen in similar regions inside rugby hohlraums. We will analyze the effects of non-linearities and temporal beam smoothing on energy transfer using the code pF3d. Calculations will be compared to experiments at Omega; analysis of future rugby hohlraum experiments on NIF will also be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  3. Rugby--The New Kid on the Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Jim

    1979-01-01

    A brief description of the rules and play for rugby are presented along with arguments for its inclusion and promotion in athletic programs. It is economical, exciting, individualistic, social, and fun. (JMF)

  4. A systematic review of concussion in rugby league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andrew; Iverson, Grant L; Levi, Christopher R; Schofield, Peter W; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Kohler, Ryan M N; Stanwell, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Concussion remains one of the inherent risks of participation in rugby league. While other injuries incurred by rugby league players have been well studied, less focus and attention has been directed towards concussion. The current review examined all articles published in English from 1900 up to June 2013 pertaining to concussion in rugby league players. Publications were retrieved via six databases using the key search terms: rugby league, league, football; in combination with injury terms: athletic injuries, concussion, sports concussion, sports-related concussion, brain concussion, brain injury, brain injuries, mild traumatic brain injury, mTBI, traumatic brain injury, TBI, craniocerebral trauma, head injury and brain damage. Observational, cohort, correlational, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were all included. 199 rugby league injury publications were identified. 39 (20%) were related in some way to concussion. Of the 39 identified articles, 6 (15%) had the main aim of evaluating concussion, while the other 33 reported on concussion incidence as part of overall injury data analyses. Rugby league concussion incidence rates vary widely from 0.0 to 40.0/1000 playing hours, depending on the definition of injury (time loss vs no time loss). The incidence rates vary across match play versus training session, seasons (winter vs summer) and playing position (forwards vs backs). The ball carrier has been found to be at greater risk for injury than tacklers. Concussion accounts for 29% of all injuries associated with illegal play, but only 9% of injuries sustained in legal play. In comparison with other collision sports, research evaluating concussion in rugby league is limited. With such limited published rugby league data, there are many aspects of concussion that require attention, and future research may be directed towards these unanswered questions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  5. Infectious diseases in rugby players: incidence, treatment and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, A; Atkins, B

    2000-03-01

    Participation in rugby football can expose individuals to a variety of infectious diseases both on and off the field of play. The close physical contact and trauma inherent in playing rugby facilitates the transmission of viral, bacterial and fungal pathogens between players and may also lead to the acquisition of potentially lethal infections from the environment, such as tetanus. In the past few years there have been a number of reported outbreaks of infection amongst rugby players in the medical literature. The appearance of HIV infection has focused attention on the potential for transmission of this and other blood-borne viruses such as hepatitis B and C viruses from bleeding wounds sustained on the rugby field. As a result, various expert bodies have produced guidelines on the management of players with bleeding wounds. Opportunities are now available to rugby players to play outside their own countries, including the third world. This can bring them into contact with a wide range of travel-associated infections, some of which may be life threatening. In view of the above it is clear that rugby players and those who coach and manage rugby teams require information and education on the subject of infection and its prevention, as well as access to appropriate medical care and expertise. Many of the infections seen in rugby players are preventable, e.g. by promoting hygienic facilities and conduct in changing rooms and on the field of play, by exclusion of infected players from contact with others and, in some cases, by immunisation or chemoprophylaxis. Players who present with infections should be assessed, correctly diagnosed (using laboratory investigations where appropriate) and treated, and measures should be taken to prevent spread to team-mates and other contacts while respecting the confidentiality of the individual. Any outbreaks of infection should be reported to the appropriate authorities. There is evidence to suggest that strenuous physical exercise

  6. Aerobic, Anaerobic, and Skill Performance with Regard to Classification in Wheelchair Rugby Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Kosmol, Andrzej; Molik, Bartosz; Yilla, Abu B.; Laskin, James J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the sport-specific performance of wheelchair rugby players with regard to their classification. A group of 30 male athletes from the Polish Wheelchair Rugby League participated in the study. The seven International Wheelchair Rugby Federation classes were collapsed into four groups. Standardized measures of…

  7. Aerobic, Anaerobic, and Skill Performance with Regard to Classification in Wheelchair Rugby Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Kosmol, Andrzej; Molik, Bartosz; Yilla, Abu B.; Laskin, James J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the sport-specific performance of wheelchair rugby players with regard to their classification. A group of 30 male athletes from the Polish Wheelchair Rugby League participated in the study. The seven International Wheelchair Rugby Federation classes were collapsed into four groups. Standardized measures of…

  8. Implosion spectroscopy in Rugby hohlraums on OMEGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Franck; Tassin, Veronique; Bitaud, Laurent; Seytor, Patricia; Reverdin, Charles

    2014-10-01

    The rugby hohlraum concept has been validated in previous experiments on the OMEGA laser facility. This new hohlraum type can now be used as a well-characterized experimental platform to study indirect drive implosion, at higher radiation temperatures than would be feasible at this scale with classical cylindrical hohlraums. Recent experiments have focused on the late stages of implosion and hotspot behavior. The capsules included both a thin buried Titanium tracer layer, 0-3 microns from the inner surface, Argon dopant in the deuterium gas fuel and Germanium doped CH shells, providing a variety of spectral signatures of the plasma conditions in different parts of the target. X-ray spectroscopy and imaging were used to study compression, Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities growth at the inner surface and mix between the shell and gas.

  9. Applied sport science of rugby league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rich D; Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G

    2014-08-01

    Rugby league is a team sport in which players engage in repeated high-intensity exercise involving frequent collisions. Recent research, much of which has involved global positioning system (GPS) technology, has provided coaches and sport scientists with a deeper understanding of match demands, particularly at the elite level. This has allowed for the development of training programmes that prepare players for the most intense contact and running demands likely to be experienced in competition. At the elite level, rugby league players have well-developed aerobic and anaerobic endurance, muscular strength and power, reactive agility, and speed. Upper- and lower-body strength and aerobic power are associated with a broad range of technical and sport-specific skills, in addition to a lower risk of injury. Significant muscle damage (as estimated from creatine kinase concentrations) and fatigue occurs as a result of match-play; while muscle function and perceptual fatigue generally return to baseline 48 h following competition, increases in plasma concentrations of creatine kinase can last for up to 5 days post-match. Well-developed physical qualities may minimise post-match fatigue and facilitate recovery. Ultimately, the literature highlights that players require a broad range of physical and technical skills developed through specific training. This review evaluates the demands of the modern game, drawing on research that has used GPS technology. These findings highlight that preparing players based on the average demands of competition is likely to leave them underprepared for the most demanding passages of play. As such, coaches should incorporate drills that replicate the most intense repeated high-intensity demands of competition in order to prepare players for the worst-case scenarios expected during match-play.

  10. Concussions in Community-Level Rugby: Risk, Knowledge, and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R Kyle; Hrubeniuk, Travis J; Witiw, Christopher D; MacDonald, Peter; Leiter, Jeff

    Rugby is a popular collision sport where participants are at risk of sustaining concussions. Most research focuses on elite-level or youth divisions. Comparatively, little is known about adult community rugby. The aim of this research was to estimate the risk of sustaining a concussion during participation in community-level rugby and summarize the collective knowledge and attitudes toward concussions. Concussion symptoms will be reported frequently among community-level rugby players and a substantial proportion will report a willingness to continue participation despite the risk. Cross-sectional analysis. Level 3. An anonymous, voluntary survey was administered to all 464 senior rugby players registered in the province of Manitoba in 2015. Two primary domains were assessed: (1) concussion history from the preceding season including occurrence, symptomatology, and impact on daily activities and (2) knowledge and attitudes toward concussion risks and management. In total, 284 (61.2%) rugby players responded. Concussive symptoms were reported by 106 (37.3%). Of those, 87% were formally diagnosed with a concussion and 27% missed school and/or work as a result. The danger of playing while symptomatic was recognized by 93.7% of participants, yet 29% indicated they would continue while symptomatic. Furthermore, 39% felt they were letting others down if they stopped playing due to a concussion. Concussive symptoms were common among the study cohort and had a notable impact on daily activities. A high proportion of players were willing to continue while experiencing symptoms despite recognizing the danger. The observed discord between knowledge and attitudes implicates a culture of "playing injured." Understanding the risk of injury may affect an individual's decision to participate in community-level rugby. Moreover, evidence of discord between the knowledge and attitudes of players may direct future research initiatives and league governance.

  11. Sports Injuries in Wheelchair Rugby – A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauerfeind Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze etiology and the incidence of sports injuries among wheelchair rugby players. Moreover, we verified if the levels of aggressiveness and anger presented by the athletes and their roles in the team influenced the incidence and severity of the injuries. The study involved 14 male players, members of the Polish National Wheelchair Rugby Team. During a 9-month period, the athletes participated in up to 9 training camps and 4 Wheelchair Rugby tournaments. The study was based on the Competitive Aggressiveness and Anger Scale, registry of sports injuries consulted and non-consulted with a physician and a demographic questionnaire. The following observations were made during the 9-month period corresponding to a mean of 25 training and tournament days: 1 wheelchair rugby players experienced primarily minor injuries (n=102 that did not require a medical intervention, 2 only four injuries needed to be consulted by a physician, 3 sports injuries occurred more frequently among offensive players than in defensive players, 4 offensive players showed a tendency to higher levels of anger and aggressiveness than defensive players. It can be concluded that wheelchair rugby is a discipline associated with a high incidence of minor injuries that do not require a medical intervention. The incidence rate of injuries during the analyzed period was 0.3 per athlete per training day.

  12. Sports Injuries in Wheelchair Rugby - A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerfeind, Joanna; Koper, Magdalena; Wieczorek, Jacek; Urbański, Piotr; Tasiemski, Tomasz

    2015-11-22

    The aim of the study was to analyze etiology and the incidence of sports injuries among wheelchair rugby players. Moreover, we verified if the levels of aggressiveness and anger presented by the athletes and their roles in the team influenced the incidence and severity of the injuries. The study involved 14 male players, members of the Polish National Wheelchair Rugby Team. During a 9-month period, the athletes participated in up to 9 training camps and 4 Wheelchair Rugby tournaments. The study was based on the Competitive Aggressiveness and Anger Scale, registry of sports injuries consulted and non-consulted with a physician and a demographic questionnaire. The following observations were made during the 9-month period corresponding to a mean of 25 training and tournament days: 1) wheelchair rugby players experienced primarily minor injuries (n=102) that did not require a medical intervention, 2) only four injuries needed to be consulted by a physician, 3) sports injuries occurred more frequently among offensive players than in defensive players, 4) offensive players showed a tendency to higher levels of anger and aggressiveness than defensive players. It can be concluded that wheelchair rugby is a discipline associated with a high incidence of minor injuries that do not require a medical intervention. The incidence rate of injuries during the analyzed period was 0.3 per athlete per training day.

  13. Sports Injuries in Wheelchair Rugby – A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauerfeind, Joanna; Koper, Magdalena; Wieczorek, Jacek; Urbański, Piotr; Tasiemski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze etiology and the incidence of sports injuries among wheelchair rugby players. Moreover, we verified if the levels of aggressiveness and anger presented by the athletes and their roles in the team influenced the incidence and severity of the injuries. The study involved 14 male players, members of the Polish National Wheelchair Rugby Team. During a 9-month period, the athletes participated in up to 9 training camps and 4 Wheelchair Rugby tournaments. The study was based on the Competitive Aggressiveness and Anger Scale, registry of sports injuries consulted and non-consulted with a physician and a demographic questionnaire. The following observations were made during the 9-month period corresponding to a mean of 25 training and tournament days: 1) wheelchair rugby players experienced primarily minor injuries (n=102) that did not require a medical intervention, 2) only four injuries needed to be consulted by a physician, 3) sports injuries occurred more frequently among offensive players than in defensive players, 4) offensive players showed a tendency to higher levels of anger and aggressiveness than defensive players. It can be concluded that wheelchair rugby is a discipline associated with a high incidence of minor injuries that do not require a medical intervention. The incidence rate of injuries during the analyzed period was 0.3 per athlete per training day. PMID:26834880

  14. Rotational and peak torque stiffness of rugby shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballal, Moez S; Usuelli, Federico Giuseppe; Montrasio, Umberto Alfieri; Molloy, Andy; La Barbera, Luigi; Villa, Tomaso; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    Sports people always strive to avoid injury. Sports shoe designs in many sports have been shown to affect traction and injury rates. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the differing stiffness and torque in rugby boots that are designed for the same effect. Five different types of rugby shoes commonly worn by scrum forwards were laboratory tested for rotational stiffness and peak torque on a natural playing surface generating force patterns that would be consistent with a rugby scrum. The overall internal rotation peak torque was 57.75±6.26 Nm while that of external rotation was 56.55±4.36 Nm. The Peak internal and external rotational stiffness were 0.696±0.1 and 0.708±0.06 Nm/deg respectively. Our results, when compared to rotational stiffness and peak torques of football shoes published in the literature, show that shoes worn by rugby players exert higher rotational and peak torque stiffness compared to football shoes when tested on the same natural surfaces. There was significant difference between the tested rugby shoes brands. In our opinion, to maximize potential performance and lower the potential of non-contact injury, care should be taken in choosing boots with stiffness appropriate to the players main playing role. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Antioxidant and oligonutrient status, distribution of amino acids, muscle damage, inflammation, and evaluation of renal function in elite rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorce-Dupuy, Anne Marie; Vela, Carlos; Badiou, Stéphanie; Bargnoux, Anne Sophie; Josse, Christophe; Roagna, Nicolas; Delage, Martine; Michel, Françoise; Vernet, Marie Hélène; Destizons, Dominique; Cristol, Jean Paul

    2012-10-01

    Our study investigated the biochemical and anthropometric characteristics in elite athletes of rugby union based in the south of France during the different periods of the competition to identify metabolic and biochemical adaptations to particular lifestyle conditions. Participants included 35 players in 2008 and 43 players in 2009. Biochemical variables [creatinine, uric acid, creatine kinase (CK), alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, C-reactive protein] were evaluated. Specific protein levels (albumin, acid α-glycoprotein, prealbumin), vitamins (A, E, C), antioxidant enzymes [glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD)], oligoelements (Zn, Se, Cu, erythrocyte magnesium), homocysteine (Hcy), carnitine and the distribution of amino acids were specifically determined for our study during a pre-competition period (September 2008 and 2009). Globally, no deficit was observed for vitamins, oligonutrients and amino acids levels. The high SOD and GPx activities in rugby players suggest a presence of oxidative stress of exercise. The evaluation of renal function should be used with caution because of the interaction between creatinine and lean body mass. In addition, a profound effect of intense exercise on the CK values was reported to establish specific reference values for athletes. The analysis of the biological variation allows optimization of the interpretation of the changes from an increased or decreased baseline value from a season to the other one. The conclusions of present study were: 1) the necessity of rugby-specific reference intervals for CK and creatinine parameters; 2) the use of enzymatic creatinine for Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) and CKD-EPI, or cystatin C to improve glomerular filtration rate estimation; 3) to take into account the oxidative stress testifying of a bad recovery; and 4) better to take care the nutritional status of the players by adapting needs and amino acids supplementations but also to

  16. Physical Preparation Recommendations for Elite Rugby Sevens Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Jake; Howells, Dan; Robineau, Julien; Couderc, Anthony; Natera, Alex; Lumley, Nick; Gabbett, Tim J; Winkelman, Nick

    2017-08-03

    Rugby Sevens, a new Olympic sport, features high intensity intermittent running and contact efforts over short match durations, normally six times across two to three days in a tournament format. Elite Rugby Sevens seasons often include over a dozen competitive tournaments across less than nine months, demanding deliberate and careful training-stress balance and workload management alongside development of the necessary physical qualities required for competition. Focus on running and repeated power skills, strength, and match-specific conditioning capacities is advised. Partial taper approaches in combination with high velocity running (>5m/s from GPS measures) exposures before and between tournaments in succession may reduce injury rates and enhance performance. In a sport with substantial long-haul intercontinental travel and repetitive chronic load demands, management of logistics including nutrition and recovery is inclusive of the formula for success in the physical preparation of elite Rugby Sevens athletes.

  17. Repeated high-intensity exercise in a professional rugby league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Damien J; Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David J

    2011-07-01

    The primary aim of this study was to identify and describe the frequency and duration of repeated high-intensity exercise (RHIE) bouts in Australian professional rugby league (National Rugby League) and whether these occurred at critical times during a game. Time motion analysis was used during 5 competition matches; 1 player from 3 positional groups (hit-up forward, adjustable, and outside back) was analyzed in each match. The ranges of RHIE bouts for the 3 positional groups were hit-up forwards 9-17, adjustables 2-8, and outside backs 3-7. Hit-up forwards were involved in a significantly greater number of RHIE bouts (p rugby league players are likely to encounter.

  18. Experimental comparison of symmetry in rugby and cylindrical holhraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Franck; Tassin, Veronique; Laffite, Stephane; Monteil, Marie-Christine; Bastian, Josiane; Lours, Laurence; Villette, Bruno; Stemmler, Philippe; Bednarczyk, Sophie; Reneaume, Benoit; di Nicola, Pascale; Raffin, Vincent

    2007-11-01

    Recently, holhraum shape optimization has been investigated as a practical way to achieve ignition at lower energy [1][2]. Rugby shaped holhraums theoretically allow better energetic coupling and symmetry control than classical cylinders. As a first step toward an experimental validation of this design, this talk presents the results of experiments on the OMEGA laser facility dedicated to the comparison of symmetry in cylindrical and rugby holhraums. Foamball radiographs and Symcaps emission contours for both type of holhraums are compared to numerical simulation results. [1] M. Vandenboomgaerde et al., accepted by Phys. Rev. Lett. [2] P. Amendt et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 056312 (2007)

  19. Acute compartment syndrome of the thigh in a rugby player

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard David James; Rust-March, Holly; Kluzek, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    In the absence of obvious trauma, diagnosis of acute compartment syndrome (ACS) of the thigh can easily be delayed, as disproportional pain is not always present. We present a case of ACS of the anterior right thigh compartment in a healthy, semiprofessional rugby player with normal coagulation, who sustained a seemingly innocuous blow during a rugby match. Following early surgical fasciotomy, he returned to his preinjury playing standards within 12 months. Our literature review suggests that high muscle mass, young, athletic males participating in a contact sport are mostly at risk of developing ACS of the thigh. PMID:26250368

  20. Photobiomodulation Therapy Improves Performance and Accelerates Recovery of High-Level Rugby Players in Field Test: A Randomized, Crossover, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Henrique D; Vanin, Adriane A; Miranda, Eduardo F; Tomazoni, Shaiane S; Johnson, Douglas S; Albuquerque-Pontes, Gianna M; Aleixo, Ivo de O; Grandinetti, Vanessa Dos S; Casalechi, Heliodora L; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso C; Leal, Ernesto Cesar P

    2016-12-01

    Pinto, HD, Vanin, AA, Miranda, EF, Tomazoni, SS, Johnson, DS, Albuquerque-Pontes, GM, de Oliveira Aleixo Junior, I, Grandinetti, VdS, Casalechi, HL, de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho, P, and Pinto Leal Junior. Photobiomodulation therapy improves performance and accelerates recovery of high-level rugby players in field test: A randomized, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3329-3338, 2016-Although growing evidence supports the use of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) for performance and recovery enhancement, there have only been laboratory-controlled studies. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of PBMT in performance and recovery of high-level rugby players during an anaerobic field test. Twelve male high-level rugby athletes were recruited in this randomized, crossover, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. No interventions were performed before the Bangsbo sprint test (BST) at familiarization phase (week 1); at weeks 2 and 3, pre-exercise PBMT or placebo were randomly applied to each athlete. Photobiomodulation therapy irradiation was performed at 17 sites of each lower limb, employing a cluster with 12 diodes (4 laser diodes of 905 nm, 4 light emitting diodes [LEDs] of 875 nm, and 4 LEDs of 640 nm, 30 J per site, manufactured by Multi Radiance Medical). Average time of sprints, best time of sprints, and fatigue index were obtained from BST. Blood lactate levels were assessed at baseline, and at 3, 10, 30, and 60 minutes after BST. Athletes' perceived fatigue was also assessed through a questionnaire. Photobiomodulation therapy significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved the average time of sprints and fatigue index in BST. Photobiomodulation therapy significantly decreased percentage of change in blood lactate levels (p ≤ 0.05) and perceived fatigue (p ≤ 0.05). Pre-exercise PBMT with the combination of super-pulsed laser (low-level laser), red LEDs, and infrared LEDs can enhance performance

  1. Movement demands of elite rugby league players during Australian National Rugby League and European Super League matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twist, Craig; Highton, Jamie; Waldron, Mark; Edwards, Emma; Austin, Damien; Gabbett, Tim J

    2014-11-01

    This study compared the movement demands of players competing in matches from the elite Australian and European rugby league competitions. Global positioning system devices were used to measure 192 performances of forwards, adjustables, and outside backs during National Rugby League (NRL; n = 88) and European Super League (SL; n = 104) matches. Total and relative distances covered overall and at low (0-3.5 m/s), moderate (3.6-5 m/s), and high (>5 m/s) speeds were measured alongside changes in movement variables across the early, middle, and late phases of the season. The relative distance covered in SL matches (95.8 ± 18.6 m/min) was significantly greater (P rugby league competition than the SL.

  2. Dietary Intakes of Elite 14- to 19-Year-Old English Academy Rugby Players During a Pre-Season Training Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Deborah R; Jones, Ben; Sutton, Louise; King, Roderick F G J; Duckworth, Lauren C

    2016-12-01

    Good nutrition is essential for the physical development of adolescent athletes, however data on dietary intakes of adolescent rugby players are lacking. This study quantified and evaluated dietary intake in 87 elite male English academy rugby league (RL) and rugby union (RU) players by age (under 16 (U16) and under 19 (U19) years old) and code (RL and RU). Relationships of intakes with body mass and composition (sum of 8 skinfolds) were also investigated. Using 4-day diet and physical activity diaries, dietary intake was compared with adolescent sports nutrition recommendations and the UK national food guide. Dietary intake did not differ by code, whereas U19s consumed greater energy (3366 ± 658 vs. 2995 ± 774 kcal·day(-1)), protein (207 ± 49 vs. 150 ± 53 g·day(-1)) and fluid (4221 ± 1323 vs. 3137 ± 1015 ml·day(-1)) than U16s. U19s consumed a better quality diet than U16s (greater intakes of fruit and vegetables; 4.4 ± 1.9 vs. 2.8 ± 1.5 servings·day(-1); nondairy proteins; 3.9 ± 1.1 vs. 2.9 ± 1.1 servings·day(-1)) and less fats and sugars (2.0 ± 1. vs. 3.6 ± 2.1 servings·day(-1)). Protein intake vs. body mass was moderate (r = .46, p rugby players consume adequate dietary intakes in relation to current guidelines for energy, macronutrient and fluid intake. Players should improve the quality of their diet by replacing intakes from the fats and sugars food group with healthier choices, while maintaining current energy, and macronutrient intakes.

  3. Occurrence of cervical spine injuries during the rugby scrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzler, M J; Akpata, T; Laughlin, W; Levy, A S

    1998-01-01

    A retrospective study of cervical spine injuries that occurred during the rugby scrum in the United States was undertaken. In the U.S., from 1970 to 1996, 36 (58%) of the 62 documented injured players injured their cervical spines during the scrum. Thirty-five men (97%) and one woman (3%) were injured. Twenty-three of the injuries (64%) occurred when the opposing packs came together (engagement), and 13 (36%) occurred when the scrum collapsed. Twenty-eight (78%) hookers, seven (19%) props, and one (3%) second-row player were injured. Twenty (56%) hookers and three (8%) props were hurt during engagement. Eight hookers (22%), four props (11%), and one second-row player (3%) were injured when the scrum collapsed. Significantly more injuries occurred during engagement than during collapse, and hookers were injured significantly more than props. We conclude that in the rugby scrum in the U.S., the hooker suffers most of the cervical spine injuries (78% in this study) and this position is by far the most vulnerable. This study should be used to develop rugby law (rule) changes and educate players, coaches, and referees in United States rugby.

  4. Learning Masculinities in a Japanese High School Rugby Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This paper draws on research conducted on a Tokyo high school rugby club to explore diversity in the masculinities formed through membership in the club. Based on the premise that particular forms of masculinity are expressed and learnt through ways of playing (game style) and the attendant regimes of training, it examines the expression and…

  5. Inadequate pre-season preparation of schoolboy rugby players - a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    currently being evaluated in 25 of the 26 schools surveyed in the original study.3 ... by 471 players, an average of 1.9 concussion injuries per .... might spend a large amount of time on this and others not, ... Rugby football injunes, 1980-1983.

  6. Acetabular fractures following rugby tackles: a case series

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Good, Daniel W

    2011-10-05

    Abstract Introduction Rugby is the third most popular team contact sport in the world and is increasing in popularity. In 1995, rugby in Europe turned professional, and with this has come an increased rate of injury. Case presentation In a six-month period from July to December, two open reduction and internal fixations of acetabular fractures were performed in young Caucasian men (16 and 24 years old) who sustained their injuries after rugby tackles. Both of these cases are described as well as the biomechanical factors contributing to the fracture and the recovery. Acetabular fractures of the hip during sport are rare occurrences. Conclusion Our recent experience of two cases over a six-month period creates concern that these high-energy injuries may become more frequent as rugby continues to adopt advanced training regimens. Protective equipment is unlikely to reduce the forces imparted across the hip joint; however, limiting \\'the tackle\\' to only two players may well reduce the likelihood of this life-altering injury.

  7. Laser plasma interaction in rugby-shaped hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson-Laborde, P.-E.; Philippe, F.; Tassin, V.; Monteil, M.-C.; Gauthier, P.; Casner, A.; Depierreux, S.; Seytor, P.; Teychenne, D.; Loiseau, P.; Freymerie, P.

    2014-10-01

    Rugby shaped-hohlraum has proven to give high performance compared to a classical similar-diameter cylinder hohlraum. Due to this performance, this hohlraum has been chosen as baseline ignition target for the Laser MegaJoule (LMJ). Many experiments have therefore been performed during the last years on the Omega laser facility in order to study in details the rugby hohlraum. In this talk, we will discuss the interpretation of these experiments from the point of view of the laser plasma instability problem. Experimental comparisons have been done between rugby, cylinder and elliptical shape rugby hohlraums and we will discuss how the geometry differences will affect the evolution of laser plasma instabilities (LPI). The efficiency of laser smoothing techniques on these instabilities will also be discussed as well as gas filling effect. The experimental results will be compared with FCI2 hydroradiative calculations and linear postprocessing with Piranah. Experimental Raman and Brillouin spectrum, from which we can infer the location of the parametric instabilities, will be compared to simulated ones, and will give the possibility to compare LPI between the different hohlraum geometries.

  8. Learning Masculinities in a Japanese High School Rugby Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This paper draws on research conducted on a Tokyo high school rugby club to explore diversity in the masculinities formed through membership in the club. Based on the premise that particular forms of masculinity are expressed and learnt through ways of playing (game style) and the attendant regimes of training, it examines the expression and…

  9. Playing time between senior rugby players of different ethnic groups ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Discovery High Performance Centre, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, and MRC/UCT Research Unit for Exercise ... nutritional advice, life skills and technical rugby coaching. The ... Players were given feedback on their performance in each of the 3 ..... the skill acquisition that is required by a high-level adult player.

  10. Salivary immunoglobulin A response to a collegiate rugby game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Alexander J; Wherry, Amanda D; Petersen, Matthew C; Johnson, Jane C; Stuart, Melissa K; Sexton, William L

    2007-02-01

    Transient fluctuations in immune function after heavy exercise have been linked to an increased incidence of infection in athletes. Several parameters of immunity, including salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA), are affected by heavy exercise in the laboratory setting. However, few observations have been made during true competition. We tested the hypothesis that salivary IgA levels will be decreased after a collegiate rugby game. Saliva samples obtained from 16 men's college rugby players before and after an 80-minute regulation rugby game were analyzed for total volume, IgA, total protein content, and osmolality. Salivary IgA was expressed relative to secretion rate (s-IgA), osmolality (IgA-Osm), and total protein (IgA-Pro). No significant pregame-postgame changes in salivary IgA were observed (s-IgA: -13%, IgA-Osm: -16%, IgA-Pro: +10%). These data indicate that strenuous physical activity, such as a competitive rugby game, does not affect IgA levels. More study on the immune response to athletic competition is needed.

  11. NIF Rugby High Foot Campaign from the design side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidinger, J.-P.; Callahan, D. A.; Berzak-Hopkins, L. F.; Ralph, J. E.; Amendt, P.; Hinkel, D. E.; Michel, P.; Moody, J. D.; Ross, J. S.; Rygg, J. R.; Celliers, P.; Clouët, J.-F.; Dewald, E. L.; Kaiser, P.; Khan, S.; Kritcher, A. L.; Liberatore, S.; Marion, D.; Masson-Laborde, P.-E.; Milovich, J. L.; Morice, O.; Pak, A. E.; Poujade, O.; Strozzi, D.; Hurricane, O. A.

    2016-05-01

    The NIF Rugby High Foot campaign results, with 8 shots to date, are compared with the 2D FCI2 design simulations. A special emphasis is placed on the predictive features and on those areas where some work is still required to achieve the best possible modelling of these MJ-class experiments.

  12. Unions, Vitamins, Exercise: Unionized Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewberry, David R.

    2005-01-01

    After the turbulent labor history of America in the early to mid twentieth century, there has been a general decline of unions. Nevertheless, many graduate school teaching assistants are unionizing in attempts to gain better pay and benefits and remove themselves from an "Ivory Sweatshop." This article discusses a history of unions…

  13. Rugby headgear and concussion prevention: misconceptions could increase aggressive play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menger, Richard; Menger, Austin; Nanda, Anil

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Multiple studies have illustrated that rugby headgear offers no statistically significant protection against concussions. However, there remains concern that many players believe rugby headgear in fact does prevent concussions. Further investigation was undertaken to illustrate that misconceptions about concussion prevention and rugby headgear may lead to an increase in aggressive play. METHODS Data were constructed by Internet survey solicitation among United States collegiate rugby players across 19 teams. Initial information given was related to club, age, experience, use of headgear, playing time, whether the rugger played football or wrestling in high school, and whether the player believed headgear prevented concussion. Data were then constructed as to whether wearing headgear would increase aggressive playing style secondary to a false sense of protection. RESULTS A total of 122 players responded. All players were male. The average player was 19.5 years old and had 2.7 years of experience. Twenty-three of 122 players (18.9%) wore protective headgear; 55.4% of players listed forward as their primary position. Overall, 45.8% (55/120) of players played 70-80 minutes per game, 44.6% (54/121) played football or wrestled in high school, 38.1% (45/118) believed headgear prevented concussions, and 42.2% (51/121) stated that if they were using headgear they would be more aggressive with their play in terms of running or tackling. Regression analysis illustrated that those who believed headgear prevented concussions were or would be more likely to engage in aggressive play (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Nearly 40% of collegiate rugby players surveyed believed headgear helped to prevent concussions despite no scientific evidence that it does. This misconception about rugby headgear could increase aggressive play. Those who believed headgear prevented concussion were, on average, 4 times more likely to play with increased aggressive form than those who believed

  14. Monitoring for overreaching in rugby league players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Aaron J; Reaburn, Peter; Piva, Terrence J; Rowsell, Greg J

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify indicators of non-functional overreaching (NFOR) in team sport athletes undertaking intensive training loads. Eighteen semi-professional rugby league players were randomly assigned into two pair matched groups. One group completed 6 weeks of normal training (NT) whilst the other group was deliberately overreached through intensified training (IT). Both groups then completed the same 7-day stepwise training load reduction taper. Multistage fitness test (MSFT) performance, VO2 (max), peak aerobic running velocity (V (max)), maximal heart rate, vertical jump, 10-s cycle sprint performance and body mass were measured pre- and post-training period and following the taper. Hormonal, haematological and immunological parameters were also measured pre-training and following weeks 2, 4 and 6 of training and post-taper. MANOVA for repeated measures with contrast analysis indicated that MSFT performance and VO2 (max) were significantly reduced in the IT group over time and condition, indicating that a state of overreaching was attained. However, the only biochemical measure that was significantly different between the IT and NT group was the glutamine to glutamate (Gln/Glu) ratio even though testosterone, testosterone to cortisol (T/C) ratio, plasma glutamate, and CK activity were significantly changed after training in both groups. Positive endurance and power performance changes were observed post-taper in the IT group confirming NFOR. These changes were associated with increases in the T/C ratio and the Gln/Glu ratio and decreases in plasma glutamate and CK activity. These results indicate that although there was no single reliable biochemical marker of NFOR in these athletes, the Gln/Glu ratio and MSFT test may be useful measures for monitoring responses to IT in team sport athletes.

  15. Trade union revitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Tapia, Maite

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we review and assess research on the role of trade unions in labour markets and society, the current decline of unions and union revitalisation. The review shows three main trends. First, trade unions are converging into similar strategies of revitalisation. The ‘organising model......’ has spread far beyond the Anglo-Saxon countries and is now commonplace for unions as a way to reach new worker constituencies. Thus, even in ‘institutionally secure’ countries like Germany and the Nordic countries, unions are employing organising strategies while at the same time trying to defend...... their traditional strongholds of collective bargaining and corporatist policy-making. Second, research has shown that used strategies are not a panacea for success for unions in countries that pearheaded revitalisation. This finding points to the importance of supportive institutional frameworks if unions...

  16. Credit Union Headquarters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) is the independent federal agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. NCUA, backed of the full faith...

  17. A Five-Year Review of Tag Rugby Hand Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, C W; Woods, J F C; Murphy, S; Bollard, S; Kelly, J L; Carroll, S M; O'Shaughnessy, M

    2016-10-01

    Tag rugby is one of the fastest growing sports in Ireland. It is a soft-contact team game that is loosely based on the rugby league format except players try to remove Velcro tags from their opponents' shorts rather than engage in a typical rugby tackle. The purpose of this study was to examine all tag rugby associated hand injuries over a five-year period in three large tertiary referral hospitals in Ireland. Using the patient corresponding system, 228 patients with hand injury related tag rugby injuries were observed from 2010 to 2015. There were 138 males and 90 females in the study and over 40% of patients required surgery. Most of the patients were young professionals with an average age of 30. Twenty-five patients worked in the financial services whilst there were 23 teachers. Fractures accounted for 124 of the 228 injuries and mallet injuries accounted for 53. Eighty percent of all injuries occurred during the tackle. The mean number of days missed from work was 9.1±13.8 days. These injuries resulted in an average of seven hospital appointments per patient. Considering it is a soft-contact sport, it is surprising the number of hand injuries that we have observed. Although safety measures have been introduced to decrease the number of hand injuries in recent years, there is a need for further improvements. Better player education about seeking prompt medical attention once an injury occurs, coupled with longer shorts worn by players may improve measures for the sport. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Laser plasma interaction on rugby hohlraum on the Omega Laser Facility: Comparisons between cylinder, rugby, and elliptical hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson-Laborde, P. E.; Monteil, M. C.; Tassin, V.; Philippe, F.; Gauthier, P.; Casner, A.; Depierreux, S.; Neuville, C.; Villette, B.; Laffite, S.; Seytor, P.; Fremerye, P.; Seka, W.; Teychenné, D.; Debayle, A.; Marion, D.; Loiseau, P.; Casanova, M.

    2016-02-01

    Gas-filled rugby-shaped hohlraums have demonstrated high performances compared to a classical similar diameter cylinder hohlraum with a nearly 40% increase of x-ray drive, 10% higher measured peak drive temperature, and an increase in neutron production. Experimental comparisons have been done between rugby, cylinder, and elliptical hohlraums. The impact of these geometry differences on the laser plasma instabilities is examined. Using comparisons with hydrodynamic simulations carried out with the code FCI2 and postprocessed by Piranah, we have been able to reproduce the stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering spectrum of the different beams. Using a methodology based on a statistical analysis for the gain calculations, we show that the behavior of the laser plasma instabilities in rugby hohlraums can be reproduced. The efficiency of laser smoothing techniques to mitigate these instabilities are discussed, and we show that while rugby hohlraums exhibit more laser plasma instabilities than cylinder hohlraum, the latter can be mitigated in the case of an elliptical hohlraum.

  19. Demonstrated high performance of gas-filled rugby-shaped hohlraums on Omega

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, F.; Tassin, V.; Depierreux, S.; Gauthier, P.; Masson-Laborde, P. E.; Monteil, M. C.; Seytor, P.; Villette, B.; Lasinski, B.; Park, H. S.; Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P.; Döppner, T.; Hinkel, D. E.; Wallace, R.; Williams, E.; Michel, P.; Frenje, J.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R.; Glebov, V.; Sorce, C.; Stoeckl, C.; Nikroo, A.; Giraldez, E.

    2014-07-01

    A direct experimental comparison of rugby-shaped and cylindrical shaped gas-filled hohlraums on the Omega laser facility demonstrates that higher coupling and minimal backscatter can be achieved in the rugby geometry, leading to significantly enhanced implosion performance. A nearly 50% increase of x-ray drive is associated with earlier bangtime and increase of neutron production. The observed drive enhancement from rugby geometry in this study is almost twice stronger than in previously published results.

  20. Demonstrated high performance of gas-filled rugby-shaped hohlraums on Omega

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippe, F.; Villette, B. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Michel, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Petrasso, R. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Stoeckl, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Giraldez, E. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Tassin, V.; Depierreux, S.; Gauthier, P.; Masson-Laborde, P. E.; Monteil, M. C.; Seytor, P.; Lasinski, B.; Park, H. S.; Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P.; Döppner, T.; Hinkel, D. E.; Wallace, R.; Williams, E.; and others

    2014-07-15

    A direct experimental comparison of rugby-shaped and cylindrical shaped gas-filled hohlraums on the Omega laser facility demonstrates that higher coupling and minimal backscatter can be achieved in the rugby geometry, leading to significantly enhanced implosion performance. A nearly 50% increase of x-ray drive is associated with earlier bangtime and increase of neutron production. The observed drive enhancement from rugby geometry in this study is almost twice stronger than in previously published results.

  1. Demonstrated high performance of gas-filled rugby-shaped hohlraums on Omega

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippe, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Tassin, V. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Depierreux, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Gauthier, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Masson-Laborde, P. E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Monteil, M. C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Seytor, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Villette, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Lasinski, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Park, H. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ross, J. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Amendt, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Doeppner, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hinkel, D. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wallace, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Williams, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Michel, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Frenje, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Gatu-Johnson, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Li, C. K. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Petrasso, R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Glebov, V. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Sorce, C. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Stoeckl, C. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Nikroo, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Giraldez, E. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-07-25

    A direct experimental comparison of rugby-shaped and cylindrical shaped gas-filled hohlraums on the Omega laser facility demonstrates that higher coupling and minimal backscatter can be achieved in the rugby geometry, leading to significantly enhanced implosion performance. A nearly 50% increase of x-ray drive is associated with earlier bangtime and increase of neutron production. The observed drive enhancement from rugby geometry in this study is almost twice stronger than in previously published results.

  2. Training Union Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Edward

    1974-01-01

    The Union Leadership Academy (ULA) combines Pennsylvania State, Rutgers, West Virginia, and Atlantic Community College, 3 departments of the ALL-CIO, and 12 unions into an innovative curriculum covering aspects of labor law, union administration, and labor history. (Author/PG)

  3. Harmonization of European neurology education: the junior doctor's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macerollo, Antonella; Struhal, Walter; Sellner, Johann

    2013-10-29

    The objective of this article, written by executives of the European Association of Young Neurologists and Trainees (EAYNT), is to illustrate the status quo of neurology training in Europe and give an outlook on ongoing efforts and prospects for junior neurologists. The European Union is an economic and political union that currently encompasses 27 member states with more than 500 million inhabitants (or 7.3% of the world population) (interested readers are referred to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Union). Countries of the European Union act as a single market with free movement of citizens, goods, services, and finances. As a consequence, a diploma and postgraduate training obtained in one EU country will be automatically recognized by all other EU member states. At the Lisbon European Council in March 2000, the Heads of State or Government signed a treaty that expresses their ambition of making Europe "the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion" (www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lisbon_Strategy). More than 1.6 million physicians in all the different medical specialties are represented by the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS). The UEMS was founded in 1958 and the objectives include the study, promotion, and harmonization of the highest level of training of medical specialists, medical practice, and health care within the European Union. The European Board of Neurology (UEMS-EBN; www.uems-neuroboard.org) is in charge of the implementation of the UEMS policy regarding neurology.

  4. Between-Days Reliability and Sensitivity of Common Fatigue Measures in Rugby Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Gregory; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Till, Kevin; Phibbs, Padraic; Read, Dale; Weakley, Jonathon; Jones, Ben

    2016-07-01

    This study established the between-days reliability and sensitivity of a countermovement jump (CMJ), plyometric push-up, well-being questionnaire, and whole-blood creatine kinase concentration ([CK]) in elite male youth rugby union players. The study also established the between-days reliability of 1, 2, or 3 CMJs and plyometric-push-up attempts. Twenty-five players completed tests on 2 occasions separated by 5 d (of rest). Between-days typical error, coefficient of variation (CV), and smallest worthwhile change (SWC) were calculated for the well-being questionnaire, [CK], and CMJ and plyometric-push-up metrics (peak/mean power, peak/mean force, height, flight time, and flight-time to contraction-time ratio) for 1 maximal effort or taking the highest score from 2 or 3 maximal efforts. The results suggest that CMJ mean power (2 or 3 attempts), peak force, or mean force and plyometric-push-up mean force (from 2 or 3 attempts) should be used for assessing lower- and upper-body neuromuscular function, respectively, due to both their acceptable reliability (CV 5% (7.1% and 26.1%, respectively) and poor sensitivity (CV > SWC). The findings from this study can be used when interpreting fatigue markers to make an objective decision about a player's readiness to train or compete.

  5. Rugby Union and British Culture%英式橄榄球与英国文化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晓斌; 郭五一

    2014-01-01

    运用文献资料调研对英式橄榄球与英国文化进行研究.透过独特而丰富的英式橄榄球与英国文化的图景再现,回顾和整理英式橄榄球190年的发展历程,以及在不同阶段中所展现出来的重要类型与主题;揭示其与英国文化之间相互结合的细腻互动关系,解释其被赋予并传播的英国社会文化内涵、观念形态和价值体系.

  6. Do stingers affect scapular kinematics in rugby players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takayuki; Maki, Nobukazu; Shimizu, Kyoko; Ota, Chihiro; Urayama, Shingo; Moriya, Shuichi; Kaketa, Takefumi; Kobayashi, Hideo; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2014-12-01

    Scapular dyskinesis is observed in subjects with pathologic conditions of the shoulder; however, there is limited information about the factors related to scapular dyskinesis among participants in rugby. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence, reliability, and relationships between scapular dyskinesis and variables related to the shoulder in high-school rugby players. A total of 164 Japanese high-school rugby players were evaluated with questionnaires, physical examinations, and a video analysis during their preseason. After evaluation of the inter-rater reliability of a classification of scapular dyskinesis, the outcomes were analyzed to assess the relationships between scapular dyskinesis and other variables during the preseason. The data were assessed with a logistic regression analysis calculating the odds ratios (OR). The inter-rater reliability among 3 blinded observers based on the Fleiss κ value and percentage agreement was .52 and 79.0%, respectively, which indicates that the method is moderately reliable. Scapular dyskinesis was identified in 16 (10.1%) shoulders among 159 players, with type I being prominent. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that a type I dyskinesis was significantly associated with a past history of stingers with projected pain to the affected side of the shoulder (OR, 3.7) and the player's competitive grade at the time of the survey (OR, 3.9). Scapular dyskinesis is significantly associated with a past history of stingers. This suggests that stingers are a causative factor of scapular dyskinesis in the rugby population. Our method of evaluating scapular dyskinesis in collision athletes exhibits moderate reliability. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mechanisms of traumatic shoulder injury in elite rugby players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, James; Jones, Doug R; Funk, Lennard

    2012-01-01

    Background Shoulder injuries in rugby players are common, but the mechanisms of injury are less well understood. This study aims to elucidate common mechanisms of injury and identify the patterns of injury they produce. Materials and methods Twenty-four elite rugby players, referred to the senior author for diagnosis and management of shoulder injuries, were selected. Videos of the injuries were independently reviewed by rugby-medical experts to describe the mechanisms of injury. The mechanisms reported were collated and analysed to determine the level of agreement between reviewers and conclude an overall description of injury mechanisms. Results The authors identified three mechanisms of shoulder injury from the video analysis. These are the ‘Try-Scorer’, characterised by hyperflexion of the outstretched arm such as when scoring a try; the ‘Tackler’, extension of the abducted arm behind the player while tackling; and the ‘Direct Impact’, a direct blow to the arm or shoulder when held by the side in neutral or slight adduction. The Try Scorer and Tackler mechanisms both involve a levering force on the glenohumeral joint (GHJ). These mechanisms predominantly cause GHJ dislocation, with Bankart, reverse Bankart and superior labrum anterior–posterior tears. The Try-Scorer Mechanism also caused the majority (83%) of rotator cuff tears. The Direct Hit mechanism resulted in GHJ dislocation and labral injury in 37.5% of players and was most likely to cause acromioclavicular joint dislocation and scapula fractures, injuries that were not seen with the other mechanisms. Conclusion Greater understanding of the mechanisms involved in rugby shoulder injury is useful in understanding the pathological injuries, guiding treatment and rehabilitation and aiding the development of injury-prevention methods. PMID:22510645

  8. Injury frequency and body composition of elite Romanian rugby players

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan ALMĂJAN-GUȚĂ; Alexandra-Mihaela RUSU; Adrian NAGEL; Claudiu AVRAM

    2017-01-01

    Background: The physical exertion in the game of rugby is intense and depends on the playing position. This study hypothesized that peculiarities of body composition are important and should be properly interpreted in order to improve fitness and particularly in order to reduce the risk of injuries. Purpose: The aim of the present paper is to highlight the importance of body composition evaluation and to underline the usefulness of the data thus obtained for both training individualization an...

  9. Junior Professors Question Job Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren

    2007-01-01

    Female and minority faculty members rated their institutions less positively as places for junior professors to work than did their male and white counterparts, according to a new report. Young professors said institutional policies designed to help them succeed were important, but they were less satisfied that those policies were effective. Women…

  10. Improving Junior High Classroom Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmer, Edmund T.; And Others

    A field experiment was conducted to determine whether descriptive-correlational results from classroom management research could be implemented by junior high school teachers, and whether such implementation would result in improved classroom management. An experimental group (18 teachers) received management manuals developed by researchers, and…

  11. Holography in the Junior High.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszkiewicz, Frank

    1988-01-01

    Examines the use of holography in the art technology program of a junior high school. Characterizing holography as a valuable artistic experience and discovery experience and stressing the importance of student interest and involvement, the author discusses the necessary equipment for the project and includes two diagrams of a holographic setup.…

  12. Strength, speed and power characteristics of elite rugby league players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lacey, James; Brughelli, Matt E; McGuigan, Michael R; Hansen, Keir T

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this article was to compare strength, speed, and power characteristics between playing position (forwards and backs) in elite rugby league players. A total of 39 first team players (height, 183.8 ± 5.95 cm; body mass, 100.3 ± 10.7 kg; age, 24 ± 3 years) from a National Rugby League club participated in this study. Testing included 10-, 40-m sprint times, sprint mechanics on an instrumented nonmotorized treadmill, and concentric isokinetic hip and knee extension and flexion. Backs, observed to have significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lighter body mass (effect size [ES] = 0.98), were significantly faster (10-m ES = 1.26; 40-m ES = 1.61) and produced significantly greater relative horizontal force and power (ES = 0.87 and 1.04) compared with forwards. However, no significant differences were found between forwards and backs during relative isokinetic knee extension, knee flexion, relative isokinetic hip extension, flexion, prowler sprints, sprint velocity, contact time, or flight time. The findings demonstrate that backs have similar relative strength in comparison with forwards, but run faster overground and produce significantly greater relative horizontal force and power when sprinting on a nonmotorized instrumented treadmill. Developing force and power in the horizontal direction may be beneficial for improving sprint performance in professional rugby league players.

  13. Union Dissolution and Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Cooke, Thomas; Mulder, Clara H.; Thomas, Michael

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND While there is a limited body of research regarding residential mobility and migration following union dissolution, there is a particular dearth of studies that go into detail about the factors that shape how union dissolution may result in long-distance migration. OBJECTIVE This research isolates and identifies the processes that influence inter-state migration in the period immediately following the dissolution of a marital union. METHODS Multilevel logit models of the probabilit...

  14. A high rate of injury during the 1995 Rugby World Cup

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Art c I e s. A high rate of injury during the 1995 Rugby World Cup. Ismail Jakoet, Timothy ... Exercise Research Unit, Sports Science Institute of South Africa, ... The Rugby World Cup, contested every 4 years since 1987, ..... This prediction has.

  15. Influence of Glove Type on Mobility Performance for Wheelchair Rugby Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, Barry S.; van der Woude, L. H. V.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V. L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of different glove types on mobility performance in a series of field tests specific to wheelchair rugby. Design: Ten international wheelchair rugby players performed three drills in each glove condition: (i) players' current gl

  16. League Bilong Laif: Rugby, Education and Sport-for-Development Partnerships in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Emma; Schulenkorf, Nico

    2016-01-01

    League Bilong Laif (LBL) is a sport-for-development (SFD) programme that was established in 2013 as a three-way partnership between the Australian Government, the Papua New Guinea (PNG) Government (Department of Education) and the Australian Rugby League Commission (National Rugby League). As a contribution to addressing low rates of school…

  17. Influence of Glove Type on Mobility Performance for Wheelchair Rugby Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, Barry S.; van der Woude, L. H. V.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V. L.

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of different glove types on mobility performance in a series of field tests specific to wheelchair rugby. Design: Ten international wheelchair rugby players performed three drills in each glove condition: (i) players' current

  18. Determinants of sport-specific postural control strategy and balance performance of amateur rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Gary C C; Fong, Shirley S M; Chung, Joanne W Y; Chung, Louisa M Y; Ma, Ada W W; Macfarlane, Duncan J

    2016-11-01

    Postural control strategy and balance performance of rugby players are important yet under-examined issues. This study aimed to examine the differences in balance strategy and balance performance between amateur rugby players and non-players, and to explore training- and injury-related factors that may affect rugby players' balance outcomes. Cross-sectional and exploratory study. Forty-five amateur rugby players and 41 healthy active individuals participated in the study. Balance performance and balance strategies were assessed using the sensory organization test (SOT) of the Smart Equitest computerized dynamic posturography machine. Rugby training history and injury history were solicited from the participants. The SOT strategy scores were 1.99-54.90% lower in the rugby group than in the control group (prugby group than in the control group (prugby training (in years) was independently associated with the SOT condition 6 strategy score, explaining 15.7% of its variance (p=0.006). There was no association between SOT condition 6 strategy/equilibrium scores and injury history among the rugby players (p>0.05). Amateur rugby players demonstrated inferior balance strategy and balance performance compared to their non-training counterparts. Their suboptimal balance strategy was associated with insufficient training experience but not with history of injury. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The cervical spine of professional front-row rugby players: correlation between degenerative changes and symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, B A; Hogan, N A; Vos, P M; Eustace, S J; Kenny, P J

    2010-06-01

    Injuries to the cervical spine (C-spine) are among the most serious in rugby and are well documented. Front-row players are particularly at risk due to repetitive high-intensity collisions in the scrum. This study evaluates degenerative changes of the C-spine and associated symptomatology in front-row rugby players. C-spine radiographs from 14 professional rugby players and controls were compared. Players averaged 23 years of playing competitive rugby. Two consultant radiologists performed a blind review of radiographs evaluating degeneration of disc spaces and apophyseal joints. Clinical status was assessed using a modified AAOS/NASS/COSS cervical spine outcomes questionnaire. Front-row rugby players exhibited significant radiographic evidence of C-spine degenerative changes compared to the non-rugby playing controls (P < 0.005). Despite these findings the rugby players did not exhibit increased symptoms. This highlights the radiologic degenerative changes of the C-spine of front-row rugby players. However, these changes do not manifest themselves clinically or affect activities of daily living.

  20. A stress fracture of the lumbar spine in a professional rugby player

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castinel, Bernard H; Adam, Philippe; Prat, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    In modern rugby, the spine is subjected to great physical pressure, with an increased number of impacts, on both the cervical and the lumbar spine. This case report illustrates overuse injuries of the lumbar spine in international professional rugby players. A 32‐year‐old sportsman had been practising rugby for 24 years and was playing for a championship level French team when he started suffering from a right lateral pain in the lumbosacral spine. A CT scan showed a unilateral isthmolysis and a coronal irregular fracture of the right pars interarticularis of L5. This led to discussion of (1) the importance of the decision on the date of return to playing rugby and (2) the future of professional rugby players with chronic spinal injuries. PMID:17138643

  1. Relationships between physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities and playing performance in professional rugby league players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G; Abernethy, Bruce

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the relationship between physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities and playing performance in professional rugby league players. Fifty-eight high-performance rugby league players underwent measurements for anthropometry (height, body mass, sum of seven skinfolds), physiological (speed, change of direction speed, lower body muscular power, repeated-sprint ability, prolonged high-intensity intermittent running ability, and estimated maximal aerobic power), technical skill (tackling proficiency, draw and pass proficiency), and perceptual skill (reactive agility, pattern recall, pattern prediction) qualities. National Rugby League matches were coded for attacking (e.g. line breaks, try assists, etc.) and defensive (e.g. missed tackles, tackling efficiency, etc.) statistics commonly used to assess rugby league playing performance. The number of line break assists was significantly associated (P National Rugby League players.

  2. Rugby Club CERN Meyrin St-Genis (RC CMSG) – Women’s team

    CERN Multimedia

    Rugby Club

    2015-01-01

    The 2015-2016 rugby season start is just around the corner for the “RUGBY CERN” ladies team. In order to be ready for the first official clash to be held mid-September, the Wildcats have engaged in fitness training sessions throughout the month of August. Every Thursday, the players meet at 19h30 by the Perl du Lac in Geneva for a bootcamp session while on Tuesdays, the team gathers for an aerobic training session, in Meyrin. Feel free to join the ladies for any of the sessions. Not only will you have a great workout but also enjoy the well-known rugby fun environment. All levels are welcome! For more information, do not hesitate to contact us: wildcats@cern-rugby.ch www.cern-rugy.ch // facebook : Wildcats Women’s Rugby

  3. THE ATTRACTIVITY AND VISIBILITY OF THE RUGBY WORLD CHAMIONSHIP FROM ENGLAND – 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato-Gabriel Petrea

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The Rugby World Championship is the most important competition between the rugby national teams. The competition is organized in the cup system and is divided into the preliminary phase (qualification tournament. This research refers to the attractiveness of the tournament among the "consumers" of sport performances. The purpose of this research is to see how the group included in the research perceives the Rugby World Championship from England, the national rugby team's participation in this tournament, the marketing and the media involvement in this world championship. The research objectives are: to find out the opinion regarding the attractiveness of the Rugby World Championship from England; to find out the opinion regarding the fact that Digi Sport is the TV channel which broadcasts the final matches of the Rugby World Championship from England; to identify connections (positive, negative between the Romanian team qualification for the World Championship 2015 and the attractiveness degree of the Rugby World Championship final; to find out the opinion regarding the most famous trading partners (sponsors of the World Championship from England 2015. In order to achieve these goals, we applied a questionnaire on a group made up of students from “AL. I. Cuza “University, Iasi.

  4. Moving and Union Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOYLE, PAUL J.; KULU, HILL; COOKE, THOMAS; GAYLE, VERNON; MULDER, CLARAH.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of migration and residential mobility on union dissolution among married and cohabiting couples. Moving is a stressful life event, and a large, multidisciplinary literature has shown that family migration often benefits one partner (usually the man) more than the other. Even so, no study to date has examined the possible impact of within-nation geographical mobility on union dissolution. We base our longitudinal analysis on retrospective event-history data from Austria. Our results show that couples who move frequently have a significantly higher risk of union dissolution, and we suggest a variety of mechanisms that may explain this. PMID:18390300

  5. The development and validation of a scoring system for shoulder injuries in rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Simon Benedict; Funk, Lennard

    2013-09-01

    Shoulder injuries are relatively common among professional rugby players and result in a large proportion of days absent from training and competition. No instrument exists that is designed and validated to assess function or outcome following therapeutic interventions in rugby players sustaining shoulder injuries. The objective was to develop and validate an athlete-reported scoring system to assess shoulder function in rugby players following shoulder injuries. Potential items for the scoring system were identified by a literature review of shoulder-specific scoring systems (n=46), and by interviewing professional rugby players (n=38) and medical staff (n=12). Redundant and clinician-assessed items were excluded. A second set of interviews with rugby players (n=8) determined the frequency importance product (FIP) of potential items. The 20 items with the highest FIPs were selected for the provisional Rugby Shoulder Score (RSS) that was tested for internal consistency and reliability by administering to rugby players with stable shoulder injuries (n=11). The literature review and interviews identified 575 items, of which 105 items were neither clinician-assessed nor redundant. Twenty items with the highest FIPs were selected for the RSS. The RSS demonstrated excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's α=0.96) and reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient= 0.941, paired student t test p>0.05). A reliable athlete-reported scoring system for assessing shoulder injuries in rugby players has been developed that incorporates the most important factors for rugby players recovering from shoulder injuries. Further prospective testing of the instrument is being undertaken to determine its discriminative and evaluative functions and construct validity.

  6. Injury frequency and body composition of elite Romanian rugby players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan ALMĂJAN-GUȚĂ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The physical exertion in the game of rugby is intense and depends on the playing position. This study hypothesized that peculiarities of body composition are important and should be properly interpreted in order to improve fitness and particularly in order to reduce the risk of injuries. Purpose: The aim of the present paper is to highlight the importance of body composition evaluation and to underline the usefulness of the data thus obtained for both training individualization and sports injuries risk reduction. Material and Methods: Thirty seven senior male rugby players from the former Romanian national team were assessed on body composition using a segmental multi-frequency bio-impedance analyzer InBody 720 (The Body Composition Analyzer – South Korea. We compared the results from both the preseason and the regular season 2012 with the international norms for elite players and we categorized the data by playing positions. Results: We have analyzed the amount of lean mass on each limb (kg, body water content (l, percentage of body fat, bone mineral and protein content (kg. We observed that the number of injuries is directly correlated to high levels of body fat percentage, low lean mass, and edema scores. Conclusions: The risk of injury can be identified among elite rugby players not only by using fitness tests, but also by using a simple and objective test of body composition. These results show how important it is to monitor the level of body fat, lean muscle mass and muscular development in order to modify nutrition and food habits, individualize trainings and thus reduce the number of injuries.

  7. Repeated-sprint and effort ability in rugby league players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rich D; Gabbett, Tim J

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to (a) investigate the influence of tackling on repeated-sprint performance; (b) determine whether repeated-sprint ability (RSA) and repeated-effort ability (REA) are 2 distinct qualities; and (c) assess the test-retest reliability of repeated-sprint and repeated-effort tests in rugby league. Twelve rugby league players performed a repeated-sprint (12 × 20-m sprints performed on a 20-second cycle) and a repeated-effort (12 × 20-m sprints with intermittent tackling, performed on a 20-second cycle) test 7 days apart. The test-retest reliability of these tests was also established. Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion were recorded throughout the tests. There was a significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) and large effect size (ES) differences for total sprint time (ES = 1.19), average heart rate (ES = 1.64), peak heart rate (ES = 1.35), and perceived exertion (ES = 3.39) for the repeated-effort test compared with the repeated-sprint test. A large difference (ES = 1.02, p = 0.06) was detected for percentage decrement between the 2 tests. No significant relationship was found between the repeated-sprint and repeated-effort tests for any of the dependent variables. Both tests proved reliable, with total sprint time being the most reliable method of assessing performance. This study demonstrates that the addition of tackling significantly increases the physiological response to repeated-sprint exercise and reduces repeated-sprint performance in rugby league players. Furthermore, RSA and REA appear to be 2 distinct qualities that can be reliably assessed with total time being the most reliable measure of performance.

  8. Trade Union Capacity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Act includes provisions which allow labour to exercise rights which they would have ... the dangers of co-determination, they need to build their power resources or .... can workers and unions have always struggled to destroy authoritarian.

  9. Moving and Union Dissolution

    OpenAIRE

    Boyle, P.J.; Kulu, H.; Cooke, T.; Gayle, V.; Mulder, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of migration and residential mobility on union dissolution among married and cohabiting couples. Moving is a stressful life event, and a large, multidisciplinary literature has shown that family migration often benefits one partner (usually the man) more than the other. Even so, no study to date has examined the possible impact of within-nation geographical mobility on union dissolution. We base our longitudinal analysis on retrospective event-history data from ...

  10. Trade Union Education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, T.

    1982-01-01

    The provision of trade union education is a function of the structure of trade unionism which, in turn, is a function of the structure of collective bargaining. Trade union structure is taken to include size distribution, distribution of power, and objectives of trade unions. (Falmer Press, Falmer House, Barcombe, Nr Lewes, East Sussex BN8 5DL,…

  11. Vitamin D3 Supplementation Does Not Improve Sprint Performance in Professional Rugby Players: A Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Double Blind Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairbairn, Kirsty A; Ceelen, Ingrid Jm; Skeaff, C Murray; Cameron, Claire M; Perry, Tracy L

    2017-08-03

    Vitamin D insufficiency is common in athletes and may lower physical performance. Many cross-sectional studies associate vitamin D status with physical performance in athletes, however there have been few prospective randomised controlled trials with adequate statistical power to test this relationship, and none in the southern hemisphere. Thus, a prospective double blind, randomised placebo-controlled intervention trial was conducted, involving 57 professional rugby union players in New Zealand. Participants were randomised to receive 50,000 IU of cholecalciferol (equivalent to 3,570 IU/day) or placebo once every two weeks over 11-12 weeks. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations and physical performance were measured at baseline, weeks 5-6 and weeks 11-12. Mean (SD) serum 25(OH)D concentrations for all participants at baseline was 94 (18) nmol/L, with all players above 50 nmol/L. Vitamin D supplementation significantly increased serum 25(OH)D concentrations compared to placebo, with a 32 nmol/L difference between groups at 11-12 weeks (95%CI, 26 to 38; P 0.05). Performance on the weighted reverse-grip chin up was significantly higher in players receiving vitamin D compared with placebo, by 5.5 kg (95%CI, 2.0 to 8.9; P = 0.002). Despite significantly improving vitamin D status in these professional rugby union players, vitamin D supplementation had little impact on physical performance outcomes. Thus, it is unlikely that vitamin D supplementation is an ergogenic aid in this group of athletes.

  12. Mass and body composition particularities of rugby compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru OPREAN

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to identify and underline the morphological particularities of Romanian professional rugby players. This aspect can contribute to the improvement of training contents. The hypothesis of this study is that body mass values of the two compartments are in conformity with the optimal standards for this sport. The study included the players of the team Stejarii București, which comprises the best players of the Romanian championship. Among the 32 tested players, 17 are forwards and 15 backs. Evaluations were done by positions, and we drafted tables with arithmetic means and standard deviations for each position. We took several anthropometric measurements for the rugby players, thus determining the qualitative level of the body mass between the two compartments. The findings indicate that players have a certain level of morphological adaptation to specific effort by the post they occupy within the team. The players feature a hypertrophy of the muscle tissue, a phenomenon specific to strength sports. However, some of the players also had a significant amount of fat mass, which contributes to less impressive performances.

  13. Performance and antrhropometric characteristics of Elite Rugby Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasin, Federico; Caroli, Barbara; Spigoni, Valentina; Dei Cas, Alessandra; Volpi, Riccardo; Galli, Carlo; Passeri, Giovanni

    2017-08-23

    Physical performance is the result of a complex combination of several factors such as genetic and anthropometric aspects, nutrition and hormonal status. In the past few years many studies have considered the impact of vitamin D on muscular strength and athletic performance.The aim of the present study was to assess the anthropometric measures impacting on physical performance in a group of professional rugby athletes.  As a secondary aim we investigated a possible relationship between baseline vitamin D status and athletic performance status in these subjects. All rugby players completed a test-retest reliability study on performance measures, as 70kg jump squat and body weight (BW) jump squat to assess musculoskeletal performance. Additionally at the time point we collected a blood sample of every athletes for the assessment of serum vitamin D. We found that lean mass was an important independent predictor of performance score in 70kg jump squat (p=0.007, R2=0.74) and BW jump squat (p=0.010, R2=0.66) in these well trained athletes. No statistically significant association was present between performance score and serum vitamin D in this specific setting. We demonstrate a positive interaction between lower limb lean mass and performance score, but we have not been able to identify any statistically significant association between worsening in performance measures and decrease of serum 25 OH Vitamin D.

  14. Movement and Physiological Demands of Australasian National Rugby League Referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightmore, Amy; O'Hara, John; Till, Kevin; Cobley, Steve; Hubka, Tate; Emmonds, Stacey; Cooke, Carlton

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the movement and physiological demands of Australasian National Rugby League (NRL) referees, officiating with a 2-referee (ie, lead and pocket) system, and to compare the demands of the lead and pocket referees. Global positioning system devices (10 Hz) were used to obtain 86 data sets (lead, n = 41; pocket, n = 45) on 19 NRL referees. Total distance, relative distance covered, and heart rate per half and across match play were examined within and between referees using t tests. Distance, time, and number of movement "efforts" were examined in 6 velocity classifications (ie, standing 7.0 m/s) using analysis of variance. Cohen d effect sizes are reported. There were no significant differences between the lead and pocket referees for any movement or physiological variable. There was an overall significant (large, very large) effect for distance (% distance) and time (% time) (P 5.51 m/s. Findings highlight the intermittent nature of rugby league refereeing but show that there were no differences in the movement and physiological demands of the 2 refereeing roles. Findings are valuable for those responsible for the preparation, training, and conditioning of NRL referees and to ensure that training prepares for and simulates match demands.

  15. Teaching History in the Junior College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    1989-01-01

    Recommends techniques for teaching history in the junior college. Discusses subject matter to be taught, the psychology of learning, and the philosophy of teaching history. Addresses the special needs of the junior college classroom. Outlines criteria to be followed in teaching history. (RW)

  16. Junior High Career Planning: What Students Want

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardick, Angela D.; Bernes, Kerry B.; Magnusson, Kris C.; Witko, Kim D.

    2004-01-01

    This research used "The Comprehensive Career Needs Survey" to assess the career counselling needs of 3,562 junior high students in Southern Alberta. This article examines junior high students' responses regarding their perceptions of (a) the relevance of career planning, (b) who they would approach for help with career planning, and (c)…

  17. Junior High Norms for the Bender Gestalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grow, Richard T.

    1980-01-01

    Junior high students were tested to supply normative data supporting the Bender Gestalt. Subject's performance was not significantly related to sex or occupation of the family bread winner. These variables do not have to be controlled for in norming visual motor tests at the junior high level. (Author)

  18. Effective Management in Junior High Mathematics Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmer, Edmund T.

    Reporting on part of the data collected in the Junior High Classroom Organization Study, this document focuses on the mathematics subsample. Twenty-six mathematics teachers in 11 junior high schools were observed in two classes. The major purpose of this paper is to describe the classroom procedures and behaviors of teachers identified as…

  19. Experimental Demonstration of X-Ray Drive Enhancement with Rugby-Shaped Hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, F.; Casner, A.; Caillaud, T.; Landoas, O.; Monteil, M. C.; Liberatore, S.; Park, H. S.; Amendt, P.; Robey, H.; Sorce, C.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F.; Rosenberg, M.; Petrasso, R.; Glebov, V.; Stoeckl, C.

    2010-01-01

    Rugby-shaped hohlraums have been suggested as a way to enhance x-ray drive in the indirect drive approach to inertial confinement fusion. This Letter presents an experimental comparison of rugby-shaped and cylinder hohlraums used for D2 and DHe3-filled capsules implosions on the Omega laser facility, demonstrating an increase of x-ray flux by 18% in rugby-shaped hohlraums. The highest yields to date for deuterium gas implosions in indirect drive on Omega (1.5×1010 neutrons) were obtained, allowing for the first time the measurement of a DD burn history. Proton spectra measurements provide additional validation of the higher drive in rugby-shaped hohlraums.

  20. Effect of a prevention programme on the incidence of rugby injuries ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and motor abilities, as well as sport-specific skills demanded ..... performance project, II: previous injury experience of a rugby-playing co- ... Overuse injuries in children's sports: The growth factor. ... Prevention strategies featured throughout.

  1. Imaging the Game Day Experience: A Case Study of the National Rugby League (NRL)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abel Duarte Alonso; Michelle O'Shea

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates the sport game day experience, including commitment to the club and sense of belonging from the perspective of fans and enthusiasts of a professional National Rugby League (NRL) team...

  2. Comparison of Injuries in American Collegiate Football and Club Rugby: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willigenburg, Nienke W; Borchers, James R; Quincy, Richard; Kaeding, Christopher C; Hewett, Timothy E

    2016-03-01

    American football and rugby players are at substantial risk of injury because of the full-contact nature of these sports. Methodological differences between previous epidemiological studies hamper an accurate comparison of injury rates between American football and rugby. To directly compare injury rates in American collegiate football and rugby, specified by location, type, mechanism, and severity of injury, as reported by licensed medical professionals. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Licensed medical professionals (athletic trainer or physician) associated with the football and rugby teams of a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university reported attendance and injury details over 3 autumn seasons. Injuries were categorized by the location, type, mechanism, and severity of injury, and the injury rate was calculated per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs). Injury rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated to compare overall, game, and practice injury rates within and between sports. The overall injury rate was 4.9/1000 AEs in football versus 15.2/1000 AEs in rugby: IRR = 3.1 (95% CI, 2.3-4.2). Game injury rates were higher than practice injury rates: IRR = 6.5 (95% CI, 4.5-9.3) in football and IRR = 5.1 (95% CI, 3.0-8.6) in rugby. Injury rates for the shoulder, wrist/hand, and lower leg and for sprains, fractures, and contusions in rugby were >4 times as high as those in football (all P ≤ 0.006). Concussion rates were 1.0/1000 AEs in football versus 2.5/1000 AEs in rugby. Most injuries occurred via direct player contact, especially during games. The rate of season-ending injuries (>3 months of time loss) was 0.8/1000 AEs in football versus 1.0/1000 AEs in rugby: IRR = 1.3 (95% CI, 0.4-3.4). Overall injury rates were substantially higher in collegiate rugby compared with football. Similarities between sports were observed in the most common injury types (sprains and concussions), locations (lower extremity and head), and mechanisms (direct player contact

  3. Guidelines for Professional Training of Junior Medical Staff in the Context of European Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sosnova Myroslava

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with outlining guidelines for improving professional training of junior medical staff based on European experience. Consequently, guidelines and recommendations on enhancing the efficiency of medical education in general and junior medical specialists’ professional training, in particular, published by European Union of Medical Specialists, General Medical Council, World Federation for Medical Education have been studied, analyzed, justified and presented in the paper. According to European Union of Medical Specialists it has been concluded that general aspects of medical specialists’ training are based on the selection process for the access to the medical specialists’ training, duration of training, common trunk, training program and quality assurance; requirements for training institutions involve recognition, size, quality assurance and teaching infructructure; requirements for instructors encompass qualification, training program, teacher/trainee ratio; requirements for trainees cover experience, language and logbook. In addition, the components that define the quality of junior medical specialists’ professional training based on N. Novosolova’s ideas have been indicated. Finally, based on the positive aspects of the guidelines analyzed the appropriate ones that, in our opinion, may be of use in Ukraine, have been presented.

  4. Vocabulary Development of Junior Teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Nikonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the communicative competence formation of young adolescents in the secondary school at the Russian language lessons. The author maintains that the key element of the above problem is the vocabulary development guaranteeing both comprehension and verbal expression formation – oral and written. The theoretical part of the research explores different word functions: nominal, communicative, text generating and semantic. The correlation between the mental development level and lexical semantic system formation is emphasized. The age specific features of junior teens are listed: rising interest to various life spheres and activi- ties, capability of formulating opinions and judgments, self-awareness, formation of values. The relationship complexity stimulates vocabulary development of 10 to 12 year-old children; however, the process requires peda- gogical facilitation.The monitoring of speech development proves the necessity of commutative competence formation of the fifth- and sixth-year pupils. The paper presents the model of communicative competence development and its approbation results received for the junior adolescents. 

  5. Vocabulary Development of Junior Teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Nikonova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the communicative competence formation of young adolescents in the secondary school at the Russian language lessons. The author maintains that the key element of the above problem is the vocabulary development guaranteeing both comprehension and verbal expression formation – oral and written. The theoretical part of the research explores different word functions: nominal, communicative, text generating and semantic. The correlation between the mental development level and lexical semantic system formation is emphasized. The age specific features of junior teens are listed: rising interest to various life spheres and activi- ties, capability of formulating opinions and judgments, self-awareness, formation of values. The relationship complexity stimulates vocabulary development of 10 to 12 year-old children; however, the process requires peda- gogical facilitation.The monitoring of speech development proves the necessity of commutative competence formation of the fifth- and sixth-year pupils. The paper presents the model of communicative competence development and its approbation results received for the junior adolescents. 

  6. The Effects of Cold Water Immersion after Rugby Training on Muscle Power and Biochemical Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Takeda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available During rugby game, or intensive rugby training there are many high intensity explosive exercises and eccentric muscle contractions, therefore adequate recovery is very important to rugby players. In the present study we have tested the effects of cold water immersion (CWI after game-simulated (80 min. rugby training on muscle power recovery and blood markers of muscle damage. Twenty well-trained collegiate male rugby players (age: 20.3 ± 0.6 years old, body height: 1.74 ± 0.05 m, body weight: 85.4 ± 2.0 kg, body fat: 18.2 ± 1.4 % volunteered for this study. This study was conducted as a cross-over design; i.e., the subjects were randomly assigned either to CWI (n = 10 or passive rest condition (n = 10 for the 1st trial and 1 week later the subjects were switched conditions for the 2nd trial. After the simulated rugby training, including tackles and body contacts, muscle functional ability and blood markers of muscle damage were tested immediately, after CWI or passive rest, and again 24 hours later. Statistical analysis of all muscle functional tests (10 m dash, counter movement jump, reaction time, side steps except for 10 seconds maximal pedaling power and blood makers of muscle damage (aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and creatinine revealed significant main effects for time (p < 0.05. However, no statistically significant interactions were found in any of the muscle functional tests and blood markers between groups and time courses. Our results suggest that a rugby game induces muscle damage and reduces muscle function. However, CWI has no significant restorative effect after an 80-minute rugby game in terms of muscle damage.

  7. Traumatic fracture-dislocation of the hip following rugby tackle: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatachalam Santosh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Posterior fracture-dislocation of hip is uncommonly encountered in rugby injuries. We report such a case in an adult while playing rugby. The treating orthopaedician can be caught unaware and injuries in such sports can be potentially misdiagnosed as hip sprains. Immediate reduction of the dislocation was performed in theatres. The fracture was fixed with two lag screws and a neutralization plate. This led to early rehabilitation and speedy recovery with return to sporting activities by 12 months.

  8. Union banking a step towards achieving fiscal Union in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ Marius Croitoru

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Union policy needs in addition to the official language of four major components: a monetary union, a fiscal union, a union diplomatic and military union A stage in the Union is the Union banking tax. Materials and Methods: Union Bank has three pillars: a single banking supervisor (single supervisory mechanism, the only mechanism of bank resolution and a single scheme of bank guarantees. Results and conclusions: Union Bank, strengthen supervision is an inevitable process, and Romania will have to enroll in it. Option Romania is to be part of Romania deaorece bank Union can not remain outside the structures of decision as long as banks operating in Romania are predominantly Eurozone.

  9. Epidemiology and location of rugby injuries treated in US emergency departments from 2004 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabesan, Vani; Steffes, Zachary; Lombardo, Daniel J; Petersen-Fitts, Graysen R; Jildeh, Toufic R

    2016-01-01

    Rugby participation in the US is increasing, and with its inclusion in the 2016 Summer Olympics, the increased participation rates are expected to continue. Naturally, as participation increases, so too do rugby-related injuries. The difference in injury patterns with regard to age and gender illustrates differences in how the game is being played. Understanding what accounts for these emerging injury patterns will help guide future injury prevention efforts. This study provides an update on injury rates for the growing population of rugby players in the US, especially young players. Our results focus on the variation of injury types and the injury rates of various levels of rugby players, including youth, collegiate, and recreational. Using injury data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, we analyzed data in rugby patients for age, gender, body region, type of injury, and severity. We employed statistical weights to calculate national injury estimates. During the 10 years studied, the trend in the number of rugby injuries among all age groups showed a statistically significant increase (R=0.804, P=0.005). The average age of injury was 21.5±6.3 years with facial and head injuries constituting >33% of all injuries, representing a proportional increase of >10%. Men were most frequently injured in the face (18.2%) and head (15.9%); women were most frequently injured in the head (23%) and shoulder (12.3%). There were 9,059 concussions, constituting 7% of all injuries. PMID:27822128

  10. Comparison of the Anthropometric and Physical Characteristics of International and Provincial Rugby Sevens Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alex; Gill, Nicholas D; Cronin, John B

    2015-09-01

    Anthropometrical and physical characteristics have been used to distinguish players of different competition levels and position groups; however, there is no literature on rugby sevens. To compare the anthropometrical and physical characteristics of international and provincial rugby sevens players and between forwards and backs. To assess whether differences exist, 65 rugby sevens players including 22 international players and 43 provincial-level players were assessed for height, mass, body composition, speed, repeated-sprint ability, lower-body power, upper-body strength, and maximal aerobic endurance during in-season preparation for tournaments. Clear differences (2.8-32%; small to very large effect sizes) were observed in all anthropometrical and physical measures between international and provincial players, with the largest differences observed in repeated-sprint ability (5.7%; very large effect size), 40-m-sprint time (4.4%; large effect size), 50-kg squat-jump peak power (32%; large effect size), and multistage fitness-test performance (19%; large effect size). Fewer and smaller differences (0.7-14%; trivial to large effect sizes) were found when comparing forwards and backs, with body height being the most discriminant characteristic (3.5%; large effect size). Lower-level rugby sevens players should seek to improve their overall physical profile, particularly their repeated-sprint ability, to reach higher levels in rugby sevens. Furthermore, positional status may have little importance when preparing for rugby sevens.

  11. Nutritional responses to acute training sessions in young elite rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivel, D; Maso, F; Aouiche, S; Coignet, B; Doré, E; Duché, P

    2015-01-01

    Acute exercise has been shown to induce nutritional adaptations in obese and lean inactive youth but it remains unclear whether youth with a high level of physical activity experience such exercise-induced energy intake and appetite modifications. 14 (15- to 16-year-old) male elite rugby players completed sessions on three separate occasions: (1) a control session (CON); (2) an exercise session (EX) and; (3) a rugby session (RUGBY). The energy induced by the rugby and exercise sessions was matched (Polar Team2 pro technology), and participants' energy intake, food preferences (ad libitum buffet meals) and appetite feelings (Visual Analogue Scales) were assessed throughout the experimental days. The energy intake during lunch and snack time was not different between conditions. Dinner time energy intake was significantly increased after RUBGY compared to CON with respectively 969 ± 145 kcal and 777 ± 183 kcal (p RUGBY (p rugby players regulate their energy intake differently depending on the nature of their training; independently of the energy expended. This demonstrates the need for energetic and nutritional education to optimize their physical fitness and performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A comparative analysis of the home advantage in handball and rugby as contact sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Prieto Bermejo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the home advantage effect in Spanish handball and rugby, as contact sports where physical contact and aggressiveness is present in the game. The research objectives were: 1 To study home advantage in professional Spanish handball and rugby leagues;  2 To compare the results obtained between the two leagues, to know whether there are differences between them; 3 To study whether team ability influence home advantage, and if so, whether there are differences between best and worst teams. Nine seasons in both leagues were examined, from 2002-03 to 2010-11. Home advantage values were higher than 50% in both leagues, with significantly higher values in the rugby league (65.12% compared to 59.65%. The greater importance of physical contact and aggressiveness in the game actions in rugby can be a factor to be considered in the higher home advantage values found in the rugby league. The results showed the influence of team ability in home advantage in the two leagues, with no differences between the teams.Keywords: home advantage, contact sports, team sports, handball, rugby.

  13. CARIES PREVENTION AMONG JUNIOR SCHOOLCHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.К. Matelo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biennial program of controlled tooth brushing performed econdary school among junior schoolchildren from Minsk secondary school № 166 proved to be highly effective. Decrease in caries increment has been shown on the average up to 50%. No credible differences between remineralising defluorinated toothpastes or pastes enriched with aminofluoride (F = 500 ppm and sodium fluoride  (F = 1000 ppm efficacy were found in this study. Credibility of the results was determined by comparison with similar study conducted on a bigger population of children. Though anti-caries effect of the same tooth-pastes in a bigger-scale study was lower — within 30%. Such difference can be explained by a different level of motivation and discipline of participants.Key words: schoolchildren, dental caries prevention, toothpastes. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (6: 48–51

  14. Perspectives and expectations of union member and non- union member teachers on teacher unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncer FİDAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Unions, which can be regarded as one of the constitutive elements of democracy, are the pressure groups in political and social fields. Unions were born out of industrial confrontations and expanded into the field of public services over time, and thus teachers – who are also public employees-, also obtained the right to establish and affiliate to unions. In this research the views of union member and non-union member teachers on the most important functions and operational effectiveness of unions, teachers’ expectations from unions and teachers’ evaluation of the solidarity, competition and cooperation between unions were determined and the perspectives of teachers on unionization were revealed. qualitative research design was used. The data needed were collected through semi-structured interviews from volunteering union member and non-union member teachers who were working in the primary and secondary schools in Ankara province and who were selected through “maximum variation sampling approach”. The data were then analyzed by using the content analysis technique. In conclusion, it was found that political ideology was the most important reason for membership of teachers’ unions. Protection and development of personal rights was found to be the most important function of teacher unions and unions were thought to be insufficient in performing those functions.

  15. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...

  16. Blacks and Trade Unionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashenfelter, Orley

    1975-01-01

    This testimony, before a public hearing of the New York City Commission on Human Rights in May 1974, focuses on two issues: (1) the effect of the presence of trade unionism on the position of black workers in the labor market relative to white workers; and (2) the effect of federal government efforts to increase the position of black workers…

  17. RISUS study: Rugby Injury Surveillance in Ulster Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archbold, H A P; Rankin, A T; Webb, M; Nicholas, R; Eames, N W A; Wilson, R K; Henderson, L A; Heyes, G J; Bleakley, C M

    2017-04-01

    To examine injury patterns in adolescent rugby players and determine factors associated with injury risk. Prospective injury surveillance study. N=28 Grammar Schools in Ulster, Ireland (2014-2015 playing season). 825 adolescent rugby players, across in 28 school first XV rugby squads; mean age 16.9 years. Injuries were classified by body part and diagnosis, and injury incidence using injuries per 1000 match hours of exposure. HRs for injury were calculated through Cox proportional hazard regression after correction for influential covariates. A total of n=426 injuries were reported across the playing season. Over 50% of injuries occurred in the tackle situation or during collisions (270/426), with few reported during set plays. The 3 most common injury sites were head/face (n=102, 23.9%), clavicle/shoulder (n=65, 15.3%) and the knee (n=56, 13.1%). Sprain (n=133, 31.2%), concussion (n=81, 19%) and muscle injury (n=65, 15.3%) were the most common diagnoses. Injury incidence is calculated at 29.06 injuries per 1000 match hours. There were no catastrophic injuries. A large percentage of injuries (208/424) resulted in absence from play for more than 28 days. Concussion carried the most significant time out from play (n=33; 15.9%), followed by dislocations of the shoulder (n=22; 10.6%), knee sprains (n=19, 9.1%), ankle sprains (n=14, 6.7%), hand/finger/thumb (n=11; 5.3%). 36.8% of participants in the study (304/825) suffered at least one injury during the playing season. Multivariate models found higher risk of injury (adjusted HR (AHR); 95% CI) with: higher age (AHR 1.45; 1.14 to 1.83), heavier weight (AHR 1.32; 1.04 to 1.69), playing representative rugby (AHR 1.42; 1.06 to 1.90) and undertaking regular strength training (AHR 1.65; 1.11 to 2.46). Playing for a lower ranked team (AHR 0.67; 0.49 to 0.90) and wearing a mouthguard (AHR 0.70; 0.54 to 0.92) were associated with lower risk of injury. There was a high incidence of severe injuries, with concussion, ankle and

  18. Costal cartilage fractures and disruptions in a rugby football player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Victor; Ma, Richard; Li, Xinning; Steele, John; Allen, Answorth A

    2013-05-01

    Costal cartilage fracture of the rib cage, or costochondral, is a rare sporting injury. For contact athletes, the instability of the rib cage may lead to potential serious complications, similar to rib fractures or thorax disruption. Most authors recommend initial conservative treatment with surgery reserved for only recalcitrant cases. We report a case of an amateur American male rugby football player who sustained a costal cartilage fracture and disruption involving the anterior left fifth and sixth rib costal cartilages. The case highlights the difficulty in establishing the diagnosis based on clinical examination and standard radiographs alone. Computed tomography was used to assist in diagnosing this destabilizing injury to the rib cage. Costal cartilage fractures and disruptions in athletes are rarely reported in the literature and can have serious implications for the athlete's ability to return to play if the rib cage is destabilized.

  19. Experiencia en rugby escolar en una escuela privada de Ranelagh

    OpenAIRE

    Ron, Osvaldo Omar

    1995-01-01

    Hace algunos años, con nuestro equipo de trabajo de la Escuela Rugby del Profesorado Universitario de Educación Física de La Plata, creíamos que e¡ juego como medio para el tratamiento de las técnicas deportivas nos ayudaría a modificar una forma de transmisión de conocimientos muy ligada a un «saber hacer estereotipado» que estaba instalado como modalidad de enseñanza en las distintas cátedras -Gimnásticas- del profesorado y que poco tenía que ver con los deseos y los tiempos de aprendizaje ...

  20. Fluid and sodium balance of elite wheelchair rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Katherine Elizabeth; Huxford, Jody; Perry, Tracy; Brown, Rachel Clare

    2013-04-01

    Blood sodium concentration of tetraplegics during exercise has not been investigated. This study aimed to measure blood sodium changes in relation to fluid intakes and thermal comfort in tetraplegics during wheelchair rugby training. Twelve international male wheelchair rugby players volunteered, and measures were taken during 2 training sessions. Body mass, blood sodium concentration, and subjective thermal comfort using a 10-point scale were recorded before and after both training sessions. Fluid intake and the distance covered were measured during both sessions. The mean (SD) percentage changes in body mass during the morning and afternoon training sessions were +0.4%1 (0.65%) and +0.69% (1.24%), respectively. There was a tendency for fluid intake rate to be correlated with the percentage change in blood sodium concentration (p = .072, r2 = .642) during the morning training session; this correlation reached significance during the afternoon session (p = .004, r2 = .717). Fluid intake was significantly correlated to change in thermal comfort in the morning session (p = .018, r2 = .533), with this correlation showing a tendency in the afternoon session (p = .066, r2 = .151). This is the first study to investigate blood sodium concentrations in a group of tetraplegics. Over the day, blood sodium concentrations significantly declined; 2 players recorded blood sodium concentrations of 135 mmol/L, and 5 recorded blood sodium concentrations of 136 mmol/L. Excessive fluid intake as a means of attenuating thermal discomfort seems to be the primary cause of low blood sodium concentrations in tetraplegic athletes. Findings from this study could aid in the design of fluid-intake strategies for tetraplegics.

  1. Between match variation in professional rugby league competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Thomas; Sirotic, Anita C; Coutts, Aaron J

    2014-07-01

    To assess between match variability of physical performance measures over both the total and sub sections of the match in professional rugby league competition. Longitudinal observational study. Global positioning system (GPS) data were collected from 24 players from the same team competing in the National Rugby League (NRL) competition over 23 matches during 2011 season. The GPS data were categorised into total distance, high-speed running (>15kmh(-1)) and very high-speed running (>21kmh(-1)) distance for discrete reference periods (10min, 20min, 40min and 80min). The data was then log transformed to provide the coefficient of variation (CV) and the between subject standard deviation (both expressed as percentages). The data show that the between match variability is greater for high-speed (CV 14.6%) and very-high speed (CV 37.0%) running compared to total distance (CV 3.6%). Within each speed category, the variability of performance tended to increase as the duration of the reference period decreased. The results show that while global measures of physical performance such as total distance are relatively stable, higher-speed activities exhibit a large degree of between match variability. In addition, when segmenting the match into short periods of time for analysis, all physical performance measures increased in variability. These findings have implications for determining sample size, identifying reliable performance measures and selecting appropriate time periods for future applied studies that involve observational match analysis. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of fatigue on tackling technique in rugby league players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2008-03-01

    This study investigated the influence of fatigue on tackling technique in rugby league players and determined the relationship between selected physiological capacities and fatigue-induced decrements in tackling technique. Eight rugby league players underwent a standardized one-on-one tackling drill in a 10-m grid. Players performed the one-on-one tackling drill before strenuous exercise and following game-specific repeated-effort exercise of progressively increasing intensities (corresponding to moderate, heavy, and very heavy intensity) in order to induce fatigue that was representative of match conditions. Video footage was taken from the rear, side, and front of the defending player. Tackling technique was objectively assessed using standardized technical criteria. In addition, all players underwent measurements of standard anthropometry (height, body mass, and sum of 7 skinfold measurements), speed (10-, 20-, and 40-m sprint), muscular power (vertical jump), agility (L run), and estimated maximal aerobic power (VO2max multistage fitness test). A progressive increase in total repeated-effort time, heart rate, blood lactate concentration, and ratings of perceived exertion occurred throughout the repeated-effort protocol, demonstrating a progressive increase in intensity and fatigue. Fatigue resulted in progressive reductions in tackling technique. Players with the best tackling technique in a nonfatigued state demonstrated the greatest decrement in tackling technique under fatigued conditions. In addition, a significant association was observed between estimated VO2max (r = -0.62) and agility (r = 0.68) and fatigue-induced decrements in tackling technique. From a practical perspective, these findings suggest that strength and conditioning programs designed to develop endurance, change of direction speed, and anticipation skills may reduce fatigue-induced decrements in tackling technique. Furthermore, any defensive drills designed to improve tackling technique

  3. Epidemiology and location of rugby injuries treated in US emergency departments from 2004 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabesan V

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vani Sabesan,1 Zachary Steffes,2 Daniel J Lombardo,1 Graysen R Petersen-Fitts,1 Toufic R Jildeh2 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, 2Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: Rugby participation in the US is increasing, and with its inclusion in the 2016 Summer Olympics, the increased participation rates are expected to continue. Naturally, as participation increases, so too do rugby-related injuries. The difference in injury patterns with regard to age and gender illustrates differences in how the game is being played. Understanding what accounts for these emerging injury patterns will help guide future injury prevention efforts. This study provides an update on injury rates for the growing population of rugby players in the US, especially young players. Our results focus on the variation of injury types and the injury rates of various levels of rugby players, including youth, collegiate, and recreational. Using injury data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, we analyzed data in rugby patients for age, gender, body region, type of injury, and severity. We employed statistical weights to calculate national injury estimates. During the 10 years studied, the trend in the number of rugby injuries among all age groups showed a statistically significant increase (R=0.804, P=0.005. The average age of injury was 21.5±6.3 years with facial and head injuries constituting >33% of all injuries, representing a proportional increase of >10%. Men were most frequently injured in the face (18.2% and head (15.9%; women were most frequently injured in the head (23% and shoulder (12.3%. There were 9,059 concussions, constituting 7% of all injuries. Keywords: rugby, injury pattern, epidemiology

  4. Union members at the polls in diverse trade union landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph; Rennwald, Line

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates to what extent social democratic parties still benefit from the support of union members at the polls. Not only are social democratic parties confronted with new competitors in the party systems, but also the union confederations of the socialist labour movement...... are in some countries losing their dominant position due to the rise of separate professional confederations. It is argued in the article that the effect of union membership on voting choice is conditioned by the structure of the trade union movement. The support of union members for social democracy...

  5. Coordinating Unions, Wages and Employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Jacobs (Jan); M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we consider a two-sector economy in which individual unions are affiliated into a federation of unions. We analyze the consequences of two different types of wage setting. Firstly, individual unions set wages in their own sector without taking into account the effect of the

  6. The European Union's Normative Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian

    2011-01-01

    What is the international identity of the European Union? The end of the cold war, the Treaty on European Union, and wars in Kuwait and the former Yugoslavia all raised methodological, theoretical and empirical questions over the study of the European Union's (EU) ‘international identity'. During...

  7. Semi-Professional Rugby League Players have Higher Concussion Risk than Professional or Amateur Participants: A Pooled Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Doug; Hume, Patria; Gissane, Conor; Clark, Trevor

    2017-02-01

    A combined estimate of injuries within a specific sport through pooled analysis provides more precise evidence and meaningful information about the sport, whilst controlling for between-study variation due to individual sub-cohort characteristics. The objective of this analysis was to review all published rugby league studies reporting injuries from match and training participation and report the pooled data estimates for rugby league concussion injury epidemiology. A systematic literature analysis of concussion in rugby league was performed on published studies from January 1990 to October 2015. Data were extracted and pooled from 25 studies that reported the number and incidence of concussions in rugby league match and training activities. Amateur rugby league players had the highest incidence of concussive injuries in match activities (19.1 per 1000 match hours) while semi-professional players had the highest incidence of concussive injuries in training activities (3.1 per 1000 training hours). This pooled analysis showed that, during match participation activities, amateur rugby league participants had a higher reported concussion injury rate than professional and semi-professional participants. Semi-professional participants had nearly a threefold greater concussion injury risk than amateur rugby league participants during match participation. They also had nearly a 600-fold greater concussion injury risk than professional rugby league participants during training participation.

  8. Playing by the Rules: Researching, Teaching and Learning Sexual Ethics with Young Men in the Australian National Rugby League

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albury, Kath; Carmody, Moira; Evers, Clifton; Lumby, Catharine

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, the Australian National Rugby League (NRL) commissioned the Playing By The Rules research project in response to allegations of sexual assault by members of a professional rugby league team. This article offers an overview of the theoretical and methodological approaches adopted by the team, and the subsequent workplace education…

  9. ‘It is where blokes can be blokes’ : making places in a New Zealand rugby club

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Campenhout, Gijs; van Hoven, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Using the case study of a New Zealand rugby club, in this article, we highlight the role of gender and performance in place attachment. We discuss various performances that contribute to achieving a sense of attachment of club members to the (imagined) community of the rugby club and the different

  10. Schubert Unions in Grassmann Varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder; Johnsen, T.; Ranestad, K.

    We study subsets of Grassmann varieties G(l,m) over a field F, such that these subsets are unions of Schubert cycles, with respect to a fixed flag. We study the linear spans of, and in case of positive characteristic, the number of points on such unions over finite fields. Moreover we study...... a geometric duality of such unions, and give a combinatorial interpretation of this duality. We discuss the maximum number of points over a finite field for the Schubert unions of a given spanning dimension, and we give some applications to coding theory. We define Schubert union codes, and study...

  11. Optimum Projection Angle for Attaining Maximum Distance in a Rugby Place Kick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas P. Linthorne

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of projection angle on the distance attained in a rugby place kick. A male rugby player performed 49 maximum-effort kicks using projection angles of between 20 and 50°. The kicks were recorded by a video camera at 50 Hz and a 2 D biomechanical analysis was conducted to obtain measures of the projection velocity and projection angle of the ball. The player’s optimum projection angle was calculated by substituting a mathematical expression for the relationship between projection velocity and projection angle into the equations for the aerodynamic flight of a rugby ball. We found that the player’s calculated optimum projection angle (30.6°, 95% confidence limits ± 1.9° was in close agreement with his preferred projection angle (mean value 30.8°, 95% confidence limits ± 2.1°. The player’s calculated optimum projection angle was also similar to projection angles previously reported for skilled rugby players. The optimum projection angle in a rugby place kick is considerably less than 45° because the projection velocity that a player can produce decreases substantially as projection angle is increased. Aerodynamic forces and the requirement to clear the crossbar have little effect on the optimum projection angle.

  12. Proof of Concept of Automated Collision Detection Technology in Rugby Sevens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Anthea C; Anson, Judith M; Pyne, David B

    2017-04-01

    Clarke, AC, Anson, JM, and Pyne, DB. Proof of concept of automated collision detection technology in rugby sevens. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1116-1120, 2017-Developments in microsensor technology allow for automated detection of collisions in various codes of football, removing the need for time-consuming postprocessing of video footage. However, little research is available on the ability of microsensor technology to be used across various sports or genders. Game video footage was matched with microsensor-detected collisions (GPSports) in one men's (n = 12 players) and one women's (n = 12) rugby sevens match. True-positive, false-positive, and false-negative events between video and microsensor-detected collisions were used to calculate recall (ability to detect a collision) and precision (accurately identify a collision). The precision was similar between the men's and women's rugby sevens game (∼0.72; scale 0.00-1.00); however, the recall in the women's game (0.45) was less than that for the men's game (0.69). This resulted in 45% of collisions for men and 62% of collisions for women being incorrectly labeled. Currently, the automated collision detection system in GPSports microtechnology units has only modest utility in rugby sevens, and it seems that a rugby sevens-specific algorithm is needed. Differences in measures between the men's and women's game may be a result of physical size, and strength, and physicality, as well as technical and tactical factors.

  13. Relative importance of physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities to team selection in professional rugby league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G; Abernethy, Bruce

    2011-10-01

    This study investigated the relative importance of physiological, anthropometric, and skill qualities to team selection in professional rugby league. Eighty-six high performance rugby league players underwent measurements of anthropometric (height, body mass, sum of seven skinfolds), physiological (speed, change of direction speed, lower body muscular power, repeated-sprint ability, prolonged high-intensity intermittent running ability, and maximal aerobic power), technical skill (tackling proficiency, draw and pass proficiency), and perceptual skill (reactive agility, pattern recall, pattern prediction) qualities. A linear discriminant analysis was also conducted comparing those players successful in gaining selection into the professional National Rugby League team with those not selected to determine which, if any, of these qualities could predict selection. Players selected to play in the first National Rugby League game of the season were older, more experienced, leaner, had faster 10 m and 40 m sprint times, and superior vertical jump performances, maximal aerobic power, tackling proficiency and dual-task draw and pass ability than non-selected players. Skinfold thickness and dual-task draw and pass proficiency were the only variables that contributed significantly (P team selection in professional rugby league.

  14. The effects of a single game of rugby on active cervical range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, Sally D; McCarthy, Peter W

    2009-03-01

    The cumulative effect of playing rugby over many years decreases active cervical range of motion, especially in the forwards. This in itself should influence long-term neck care; however, it leaves the important question of how noticeable the acute effects of active cervical range of motion are following a single game. The active cervical range of motion was measured in 21 elite rugby players (mean age 24.4 +/- 4.3 years; average professional career of 7 +/- 3.4 years) before and after a single game of rugby at the start of the season. The active cervical range of motion was recorded in flexion, extension, left and right side flexion, plus left and right rotation using a cervical range of motion device. The results show generally decreased active cervical range of motion from before to after a game independent of position played. Rugby backs had significantly (P cervical range of motion in flexion, while forwards were affected in extension and left lateral flexion (P cervical range of motion), and the affected neck movement appears to be related to the role of positional play. The authors suggest that neck training and muscle damage repair should be an important part of a rugby player's post-game recovery to limit the reduction in functional capacity.

  15. An experimental program for physical education of rugby players at the stage of specialized basic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Martyrosyan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to develop a program of general physical training of rugby players at the stage of specialized basic training and to investigate the dynamics of indicators of general physical preparedness using computer technology. Material & Methods: study involved 60 athletes aged 16-18 years. Results: content of the comprehensive program of general physical training of rugby athletes at the stage of specialized basic training and the results of an experimental verification of its implementation are presented. Conclusion: in the course of the pedagogical experiment, the effectiveness of using the developed experimental program for improving the training process of rugby players of 16-18 years is proved, which is confirmed by the results of the research.

  16. Fueling the rugby player: maximizing performance on and off the pitch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiero, Deena

    2013-01-01

    Fueling the rugby athlete requires a sports nutrition plan that balances energy intake with energy output while providing the athlete with adequate fuel for recovery. The content and timing of meals are fundamental parts of a successful regimen and often require the athlete to participate in extensive planning and preparation to succeed. Carbohydrates, protein, and fat are the primary fuel of the rugby athlete's diet, and proper hydration is imperative to optimize performance. The use of dietary supplements such as energy drinks and caffeine are controversial, and the supplementation of vitamins and minerals is generally not recommended. The use of creatine monohydrate as a supplement to a well-balanced diet has been shown to be safe and effective. With the help of sports nutritionists, team physicians, educated athletes, and coaches, a multifactorial all-encompassing plan is required generally to maximize optimal performance on and off the rugby pitch.

  17. Its okay to be a quad: wheelchair rugby players sense of community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Donna; Johnston, Keith; Gustafson, Paul; Elliott, Melanie; Thurmeier, Robin; Kuttai, Heather

    2009-04-01

    This study explored the social experience of wheelchair rugby from the perspective of the players. Eleven national level rugby players (10 males, 1 female with a mean age of 33 years) shared their experiences through the phenomenological methods of semistructured focus group interviews and artifacts. Three themes emerged from the thematic analysis (a) it's okay to be a quad, (b) don't tell us we can't, and (c) the power of wheelchair rugby. The athletes identified with a shared sense of community and the membership, fulfillment of need, influence, and shared emotional connections they used to authentically express themselves through their sport. The implications of the findings were interpreted within the theoretical context of psychological sense of community.

  18. Rugby injuries to the cervical spine and spinal cord: a 10-year review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, A T

    1998-01-01

    A 10-year review (1987-1996) of injuries sustained to the spine and spinal cord in rugby players with resultant paralysis has been undertaken. This article reviews that the incidence of serious rugby spine and spinal cord injuries in South Africa has increased over the 10-year period reviewed, despite stringent new rules instituted in an attempt to decrease the incidence of these injuries. The mechanisms of injury, as previously reported, remain the same as well as the phases of game responsible for injury of the tight scrum, tackle, rucks, and mauls. Two new observations are reported: the first is related to the occurrence of spinal cord concussion with transient paralysis, and the second is related to the increased incidence of osteoarthritis of the cervical spine in rugby players.

  19. Video Analysis of Primary Shoulder Dislocations in Rugby Tackles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Nobukazu; Kawasaki, Takayuki; Mochizuki, Tomoyuki; Ota, Chihiro; Yoneda, Takeshi; Urayama, Shingo; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Characteristics of rugby tackles that lead to primary anterior shoulder dislocation remain unclear. Purpose: To clarify the characteristics of tackling that lead to shoulder dislocation and to assess the correlation between the mechanism of injury and morphological damage of the glenoid. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Eleven elite rugby players who sustained primary anterior shoulder dislocation due to one-on-one tackling between 2001 and 2014 were included. Using an assessment system, the tackler’s movement, posture, and shoulder and head position were evaluated in each phase of tackling. Based on 3-dimensional computed tomography, the glenoid of the affected shoulder was classified into 3 types: intact, erosion, and bone defect. Orientation of the glenoid defect and presence of Hill-Sachs lesion were also evaluated. Results: Eleven tackles that led to primary shoulder dislocation were divided into hand, arm, and shoulder tackle types based on the site at which the tackler contacted the ball carrier initially. In hand and arm tackles, the tackler’s shoulder joint was forcibly moved to horizontal abduction by the impact of his upper limb, which appeared to result from an inappropriate approach to the ball carrier. In shoulder tackles, the tackler’s head was lowered and was in front of the ball carrier at impact. There was no significant correlation between tackle types and the characteristics of bony lesions of the shoulder. Conclusion: Although the precise mechanism of primary anterior shoulder dislocation could not be estimated from this single-view analysis, failure of individual tackling leading to injury is not uniform and can be caused by 2 main factors: failure of approach followed by an extended arm position or inappropriate posture of the tackler at impact, such as a lowered head in front of the opponent. These findings indicate that injury mechanisms should be assessed for each type of tackle, as it is unknown

  20. Creatine kinase and endocrine responses of elite players pre, during, and post rugby league match play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Christopher P; Lovell, Dale I; Gass, Gregory C

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to (a) examine player-movement patterns to determine total distance covered during competitive Rugby League match play using global positioning systems (GPSs) and (b) examine pre, during, and postmatch creatine kinase (CK) and endocrine responses to competitive Rugby League match play. Seventeen elite rugby league players were monitored for a single game. Player movement patterns were recorded using portable GPS units (SPI-Pro, GPSports, Canberra, Australia). Saliva and blood samples were collected 24 hours prematch, 30 minutes prematch, 30 minutes postmatch, and then at 24-hour intervals for a period of 5 days postmatch to determine plasma CK and salivary testosterone, cortisol, and testosterone:cortisol ratio (T:C). The change in the dependent variables at each sample collection time was compared to 24-hour prematch measures. Backs and forwards traveled distances 5,747 ± 1,095 and 4,774 ± 1,186 m, respectively, throughout the match. Cortisol and CK increased significantly (p < 0.05) from 30 minutes prematch to 30 minutes postmatch. Creatine kinase increased significantly (p < 0.05) postmatch, with peak CK concentration measured 24 hours postmatch (889.25 ± 238.27 U·L). Cortisol displayed a clear pattern of response with significant (p < 0.05) elevations up to 24 hours postmatch, compared with 24 hours prematch. The GPS was able to successfully provide data on player-movement patterns during competitive rugby league match play. The CK and endocrine profile identified acute muscle damage and a catabolic state associated with Rugby League match play. A return to normal T:C within 48 hours postmatch indicates that a minimum period of 48 hours is required for endocrine homeostasis postcompetition. Creatine kinase remained elevated despite 120 hours of recovery postmatch identifying that a prolonged period of at least 5 days modified activity is required to achieve full recovery after muscle damage during competitive Rugby

  1. Union members at the polls in diverse trade union landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph; Rennwald, Line

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates to what extent social democratic parties still benefit from the support of union members at the polls. Not only are social democratic parties confronted with new competitors in the party systems, but also the union confederations of the socialist labour movement are in s......This article investigates to what extent social democratic parties still benefit from the support of union members at the polls. Not only are social democratic parties confronted with new competitors in the party systems, but also the union confederations of the socialist labour movement...

  2. Insights into relationships between body mass, composition and bone: findings in elite rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, Karen; Gannon, Lisa; Brightmore, Amy; Beck, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that bone strength is not proportional to body weight in obese populations. Elite rugby players have a similar body mass index (BMI) to obese individuals but differ markedly with low body fat, high lean mass, and frequent skeletal exposure to loading through weight-bearing exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine relationships between body weight, composition, and bone strength in male rugby players characterized by high BMI and high lean mass. Fifty-two elite male rugby players and 32 nonathletic, age-matched controls differing in BMI (30.2 ± 3.2 vs 24.1 ± 2.1 kg/m²; p = 0.02) received 1 total body and one total hip dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Hip structural analysis of the proximal femur was used to determine bone mineral density (BMD) and cross-sectional bone geometry. Multiple linear regression was computed to identify independent variables associated with total hip and femoral neck BMD and hip structural analysis-derived bone geometry parameters. Analysis of covariance was used to explore differences between groups. Further comparisons between groups were performed after normalizing parameters to body weight and to lean mass. There was a trend for a positive fat-bone relationship in rugby players, and a negative relationship in controls, although neither reached statistical significance. Correlations with lean mass were stronger for bone geometry (r(2): 0.408-0.520) than for BMD (r(2): 0.267-0.293). Relative to body weight, BMD was 6.7% lower in rugby players than controls (p Rugby players were heavier than controls, with greater lean mass and BMD (p rugby players (p rugby players was reduced in proportion to body weight and lean mass. However, their superior bone geometry suggests that overall bone strength may be adequate for loading demands. Fat-bone interactions in athletes engaged in high-impact sports require further exploration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Ravitsemuksen merkitys urheilijoille : opas Kuopion Rugby Club ry:n miesten joukkueelle

    OpenAIRE

    Ahokas, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Tämä opinnäytetyö toteutettiin toiminallisena opinnäytetyönä. Toiminnallisen opinnäytetyön tuotoksena tehtiin Kuopion Rugby Club Ry:n pelaajille ravitsemusopas. Opinnäytetyön ravitsemusopas pohjautuu työn teoriatietoon. Teoriaosuudessa avattiin käsitteet ravitsemus, terveys ja terveyden edistäminen. Oppaan tarkoituksena on kannustaa pelaajia kiinnittämään huomiota riittävän ravinnon saantiin. Opas laitettiin Kuopion Rugby Club Ry:n pelaajien omalle internetsivustolle, josta pelaajat saavat la...

  4. Union Density and Hospital Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koys, Daniel J; Martin, Wm Marty; LaVan, Helen; Katz, Marsha

    2015-01-01

    The authors address the hospital outcomes of patient satisfaction, healthcare quality, and net income per bed. They define union density as the percentage of a hospital's employees who are in unions, healthcare quality as its 30-day acute myocardial infraction (AMI; heart attack) mortality rate, and patient satisfaction as its overall Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems score. Using a random sample of 84 union and 84 nonunion hospitals from across the United States, multiple regression analyses show that union density is negatively related to patient satisfaction. Union density is not related to healthcare quality as measured by the AMI mortality rate or to net income per bed. This implies that unions per se are not good or bad for hospitals. The authors suggest that it is better for hospital administrators to take a Balanced Scorecard approach and be concerned about employee satisfaction, patient satisfaction, healthcare quality, and net income.

  5. Currency union entries and trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nitsch, Volker

    2005-01-01

    Recent research suggests that adopting a common currency increases bilateral trade. In this paper, I explore experiences of currency union entry in the post-war period and find no effect on trade. Previous results derived from a large panel data set (covering more than 200 countries from 1948 through 1997) appear to depend crucially on the assumption of symmetry between currency union exits and entries: While countries leaving a currency union experience significant declines in trade, currenc...

  6. External effects of currency unions

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Argument: The paper argues that the introduction of the Euro has considerably reduced de facto monetary policy autonomy in non-ECU members. We start from a simple Mundellian model, in which currency unions raise economic efficiency but reduce monetary policy autonomy. Our main argument holds that governments in countries that did not join the currency union lose monetary policy autonomy if the establishment of a currency union increases the size of the key currency area. The increase in the s...

  7. Union membership variation in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, Steen

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates covariates of union density in ten West European countries. It adds to previous research by showing that collective bargaining coverage plays a substantial role. Hence future analyses of union density should emphasize the collective bargaining coverage variable, since...... trade unions may influence both the extent of coverage and the content of agreements. Of course, the question of the direction of the causality remains...

  8. Running with rugby balls: bulk renormalization of codimension-2 branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M.; Burgess, C. P.; van Nierop, L.; Salvio, A.

    2013-01-01

    We compute how one-loop bulk effects renormalize both bulk and brane effective interactions for geometries sourced by codimension-two branes. We do so by explicitly integrating out spin-zero, -half and -one particles in 6-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Scalar theories compactified to 4 dimensions on a flux-stabilized 2D geometry. (Our methods apply equally well for D dimensions compactified to D - 2 dimensions, although our explicit formulae do not capture all divergences when D > 6.) The renormalization of bulk interactions are independent of the boundary conditions assumed at the brane locations, and reproduce standard heat-kernel calculations. Boundary conditions at any particular brane do affect how bulk loops renormalize this brane's effective action, but not the renormalization of other distant branes. Although we explicitly compute our loops using a rugby ball geometry, because we follow only UV effects our results apply more generally to any geometry containing codimension-two sources with conical singularities. Our results have a variety of uses, including calculating the UV sensitivity of one-loop vacuum energy seen by observers localized on the brane. We show how these one-loop effects combine in a surprising way with bulk back-reaction to give the complete low-energy effective cosmological constant, and comment on the relevance of this calculation to proposed applications of codimension-two 6D models to solutions of the hierarchy and cosmological constant problems.

  9. Official Union Time Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Official Union Time Tracking System captures the reporting and accounting of the representational activity for all American Federation of Government Employees (AFGE)...

  10. Schubert unions in Grassman varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder; Johnsen, Trygve; Ranestad, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    , their number of Fq -rational points. Moreover, we study a geometric duality of such unions, and give a combinatorial interpretation of this duality. We discuss the maximum number of Fq -rational points for Schubert unions of a given spanning dimension, and as an application to coding theory, we study......We study subsets of Grassmann varieties G(l,m) over a field F, such that these subsets are unions of Schubert cycles, with respect to a fixed flag. We study unions of Schubert cycles of Grassmann varieties G(l,m) over a field F. We compute their linear span and, in positive characteristic...

  11. lenohumeral rotation range deficit in professional rugby players: A cross sectional study. (Déficit en el rango de rotación glenohumeral en jugadoresde rugby profesional: Un estudio de corte transversal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Osorio Feito

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim was to evaluate the internal rotation, external rotation and total range of motion of shoulder in professional rugby players and associated factors. 104 rugby players and 30 healthy volunteers were interrogated and clinically examined. 19.23% of the rugby players were excluded by history of shoulder luxation or surgery. 84 rugby players with 24.28±5.37 years old were finally included in the study. The groups were analyzed with Mann-Whitney test, Fisher’s exact test, Linear Regression and a Logistic Regression. It was found that professional rugby players had less internal, external and total range of glenohumeral rotation compared with control group. In the Logistic Regression, the age is a risk factor for external rotation range deficit (Odds Ratio= 1.58. Instead, the years of experience are a protector factor (Odds Ratio= 0.63. We can conclude that glenohumeral rotation range is diminished in professional rugby players and is associated with age and years of experience.ResumenEl objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la rotación interna, rotación externa, el rango total de movimiento del hombro y factores asociados en jugadores de rugby profesional . 104 jugadores de rugby y 30 voluntarios sanos fueron interrogados y examinados clínicamente. Un 19.23% de los jugadores de rugby fueron excluidos por historial de luxación o cirugía de hombro. 84 jugadores de rugby, con 24.28 ± 5.37 años de edad fueron finalmente incluidos en el estudio. Los grupos se analizaron con la prueba de Mann-Whitney, la prueba exacta de Fisher, regresión lineal y regresión logística. Se encontró que los jugadores profesionales de rugby tienen menos rango de rotación interna, externa y total en comparación con el grupo control. En la regresión logística, la edad es un factor de riesgo de déficit de rotación externa (OR = 1.58. En cambio, los años de experiencia son un factor protector (OR = 0.63. Podemos concluir que el rango de rotaci

  12. Learner Reading Problems: A Case of Khoe Learners at Junior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Learner Reading Problems: A Case of Khoe Learners at Junior Secondary School. ... learners' reading ability of English at junior secondary school in Botswana. ... teachers' schemes and records of work to explore the subjects' reading skills.

  13. Effect of training on the serum lipid profile in able-bodied and spinal cord injured rugby players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Hübner-Woźniak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of rugby training on the serum lipid profile in able-bodied and wheelchair players. The following groups took part in the study: sedentary able-bodied men (Group M, n=10, inactive disabled men using wheelchairs (Group MW, n=10, semiprofessional rugby players (Group R, n=10, and wheelchair rugby players (Group RW, n=10. The serum triacyloglycerols (TG, the total cholesterol (TC, the LDL cholesterol (LDLchol and the HDL cholesterol (HDLchol concentrations were assayed. The total cholesterol and the LDL cholesterol concentrations were higher in able-bodied sedentary men compared to non-disable rugby players. There was also a tendency to higher HDL cholesterol concentration in rugby players compared to sedentary men (Group R vs. M. Rugby training resulted in a significant decrease of the LDL cholesterol and an increase in the HDL cholesterol concentration, as well as a tendency for lower total cholesterol levels in wheelchair players compared to sedentary tetraplegic men. The ratio of the total cholesterol to the HDL cholesterol was significantly lower in both groups of rugby players in comparison to the respective groups of sedentary men. The serum triacyloglycerols (TG concentration was similar in all studied groups. There was no difference in the serum lipid profile and the TC/HDLchol ratio between sedentary able-bodied and disabled men (Group M vs. MW, just as between non-disabled and wheelchair rugby players (R vs. RW. It seems that rugby training had a beneficial effect on the serum lipid profile in able-bodied as well as wheelchair players. These results confirm that active persons are at lower risk of cardiovascular diseases.

  14. The customs union argument for a monetary union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractIf the real exchange rate follows approximately a random walk and in the presence of nontraded goods, a monetary union may generate a Pareto improvement. The argument is based on the analogy with the advantages that derive from the formation of a customs union. A novel unit roots test ba

  15. The customs union argument for a monetary union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractIf the real exchange rate follows approximately a random walk and in the presence of nontraded goods, a monetary union may generate a Pareto improvement. The argument is based on the analogy with the advantages that derive from the formation of a customs union. A novel unit roots test

  16. 42 CFR 21.25 - Eligibility; junior assistant grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility; junior assistant grade. 21.25 Section... COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.25 Eligibility; junior assistant grade. (a) Requirements; all candidates... for appointment in the grade of junior assistant: (1) Shall be a citizen of the United States; (2...

  17. The African Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas; Mandrup, Bjørn

    2009-01-01

    . Moreover, the ‘African Security Architecture’, of which it is the central component, also includes sub-regional organisations to which responsibility is to be devolved for dealing with armed confl ict and other matters. These so-called Regional Economic Communities (RECs) are, likewise, constantly changing......The African Union (AU) is a young international organisation, founded in 2002, which is still in the process of setting up its various institutions, while constantly having to face up to new challenges, such as civil wars breaking out and military coups being undertaken in its member states......, just as they have very different strengths. Hence, any account of the AU and the RECs can only provide a ‘snapshot’ of the organisation at any given time, one which may soon become outdated. In contrast with regional and sub-regional organisations in the North, those in Africa are facing an additional...

  18. Unionization: The Viewpoint of Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Theodore Lewis

    A study was made to isolate factors which have systematic and repetitive effects on the unionization of librarians, particularly the professional librarian in the public library. The historical patterns of library unionism are summarized, and an analysis is made of the personal characteristics of librarians, their economic position, and employment…

  19. Recent Developments in Compulsory Unionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchnick, Morton G.

    1993-01-01

    Looks at legal cases concerning the uses to which mandatory union dues are put. Considers the variety of approaches adopted in Switzerland, Spain, Belgium, and Germany and reviews how compulsory unionism has been treated in the courts in the United Kingdom, Denmark, the United States, and Canada. (JOW)

  20. Grassmann codes and Schubert unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder; Johnsen, Trygve; Ranestad, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    We study subsets of Grassmann varieties over a field , such that these subsets are unions of Schubert cycles, with respect to a fixed flag. We study such sets in detail, and give applications to coding theory, in particular for Grassmann codes. For much is known about such Schubert unions...

  1. Rationalities in trade union work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch, Anders; Andersen, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    papers. Using discourse analytic methods the paper will analyze, discuss and compare the current strategy papers of the three unions in order to investigate how they problematize their roles and objectives. This investigation will clarify the discursive premises of the unions and it will be shown how...

  2. Labor Unions and Asset Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busato, Francesco; Addessi, William

    The paper investigates the nexus between labor and financial markets, focusing on the interaction between labor union behavior in setting wages, firms' investment strategy and asset prices. The way unions set wage claims after observing firm's financial performance increases the volatility of firms...

  3. Unions: Bread, Butter & Basic Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BCEL Newsletter for the Business Community, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Unions are natural providers of basic skills instruction. They are in daily workplace contact with their membership, are trusted to work on members' behalf, and speak the language of the worker. Unions are trying to address the needs of illiterate workers through collective bargaining arrangements in which employers contribute a percentage of…

  4. Unionization: The Viewpoint of Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyton, Theodore Lewis

    A study was made to isolate factors which have systematic and repetitive effects on the unionization of librarians, particularly the professional librarian in the public library. The historical patterns of library unionism are summarized, and an analysis is made of the personal characteristics of librarians, their economic position, and employment…

  5. European Economic and Monetary Union

    OpenAIRE

    Australian Treasury

    1998-01-01

    This article discusses the progress towards European Economic and Monetary Union, which begins in January 1999. Issues covered include: the operation of monetary and fiscal policy under the union; the relative size and significance of the euro area; financial market implications; and the implications for Australia.

  6. Professional Employees Turn to Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamot, Dennis

    1976-01-01

    White-collar and professional employees are increasingly turning to unions to combat their loss of independence as employees of large organizations. Managers should realize that they and professional employees have different viewpoints about job situations and that the current trend toward white-collar unionism is apt to continue. (JG)

  7. Professional Employees Turn to Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamot, Dennis

    1976-01-01

    White-collar and professional employees are increasingly turning to unions to combat their loss of independence as employees of large organizations. Managers should realize that they and professional employees have different viewpoints about job situations and that the current trend toward white-collar unionism is apt to continue. (JG)

  8. The Incidence of Concussion in a Professional Australian Rugby League Team, 1998–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Savage

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rugby league is a physically demanding team sport and the National Rugby League is the highest-level competition of rugby league in Australia. Frequent tackles and collisions between players result in a high incidence of injury to players. Concussion injuries have been the source of much debate, with reporting varying greatly depending on the definition used. Method. Injury records of 239 players from one professional National Rugby League were analysed during a continuous period of 15 years, with particular interest in the incidence and recurrence of concussions and the change in incidence over time. Result. A total of 191 concussions were recorded, affecting 90 players. The incidence of concussion injuries was found to be 28.33 per 1000 player match hours, with an increase over time (P=0.0217. Multiple concussions were recorded for 51 players. Conclusion. A statistically significant increase in the incidence of concussion injuries was found, without a concurrent increase in the number of head injuries or total injuries. New rules which mandate removal of players from the field may be beneficial for protection of players on the long term, although they risk being counterproductive, if they make players less likely to report their symptoms during matches.

  9. Hematological profile and martial status in rugby players during whole body cryostimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Lombardi

    Full Text Available Cold-based therapies are commonly applied to alleviate pain symptoms secondary to inflammatory diseases, but also to treat injuries or overuse, as done in sports rehabilitation. Whole body cryotherapy, a relatively new form of cold therapy, consists of short whole-body exposure to extremely cold air (-110°C to -140°C. Cryostimulation is gaining wider acceptance as an effective part of physical therapy to accelerate muscle recovery in rugby players. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of repeated cryostimulation sessions on the hematological profile and martial status markers in professional rugby players. Twenty-seven professional rugby players received 2 daily cryostimulation treatments for 7 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected before and after administration of the cryotherapic protocol and hematological profiles were obtained. No changes in the leukocyte count or composition were seen. There was a decrease in the values for erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin content, and an increase in mean corpuscular volume and red cell distribution width. Platelet count and mean volume remained unchanged. Serum transferrin and ferritin decreased, while soluble transferrin receptor increased. Serum iron and transferrin saturation were unchanged, as was reticulocyte count, whereas the immature reticulocyte fraction decreased substantially. In conclusion, in this sample of professional rugby players, cryostimulation modified the hematological profile, with a reduction in erythrocyte count and hemoglobinization paralleled by a change in martial status markers.

  10. Communicating in and through "Murderball": Masculinity and Disability in Wheelchair Rugby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Kurt; Cherney, James L.

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates communicative practices surrounding wheelchair rugby, a growing sport played worldwide by people with quadriplegia. Researchers have studied extensively the practice of using sport for rehabilitation, but the role of communication in this process has been overlooked. We argue that participating in this sport is itself a…

  11. An Exploration of Gender-Role Expectations and Conflict among Women Rugby Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Melissa A.; Jome, LaRae M.

    2007-01-01

    Gender-role conflict theory has suggested that women athletes will experience role conflict because they are attempting to enact both feminine and masculine gender roles, yet research findings have shown mixed support for this notion. The purpose of this study was to explore how women rugby players negotiate gender-role expectations and conflict…

  12. A Study on In-Match Rugby Coaches' Communications with Players: A Holistic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchet, Alain; Harvey, Stephen; Light, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background: While there is significant interest in coach behaviour during training sessions and recognition of what it could add to existing knowledge on coaching, in-game coach behaviour has received little attention. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify coaches' in-competition communications with rugby players, through a series of…

  13. Communicating in and through "Murderball": Masculinity and Disability in Wheelchair Rugby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Kurt; Cherney, James L.

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates communicative practices surrounding wheelchair rugby, a growing sport played worldwide by people with quadriplegia. Researchers have studied extensively the practice of using sport for rehabilitation, but the role of communication in this process has been overlooked. We argue that participating in this sport is itself a…

  14. Factors That Influence Running Intensity in Interchange Players in Professional Rugby League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Jace A; Thornton, Heidi R; Duthie, Grant M; Dascombe, Ben J

    2016-11-01

    Rugby league coaches adopt replacement strategies for their interchange players to maximize running intensity; however, it is important to understand the factors that may influence match performance. To assess the independent factors affecting running intensity sustained by interchange players during professional rugby league. Global positioning system (GPS) data were collected from all interchanged players (starters and nonstarters) in a professional rugby league squad across 24 matches of a National Rugby League season. A multilevel mixed-model approach was employed to establish the effect of various technical (attacking and defensive involvements), temporal (bout duration, time in possession, etc), and situational (season phase, recovery cycle, etc) factors on the relative distance covered and average metabolic power (Pmet) during competition. Significant effects were standardized using correlation coefficients, and the likelihood of the effect was described using magnitude-based inferences. Superior intermittent running ability resulted in very likely large increases in both relative distance and Pmet. As the length of a bout increased, both measures of running intensity exhibited a small decrease. There were at least likely small increases in running intensity for matches played after short recovery cycles and against strong opposition. During a bout, the number of collision-based involvements increased running intensity, whereas time in possession and ball time out of play decreased demands. These data demonstrate a complex interaction of individual- and match-based factors that require consideration when developing interchange strategies, and the manipulation of training loads during shorter recovery periods and against stronger opponents may be beneficial.

  15. Coaching Whiteness: Stories of "Pacifica Exotica" in Australian High School Rugby

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Brent

    2016-01-01

    The intersection of sport and education is a potentially powerful site for the production of class and gender. This paper examines how the relationship between sport and education can also serve to (re)produce ideas about "race". Drawing on research conducted during my time as a coach of the first XV rugby team at an elite private school…

  16. Rugby and Mathematics: A Surprising Link among Geometry, the Conics, and Calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Troy; Jackson, Steven

    2001-01-01

    Describes a rugby problem designed to help students understand the maximum-minimum situation. Presents a series of explorations that locate an optimal place for kicking the ball to maximize the angle at the goalposts. Uses interactive geometry software to construct a model of the situation. Includes a sample student activity. (KHR)

  17. The Evolution of Rugby: from a Violent Sport into a Regulated one

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besik Chaduneli

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available After it’s birth in England in 1823 rugby haschanged it’s appearance from a violent sportto a quite controlled and regulated one. Themost important rule changes that have contributedto a reduction of the injuries are described.

  18. The athlete's body and the global condition: Tongan rugby players in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besnier, N.

    2012-01-01

    The mobility of rugby professionals from Tonga to Japan and points beyond poses new questions about the role of the body as a mediator between the subjective and the objective, which anthropologists and other social scientists have generally examined within the confines of specific societies.

  19. Keeping the Body in Play: Pain, Injury, and Socialization in Male Rugby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Lindsay T.; Pitter, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses participant observation studies of two rugby seasons--one rural high school and one university club--in which one author served as a first aid provider and student athletic trainer, respectively. Through analysis using triangulation, we explored how the rules, athlete's status, and return-to-play boundary influenced decisions…

  20. Speckle tracking echocardiographic analysis of left ventricular systolic and diastolic function in young elite rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandigout, Stéphane; Maufrais, Claire; Cornette, Thibault; Alaphilippe, Anne; Daviet, Jean C

    2016-11-01

    Little evidence exists in the literature on the effects of mixed-type training on the left ventricle (LV). This study focused on the effects of training on the morphological and functional characteristics of the left ventricle. This study investigated the effects of training on LV function using Speckle Tracking Imaging (STI) in high-level, young rugby players. This prospective and longitudinal cohort study enrolled ten young controls and 24 young rugby players (13 high-level rugby players; 11 amateur rugby players) were included in the study. Standard Tissue Doppler Imaging Echocardiography and STI were performed in this study before and after the season. LV mass and pulsed wave Doppler inflow recording of the LV, including early and atrial waves, were carried out in 2-3-4 chamber views. We assessed three normal strains, rotation, and torsion in the LV. The main results of this study demonstrated that no differences existed between the three groups in LV functional parameters, the longitudinal circumferential and radial strain indices, and rotation and torsion indices. In the professional group, a significantly higher end-diastolic diameter (Prugby players have normal LV remodeling and normal LV function under resting conditions.

  1. An Exploration of Gender-Role Expectations and Conflict among Women Rugby Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Melissa A.; Jome, LaRae M.

    2007-01-01

    Gender-role conflict theory has suggested that women athletes will experience role conflict because they are attempting to enact both feminine and masculine gender roles, yet research findings have shown mixed support for this notion. The purpose of this study was to explore how women rugby players negotiate gender-role expectations and conflict…

  2. Caffeine-containing energy drink improves physical performance of elite rugby players during a simulated match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coso, Juan; Ramírez, Juan A; Muñoz, Gloria; Portillo, Javier; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Muñoz, Víctor; Barbero-Álvarez, José C; Muñoz-Guerra, Jesús

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a caffeine-containing energy drink in enhancing rugby players' physical performance during a simulated match. A second purpose was to determine the urinary caffeine excretion derived from the energy drink intake. In a randomized and counterbalanced order, 26 elite rugby players (mean ± SD for age and body mass, 25 ± 2 y and 93 ± 15 kg) played 2 simulated rugby games (2 × 30 min) 60 min after ingesting (i) 3 mg of caffeine per kilogram of body mass in the form of an energy drink (Fure, ProEnergetics) or (ii) the same drink without caffeine (placebo). During the matches, the individual running distance and the instantaneous speed were measured, and the number of running actions above 20 km·h(-1) (i.e., sprints) were determined, using global positioning system devices. The number of impacts above 5 g during the matches was determined by accelerometry. The ingestion of the energy drink, compared with the placebo, increased the total distance covered during the match (4749 ± 589 vs 5139 ± 475 m, p energy drink also resulted in a greater overall number of impacts (481 ± 352 vs 641 ± 366, p energy drink with a caffeine dose equivalent to 3 mg·kg(-1) considerably enhanced the movement patterns of rugby players during a simulated match.

  3. The Incidence of Concussion in a Professional Australian Rugby League Team, 1998-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jason; Hooke, Chloe; Orchard, John; Parkinson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Background. Rugby league is a physically demanding team sport and the National Rugby League is the highest-level competition of rugby league in Australia. Frequent tackles and collisions between players result in a high incidence of injury to players. Concussion injuries have been the source of much debate, with reporting varying greatly depending on the definition used. Method. Injury records of 239 players from one professional National Rugby League were analysed during a continuous period of 15 years, with particular interest in the incidence and recurrence of concussions and the change in incidence over time. Result. A total of 191 concussions were recorded, affecting 90 players. The incidence of concussion injuries was found to be 28.33 per 1000 player match hours, with an increase over time (P = 0.0217). Multiple concussions were recorded for 51 players. Conclusion. A statistically significant increase in the incidence of concussion injuries was found, without a concurrent increase in the number of head injuries or total injuries. New rules which mandate removal of players from the field may be beneficial for protection of players on the long term, although they risk being counterproductive, if they make players less likely to report their symptoms during matches.

  4. Dispositions of Elite-Level Australian Rugby Coaches towards Game Sense: Characteristics of Their Coaching Habitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Richard L.; Evans, John Robert

    2013-01-01

    Bourdieu's analytic concept of "habitus" has provided a valuable means of theorising coach development but is yet to be operationalised in empirical research. This article redresses this oversight by drawing on a larger study that inquired into how the "coaching 'habitus'" of elite-level Australian and New Zealand rugby coaches…

  5. Rugby and Mathematics: A Surprising Link among Geometry, the Conics, and Calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Troy; Jackson, Steven

    2001-01-01

    Describes a rugby problem designed to help students understand the maximum-minimum situation. Presents a series of explorations that locate an optimal place for kicking the ball to maximize the angle at the goalposts. Uses interactive geometry software to construct a model of the situation. Includes a sample student activity. (KHR)

  6. Accounting Boot Camp for College Juniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myring, Mark; Wrege, William; Van Alst, Lucinda

    2008-01-01

    We describe a day-long introduction to new accounting majors, which we call a boot camp. Boot camp it is an effort to make juniors more aware of their identity, career purposes and learning resources that are now parts of their world, much of which is not covered explicitly in the accounting curriculum. This paper provides an overview of the…

  7. 7 CFR 765.206 - Junior liens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Junior liens. 765.206 Section 765.206 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... determinations for future requests for assistance and may adversely impact such requests. (b) Conditions...

  8. Pygmalion Effect on Junior English Teaching

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yurong Wang; Li Lin

    2014-01-01

    .... This thesis mainly focuses on the application of Pygmalion effect in English teaching, especially junior English teaching in China. If we can make good use of the Pygmalion Effect to conduct teaching and have positive expectations to students, it will improve teaching greatly.

  9. Organizing and Managing the Junior High Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmer, Edmund T.; And Others

    This manual provides guidelines and activities for organizing and managing junior high school classes. The first five chapters are devoted to the topic of getting ready for the beginning of the school year; the last four chapters suggest guidelines and activities that are helpful in maintaining a management system. Chapter 1 deals with organizing…

  10. A Senior Partner in the Junior College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL.

    The development and current status of the student personnel program at Sante Fe Junior College is described. Statements of purpose and philosophy are amplified through an outline of the needs and characteristics of Santa Fe students and a description of the elements of the program as they relate to specific needs and characteristics. The elements…

  11. Mathematics for Junior High School. Supplementary Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. D.; And Others

    This is a supplementary SMSG mathematics text for junior high school students. Key ideas emphasized are structure of arithmetic from an algebraic viewpoint, the real number system as a progressing development, and metric and non-metric relations in geometry. Chapter topics include sets, projective geometry, open and closed paths, finite…

  12. DEVELOPING STUDENTS' READING ABILITIES IN JUNIOR SCHOOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Bixi

    2001-01-01

    In This Article, the writer focus on an over- all analysis of the present situation of the students' reading activities in junior middle school in the countryside and put forward some suggestions on improving the teaching arts to enhance the students' fast reading abilities . It provided some theoretical basis on the further improcement of students' reading abilities in the school

  13. Do junior doctors take sick leave?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkin, M R; Higton, A; Witcomb, M

    2003-09-01

    Nosocomial infections place a heavy burden on overstretched health services. An audit of junior doctors' sick leave behaviour was undertaken in 1993 and again in 2001. The object was to ascertain the level of common infectious illness and to investigate whether junior doctors were remaining at work inappropriately. The doctors were asked if any factors had influenced their decision to take sick leave or not. Between the two audits several initiatives have been introduced to improve the working conditions of junior doctors, including the New Deal to reduce hours of work. Eighty one junior doctors in a large teaching hospital participated in 1993 and 110 in 2001. The number reporting an infectious illness in the previous six months was similar (61.7% in 1993, 68.2% in 2001). There had been a significant increase in the percentage of infectious illness episodes for which the doctors took sick leave (15.1% in 1993, 36.8% in 2001, p work (72% in 1993, 68% in 2001). Consultant pressure was cited by 26% (1993) and 20% (2001). Use of the staff occupational health unit was minimal, with none of the ill doctors contacting the department in 1993 and only three in 2001. Overall, despite the reduction in the number of infectious doctors not taking sick leave, the majority remained at work. Fundamental changes are needed if potentially infected doctors are not to present a risk of iatrogenic infection.

  14. Foreign Languages at Tarrant County Junior College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Jane

    Even during the 1970's when diminished national interest in foreign language study was reflected in declining enrollments at most colleges, Tarrant County Junior College (TCJC) was able to maintain a vigorous language program by emphasizing oral communication and developing a flexible curriculum. Since 1975, the college has offered its preparatory…

  15. Curriculum Reviews: Middle/Junior High Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Richard

    1982-01-01

    Reviews "Pathways in Science" (Globe Book Company), designed as a complete middle/junior high school science program. Strengths (including sixth-grade readability) and weaknesses (indicating that limited process skill development may not challenge more capable students). Limited process skill development and the possibility for the program…

  16. Theme: Junior High and Middle School Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillison, John; And Others

    1994-01-01

    On the topic of agricultural education programs in middle/junior high schools, nine articles address developing self-concept, selecting materials, the benefits of agriscience contests, adopting new curricula, the role of Future Farmers of America in the development of adolescents, teaming science and agriculture, and the rationale for middle…

  17. Santa Fe Junior College, Gainesville, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudill, Rowlett and Scott, Architects, Houston, TX.

    The design of Santa Fe Junior College is examined, beginning with the development of an educational philosophy. Subsequent design decisions are based largely upon this philosophy which emphasizes the development of the individual student and the fulfillment of his needs. Further, the need for flexibility is recognized and is an important aspect of…

  18. Redskin Images. Roy Junior High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, William M.

    The school and self-improvement programs instituted at Roy Junior High School include the development of a self-performance evaluative instrument, the incorporation of a daily 15-minute reading session, the encouragement of dance and movement education through use of visiting professionals, and implementation of a self-esteem improvement mechanism…

  19. Public Relations for Community/Junior Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodress, Fred A.

    This monograph is a practical manual on public relations (PR) for community and junior colleges, containing numerous suggestions and recommendations for establishing and operating an effective public relations effort while avoiding PR pitfalls. An overview of the history of public relations in academe, the rationale underlying today's PR programs…

  20. A comparative analysis of the home advantage in handball and rugby as contact sports ESTUDIO COMPARATIVO DE LA VENTAJA DE JUGAR EN CASA EN BALONMANO Y RUGBY COMO DEPORTES COLECTIVOS DE COLABORACIÓN-OPOSICIÓN CON CONTACTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Gómez Ruano

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the home advantage effect in Spanish handball and rugby, as contact sports where physical contact and aggressiveness is present in the game. The research objectives were: 1 To study home advantage in professional Spanish handball and rugby leagues;  2 To compare the results obtained between the two leagues, to know whether there are differences between them; 3 To study whether team ability influence home advantage, and if so, whether there are differences between best and worst teams. Nine seasons in both leagues were examined, from 2002-03 to 2010-11. Home advantage values were higher than 50% in both leagues, with significantly higher values in the rugby league (65.12% compared to 59.65%. The greater importance of physical contact and aggressiveness in the game actions in rugby can be a factor to be considered in the higher home advantage values found in the rugby league. The results showed the influence of team ability in home advantage in the two leagues, with no differences between the teams.Keywords: home advantage, contact sports, team sports, handball, rugby.El propósito de la investigación fue estudiar la ventaja de jugar en casa en el balonmano y en el rugby español, como deportes colectivos de colaboración-oposición con contacto. Los objetivos planteados en el estudio fueron: 1 Estudiar la ventaja de jugar en casa en la Liga ASOBAL de balonmano y en la Liga de División de Honor de rugby; 2 Comparar los resultados obtenidos entre las dos ligas, para conocer si existen diferencias entre sí; 3 Estudiar si el nivel equipos influye en la ventaja de jugar en casa, y si es así, si existen diferencias entre los mejores y los peores conjuntos. Se estudiaron las últimas nueve temporadas, desde 2002-03 hasta 2010-11. Los resultados mostraron la existencia de ventaja de jugar en casa en las dos ligas, con valores significativamente superiores en la liga de rugby (65,12% frente a la liga de balonmano

  1. The Casimir effect in rugby-ball type flux compactifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minamitsuji, M.

    2008-04-01

    We discuss volume stabilization in a 6D braneworld model based on 6D supergravity theory. The internal space is compactified by magnetic flux and contains codimension two 3-branes (conical singularities) as its boundaries. In general the external 4D spacetime is warped and in the unwrapped limit the shape of the internal space looks like a 'rugby ball'. The size of the internal space is not fixed due to the scale invariance of the supergravity theory. We discuss the possibility of volume stabilization by the Casimir effect for a massless, minimally coupled bulk scalar field. The main obstacle in studying this case is that the brane (conical) part of the relevant heat kernel coefficient (a6) has not been formulated. Thus as a first step, we consider the 4D analog model with boundary codimension two 1-branes. The spacetime structure of the 4D model is very similar to that of the original 6D model, where now the relevant heat kernel coefficient is well known. We derive the one-loop effective potential induced by a scalar field in the bulk by employing zeta function regularization with heat kernel analysis. As a result, the volume is stabilized for most possible choices of the parameters. Especially, for a larger degree of warping, our results imply that a large hierarchy between the mass scales and a tiny amount of effective cosmological constant can be realized on the brane. In the non-warped limit the ratio tends to converge to the same value, independently of the bulk gauge coupling constant. Finally, we will analyze volume stabilization in the original model 6D by employing the same mode-sum technique.

  2. Why are junior doctors reluctant to consult attending physicians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, Otto H

    2010-03-01

    A physician performs two tasks: making diagnoses and determining treatments. To reduce medical error, junior doctors are supposed to consult their supervisors when they face uncommon circumstances. However, recent research shows that junior doctors are reluctant to do so. This paper presents a model that explains (i) which junior doctors shy away from consulting; (ii) when junior doctors are reluctant; (iii) the importance of protocols in the medical sector; and (iv) when consulting is a sign of strength or a sign of weakness. Furthermore, I show that encouraging junior doctors to consult by investigating mishaps leads to another distortion: they will give too much weight to own assessments.

  3. An investigation of rugby scrimmaging posture and individual maximum pushing force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen-Lan; Chang, Jyh-Jong; Wu, Jia-Hroung; Guo, Lan-Yuen

    2007-02-01

    Although rugby is a popular contact sport and the isokinetic muscle torque assessment has recently found widespread application in the field of sports medicine, little research has examined the factors associated with the performance of game-specific skills directly by using the isokinetic-type rugby scrimmaging machine. This study is designed to (a) measure and observe the differences in the maximum individual pushing forward force produced by scrimmaging in different body postures (3 body heights x 2 foot positions) with a self-developed rugby scrimmaging machine and (b) observe the variations in hip, knee, and ankle angles at different body postures and explore the relationship between these angle values and the individual maximum pushing force. Ten national rugby players were invited to participate in the examination. The experimental equipment included a self-developed rugby scrimmaging machine and a 3-dimensional motion analysis system. Our results showed that the foot positions (parallel and nonparallel foot positions) do not affect the maximum pushing force; however, the maximum pushing force was significantly lower in posture I (36% body height) than in posture II (38%) and posture III (40%). The maximum forward force in posture III (40% body height) was also slightly greater than for the scrum in posture II (38% body height). In addition, it was determined that hip, knee, and ankle angles under parallel feet positioning are factors that are closely negatively related in terms of affecting maximum pushing force in scrimmaging. In cross-feet postures, there was a positive correlation between individual forward force and hip angle of the rear leg. From our results, we can conclude that if the player stands in an appropriate starting position at the early stage of scrimmaging, it will benefit the forward force production.

  4. High Performance Capsule Implosions on the Omega Laser Facility with Rugby Hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, Harry F.

    2009-11-01

    Rugby-shaped hohlraums have been proposed as a method for x-ray drive enhancement for indirectly-driven capsule implosions [1]. This concept has recently been tested in a series of shots on the OMEGA laser facility at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics at the University of Rochester. In this talk, experimental results are presented comparing the performance of D2-filled capsules between standard cylindrical Au hohlraums and rugby-shaped hohlraums. Not only did the rugby hohlraums demonstrate 18% more x-ray drive energy as compared with the cylinders, but the high-performance design of these implosions (both cylinder and rugby) also provided 20X more DD neutrons than any previous indirectly-driven campaign on Omega (and 3X more than ever achieved on Nova implosions driven with nearly twice the laser energy). This increase in performance enables, for the first time, a measurement of the neutron burn history of an indirectly-driven implosion. Previous DD neutron yields had been too low to register this key measurement of capsule performance and the effects of dynamic mix. A wealth of additional data on the fuel areal density from the suite of charged particle diagnostics was obtained on a subset of the shots that used D^3He rather than D2 fuel. Comparisons of the experimental results with numerical simulations are shown to be in excellent agreement. The design techniques employed in this campaign, e.g., smaller NIF-like laser entrance holes and hohlraum case-to-capsule ratios, provide added confidence in the pursuit of ignition on the National Ignition Facility. [4pt] [1] P. Amendt, C. Cerjan, D. E. Hinkel, J. L. Milovich, H.-S. Park, and H. F. Robey, ``Rugby-like hohlraum experimental designs for demonstrating x-ray drive enhancement'', Phys. Plasmas 15, 012702 (2008).

  5. Sensory organisation and reactive balance control of amateur rugby players: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Gary C C; Chung, Joanne W Y; Ma, Ada W W; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Fong, Shirley S M

    2017-05-01

    This study compared the sensory organisation and reactive balance control of amateur rugby players and a control group. Forty-one amateur rugby players (22 males: 19 females; mean height ± SD = 168.8 ± 8.8 cm; mean weight ± SD = 63.9 ± 12.5 kg) and 31 control participants (22 males: 9 females; mean height ± SD = 171.5 ± 10.3 cm; mean weight ± SD = 63.8 ± 10.3 kg) completed the study. Their sensory organisation and standing balance performance were evaluated using a sensory organisation test (SOT), and their reactive balance performance was quantified using a motor control test (MCT). The SOT equilibrium scores (ES) and sensory ratios and the MCT motor response latencies were the major outcome measures. The results revealed that compared to the controls, amateur rugby players had lower SOT ESs under different sensory environments (P rugby group (P = .005, [Formula: see text] = 0.107 and 0.108, respectively). No significant difference was found in the somatosensory ratio (P = .853, [Formula: see text] rugby players demonstrated inferior standing balance performance compared to their non-trained counterparts. They relied less heavily on vestibular and visual inputs to maintain standing balance under different sensory environments. In addition, they reacted more slowly to postural disturbance, reflecting their suboptimal reactive balance ability in standing.

  6. Professional rugby league positional match-play analysis through the use of global positioning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Damien J; Kelly, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the movement demands of all 9 individual playing positions in professional rugby league. The movement demands of 135 professional rugby league players were recorded during 28 National Rugby League games in 2011, using a nondifferential 5 Hz global positioning system. The mean total distances covered in a game for fullback, wing, center, five-eight, halfback, hooker, lock, back row, and prop players were 7,760, 7,457, 7,301, 8,402, 8,500, 6,988, 5,481, 6,936, and 4,597 m, respectively. The average occurrence of high-intensity runs per match was 42, 35, 34, 86, 120, 74, 52, 26, and 18 for fullback, wing, center, five-eight, halfback, hooker, lock, back row, and prop players, respectively. The average distance traveled greater than 18 km·h-1 for fullback were 17 ± 2 m, wing 18 ± 2 m, center 18 ± 3 m, five-eight 16 ± 3 m, and halfback 17 ± 4 m. The average distance and range traveled greater than 18 km·h for hooker were 14 ± 3 m, lock 16 ± 2 m, back row 18 ± 3 m, and prop 16 ± 2 m. The use of global positioning systems has demonstrated plausibility to eliminate the use of grouping of positions in rugby league and for coaches to make specific training protocols for each position. Given the differences in movement demands of all 9 positions in rugby league, some positions would lack specificity to their positional requirements if using collective grouping for planning of training regimens.

  7. Physical demands of professional rugby league training and competition using microtechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G; Abernethy, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the physical demands of professional rugby league match-play using microtechnology, and to compare these demands with typical training activities used to prepare players for competition. Prospective cohort study. Thirty elite rugby league players participated in this study. Seven hundred and eighty-six. training data sets and 104 data sets from National Rugby League matches were collected over one playing season. Movement was recorded using a commercially available microtechnology unit (minimaxX, Catapult Innovations), which provided information on speeds, distances, accelerations, physical collisions and repeated high-intensity efforts. Mean distances covered during match-play by the hit-up forwards, wide-running forwards, adjustables, and outside backs were 3,569 m, 5,561 m, 6,411 m, and 6,819 m, respectively. Hit-up forwards and wide-running forwards were engaged in a greater number of moderate and heavy collisions than the adjustables and outside backs, and more repeated high-intensity effort bouts per minute of play (1 bout every 4.8-6.3 min). The physical demands of traditional conditioning, repeated high-intensity effort exercise, and skill training activities were all lower than the physical demands of competition. These results demonstrate that absolute distances covered during professional rugby league matches are greater for outside backs, while the collision and repeated high-intensity effort demands are higher for hit-up forwards and wide-running forwards. The specific physical demands of competitive play, especially those demands associated with collisions and repeated high-intensity efforts, were not well matched by those observed in traditional conditioning, repeated high-intensity effort exercise, and skills training activities. Further research is required to investigate whether modifications need to be made to these training activities to better prepare players for the demands of National Rugby League competition. Copyright © 2011

  8. Analysis of Physical Collisions in Elite National Rugby League Match Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Cloe; Orr, Rhonda

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the impact forces of collision events during both attack and defense in elite rugby league match play and to compare the collision profiles between playing positions. 26 elite rugby league players. Player collisions were recorded using an integrated accelerometer in global positioning system units (SPI-Pro X, GPSports). Impact forces of collisions in attack (hit-ups) and defense (tackles) were analyzed from 359 files from outside backs (n = 78), adjustables (n = 97), wide-running forwards (n = 136), and hit-up forwards (n = 48) over 1 National Rugby League season. Hit-up forwards were involved in 0.8 collisions/min, significantly more than all other positional groups (wide-running forwards P = .050, adjustables P = .042, and outside backs P = .000). Outside backs experienced 25% fewer collisions per minute than hit-up forwards. Hit-up forwards experienced a collision within the 2 highest classifications of force (≥ 10 g) every 2.5 min of match play compared with 1 every 5 and 9 min for adjustables and outside backs, respectively. Hit-up forwards performed 0.5 tackles per minute of match play, 5 times that of outside backs (ES = 1.90; 95% CI [0.26,3.16]), and 0.2 hit-ups per minute of match play, twice as many as adjustables. During a rugby league match, players are exposed to a significant number of collision events. Positional differences exist, with hit-up and wide-running forwards experiencing greater collision events than adjustables and outside backs. Although these results may be unique to the individual team's defensive- and attacking-play strategies, they are indicative of the significant collision profiles in professional rugby league.

  9. Observational Review and Analysis of Concussion: a Method for Conducting a Standardized Video Analysis of Concussion in Rugby League

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gardner, Andrew J; Levi, Christopher R; Iverson, Grant L

    2017-01-01

    .... The aim of this study is to evaluate whether independent raters reliably agreed on the injury characterization when using a standardized observational instrument to record video footage of National Rugby League (NRL...

  10. European Union Customs Union And The Upgraded Customs Code Of The European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga M. Mesheriakova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author analyzes the institutional framework of the Customs Union of the EU and the modernized Customs Code of the EU. Since the establishment of the European Economic Community in 1957 the Customs Union became the main aim of proximal development of the integration process, because without the customs union was not possible to form a common market, establishment of which was at that time the main task of the European Economic Community. The EU Customs Union formed gradually with the deepening integration, so all the difficulties of the European integration process have left their imprint on the formation of the customs union. In the study author notes that issues related to the decision-making mechanism in the field of customs cooperation defined in acts of primary EU law, because the order of the ordinary legislative procedure prescribed in detail in the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. Author also notes that the special position among the rules to modernize the EU Customs Code occupies rules aimed at regulating the customs debt and guarantees. The provisions of the new Customs Code (Section 3 of the modernized Customs Code EU cover the following stages of the free movement of goods within the European Union. In conclusion, author notes that all matters relating to customs policy of the European Union are regulated in the founding treaties and the rules of the Customs Code only detail the provisions of the EU founding treaties. Author also concludes that the application of the modernized Customs Code of the European Union outside the context of the founding treaties of the European Union is impossible.

  11. Grassmann codes and Schubert unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder; Johnsen, Trygve; Ranestad, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    We study subsets of Grassmann varieties over a field , such that these subsets are unions of Schubert cycles, with respect to a fixed flag. We study such sets in detail, and give applications to coding theory, in particular for Grassmann codes. For much is known about such Schubert unions...... with a maximal number of -rational points for a given spanning dimension. We study the case and give a conjecture for general . We also define Schubert union codes in general, and study the parameters and support weights of these codes....

  12. Relative age effect in junior tennis (male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Agricola

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The issues of the age effect (the theory of the age influence have been shown in sport sciences since the 1980s. The theory of age effect works on the assumption that athletes born in the beginning of a calendar year are, particularly in children’s and junior age, more successful than athletes born in the end of the year. This fact has been proved by a number of research studies, mainly in ice hockey, soccer, and tennis but also in other sports. OBJECTIVE: The submitted contribution is aimed at verifying of the age effect in junior tennis. The research objective was to find out the distribution of birth date frequencies in a population of tennis players’ in individual months, quarters, and half-years in the observed period 2007–2011 and to check the significance of differences. METHODS: The research was conducted on male tennis players aged 13–14 (N = 239, participants of the World Junior Tennis Finals. From the methodological point of view, it was an intentional selection. The birth dates of individual tennis players were taken from official materials of the ITF, the research data were processed using Microsoft Excel. The personal data were processed with the approval of players and the hosting organization (ITF. RESULTS: Testing of the hypothesis on the significance of differences in the distribution of frequencies between individual quarters (Q1–Q4 has proved statistically relevant differences between Q1 and Q3, Q1 and Q4, Q2 and Q3, and Q2 and Q4; a statistically relevant difference has been also found in the distribution of frequencies between the first and second half of the year. On the basis of the results of the presented research, the age effect in the studied population of junior male tennis players can be regarded as significant. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the analysis of the research data confirm the conclusions of similar studies in other sports and prove that in the population of elite junior players

  13. Performance Indicators Related to Points Scoring and Winning in International Rugby Sevens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Dean G.; Hopkins, Will G.; Pyne, David B.; Anson, Judith M.

    2014-01-01

    Identification of performance indicators related to scoring points and winning is needed to inform tactical approaches to international rugby sevens competition. The aim of this study was to characterize team performance indicators in international rugby sevens and quantify their relationship with a team’s points scored and probability of winning. Performance indicators of each team during 196 matches of the 2011/2012 International Rugby Board Sevens World Series were modeled for their linear relationships with points scored and likelihood of winning within (changes in team values from match to match) and between (differences between team values averaged over all matches) teams. Relationships were evaluated as the change and difference in points and probability of winning associated with a two within- and between-team standard deviations increase in performance indicator values. Inferences about relationships were assessed using a smallest meaningful difference of one point and a 10% probability of a team changing the outcome of a close match. All indicators exhibited high within-team match-to-match variability (intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.00 to 0.23). Excluding indicators representing points-scoring actions or events occurring on average less than once per match, 13 of 17 indicators had substantial clear within-team relationships with points scored and/or likelihood of victory. Relationships between teams were generally similar in magnitude but unclear. Tactics that increase points scoring and likelihood of winning should be based on greater ball possession, fewer rucks, mauls, turnovers, penalties and free kicks, and limited passing. Key points Successful international rugby sevens teams tend to maintain ball possession; more frequently avoid taking the ball into contact; concede fewer turnovers, penalties and free kicks; retain possession in scrums, rucks and mauls; and limit passing the ball. Selected performance indicators may be used

  14. Performance indicators related to points scoring and winning in international rugby sevens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higham, Dean G; Hopkins, Will G; Pyne, David B; Anson, Judith M

    2014-05-01

    Identification of performance indicators related to scoring points and winning is needed to inform tactical approaches to international rugby sevens competition. The aim of this study was to characterize team performance indicators in international rugby sevens and quantify their relationship with a team's points scored and probability of winning. Performance indicators of each team during 196 matches of the 2011/2012 International Rugby Board Sevens World Series were modeled for their linear relationships with points scored and likelihood of winning within (changes in team values from match to match) and between (differences between team values averaged over all matches) teams. Relationships were evaluated as the change and difference in points and probability of winning associated with a two within- and between-team standard deviations increase in performance indicator values. Inferences about relationships were assessed using a smallest meaningful difference of one point and a 10% probability of a team changing the outcome of a close match. All indicators exhibited high within-team match-to-match variability (intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 0.00 to 0.23). Excluding indicators representing points-scoring actions or events occurring on average less than once per match, 13 of 17 indicators had substantial clear within-team relationships with points scored and/or likelihood of victory. Relationships between teams were generally similar in magnitude but unclear. Tactics that increase points scoring and likelihood of winning should be based on greater ball possession, fewer rucks, mauls, turnovers, penalties and free kicks, and limited passing. Key pointsSuccessful international rugby sevens teams tend to maintain ball possession; more frequently avoid taking the ball into contact; concede fewer turnovers, penalties and free kicks; retain possession in scrums, rucks and mauls; and limit passing the ball.Selected performance indicators may be used to

  15. Dating With Super Junior-M

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    担心情人节没人陪?还在幻想能与谁约会?2009年2月14日,梦想照进现实,SJ-M将在上海举办“情人Superman-Super Junior-M 2009上海歌会”,化身你的甜蜜情人,与你一起共度浪漫情人节。

  16. Junior doctors' knowledge of applied clinical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Yuri; Morgan, Mia; Singh, Annika; Ellis, Harold

    2008-05-01

    This study examines the level of knowledge of applied clinical anatomy among junior doctors. A multiple-choice questionnaire was designed, which covered 15 areas of anatomical knowledge essential to clinical practice, for example, important surface landmarks and interpretation of radiographs. The questionnaire was completed by 128 individuals. They comprised anatomy demonstrators, preregistration house officers (PRHOs), senior house officers (SHOs) and specialist registrars (SpRs) across the range of medical and surgical specialities. Answers were scored and analyzed by group, allowing comparison not only between newly qualified PRHOs and more senior doctors, but also with anatomy demonstrators who had undergone more traditional anatomical training. The results reveal a wide variation of knowledge among junior doctors, with PRHOs scoring an average of 72.1%, SHOs 77.1%, SpRs 82.4%, and demonstrators 82.9%. This progression in knowledge up the clinical hierarchy may reflect clinical experience building upon the foundations laid in medical school, although with demonstrators topping the league table, it seems that intensive academic training is the most beneficial. With junior doctors' training in the UK currently in flux, these results highlight the need for training in clinical anatomy to hold an important place in the development of tomorrow's clinicians.

  17. 32 CFR 643.116 - Credit unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Credit unions. 643.116 Section 643.116 National... Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.116 Credit unions. The establishment of credit unions on Army... buildings, without charge for rent or services, to any credit union organized under State law or to any...

  18. A Study of the 1968 Graduates of Manatee Junior College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivers, Earl R.

    This study of the 1968 graduates of Manatee Junior College, Florida, showed that: (1) it is not necessary to be in the top 40% of grade 12 to succeed in junior college, (2) students in the lowest percentiles at entrance can earn a degree, (3) the average candidate for a degree should expect to spend more than four terms at the junior college, (4)…

  19. Scrum kidney: epidemic pyoderma caused by a nephritogenic Streptococcus pyogenes in a rugby team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlam, H; Cookson, B

    1986-08-09

    In December, 1984, an outbreak of pyoderma affected five scrum players in the St Thomas' Hospital rugby team. The causative organism, Streptococcus pyogenes, was acquired during a match against a team experiencing an outbreak of impetigo, and was transmitted to two front row players of another team a week later, and to two girlfriends of affected St Thomas' players a month later. The strain was M-type 49, tetracycline-resistant, and virulent. It caused salpingitis in a girlfriend and acute glomerulonephritis in one rugby player. No case of subclinical glomerulonephritis was detected in eight patients with pyoderma. Screening of the St Thomas' Hospital team revealed four further cases of non-streptococcal skin infection, with evidence for contemporaneous spread of Staphylococcus aureus. Teams should not field players with sepsis, and it may be advisable to apply a skin antiseptic to traumatised skin after the match.

  20. A cross-national analysis of mental toughness and hardiness in elite university rugby league teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheard, Michael

    2009-08-01

    The relation between nationality and selected indicators of psychological performance in rugby league football was examined. Mental toughness was assessed using the alternative Psychological Performance Inventory (PPI-A) and hardiness using the Personal Views Survey III-R (PVS III-R). Participants (N = 49, M age = 21.7 yr., SD = 2.3) were male elite-level university rugby league footballers representing Australia and Great Britain. Participants completed the questionnaires in training camp in Sydney, Australia, one week prior to the commencement of an international tournament there in 2006. Multivariate analyses revealed that the Australian Universities players had significantly higher mean scores on Positive Cognition, Visualization, Total Mental Toughness, and Challenge than their opponents from Great Britain. The Australian Universities players were also the tournament winners. The findings concur with previous research indicating superior mental toughness and hardiness are related to successful sport performance. Practical implications focus on the potentiality of ameliorative cultural environments.

  1. 'Crashing' the rugby scrum -- an avoidable cause of cervical spinal injury. Case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, A T

    1982-06-12

    Deliberate crashing of the opposing packs prior to a rugby scrum is an illegal but commonly practised manoeuvre which can lead to abnormal flexion forces being applied to players in the front row, with resultant cervical spine and spinal cord injury. Two cases of cervical spinal cord injury sustained in this manner are presented. The mechanism of injury, the forces involved and preventive measures are discussed.

  2. Recovery strategies implemented by sport support staff of elite rugby players in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Van Wyk

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The main aim of this study was to determine strategies used toaccelerate recovery of elite rugby players after training and matches, asused by medical support staff of rugby teams in South A frica. A  secondaryaim was to focus on specifics of implementing ice/cold water immersion asrecovery strategy. Design: A  Questionnaire-based cross sectional descriptive survey was used.Setting and Participants: Most (n=58 of the medical support staff ofrugby teams (doctors, physiotherapists, biokineticists and fitness trainerswho attended the inaugural Rugby Medical A ssociation conference linked to the South A frican Sports MedicineA ssociation Conference in Pretoria (14-16th November, 2007 participated in the study. Results: Recovery strategies were utilized mostly after matches. Stretching and ice/cold water immersion were utilized the most (83%. More biokineticists and fitness trainers advocated the usage of stretching than their counter-parts (medical doctors and physiotherapists. Ice/Cold water immersion and A ctive Recovery were the top two ratedstrategies. A  summary of the details around implementation of ice/cold water therapy is shown (mean as utilized bythe subjects: (i The time to immersion after matches was 12±9 min; (ii The total duration of one immersion sessionwas 6±6 min; (iii 3 immersion sessions per average training week was utilized by subjects; (iv The average water temperature was 10±3 ºC.; (v Ice cubes were used most frequently to cool water for immersion sessions, and(vi plastic drums were mostly used as the container for water. Conclusion: In this survey the representative group of support staff provided insight to which strategies are utilizedin South A frican elite rugby teams to accelerate recovery of players after training and/or matches.

  3. High performance capsule implosions on the OMEGA Laser facility with rugby hohlraumsa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, H. F.; Amendt, P.; Park, H.-S.; Town, R. P. J.; Milovich, J. L.; Döppner, T.; Hinkel, D. E.; Wallace, R.; Sorce, C.; Strozzi, D. J.; Philippe, F.; Casner, A.; Caillaud, T.; Landoas, O.; Liberatore, S.; Monteil, M.-C.; Séguin, F.; Rosenberg, M.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R.; Glebov, V.; Stoeckl, C.; Nikroo, A.; Giraldez, E.

    2010-05-01

    Rugby-shaped hohlraums have been proposed as a method for x-ray drive enhancement for indirectly driven capsule implosions. This concept has recently been tested in a series of shots on the OMEGA laser facility [T. R. Boehly, D. L. Brown, R. S. Craxton et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. In this paper, experimental results are presented comparing the performance of D2-filled capsules between standard cylindrical Au hohlraums and rugby-shaped hohlraums. The rugby hohlraums demonstrated 18% more x-ray drive energy as compared with the cylinders, and the high-performance design of these implosions (both cylinder and rugby) also provided ≈20× more deuterium (DD) neutrons than any previous indirectly driven campaign on OMEGA and ≈3× more than ever achieved on NOVA [E. M. Campbell, Laser Part. Beams 9, 209 (1991)] implosions driven with nearly twice the laser energy. This increase in performance enables, for the first time, a measurement of the neutron burn history and imaging of the neutron core shapes in an indirectly driven implosion. Previous DD neutron yields had been too low to register this key measurement of capsule performance and the effects of dynamic mix. A wealth of additional data on the fuel areal density from the suite of charged particle diagnostics was obtained on a subset of the shots that used D H3e rather than D2 fuel. Comparisons of the experimental results with numerical simulations are shown to be in very good agreement. The design techniques employed in this campaign, e.g., smaller laser entrance holes and hohlraum case-to-capsule ratios, provide added confidence in the pursuit of ignition on the National Ignition Facility [J. D. Lindl, P. Amendt, R. L. Berger et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 339 (2004)].

  4. Planar hydrodynamic instability computations and experiments with rugby-shaped hohlraums at the Omega laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenboomgaerde, M.; Liberatore, S.; Galmiche, D.; Casner, A.; Huser, G.; Jadaud, J. P.; Villette, B.

    2008-05-01

    Implosion of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) capsule is very sensitive to the growth of sphericity perturbations. The control of the feeding of such perturbations and their transport ('feedthrough') through the ablator is a key point to reach ignition. Since 2002 [1, 2], experiments have been designed and performed on the Omega laser facility in order to study these phenomena in planar geometry. A new 'rugby shaped' hohlraum was used [3, 4]. We present experimental results and comparisons with numerical simulations.

  5. Nutritional knowledge and eating habits of professional rugby league players: does knowledge translate into practice?

    OpenAIRE

    Alaunyte, Ieva; Perry, John L; Aubrey, Tony

    2015-01-01

    Background Adequate nutrient intake is important to support training and to optimise performance of elite athletes. Nutritional knowledge has been shown to play an important role in adopting optimal nutrition practices. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the level of nutritional knowledge and dietary habits in elite English rugby league players using the eatwell plate food categories. Method General nutritional knowledge questionnaires were collected duri...

  6. Nutrient intake, serum lipids and iron status of colligiate rugby players

    OpenAIRE

    Imamura Hiroyuki; Iide Kazuhide; Yoshimura Yoshitaka; Kumagai Kenya; Oshikata Reika; Miyahara Keiko; Oda Kazuto; Miyamoto Noriko; Nakazawa Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background There are two main playing positions in rugby (backs and forwards), which demonstrate different exercise patterns, roles, and physical characteristics. The purpose of this study was: 1) to collect baseline data on nutrient intake in order to advise the athletes about nutrition practices that might enhance performance, and 2) to compare serum lipids, lipoproteins, apolipoproteins (apo), lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity, and iron status of forwards and ba...

  7. Declining incidence of catastrophic cervical spine injuries in French rugby: 1996-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohu, Yoann; Julia, Marc; Bagate, Christian; Peyrin, Jean-Claude; Colonna, Jean-Pierre; Thoreux, Patricia; Pascal-Moussellard, Hugues

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the incidence and the risk factors of catastrophic cervical spine injuries in French rugby. Descriptive epidemiology study. The patients included had cervical spine injuries causing neurological disorder classified from the ASIA scale, grade A to D. A retrospective review of all cases that occurred between the 1996-1997 and the 2005-2006 seasons was made. Circumstances of the injuries and of the clinical outcome were collected by interview. There were 37 cases of catastrophic cervical spine injuries in French rugby for the last 10 years. The incidence of the cervical spine injuries decreased during this period. The rates of injury were 2.1 per 100,000 players per year during the 1996-1997 season and 1.4 during the 2005-2006 season (P scrum was a major cause of injury, accounting for 51.3% (19/37). The forwards represented 89.2% (33/37) of the injured players. The hookers were involved in 37.8% (14/37) of the cases. The measures of prevention with the modification of the rules of scrum and the creation of a medical certificate required for players to play in the front row must have been successful. The incidence of disabling cervical spine injuries in French rugby has decreased for the last 10 years, which is linked to the decreasing incidence of injuries in the scrum. This epidemiological study shows the effectiveness of the preventive measures on cervical spine injuries in French rugby players. A national register of catastrophic cervical spine injuries extends our epidemiological observations.

  8. Athlete's heart patterns in elite rugby players: effects of training specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Laurent; Kervio, Gaëlle; Corneloup, Luc; Vincent, Marie-Pierre; Baudot, Christophe; Rebeyrol, Jean-Louis; Merle, Francis; Gencel, Laurent; Carré, François

    2013-02-01

    Athlete's heart patterns have been widely described. However, to our knowledge, few studies have focused on professional rugby players, who train differently according to their field position. To describe electrocardiographic and echocardiographic patterns observed in elite rugby players according to their field position. One hundred and thirty-five professional rugby players at the end of the competitive season were included. According to a modified Pelliccia's classification, 68.1% of electrocardiograms were normal or had minor abnormalities, 27.2% were mildly abnormal and 3.7% were distinctly abnormal. Heart rate was higher in scrum first-row players (P<0.05). Absolute and indexed left ventricular end-diastolic internal diameters (LVIDd; absolute value 59.3±4.7 mm) exceeded 65 mm and 32 mm/m2 in 13% and 1.5% of players, respectively. Indexed LVIDd values were higher in back players (P<0.001). Left ventricular interventricular septum and posterior wall thicknesses (absolute values 9.4±1.7 mm and 9.2±1.6 mm, respectively) exceeded 13 mm in 3.7% of players. Concentric cardiac hypertrophy was noted in 3.7% of players. Except for one Wolff-Parkinson-White pattern, players with significant ECG or echocardiographic abnormalities showed no cardiovascular event or disease during follow-up. Thus, elite rugby players present similar heart patterns to elite athletes in other sports. Major electrocardiographic and echocardiographic abnormalities are quite rare. Eccentric cardiac remodelling is more frequent in back players. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  9. Caffeine-containing energy drink improves sprint performance during an international rugby sevens competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coso, Juan; Portillo, Javier; Muñoz, Gloria; Abián-Vicén, Javier; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Muñoz-Guerra, Jesús

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on physical performance during a rugby sevens competition. A second purpose was to investigate the post-competition urinary caffeine concentration derived from the energy drink intake. On two non-consecutive days of a friendly tournament, 16 women from the Spanish National rugby sevens Team (mean age and body mass = 23 ± 2 years and 66 ± 7 kg) ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body mass in the form of an energy drink (Fure(®), ProEnergetics) or the same drink without caffeine (placebo). After 60 min for caffeine absorption, participants performed a 15-s maximal jump test, a 6 × 30 m sprint test, and then played three rugby sevens games against another national team. Individual running pace and instantaneous speed during the games were assessed using global positioning satellite (GPS) devices. Urine samples were obtained pre and post-competition. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of the energy drink increased muscle power output during the jump series (23.5 ± 10.1 vs. 25.6 ± 11.8 kW, P = 0.05), running pace during the games (87.5 ± 8.3 vs. 95.4 ± 12.7 m/min, P energy drink did not affect maximal running speed during the repeated sprint test (25.0 ± 1.5 vs. 25.0 ± 1.7 km/h). The ingestion of the energy drink resulted in a higher post-competition urine caffeine concentration than the placebo (3.3 ± 0.7 vs. 0.2 ± 0.1 μg/mL; P energy drink considerably enhanced physical performance during a women's rugby sevens competition.

  10. Muscular Damage and Kidney Function in Rugby Players after Daily Whole Body Cryostimulation

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Muscular damage, consequent to strenuous activities, could exceed the recovery potential of muscles and determine renal failure. Whole body cryostimulation is a cold-based therapy used to improve recovery or overcome fatigue symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of repeated sessions of cryostimulation on muscle damage, renal function, and their relationship. Serum samples, from 27 elite rugby players, under training, before and after 2 sessions/day of cryotherapy over 7 days, wer...

  11. Correlates of tackling ability in high-performance rugby league players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G; Abernethy, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the tackling ability of high-performance rugby league players and determined the relationship between physiological and anthropometric qualities and tackling ability in these athletes. Twenty professional (National Rugby League) and 17 semiprofessional (Queensland Cup) rugby league players underwent a standardized 1-on-1 tackling drill in a 10-m grid. Video footage was taken from the rear, side, and front of the defending player. Tackling proficiency was assessed using standardized technical criteria. In addition, all players underwent measurements of standard anthropometry (height, body mass, and sum of 7 skinfolds), acceleration (10-m sprint), change of direction speed (505 test), and lower body muscular power (vertical jump). Professional players had significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) tackling proficiency than semiprofessional players (87.5 ± 2.0 vs. 75.0 ± 2.3%). Professional players were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) older, more experienced, leaner, and had greater acceleration than semiprofessional players. The strongest individual correlates of tackling ability were age (r = 0.41, p ≤ 0.05), playing experience (r = 0.70, p ≤ 0.01), skinfold thickness (r = -0.59, p ≤ 0.01), acceleration (r = 0.41, p ≤ 0.05), and lower body muscular power (r = 0.38, p ≤ 0.05). When hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to determine which of the variables predicted tackling ability, playing experience and lower body muscular power were the only variables that contributed significantly (r2 = 0.60, p ≤ 0.01) to the predictive model. From a practical perspective, strength and conditioning coaches should emphasize the development of acceleration, lower body muscular power, and lean muscle mass to improve tackling ability in high-performance rugby league players.

  12. Factors affecting exercise intensity in professional rugby league match-play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Thomas; Coutts, Aaron J

    2016-06-01

    To examine the effects of match-related and individual player characteristics on running performance in professional rugby league matches. Longitudinal observational study. Global positioning system (GPS) and technical performance measures (attacking involvements and tackles made) were collected from 23 players competing in the National Rugby League (NRL) over 24 matches during a season. The GPS data were categorised into relative total distance (mmin(-1)) and relative high-speed running distance (HSR mmin(-1), >14.4kmh(-1)). Each match was classified according to season phase, location, recovery length, opposition strength and result. Individual player fitness status was obtained from a 1.2-km shuttle run test conducted prior to the start of the season. Two separate linear mixed models were constructed to examine the influence of match-related and individual player characteristics on relative total and HSR distances. Matches played away from home, early in the season and following short recovery cycles were associated with reduced relative total and HSR distances. Matches won contained less relative total and HSR distance; whereas only HSR distance was higher against weaker opposition. The total time the ball was out of play reduced relative total but not HSR distances. The number of defensive but not attacking involvements influenced both physical performance measures. Finally, player fitness was positively related to both relative total and HSR distances. There appears to be a complex interplay of factors affecting match-running performance in rugby league. The results underline the importance of considering contextual factors when analysing rugby league match-activity profiles. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effect of Caffeine on Repeat-High-Intensity-Effort Performance in Rugby League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellington, Brandon M; Leveritt, Michael D; Kelly, Vincent G

    2017-02-01

    Repeat-high-intensity efforts (RHIEs) have recently been shown to occur at critical periods of rugby league matches. To examine the effect that caffeine has on RHIE performance in rugby league players. Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 11 semiprofessional rugby league players (age 19.0 ± 0.5 y, body mass 87.4 ± 12.9 kg, height 178.9 ± 2.6 cm) completed 2 experimental trials that involved completing an RHIE test after either caffeine (300 mg caffeine) or placebo (vitamin H) ingestion. Each trial consisted of 3 sets of 20-m sprints interspersed with bouts of tackling. During the RHIE test, 20-m-sprint time, heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and blood lactate were measured. Total time to complete the nine 20-m sprints during the caffeine condition was 1.0% faster (28.46 ± 1.4 s) than during the placebo condition (28.77 ± 1.7 s) (ES = 0.18, 90%CI -0.7 to 0.1 s). This resulted in a very likely chance of caffeine being of benefit to RHIE performance (99% likely to be beneficial). These improvements were more pronounced in the early stages of the test, with a 1.3%, 1.0%, and 0.9% improvement in sprint performance during sets 1, 2, and 3 respectively. There was no significant difference in RPE across the 3 sets (P = .47, 0.48, 1.00) or mean HR (P = .36), maximal HR (P = .74), or blood lactate (P = .50) between treatment conditions. Preexercise ingestion of 300 mg caffeine produced practically meaningful improvements in RHIE performance in rugby league players.

  14. The European Union's Eastward Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanns-D. Jacobsen

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available In July 1997 the Commission of the European Union presented its Agenda 2000. This document not only suggested to start accession talks with some East and Central European countries (CEEC in early 1998 but it also provided proposals for a restructuring of EU expenditures. On this background this contribution discusses the state of readiness of the Central and East European countries to become EU members over the next few years and the Union's capacity to absorb up to ten CEEC over the next decade or so. This study concludes that the European Union has become an anchor of stability to the CEEC that guarantees both democracy and economic security--much more than could be expected only a couple of years ago. The Union's readiness to accept the membership of CEEC has, in a decisive way, contributed to their societal, political and economic stabilization. There is almost a contest among the CEEC on which one is going to meet the accession criteria first and best. The enlargement process, however, is connected to problems the resolution of which realistically postpone its successful conclusion at least into the year 2005. The main reasons are (1 the welfare gap between the EU area and the CEEC, (2 the need for more institutional and economic changes in the CEEC to make them ready for acces-sion, and, most importantly, (3 the necessity for the European Union to prepare herself for accession by a comprehensive financial reform and fundamental institutional changes.

  15. The European Union's Eastward Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanns-D. Jacobsen

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available In July 1997 the Commission of the European Union presented its Agenda 2000. This document not only suggested to start accession talks with some East and Central European countries (CEEC in early 1998 but it also provided proposals for a restructuring of EU expenditures. On this background this contribution discusses the state of readiness of the Central and East European countries to become EU members over the next few years and the Union's capacity to absorb up to ten CEEC over the next decade or so. This study concludes that the European Union has become an anchor of stability to the CEEC that guarantees both democracy and economic security--much more than could be expected only a couple of years ago. The Union's readiness to accept the membership of CEEC has, in a decisive way, contributed to their societal, political and economic stabilization. There is almost a contest among the CEEC on which one is going to meet the accession criteria first and best. The enlargement process, however, is connected to problems the resolution of which realistically postpone its successful conclusion at least into the year 2005. The main reasons are (1 the welfare gap between the EU area and the CEEC, (2 the need for more institutional and economic changes in the CEEC to make them ready for acces-sion, and, most importantly, (3 the necessity for the European Union to prepare herself for accession by a comprehensive financial reform and fundamental institutional changes.

  16. Catastrophic rugby injuries of the spinal cord: changing patterns of injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, A T

    1991-03-01

    In reports from the UK and New Zealand, it is noted that the incidence of rugby injuries to the cervical spinal cord has dropped and that the percentage of players injured in the tackle has similarly decreased. In contrast, this does not appear to be the pattern in South Africa and an analysis has therefore been made of 40 rugby players sustaining injuries to the spinal cord during the period 1985 to 1989. The radiological appearances on admission have been correlated with the circumstances of injury, associated orthopaedic injuries and neurological deficits. The tackle was responsible for the majority of injuries, causing more than the scrum. Tackles were also responsible for more cases of complete, permanent quadriplegia than the scrum. The commonest cause of injury in players being tackled was the high tackle around the neck, while the commonest cause of injury in players making the tackle was the dive tackle. This survey has shown that the tackle is now the major cause of spinal cord injury in South African rugby, in contrast to earlier analyses in which the scrum was identified as the most common cause.

  17. A New Model for Inclusive Sports? An Evaluation of Participants’ Experiences of Mixed Ability Rugby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martino Corazza

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sport has been recognised as a potential catalyst for social inclusion. The Mixed Ability Model represents an innovative approach to inclusive sport by encouraging disabled and non-disabled players to interact in a mainstream club environment. However, research around the impacts of the Model is currently lacking. This paper aims to contribute empirical data to this gap by evaluating participants’ experiences of Mixed Ability Rugby and highlighting implications for future initiatives. Primary qualitative data were collected within two Mixed Ability Rugby teams in the UK and Italy through online questionnaires and focus groups. Data were analysed using Simplican et al.’s (2015 model of social inclusion. Data show that Mixed Ability Rugby has significant potential for achieving inclusionary outcomes. Positive social impacts, reported by all participants, regardless of (disability, include enhanced social networks, an increase in social capital, personal development and fundamental perception shifts. Factors relevant to the Mixed Ability Model are identified that enhance these impacts and inclusionary outcomes. The mainstream setting was reportedly the most important, with further aspects including a supportive club environment and promotion of self-advocacy. A ‘Wheel of Inclusion’ is developed that provides a useful basis for evaluating current inclusive sport initiatives and for designing new ones.

  18. Association between the training loads imposed to amateur rugby sevens players and burnout syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Sarly Coutinho Sobral

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Burnout syndrome has been shown to be increasingly prevalent in athletes, since it is related to factors that influence levels of stress during the preparation of sports. Therefore, it has been studied in several sports, but not in Rugby Seven. The aim of this study was to correlate the effects of training loads imposed on amateur Rugby Sevens players with the burnout questionnaire. Nine players (25 ± 5 years-old were evaluated before the preparatory period. Assessment included the measurement of the % fat percentage; nutritional status, stress, and aerobic power. During the preparatory period, once again, it was assessed the state of stress, aerobic power, and intensity of the training program. It was observed that there is no significant correlation between the intensity of the workout and Burnout scores (p> 0.05, nor between Burnout scores and aerobic capacity. However, there was significant a correlation between the intensity of training performed with aerobic power (p< 0.01. Therefore, it is concluded that a training program prescribed properly, prevents the onset of burnout syndrome in Rugby Sevens players.

  19. Acute exercise in elite rugby players increases the circulating level of the cardiovascular biomarker GDF-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliera, Emanuela; Lombardi, Giovanni; Marazzi, Monica G; Grasso, Dalila; Vianello, Elena; Pozzoni, Roberto; Banfi, Giuseppe; Corsi Romanelli, Massimiliano M

    2014-09-01

    Intense training can lead to a pathophysiological change in serum concentration of a variety of biomarkers. Traditional biomarkers of cardiac injury are very useful in monitoring CVD patients, but in healthy subjects or athletes they cannot be informative enough about the cardiovascular risk, because in these cases their serum levels do not increase over the pathological limit. Therefore novel cardiovascular biomarkers are required in order to allow a better monitoring of sport performance, prediction of overtraining and diagnosis of sport-related cardiac injuries. Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is emerging as a powerful cardiovascular injury risk indicator. In this study we investigate the effect of intense physical training of on the circulating levels of GDF-15 in rugby professional players. Serum GDF-15, Erythropoietin, IL-6, the cardiovascular parameter ST-2, NT-proBNP and routine hematological parameters were measured in a group of 30 rugby players before and after a session of intense training. While ST-2, IL-6 and hsCRP displayed no significant changes after intense training, NT-proBNP and GDF-15 showed a significant increase, even without reaching the pathological level. The measure of GDF-15 in professional rugby players could be a useful tool to monitoring their cardiovascular status during training and competition session in order to prevent the onset of collateral cardiovascular adverse event due to the intense training and, in the case of cardiac injury, it could possibly allow a very early diagnosis at the beginning of the pathogenic process.

  20. Electromyographic analysis of selected shoulder muscles during a rugby football tackle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrington Lee

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies have shown that the incidence of shoulder injuries is increasing in rugby and the majority are related to the contact/tackle phase of play. However, no data currently exists that describes preparatory muscle activity during tackle. This information could aid in guiding training and rehabilitation, if available. The purpose of the study was to assess the sequence of onset of EMG activity of selected scapulohumeral muscles during rugby tackle. 15 healthy professional rugby players participated in the study. Surface EMG activity was assessed for timing of onset relative to time of impact during a modified tackle activity in pectorialis major, biceps brachii, latissimus dorsi, serratus anterior and infraspinatus muscles. Results Onset of activity occurred in all muscles prior to impact. Factorial ANOVA showed significant differences between muscles in activation timing (p = 0.0001, paired t-tests revealed that serratus anterior was activated prior to all other muscles tested (p 0.05, except pectorialis major on all comparisons showed significantly later activation timing than all other muscles (p Conclusion Muscle activation timing may if not properly balanced around the shoulder girdle expose the glenohumeral joint to excessive load and stress. This paper demonstrates a simple method which sets out some preliminary normative data in healthy players. Further studies relating these data to injured players are required.