WorldWideScience

Sample records for junior rugby union

  1. Trainability of junior Rugby Union players

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using physical or psychological developmental milestones as guidelines, these models in sport were .... Rugby is a highly demanding, physical, technical and tactical team sport ... usually work with large groups of athletes, therefore a practical.

  2. A Review of the Anthropometric Characteristics, Grading and Dispensation of Junior and Youth Rugby Union Players in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Declan Alexander; McIntosh, Andrew Stuart; Denny, Greg

    2016-08-01

    The grading of Australian junior and youth rugby union players has received substantial media attention in recent years. Media reports have focussed on size mismatches observed between players, especially players with Polynesian heritage, and the concerned parents who fear for the safety of their child owing to perceived mismatches. Although such concerns are well meaning, few media reports recognise the need for substantial evidence to determine the best grading system for junior and youth rugby union players. The current study reviewed relevant literature pertinent to the grading and dispensation of junior and youth rugby union players. Using primary and secondary search strategies, a total of 33 articles reporting the anthropometric characteristics of junior and youth rugby players were identified. Anthropometric data from the literature were compared with normative population data and currently used dispensation criteria. Junior and youth rugby players were found to be taller and heavier than normative population data. Current dispensation criteria, in terms of body mass, were found to vary and it is suggested that criteria be revised and standardised across rugby unions throughout Australia. Although it is acknowledged that other factors are important for grading players, anthropometric characteristics should be considered as potential dispensation criteria to supplement current age-based grading for junior and youth rugby union players. Measuring the body mass and stature of each junior player upon pre-season registration is suggested, which would provide data to establish valid dispensation criteria for the following season.

  3. Incidence of injury in elite junior Rugby Union: a prospective descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, A; Cross, D S

    2004-12-01

    The high incidence of injury in Rugby Union is well documented, particularly at elite levels of competition. This article describes the incidence and nature of all injuries sustained by elite Western Australian junior Rugby Union players during the 26 weeks up to and including the 1997 National Championship campaign. Informed consent was gained for each participant (n = 44) prior to completion of an extensive baseline questionnaire. Exposure and injury data were collected at each training session and game. The injury incidence rate over the 26 week period was 13.26/1000 player hours. Injury data were analysed by phase of play, position, severity and if occurred at games or training. The incidence of injury was significantly associated with the position played (chi2 = 67.49, p value = 0.008) and the phase of play in which the injury occurred (chi2 = 8.07, p value = 0.042). Tackling was the most dangerous phase of play (52% of injuries) and the most common site of injury was the lower limb (37%). Most injuries occurred during games (56%) and the flanker was the position most at risk of injury (12%). Further research is needed to identify the aetiology of injury at all levels of competition and to use these findings to develop effective injury prevention strategies in this sport. Position-specific risk factors should also be investigated, as should the mechanism of injury associated with tackling which is the phase of play in which significantly more injuries occur in rugby.

  4. Similar head impact acceleration measured using instrumented ear patches in a junior rugby union team during matches in comparison with other sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Doug A; Hume, Patria A; Gissane, Conor; Clark, Trevor N

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Direct impact with the head and the inertial loading of the head have been postulated as major mechanisms of head-related injuries, such as concussion. METHODS This descriptive observational study was conducted to quantify the head impact acceleration characteristics in under-9-year-old junior rugby union players in New Zealand. The impact magnitude, frequency, and location were collected with a wireless head impact sensor that was worn by 14 junior rugby players who participated in 4 matches. RESULTS A total of 721 impacts > 10g were recorded. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) number of impacts per player was 46 (IQR 37-58), resulting in 10 (IQR 4-18) impacts to the head per player per match. The median impact magnitudes recorded were 15g (IQR 12g-21g) for linear acceleration and 2296 rad/sec(2) (IQR 1352-4152 rad/sec(2)) for rotational acceleration. CONCLUSIONS There were 121 impacts (16.8%) above the rotational injury risk limit and 1 (0.1%) impact above the linear injury risk limit. The acceleration magnitude and number of head impacts in junior rugby union players were higher than those previously reported in similar age-group sports participants. The median linear acceleration for the under-9-year-old rugby players were similar to 7- to 8-year-old American football players, but lower than 9- to 12-year-old youth American football players. The median rotational accelerations measured were higher than the median and 95th percentiles in youth, high school, and collegiate American football players.

  5. Epidemiology of concussion in men's elite Rugby-7s (Sevens World Series) and Rugby-15s (Rugby World Cup, Junior World Championship and Rugby Trophy, Pacific Nations Cup and English Premiership).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W; Taylor, Aileen; Raftery, Martin

    2015-04-01

    To determine the incidence, nature and causes of concussions sustained during men's elite professional Rugby-7s and Rugby-15s. A prospective cohort study recording injuries classified as a time-loss concussion. Players competing in the following tournaments: Rugby 15s-English Premiership (2007/2008 to 2010/2011), Rugby World Cup (2007, 2011), Pacific Nations Cup (2012, 2013), Junior World Championship (2008, 2010-2013), Junior World Rugby Trophy (2008, 2010-2013); Rugby 7s-Sevens World Series (2008/2009, 2010/2011 to 2012/2013). The study was implemented according to the international consensus statement for epidemiological studies in rugby union; the main outcome measures included the number, incidence (number of concussions/1000 player-match-hours), mean and median severity (days absence) and cause of concussion. The incidence of concussion in Rugby-7s was significantly higher than that in Rugby-15s (risk ratio=1.84; pRugby-7s than Rugby-15s (mean-Rugby-7s: 19.2, Rugby-15s: 10.1; median-Rugby 7s: 20, Rugby-15s: 7; pRugby-7s and collisions (43.6%) in Rugby-15s. Significantly more (risk ratio=1.49; p=0.004) concussed players were removed immediately from the game in Rugby-7s (69.7%) compared to Rugby-15s (46.7%). Six actions were identified to improve the management of concussion in rugby: implement a pitch-side concussion assessment protocol; improve compliance with return-to-play protocols; work with referees to review the nature and consequences of collisions; improve players' tackle technique; investigate the forces involved in tackles and collisions; and evaluate reasons for the higher incidence of concussions in Rugby-7s. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Epidemiological Review of Injuries in Rugby Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Kaux

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rugby is a sport that is growing in popularity. A contact sport par excellence, it causes a significant number of injuries. In Rugby Union, there are 30 to 91 injuries per 1000 match hours. This epidemiological review of injuries incurred by rugby players mentions the position and type of injuries, the causes, time during the match and season in which they occur and the players’ positions as well as the length of players’ absences following the injury.

  7. The effect of deprivation on the developmental activities of adolescent rugby union players in Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winn, Charles O N; Ford, Paul R; McNarry, Melitta A; Lewis, Jason; Stratton, Gareth

    2017-12-01

    The developmental activities of rugby union players and their interaction with deprivation remain to be elucidated. Five-hundred and ninety elite junior rugby union players (14.8 ± 0.5 years) were split into deprivation quintiles. These players subsequently completed a participant history questionnaire to record their involvement in rugby and other sports. Players accumulated 1987 ± 1297 h in rugby between 6 and 15 years of age. During the mini rugby stage (6-10 years of age), players accumulated an average of 113 ± 105, 89 ± 69 and 43 ± 19 h per year in rugby play, practice and competition, respectively. Moreover, 461 players engaged in an average of two other sports during the mini rugby stage. During the junior rugby stage (11-15 years of age), players accumulated 179 ± 98, 115 ± 90 and 64 ± 26 h per year in rugby practice, play and competition, respectively, and 538 players took part in three other sports. Players who were more deprived accumulated less rugby hours and participated in fewer other sports, but age milestones were not different between deprivation quintiles. There were no differences within developmental activities in rugby between deprivation groups.

  8. Training volume and injury incidence in a professional rugby union ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The multiplicity of factors that contribute to injury in rugby union makes it difficult to .... computed under the assumption that rugby union matches last on average 80 ..... for the physiological and musculoskeletal demands of competition. 20.

  9. Injuries in professional Rugby Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targett, S G

    1998-10-01

    To document injury rates in professional rugby players in the Rugby Super 12 competition and to act as a pilot study for future studies of rugby injuries. Prospective longitudinal study encompassing the 1997 Super 12 rugby season. A New Zealand Super 12 rugby squad. 25 professional rugby players (replacement players were used for unavailable players, so although 30 different players were used during the season, there were only 25 in the squad at any one time). An "injury" was defined as something that prevented a player from taking part in two training sessions, from playing the next week, or something requiring special medical treatment (suturing or special investigations). An injury was "significant" if it prevented the player from being able to play one week after sustaining it (that is, if it made the player miss the next match). The overall injury rate was 120/1000 player hours. The rate of significant injuries was 45/1000 player hours. Those playing the position of "forward" had a higher overall injury rate than other players, but there was no difference in significant injury rate between the forwards and the backs. Injuries that caused players to miss game time occurred almost exclusively during the pre-season program or in the final third of the season. The majority of injuries were musculo-tendinous sprains or strains. The phase of play responsible for the majority of injuries was the tackle. The most frequently injured body part was the head and face. No catastrophic injuries occurred during the study period. Injury rates increase with increasing grade of rugby, injury rates in the Super 12 competition being higher than in first grade rugby. There is very little quality data on rugby injuries, and the few studies available use different methods of data collection and injury definition. There is a pressing need for the collection of accurate ongoing epidemiological data on injuries in rugby.

  10. Body Image Amongst Elite Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Claire; Hindle, Chloe; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca; Slater, Joanne; Brown, Rachel; Smith, Brett; Baker, Dane; Healey, Philip; Black, Katherine

    2017-11-16

    There is limited information on the risk of eating disorders and body image of elite male athletes. However, research suggests there are some athletes who have poor body image and they may be at increased risk of developing eating disorders. Therefore, the current study investigated risk of eating disorders, body image, and the relationship with age, in elite rugby union players during their pre-season training period.This cross-sectional study was undertaken at the start of the pre-season amongst elite rugby union players in New Zealand. Twenty-six professional rugby union players completed a 49-item questionnaire on body image and disordered eating. A 'body image score' was calculated from questionnaire subscales including 'drive for thinness', 'bulimia' and 'body dissatisfaction', with total scores above twenty indicative of poor body image.Body image scores varied from 8-39 out of a possible 0-100. Disordered eating behaviours were reported, including binge eating at least once a week (15%, n=4/26), pathogenic weight control use (4%, n=1/26) and avoidance of certain foods (77%, n=20/26). There was a statistically significant inverse association between the bulimia subscale and age (P = 0.034).At the start of the pre-season training period, many elite rugby union players experience disturbances in body image. The prevalence of disordered eating behaviours is of concern, and needs to be minimised due to the negative impact on health and performance. A focus on assessment and education of younger male rugby players may be required in order to reduce disordered eating patterns.

  11. Injuries in Rugby Union football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J E; Gibson, T

    In a prospective study of 185 players attached to 10 British rugby clubs, 151 injuries were recorded among 98 of them (53%) during a single season. Forwards sustained significantly more injuries than backs. The standard of rugby, players' body weights, degree of fitness, and presence of joint hypermobility did not affect the risk of injury. The leg was the most common site of injury. Head and neck injuries were significantly more common when play was static and on wet pitches. Scrummaging accounted for no neck injuries. Almost half the injuries occurred during the last quarter of games. Foul play might have caused as many as 47 (31%) of all reported injuries. Complete eradication of deliberately dangerous play would considerably reduce the high incidence of injuries in this sport.

  12. Mechanical Properties of Sprinting in Elite Rugby Union and Rugby League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Matt R; Brughelli, Matt; Brown, Scott R; Samozino, Pierre; Gill, Nicholas D; Cronin, John B; Morin, Jean-Benoît

    2015-09-01

    To compare mechanical properties of overground sprint running in elite rugby union and rugby league athletes. Thirty elite rugby code (15 rugby union and 15 rugby league) athletes participated in this cross-sectional analysis. Radar was used to measure maximal overground sprint performance over 20 or 30 m (forwards and backs, respectively). In addition to time at 2, 5, 10, 20, and 30 m, velocity-time signals were analyzed to derive external horizontal force-velocity relationships with a recently validated method. From this relationship, the maximal theoretical velocity, external relative and absolute horizontal force, horizontal power, and optimal horizontal force for peak power production were determined. While differences in maximal velocity were unclear between codes, rugby union backs produced moderately faster split times, with the most substantial differences occurring at 2 and 5 m (ES 0.95 and 0.86, respectively). In addition, rugby union backs produced moderately larger relative horizontal force, optimal force, and peak power capabilities than rugby league backs (ES 0.73-0.77). Rugby union forwards had a higher absolute force (ES 0.77) despite having ~12% more body weight than rugby league forwards. In this elite sample, rugby union athletes typically displayed greater short-distance sprint performance, which may be linked to an ability to generate high levels of horizontal force and power. The acceleration characteristics presented in this study could be a result of the individual movement and positional demands of each code.

  13. Injury Patterns, Physiological Profile, and Performance in University Rugby Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Shane; Halaki, Mark; Sharp, Tristan; Orr, Rhonda

    2018-01-01

    Rugby union is a physically demanding collision sport with high injury rates. There is a common perception that higher training loads result in greater injury risk in field-based sports. To determine injury, anthropometric, and physical-performance characteristics in junior rugby union players and investigate the interaction between training load and injury across a competitive season. Prospective cohort study. Fifty-one players (age 19.2 ± 0.7 y) from an under-20 university rugby union team (forwards, n = 27; backs, n = 24) participated in a study conducted over a competition season. Training load, injury characteristics, anthropometry, physiological performance, and match time-loss injury incidence were observed. Backs had significantly lower body mass (ES [95% CI] = 1.6 [0.9, 2.2]), skinfold thickness (ES = 1.1 [0.5, 1.7]), strength (squat ES = 0.6 [0.0, 1.2], deadlift ES = 0.6 [0.0, 1.1], bench press ES = 0.9 [0.4, 1.5]), lower-body power (ES = 0.4 [-0.2, 1.0]), and higher maximal aerobic capacity (ES = -0.3 [-0.8, 0.3]) than forwards. Match injury incidence was 107.3 injuries/1000 player hours (forwards 91.4/1000, backs 125.5/1000) during preseason and 110.7 injuries/1000 player hours (forwards 124.1/1000, backs 95.2/1000) during in-season. Forwards showed higher incidence of joint and ligament (P = .049) and upper-limb (P = .011) injuries than backs. No significant relationship between overall training load and match injury incidence was found. However, lower match injury incidence was associated with higher weekly training volume in backs (P = .007). Positional differences in body composition, performance, injury characteristics, and match injury patterns were identified in junior university rugby union players, indicating the need for position-specific training programs to reduce risk of injury.

  14. Injury trends and prevention in rugby union football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, Amy E; Dexter, William W

    2010-01-01

    Rugby union football has long been one of the most popular sports in the world. Its popularity and number of participants continue to increase in the United States. Until 1995, rugby union primarily was an amateur sport. Worldwide there are now flourishing professional leagues in many countries, and after a long absence, rugby union will be returning to the Olympic games in 2016. In the United States, rugby participation continues to increase, particularly at the collegiate and high school levels. With the increase in rugby professional athletes and the reported increase in aggressive play, there have been changes to the injury patterns in the sport. There is still significant need for further epidemiologic data as there is evidence that injury prevention programs and rule changes have been successful in decreasing the number of catastrophic injuries in rugby union.

  15. Concussion in youth rugby union and rugby league: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkwood, Graham; Parekh, Nikesh; Ofori-Asenso, Richard; Pollock, Allyson M

    2015-04-01

    Children and adolescents who play rugby are at increased risk of concussion and its effects. Competitive rugby union and rugby league feature as major sports in the school sport curriculum in the UK. There is a need for a thorough understanding of the epidemiology of concussion in youth rugby, the mechanisms involved in injuries and predisposing risk factors. The publication databases Pubmed, Embase and SportDISCUS were searched in April 2014 for primary research studies of child and adolescent rugby union and rugby league (under 20 years) in English language with data on concussion injuries. The review was conducted within a larger all injury systematic review on rugby union and rugby league where key words used in the search included rugby, injury and concussion with child, adolescent, paediatric and youth. There were 25 studies retrieved with data on child or adolescent rugby and concussion, 20 were on rugby union, three on rugby league and in two the code of rugby was unspecified. There was significant heterogeneity in the definitions of injuries and of concussion. The incidence of child and adolescent match concussion ranged from 0.2 to 6.9 concussions per 1000 player-hours for rugby union and was 4.6 and 14.7 concussions per 1000 player-hours for rugby league, equivalent to a probability of between 0.3% and 11.4% for rugby union and of 7.7% and 22.7% for rugby league. There is a significant risk of concussion in children and adolescents playing rugby union and rugby league evident from the studies included in this systematic review. There is a need for reliable data through routine monitoring and reporting in schools and clubs and in hospital emergency departments in order to inform prevention. Concussion protocols should be implemented and tested. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Physical fitness of elite female Rugby Union players | Hene | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rugby union is a contact sport in which players require high levels of physical fitness, which is a composite of aerobic and anaerobic endurance, muscle strength and power, speed, agility and body composition. The aim of this study was to assess the physical fitness characteristics of elite female rugby union players.

  17. Genomics in rugby union: A review and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Shane M; Kilduff, Liam P; Day, Stephen H; Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Williams, Alun G

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces some aspects of sports genomics in a rugby union context, considers the rugby-specific genetic data in the published literature and outlines the next research steps required if the potential applications of genetic technology in rugby union, also identified here, are to become possible. A substantial proportion of the inter-individual variation for many traits related to rugby performance, including strength, short-term muscle power, VO2 max, injury susceptibility and the likelihood of being an elite athlete is inherited and can be investigated using molecular genetic techniques. In sports genomics, significant efforts have been made in recent years to develop large DNA biobanks of elite athletes for detailed exploration of the heritable bases of those traits. However, little effort has been devoted to the study of rugby athletes, and most of the little research that has focused on rugby was conducted with small cohorts of non-elite players. With steadily growing knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underpinning complex performance traits and the aetiology of injury, investigating sports genomics in the context of rugby is now a viable proposition and a worthwhile endeavour. The RugbyGene project we describe briefly in this article is a multi-institutional research collaboration in rugby union that will perform molecular genetic analyses of varying complexity. Genetic tests could become useful tools for rugby practitioners in the future and provide complementary and additional information to that provided by the non-genetic tests currently used.

  18. Injuries in Australian school-level rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Felix T; Franettovich Smith, Melinda M; Hides, Julie A

    2017-11-01

    There is a high incidence of injuries in rugby union due to the physical nature of the game. In youth rugby union, there are large variations in injury rates reported. Our study investigated the rates of injuries in school-level rugby union players in Australia using the consensus statement for rugby union injuries. Injury surveillance was conducted on 480 rugby players from 1 school in Queensland, Australia. Injury data were collected using paper-based injury recording forms during the 8-week rugby season using a "medical-attention" injury definition. In total, 76 players sustained one or more injuries, with a total of 80 injuries recorded. The overall injury rate was 31.8 injuries/1000 match player hours (95% CI, 25.4-39.4). Concussion had an incidence rate of 6.0/1000 match player hours (95% CI, 3.5-9.6). The incidence of upper limb and lower limb injuries were 9.1 and 9.9/1000 match player hours, respectively (95% CI, 5.9-13.5 and 6.6-14.5). The older age divisions had higher injury rates and most injuries occurred while tackling or being tackled. The injury rates observed in this sample of Australian school rugby union players provides direction for future studies to enable informed decisions relating to development of injury prevention programmes at this level of rugby.

  19. Tackle injuries in professional Rugby Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrie, Kenneth L; Hopkins, Will G

    2008-09-01

    The tackle is the most dangerous facet of play in rugby union, but little is known about risk factors for tackle injuries. To estimate the injury risk associated with various characteristics of tackles in professional rugby union matches. Descriptive epidemiology study. All 140 249 tackles in 434 professional matches were coded from video recordings for height and direction of tackle on the ball carrier, speed of tackler, and speed of ball carrier; injuries were coded for various characteristics, including whether the tackler or ball carrier required replacement or only on-field assessment. There were 1348 injury assessments requiring only on-field treatment and 211 requiring player replacement. The inciting event and medical outcomes were matched to video records for 281 injuries. Injuries were most frequently the result of high or middle tackles from the front or side, but rate of injury per tackle was higher for tackles from behind than from the front or side. Ball carriers were at highest risk from tackles to the head-neck region, whereas tacklers were most at risk when making low tackles. The impact of the tackle was the most common cause of injury, and the head was the most common site, but an important mechanism of lower limb injuries was loading with the weight of another player. Rates of replacement increased with increasing player speed. Strategies for reducing tackle injuries without radically changing the contact nature of the sport include further education of players about safe tackling and minor changes to laws for the height of the tackle.

  20. The state of women's rugby union in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    strategy for LTAD within female rugby in South Africa, considering the current approaches of other international unions. ..... (online resources listed in Appendix I). ... only slight law variations differentiate the boys' and girls' games within.

  1. A new approach to quantifying physical demand in rugby union

    OpenAIRE

    LACOME, Mathieu; PISCIONE, Julien; HAGER, Jean-Philippe; BOURDIN, Muriel

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to describe an original approach to assessing individual workload during international rugby union competitions. The difference between positional groups and between the two halves was explored. Sixty-seven files from 30 French international rugby union players were assessed on a computerised player-tracking system (Amisco Pro®, Sport Universal Process, Nice, France) during five international games. Each player's action was split up into exercise and recovery pe...

  2. The Epidemiology of Injuries in Australian Professional Rugby Union 2014 Super Rugby Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Timothy; Orr, Robin; Fitzgerald, Edward; Harries, Simon; McLellan, Christopher P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rugby union is a collision-based ball sport played at the professional level internationally. Rugby union has one of the highest reported incidences of injury of all team sports. Purpose: To identify the characteristics, incidence, and severity of injuries occurring in Australian professional Super Rugby Union. Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: The present study was a prospective epidemiology study on a cohort of 180 professional players from 5 Australian Super Rugby teams during the 2014 Super Rugby Union Tournament. Team medical staff collected and submitted daily training and match-play injury data through a secure, web-based electronic platform. The injury data included the main anatomic location of the injury, specific anatomic structure of the injury, injury diagnosis, training or match injury occurrence, main player position, mechanism of injury, and the severity of the injury quantified based on the number of days lost from training and/or competition due to injury. Results: The total combined incidence rate for injury during training and match-play across all Australian Super Rugby Union teams was 6.96 per 1000 hours, with a mean injury severity of 37.45 days lost from training and competition. The match-play injury incidence rate was 66.07 per 1000 hours, with a mean severity of 39.80 days lost from training and competition. No significant differences were observed between forward- and back-playing positions for match or training injury incidence rate or severity. Conclusion: The incidence of injury for the present study was lower during match-play than has previously been reported in professional rugby union; however, the overall time loss was higher compared with previous studies in professional rugby union. The high overall time loss was due fundamentally to a high incidence of injuries with greater than 28 days’ severity. PMID:27069947

  3. Understanding mismatches in body size, speed and power among adolescent rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Lyndon M; Naughton, Geraldine A; Denny, Greg; Patton, Declan; Hartwig, Tim; Gabbett, Tim J

    2015-05-01

    With adolescent sport increasingly challenged by mismatches in size, new strategies are important to maximize participation. The objectives were to (1) improve the understanding of mismatches in physical size, speed and power in adolescent rugby union players, (2) explore associations between size and performance with demographic, playing-history, and injury profiles, and (3) explore the applicability of existing criteria for age/body mass-based dispensation (playing-down) strategies. Cross-sectional study. Four hundred and eighty-five male community rugby union players were recruited from three Australian states selected to represent community-based U12, U13, U14 and U15 players. Body mass, stature, speed (10, 30, and 40 m sprints) and lower-leg power (relative peak power and relative peak force) were measured. Independent student t-tests, linear regressions and Chi square analyses were undertaken. Mean values in age groups for size, speed and power masked considerable overlap in the ranges within specific age groups of adolescent rugby players. Only a small proportion of players (approximately 5%) shared the highest and lowest tertiles for speed, relative peak power and body mass. Physical size was not related to injury. The mean body mass of current community rugby union players was above the 75th percentile on normative growth-charts. The notion that bigger, faster, and more powerful characteristics occur simultaneously in adolescent rugby players was not supported in the present study. Current practices in body mass-based criteria for playing down an age group lack a sufficient evidence for decision-making. Dispensation solely based on body mass may not address mismatch in junior rugby union. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Changes in the physical fitness of elite women's rugby union players ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-two elite women's rugby union players, all members of the South African Rugby Union High Performance ... due to low training loads, high match loads and injury rate. ..... more effective toleration of the physical demands of competition.

  5. Trainability of junior Rugby Union players

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using physical or psychological developmental milestones as guidelines, these models in sport were ... windows and the long-term effects of failing to exploit a training ... low deliberate practice approach, or start focusing on specific sports.

  6. Changes in the physical fitness of elite women's rugby union players ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To investigate changes in the physical fitness characteristics of elite women's rugby union players over a competitive season. Methods. Thirty-two elite women's rugby union players, all members of the South African Rugby Union High Performance Squad, were sub-divided into 2 positional categories of 17 ...

  7. Epidemiology of injuries in Australian school level rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Felix T; Franettovich Smith, Melinda M; Brown, Mark; Rahmann, Ann; Mendis, M Dilani; Hides, Julie A

    2017-08-01

    There is a high incidence of injuries in rugby union due to the physical nature of the game. There is a lack of large-scale injury surveillance data reported for school level rugby players of different ages. Our study aimed to investigate the frequency and nature of injuries being sustained during an Australian school level rugby union season. Prospective observational study. Injury surveillance was conducted on 3585 rugby players from all 8 schools participating in an interschool rugby competition in Queensland, Australia. Match injury data were collected using paper-based injury recording forms during the season using a 'medical-attention' injury definition for each age group from opens (17 and 18year olds) through to year 5 teams (9-10year olds). There were 332 injuries recorded over 14,029 player hours during the season. The overall rate of injury was 23.7/1000 player hours (95% CI, 21.2-26.3). The incidence of upper and lower limb injuries were 6.3 and 5.6 injuries/1000 player hours respectively (95% CI, 5.1-7.8 and 4.5-7.0). The incidence of suspected concussion injuries was 4.3/1000 player hours (95% CI, 3.6-5.5). Injuries differed across age groups and tackling was the most common mechanism of injury. The injury patterns observed in this large sample of players could be used to guide injury prevention programs in school level rugby union. Injury prevention programs should include age appropriate interventions and focus on improving the techniques used during the contact phase of rugby. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Strategies for monitoring and training strength and power in elite rugby union players.

    OpenAIRE

    Gannon, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Rugby union requires high levels of strength and power in order to support the physical requirements of the game. The competitive structure of rugby union in the English premiership places limitations on the time available for players’ physical development. The aim of this thesis was to analyse the scope and magnitude of strength and power adaptation potential, whilst identifying effective training strategies to support physical development in professional rugby union players. Chapter 3 monit...

  9. Spinal injuries in professional rugby union: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W; Brooks, John H M; Kemp, Simon P T

    2007-01-01

    To determine the incidence, severity, nature, and causes of cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spine injuries sustained during competition and training in professional rugby union. A 2 season prospective cohort design. Twelve English Premiership rugby union clubs. Five hundred and forty-six male rugby union players of whom 296 were involved in both seasons. Location, diagnosis, severity (number of days unavailable for training and matches), and cause of injury: incidence of match and training injuries (injuries/1000 player-hours). Player age, body mass, stature, playing position, use of headgear, and activity and period of season. The incidences of spinal injuries were 10.90 (9.43 to 12.60) per 1000 player match-hours and 0.37 (0.29 to 0.47) per 1000 player training-hours. No player sustained a catastrophic spinal injury, but 3 players sustained career-ending injuries. Overall, players were more likely to sustain a cervical injury during matches and a lumbar injury during training. Forwards were significantly more likely to sustain a spinal injury than backs during both matches (P accounting for 926 days (23%) and cervical nerve root injuries sustained during matches for 621 days (15%). During matches, more injuries were caused by tackles (37%), and during training more injuries were caused by weight-training (33%). The results showed that rugby union players were exposed to a high risk of noncatastrophic spinal injury during tackling, scrummaging, and weight-training activities; injury prevention strategies, therefore, should be focused on these activities.

  10. Self-determined motivation in rehabilitating professional rugby union players

    OpenAIRE

    Carson, F.; Polman, Remco C.J.

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to explore the views of professional rugby union players during the early rehabilitation, late rehabilitation and return to play stages, following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Methods A qualitative dominant, mixed methodological approach was utilized with five players who had suffered an ACL injury requiring reconstructive surgery. A longitudinal approach, concurrent with each player?s rehabilitation, consisting of twice monthly intervie...

  11. Prevalence of and Attitudes about Concussion in Irish Schools' Rugby Union Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahunty, Sinéad E.; Delahunt, Eamonn; Condon, Brian; Toomey, David; Blake, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Background: Youth rugby players represent 45.2% (N?=?69,472) of the Irish rugby union playing population. The risk and consequences of concussion injury are of particular concern in these young athletes, but limited epidemiological data exists. This study investigated annual and lifetime prevalence of concussion in an Irish schoolboy rugby union…

  12. Evaluation of goal kicking performance in international rugby union matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrie, Kenneth L; Hopkins, Will G

    2015-03-01

    Goal kicking is an important element in rugby but has been the subject of minimal research. To develop and apply a method to describe the on-field pattern of goal-kicking and rank the goal kicking performance of players in international rugby union matches. Longitudinal observational study. A generalized linear mixed model was used to analyze goal-kicking performance in a sample of 582 international rugby matches played from 2002 to 2011. The model adjusted for kick distance, kick angle, a rating of the importance of each kick, and venue-related conditions. Overall, 72% of the 6769 kick attempts were successful. Forty-five percent of points scored during the matches resulted from goal kicks, and in 5.7% of the matches the result of the match hinged on the outcome of a kick attempt. There was an extremely large decrease in success with increasing distance (odds ratio for two SD distance 0.06, 90% confidence interval 0.05-0.07) and a small decrease with increasingly acute angle away from the mid-line of the goal posts (odds ratio for 2 SD angle, 0.44, 0.39-0.49). Differences between players were typically small (odds ratio for 2 between-player SD 0.53, 0.45-0.65). The generalized linear mixed model with its random-effect solutions provides a tool for ranking the performance of goal kickers in rugby. This modelling approach could be applied to other performance indicators in rugby and in other sports in which discrete outcomes are measured repeatedly on players or teams. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. A new approach to quantifying physical demand in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacome, Mathieu; Piscione, Julien; Hager, Jean-Philippe; Bourdin, Muriel

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to describe an original approach to assessing individual workload during international rugby union competitions. The difference between positional groups and between the two halves was explored. Sixty-seven files from 30 French international rugby union players were assessed on a computerised player-tracking system (Amisco Pro(®), Sport Universal Process, Nice, France) during five international games. Each player's action was split up into exercise and recovery periods according to his individual velocity threshold. Exercise-to-recovery (E:R) period ratios and acceleration were calculated. Results indicated that about 65% of exercise periods lasted less than 4 s; half of the E:Rs were less than 1:4, and about one-third ranged between 1 and 1:4 and about 40% of exercise periods were classified as medium intensity. Most acceleration values were less than 3 m·s(-2) and started from standing or walking activity. Back row players showed the highest mean acceleration values over the game (P physical performance was seen between the first and second halves of the games except for back rows, who showed a significant decrease in mean acceleration (P physical performance.

  14. Movement Demands of Elite U20 International Rugby Union Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawer, Scott; Eager, Robin; Taylor, Neil; Cook, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify movement demands of elite international age grade (U20) rugby union players during competitive tournament match play. Forty elite professional players from an U20 international performance squad were monitored using 10Hz global positioning systems (GPS) during 15 international tournament matches during the 2014/15 and 2015/16 seasons. Data on distances, velocities, accelerations, decelerations, high metabolic load (HML) distance and efforts, and number of sprints were derived. Data files from players who played over 60 min (n = 161) were separated firstly into Forwards and Backs, and more specifically into six positional groups; FR—Front Row (prop & hooker), SR—Second Row, BR—Back Row (Flankers & No.8), HB—Half Backs (scrum half & outside half), MF—Midfield (centres), B3 –Back Three (wings & full back) for match analysis. Analysis revealed significant differences between forwards and backs positions. Backs scored higher on all variables measured with the exception of number of moderate accelerations, decelerations (no difference). The centres covered the greatest total distance with the front row covering the least (6.51 ± 0.71 vs 4.97 ± 0.75 km, p rugby union players specific to positional roles. PMID:27055230

  15. Consensus statement on injury definitions and data collection procedures for studies of injuries in rugby union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W; Molloy, Michael G; Bagate, Christian; Bahr, Roald; Brooks, John H M; Donson, Hilton; Kemp, Simon P T; McCrory, Paul; McIntosh, Andrew S; Meeuwisse, Willem H; Quarrie, Kenneth L; Raftery, Martin; Wiley, Preston

    2007-01-01

    Wide variations in the definitions and methodologies used for studies of injuries in rugby union have created inconsistencies in reported data and made interstudy comparisons of results difficult. The International Rugby Board established a Rugby Injury Consensus Group (RICG) to reach an agreement on the appropriate definitions and methodologies to standardise the recording of injuries and reporting of studies in rugby union. The RICG reviewed the consensus definitions and methodologies previously published for football (soccer) at a meeting in Dublin in order to assess their suitability for and application to rugby union. Following this meeting, iterative draft statements were prepared and circulated to members of the RICG for comment; a follow‐up meeting was arranged in Dublin, at which time all definitions and procedures were finalised. At this stage, all authors confirmed their agreement with the consensus statement. The agreed document was presented to and approved by the International Rugby Board Council. Agreement was reached on definitions for injury, recurrent injury, non‐fatal catastrophic injury, and training and match exposures, together with criteria for classifying injuries in terms of severity, location, type, diagnosis and causation. The definitions and methodology presented in this consensus statement for rugby union are similar to those proposed for football. Adoption of the proposals presented in this consensus statement should ensure that more consistent and comparable results will be obtained from studies of injuries within rugby union. PMID:17452684

  16. Effects of carbohydrate and caffeine ingestion on performance during a rugby union simulation protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Simon P; Stokes, Keith A; Trewartha, Grant; Doyle, J; Hogben, P; Thompson, Dylan

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of ingesting carbohydrate alone or with caffeine on performance of a rugby union-specific shuttle running protocol. On three occasions, at least one week apart in a counterbalanced trial order, eight male rugby union forwards ingested either placebo or carbohydrate (1.2g center dot kg-1 body mass center dot h-1) before and during a rugby union-specific protocol, with pre-exercise caffeine ingestion (4mg center dot kg-1) before one of the carbohydrate ...

  17. The association between harm avoidance personality traits and self-reported concussion history in South African rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Fie, Sarah; Abrahams, Shameemah; Patricios, Jon; Suter, Jason; Posthumus, Michael; September, Alison V

    2018-01-01

    Personality traits have been proposed to affect the risk of sports concussion, but evidence is limited. Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) measures novelty seeking, harm avoidance (HA), and reward dependence traits. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between TPQ scores and concussion history in rugby union players. Cross-sectional study. Rugby players from high schools, senior amateur clubs, and professional teams provided a self-reported concussion history and completed the TPQ. Participants reporting no previous concussions formed the control group, while participants reporting concussion formed the case group. A one-way analysis of covariance, with age as a covariate, was used to examine the differences in TPQ scores between groups. Of the 309 participants, 54% reported a minimum of one concussion (junior: 47%; amateur: 52%; professional: 72%). HA scores were significantly higher in junior players without a history of concussion compared to cases (p=0.006). Specifically, the junior control group had higher "anticipatory worry" (p=0.009) and "fear of uncertainty" (p=0.008). In contrast, the professional control group had lower HA scores than cases (p=0.009), while the amateur cohort displayed no differences between control and case groups. This study identified a novel association between HA and concussion in rugby players, adding evidence to the role of personality in a multifactorial risk-model of concussion. The findings suggest that lower HA may lead to increased dangerous play in youth rugby, influencing concussion susceptibility. Contrasting associations in the professional cohort suggest further research is required to understand the role of personality in concussion. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Scientific production in Rugby union betwen 1998-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Villarejo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available AbstractQuantitative scientific production analysis is used to detect the activity, structure, and evolution of an area of knowledge and to quantify their results. The purpose of this study was to identify, classify, and categorize the scientific literature in the field of rugby union that was indexed on the ISI Web of Knowledge (WOK between 1998 and 2007. A total of 136 papers were found. The characteristics of the studies that were found were: a 99.3% were in English; b 83.5% were research studies; c 51.4% were about injuries in the sport; d the majority of the publications were from anglosaxon institutions, and e; an increase in the number of publications in the last five years (15-20 publications per year was found.Key words: team sport, bibliometrics, research, database

  19. Scientific production in Rugby union betwen 1998-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Villarejo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Quantitative scientific production analysis is used to detect the activity, structure, and evolution of an area of knowledge and to quantify their results. The purpose of this study was to identify, classify, and categorize the scientific literature in the field of rugby union that was indexed on the ISI Web of Knowledge (WOK between 1998 and 2007. A total of 136 papers were found. The characteristics of the studies that were found were: a 99.3% were in English; b 83.5% were research studies; c 51.4% were about injuries in the sport; d the majority of the publications were from anglosaxon institutions, and e; an increase in the number of publications in the last five years (15-20 publications per year was found. Key words: team sport, bibliometrics, research, database

  20. Force-Velocity-Power Assessment in Semiprofessional Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Daniel T; Gill, Nicholas D; Cronin, John B; McGuigan, Michael R

    2016-04-01

    There is a constant and necessary evolution of training and assessment methods in the elite contact sports; as is required to continually improve the physical qualities of these respective athletes to match the growing sport and position-specific performance demands. Our aim was to examine the differences between ballistic upper body performance profiles and maximum upper body strength of elite rugby union forwards and backs. Twenty semiprofessional male rugby union players (age = 21.1 ± 3.0 years; mass = 94.9 ± 9.7 kg) were assessed for maximum bench press strength (1RM bench press = 121.3 ± 21.8 kg) and maximum throw power (Pmax), force (Fmax), and velocity (V[Combining Dot Above]max) from an incremental relative load testing protocol (15, 30, 45, 60, and 75% 1RM). Player rankings were also included to identify individual strength and weaknesses. The forwards were moderately stronger (effect size [ES] = 0.96; p = 0.01), produced significantly greater Fmax (ES = 1.17-1.41; p = 0.01) and were more powerful (ES = 0.57-0.64; p 0.15). There were inherent differences in strength and Fmax between the forwards and backs most likely because of the physical demands of these respective positions. Improvements in upper body strength may in turn improve ballistic force and power production, but not necessarily velocity capabilities. From the Fmax and V[Combining Dot Above]max observations, the forwards seem to be more force dominant and the backs more velocity dominant. Pmax, Fmax, and V[Combining Dot Above]max may be used to highlight proficient and deficient areas in ballistic upper body performance; the individual rankings could be further used to identify and possibly rectify individual deficiencies.

  1. A comparison of U18 school and academy rugby union match play

    OpenAIRE

    Read, D; Jones, B; Till, K

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Understanding the physical demands of rugby union can assist coaches in the preparation of players. Match demands in senior players for domestic competitions (Cahill et al., 2013) and international games (Quarrie et al., 2013) are well established. However, despite adolescent rugby union players playing concurrently at various standards, there is no study that has attempted to compare them. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the physical demands of U18 school vs....

  2. The economic burden of time-loss injuries to youth players participating in week-long rugby union tournaments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.C.; Viljoen, W.; Lambert, M.I.; Readhead, C.; Fuller, C.; van Mechelen, W.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Rugby Union ("rugby") is a popular sport with high injury risk. Burden of injury is described by the incidence and severity of injury. However reports have ignored the monetary cost of injuries. Therefore the aim of this study was to describe the monetary cost associated with youth rugby

  3. Reliability and Usefulness of Linear Sprint Testing in Adolescent Rugby Union and League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrall-Jones, Joshua D; Jones, Ben; Roe, Gregory; Till, Kevin

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate (a) whether there were differences in sprint times at 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 m between rugby union and rugby league players, (b) determine the reliability and usefulness of linear sprint testing in adolescent rugby players. Data were collected on 28 rugby union and league academy players over 2 testing sessions, with 3-day rest between sessions. Rugby league players were faster at 5 m than rugby union players, with further difference unclear. Sprint time at 10, 20, 30, and 40 m was all reliable (coefficient of variation [CV] = 3.1, 1.8, 2.0, and 1.3%) but greater than the smallest worthwhile change (SWC [0.2 × between-subject SD]), rating the test as marginal for usefulness. Although the test was incapable of detecting the SWC, we recommend that practitioners and researchers use Hopkins' proposed method; whereby plotting the change score of the individual at each split (±typical error [TE] expressed as a CV) against the SWC and visually inspecting whether the TE crosses into the SWC are capable of identifying whether a change is both real (greater than the noise of the test, i.e., >TE) and of practical significance (>SWC). Researchers and practitioners can use the TE and SWC from this study to assess changes in performance of adolescent rugby players when using single beam timing gates.

  4. Momentum and Kinetic Energy Before the Tackle in Rugby Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Sharief; Karpul, David; Lambert, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the physical demands of a tackle in match situations is important for safe and effective training, developing equipment and research. Physical components such as momentum and kinetic energy, and it relationship to tackle outcome is not known. The aim of this study was to compare momenta between ball-carrier and tackler, level of play (elite, university and junior) and position (forwards vs. backs), and describe the relationship between ball-carrier and tackler mass, velocity and momentum and the tackle outcome. Also, report on the ball-carrier and tackler kinetic energy before contact and the estimated magnitude of impact (energy distributed between ball-carrier and tackler upon contact). Velocity over 0.5 seconds before contact was determined using a 2-dimensional scaled version of the field generated from a computer alogorithm. Body masses of players were obtained from their player profiles. Momentum and kinetic energy were subsequently calculated for 60 tackle events. Ball-carriers were heavier than the tacklers (ball-carrier 100 ± 14 kg vs. tackler 93 ± 11 kg, d = 0.52, p = 0.0041, n = 60). Ball-carriers as forwards had a significantly higher momentum than backs (forwards 563 ± 226 Kg.m.s-1 n = 31 vs. backs 438 ± 135 Kg.m.s-1, d = 0.63, p = 0.0012, n = 29). Tacklers dominated 57% of tackles and ball-carriers dominated 43% of tackles. Despite the ball-carrier having a mass advantage before contact more frequently than the tackler, momentum advantage and tackle dominance between the ball-carrier and tackler was proportionally similar. These findings may reflect a characteristic of the modern game of rugby where efficiently heavier players (particularly forwards) are tactically predetermined to carry the ball in contact. Key Points First study to quantify momentum, kinetic energy, and magnitude of impact in rugby tackles across different levels in matches without a device attached to a player. Physical components alone, of either ball-carrier or

  5. Momentum and kinetic energy before the tackle in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Sharief; Karpul, David; Lambert, Mike

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the physical demands of a tackle in match situations is important for safe and effective training, developing equipment and research. Physical components such as momentum and kinetic energy, and it relationship to tackle outcome is not known. The aim of this study was to compare momenta between ball-carrier and tackler, level of play (elite, university and junior) and position (forwards vs. backs), and describe the relationship between ball-carrier and tackler mass, velocity and momentum and the tackle outcome. Also, report on the ball-carrier and tackler kinetic energy before contact and the estimated magnitude of impact (energy distributed between ball-carrier and tackler upon contact). Velocity over 0.5 seconds before contact was determined using a 2-dimensional scaled version of the field generated from a computer alogorithm. Body masses of players were obtained from their player profiles. Momentum and kinetic energy were subsequently calculated for 60 tackle events. Ball-carriers were heavier than the tacklers (ball-carrier 100 ± 14 kg vs. tackler 93 ± 11 kg, d = 0.52, p = 0.0041, n = 60). Ball-carriers as forwards had a significantly higher momentum than backs (forwards 563 ± 226 Kg(.)m(.)s(-1) n = 31 vs. backs 438 ± 135 Kg(.)m(.)s(-1), d = 0.63, p = 0.0012, n = 29). Tacklers dominated 57% of tackles and ball-carriers dominated 43% of tackles. Despite the ball-carrier having a mass advantage before contact more frequently than the tackler, momentum advantage and tackle dominance between the ball-carrier and tackler was proportionally similar. These findings may reflect a characteristic of the modern game of rugby where efficiently heavier players (particularly forwards) are tactically predetermined to carry the ball in contact. Key PointsFirst study to quantify momentum, kinetic energy, and magnitude of impact in rugby tackles across different levels in matches without a device attached to a player.Physical components alone, of either ball

  6. Fitness and body composition profiling of elite junior South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The aim of this study was to describe the body composition, strength and speed characteristics of elite junior South African rugby players. Design. Cross-sectional. Setting. Field study. Subjects. Rugby players (16 and 18 years old, N = 174) selected for the South African Rugby Union National Green Squad.

  7. Prevalence of and attitudes about concussion in Irish schools' rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahunty, Sinéad E; Delahunt, Eamonn; Condon, Brian; Toomey, David; Blake, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Youth rugby players represent 45.2% (N = 69,472) of the Irish rugby union playing population. The risk and consequences of concussion injury are of particular concern in these young athletes, but limited epidemiological data exists. This study investigated annual and lifetime prevalence of concussion in an Irish schoolboy rugby union cohort. An anonymous cross-sectional survey of youth rugby players was conducted. Diagnosed concussion was defined as an incident where diagnosis was confirmed by a health professional or coach. Demographics, prevalence, and attitudes to concussion were collated. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, chi-square test, t-tests, Mann-Whitney tests, and logistic regression. Overall, 304 youth (aged 12-18 years) responded. Lifetime prevalence of diagnosed concussion was 19.4%, with annual (2010) prevalence 6.6%. Approximately 25.4% of players with diagnosed concussions returned to play without medical advice. Internal motivation (11.8%) was the predominant factor in feeling pressure to play while concussed. A desire for further concussion education was expressed by 89.5% of participants. Reform is required to prevent and manage concussion injuries among youth players in the rugby union, including mandatory education specific to concussion and implementation of return-to-play protocols. These findings have relevance for governing bodies, coaches, clinicians, schools, parents, and rugby union players. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  8. Self-determined motivation in rehabilitating professional rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Fraser; Polman, Remco C J

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the views of professional rugby union players during the early rehabilitation, late rehabilitation and return to play stages, following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. A qualitative dominant, mixed methodological approach was utilized with five players who had suffered an ACL injury requiring reconstructive surgery. A longitudinal approach, concurrent with each player's rehabilitation, consisting of twice monthly interviews, a self-report diary and three established questionnaires (MOS-Social Support Survey, Sherbourne & Stewart, 1991; Sport Climate Questionnaire, Deci & Ryan, n.d.; Injury Rehabilitation Questionnaire, Deci & Ryan, n.d.) were completed. Theoretical thematic analysis was conducted on three distinct phases (Early Limited Participation phase, 10 higher order themes; Late Limited Rehabilitation phase, 11 higher order themes; and Return to Play phase, 9 higher order themes) and coded relating to autonomy, competence and relatedness. The findings suggest that increased autonomy and control assist emotional and behavioral responses during rehabilitation and return to play, while development of competence increases self-confidence.

  9. Momentum and Kinetic Energy Before the Tackle in Rugby Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharief Hendricks, David Karpul, Mike Lambert

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the physical demands of a tackle in match situations is important for safe and effective training, developing equipment and research. Physical components such as momentum and kinetic energy, and it relationship to tackle outcome is not known. The aim of this study was to compare momenta between ball-carrier and tackler, level of play (elite, university and junior and position (forwards vs. backs, and describe the relationship between ball-carrier and tackler mass, velocity and momentum and the tackle outcome. Also, report on the ball-carrier and tackler kinetic energy before contact and the estimated magnitude of impact (energy distributed between ball-carrier and tackler upon contact. Velocity over 0.5 seconds before contact was determined using a 2-dimensional scaled version of the field generated from a computer alogorithm. Body masses of players were obtained from their player profiles. Momentum and kinetic energy were subsequently calculated for 60 tackle events. Ball-carriers were heavier than the tacklers (ball-carrier 100 ± 14 kg vs. tackler 93 ± 11 kg, d = 0.52, p = 0.0041, n = 60. Ball-carriers as forwards had a significantly higher momentum than backs (forwards 563 ± 226 Kg.m.s-1 n = 31 vs. backs 438 ± 135 Kg.m.s-1, d = 0.63, p = 0.0012, n = 29. Tacklers dominated 57% of tackles and ball-carriers dominated 43% of tackles. Despite the ball-carrier having a mass advantage before contact more frequently than the tackler, momentum advantage and tackle dominance between the ball-carrier and tackler was proportionally similar. These findings may reflect a characteristic of the modern game of rugby where efficiently heavier players (particularly forwards are tactically predetermined to carry the ball in contact.

  10. Match Demands of Senior and Junior Players During International Rugby League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Gary M; Gibson, Neil V; Sykes, Dave; Pryjmachuk, Bradley C; Turner, Anthony P

    2018-06-01

    Dempsey, GM, Gibson, NV, Sykes, D, Pryjmachuk, BC, and Turner, AP. Match demands of senior and junior players during International Rugby League. J Strength Cond Res 32(6): 1678-1684, 2018-This study aims to quantify and compare the positional game demands of international junior and senior rugby league competition for the first time. Global positioning system (GPS) and video analysis were used to track 118 elite male rugby league players (57 seniors aged 28.7 ± 4.4 years; 61 juniors aged 17.2 ± 0.5 years) over 10 international matches (6 senior; 4 junior) characterized as either forwards (n = 67) or backs (n = 51). There were significant increases in the offensive carries (0.18 cf. 0.09 n·min; r = 0.56) and defensive tackles (0.36 cf. 0.23 n·min; r = 0.3) between senior and junior players, and forwards and backs (0.16 cf. 0.09; r = 0.34 and 0.41 cf. 0.14; r = 0.52), respectively. Running demands were significantly greater in backs than forwards (independent of playing level) for total distance (6,962 ± 1,263 m cf. 4,879 ± 1,824 m; r = 0.55), individualized high-speed distances (310 ± 158 m cf. 250 ± 171 m; r = 0.2), high-intensity accelerations (28.7 ± 12.1 m·s cf. 21.9 ± 11.7 m·s; r = 0.27), and decelerations (57.2 ± 18.3 m·s cf. 43.0 ± 17.8 m·s; r = 0.38). Positional differences were eliminated when reported relative to minutes played. From a practical perspective, although running demands relative to time on the pitch may prepare junior players for senior competition, it is not representative of the increased body mass and contact frequency within the senior game. Coaches should therefore reflect these differences within their physical preparation programs to prepare junior athletes accordingly for progression to the senior level.

  11. Factors influencing tackle injuries in rugby union football

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraway, W. M.; Lee, A. J.; Macleod, D. A.; Telfer, J. W.; Deary, I. J.; Murray, G. D.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of selected aspects of lifestyle, personality, and other player related factors on injuries in the tackle. To describe the detailed circumstances in which these tackles occurred. METHODS: A prospective case-control study was undertaken in which the tackling and tackled players ("the cases") involved in a tackle injury were each matched with "control" players who held the same respective playing positions in the opposing teams. A total of 964 rugby matches involving 71 senior clubs drawn from all districts of the Scottish Rugby Union (SRU) were observed by nominated linkmen who administered self report questionnaires to the players identified as cases and controls. Information on lifestyle habits, match preparation, training, and coaching experience was obtained. A validated battery of psychological tests assessed players' trait anger and responses to anger and hostility. The circumstances of the tackles in which injury occurred were recorded by experienced SRU coaching staff in interviews with involved players after the match. RESULTS: A total of 71 tackle injury episodes with correct matching of cases and controls were studied. The following player related factors did not contribute significantly to tackle injuries: alcohol consumption before the match, feeling "below par" through minor illness, the extent of match preparation, previous coaching, or practising tackling. Injured and non- injured players in the tackle did not differ in their disposition toward, or expression of, anger or hostility. Some 85% of tackling players who were injured were three quarters, and 52% of injuries occurred when the tackle came in behind the tackled player or within his peripheral vision. Either the tackling or tackled player was sprinting or running in all of these injury episodes. One third of injuries occurred in differential speed tackles--that is, when one player was travelling much faster than the other at impact. The player with the lower

  12. A Review of a Decade of Rugby Union Injury Epidemiology: 2007-2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viviers, Pierre L; Viljoen, Jeandré T; Derman, Wayne

    Rugby union is the most widely played team collision sport globally. As with other contact sports, there is substantial risk of injury. To date, the majority of studies on injury epidemiology have focused on elite male cohorts, which inherently prevents extrapolation of research findings to other groups within the player continuum. This review aims to describe emerging injury trends across the spectrum of various rugby union subpopulations and to highlight gaps that may influence future injury prevention tactics. Relevant articles published from 2007 to 2017 were obtained by searching MEDLINE, PubMed, and SPORT Discus. Studies on 15-a-side rugby union, implemented according to the 2007 consensus statement on injury definitions and data collection procedures for injuries in rugby union, were used. Clinical review. Level 3. Match injuries occur more frequently than training injuries. Injury rates increase consistently according to age and level of play. Severity of injury often is greater among lower levels of the game, and sex-specific differences relating to injury patterns and incidence rates exist. To date, a paucity of injury surveillance data exists for women and players of both sexes at all levels of community rugby union. Furthermore, the incidence of injuries and illnesses are poorly reported in epidemiological studies. Despite methodological differences, injury trends remain consistent throughout all levels of play.

  13. The epidemiology of 1345 shoulder dislocations and subluxations in French Rugby Union players: a five-season prospective study from 2008 to 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohu, Yoann; Klouche, Shahnaz; Lefevre, Nicolas; Peyrin, Jean-Claude; Dusfour, Bernard; Hager, Jean-Philippe; Ribaut, Aurélie; Herman, Serge

    2015-12-01

    An understanding of the epidemiology of shoulder dislocation/subluxation in rugby union players could help develop targeted prevention programmes and treatment. We performed a multiyear epidemiological survey of shoulder dislocation/subluxation in a large cohort of rugby players. A descriptive epidemiological study was performed prospectively for five playing seasons (2008-2013) in all players licensed in the French Rugby Union. Rugby players were categorised into five groups by age. The player and the team physician reported the injury to the club insurance company if it occurred during training or a match. The goals of the study were to define the rate, type and causes of shoulder dislocation/subluxation. 88,044 injuries were reported, including 1345 (1.5%) episodes of dislocation/subluxation in 1317 men and 28 women, mean age 22.5±5.9 years. About 10/10,000 men and 5/10,000 women reported an episode of shoulder dislocation/subluxation per season, including 83/10,000 senior professionals, 17/10,000 senior amateurs, 21/10,000 juniors, 12/10,000 cadets and rugby school players. Shoulder dislocation/subluxation was significantly more frequent in senior and junior players (prugby players with a history of shoulder dislocation/subluxation should receive special attention from sports medicine professionals and orthopaedic surgeons. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Prevalence and determinants of symptoms of common mental disorders in retired professional Rugby Union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Lambert, Mike

    2016-08-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD) (distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance, adverse nutrition behaviour, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking) among retired professional Rugby Union players. The secondary aim was to explore the associations between stressors (life events, Rugby Union career dissatisfaction) and the health conditions under study. Therefore, cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study of retired professional Rugby Union players. An electronic questionnaire was established using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of CMD and stressors. The electronic questionnaire was subsequently distributed to retired players by the national Rugby Union players' associations in France, Ireland and South Africa. Among 295 retired professional Rugby Union players (mean age of 38 years), prevalence rates were 25% for distress, 28% for anxiety/depression, 29% for sleeping disturbance, 62% for adverse nutrition behaviour, 15% for smoking and 24% for adverse alcohol behaviour. A higher number of life events were associated with distress (OR = 1.2; 95% CI 1.1-1.4), anxiety/depression (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1), sleeping disturbance (OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.1) and adverse nutrition behaviour (OR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.3-2.5). A higher level of dissatisfaction of the player's Rugby Union career was associated with distress (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.8-1.0), sleeping disturbance (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.9-1.0), smoking (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.9-1.0) and adverse nutrition behaviour (OR = 0.9; 95% CI 0.8-0.9). In conclusion, our study suggests that prevalence of symptoms of CMD is high among retired professional Rugby Union players, being associated with both a higher number of life events and a higher level of Rugby Union career dissatisfaction.

  15. Have Recent Changes to the Rugby Union Laws of Scrummage Reduced Serious Cervical Spine Injuries?

    OpenAIRE

    McLoughlin, Terence F.

    2009-01-01

    All areas of play in rugby union are acknowledged to be potentially dangerous but it is in the scrum where the most frequent and serious spinal injuries occur (McIntosh & McCrory, 2005). This letter addresses the questions: what is it about the scrum which accounts for the alleged increased frequency of scrummage associated spinal cord injury (particular in the cervical region) and what has the Rugby Football Union [RFU] done to minimise the chance of cervical cord damage by changes to the La...

  16. Fitness Profiles of Elite Portuguese Rugby Union Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Luís; Morais, Tomaz; Rocha, Henrique; James, Nic

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the fitness profiles of senior elite Portuguese rugby players. Forty-six senior Portuguese rugby players, classified as backs (n=22; age 26.2±2.8) and forwards (n=24; age 26.7±2.9) were assessed during physical testing sessions carried out for the Portuguese National rugby team. The body composition, maximum strength and anaerobic capacity of players are hypothesized to be important physical characteristics as successful performance in rugby is predicated on the ability to undertake skilled behaviours both quickly and whilst withstanding large forces when in contact situations. No absolute differences were found between the backs and forwards for the speed performance variables although positional differences were found across all speeds when assessed relative to body mass since the forwards were significantly heavier. Coaches and the management team can use this information for monitoring progressive improvements in the physiological capacities of rugby players. These physical characteristics of elite rugby players provide normative profiles for specific positions and should form the basis of developmental programmes for adolescents. PMID:25114750

  17. Fitness Profiles of Elite Portuguese Rugby Union Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz Luís

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the fitness profiles of senior elite Portuguese rugby players. Forty-six senior Portuguese rugby players, classified as backs (n=22; age 26.2±2.8 and forwards (n=24; age 26.7±2.9 were assessed during physical testing sessions carried out for the Portuguese National rugby team. The body composition, maximum strength and anaerobic capacity of players are hypothesized to be important physical characteristics as successful performance in rugby is predicated on the ability to undertake skilled behaviours both quickly and whilst withstanding large forces when in contact situations. No absolute differences were found between the backs and forwards for the speed performance variables although positional differences were found across all speeds when assessed relative to body mass since the forwards were significantly heavier. Coaches and the management team can use this information for monitoring progressive improvements in the physiological capacities of rugby players. These physical characteristics of elite rugby players provide normative profiles for specific positions and should form the basis of developmental programmes for adolescents.

  18. Epidemiology of injuries in senior male rugby union sevens: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ferreira, Antonio; Cruz-Ferreira, Eduardo; Santiago, Luiz; Taborda Barata, Luis

    2017-02-01

    In 2016 the Rugby Union variant of sevens will enter the official Olympic Programme. Until now, most of injury surveillance studies in Rugby Union focus on elite 15-a-side cohorts, with reported injury incidence rates reaching 96 per 1000 player-match-hours, and mean severity set at 20 days. Sparse data is available regarding rugby sevens. The aim of this study was to systematically review available data regarding the epidemiology of injuries in senior male rugby sevens. Electronic databases (Pubmed, Google Scholar, SCOPUS, Scielo and IndexRMP) were searched in September 2015, complemented by manual searches of bibliographies and relevant "grey literature". Seven prospective cohort original articles addressing injuries in senior male rugby sevens players were included in this review. Overall injury incidence rates in elite rugby sevens tournaments ranged 101.5 to 119.8 per 1000 player-match-hours. Mean severity was greater than 34.1 days. Lower limb and joint/ligament injuries were the most frequent in elite players. The only study on amateur players revealed a lower injury incidence rate (74.7 per 1000 player-match-hours), and a higher proportion of muscle/tendon (37.5 %) injuries. Injury incidence rates in rugby sevens are higher than those reported for the 15-a-side variant, at the same level of competition. Injuries are also more severe, resulting in longer absence periods. This might result from the fact that rugby sevens is played with greater speed, leading to an increase in energy transfers during tackles, more running and turning manoeuvers, that can possibly cause more severe injuries.

  19. A systematic review of education programmes to prevent concussion in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraas, Michael R; Burchiel, Jessica

    2016-11-01

    There is a high incidence of concussion sustained by athletes participating in rugby union, many of which go unreported. A lack of sufficient knowledge about concussion injuries may explain athletes' failure to report. Several rugby union-playing countries have developed injury education and prevention programmes to address this issue. The aim of the current review was to systematically assess the content and level of evidence on concussion education/prevention programmes in rugby union and to make recommendations for the quality, strength, and consistency of this evidence. We searched PubMed, PsycInfo, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscuss, Webofscience, and conducted a manual search for articles. Ten articles were included for review. Of these, six focused on the BokSmart injury prevention programme in South Africa, two focused on the RugbySmart injury prevention programme in New Zealand, one was an analysis of prevention programmes, and one was a systematic review of rugby injury prevention strategies. Despite the initiative to develop concussion education and prevention programmes, there is little evidence to support the effectiveness of such programmes. There is evidence to support education of coaches and referees. In addition, there is scant evidence to suggest that education and rule changes may have the benefit of changing athlete behaviours resulting in a reduction in catastrophic injury.

  20. Trainability of junior Rugby Union players | Hendricks | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Sports Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 24, No 4 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  1. RUGBY

    CERN Multimedia

    Rugby Club

    2013-01-01

    Women's rugby has been gaining popularity for some years now. The ‘’Wildcats’’, the women's rugby Club of CERN Meyrin St-Genis (RC CMSG), is the only women's team currently present in Geneva area. This year, the Wildcats will host the final of the Swiss Super Seven (rugby tournament 7). The tournament will be held on Saturday, May 4, 2013, at the Rugby Field in St-Genis-Pouilly, near the Golf de Serves. A dozen teams are expected to compete for the first place in the championship. The games will be played all day starting from 10 a.m. There will be refreshment stalls and meals will be sold , as well as bands will play music all day. Admission is free for all ages. Contact : wildcats@cern-rugby.ch Info : page facebook Wildcats women’s rugby

  2. Sport concussion assessment tool-Third edition normative reference values for professional Rugby Union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, G W; Govind, O; Tucker, R; Raftery, M

    2018-04-01

    To establish normative reference data for the SCAT3 in professional Rugby Union players. A cross sectional study in professional Rugby Union players competing in national and international professional competitions between 2015 and 2016. The SCAT3 was administered pre-season or prior to tournaments. Data was collected electronically using a custom tablet application. SCAT3 subcomponents distributions were described and normative ranges determined using percentile cut-offs for average, unusually low/high, and extremely low/high scores. The association between player characteristics and performance in SCAT3 subcomponents was also investigated in exploratory analyses. A total of 3611 professional Rugby Union players were included. The most common baseline symptom was fatigue (14%). The symptom score median (md) was 0 (interquartile range (IQR)=0-1). Symptom severity md was 0 (IQR=0-1). The md of the SAC score was 28 (IQR=26-29). The md of the MBESS was 2 (IQR=0-4). The Tandem gait md was 11.1s (IQR=10.0-12.7s). Upper limb coordination was normal in 98.4%. Younger age and lower educational level were associated with worse performance on delayed recall and reverse month sub-components of the SCAT3 (pRugby Union players are provided. Baseline performance on concentration and delayed recall tests may be lower in younger athletes or in those with lower educational level. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Prevalence and determinants of symptoms of common mental disorders in retired professional Rugby Union players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Lambert, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD) (distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance, adverse nutrition behaviour, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking) among retired professional Rugby Union players. The secondary aim was to

  4. Training activities and injuries in English youth academy and schools rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer-Green, Deborah S; Stokes, Keith A; Fuller, Colin W; England, Michael; Kemp, Simon P T; Trewartha, Grant

    2015-02-01

    All rugby training activities carry an injury risk, but in the training environment these injury risks should be more controllable than during matches. To (1) describe the incidence, severity, anatomic location, and type of youth rugby training injuries; (2) determine the injury events and type of training activities associated with injuries; and (3) compare 2 levels of play (professional academy vs school) within English youth rugby union. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. A 2-season (2006-2007 and 2007-2008) study recorded exposure to training activities and time-loss injuries in male youth rugby union players (age range, 16-18 years) from 12 English Premiership academies (250 player-seasons) and 7 schools (222 player-seasons). Players from the Premiership academies, associated with the top-level professional clubs in England, represented the elite level of youth rugby; the school players were from established rugby-playing schools but were overall considered at a lower level of play. There was a trend for training injury incidence to be lower for the academy group (1.4/1000 player-hours; 95% CI, 1.0-1.7) compared with the school group (2.1/1000 player-hours; 95% CI, 1.4-2.9) (P = .06). Injuries to the ankle/heel and thigh were most common in academy players and injuries to the lumbar spine and ankle/heel region most common in school players. The training activities responsible for injury differed between the 2 groups: technical skills (scrummaging) for school players and contact skills (defense and ruck/maul drills) for academy players. For injury risk management in youth rugby, coaches of school players should focus on the development of the correct technique during practice of technical skills such as scrummaging, weight training, and skills training, and coaches of academy players should consider the extent to which contact drills are necessary during training. © 2014 The Author(s).

  5. A comparison of catastrophic injury incidence rates by Provincial Rugby Union in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenhorst, Marelise; Verhagen, Evert A L M; van Mechelen, Willem; Lambert, Michael I; Viljoen, Wayne; Readhead, Clint; Baerecke, Gail; Brown, James C

    2017-07-01

    To compare catastrophic injury rates between the 14 South African Provincial Rugby Unions. A prospective, population-based study conducted among all South African Unions between 2008-2014. Player numbers in each Union were obtained from South African Rugby's 2013 Census. Catastrophic injuries were analysed from BokSmart's serious injury database. Incidence rates with 95% Confidence Intervals were calculated. Catastrophic injuries (Acute Spinal Cord Injuries and catastrophic Traumatic Brain Injuries) within Unions were compared statistically, using a Poisson regression with Incidence Rate Ratios (IRR) and a 95% confidence level (pUnion ranged from 1.8 per 100000 players (95% CI: 0.0-6.5) to 7.9 (95% CI: 0.0-28.5) per 100000 players per year. The highest incidence rate of permanent outcome Acute Spinal Cord Injuries was reported at 7.1 per 100000 players (95% CI: 0.0-17.6). Compared to this Union, five (n=5/14, 36%) of the Unions had significantly lower incidence rates of Acute Spinal Cord Injuries. Proportionately, three Unions had more Acute Spinal Cord Injuries and three other Unions had more catastrophic Traumatic Brain Injuries. There were significant differences in the catastrophic injury incidence rates amongst the Provincial Unions in South Africa. Future studies should investigate the underlying reasons contributing to these provincial differences. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Spinal cord injuries in South African Rugby Union (1980 - 2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanus, Fiona J; Draper, Catherine E; Noakes, Timothy D

    2010-03-30

    To address an apparent increase in the number of rugby-related spinal cord injuries (SCIs) in South Africa, a retrospective case-series study was conducted on injuries that occurred between 1980 and 2007. We aimed to identify preventable causes to reduce the overall rate of SCIs in South African rugby. We identified 264 rugby-related SCIs. A structured questionnaire was used, and it was possible to obtain information on a total of 183 players, including 30 who had died. SCIs increased in number in the 1980s and in 2006. Forwards sustained 76% of all SCIs, and club players 60%. Players aged 17 had the highest number of SCIs. In only 50% of cases were medical personnel present at the time of injury, and 49% of injured players waited longer than 6 hours for acute management. Of players with an SCI, 61% had a catastrophic outcome after 12 months, including 8% who died during that time; 65% received no financial compensation; and only 29% of players had medical aid or health insurance. A register of all rugby-related SCIs in South Africa is essential to monitor the magnitude of the problem, identify potential risk factors, and formulate appropriate preventive interventions. The lack of reliable denominator data limits calculation of incident rates. Players from previously disadvantaged communities in particular suffered the consequences of limited public health care resources and no financial compensation.

  7. Attacking 22 entries in rugby union: running demands and differences between successful and unsuccessful entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, P; Tobin, D P; Blake, C; Delahunt, E

    2017-12-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) technology is commonly utilized in team sports, including rugby union. It has been used to describe the average running demands of rugby union. This has afforded an enhanced understanding of the physical fitness requirements for players. However, research in team sports has suggested that training players relative to average demands may underprepare them for certain scenarios within the game. To date, no research has investigated the running demands of attacking 22 entries in rugby union. Additionally, no research has been undertaken to determine whether differences exist in the running intensity of successful and unsuccessful attacking 22 entries in rugby union. The first aim of this study was to describe the running intensity of attacking 22 entries. The second aim of this study was to investigate whether differences exist in the running intensity of successful and unsuccessful attacking 22 entries. Running intensity was measured using meters per minute (m min -1 ) for (a) total distance, (b) running distance, (c) high-speed running distance, and (d) very high-speed running distance. This study provides normative data for the running intensity of attacking 22 entries in rugby union. Forwards achieved greater high-speed running intensity in successful (3.6 m min -1 ) compared to unsuccessful (1.8 m min -1 ) attacking 22 entries. Forwards should try and achieve greater high-speed running intensity in attacking 22 entries to increase the likelihood of successful outcomes during this period of gameplay. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Eccentric Knee Flexor Strength and Risk of Hamstring Injuries in Rugby Union: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Matthew N; Opar, David A; Williams, Morgan D; Shield, Anthony J

    2015-11-01

    Hamstring strain injuries (HSIs) represent the most common cause of lost playing time in rugby union. Eccentric knee flexor weakness and between-limb imbalance in eccentric knee flexor strength are associated with a heightened risk of HSIs in other sports; however, these variables have not been explored in rugby union. To determine if lower levels of eccentric knee flexor strength or greater between-limb imbalance in this parameter during the Nordic hamstring exercise are risk factors for HSIs in rugby union. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. This prospective study was conducted over the 2014 Super Rugby and Queensland Rugby Union seasons. In total, 178 rugby union players (mean age, 22.6 ± 3.8 years; mean height, 185.0 ± 6.8 cm; mean weight, 96.5 ± 13.1 kg) had their eccentric knee flexor strength assessed using a custom-made device during the preseason. Reports of previous hamstring, quadriceps, groin, calf, and anterior cruciate ligament injuries were also obtained. The main outcome measure was the prospective occurrence of HSIs. Twenty players suffered at least 1 HSI during the study period. Players with a history of HSIs had a 4.1-fold (95% CI, 1.9-8.9; P = .001) greater risk of subsequent HSIs than players without such a history. Between-limb imbalance in eccentric knee flexor strength of ≥15% and ≥20% increased the risk of HSIs by 2.4-fold (95% CI, 1.1-5.5; P = .033) and 3.4-fold (95% CI, 1.5-7.6; P = .003), respectively. Lower eccentric knee flexor strength and other prior injuries were not associated with an increased risk of future HSIs. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that the risk of reinjuries was augmented in players with strength imbalances. Previous HSIs and between-limb imbalance in eccentric knee flexor strength were associated with an increased risk of future HSIs in rugby union. These results support the rationale for reducing imbalance, particularly in players who have suffered a prior HSI, to mitigate the risk of future

  9. Effects of carbohydrate and caffeine ingestion on performance during a rugby union simulation protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Simon P; Stokes, Keith A; Trewartha, Grant; Doyle, Jenny; Hogben, Patrick; Thompson, Dylan

    2010-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of ingesting carbohydrate alone or with caffeine on performance of a rugby union-specific shuttle running protocol. On three occasions, at least one week apart in a counterbalanced trial order, eight male rugby union forwards ingested either placebo or carbohydrate (1.2 g x kg(-1) body mass x h(-1)) before and during a rugby union-specific protocol, with pre-exercise caffeine ingestion (4 mg x kg(-1)) before one of the carbohydrate trials (carbohydrate + caffeine). The intermittent exercise protocol included walking, jogging, and cruising at pre-determined intensities, simulated contact events, a sustained high-intensity test of speed and agility (Performance Test), and a 15-m sprint. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded every 5 min and a motor skills test was performed after each 21-min block. Performance Test times were not significantly different between trials but the likelihood of 2% improvements for carbohydrate + caffeine over placebo and carbohydrate were 98% and 44%, respectively. For carbohydrate + caffeine, 15-m sprints were faster than for placebo (P=0.05) and the motor skills test was performed faster in the carbohydrate + caffeine trial than the carbohydrate and placebo trials (P benefit to rugby performance following co-ingestion of carbohydrate and caffeine.

  10. The Specificity of Rugby Union Training Sessions in Preparation for Match Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Patrick G; Peake, Jonathan M; Minett, Geoffrey M

    2018-04-01

    Investigations into the specificity of rugby union training practices in preparation for competitive demands have predominantly focused on physical and physiological demands. The evaluation of the contextual variance in perceptual strain or skill requirements between training and matches in rugby union is unclear, yet holistic understanding may assist to optimize training design. This study evaluated the specificity of physical, physiological, perceptual, and skill demands of training sessions compared with competitive match play in preprofessional, elite club rugby union. Global positioning system devices, video capture, heart rate, and session ratings of perceived exertion were used to assess movement patterns, skill completions, physiologic, and perceptual responses, respectively. Data were collected across a season (training sessions n = 29; matches n = 14). Participants (n = 32) were grouped in playing positions as: outside backs, centers, halves, loose forwards, lock forwards, and front row forwards. Greater total distance, low-intensity activity, maximal speed, and meters per minute were apparent in matches compared with training in all positions (P  0.90). Similarly, match heart rate and session ratings of perceived exertion responses were higher than those recorded in training (P  0.8). Key skill completions for forwards (ie, scrums, rucks, and lineouts) and backs (ie, kicks) were greater under match conditions than in training (P  1.50). Considerable disparities exist between the perceptual, physiological, and key skill demands of competitive matches versus training sessions in preprofessional rugby union players. Practitioners should consider the specificity of training tasks for preprofessional rugby players to ensure the best preparation for match demands.

  11. Lung injury and respiratory mechanics in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Angus; Bernard, Angelique; Davidson, Shaun M; Redmond, Daniel P; Chiew, Yeong S; Pretty, Christopher; Chase, J Geoffrey; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Gieseg, Steven P; Draper, Nick

    2016-04-01

    Rugby is a highly popular team contact sport associated with high injury rates. Specifically, there is a chance of inducing internal lung injuries as a result of the physical nature of the game. Such injuries are only identified with the use of specific invasive protocols or equipment. This study presents a model-based method to assess respiratory mechanics of N=11 rugby players that underwent a low intensity experimental Mechanical Ventilation (MV) Test before and after a rugby game. Participants were connected to a ventilator via a facemask and their respiratory mechanics estimated using a time-varying elastance model. All participants had a respiratory elastance respiratory mechanics (P>0.05). Model-based respiratory mechanics estimation has been used widely in the treatment of the critically ill in intensive care. However, the application of a ventilator to assess the respiratory mechanics of healthy human beings is limited. This method adapted from ICU mechanical ventilation can be used to provide insight to respiratory mechanics of healthy participants that can be used as a more precise measure of lung inflammation/injury that avoids invasive procedures. This is the first study to conceptualize the assessment of respiratory mechanics in healthy athletes as a means to monitor postexercise stress and therefore manage recovery.

  12. sequent participation at the national U16 and U18 rugby tournaments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The South African Rugby Union (SARU) hosts four national competi- tion tournaments for junior ... of physical, mental, emotional and cognitive development of children and adolescents. ... the demands of that sport. Abstract. Background.

  13. A systematic review and meta-analysis of concussion in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andrew J; Iverson, Grant L; Williams, W Huw; Baker, Stephanie; Stanwell, Peter

    2014-12-01

    Rugby Union, a popular full-contact sport played throughout the world, has one of the highest rates of concussion of all full-contact sports. The aim of the current review was to systematically evaluate the available evidence on concussion in Rugby Union and to conduct a meta-analysis of findings regarding the incidence of concussion. Articles were retrieved via a number of online databases. The current review examined all articles published in English up to May 2014 pertaining to concussion in Rugby Union players. The key search terms included 'Rugby Union', 'rugby', 'union', and 'football', in combination with the injury terms 'athletic injuries', 'concussion', 'sports concussion', 'sports-related concussion', 'brain concussion', 'brain injury', 'brain injuries', 'mild traumatic brain injury', 'mTBI', 'traumatic brain injury', 'TBI', 'craniocerebral trauma', 'head injury', and 'brain damage'. The final search outcome following the eligibility screening process resulted in the inclusion of 96 articles for this review. The meta-analysis included a total of 37 studies. The results of the meta-analysis revealed an overall incidence of match-play concussion in men's rugby-15s of 4.73 per 1,000 player match hours. The incidence of concussion during training was 0.07 per 1,000 practice hours. The incidence of concussion in women's rugby-15s was 0.55 per 1,000 player match hours. In men's rugby-7s match-play, concussion incidence was 3.01 per 1,000 player match hours. The incidence of concussion varied considerably between levels of play, with elite level play recording a rate of 0.40 concussions per 1,000 player match hours, schoolboy level 0.62 concussions per 1,000 player match hours, and the community or sub-elite level recording a rate of 2.08 concussions per 1,000 player match hours. The incidence of concussion in men's rugby-15s as a function of playing position (forwards vs. backs) was 4.02 and 4.85 concussions per 1,000 player match hours, respectively

  14. Mechanisms for Triceps Surae Injury in High Performance Front Row Rugby Union Players: A Kinematic Analysis of Scrummaging Drills

    OpenAIRE

    Flavell, Carol A.; Sayers, Mark G. L.; Gordon, Susan J.; Lee, James B.

    2013-01-01

    The front row of a rugby union scrum consists of three players. The loose head prop, hooker and tight head prop. The objective of this study was to determine if known biomechanical risk factors for triceps surae muscle injury are exhibited in the lower limb of front row players during contested scrummaging. Eleven high performance front row rugby union players were landmarked bilaterally at the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS), greater trochanter, lateral femoral epicondyle, midline of t...

  15. Incidence, severity, aetiology and type of neck injury in men's amateur rugby union: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollard Henry P

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a paucity of epidemiological data on neck injury in amateur rugby union populations. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, severity, aetiology and type of neck injury in Australian men's amateur rugby union. Methods Data was collected from a cohort of 262 participants from two Australian amateur men's rugby union clubs via a prospective cohort study design. A modified version of the Rugby Union Injury Report Form for Games and Training was used by the clubs physiotherapist or chiropractor in data collection. Results The participants sustained 90 (eight recurrent neck injuries. Exposure time was calculated at 31143.8 hours of play (12863.8 hours of match time and 18280 hours of training. Incidence of neck injury was 2.9 injuries/1000 player-hours (95%CI: 2.3, 3.6. As a consequence 69.3% neck injuries were minor, 17% mild, 6.8% moderate and 6.8% severe. Neck compression was the most frequent aetiology and was weakly associated with severity. Cervical facet injury was the most frequent neck injury type. Conclusions This is the first prospective cohort study in an amateur men's rugby union population since the inception of professionalism that presents injury rate, severity, aetiology and injury type data for neck injury. Current epidemiological data should be sought when evaluating the risks associated with rugby union football.

  16. Effect of nationwide injury prevention programme on serious spinal injuries in New Zealand rugby union: ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrie, Kenneth L; Gianotti, Simon M; Hopkins, Will G; Hume, Patria A

    2007-06-02

    To investigate the effect of RugbySmart, a nationwide educational injury prevention programme, on the frequency of spinal cord injuries. Ecological study. New Zealand rugby union. Population at risk of injury comprised all New Zealand rugby union players. From 2001, all New Zealand rugby coaches and referees have been required to complete RugbySmart, which focuses on educating rugby participants about physical conditioning, injury management, and safe techniques in the contact phases of rugby. Numbers of all spinal injuries due to participation in rugby union resulting in permanent disablement in 1976-2005, grouped into five year periods; observed compared with predicted number of spinal injuries in 2001-5. Eight spinal injuries occurred in 2001-5, whereas the predicted number was 18.9 (relative rate=0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.19 to 1.14). Only one spinal injury resulted from scrums over the period; the predicted number was 9.0 (relative rate=0.11, 0.02 to 0.74). Corresponding observed and predicted rates for spinal injuries resulting from other phases of play (tackle, ruck, and maul) were 7 and 9.0 (relative rate=0.83, 0.29 to 2.36). The introduction of the RugbySmart programme coincided with a reduction in the rate of disabling spinal injuries arising from scrums in rugby union. This study exemplifies the benefit of educational initiatives in injury prevention and the need for comprehensive injury surveillance systems for evaluating injury prevention initiatives in sport.

  17. Severe cervical spinal cord injuries related to rugby union and league football in New South Wales, 1984-1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotem, T R; Lawson, J S; Wilson, S F; Engel, S; Rutkowski, S B; Aisbett, C W

    1998-04-20

    To determine the frequency and circumstances of serious cervical cord injuries associated with rugby union and league football in New South Wales. Retrospective review of patients with rugby football-related cervical spinal cord injuries. The two central spinal units in NSW, from January 1984 to July 1996. Admission to spinal units; injury resulting in permanent tetraplegia. During the review period, 115 rugby football players (56 union and 59 league) were admitted to the spinal units because of cervical spinal cord injuries. 49 patients had resultant permanent neurological deficits (complete tetraplegia [quadriplegia])--26 associated with rugby union and 23 with rugby league. Two patients died of injury sequelae within two weeks of admission. There was no significant change in the rate of football-related admissions to spinal units for either code. There was a small decline in the number (from 15 in 1984 to 1987 to 7 in 1992 to 1996) and incidence (from 1.2 to 0.5 per 10,000 participants) of patients with tetraplegia associated with rugby union. When this decline was tested as a trend over the years, it was found to be statistically significant (P = 0.06). No significant trend was found in the tetraplegia data associated with rugby league. Cervical spinal cord injuries leading to complete tetraplegia were most commonly associated with scrum-like plays in union and with tackles in league. Serious cervical spinal injuries associated with both codes of rugby continue to occur in NSW. Rugby football in its various forms is still an inherently dangerous game.

  18. Head impacts in a junior rugby league team measured with a wireless head impact sensor: an exploratory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Doug; Hume, Patria; Gissane, Conor; Clark, Trevor

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency, magnitude, and distribution of head impacts sustained by players in a junior rugby league over a season of matches. METHODS The authors performed a prospective cohort analysis of impact magnitude, frequency, and distribution on data collected with instrumented XPatches worn behind the ear of players in an "under-11" junior rugby league team (players under 11 years old). RESULTS A total of 1977 impacts were recorded. Over the course of the study, players sustained an average of 116 impacts (average of 13 impacts per player per match). The measured linear acceleration ranged from 10g to 123g (mean 22g, median 16g, and 95th percentile 57g). The rotational acceleration ranged from 89 rad/sec 2 to 22,928 rad/sec 2 (mean 4041 rad/sec 2 , median 2773 rad/sec 2 , and 95th percentile 11,384 rad/sec 2 ). CONCLUSIONS The level of impact severity based on the magnitude of impacts for linear and rotational accelerations recorded was similar to the impacts reported in studies of American junior and high school football, collegiate football, and youth ice hockey players, but the players in the rugby league cohort were younger, had less body mass, and played at a slower speed than the American players. Junior rugby league players are required to tackle the player to the ground and use a different tackle technique than that used in American football, likely increasing the rotational accelerations recorded at the head.

  19. Position Affects Performance in Multiple-Object Tracking in Rugby Union Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Martín

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We report an experiment that examines the performance of rugby union players and a control group composed of graduate student with no sport experience, in a multiple-object tracking task. It compares the ability of 86 high level rugby union players grouped as Backs and Forwards and the control group, to track a subset of randomly moving targets amongst the same number of distractors. Several difficulties were included in the experimental design in order to evaluate possible interactions between the relevant variables. Results show that the performance of the Backs is better than that of the other groups, but the occurrence of interactions precludes an isolated groups analysis. We interpret the results within the framework of visual attention and discuss both, the implications of our results and the practical consequences.

  20. Movement and physical demands of school and university rugby union match-play in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Dale; Weaving, Daniel; Phibbs, Padraic; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Roe, Gregory; Weakley, Jonathon; Hendricks, Sharief; Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben

    2017-01-01

    Background In England, rugby union is a popular sport and is widely played within schools. Despite the large participation numbers, the movement and physical demands of the sport and how they progress by age have not been explored. Method Ninety-six male rugby union players wore microtechnology devices during six rugby union matches within the education pathway to investigate the movement and physical demands of match-play. To quantify the positional differences and progression by age, data were obtained for participants at the under 16 (U16) (n=31 participants), under 18 (U18) (n=34 participants) and university (n=31 participants) levels. Players were further divided in forwards and backs. Data were analysed using magnitude-based inferences. Results For the movement demands, U16 total distance and ‘striding’ was likely higher for forwards than backs, whereas at U18, unclear differences were observed and from university players the inverse was observed (very likely). In all age groups sprint distance was likely to very likely greater for backs than forwards. Forwards had greater physical demands than backs at all age groups. For consecutive age groups, U16 had a likely higher relative distance than U18, and U18 had a likely lower relative distance than university players. Physical demands were similar across age groups for forwards, and greater for backs at older age groups. Conclusion The movement and physical demands of rugby union players participating in schools (U16 and U18), may not be as expected, however, the findings from university players show a similar pattern to the senior game. PMID:28879027

  1. Effects of neck strength training on isometric neck strength in rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geary, Kevin; Green, Brian S; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of a neck strengthening program on the isometric neck strength profile of male rugby union players. Controlled laboratory study. Professional rugby union club. Fifteen professional and 10 semiprofessional rugby union players. The 15 professional players undertook a 5-week neck strengthening intervention, which was performed twice per week, whereas the 10 semiprofessional players acted as the control group. Isometric strength of the neck musculature was tested using a hand-held dynamometer, for flexion (F), extension (E), left-side flexion (LSF), and right-side flexion (RSF). Preintervention and postintervention evaluations were undertaken. No significant between-group differences in isometric neck strength were noted preintervention. A significant main effect for time was observed (P isometric neck strength in all planes after the 5-week intervention (F preintervention = 334.45 ± 39.31 N vs F postintervention 396.05 ± 75.55 N; E preintervention = 606.19 ± 97.34 vs E postintervention = 733.88 ± 127.16 N; LSF preintervention = 555.56 ± 88.34 N vs LSF postintervention = 657.14 ± 122.99 N; RSF preintervention = 570.00 ± 106.53 N vs RSF postintervention = 668.00 ± 142.18 N). No significant improvement in neck strength was observed for control group participants. The results of the present study indicate that a 5-week neck strengthening program improves isometric neck strength in rugby union players, which may have implications for injury prevention, screening, and rehabilitation. The strengthening program described in the present study may facilitate rehabilitation specialists in the development of neck injury prevention, screening, and rehabilitation protocols.

  2. Concussion knowledge and experience among Welsh amateur rugby union coaches and referees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Steffan Arthur; Ranson, Craig; Moore, Isabel; Mathema, Prabhat

    2017-01-01

    Background Rugby union is a collision sport where participants are at high risk of sustaining a concussion. In settings where there is little qualified medical supervision, certain stakeholders (eg, coaches and officials) should possess sufficient knowledge in regard to the recognition and management of concussion. Aim The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and experience of various aspects of concussion among coaches and referees involved in Welsh amateur rugby union. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to 1843 coaches and 420 referees. Results A total of 333 coaches and 283 referees completed the questionnaire (18% and 68% response rates, respectively). Participants exhibited greater knowledge of concussion symptom recognition relative to knowledge of both the consequences of concussion and associated return-to-play protocols, both of which could be considered poor. There were no differences in knowledge levels between coaches and referees or between participants with or without a history of concussion. Two-thirds of participants incorrectly believed that headgear could prevent concussion, and nearly 30% of coaches reported having witnessed other coaches allowing a potentially concussed player to continue playing. Conclusions Identification of several misconceptions indicates that concussion management within Welsh amateur rugby union needs to be improved, warranting a multi-faceted educational intervention. PMID:29259806

  3. Cervical isometric strength and range of motion of elite rugby union players: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, David F; Gatherer, Don

    2014-01-01

    Head and neck injury is relatively common in Rugby Union. Despite this, strength and range-of-motion characteristics of the cervical spine are poorly characterised. The aim of this study was to provide data on the strength and range-of-motion of the cervical spine of professional rugby players to guide clinical rehabilitation. A cohort study was performed evaluating 27 players from a single UK professional rugby club. Cervical isometric strength and range-of-motion were assessed in 3 planes of reference. Anthropometric data was collected and multivariate regression modelling performed with a view to predicting cervical isometric strength. Largest forces were generated in extension, with broadly equal isometric side flexion forces at around 90% of extension values. The forwards generated significantly more force than the backline in all parameters bar flexion. The forwards had substantially reduced cervical range-of-motion and larger body mass, with differences observed in height, weight, neck circumference and chest circumference (p isometric extension (adjusted R(2) = 30.34). Rehabilitative training programs aim to restore individuals to pre-injury status. This work provides reference ranges for the strength and range of motion of the cervical spine of current elite level rugby players.

  4. Physiological demands of women's rugby union: time-motion analysis and heart rate response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virr, Jody Lynn; Game, Alex; Bell, Gordon John; Syrotuik, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physical demands of women's rugby union match play using time-motion analysis and heart rate (HR) response. Thirty-eight premier club level female rugby players, ages 18-34 years were videotaped and HRs monitored for a full match. Performances were coded into 12 different movement categories: 5 speeds of locomotion (standing, walking, jogging, striding, sprinting), 4 forms of intensive non-running exertion (ruck/maul/tackle, pack down, scrum, lift) and 3 discrete activities (kick, jump, open field tackle). The main results revealed that backs spend significantly more time sprinting and walking whereas forwards spend more time in intensive non-running exertion and jogging. Forwards also had a significantly higher total work frequency compared to the backs, but a higher total rest frequency compared to the backs. In terms of HR responses, forwards displayed higher mean HRs throughout the match and more time above 80% of their maximum HR than backs. In summary, women's rugby union is characterised by intermittent bursts of high-intensity activity, where forwards and backs have similar anaerobic energy demands, but different specific match demands.

  5. Kinetic and kinematic analysis of stamping impacts during simulated rucking in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudshoorn, Bodil Y; Driscoll, Heather F; Dunn, Marcus; James, David

    2018-04-01

    Laceration injuries account for up to 23% of injuries in rugby union. They are frequently caused by studded footwear as a result of a player stamping onto another player during the ruck. Little is known about the kinetics and kinematics of rugby stamping impacts; current test methods assessing laceration injury risk of stud designs therefore lack informed test parameters. In this study, twelve participants stamped on an anthropomorphic test device in a one-on-one simulated ruck setting. Velocity and inclination angle of the foot prior to impact was determined from high-speed video footage. Total stamping force and individual stud force were measured using pressure sensors. Mean foot inbound velocity was 4.3 m ∙ s -1 (range 2.1-6.3 m ∙ s -1 ). Mean peak total force was 1246 N and mean peak stud force was 214 N. The total mean effective mass during stamping was 6.6 kg (range: 1.6-13.5 kg) and stud effective mass was 1.2 kg (range: 0.5-2.9 kg). These results provide representative test parameters for mechanical test devices designed to assess laceration injury risk of studded footwear for rugby union.

  6. Relationship between achievement goal orientations and the perceived purposes of playing rugby union for professional and amateur players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treasure, D C; Carpenter, P J; Power, K T

    2000-08-01

    The recent professionalization of rugby union makes it an excellent achievement context in which to examine the relationship between achievement goal orientations and the perceived purposes of sport as a function of competitive standard. During the 1996-97 season, 73 professional and 106 amateur rugby players in England completed a series of questionnaires assessing their achievement goal orientations, beliefs about the purposes of rugby and demographic information. The results of a canonical correlation analysis revealed a conceptually coherent relationship between achievement goal orientations and purposes of rugby. Specifically, a high ego/moderate task orientation was positively related to fitness, aggression and financial remuneration as significant purposes of rugby. Professional players scored higher on those purposes of rugby related to aggression, financial remuneration and fitness, but lower on sportspersonship than amateur players. Professional players also reported higher task and ego goal orientations than amateur players. The findings are discussed in terms of the differences in lifestyle and motivation of professional and amateur rugby union players.

  7. Shoulder injuries in elite rugby union football matches: Epidemiology and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Juliana; McIntosh, Andrew S; Quarrie, Kenneth; Targett, Stephen

    2015-09-01

    Shoulder injuries in rugby union football have been the focus of few in-depth studies, despite their frequency and severity. The study's objective was to describe the incidence, patterns and mechanisms of shoulder injuries in rugby. Prospective cohort study of shoulder injury incidence and retrospective case-series study of shoulder injury mechanisms. Data were collected from Super Rugby matches from 2005 to 2010 involving elite level adult male rugby players. 7920 player participation hours and 100 shoulder injuries were recorded during 397 Super Rugby matches. The shoulder injury incidence rate was 13 per 1000 player hours (95% confidence interval 10-16). The mean number of days unavailable for selection due to these injuries was 37 (95% confidence interval 25-54). Tacklers sustained shoulder injuries at a higher rate than ball carriers (Rate Ratio=1.7 (95% confidence interval 0.5-5.3)). The most frequently reported injuries were those to the acromio-clavicular joint; dislocations resulted in the greatest amount of missed play. Using video analysis, 47 of the 100 shoulder injury events were successfully identified and analyzed. The main mechanisms of shoulder injury were contact with the ground with the shoulder/arm in horizontal adduction, flexion, and internal rotation; and impact to the lateral aspect of the shoulder with the elbow flexed and arm at the side. Direct impact to the shoulder, either through player-to-player contact or contact with the ground, is the main cause of shoulder injury. Methods to reduce injury risk, such as shoulder pads and tackle skills, require consideration. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Upper limb injury in rugby union football: results of a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Juliana; McIntosh, Andrew Stuart

    2013-04-01

    There have been few in-depth studies of upper limb injury epidemiology in rugby union football, despite reports that they accounted for between 14% and 28% of all rugby injuries. To report on upper limb injury incidence, injury severity and to identify the risk factors associated with upper limb injuries, for example, level of play, season (years) and playing position. Prospective cohort study across five rugby seasons from 2004 to 2008. Formal rugby competitions-suburban, provincial and international. 1475 adult male rugby players in Colts, Grade and Elite competitions. An upper limb injury resulting in a missed game and its characteristics. A total of 61 598 athletic exposures (AE) and 606 upper limb injuries were recorded. About 66% of the injuries were to the shoulder. The overall upper limb injury incidence rate (IIR) was 9.84 injuries/1000 AE (95% CI 9.06 to 10.62). Statistically significant associations were found between upper limb injuries and level of play; and between shoulder injuries and playing position (p<0.05). No association was found between upper limb and shoulder injuries and study year. The overall upper limb IIR decreased as the level of play increased; 10.74 upper limb injuries/1000 AE (95% CI 9.93 to 11.56) in Colts to 6.07 upper limb injuries/1000 AE (95% CI 5.46 to 6.69) in Elite. The upper limb IIR decreased as the level of play increased indicating that age, level of skill and playing experience may be risk factors for upper limb injury.

  9. Long-term player development in rugby – how are we doing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    played under full rules. The Australian Rugby union maintains that the junior player pathway provides children with a safe and enjoyable introduction to the skills and practical principles of the game of rugby. 6. The gradual exposure to the skills is appropriate for their age. Physical development, size and body shape is not ...

  10. Skills Associated with Line Breaks in Elite Rugby Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve den Hollander, James Brown, Michael Lambert, Paul Treu, Sharief Hendricks

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability of the attacking team to break through the defensive line is a key indicator of success as it creates opportunities to score tries. The aim of this study was to analyse line breaks and identify the associated skills and playing characteristics. The 2013 Super Rugby season (125 games was analysed, in which 362 line breaks were identified and coded using variables that assessed team patterns and non-contact attacking skills in the phases preceding the line break. There was an average of 3 line breaks per game, with 39% of line breaks resulting in a try. Line breaks occurred when the ball-carrier was running fast [61%, x2(4 = 25.784, p = 0.000, Cramer’s v = 0.1922, weak]. At a moderate distance, short lateral passes (19% and skip passes (15% attributed to the highest percentage of line breaks [x2(26 = 50.899, p = 0.036, Cramer’s v = 0.2484, moderate]. Faster defensive line speeds resulted in more line breaks [x2(12 = 61.703, p < 0.001, Cramer’s v = 0.3026, moderate]. Line breaks are associated with overall team success and try scoring opportunities. Awareness of the defenders line speed and depth, fast running speed when receiving the ball and quick passing between attackers to the outside backs creates line break opportunities. During training, coaches should emphasise the movement speed of the ball between attackers and manipulate the speed and distance of the defenders.

  11. Mechanisms and Factors Associated With Tackle-Related Injuries in South African Youth Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Nicholas; Lambert, Mike Ian; Viljoen, Wayne; Brown, James Craig; Readhead, Clint; den Hollander, Steve; Hendricks, Sharief

    2017-02-01

    The majority of injuries in rugby union occur during tackle events. The mechanisms and causes of these injuries are well established in senior rugby union. To use information from an injury database and assess video footage of tackle-related injuries in youth rugby union matches to identify environmental factors and mechanisms that are potentially confounding to these injuries. Descriptive epidemiological study. Injury surveillance was conducted at the under-18 Craven Week rugby tournament. Tackle-related injury information was used to identify injury events in match video footage (role-matched noninjury tackle events were identified for the cohort of injured players). Events were coded using match situational variables (precontact, contact, and postcontact). Relative risk ratio (RRR; ratio of probability of an injury or noninjury outcome occurring when a characteristic was observed) was reported by use of logistic regression. In comparison with the first quarter, injury risk was greater in the third (RRR = 9.75 [95% CI, 1.71-55.64]; P = .010) and fourth quarters (RRR = 6.97 [95% CI, 1.09-44.57]; P = .040) for ball carriers and in the fourth quarter (RRR = 9.63 [95% CI, 1.94-47.79]; P = .006) for tacklers. Ball carriers were less likely to be injured when they were aware of impending contact (RRR = 0.14 [95% CI, 0.03-0.66]; P = .012) or when they executed a moderate fend (hand-off) (RRR = 0.22 [95% CI, 0.06-0.84]; P = .026). Tacklers were less likely to be injured when performing shoulder tackles (same side as leading leg) in comparison to an arm-only tackle (RRR = 0.02 [95% CI, 0.001-0.79]; P = .037). Ball carriers (RRR = 0.09 [95% CI, 0.01-0.89]; P = .040) and tacklers (RRR = 0.02 [95% CI, 0.001-0.32]; P =.006) were less likely to be injured when initial contact was made with the tackler's shoulder/arm instead of his head/neck. The relative risk of tackle-related injury was higher toward the end of matches. Incorrect technique may contribute to increased injury

  12. Tackle-related injury rates and nature of injuries in South African Youth Week tournament rugby union players (under-13 to under-18): an observational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, N.; Lambert, M.I.; Viljoen, W.; Brown, J.; Readhead, C.; Hendricks, S.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The tackle situation is most often associated with the high injury rates in rugby union. Tackle injury epidemiology in rugby union has previously been focused on senior cohorts but less is known about younger cohorts. The aim of this study was to report on the nature and rates of

  13. Influence of an intensified competition on fatigue and match performance in junior rugby league players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Rich D; Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the physiological responses to an intensified rugby league competition and explore the relationships between fatigue and match performance. Prospective cohort study. Fifteen junior rugby league players (n=8 forwards, 7 backs; mean±SE, age 16.6±0.2 years; body mass 81.6±3.0kg; and height 178.9±1.8cm) competed in five 40min games over 5 days (two games each on days 1 and 2, one game on day 4, and no games on days 3 and 5). Over the competition, players performed a countermovement jump to assess neuromuscular fatigue, provided a fingertip blood sample to measure blood creatine kinase, and completed a questionnaire to monitor perceived wellbeing; ratings of perceived effort were recorded following each game. Global positioning system and video analysis of each game were used to assess match performance. Over the first 3 days, there were progressive and large increases in neuromuscular fatigue which peaked 12h after game 4 (forwards ES=4.45, p=0.014; backs ES=3.62, p=0.029), and muscle damage which peaked 1h post game 4 (forwards ES=4.45, p=0.004; backs ES=3.94 p=0.012), as well as reductions in perceived wellbeing. These measures gradually recovered over the final 2 days of the competition. Compared to the backs, the forwards experienced greater increases in creatine kinase following game 2 (ES=1.30) and game 4 (ES=1.24) and reductions in perceived wellbeing (ES=0.25-0.46). Match intensity, high-speed running, and repeated-high intensity effort bouts decreased in games 4 and 5 of the competition. Small to large associations were observed between the changes in fatigue, muscle damage and match performance, with significant correlations between creatine kinase and repeated high-intensity effort bout number (r=-0.70, p=0.031) and frequency (r=0.74, p=0.002) and low-speed activity (r=-0.56, p=0.029). Fatigue and muscle damage accumulate over an intensified competition, which is likely to contribute to reductions in high

  14. Time loss injuries compromise team success in Elite Rugby Union: a 7-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Sean; Trewartha, Grant; Kemp, Simon P T; Brooks, John H M; Fuller, Colin W; Taylor, Aileen E; Cross, Matthew J; Stokes, Keith A

    2016-06-01

    A negative association between injuries and team success has been demonstrated in professional football, but the nature of this association in elite Rugby Union teams is currently unclear. To assess the association between injury burden measures and team success outcomes within professional Rugby Union teams. A seven-season prospective cohort design was used to record all time-loss injuries incurred by English Premiership players. Associations between team success measures (league points tally and Eurorugby Club Ranking (ECR)) and injury measures (injury burden and injury days per team-match) were modelled, both within (changes from season to season) and between (differences averaged over all seasons) teams. Thresholds for the smallest worthwhile change in league points tally and ECR were 3 points and 2.6%, respectively. Data from a total of 1462 players within 15 Premiership teams were included in the analysis. We found clear negative associations between injury measures and team success (70-100% likelihood), with the exception of between-team differences for injury days per team-match and ECR, which was unclear. A reduction in injury burden of 42 days (90% CI 30 to 70) per 1000 player hours (22% of mean injury burden) was associated with the smallest worthwhile change in league points tally. Clear negative associations were found between injury measures and team success, and moderate reductions in injury burden may have worthwhile effects on competition outcomes for professional Rugby Union teams. These findings may be useful when communicating the value of injury prevention initiatives within this elite sport setting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Collision count in rugby union: A comparison of micro-technology and video analysis methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Cillian; Tobin, Daniel P; Tierney, Peter; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2017-10-01

    The aim of our study was to determine if there is a role for manipulation of g force thresholds acquired via micro-technology for accurately detecting collisions in rugby union. In total, 36 players were recruited from an elite Guinness Pro12 rugby union team. Player movement profiles and collisions were acquired via individual global positioning system (GPS) micro-technology units. Players were assigned to a sub-category of positions in order to determine positional collision demands. The coding of collisions by micro-technology at g force thresholds between 2 and 5.5 g (0.5 g increments) was compared with collision coding by an expert video analyst using Bland-Altman assessments. The most appropriate g force threshold (smallest mean difference compared with video analyst coding) was lower for all forwards positions (2.5 g) than for all backs positions (3.5 g). The Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement indicated that there may be a substantial over- or underestimation of collisions coded via GPS micro-technology when using expert video analyst coding as the reference comparator. The manipulation of the g force thresholds applied to data acquired by GPS micro-technology units based on incremental thresholds of 0.5 g does not provide a reliable tool for the accurate coding of collisions in rugby union. Future research should aim to investigate smaller g force threshold increments and determine the events that cause coding of false positives.

  16. Training volume and soft tissue injury in professional and non-professional rugby union players: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Shane; Halaki, Mark; Orr, Rhonda

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between training volume and soft tissue injury incidence, and characterise soft tissue injury in rugby union players. A systematic search of electronic databases was performed. The search strategy combined terms covering: training volume and injury, and rugby union, and players of all levels. Medline, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, Embase, PubMed. Studies were included if they reported: male rugby union players, a clear definition of a rugby union injury, the amount of training volume undertaken by participants, and epidemiological data for soft-tissue injuries including the number or incidence. 15 studies were eligible for inclusion. Overall match and training injury incidence ranged from 3.3 to 218.0 injuries/1000 player match hours and 0.1-6.1 injuries/1000 player training hours, respectively. Muscle and tendon as well as joint (non-bone) and ligament injuries were the most frequently occurring injuries. The lower limb was the most prevalent injury location. Injury incidence was higher in professional rugby union players than non-professional players. Contact events were responsible for the greatest injury incidence. For non-contact mechanisms, running was responsible for the highest injury incidence. Inconsistent injury definitions hindered reliable comparison of injury data. The lack of reporting training volumes in hours per player per week limited the ability to investigate associations between training volume and injury incidence. A higher level of play may result in higher match injury incidence. Muscle and tendon injuries were the most common type of soft tissue injury, while the lower limb was the most common location of injury in rugby union players, and running was responsible for the highest injury incidence during non-contact events. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. The physical characteristics of match-play in English schoolboy and academy rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Dale B; Jones, Ben; Phibbs, Padraic J; Roe, Gregory A B; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Weakley, Jonathon J S; Till, Kevin

    2018-03-01

    The aim was to compare the physical characteristics of under-18 academy and schoolboy rugby union competition by position (forwards and backs). Using a microsensor unit, match characteristics were recorded in 66 players. Locomotor characteristics were assessed by maximum sprint speed (MSS) and total, walking, jogging, striding and sprinting distances. The slow component (<2 m · s -1 ) of PlayerLoad TM (PL slow ), which is the accumulated accelerations from the three axes of movement, was analysed as a measure of low-speed activity (e.g., rucking). A linear mixed-model was assessed with magnitude-based inferences. Academy forwards and backs almost certainly and very likely covered greater total distance than school forwards and backs. Academy players from both positions were also very likely to cover greater jogging distances. Academy backs were very likely to accumulate greater PL slow and the academy forwards a likely greater sprinting distance than school players in their respective positions. The MSS, total, walking and sprinting distances were greater in backs (likely-almost certainly), while forwards accumulated greater PL slow (almost certainly) and jogging distance (very likely). The results suggest that academy-standard rugby better prepares players to progress to senior competition compared to schoolboy rugby.

  18. Neuromuscular performance of elite rugby union players and relationships with salivary hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewther, Blair T; Lowe, Tim; Weatherby, Robert P; Gill, Nicholas; Keogh, Justin

    2009-10-01

    This study compared the neuromuscular performance (speed, power, strength) of elite rugby union players, by position, and examined the relationship between player performance and salivary hormones, by squad and position. Thirty-four professional male rugby players were assessed for running speed (10-m, 20-m or 30-m sprints), concentric mean (MP) and peak power (PP) during a 70-kg squat jump (SJ) and 50-kg bench press throw (BT), and estimated 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength for a box squat (BS) and bench press (BP). Tests were performed on separate days with absolute and normalized (power and strength only) values computed. Saliva was collected before each test and assayed for testosterone (Sal-T) and cortisol (Sal-C). In absolute terms, the backs demonstrated greater speed and BT MP, whereas the forwards produced greater SJ PP and MP and BS 1RM (p 0.05). A comparison (absolute and normalized) of BT PP showed no positional differences (p > 0.05), whereas BP 1RM was greater for the forwards (p rugby. The Sal-T and/or Sal-C concentrations of players correlated to speed, power, and strength, especially for the backs (p benefit from acute and chronic hormone monitoring to identify those individuals likely to respond more to hormonal change.

  19. The relationship between burnout and mood state among student rugby union players

    OpenAIRE

    Grobbelaar, H.W.; Malan, D.D.J.; Steyn, B.J.M.; Ellis, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    Mood state changes are widely regarded as a symptom of athlete burnout and show potential to be used as a marker for this condition. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in burnout scores would be accompanied by similar changes in mood state scores, and to determine the strength of the relationship between burnout and mood state scores at different test points. Forty-one male student rugby union players (mean age: 22.26 ± 1.39 years) completed the Athlete Burnout Questionnai...

  20. Association of ACTN3 R577X but not ACE I/D gene variants with elite rugby union player status and playing position

    OpenAIRE

    Heffernan, S. M.; Kilduff, L. P.; Erskine, R. M.; Day, S. H.; McPhee, J. S.; McMahon, G. E.; Stebbings, G. K.; Neale, J. P. H.; Lockey, S. J.; Ribbans, W. J.; Cook, C. J.; Vance, B.; Raleigh, S. M.; Roberts, C.; Bennett, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to quantify the ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) genetic variants in elite rugby athletes (rugby union and league) and compare genotype frequencies to controls and between playing positions. The rugby athlete cohort consisted of 507 Caucasian men, including 431 rugby union athletes that for some analyses were divided into backs and forwards and into specific positional groups: front five, back row, half backs, centers, and back three. Controls were 710 Caucasian men and women. Rea...

  1. The comparative incidence of reported concussions presenting for follow-up management in South African Rugby Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuttleworth-Edwards, Ann B; Noakes, Timothy D; Radloff, Sarah E; Whitefield, Victoria J; Clark, Susan B; Roberts, Craig O; Essack, Fathima B; Zoccola, Diana; Boulind, Melissa J; Case, Stephanie E; Smith, Ian P; Mitchell, Julia L G

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the seasonal concussion incidence for school, university, club and provincial level Rugby Union players in South Africa. The study presents a retrospective statistical analysis of the number of reported concussions documented annually for groups of Rugby Union players as a proportion of those who received preseason neurocognitive assessment. Between 2002 and 2006, concussion management programs using computerized neuropsychological assessment were implemented for clinical and research purposes by psychologists in selected South African institutions involved in Rugby Union from school through to the professional level. The incidence figures were based on 175 concussive episodes reported for 165 athletes who were referred for neurocognitive assessment from a population of 1366 athletes who received preseason baseline testing. Concussion management routines varied according to the protocols adopted by the different psychologists and rugby organizations. It was expected that the incidence of concussion would vary significantly due to level of play and different management protocols. There was wide disparity in the manner in which concussion follow-up was managed by the various organizations. Within broadly comparable cohorts, tighter control was associated with a relatively higher concussion incidence for athletes per rugby playing season, with average institutional figures ranging from 4% to 14% at school level and 3% to 23% at adult level. This analysis suggests that concussion goes unrecognized and therefore incorrectly managed in a number of instances. Recommendations for optimal identification of concussed athletes for follow-up management are presented.

  2. Preseason Functional Movement Screen Component Tests Predict Severe Contact Injuries in Professional Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee, Jason C; Klingbiel, Jannie F G; Collins, Robert; Lambert, Mike I; Coopoo, Yoga

    2016-11-01

    Tee, JC, Klingbiel, JFG, Collins, R, Lambert, MI, and Coopoo, Y. Preseason Functional Movement Screen component tests predict severe contact injuries in professional rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3194-3203, 2016-Rugby union is a collision sport with a relatively high risk of injury. The ability of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) or its component tests to predict the occurrence of severe (≥28 days) injuries in professional players was assessed. Ninety FMS test observations from 62 players across 4 different time periods were compared with severe injuries sustained during 6 months after FMS testing. Mean composite FMS scores were significantly lower in players who sustained severe injury (injured 13.2 ± 1.5 vs. noninjured 14.5 ± 1.4, Effect Size = 0.83, large) because of differences in in-line lunge (ILL) and active straight leg raise scores (ASLR). Receiver-operated characteristic curves and 2 × 2 contingency tables were used to determine that ASLR (cut-off 2/3) was the injury predictor with the greatest sensitivity (0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.79-1.0). Adding the ILL in combination with ASLR (ILL + ASLR) improved the specificity of the injury prediction model (ASLR specificity = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.18-0.43 vs. ASLR + ILL specificity = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.39-0.66, p ≤ 0.05). Further analysis was performed to determine whether FMS tests could predict contact and noncontact injuries. The FMS composite score and various combinations of component tests (deep squat [DS] + ILL, ILL + ASLR, and DS + ILL + ASLR) were all significant predictors of contact injury. The FMS composite score also predicted noncontact injury, but no component test or combination thereof produced a similar result. These findings indicate that low scores on various FMS component tests are risk factors for injury in professional rugby players.

  3. Complex dynamics in the distribution of players’ scoring performance in Rugby Union world cups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seuront, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    The evolution of the scoring performance of Rugby Union players is investigated over the seven rugby world cups (RWC) that took place from 1987 to 2011, and a specific attention is given to how they may have been impacted by the switch from amateurism to professionalism that occurred in 1995. The distribution of the points scored by individual players, Ps, ranked in order of performance were well described by the simplified canonical law Ps∝(, where r is the rank, and ϕ and α are the parameters of the distribution. The parameter α did not significantly change from 1987 to 2007 (α=0.92±0.03), indicating a negligible effect of professionalism on players’ scoring performance. In contrast, the parameter ϕ significantly increased from ϕ=1.32 for 1987 RWC, ϕ=2.30 for 1999 to 2003 RWC and ϕ=5.60 for 2007 RWC, suggesting a progressive decrease in the relative performance of the best players. Finally, the sharp decreases observed in both α(α=0.38) and ϕ(ϕ=0.70) in the 2011 RWC indicate a more even distribution of the performance of individuals among scorers, compared to the more heterogeneous distributions observed from 1987 to 2007, and suggest a sharp increase in the level of competition leading to an increase in the average quality of players and a decrease in the relative skills of the top players. Note that neither α nor ϕ significantly correlate with traditional performance indicators such as the number of points scored by the best players, the number of games played by the best players, the number of points scored by the team of the best players or the total number of points scored over each RWC. This indicates that the dynamics of the scoring performance of Rugby Union players is influenced by hidden processes hitherto inaccessible through standard performance metrics; this suggests that players’ scoring performance is connected to ubiquitous phenomena such as anomalous diffusion.

  4. Doping in sport: an analysis of sanctioned UK rugby union players between 2009 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, L; Backhouse, S

    2017-08-01

    To inform anti-doping policy and practice, it is important to understand the complexities of doping. The purpose of this study was to collate and systematically examine the reasoned decisions published by UK Anti-Doping for doping sanctions in rugby union in the UK since the introduction of the 2009 World Anti-Doping Code. Case files were content analysed to extract demographic information and details relating to the anti-doping rule violation (ADRV), including individuals' explanations for how/why the ADRV occurred. Between 2009 and 2015, 49 rugby union players and one coach from across the UK were sanctioned. Over 50% of the cases involved players under the age of 25, competing at sub-elite levels. Reasons in defence of the ADRV focused on functional use and lifestyle factors rather than performance enhancement. An a priori assessment of the "need", "risk" and "consequence" of using a substance was not commonplace; further strengthening calls for increasing the reach of anti-doping education. The findings also deconstruct the view that "doped" athletes are the same. Consequently, deepening understanding of the social and cultural conditions that encourage doping remains a priority.

  5. Concussions and Head Injuries in English Community Rugby Union Match Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Simon P; Trewartha, Grant; England, Michael; Goodison, William; Stokes, Keith A

    2017-02-01

    Previous research has described general injury patterns in community-level rugby union, but specific information on time-loss head injuries has not been reported. To establish the incidence and nature of significant time-loss head injuries in English community rugby match play, and to identify the injury risk for specific contact events. Descriptive epidemiology study. Over 6 seasons, injury information was collected from 46 (2009-2010), 67 (2010-2011), 76 (2011-2012), 50 (2012-2013), 67 (2013-2014), and 58 (2014-2015) English community rugby clubs (Rugby Football Union levels 3-9) over a total of 175,940 hours of player match exposure. Club injury management staff reported information for all head injuries sustained during match play whereby the player was absent for 8 days or greater. Clubs were subdivided into semiprofessional (mean player age, 24.6 ± 4.7 years), amateur (24.9 ± 5.1 years), and recreational (25.6 ± 6.1 years) playing levels. Contact events from a sample of 30 matches filmed over seasons 2009-2010, 2010-2011, and 2011-2012 provided mean values for the frequency of contact events. The overall incidence for time-loss head injuries was 2.43 injuries per 1000 player match hours, with a higher incidence for the amateur (2.78; 95% CI, 2.37-3.20) compared with recreational (2.20; 95% CI, 1.86-2.53) ( P = .032) playing level but not different to the semiprofessional (2.31; 95% CI, 1.83-2.79) playing level. Concussion was the most common time-loss head injury, with 1.46 per 1000 player match hours. The tackle event was associated with 64% of all head injuries and 74% of all concussions. There was also a higher risk of injuries per tackle (0.33 per 1000 events; 95% CI, 0.30-0.37) compared with all other contact events. Concussion was the most common head injury diagnosis, although it is likely that this injury was underreported. Continuing education programs for medical staff and players are essential for the improved identification and management of

  6. Anthropometric and performance characteristics of the German rugby union 7s team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenauer, Erich; Rucker, Alfred M; Clarys, Peter; Küng, Ursula M; Stoop, Rahel; Clijsen, Ron

    2017-12-01

    Somatotyping is advantageous in sports for the optimal development of performance level and injury prevention. The aim of this study was to describe the anthropometric and physical performance characteristics of the German national rugby union 7s team. Seventeen male rugby players, classified as forwards (N.=9; 24.2±2.1 years) and backs (N.=8; 24.3±5.05 years) were assessed. Anthropometric measurements included: body height, weight, height to weight ratio (H/W), five skinfolds, biepicondylar humerus and femur breadth, upper arm- and calf girth, estimated lower body fat percentage and determination of the individual and mean somatotype. The physical performance tests included: sit-and-reach, handgrip strength, one minute of sit-ups, one minute of push-ups, vertical jump performance, peak power performance, bent arm hanging, 40-m sprint, and the Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance Test. The forward players were significantly taller (P=0.003), heavier (P=0.001) with a smaller H/W (P=0.009) compared to the backs. Humerus and femur bone breadths (P<0.05) and flexed upper arm and calf girths (P<0.05) were significantly different between the groups. Handgrip strength left (P=0.04), one minute of sit-ups (P=0.03), and peak power output (P=0.015) were also significantly different between the groups. The data indicate that German forward and back players have a similar somatotype and performance level. However, a higher body mass of forward players could be advantageous in that their playing position is much more body contact intensive, and requires a significant amount of tackling. The nominative data of this study may assist coaches to detect weak links in rugby specific athletic performance.

  7. Does player time-in-game affect tackle technique in elite level rugby union?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Gregory J; Denvir, Karl; Farrell, Garreth; Simms, Ciaran K

    2018-02-01

    It has been hypothesised that fatigue may be a major factor in tackle-related injury risk in rugby union and hence more injuries occur in the later stages of a game. The aim of this study is to identify changes in ball carrier or tackler proficiency characteristics, using elite level match video data, as player time-in-game increases. Qualitative observational cohort study. Three 2014/15 European Rugby Champions Cup games were selected for ball carrier and tackler proficiency analysis. Analysis was only conducted on players who started and remained on the field for the entire game. A separate analysis was conducted on 10 randomly selected 2014/15 European Rugby Champions Cup/Pro 12 games to assess the time distribution of tackles throughout a game. A Chi-square test and one-way way ANOVA with post-hoc testing was conducted to identify significant differences (p<0.05) for proficiency characteristics and tackle counts between quarters in the game, respectively. Player time-in-game did not affect tackle proficiency for both the ball carrier and tackler. Any results that showed statistical significance did not indicate a trend of deterioration in proficiency with increased player time-in-game. The time distribution of tackles analysis indicated that more tackles occurring in the final quarter of the game than the first (p=0.04) and second (p=<0.01). It appears that player time-in-game does not affect tackler or ball carrier tackle technique proficiency at the elite level. More tackles occurring in the final quarter of a game provides an alternative explanation to more tackle-related injuries occurring at this stage. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Tackle characteristics and injury in a cross section of rugby union football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Andrew S; Savage, Trevor N; McCrory, Paul; Fréchède, Bertrand O; Wolfe, Rory

    2010-05-01

    The tackle is the game event in rugby union most associated with injury. This study's main aims were to measure tackle characteristics from video using a qualitative protocol, to assess whether the characteristics differed by level of play, and to measure the associations between tackle characteristics and injury. A cohort study was undertaken. The cohort comprised male rugby players in the following levels: younger than 15 yr, 18 yr, and 20 yr, grade, and elite (Super 12 and Wallabies). All tackle events and technique characteristics were coded in 77 game halves using a standardized qualitative protocol. Game injuries and missed-game injuries were identified and correlated with tackle events. A total of 6618 tackle events, including 81 resulting in a game injury, were observed and coded in the 77 game halves fully analyzed (145 tackle events per hour). An increase in the proportion of active shoulder tackles was observed from younger than 15 yr (13%) to elite (31%). Younger players engaged in more passive tackles and tended to stay on their feet more than experienced players. Younger than 15 yr rugby players had a significantly lower risk of tackle game injury compared with elite players. No specific tackle technique was observed to be associated with a significantly increased risk of game injury. There was a greater risk of game injury associated with two or more tacklers involved in the tackle event, and the greatest risk was associated with simultaneous contact by tacklers, after adjusting for level of play. Tackle characteristics differed between levels of play. The number of tacklers and the sequence of tackler contact with the ball carrier require consideration from an injury prevention perspective.

  9. Exposure time, running and skill-related performance in international u20 rugby union players during an intensified tournament.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Carling

    Full Text Available This study investigated exposure time, running and skill-related performance in two international u20 rugby union teams during an intensified tournament: the 2015 Junior World Rugby Championship.Both teams played 5 matches in 19 days. Analyses were conducted using global positioning system (GPS tracking (Viper 2™, Statsports Technologies Ltd and event coding (Opta Pro®.Of the 62 players monitored, 36 (57.1% participated in 4 matches and 23 (36.5% in all 5 matches while player availability for selection was 88%. Analyses of team running output (all players completing >60-min play showed that the total and peak 5-minute high metabolic load distances covered were likely-to-very likely moderately higher in the final match compared to matches 1 and 2 in back and forward players. In individual players with the highest match-play exposure (participation in >75% of total competition playing time and >75-min in each of the final 3 matches, comparisons of performance in matches 4 and 5 versus match 3 (three most important matches reported moderate-to-large decreases in total and high metabolic load distance in backs while similar magnitude reductions occurred in high-speed distance in forwards. In contrast, skill-related performance was unchanged, albeit with trivial and unclear changes, while there were no alterations in either total or high-speed running distance covered at the end of matches.These findings suggest that despite high availability for selection, players were not over-exposed to match-play during an intensified u20 international tournament. They also imply that the teams coped with the running and skill-related demands. Similarly, individual players with the highest exposure to match-play were also able to maintain skill-related performance and end-match running output (despite an overall reduction in the latter. These results support the need for player rotation and monitoring of performance, recovery and intervention strategies during

  10. Exposure time, running and skill-related performance in international u20 rugby union players during an intensified tournament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carling, Christopher J.; Flanagan, Eamon; O’Doherty, Pearse; Piscione, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated exposure time, running and skill-related performance in two international u20 rugby union teams during an intensified tournament: the 2015 Junior World Rugby Championship. Method Both teams played 5 matches in 19 days. Analyses were conducted using global positioning system (GPS) tracking (Viper 2™, Statsports Technologies Ltd) and event coding (Opta Pro®). Results Of the 62 players monitored, 36 (57.1%) participated in 4 matches and 23 (36.5%) in all 5 matches while player availability for selection was 88%. Analyses of team running output (all players completing >60-min play) showed that the total and peak 5-minute high metabolic load distances covered were likely-to-very likely moderately higher in the final match compared to matches 1 and 2 in back and forward players. In individual players with the highest match-play exposure (participation in >75% of total competition playing time and >75-min in each of the final 3 matches), comparisons of performance in matches 4 and 5 versus match 3 (three most important matches) reported moderate-to-large decreases in total and high metabolic load distance in backs while similar magnitude reductions occurred in high-speed distance in forwards. In contrast, skill-related performance was unchanged, albeit with trivial and unclear changes, while there were no alterations in either total or high-speed running distance covered at the end of matches. Conclusions These findings suggest that despite high availability for selection, players were not over-exposed to match-play during an intensified u20 international tournament. They also imply that the teams coped with the running and skill-related demands. Similarly, individual players with the highest exposure to match-play were also able to maintain skill-related performance and end-match running output (despite an overall reduction in the latter). These results support the need for player rotation and monitoring of performance, recovery and

  11. Technical determinants of tackle and ruck performance in International rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Sharief; van Niekerk, Tiffany; Sin, Drew Wade; Lambert, Mike; den Hollander, Steve; Brown, James; Maree, Willie; Treu, Paul; Till, Kevin; Jones, Ben

    2018-03-01

    The most frequently occurring contact events in rugby union are the tackle and ruck. The ability repeatedly to engage and win the tackle and ruck has been associated with team success. To win the tackle and ruck, players have to perform specific techniques. These techniques have not been studied at the highest level of rugby union. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify technical determinants of tackle and ruck performance at the highest level of rugby union. A total of 4479 tackle and 2914 ruck events were coded for the Six Nations and Championship competitions. Relative risk ratio (RR), the ratio of the probability of an outcome occurring when a characteristic was observed (versus the non-observed characteristic), was determined using multinomial logistic regression. Executing front-on tackles reduced the likelihood of offloads and tackle breaks in both competitions (Six Nations RR 3.0 Behind tackle, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.9-4.6, effect size [ES] = large, P < 0.001); Championship RR 2.9 Jersey tackle, 95% CI: 1.3-6.4, ES = moderate, P = 0.01). Fending during contact increased the chances of offloading and breaking the tackle in both competitions (Six Nations RR 4.5 Strong, 95% CI: 2.2-9.2, ES = large, P = P < 0.001; Championship RR 5.1 Moderate, 95% CI: 3.5-7.4, ES = large, P < 0.001). For the ruck, actively placing the ball increased the probability of maintaining possession (Six Nations RR 2.2, 95% CI: 1.1-4.3, ES = moderate, P = 0.03); Championship RR 4.0, 95% CI: 1.3-11.8, ES = large, P = 0.01). The techniques identified in this study should be incorporated and emphasised during training to prepare players for competition. Furthermore, these techniques need to be added to coaching manuals for the tackle and ruck.

  12. MODIFICATION OF AGILITY RUNNING TECHNIQUE IN REACTION TO A DEFENDER IN RUGBY UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keane W. Wheeler

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional kinematic analysis examined agility running technique during pre-planned and reactive performance conditions specific to attacking ball carries in rugby union. The variation to running technique of 8 highly trained rugby union players was compared between agility conditions (pre-planned and reactive and also agility performance speeds (fast, moderate and slow. Kinematic measures were used to determine the velocity of the centre of mass (COM in the anteroposterior (running speed and mediolateral (lateral movement speed planes. The position of foot-strike and toe-off was also examined for the step prior to the agility side- step (pre-change of direction phase and then the side-step (change of direction phase. This study demonstrated that less lateral movement speed towards the intended direction change occurred during reactive compared to pre-planned conditions at pre-change of direction (0.08 ± 0.28 m·s-1 and 0.42 ± 0.25 m·s-1, respectively and change of direction foot-strikes (0.25 ± 0.42 m·s-1 and 0.69 ± 0.43 m·s-1, respectively. Less lateral movement speed during reactive conditions was associated with greater lateral foot displacement (44.52 ± 6.10% leg length at the change of direction step compared to pre-planned conditions (41.35 ± 5.85%. Importantly, the anticipation abilities during reactive conditions provided a means to differentiate between speeds of agility performance, with faster performances displaying greater lateral movement speed at the change of direction foot- strike (0.52 ± 0.34 m·s-1 compared to moderate (0.20 ± 0.37 m·s-1 and slow (-0.08 ± 0.31 m·s-1. The changes to running technique during reactive conditions highlight the need to incorporate decision-making in rugby union agility programs

  13. The BokSmart intervention programme is associated with improvements in injury prevention behaviours of rugby union players: an ecological cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.C.; Gardner-Lubbe, S.; Lambert, M.I.; van Mechelen, W.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background/aim Participants of rugby union (‘rugby’) have an above-average risk of injury compared with other popular sports. Thus, BokSmart, a nationwide injury prevention programme for rugby, was introduced in South Africa in 2009. Improvements in injurypreventing behaviour of players are critical

  14. Specific tackling situations affect the biomechanical demands experienced by rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminati, Elena; Cazzola, Dario; Preatoni, Ezio; Trewartha, Grant

    2017-03-01

    Tackling in Rugby Union is an open skill which can involve high-speed collisions and is the match event associated with the greatest proportion of injuries. This study aimed to analyse the biomechanics of rugby tackling under three conditions: from a stationary position, with dominant and non-dominant shoulder, and moving forward, with dominant shoulder. A specially devised contact simulator, a 50-kg punch bag instrumented with pressure sensors, was translated towards the tackler (n = 15) to evaluate the effect of laterality and tackling approach on the external loads absorbed by the tackler, on head and trunk motion, and on trunk muscle activities. Peak impact force was substantially higher in the stationary dominant (2.84 ± 0.74 kN) than in the stationary non-dominant condition (2.44 ± 0.64 kN), but lower than in the moving condition (3.40 ± 0.86 kN). Muscle activation started on average 300 ms before impact, with higher activation for impact-side trapezius and non-impact-side erector spinae and gluteus maximus muscles. Players' technique for non-dominant-side tackles was less compliant with current coaching recommendations in terms of cervical motion (more neck flexion and lateral bending in the stationary non-dominant condition) and players could benefit from specific coaching focus on non-dominant-side tackles.

  15. KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF LINE-OUT THROWING IN ELITE INTERNATIONAL RUGBY UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark G.L. Sayers

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The rugby union line-out is a key aspect of game play and involves players from both teams contesting for the ball after it has been thrown in from the side line. Successful lines-out throws require the ball to be delivered accurately to the hands of a jumping and/or lifted team mate (approximately 3-3.5 m off the ground over distances of between 5- 18 m. Previous research has suggested considerable inter and intra-individual differences in the throwing techniques of international level players. Accordingly, this project investigated the interrelationships between accuracy and the line-out throwing characteristics of three elite international rugby players, and then analyzed whether these changed for throws over increasing length. Three-dimensional (3D data were developed from video footage (50 Hz of three elite international subjects for 30 throws over three distances (6 m, 10 m, and 15 m. Results showed notable differences between subjects in many variables at each of the key throw phases. However, several variables such as the degree of trunk flexion at the end of the backswing and at ball release, coupled with elbow flexion angle at ball release remained constant as throw length increased. All subjects exhibited high levels of consistency in movement patterns across all throw lengths. Findings indicated that these high performance line-out throwers shared several common characteristics that will provide useful guides in the development of training programs

  16. Running and Metabolic Demands of Elite Rugby Union Assessed Using Traditional, Metabolic Power, and Heart Rate Monitoring Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Romain; Paillard, Thierry; Lyons, Mark; McGrath, David; Maurelli, Olivier; Prioux, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to analyze elite rugby union game demands using 3 different approaches: traditional, metabolic and heart rate-based methods (2) to explore the relationship between these methods and (3) to explore positional differences between the backs and forwards players. Time motion analysis and game demands of fourteen professional players (24.1 ± 3.4 y), over 5 European challenge cup games, were analyzed. Thresholds of 14.4 km·h-1, 20 W.kg-1 and 85% of maximal heart rate (HRmax) were set for high-intensity efforts across the three methods. The mean % of HRmax was 80.6 ± 4.3 % while 42.2 ± 16.5% of game time was spent above 85% of HRmax with no significant differences between the forwards and the backs. Our findings also show that the backs cover greater distances at high-speed than forwards (% difference: +35.2 ± 6.6%; pdemands of professional rugby games. The traditional and the metabolic-power approaches shows a close correlation concerning their relative values, nevertheless the difference in absolute values especially for the high-intensity thresholds demonstrates that the metabolic power approach may represent an interesting alternative to the traditional approaches used in evaluating the high-intensity running efforts required in rugby union games. Key points Elite/professional rugby union players Heart rate monitoring during official games Metabolic power approach PMID:28344455

  17. Does cluster loading enhance lower body power development in preseason preparation of elite rugby union players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Keir T; Cronin, John B; Pickering, Stuart L; Newton, Michael J

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether cluster training led to improved power training adaptations in the preseason preparation of elite level rugby union players. Eighteen highly trained athletes were divided into 2 training groups, a traditional training (TT, N = 9) group and a cluster training (CT, N = 9) group before undertaking 8 weeks of lower body resistance training. Force-velocity-power profiling in the jump squat movement was undertaken, and maximum strength was assessed in the back squat before and after the training intervention. Two-way analysis of variance and magnitude-based inferences were used to assess changes in maximum strength and force, velocity, and power values pretraining to posttraining. Both TT and CT groups significantly (p benefit of cluster type loading in training prescription for lower body power development.

  18. Subclavian Artery Pseudoaneurysm Formation 3 Months after a Game of Rugby Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Evans

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudoaneurysms of the subclavian artery remain a rare complication after fracture of the clavicle. We report a case of delayed diagnosis of a subclavian artery pseudoaneurysm after a closed fracture of the clavicle in a 15-year-old patient, 3 months after the original injury while playing rugby union. Despite several attendances to the Emergency Department with vague symptoms, the final diagnosis was confirmed by duplex ultrasound and Computed Tomography of the thorax. Surgical repair was indicated due to acute limb ischaemia from distal embolisation from a large pseudoaneurysm, with the patient making a full recovery. This case highlights the need for clinical vigilance when assessing patients, particularly on repeated occasions when their recovery appears to be impaired. A thorough history and clinical examination can raise suspicion of even rare occurrences and aid prompt management.

  19. Game movement demands and physical profiles of junior, senior and elite male and female rugby sevens players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Anthea C; Anson, Judith M; Pyne, David B

    2017-04-01

    To inform recruitment, selection, training and testing of male and female rugby sevens players game running movement patterns and physical characteristics were quantified across junior, senior, and elite playing levels. Anthropometric and physical testing (40 m sprint, vertical jump, Yo-Yo IR1) occurred prior to players' national championships or international tournaments (n = 110 players), while game movements were obtained via GPS (n = 499 game files). The game movements of male players were similar across playing levels except for number of impacts >10 g which were 2 to 4-fold higher in elite (25.0 ± 11.2 impacts · game - 1 ; mean ± SD), than junior (6.3 ± 3.5) and senior (11.8 ± 6.6) players. In men, there were fewer substantial correlations between on- and off-field measures which may reflect similar physical attributes across playing levels, and that other (strength, technical or tactical) factors may better differentiate these players. In females, elite players had more favourable on- and off-field performance measures than juniors and seniors, with moderate to strong correlations between on- and off-field variables. Female players should benefit from additional fitness training, while male players need to balance fitness with other technical and tactical factors.

  20. Performance Effects of Repetition Specific Gluteal Activation Protocols on Acceleration in Male Rugby Union Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Lorna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Warm-up protocols have the potential to cause an acute enhancement of dynamic sprinting performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of three repetition specific gluteal activation warm-up protocols on acceleration performance in male rugby union players. Forty male academy rugby union players were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups (control, 5, 10 or 15 repetition gluteal activation group and performed 10 m sprints at baseline and 30 s, 2, 4, 6 and 8 min after their specific intervention protocol. Five and ten meter sprint times were the dependent variable and dual-beam timing gates were used to record all sprint times. Repeated measures analysis of variance found no significant improvement in 5 and 10 m sprint times between baseline and post warm-up scores (p ≥ 0.05 for all groups. There were no reported significant differences between groups at any of the rest interval time points (p ≥ 0.05. However, when individual responses to the warm-up protocols were analyzed, the 15 repetition gluteal activation group had faster 10 m times post-intervention and this improvement was significant (p = 0.021. These results would indicate that there is no specific rest interval for any of the gluteal interventions that results in a potentiation effect on acceleration performance. However, the individual response analysis would seem to indicate that a 15 repetition gluteal activation warm-up protocol has a potentiating effect on acceleration performance provided that the rest interval is adequately and individually determined.

  1. Physical and physiological differences of backs and forwards from the Brazilian National rugby union team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Fábio Y; Pereira, Lucas A; Moraes, José E; Kobal, Ronaldo; Kitamura, Katia; Cal Abad, Cesar C; Teixeira Vaz, Luís M; Loturco, Irineu

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare backs and forwards rugby union players recruited to a National team in the following physical and physiological indicators: anthropometrics, squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), 10- and 30-meter sprint, resting heart rate variability (HRV), Yo-Yo Test and heart rate (HR) at 2 minutes of test. The measurements were performed on the first day of a training camp planned to finely select the players who would participate in the 2016 America's Rugby Championship. The magnitude-based inference was used in the comparisons. Backs demonstrated almost certainly greater distance in the Yo-Yo Test (backs: 2305.9±231.3 meters; forwards: 1802.4±361.2 meters), higher vertical jump height in both SJ and CMJ (SJ: 44.0±5.3 cm vs. 37.6±5.4 cm; CMJ: 46.1±5.0 cm vs. 40.0±5.5 cm, for backs and forwards respectively), and superior sprint velocity in 10- and 30-m (10-m: 6.02±0.23 m.s-1 vs. 5.51±0.34 m.s-1; 30-m: 7.46±0.25 m.s-1 vs. 6.89±0.37 m.s-1, for backs and forwards respectively) than the forwards. In contrast, forwards were almost certainly taller and heavier than backs, and displayed higher sprint momentum in 10- and 30-meters (10 meters: 513.0±51.6 kg.m.s-1 vs. 598.4±53.1 kg.m.s-1; 30 meters: 635.3±56.1 kg.m.s-1 vs. 749.0±70.5 kg.m.s-1, for backs and forwards respectively). The submaximal HR in the first 2-minutes of the Yo-Yo test was likely lower in the backs than in the forwards (77.6±5.1% of the maximal HR vs. 81.3±5.4% of the maximal HR for backs and forwards respectively), while HRV indices were not different between backs and forwards. Playing position appears to be determined by the players' physical and physiological characteristics in top-level rugby union, and the submaximal HR measured during Yo-Yo test can be a simple alternative to discriminate backs and forwards.

  2. Incidence and Nature of Medical Attendance Injuries in English Community Rugby Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Simon P.; Trewartha, Grant; England, Mike; Stokes, Keith A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous research has identified injury patterns during community-level rugby union match play, but none have investigated the frequency and reasons for on-field injury management. Purpose: To establish the frequency, reasons, and patterns of on-field injury management in English community rugby, including differences between different levels of play. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Over 3 seasons, injury information was collected from 46 (2009-2010), 67 (2010-2011), and 76 (2011-2012) English community clubs (Rugby Football Union [RFU] levels 3-9). Club injury management staff reported information for all medical attendances during match play, including details on the injury site and type, playing position (seasons 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 only), and whether the player was removed from play. Clubs were subdivided into groups A (RFU levels 3 and 4 [mainly semiprofessional]; n = 39), B (RFU levels 5 and 6 [mainly amateur]; n = 71), and C (RFU levels 7-9 [social and recreational]; n = 79) to differentiate playing levels. Results: The overall medical attendance incidence was 229 per 1000 player-match hours (95% CI, 226-232), with 45 players removed per 1000 player-match hours (95% CI, 44-46). Attendance incidence for group A (294 per 1000 player-match hours; 95% CI, 287-301) was higher compared with group B (213; 95% CI, 208-218; P < .001) and C (204; 95% CI, 200-209; P < .001). There was a higher incidence of attendances to forwards (254; 95% CI, 249-259) compared with backs (191; 95% CI, 187-196; P < .001). The head was the most common specific site of injury (55 per 1000 player-match hours; 95% CI, 53-57) but the lower limb region overall accounted for most attendances (87; 95% CI, 85-89) and the greatest chance of removal from the pitch (22; 95% CI, 21-23). Conclusion: With the likelihood of 1 injury for each team per match severe enough for the player to leave the pitch and with at least 1 attendance for a head injury per match

  3. A systems approach to understanding the identification and treatment of sport-related concussion in community rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clacy, Amanda; Goode, Natassia; Sharman, Rachael; Lovell, Geoff P; Salmon, Paul

    2017-07-04

    The aim of the present study was to utilise a systems thinking approach to explore the perceived responsibilities for identifying and treating concussion held by different actors across the community rugby system (e.g., players, coaches, parents, medics, referees, and management), as well as their role-specific concussion management strategies. A systems approach was taken to assess what different stakeholders within rugby systems perceive their roles to be regarding concussion identification and treatment. Through an online survey, 118 members of the amateur (community) rugby union system were asked about their role-specific concussion management responsibilities and strategies. Respondents included players, parents, medics, coaches, club managers, administrators, and volunteers. The majority of respondents indicated that they were able to identify the symptoms of rugby-related concussion, however, only medics stated their responsibility to use formal concussion assessments (e.g., SCAT2). A smaller number of the respondents indicated that they were involved in treating concussion within their current role/s (majority of which were medics). This study illustrated that the current challenges in the identification and treatment of rugby-related concussion in community sport may be due to role/responsibility confusion and possible overreliance on field-side medics. These findings offer insight into the possible limitations of the current concussion management guidelines and may offer empirically based direction for future revisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Athletes' perceptions of coaching effectiveness and athlete-related outcomes in rugby union: An investigation based on the coaching efficacy model

    OpenAIRE

    Boardley, Ian D; Kavussanu, Maria; Ring, Christopher M

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between athletes' perceptions of coaching effectiveness, based on the coaching efficacy model, and their effort, commitment, enjoyment, self-efficacy, and prosocial and antisocial behavior in rugby union. Participants were 166 adult male rugby-union players (M age = 26.5, SD = 8.5 years), who completed questionnaires measuring their perceptions of four dimensions of coaching effectiveness as well as their effort, commitment, enjoyment, self-efficacy, and ...

  5. The reliability of a maximal isometric hip strength and simultaneous surface EMG screening protocol in elite, junior rugby league athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Paula C; Mentiplay, Benjamin F; Grimaldi, Alison; Pua, Yong-Hao; Clark, Ross A

    2017-02-01

    Firstly to describe the reliability of assessing maximal isometric strength of the hip abductor and adductor musculature using a hand held dynamometry (HHD) protocol with simultaneous wireless surface electromyographic (sEMG) evaluation of the gluteus medius (GM) and adductor longus (AL). Secondly, to describe the correlation between isometric strength recorded with the HHD protocol and a laboratory standard isokinetic device. Reliability and correlational study. A sample of 24 elite, male, junior, rugby league athletes, age 16-20 years participated in repeated HHD and isometric Kin-Com (KC) strength testing with simultaneous sEMG assessment, on average (range) 6 (5-7) days apart by a single assessor. Strength tests included; unilateral hip abduction (ABD) and adduction (ADD) and bilateral ADD assessed with squeeze (SQ) tests in 0 and 45° of hip flexion. HHD demonstrated good to excellent inter-session reliability for all outcome measures (ICC (2,1) =0.76-0.91) and good to excellent association with the laboratory reference KC (ICC (2,1) =0.80-0.88). Whilst intra-session, inter-trial reliability of EMG activation and co-activation outcome measures ranged from moderate to excellent (ICC (2,1) =0.70-0.94), inter-session reliability was poor (all ICC (2,1) Isometric strength testing of the hip ABD and ADD musculature using HHD may be measured reliably in elite, junior rugby league athletes. Due to the poor inter-session reliability of sEMG measures, it is not recommended for athlete screening purposes if using the techniques implemented in this study. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. SHORT COMMUNICATION ON THE INFLUENCE OF POSITION ON ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT INJURY AND RECONSTRUCTION IN RECREATIONAL RUGBY FOOTBALL UNION PARTICIPANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Dawes

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The different player positions in rugby union may place varying demands on a reconstructed anterior cruciate ligament (ACL in regards to 'cutting manoeuvres', this in turn may effect performance. In order to investigate sporting performance post reconstruction, a questionnaire was sent to amateur rugby clubs affiliated to the Oxfordshire Rugby Football Union (R.F.U. From the returned questionnaires player positions were placed into categories based on similar 'cutting manoeuvre' demands. Seventy five percent of Individuals playing in the category 1 (low 'cutting manoeuvre' demands at slow running speeds could play a full game with a damaged ACL and post-reconstruction the majority returned to play at a higher level. Fifty percent of ACL injuries occurred on category 2 (high 'cutting manoeuvre' demands at medium running speeds suggesting they may be more prone to ACL injury than other positions. The majority of individuals playing in category 3 (high 'cutting manoeuvre' demands at fast speeds played at a lower level of rugby post reconstruction. Positional demands may influence ACL injury and post reconstruction sporting performance. However, more research is needed

  7. Self-talk influences vertical jump performance and kinematics in male rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christian; Tod, David; McGuigan, Michael

    2008-11-01

    We examined the effects of instructional and motivational self-talk on centre of mass displacement and hip kinematics during the vertical jump. Twenty-four male rugby union players (age 21.1 years, s = 3.5; body mass 81.0 kg, s = 8.9; height 1.80 m, s = 0.06) performed three vertical jump tests, with a 2 min rest between jumps. Before each jump, participants engaged in one of three counterbalanced interventions (motivational self-talk, instructional self-talk or no-intervention). Motivational self-talk led to greater centre of mass displacement (0.602 m, s = 0.076; P = 0.012) than the no-intervention control (0.583 m, s = 0.085). Centre of mass displacement did not differ between instructional self-talk and the control condition or between motivational and instructional self-talk. Motivational (100.75 degrees , s = 16.05; P = 0.001) and instructional self-talk (106.14 degrees , s = 17.04; P = 0.001) led to greater hip displacement than the no-intervention control (94.11 degrees , s = 17.14). There was also a significant difference in hip displacement between motivational and instructional self-talk (P = 0.014), although there was no difference between instructional self-talk and the control condition. Motivational (451.69 degrees /s, s = 74.34; P = 0.008) and instructional self-talk (462.01 degrees /s, s = 74.37; P = 0.001) led to greater hip rotation velocity than the no-intervention control (434.37 degrees /s, s = 75.37), although there was no difference between the two self-talk interventions. These results indicate that self-talk may influence performance and technique during the vertical jump in male rugby players.

  8. An investigation of shoulder forces in active shoulder tackles in rugby union football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Juliana; McIntosh, Andrew S; Fréchède, Bertrand

    2011-11-01

    In rugby union football the tackle is the most frequently executed skill and one most associated with injury, including shoulder injury to the tackler. Despite the importance of the tackle, little is known about the magnitude of shoulder forces in the tackle and influencing factors. The objectives of the study were to measure the shoulder force in the tackle, as well as the effects of shoulder padding, skill level, side of body, player size, and experimental setting on shoulder force. Experiments were conducted in laboratory and field settings using a repeated measures design. Thirty-five participants were recruited to the laboratory and 98 to the field setting. All were male aged over 18 years with rugby experience. The maximum force applied to the shoulder in an active shoulder tackle was measured with a custom built forceplate incorporated into a 45 kg tackle bag. The overall average maximum shoulder force was 1660 N in the laboratory and 1997 N in the field. This difference was significant. The shoulder force for tackling without shoulder pads was 1684 N compared to 1635 N with shoulder pads. There was no difference between the shoulder forces on the dominant and non-dominant sides. Shoulder force reduced with tackle repetition. No relationship was observed between player skill level and size. A substantial force can be applied to the shoulder and to an opponent in the tackle. This force is within the shoulder's injury tolerance range and is unaffected by shoulder pads. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Movement Demands of Elite Under-20s and Senior International Rugby Union Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawer, Scott; Pollard, Ben; Eager, Robin; Taylor, Neil; Cook, Christian J.

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the movement demands of elite international Under-20 age grade (U20s) and senior international rugby union players during competitive tournament match play. Forty elite professional players from an U20 and 27 elite professional senior players from international performance squads were monitored using 10Hz global positioning systems (GPS) during 15 (U20s) and 8 (senior) international tournament matches during the 2014 and 2015 seasons. Data on distances, velocities, accelerations, decelerations, high metabolic load (HML) distance and efforts, and number of sprints were derived. Data files from players who played over 60 min (n = 258) were separated firstly into Forwards and Backs, and more specifically into six positional groups; FR–Front Row (prop & hooker), SR–Second Row, BR–Back Row (Flankers & No.8), HB–Half Backs (scrum half & outside half), MF–Midfield (centres), B3 –Back Three (wings & full back) for match analysis. Linear mixed models revealed significant differences between U20 and senior teams in both the forwards and backs. In the forwards the seniors covered greater HML distance (736.4 ± 280.3 vs 701.3 ± 198.7m, p = 0.01) and severe decelerations (2.38 ± 2.2 vs 2.28 ± 1.65, p = 0.05) compared to the U20s, but performed less relative HSR (3.1 ± 1.6 vs 3.2 ± 1.5, p rugby, however, the current study highlight for the first time that certain positional groups may require more time to be able to match the movement demands required at a higher playing level than others. Conditioning staff must also bear in mind that the U20s players whilst maintaining or improving match movement capabilities may require to gain substantial mass in some positions to match their senior counterparts. PMID:27824865

  10. Fluid and electrolyte balance during two different preseason training sessions in elite rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Samuel D; Love, Thomas D; Brown, Rachel C; Baker, Dane F; Howe, Anna S; Black, Katherine E

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare fluid balance between a resistance and an aerobic training sessions, in elite rugby players. It is hypothesized that resistance exercise will result in a higher prevalence of overdrinking, whereas during the aerobic session, underdrinking will be more prevalent. As with previous fluid balance studies, this was an observational study. Twenty-six players completed the resistance training session, and 20 players completed the aerobic training session. All players were members of an elite rugby union squad competing in the southern hemisphere's premier competition. For both sessions, players provided a preexercise urine sample to determine hydration status, pre- and postexercise measures of body mass, and blood sodium concentration were taken, and the weight of drink bottles were recorded to calculate sweat rates and fluid intake rates. Sweat patches were positioned on the shoulder of the players, and these remained in place throughout each training session and were later analyzed for sodium concentration. The percentage of sweat loss replaced was higher in the resistance (196 ± 130%) than the aerobic training session (56 ± 17%; p = 0.002). Despite this, no cases of hyponatremia were detected. The results also indicated that more than 80% of players started training in a hypohydrated state. Fluid intake seems to differ depending on the nature of the exercise session. In this group of athletes, players did not match their fluid intakes with their sweat loss, resulting in overdrinking during resistance training and underdrinking in aerobic training. Therefore, hydration strategies and education need to be tailored to the exercise session. Furthermore, given the large number of players arriving at training hypohydrated, improved hydration strategies away from the training venue are required.

  11. Seeking conceptual clarity in the study of elite professional coaches and managers in rugby union and association football

    OpenAIRE

    Blackett, A. D.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In this paper role clarification for elite men’s rugby union and association football coaches and mangers working in professional clubs within the UK is presented. The study’s sample is employers of elite coaches and managers, a population which hitherto have not been approached within the existing literature. Examination on how the roles are devised by the clubs is performed through identifying what attributes are perceived necessary for prospective candidates to uphold alo...

  12. Changes in sleep quantity and efficiency in professional rugby union players during home based training and match-play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagles, A; Mclellan, C; Hing, W; Carloss, N; Lovell, D

    2014-11-04

    Adequate sleep is paramount to athlete recovery and performance, however little is know about the typical sleep patterns of professional rugby union players during home based training and match-play in the competitive season. The aim of the present study was to monitor changes in sleep quantity and efficiency of elite male rugby union players over a twelve night period, which included training and two competitive matches. A total of ten elite male rugby union players from a selected team, participated in the study. Athletes sleep quantity and efficiency was monitored over a twelve night period using the Bodymedia sensewear units (BSU). There was a significant difference in sleep quantity (pwake over the twelve night period. Sleep efficiency is defined as a percentage score calculated by incorporating movement and physiological measures over the sleep duration as determined by the BSU. Also there was no significant difference between sleep parameters on the game nights. The findings show players have significantly (p<0.05) reduced sleep following a home game, which is of concern considering the established negative influence of sleep deprivation on cognitive and physical performance. This data may assist coaching, medical and performance staff to develop and implement team and individualised sleep monitoring regimes to optimise training and on-field performance.

  13. Return to play in elite rugby union: application of global positioning system technology in return-to-running programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Laura C; Cowman, Jason R; Green, Brian S; Coughlan, Garrett F

    2013-05-01

    Global positioning systems (GPS) are widely used in sport settings to evaluate the physical demands on players in training and competition. The use of these systems in the design and implementation of rehabilitation and return-to-running programs has not yet been elucidated. To demonstrate the application of GPS technology in the management of return to play in elite-club Rugby Union. Case series. Professional Rugby Union club team. 8 elite Rugby Union players (age 27.86 ± 4.78 y, height 1.85 ± 0.08 m, weight 99.14 ± 9.96 kg). Players wore GPS devices for the entire duration of a club game. Variables of locomotion speed and distance were measured. Differences in physical demands between playing positions were observed for all variables. An analysis of the position-specific physical demands measured by GPS provides key information regarding the level and volume of loads sustained by a player in a game environment. Using this information, sports-medicine practitioners can develop rehabilitation and return-to-running protocols specific to the player position to optimize safe return to play.

  14. The association between COMT rs4680 and 5-HTTLPR genotypes and concussion history in South African rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Fie, Sarah; Abrahams, Shameemah; Patricios, Jon; Suter, Jason; Posthumus, Michael; September, Alison V

    2018-04-01

    The objective was to investigate the relationship between Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) rs4680 and serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) genotypes with concussion history and personality traits. Rugby players ("all levels": n = 303), from high schools ("junior", n = 137), senior amateur, and professional teams ("senior", n = 166), completed a self-reported concussion history questionnaire, Cloninger's Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire, and donated a DNA sample. Participants were allocated into control (non-concussed, n = 140), case (all) (previous suspected or diagnosed concussions, n = 163), or case (diagnosed only) (previous diagnosed concussion, n = 140) groups. COMT rs4680 Val/Val genotypes were over-represented in controls in all levels (P = 0.013, OR:2.00, 95% CI:1.15-3.57) and in juniors (P = 0.003, OR:3.57, 95% CI:1.45-9.09). Junior Val/Val participants displayed increased "anticipatory worry" (P = 0.023). The 5-HTTLPR low expressing group was under-represented in controls when all levels were considered (P = 0.032; OR:2.02, 95% CI:1.05-3.90) and in juniors (P = 0.021; OR:3.36, 95% CI:1.16-9.72). Junior 5-HTTLPR low and intermediate expressing groups displayed decreased "harm avoidance" (P = 0.009), "anticipatory worry" (P = 0.041), and "fear of uncertainty" (P < 0.001). This study provides preliminary indications that personality associated genetic variants can influence concussion in rugby.

  15. Incidence and Factors Associated With Concussion Injuries at the 2011 to 2014 South African Rugby Union Youth Week Tournaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Fie, Sarah; Brown, James; Hendricks, Sharief; Posthumus, Michael; Readhead, Clint; Lambert, Mike; September, Alison V; Viljoen, Wayne

    2016-09-01

    To determine the concussion incidence and to identify factors associated with concussion in South African youth rugby union players. Prospective cohort study. Injury surveillance was completed at the South African Rugby Union Youth Week tournaments (under-13, under-16, and under-18 age groups). South African youth rugby union players. A total of 7216 players participated in 531 matches between 2011 and 2014. None. Concussion incidence was calculated per 1000 player-match-hours with 95% CIs. Poisson regression was used to calculate the incidence rate ratio (IRR) between factors (age, time period, playing position, and activity at the time of concussion) potentially associated with concussions. The concussion incidence was 6.8/1000 player-match-hours (95% CI, 5.5-8.1) across all age groups. Under-13s (IRR, 1.5; P = 0.09) and under-16s (IRR, 1.7; P = 0.03) had higher concussion incidence rates than the under-18 age group. The incidence was higher in the third (IRR, 2.1; P = 0.04) and fourth (IRR, 2.5; P = 0.01) quarters of matches compared with the first quarter. Sixty-two percent of concussions occurred in the tackle situation. The tackler had a 4-fold greater concussion rate (IRR, 4.3; P < 0.001) compared with the ball carrier. The hooker and loose forwards had higher incidence rates than several other player positions (P < 0.05). The reported concussion incidence falls within the broad range previously reported in youth rugby. The evidence highlighted in this study may contribute to targeted concussion prevention strategies and provide a baseline against which the effectiveness of future interventions can be measured.

  16. Instrumented mouthguard acceleration analyses for head impacts in amateur rugby union players over a season of matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Doug; Hume, Patria A; Brughelli, Matt; Gissane, Conor

    2015-03-01

    Direct impacts with the head (linear acceleration or pressure) and inertial loading of the head (rotational acceleration or strain) have been postulated as the 2 major mechanisms of head-related injuries such as concussion. Although data are accumulating for soccer and American football, there are no published data for nonhelmeted collision sports such as rugby union. To quantify head impacts via instrumented mouthguard acceleration analyses for rugby union players over a season of matches. Descriptive epidemiology study. Data on impact magnitude and frequency were collected with molded instrumented mouthguards worn by 38 premier amateur senior rugby players participating in the 2013 domestic season of matches. A total of 20,687 impacts >10g (range, 10.0-164.9g) were recorded over the duration of the study. The mean ± SD number of impacts per player over the duration of the season of matches was 564 ± 618, resulting in a mean ± SD of 95 ± 133 impacts to the head per player, per match over the duration of the season of matches. The impact magnitudes for linear accelerations were skewed to the lower values (Sp = 3.7 ± 0.02; P rugby union players over a season of matches, measured via instrumented mouthguard accelerations, were higher than for most sports previously reported. Mean linear acceleration measured over a season of matches was similar to the mean linear accelerations previously reported for youth, high school, and collegiate American football players but lower than that for female youth soccer players. Mean rotational acceleration measured over a season of matches was similar to mean rotational accelerations for youth, high school, and collegiate American football players but less than those for female youth soccer players, concussed American collegiate players, collegiate American football players, and professional American football players. © 2014 The Author(s).

  17. Effect of Physical and Psychosocial Interventions on Hormone and Performance Outcomes in Professional Rugby Union Players: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahorn, Joshua; Serpell, Benjamin G; McKune, Andrew; Pumpa, Kate L

    2017-11-01

    Strahorn, J, Serpell, BG, McKune, A, and Pumpa, KL. Effect of physical and psychosocial interventions on hormone and performance outcomes in professional rugby union players: a systematic review. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 3158-3169, 2017-This systematic review investigates the acute effects of physical or psychosocial interventions on testosterone and cortisol responses in elite male rugby union players, and the subsequent association with physical performance areas (e.g., strength, power, sprint performance) or key performance indicators (e.g., coach-identified skills). Medline (via EBSCO), SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, InformIT, ProQuest, Cochrane, and Scopus were searched for relevant articles. Nine articles met the inclusion criteria, with 6 articles examining the effect of speed, strength or power training, and the remaining 3 psychosocial interventions. Quality assessment of the articles as determined by their PEDro score was either 6 or 7 out of 11. This review found that both physical and psychosocial interventions can alter testosterone and cortisol, and physical performance areas important for rugby union are affected by these changes. The limited literature in the field supports the notion that physical interventions of short duration and high intensity, and psychosocial interventions that create a positive environment may elicit a hormonal response that is associated with favorable performance outcomes. Studies that reported psychosocial interventions suggest that testosterone and cortisol may be altered in elite rugby players without metabolic stress, something of great interest to elite athletes and coaches who are looking to elicit a performance advantage without increasing athlete load. Overall, this review identified that when the testosterone responses to an intervention are notably greater than that of cortisol, favorable outcomes are likely. Further research is required to improve our understanding on how to best manipulate training to induce

  18. Evaluation of hydrotherapy, using passive tests and power tests, for recovery across a cyclic week of competitive rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Trevor R; Climstein, Mike; Cameron, Melainie

    2013-04-01

    In team sports, a cycle of training, competition, and recovery occurs weekly during the competitive season. In this research, we evaluated hydrotherapy for recovery from a simulated game of rugby union tracked over a week of training. Twenty-four experienced male rugby union players (mean ± SD age 19.46 ± 0.82 years, weight 82.38 ± 11.12 kg, height 178.54 ± 5.75 cm) were randomly divided into 3 groups: cold water immersion (n = 8), contrast bath therapy (n = 8), and a control group (n = 8). The 2 forms of hydrotherapy were administered immediately after a simulated rugby game. Testing was conducted 1 hour before the game and at 5 intervals postgame: 1, 48, 72, 96, and 144 hours. Dependent variables included countermovement jump, 10- and 40-m sprints, sessional rating of perceived exertion (RPE), flexibility, thigh circumference, and self-reported delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Significant differences in DOMS were found between the cold water immersion and contrast bath groups at 48 hours post intervention (p = 0.02), and between the control and contrast bath groups at 72 (p = 0.03) and 96 (p = 0.04) hours post intervention. Cold water immersion and contrast bath groups reported significantly different RPE at 72 hours (p = ?) and 96 hours post (p = 0.05) intervention. Athletes' perceptions of muscle soreness and sessional RPE scores for training were greater in the contrast bath group (20%) after the simulated game and throughout the training week. Although results from passive and power tests were inconclusive in determining whether cold water immersion or passive recovery was more effective in attenuating fatigue, results indicated contrast baths had little benefit in enhancing recovery during a cyclic week of rugby union.

  19. Explosive force production during isometric squats correlates with athletic performance in rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillin, Neale Anthony; Pain, Matthew Thomas Gerard; Folland, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the association between explosive force production during isometric squats and athletic performance (sprint time and countermovement jump height). Sprint time (5 and 20 m) and jump height were recorded in 18 male elite-standard varsity rugby union players. Participants also completed a series of maximal- and explosive-isometric squats to measure maximal force and explosive force at 50-ms intervals up to 250 ms from force onset. Sprint performance was related to early phase (≤100 ms) explosive force normalised to maximal force (5 m, r = -0.63, P = 0.005; and 20 m, r = -0.54, P = 0.020), but jump height was related to later phase (>100 ms) absolute explosive force (0.51 squats (33-67%; 0.001 squats was associated with athletic performance. Specifically, sprint performance was most strongly related to the proportion of maximal force achieved in the initial phase of explosive-isometric squats, whilst jump height was most strongly related to absolute force in the later phase of the explosive-isometric squats.

  20. Home Versus Away Competition: Effect on Psychophysiological Variables in Elite Rugby Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunniffe, Brian; Morgan, Kevin A; Baker, Julien S; Cardinale, Marco; Davies, Bruce

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of game venue and starting status on precompetitive psychophysiological measures in elite rugby union. Saliva samples were taken from players (starting XV, n = 15, and nonstarters, n = 9) on a control day and 90 min before 4 games played consecutively at home and away venues against local rivals and league leaders. Precompetition psychological states were assessed using the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2. The squad recorded 2 wins (home) and 2 losses (away) over the study period. Calculated effect sizes (ESs) showed higher pregame cortisol- (C) and testosterone- (T) difference values before all games than on a baseline control day (ES 0.7-1.5). Similar findings were observed for cognitive and somatic anxiety. Small between-venues C differences were observed in starting XV players (ES 0.2-0.25). Conversely, lower home T- (ES 0.95) and higher away C- (ES 0.6) difference values were observed in nonstarters. Lower T-difference values were apparent in nonstarters (vs starting XV) before home games, providing evidence of a between-groups effect (ES 0.92). Findings show an anticipatory rise in psychophysiological variables before competition. Knowledge of starting status appears a moderating factor in the magnitude of player endocrine response between home and away games.

  1. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: a potential late and under recognized consequence of rugby union?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, W; McNamara, P H; Lawlor, B; Hutchinson, S; Farrell, M

    2016-01-01

    The association between exposure to head injury and increased risk of neurodegenerative disease, specifically chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), is widely recognized. Historically, this was largely considered a phenomenon restricted to boxers, with more recent case series identifying further 'high risk' individuals, such as former American footballers, or military personnel. However, in all cases thus far reported, it is clear that it is the exposure to head injury which is associated with increased dementia risk, and not the circumstances or environment of exposure. As such, there is considerable potential for under-recognition of CTE in patients presenting with neurodegenerative disease, particularly where head injury exposure might have been historical and through sport. This article reviews current understanding of CTE and, via an illustrative case in rugby union, highlights the value of a detailed history on head injury and also draws attention to imaging studies in assessing patients with neurodegenerative disease. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Forced Retirement from Professional Rugby Union is Associated with Symptoms of Distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, James Craig; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Lambert, Mike I.; Gouttebarge, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    Rugby has a higher injury burden than other popular sports, such as football. Athletes who are forced to retire as a result of injury are associated with poor mental health. With its high injury burden, professional rugby players might be at risk of mental health conditions associated with

  3. The economic burden of time-loss injuries to youth players participating in week-long rugby union tournaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James C; Viljoen, Wayne; Lambert, Mike I; Readhead, Clint; Fuller, Chelsea; Van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert

    2015-07-01

    Rugby Union ("rugby") is a popular sport with high injury risk. Burden of injury is described by the incidence and severity of injury. However reports have ignored the monetary cost of injuries. Therefore the aim of this study was to describe the monetary cost associated with youth rugby injuries. This descriptive study quantified medical treatments of injured players at the South African Rugby Union Youth tournaments in 2011/2012 and the days of work parents missed as a result of the injuries. A health insurer used these data to calculate associated costs. Legal guardians of the 421 injured players were contacted telephonically on a weekly basis until they returned to play. Treatments costs were estimated in South African Rands based on 2013 insurance rates and converted to US$ using purchasing power parities. Of the 3652 players, 2% (n=71) sought medical care after the tournament. For these players, average treatment costs were high (US$731 per player, 95% CI: US$425-US$1096), with fractures being the most expensive type of injury. Players with medical insurance had higher costs (US$937, 95% CI: US$486-US$1500) than those without (US$220, 95% CI: US$145-US$302). Although a minority of players sought follow-up treatment after the tournaments, the cost of these injuries was high. Players without medical insurance having lower costs may indicate that these players did not receive adequate treatment for their injuries. Injury prevention efforts should consider injuries with high costs and the treatment of players without medical insurance. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of ACTN3 R577X but not ACE I/D gene variants with elite rugby union player status and playing position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, S M; Kilduff, L P; Erskine, R M; Day, S H; McPhee, J S; McMahon, G E; Stebbings, G K; Neale, J P H; Lockey, S J; Ribbans, W J; Cook, C J; Vance, B; Raleigh, S M; Roberts, C; Bennett, M A; Wang, G; Collins, M; Pitsiladis, Y P; Williams, A G

    2016-03-01

    We aimed to quantify the ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X (rs1815739) genetic variants in elite rugby athletes (rugby union and league) and compare genotype frequencies to controls and between playing positions. The rugby athlete cohort consisted of 507 Caucasian men, including 431 rugby union athletes that for some analyses were divided into backs and forwards and into specific positional groups: front five, back row, half backs, centers, and back three. Controls were 710 Caucasian men and women. Real-time PCR of genomic DNA was used to determine genotypes using TaqMan probes and groups were compared using χ(2) and odds ratio (OR) statistics. Correction of P values for multiple comparisons was according to Benjamini-Hochberg. There was no difference in ACE I/D genotype between groups. ACTN3 XX genotype tended to be underrepresented in rugby union backs (15.7%) compared with forwards (24.8%, P = 0.06). Interestingly, the 69 back three players (wings and full backs) in rugby union included only six XX genotype individuals (8.7%), with the R allele more common in the back three (68.8%) than controls (58.0%; χ(2) = 6.672, P = 0.04; OR = 1.60) and forwards (47.5%; χ(2) = 11.768, P = 0.01; OR = 2.00). Association of ACTN3 R577X with playing position in elite rugby union athletes suggests inherited fatigue resistance is more prevalent in forwards, while inherited sprint ability is more prevalent in backs, especially wings and full backs. These results also demonstrate the advantage of focusing genetic studies on a large cohort within a single sport, especially when intrasport positional differences exist, instead of combining several sports with varied demands and athlete characteristics. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. The Effect of Altitude and Travel on Rugby Union Performance: Analysis of the 2012 Super Rugby Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Tina M; Olsen, Peter D; Kimber, Nick E; Shearman, Jeremy P; Hamilton, Jamie G; Hamlin, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether playing rugby at altitude or after travel (domestic and international) disadvantaged teams. In a retrospective longitudinal study, all matches (N = 125) played in the 2012 Super Rugby Competition were analyzed for key performance indicators (KPI) from coded game data provided by OPTA sports data company. Matches were played in a home-away format in New Zealand, South Africa, and Australia. Teams based at sea level but playing at altitude (1,271-1,753 m) were more likely to miss tackles (mean ± 90% confidence interval, 1.4 ± 1.7) and score fewer points in the first half compared with games at sea level. In the second half of games, sea level teams at altitude were very likely to make fewer gain lines (-4.0 ± 2.7) compared with the second half of games at sea level. The decreased ability to break the defensive line, which may be the result of altitude-induced fatigue, could reduce the likelihood of scoring points and winning a game. Travel also had an effect on KPI, where international travel resulted in more missed tackles (1.7 ± 1.3) and less frequent gain lines (-3.0 ± 1.9) in the first half relative to matches at home; overall, away teams (domestic and international) scored 4 less points in the second half compared with home teams. In conclusion, playing away from home in another country, particularly at altitude, can have a detrimental effect on KPI, which may affect the overall performance and the chances of winning matches.

  6. Analysis of Running and Technical Performance in Substitute Players in International Male Rugby Union Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacome, Mathieu; Piscione, Julien; Hager, Jean-Philippe; Carling, Christopher

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the patterns and performance of substitutions in 18 international 15-a-side men's rugby union matches. A semiautomatic computerized time-motion system compiled 750 performance observations for 375 players (422 forwards, 328 backs). Running and technical-performance measures included total distance run, high-intensity running (>18.0 km/h), number of individual ball possessions and passes, percentage of passes completed, and number of attempted and percentage of successful tackles. A total of 184 substitutions (85.2%) were attributed to tactical and 32 (14.8%) to injury purposes respectively. The mean period for non-injury-purpose substitutions in backs (17.7%) occurred between 70 and 75 min, while forward substitutions peaked equally between 50-55 and 60-65 min (16.4%). Substitutes generally demonstrated improved running performance compared with both starter players who completed games and players whom they replaced (small differences, ES -0.2 to 0.5) in both forwards and backs over their entire time played. There was also a trend for better running performance in forward and back substitutes over their first 10 min of play compared with the final 10 min for replaced players (small to moderate differences, ES 0.3-0.6). Finally, running performance in both forward and back substitutes was generally lower (ES -0.1 to 0.3, unclear or small differences) over their entire 2nd-half time played compared with their first 10 min of play. The impact of substitutes on technical performance was generally considered unclear. This information provides practitioners with practical data relating to the physical and technical contributions of substitutions that subsequently could enable optimization of their impact on match play.

  7. The microstructure of coaching practice: behaviours and activities of an elite rugby union head coach during preparation and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Edward Thomas; Gray, Shirley; Sproule, John

    2016-01-01

    The activities and behaviours of a female head coach of a national rugby union team were recorded in both training and competition, across a whole rugby season, using the newly developed Rugby Coach Activities and Behaviours Instrument (RCABI). The instrument incorporates 24 categories of behaviour, embedded within three forms of activity (training form (TF), playing form (PF) and competitive match) and seven sub-activity types. In contrast to traditional drill-based coaching, 58.5% of the training time was found to have been spent in PF activities. Moreover, the proportion of PF activities increased to a peak average of 83.8% in proximity to the team's annual international championship. Uniquely, one of the coach's most prolific behaviours was conferring with associates (23.3%), highlighting the importance of interactions with assistant coaches, medical staff and others in shaping the coaching process. Additionally, the frequencies of key behaviours such as questioning and praise were found to vary between the different activity forms and types, raising questions about previous conceptions of effective coaching practice. The findings are discussed in the light of the Game Sense philosophy and the role of the head coach.

  8. Can a Specific Neck Strengthening Program Decrease Cervical Spine Injuries in a Men's Professional Rugby Union Team? A Retrospective Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naish, Robert; Burnett, Angus; Burrows, Sally; Andrews, Warren; Appleby, Brendyn

    2013-01-01

    Cervical spine injuries in Rugby Union are a concerning issue at all levels of the game. The primary aim of this retrospective analysis conducted in a professional Rugby Union squad was to determine whether a 26-week isometric neck strengthening intervention program (13-week strengthening phase and 13-week maintenance phase) was effective in reducing the number and severity of cervical spine injuries. The secondary aim was to determine whether at week five, where the program had been the similar for all players, there was increased isometric neck strength. All 27 players who were common to both the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 seasons were included in this analysis and data was extracted from a Sports Medicine/Sports Science database which included the squad's injury records. Primary outcome variables included; the number of cervical spine injuries and the severity of these injuries as determined by the total number of days lost from training and competition. Secondary outcome variables included isometric neck strength in flexion, extension and left and right lateral flexion. Using non-parametric statistical methods, no significant differences were evident for the total number of cervical spine injuries (n = 8 in 2007-2008, n = 6 in 2008-2009) or time loss due to these injuries (100 days in 2007-2008, 40 days in 2008-2009). However, a significant (p = 0.03) reduction in the number of match injuries was evident from 2007-2008 (n = 11) to 2008-09 (n = 2). Non-significant increases in isometric neck strength were found in all directions examined. A significant reduction in the number of match injuries was evident in this study. However, no other significant changes to primary outcome variables were achieved. Further, no significant increases in isometric neck strength were found in this well-trained group of professional athletes. Key Points While many authors have proposed that neck strengthening could be an effective strategy in preventing cervical spine injuries in

  9. Isometric Mid-Thigh Pull Correlates With Strength, Sprint, and Agility Performance in Collegiate Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ran; Hoffman, Jay R; Tanigawa, Satoru; Miramonti, Amelia A; La Monica, Michael B; Beyer, Kyle S; Church, David D; Fukuda, David H; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2016-11-01

    Wang, R, Hoffman, JR, Tanigawa, S, Miramonti, AA, La Monica, MB, Beyer, KS, Church, DD, Fukuda, DH, and Stout, JR. Isometric mid-thigh pull correlates with strength, sprint, and agility performance in collegiate rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3051-3056, 2016-The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationships between isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP) force and strength, sprint, and agility performance in collegiate rugby union players. Fifteen members of a champion-level university's club rugby union team (mean ± SD: 20.67 ± 1.23 years, 1.78 ± 0.06 m, and 86.51 ± 14.18 kg) participated in this investigation. One repetition maximum (1RM) squat, IMTP, speed (40 m sprint), and agility (proagility test and T-test) were performed during 3 separate testing sessions. Rate of force development (RFD) and force output at 30, 50, 90, 100, 150, 200, and 250 milliseconds of IMTP, as well as the peak value were determined. Pearson product-moment correlation analysis was used to examine the relationships between these measures. Performance in the 1RM squat was significantly correlated to the RFD between 90 and 250 milliseconds from the start of contraction (r's ranging from 0.595 to 0.748), and peak force (r = 0.866, p ≤ 0.05). One repetition maximum squat was also correlated to force outputs between 90 and 250 milliseconds (r's ranging from 0.757 to 0.816, p ≤ 0.05). Sprint time over the first 5 m in the 40 m sprint was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) correlated with peak RFD (r = -0.539) and RFD between 30 and 50 milliseconds (r's = -0.570 and -0.527, respectively). Time for the proagility test was correlated with peak RFD (r = -0.523, p ≤ 0.05) and RFD between 30 and 100 milliseconds (r's ranging from -0.518 to -0.528, p's strength, agility, and sprint performance. Future studies should examine IMTP as a potential tool to monitor athletic performance during the daily training of rugby union players.

  10. The prevalence of self-reported neck pain in rugby union players in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    however, very little research has been done on the prevalence of self- reported neck pain in rugby .... Car accident. Other. Fall. Other sport ... Driving. Work. Personal care. Recreation. Concentration. Sleeping. Reading. Lifting. Headaches.

  11. HAVE RECENT CHANGES TO THE RUGBY UNION LAWS OF SCRUMMAGE REDUCED SERIOUS CERVICAL SPINE INJURIES?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terence F. McLoughlin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available All areas of play in rugby union are acknowledged to be potentially dangerous but it is in the scrum where the most frequent and serious spinal injuries occur (McIntosh & McCrory, 2005. This letter addresses the questions: what is it about the scrum which accounts for the alleged increased frequency of scrummage associated spinal cord injury (particular in the cervical region and what has the Rugby Football Union [RFU] done to minimise the chance of cervical cord damage by changes to the Laws? Scrums are used to restart play after infringement of Law 20.1. The team which is successful in winning the ball from the scrum can provide quality possession and space to their attacking backs (IRB, 2005.The three front row players are especially vulnerable to serious cervical spine injury. The majority of neck injuries are caused by heads not being properly aligned when opposing front row players make initial contact as the scrum is being formed. If the scrum collapses then excessive forward flexion/rotation of the cervical spine can occur and by wheeling the scrum this can result in increased abnormal lateral flexion/rotation. Added to these possible abnormal increases in directional movement of the cervical spine is the force generated at engagement. It has been calculated that in the front row a static weight of up to 1600kg is placed on each player's neck. Fracture dislocation (usually between C4/C6 of the spine can be the resulting injury which if the cord is involved can cause tetra paresis.In response to this evidence the IRB amended the law of scrummage which was put into effect 2007 in the hope of reducing the incidence of serious cervical spine injury. This is summarised as a 4 step Law of engagement which is: "crouch, touch, pause, engage". The distance between the front rows must now be less than arms length before making contact. Prior to the introduction of this Law with the stipulated distance apart before engagement, the front row

  12. Technical and tactical aspects in Italian youth rugby union in relation to different academies, regional tournaments, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungureanu, Alexandru Nicolae; Condello, Giancarlo; Pistore, Simonluca; Conte, Daniele; Lupo, Corrado

    2017-08-15

    This study aimed to analyze the technical and tactical aspects of the Italian under-18 Academy Rugby Union in relation to different academies, regional tournaments, and game outcomes. A notational analysis (forty-four indicators) was performed on 16 games (2014-15 season) to evaluate strong differences (P ≤ 0.05; moderate-large effect sizes) according to variables. Among academies, strong differences were showed for defensive breakdown where the defending support is much (range=77-87%), equal (range=11-32%), and less (range=2-12%) numerous than the attacking support, total tackles (range=64-122) and passes (range=72-151), pass to possession ratio (range=6-10), possession lost due to an error (range=28-59%), and ball in play in own (range=8-25%) and opponent (range=7-31%) 22m area indicators. For tournaments, effects emerged for offensive breakdown when the ball is used quickly employing maximum 2 attacking supports (range=20-30%) and is not used quickly (range=28-41%), total penalty kicks (range=11-16), and sequences period 0-10 (range=26-35%) and 10-40 s (range=47-55%). Conversely, winning and losing academies reported differences with small effect sizes. These results highlight that the technical and tactical aspects of the Italian under-18 Academy Rugby Union are quite homogeneous, suggesting that FIR coaching staffs are more oriented to players' skills than successful games. However, tactical, and strength and conditioning coaches can benefit from the findings of this study, focusing training on cognitive, strength, and repeated sprint abilities with and without change of direction for improving the occurrence of "set pieces won/regained" and "ball in play in opponent 22m area", which appear as the key of the game in this rugby competition level.

  13. Strength and Conditioning Coaches’ Application of the Session Rating of Perceived Exertion Method of Monitoring Within Professional Rugby Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comyns Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE is a method of monitoring and managing training loads. The purpose of this study was to research how and for what purpose strength and conditioning (S&C coaches implement this monitoring method within professional rugby union. The study also aimed to assess if S&C coaches found this monitoring method to be valid and effective. An online survey containing 24 fixed response questions was used to assess how S&C coaches applied the session-RPE method. The survey was piloted with expert researchers and practitioners in the area of session-RPE prior to distribution and alterations were made to the survey based on the experts’ feedback. Twenty S&C coaches working with professional rugby union clubs in Ireland, England, Scotland and Wales completed the survey. The coaches’ responses indicated that the majority found the session-RPE to be a valid and effective monitoring method. While some good implementation practices were identified, not all of the coaches adhered to these guidelines which may impact on the accuracy of the collected data. For example, 30% of coaches do not collect the RPE for every session that a player does per week limiting the use of the session-RPE variables cumulative training load, training monotony, training strain and acute:chronic load ratio. S&C coaches within rugby should consider using session-RPE as a method of monitoring and implement the method in a manner reflective of research findings to enhance the potential applications of this system in maximising adaptations and minimising the risk of injury.

  14. The Diet Quality of Competitive Adolescent Male Rugby Union Players with Energy Balance Estimated Using Different Physical Activity Coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Burrows

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aims of the current study were to comprehensively assess the dietary intakes and diet quality of a sample of Australian competitive adolescent rugby union players and compare these intakes with National and Sports Dietitians Association (SDA Recommendations for adolescent athletes. A secondary aim investigated applying different physical activity level (PAL coefficients to determine total energy expenditure (TEE in order to more effectively evaluate the adequacy of energy intakes. Design: Cross-sectional. Methods: Anthropometrics and dietary intakes were assessed in 25 competitive adolescent male rugby union players (14 to 18 years old. Diet was assessed using the validated Australian Eating Survey (AES food frequency questionnaire and diet quality was assessed through the Australian Recommended Food Score. Results: The median dietary intakes of participants met national recommendations for percent energy (% E from carbohydrate, protein and total fat, but not carbohydrate intake when evaluated as g/day as proposed in SDA guidelines. Median intakes of fibre and micronutrients including calcium and iron also met national recommendations. Overall diet quality was classified as ‘good’ with a median diet quality score of 34 (out of a possible 73; however, there was a lack of variety within key food groups including carbohydrates and proteins. Non-core food consumption exceeded recommended levels at 38% of the daily total energy intake, with substantial contributions from takeaway foods and sweetened beverages. A PAL coefficient of 1.2–1.4 was found to best balance the energy intakes of these players in their pre-season. Conclusions: Adolescent rugby players met the percent energy recommendations for macronutrients and attained an overall ‘good’ diet quality score. However, it was identified that when compared to specific recommendations for athletes, carbohydrate intakes were below recommendations and these players in their

  15. Rugby Union on-field position and its relationship to shoulder injury leading to anterior reconstruction for instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Abayasankar; Bokor, Desmond J; Davidson, Andrew S

    2011-03-01

    Due to the unique demands of each position on the Rugby Union field, the likelihood of an athlete sustaining a dislocation of their shoulder joint that requires surgical reconstruction may be affected by their position on the field. 166 patients with 184 involved shoulders requiring anterior reconstruction following an on-field Rugby Union injury between January 1996 and September 2008 were analysed. The mean age at time of injury was 18 years with the mean age at time of surgery being 20 years. The most prevalent mechanism of injury was a tackle in 66.3% of players. Players were more likely to suffer injury to their non-dominant shoulder than their dominant side (McNemar's Test, prisk of injury for all player positions. Positions with significantly different risk of injury were five-eighth (increased risk) and wing (reduced risk). Although we observed an increased risk in flankers and fullbacks, and a lower risk in second row, these results did not reach statistical significance after application of the Bonferroni correction. This information can be utilized by team staff to assist in pre-season conditioning as well as the development of improved muscle co-ordination programmes for the non-dominant shoulder, and planning a graduated return to sport by the player recovering from surgical reconstruction of the shoulder for instability. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. MECHANISMS FOR TRICEPS SURAE INJURY IN HIGH PERFORMANCE FRONT ROW RUGBY UNION PLAYERS: A KINEMATIC ANALYSIS OF SCRUMMAGING DRILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol A. Flavell

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The front row of a rugby union scrum consists of three players. The loose head prop, hooker and tight head prop. The objective of this study was to determine if known biomechanical risk factors for triceps surae muscle injury are exhibited in the lower limb of front row players during contested scrummaging. Eleven high performance front row rugby union players were landmarked bilaterally at the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS, greater trochanter, lateral femoral epicondyle, midline of the calcaneus above the plantar aspect of the heel, midline lower leg 5cm and 20cm proximal to the lateral malleolus, at the axis of subtalar joint, lateral malleolus, and head of the fifth metatarsal. Players were video recorded during a series of 2 on 1 live scrummaging drills. Biomechanical three dimensional analysis identified large angular displacements, and increased peak velocities and accelerations at the ankle joint during attacking scrummaging drill techniques when in the stance phase of gait. This places the triceps surae as increased risk of injury and provides valuable information for training staff regarding injury prevention and scrum training practices for front row players

  17. Increased blood pH but not performance with sodium bicarbonate supplementation in elite rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Sonya L; McLay-Cooke, Rebecca T; Brown, Rachel C; Gray, Andrew R; Fairbairn, Kirsty A

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated the effect of ingesting 0.3 g/kg body weight (BW) of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO₃) on physiological responses, gastrointestinal (GI) tolerability, and sprint performance in elite rugby union players. Twenty-five male rugby players, age 21.6 (2.6) yr, participated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Sixty-five minutes after consuming 0.3 g/kg BW of either NaHCO₃ or placebo, participants completed a 25-min warm-up followed by 9 min of high-intensity rugby-specific training followed by a rugby-specific repeated-sprint test (RSRST). Whole-blood samples were collected to determine lactate and bicarbonate concentrations and pH at baseline, after supplement ingestion, and immediately after the RSRST. Acute GI discomfort was assessed by questionnaire throughout the trials, and chronic GI discomfort was assessed during the 24 hr postingestion. After supplement ingestion and immediately after the RSRST, blood HCO₃⁻ concentration and pH were higher for the NaHCO₃ condition than for the placebo condition (p < .001). After the RSRST, blood lactate concentrations were significantly higher for the NaHCO₃ than for the placebo condition (p < .001). There was no difference in performance on the RSRST between the 2 conditions. The incidence of belching, stomachache, diarrhea, stomach bloating, and nausea was higher after ingestion of NaHCO₃ than with placebo (all p < .050). The severity of stomach cramps, belching, stomachache, bowel urgency, diarrhea, vomiting, stomach bloating, and flatulence was rated worse after ingestion of NaHCO₃ than with placebo (p < .050). NaHCO₃ supplementation increased blood HCO₃⁻ concentration and attenuated the decline in blood pH compared with placebo during high-intensity exercise in well-trained rugby players but did not significantly improve exercise performance. The higher incidence and greater severity of GI symptoms after ingestion of NaHCO₃ may negatively affect

  18. Cervical range of motion, cervical and shoulder strength in senior versus age-grade Rugby Union International front-row forwards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Mark; Moore, Isabel S; Moran, Patrick; Mathema, Prabhat; Ranson, Craig A

    2016-05-01

    To provide normative values for cervical range of motion (CROM), isometric cervical and shoulder strength for; International Senior professional, and International Age-grade Rugby Union front-row forwards. Cross-sectional population study. All international level front-row players within a Rugby Union Tier 1 Nation. Nineteen Senior and 21 Age-grade front-row forwards underwent CROM, cervical and shoulder strength testing. CROM was measured using the CROM device and the Gatherer System was used to measure multi-directional isometric cervical and shoulder strength. The Age-grade players had significantly lower; cervical strength (26-57% deficits), cervical flexion to extension strength ratios (0.5 vs. 0.6), and shoulder strength (2-36% deficits) than the Senior players. However, there were no differences between front-row positions within each age group. Additionally, there were no differences between age groups or front-row positions in the CROM measurements. Senior Rugby Union front-row forwards have greater cervical and shoulder strength than Age-grade players, with the biggest differences being in cervical strength, highlighting the need for age specific normative values. Importantly, Age-grade players should be evaluated to ensure they have developed sufficient cervical strength prior to entering professional level Rugby Union. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of passive recovery, cold water immersion, and contrast baths for recovery, as measured by game performances markers, between two simulated games of rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Trevor; Cameron, Melainie; Climstein, Mike

    2012-06-11

    ABSTRACT: In team sports, during the competitive season, peak performance in each game is of utmost importance to coaching staff and players. To enhance recovery from training and games a number of recovery modalities have been adopted across professional sporting teams. To date there is little evidence in the sport science literature identifying the benefit of modalities in promoting recovery between sporting competition games. This research evaluated hydrotherapy as a recovery strategy following a simulated game of rugby union and a week of recovery and training, with dependent variables between two simulated games of rugby union evaluated. Twenty-four male players were randomly divided into three groups: one group (n=8) received cold water immersion therapy (2 X 5min at 10oC, whilst one group (n=8) received contrast bath therapy (5 cycles of 10oC/38oC) and the control group (n=8) underwent passive recovery (15mins, thermo neutral environment). The two forms of hydrotherapy were administered following a simulated rugby union game (8 circuits x 11 stations) and after three training sessions. Dependent variables where generated from five physical stations replicating movement characteristics of rugby union and one skilled based station, as well as sessional RPE values between two simulated games of rugby union. No significant differences were identified between groups across simulated games, across dependent variables. Effect size analysis via Cohen's d and ηp2 did identify medium trends between groups. Overall trends indicated that both treatment groups had performance results in the second simulated game above those of the control group of between 2% and 6% across the physical work stations replicating movement characteristics of rugby union. In conclusion, trends in this study may indicate that ice baths and contrasts baths may be more advantageous to athlete's recovery from team sport than passive rest between successive games of rugby union We are pleased to

  20. The prevalence of self-reported neck pain in rugby union players in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Rugby is a highly demanding sport that carries a high risk of injury, specifically to the neck region. Repetitive loading of the neck during the scrum or tackle phase may increase neck symptoms and pain. Objectives. The objective of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to determine the prevalence of ...

  1. Relative Age Effects in Women's Rugby Union from Developmental Leagues to World Cup Tournaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemez, Srdjan; MacMahon, Clare; Weir, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Annual age cohort groupings promote relative age effects (RAEs), which often, inadvertently, create participation and attainment biases between relatively older and younger players within the same age cohort. In a globally evolving sport, women's rugby team selection practices may potentially bypass qualified players as a result of maturational…

  2. Enduring Injustice: A Case Study of Retirement from Professional Rugby Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Jim; Thomas, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Garth Armstrong (pseudonym) agreed to participate based on a pre-existing "career-guidance-and-support" relationship with the researcher, to explore the realities of career transition. An account-making approach was used over the last eight months of his professional rugby-playing career (termination) and for a further ten months into…

  3. Managing player load in professional rugby union: a review of current knowledge and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrie, Kenneth L; Raftery, Martin; Blackie, Josh; Cook, Christian J; Fuller, Colin W; Gabbett, Tim J; Gray, Andrew J; Gill, Nicholas; Hennessy, Liam; Kemp, Simon; Lambert, Mike; Nichol, Rob; Mellalieu, Stephen D; Piscione, Julien; Stadelmann, Jörg; Tucker, Ross

    2017-03-01

    The loads to which professional rugby players are subjected has been identified as a concern by coaches, players and administrators. In November 2014, World Rugby commissioned an expert group to identify the physical demands and non-physical load issues associated with participation in professional rugby. To describe the current state of knowledge about the loads encountered by professional rugby players and the implications for their physical and mental health. The group defined 'load' as it relates to professional rugby players as the total stressors and demands applied to the players. In the 2013-2014 seasons, 40% of professional players appeared in 20 matches or more, and 5% of players appeared in 30 matches or more. Matches account for ∼5-11% of exposure to rugby-related activities (matches, team and individual training sessions) during professional competitions. The match injury rate is about 27 times higher than that in training. The working group surmised that players entering a new level of play, players with unresolved previous injuries, players who are relatively older and players who are subjected to rapid increases in load are probably at increased risk of injury. A mix of 'objective' and 'subjective' measures in conjunction with effective communication among team staff and between staff and players was held to be the best approach to monitoring and managing player loads. While comprehensive monitoring holds promise for individually addressing player loads, it brings with it ethical and legal responsibilities that rugby organisations need to address to ensure that players' personal information is adequately protected. Administrators, broadcasters, team owners, team staff and the players themselves have important roles in balancing the desire to have the 'best players' on the field with the ongoing health of players. In contrast, the coaching, fitness and medical staff exert significant control over the activities, duration and intensity of training

  4. An evaluation of mouthguard requirements and dental injuries in New Zealand rugby union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarrie, K; Gianotti, S; Chalmers, D; Hopkins, W

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To document the effects of compulsory mouthguard wearing on rugby related dental injury claims made to ACC, the administrator of New Zealand's accident compensation scheme. Methods: An ecological study was conducted. Estimates of mouthguard wearing rates were available from prospective studies conducted in 1993, 2002, and 2003. Rugby related dental injury claims were available for the period 1995–2003. Player numbers were available from 1998. Mouthguard wearing was made compulsory during match play for rugby players at under 19 level and below at the beginning of the 1997 season, and for all grades of domestic rugby at the beginning of the 1998 season. Greater powers of enforcement were provided to referees at the beginning of the 2003 season. Results: The self reported rate of mouthguard use was 67% of player-weeks in 1993 and 93% in 2003. A total of 2644 claims was reported in 1995. There was a 43% (90% confidence interval 39% to 46%) reduction in dental claims from 1995 to 2003. On the reasonable assumption that the number of players and player-matches remained constant throughout the study period, the relative rate of injury claims for non-wearers versus wearers was 4.6 (90% confidence interval 3.8 to 5.6). The cumulative savings in claim costs compared with the cost per year if claim numbers had remained constant from 1995 is $1.87 million NZD. Conclusion: Although ecological studies have acknowledged weaknesses, the findings provide evidence that mouthguard use is a simple and effective injury prevention strategy for rugby players. The use of mouthguards for all players in both matches and contact practice situations is strongly recommended. PMID:16118304

  5. Application of Individualized Speed Thresholds to Interpret Position Specific Running Demands in Elite Professional Rugby Union: A GPS Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cillian Reardon

    Full Text Available A number of studies have used GPS technology to categorise rugby union locomotive demands. However, the utility of the results of these studies is confounded by small sample sizes, sub-elite player status and the global application of absolute speed thresholds to all player positions. Furthermore, many of these studies have used GPS units with low sampling frequencies. The aim of the present study was to compare and contrast the high speed running (HSR demands of professional rugby union when utilizing micro-technology units sampling at 10 Hz and applying relative or individualised speed zones. The results of this study indicate that application of individualised speed zones results in a significant shift in the interpretation of the HSR demands of both forwards and backs and positional sub-categories therein. When considering the use of an absolute in comparison to an individualised HSR threshold, there was a significant underestimation for forwards of HSR distance (HSRD (absolute = 269 ± 172.02, individualised = 354.72 ± 99.22, p < 0.001, HSR% (absolute = 5.15 ± 3.18, individualised = 7.06 ± 2.48, p < 0.001 and HSR efforts (HSRE (absolute = 18.81 ± 12.25; individualised = 24.78 ± 8.30, p < 0.001. In contrast, there was a significant overestimation of the same HSR metrics for backs with the use of an absolute threshold (HSRD absolute = 697.79 ± 198.11, individualised = 570.02 ± 171.14, p < 0.001; HSR% absolute = 10.85 ± 2.82, individualised = 8.95 ± 2.76, p < 0.001; HSRE absolute = 41.55 ± 11.25; individualised = 34.54 ± 9.24, p < 0.001. This under- or overestimation associated with an absolute speed zone applies to varying degrees across the ten positional sub-categories analyzed and also to individuals within the same positional sub-category. The results of the present study indicated that although use of an individulised HSR threshold improves the interpretation of the HSR demands on a positional basis, inter

  6. Movement Demands of Elite Under-20s and Senior International Rugby Union Players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Cunningham

    Full Text Available This study compared the movement demands of elite international Under-20 age grade (U20s and senior international rugby union players during competitive tournament match play. Forty elite professional players from an U20 and 27 elite professional senior players from international performance squads were monitored using 10Hz global positioning systems (GPS during 15 (U20s and 8 (senior international tournament matches during the 2014 and 2015 seasons. Data on distances, velocities, accelerations, decelerations, high metabolic load (HML distance and efforts, and number of sprints were derived. Data files from players who played over 60 min (n = 258 were separated firstly into Forwards and Backs, and more specifically into six positional groups; FR-Front Row (prop & hooker, SR-Second Row, BR-Back Row (Flankers & No.8, HB-Half Backs (scrum half & outside half, MF-Midfield (centres, B3 -Back Three (wings & full back for match analysis. Linear mixed models revealed significant differences between U20 and senior teams in both the forwards and backs. In the forwards the seniors covered greater HML distance (736.4 ± 280.3 vs 701.3 ± 198.7m, p = 0.01 and severe decelerations (2.38 ± 2.2 vs 2.28 ± 1.65, p = 0.05 compared to the U20s, but performed less relative HSR (3.1 ± 1.6 vs 3.2 ± 1.5, p < 0.01, moderate (19.4 ± 10.5 vs 23.6 ± 10.5, p = 0.01 and high accelerations (2.2 ± 1.9 vs 4.3 ± 2.7, p < 0.01 and sprint•min-1 (0.11 ± 0.06 vs 0.11 ± 0.05, p < 0.01. Senior backs covered a greater relative distance (73.3 ± 8.1 vs 69.1 ± 7.6 m•min-1, p < 0.01, greater High Metabolic Load (HML distance (1138.0 ± 233.5 vs 1060.4 ± 218.1m, p < 0.01, HML efforts (112.7 ± 22.2 vs 98.8 ± 21.7, p < 0.01 and heavy decelerations (9.9 ± 4.3 vs 9.5 ± 4.4, p = 0.04 than the U20s backs. However, the U20s backs performed more relative HSR (7.3 ± 2.1 vs 7.2 ± 2.1, p <0.01 and sprint•min-1 (0.26 ± 0.07 vs 0.25 ± 0.07, p < 0.01. Further investigation

  7. Effects of a short-term pre-season training programme on the body composition and anaerobic performance of professional rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argus, Christos K; Gill, Nicholas; Keogh, Justin; Hopkins, Will G; Beaven, C Martyn

    2010-04-01

    Pre-season rugby training develops the physical requisites for competition and consists of a high volume of resistance training and anaerobic and aerobic conditioning. However, the effects of a rugby union pre-season in professional athletes are currently unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a 4-week pre-season on 33 professional rugby union players. Bench press and box squat increased moderately (13.6 kg, 90% confidence limits +/-2.9 kg and 17.6 +/- 8.0 kg, respectively) over the training phase. Small decreases in bench throw (70.6 +/- 53.5 W), jump squat (280.1 +/- 232.4 W), and fat mass (1.4 +/- 0.4 kg) were observed. In addition, small increases were seen in fat-free mass (2.0 +/- 0.6 kg) and flexed upper-arm girth (0.6 +/- 0.2 cm), while moderate increases were observed in mid-thigh girth (1.9 +/- 0.5 cm) and perception of fatigue (0.6 +/- 0.4 units). Increases in strength and body composition were observed in elite rugby union players after 4 weeks of intensive pre-season training, but this may have been the result of a return to fitness levels prior to the off-season. Decreases in power may reflect high training volumes and increases in perceived of fatigue.

  8. Attitudes and behaviours of top-level junior rugby union coaches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and to develop new training methods, 'coaching colleagues' (very much – 71%; mean ... contact technique in the tackle – a pilot study ... much attention in the literature recently, with coaching strategies for ... behaviour during training sessions.

  9. PSYCHOLOGICAL SKILLS USAGE AND THE COMPETITIVE ANXIETY RESPONSE AS A FUNCTION OF SKILL LEVEL IN RUGBY UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Neil

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the intensity and direction of competitive anxiety symptoms and psychological skill usage in rugby union players of different skill levels. Elite (n=65 and nonelite (n=50 participants completed measures of competitive anxiety, self- confidence, and psychological skills. The elite group reported more facilitative interpretations of competitive anxiety symptoms, higher levels of self-confidence, lower relaxation usage, and greater imagery and self-talk use than their nonelite counterparts. The findings suggest that nonelite performers primarily use relaxation strategies to reduce anxiety intensity. In contrast, elite athletes appear to maintain intensity levels and adopt a combination of skills to interpret symptoms as facilitative to performance. Potential mechanisms for this process include the use of imagery and verbal persuasion efficacy-enhancement techniques to protect against debilitating symptom interpretations

  10. Interrelationships between measured running intensities and agility performance in subelite rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Stuart; Sullivan, Lee O; Davies, Bruce; Wiltshire, Huw; Baker, Julien S

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate agility performance of rugby players using various intensity running tests. A further aim was to investigate if any differences existed between playing positions in relation to agility performance. Nineteen subelite players (mean +/- SD age, 23.0 +/- 5.4 years) participated in the study. Players underwent measurements of anthropometry (height, body mass, and sum of four skinfolds). Running tests investigated were speed (10 m and 40 m sprint), agility (T Test and Illinois), and multistage fitness tests (20 m, 10 m, and 5 m), with all tests for agility measured against the Illinois agility test. Results indicated that backline players produced significant correlations (P rugby-specific agility programs to aid performance may be of greater benefit and of higher priority in training programs designed for backs rather than forwards.

  11. Risk factors for injury in rugby union football in New Zealand: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalmers, David J; Samaranayaka, Ari; Gulliver, Pauline; McNoe, Bronwen

    2012-02-01

    To identify risk factors for injury in amateur club rugby. Prospective cohort design; with follow-up over the 2004 season. Amateur club rugby in New Zealand. Participants Seven hundred and four male rugby players, aged 13 years and over. Assessment of risk factors The study investigated the independent effect on injury incidence of age, ethnicity, rugby experience, height, weight, body mass index, physical activity, cigarette smoking, previous injury, playing while injured, grade, position, training, time of season, warm-up, foul play, weather conditions, ground conditions and protective equipment. Generalised Poisson regression was used to estimate the effect of each factor after adjusting for all other factors. Game injury, defined as 'any event that resulted in an injury requiring medical attention or causing a player to miss at least one scheduled game or team practice'. A total of 704 players, representing 6263 player-games, contributed information on injury and exposure. Evidence was obtained of the effect on injury incidence of increasing age, Pacific Island versus Maori ethnicity (injury rate ratio (IRR)=1.48, 1.03-2.13), ≥40 h strenuous physical activity per week (IRR=1.54, 1.11-2.15), playing while injured (IRR=1.46, 1.20-1.79), very hard ground condition (IRR=1.50, 1.13-2.00), foul-play (IRR=1.87, 1.54-2.27) and use of headgear (IRR=1.23, 1.00-1.50). Opportunities for injury prevention might include promoting injury-prevention measures more vigorously among players of Pacific Island ethnicity, ensuring injured players are fully rehabilitated before returning to play, reducing the effects of ground hardness through ground preparation and stricter enforcement of the laws relating to foul play.

  12. Reliability of Single-Leg Balance and Landing Tests in Rugby Union; Prospect of Using Postural Control to Monitor Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troester, Jordan C; Jasmin, Jason G; Duffield, Rob

    2018-06-01

    The present study examined the inter-trial (within test) and inter-test (between test) reliability of single-leg balance and single-leg landing measures performed on a force plate in professional rugby union players using commercially available software (SpartaMARS, Menlo Park, USA). Twenty-four players undertook test - re-test measures on two occasions (7 days apart) on the first training day of two respective pre-season weeks following 48h rest and similar weekly training loads. Two 20s single-leg balance trials were performed on a force plate with eyes closed. Three single-leg landing trials were performed by jumping off two feet and landing on one foot in the middle of a force plate 1m from the starting position. Single-leg balance results demonstrated acceptable inter-trial reliability (ICC = 0.60-0.81, CV = 11-13%) for sway velocity, anterior-posterior sway velocity, and mediolateral sway velocity variables. Acceptable inter-test reliability (ICC = 0.61-0.89, CV = 7-13%) was evident for all variables except mediolateral sway velocity on the dominant leg (ICC = 0.41, CV = 15%). Single-leg landing results only demonstrated acceptable inter-trial reliability for force based measures of relative peak landing force and impulse (ICC = 0.54-0.72, CV = 9-15%). Inter-test results indicate improved reliability through the averaging of three trials with force based measures again demonstrating acceptable reliability (ICC = 0.58-0.71, CV = 7-14%). Of the variables investigated here, total sway velocity and relative landing impulse are the most reliable measures of single-leg balance and landing performance, respectively. These measures should be considered for monitoring potential changes in postural control in professional rugby union.

  13. Perceptions and Determinants of Eating for Health and Performance in High-Level Male Adolescent Rugby Union Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily G. Stokes

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Sports nutrition recommendations provide guidance on dietary strategies to optimise sports performance. However, research indicates that young athletes often find it difficult to follow these guidelines in practice. Limited research exists on the determinants that influence adherence to sports nutrition guidelines. This study aimed to explore the perceptions and determinants of eating for health and performance in high-level male adolescent rugby union players. Determinants were explored using semi-structured individual interviews in New Zealand high-level male rugby union players (n = 20, 16–18 years. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then underwent thematic analysis. Perceptions of eating for health and performance included balance and variety, appropriate portions, and specific foods. Both adolescent- and sport-specific determinants influenced the food choices of participants. Determinants relevant to adolescent lifestyles included the influence of significant others such as peers and family but also included the taste, cost, convenience, and availability of food. Sports-specific determinants revolved around the desire to enhance sports performance, motivation to perform, and team culture. The media (mainstream and social media, physical appearance, and feeling good were identified as both adolescent- and sport-specific factors influencing food choice. These findings highlight the importance of having support and positive role modelling to help young athletes make optimal food choices for health and performance. Strategies to further enable healthy eating practices should aim to strengthen the support available to young athletes in the home, school, and sporting environments and should include education on appropriate social media use to inform eating for health and performance.

  14. Reliability of Single-Leg Balance and Landing Tests in Rugby Union; Prospect of Using Postural Control to Monitor Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan C. Troester, Jason G. Jasmin, Rob Duffield

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the inter-trial (within test and inter-test (between test reliability of single-leg balance and single-leg landing measures performed on a force plate in professional rugby union players using commercially available software (SpartaMARS, Menlo Park, USA. Twenty-four players undertook test – re-test measures on two occasions (7 days apart on the first training day of two respective pre-season weeks following 48h rest and similar weekly training loads. Two 20s single-leg balance trials were performed on a force plate with eyes closed. Three single-leg landing trials were performed by jumping off two feet and landing on one foot in the middle of a force plate 1m from the starting position. Single-leg balance results demonstrated acceptable inter-trial reliability (ICC = 0.60-0.81, CV = 11-13% for sway velocity, anterior-posterior sway velocity, and mediolateral sway velocity variables. Acceptable inter-test reliability (ICC = 0.61-0.89, CV = 7-13% was evident for all variables except mediolateral sway velocity on the dominant leg (ICC = 0.41, CV = 15%. Single-leg landing results only demonstrated acceptable inter-trial reliability for force based measures of relative peak landing force and impulse (ICC = 0.54-0.72, CV = 9-15%. Inter-test results indicate improved reliability through the averaging of three trials with force based measures again demonstrating acceptable reliability (ICC = 0.58-0.71, CV = 7-14%. Of the variables investigated here, total sway velocity and relative landing impulse are the most reliable measures of single-leg balance and landing performance, respectively. These measures should be considered for monitoring potential changes in postural control in professional rugby union.

  15. CAN A SPECIFIC NECK STRENGTHENING PROGRAM DECREASE CERVICAL SPINE INJURIES IN A MEN'S PROFESSIONAL RUGBY UNION TEAM? A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Naish

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spine injuries in Rugby Union are a concerning issue at all levels of the game. The primary aim of this retrospective analysis conducted in a professional Rugby Union squad was to determine whether a 26-week isometric neck strengthening intervention program (13-week strengthening phase and 13-week maintenance phase was effective in reducing the number and severity of cervical spine injuries. The secondary aim was to determine whether at week five, where the program had been the similar for all players, there was increased isometric neck strength. All 27 players who were common to both the 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 seasons were included in this analysis and data was extracted from a Sports Medicine/Sports Science database which included the squad's injury records. Primary outcome variables included; the number of cervical spine injuries and the severity of these injuries as determined by the total number of days lost from training and competition. Secondary outcome variables included isometric neck strength in flexion, extension and left and right lateral flexion. Using non-parametric statistical methods, no significant differences were evident for the total number of cervical spine injuries (n = 8 in 2007-2008, n = 6 in 2008-2009 or time loss due to these injuries (100 days in 2007-2008, 40 days in 2008-2009. However, a significant (p = 0.03 reduction in the number of match injuries was evident from 2007-2008 (n = 11 to 2008-09 (n = 2. Non-significant increases in isometric neck strength were found in all directions examined. A significant reduction in the number of match injuries was evident in this study. However, no other significant changes to primary outcome variables were achieved. Further, no significant increases in isometric neck strength were found in this well-trained group of professional athletes

  16. Mechanisms for triceps surae injury in high performance front row rugby union players: a kinematic analysis of scrummaging drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavell, Carol A; Sayers, Mark G L; Gordon, Susan J; Lee, James B

    2013-01-01

    The front row of a rugby union scrum consists of three players. The loose head prop, hooker and tight head prop. The objective of this study was to determine if known biomechanical risk factors for triceps surae muscle injury are exhibited in the lower limb of front row players during contested scrummaging. Eleven high performance front row rugby union players were landmarked bilaterally at the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS), greater trochanter, lateral femoral epicondyle, midline of the calcaneus above the plantar aspect of the heel, midline lower leg 5cm and 20cm proximal to the lateral malleolus, at the axis of subtalar joint, lateral malleolus, and head of the fifth metatarsal. Players were video recorded during a series of 2 on 1 live scrummaging drills. Biomechanical three dimensional analysis identified large angular displacements, and increased peak velocities and accelerations at the ankle joint during attacking scrummaging drill techniques when in the stance phase of gait. This places the triceps surae as increased risk of injury and provides valuable information for training staff regarding injury prevention and scrum training practices for front row players. Key pointsFront rowers exhibited patterns of single leg weight bearing, in a position of greater ankle plantar flexion and knee extension at toe off during scrummaging, which is a risk position for TS injury.Front rowers also exhibited greater acceleration at the ankle, knee, and hip joints, and greater changes in ankle ROM from toe strike to toe off during attacking scrum drills.These reported accelerations and joint displacements may be risk factors for TS injury, as the ankle is accelerating into plantar flexion at final push off and the muscle is shortening from an elongated state.

  17. Forced Retirement from Professional Rugby Union is Associated with Symptoms of Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Craig; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Lambert, Mike I; Gouttebarge, Vincent

    2017-07-01

    Rugby has a higher injury burden than other popular sports, such as football. Athletes who are forced to retire as a result of injury are associated with poor mental health. With its high injury burden, professional rugby players might be at risk of mental health conditions associated with injury-related forced retirement. This study aimed to compare mental health between former professional rugby players who were and weren't forced to retire. A questionnaire including the 4DSQ (distress), GHQ-12 (anxiety/depression), PROMIS short-form (sleep disturbance) and AUDIT-C (alcohol misuse) was completed by retired professional players from Ireland, France and South Africa. The questionnaire asked players whether or not they were forced to retire, as well as the reason for retirement. Players forced to retire were more than twice as likely to report symptoms of distress in comparison to those that retired voluntarily (odds ratio: 2.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.2-3.6, prugby players that were forced to retire may require support structures and longitudinal monitoring. Future studies should begin monitoring players during their careers to accurately assess the effect of retirement on mental health. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Running and Metabolic Demands of Elite Rugby Union Assessed Using Traditional, Metabolic Power, and Heart Rate Monitoring Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Dubois, Thierry Paillard, Mark Lyons, David McGrath, Olivier Maurelli, Jacques Prioux

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (1 to analyze elite rugby union game demands using 3 different approaches: traditional, metabolic and heart rate-based methods (2 to explore the relationship between these methods and (3 to explore positional differences between the backs and forwards players. Time motion analysis and game demands of fourteen professional players (24.1 ± 3.4 y, over 5 European challenge cup games, were analyzed. Thresholds of 14.4 km·h-1, 20 W.kg-1 and 85% of maximal heart rate (HRmax were set for high-intensity efforts across the three methods. The mean % of HRmax was 80.6 ± 4.3 % while 42.2 ± 16.5% of game time was spent above 85% of HRmax with no significant differences between the forwards and the backs. Our findings also show that the backs cover greater distances at high-speed than forwards (% difference: +35.2 ± 6.6%; p<0.01 while the forwards cover more distance than the backs (+26.8 ± 5.7%; p<0.05 in moderate-speed zone (10-14.4 km·h-1. However, no significant difference in high-metabolic power distance was found between the backs and forwards. Indeed, the high-metabolic power distances were greater than high-speed running distances of 24.8 ± 17.1% for the backs, and 53.4 ± 16.0% for the forwards with a significant difference (+29.6 ± 6.0% for the forwards; p<0.001 between the two groups. Nevertheless, nearly perfect correlations were found between the total distance assessed using the traditional approach and the metabolic power approach (r = 0.98. Furthermore, there is a strong association (r = 0.93 between the high-speed running distance (assessed using the traditional approach and the high-metabolic power distance. The HR monitoring methods demonstrate clearly the high physiological demands of professional rugby games. The traditional and the metabolic-power approaches shows a close correlation concerning their relative values, nevertheless the difference in absolute values especially for the high

  19. Surgical treatment of anterior instability in rugby union players: clinical and radiographic results of the Latarjet-Patte procedure with minimum 5-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyton, Lionel; Young, Allan; Dawidziak, Bérangère; Visona, Enrico; Hager, Jean-Philippe; Fournier, Yann; Walch, Gilles

    2012-12-01

    Anterior instability in rugby players is characterized by the common finding of a bony lesion, which has been identified as a potential cause of recurrence after soft-tissue reconstruction. The Latarjet-Patte procedure is effective in the treatment of recurrent anterior instability in collision sports such as rugby union. We retrospectively assessed 34 rugby players (37 shoulders) stabilized with the Latarjet-Patte procedure. The mean follow-up was 12 years. All patients underwent clinical and radiographic assessment preoperatively and at final follow-up. Functional evaluation was performed with the Walch-Duplay and Rowe scores. A visual analog scale score for the evaluation of pain and the subjective shoulder value were recorded. In addition, all patients completed a questionnaire regarding the return to playing rugby. No recurrence of either dislocation or subluxation occurred. Persistent apprehension on clinical examination was present in 5 patients (14%). A bony lesion of the glenoid was present in 73% and a Hill-Sachs lesion in 68%. Sixty-five percent of the patients returned to playing rugby; only 1 patient did not return to playing rugby because of his shoulder. The mean Walch-Duplay and Rowe scores were 86 and 93 points, respectively. The mean subjective shoulder value was 90%. Radiographic healing of the bone block was observed in 89% of cases. At final follow-up, 11 patients (30%) had minor arthritic changes, with no cases of moderate or severe arthritis. The Latarjet-Patte procedure provides a reliable method for stabilizing the shoulder, resulting in a return to playing rugby in a high number of cases without increasing the risk of long-term arthritic degradation. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mechanisms of ACL injury in professional rugby union: a systematic video analysis of 36 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Connor; Blackburn, Jeff; Withers, Daniel; Tierney, Gregory; Moran, Cathal; Simms, Ciaran

    2016-12-30

    The mechanisms of ACL injury in rugby are not well defined. To describe the mechanisms of ACL injury in male professional rugby players using systematic video analysis. 36 cases from games played in top professional leagues and international matches were analysed. 5 analysts independently assessed all videos to record the estimated frame/time of initial ground contact, frame/time of ACL tear and a range of play specific variables. This included contact versus non-contact ACL injuries, injury timing, joint flexion angles and foot contact with the ground. 37 side-stepping manoeuvres from a control game were analysed to allow comparison of non-injury versus injury situations. 57% of ACL injuries occurred in a contact manner. 2 main scenarios were identified: (1) offensive running and (2) being tackled, indicating that the ball carrier might be at higher risk of ACL injury. The majority of non-contact ACL injuries resulted from a side-stepping manoeuvre. In most non-contact cases, initial ground contact was through heel strike. Statistical assessment of heel strike at initial ground contact versus non-heel strike cases showed a significant difference in injury versus non-injury outcomes, with heel strike associated with higher injury risk. Non-contact ACL injuries had lower median knee flexion angles and a more dorsiflexed ankle when compared with a control group (10° vs 20°, p≤0.001 and 10° vs 0°, p=0.033 respectively). Over half of ACL injuries in rugby in our analysis resulted from a contact mechanism. For non-contact injuries, lower knee flexion angles and heel-first ground contact in a side-stepping manoeuvre were associated with ACL injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. The King-Devick (K-D) test and concussion diagnosis in semi-professional rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, John H; Murphy, Ian; Gissane, Conor

    2017-08-01

    To determine the utility of the King-Devick (K-D) test in identifying sports-related concussion in semi-professional rugby players. Descriptive cohort study. 176 male players were recruited from a semi-professional rugby union competition in New Zealand (NZ). Baseline K-D scores were obtained in the pre-season. Post-match K-D and Pitch Side Concussion Assessment Version 2 (PSCA2) scores were obtained in those with suspected concussion. Post-match K-D scores were also administered to selected control players. 19 concussions in 18 players were analysed. In addition, 33 controls were used for analysis. A positive K-D test was identified in 53% of players with concussion post-match. Conversely, a positive test was identified in 33% of controls. The sensitivity and specificity of the K-D test was calculated as 53% and 69% respectively. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value was 48% and 73% respectively. The PSCA2 correctly identified 74% of concussions. The K-D test identified 3 cases not identified by the PSCA2. When the PSCA2 and K-D were combined, 89% of concussions were correctly identified. The K-D test does not appear to be effective if used as a stand-alone test for the diagnosis of concussion. However, if used alongside current side-line cognitive and balance tests, it may assist in more accurately diagnosing sports-related concussion. Further research should look to utilise the K-D test in in-match protocols to establish if this improves the diagnostic accuracy of in-match protocols for sports-related concussion. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Same Story or a Unique Novel? Within-Participant Principle Component Analysis of Training Load Measures in Professional Rugby Union Skills Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaving, Dan; Dalton, Nicholas E; Black, Christopher; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Phibbs, Padraic J; Gray, Michael; Jones, Ben; Roe, Gregory A B

    2018-03-27

    The study aimed to identify which combination of external and internal training load (TL) metrics capture similar or unique information for individual professional players during skills training in rugby union using principal component analysis (PCA). TL data were collected from twenty-one male professional rugby union players across a competitive season. This included PlayerLoad™, total distance (TD), and individualised high-speed distance (HSD; >61% maximal velocity; all external TL) obtained from a micro-technology device worn by each player (Optimeye X4, Catapult Innovations, Melbourne, Australia) and the session-rating of perceived exertion (sRPE; internal TL). PCA was conducted on each individual to extract the underlying combinations of the four TL measures that best describe the total information (variance) provided by the measures. TL measures with PC "loadings" (PC L ) above 0.7 were deemed to possess well-defined relationships with the extracted PC. The findings show that from the four TL measures, the majority of an individual's TL information (1 st PC: 55 to 70%) during skills training can be explained by either sRPE (PC L : 0.72 to 0.95), TD (PC L : 0.86 to 0.98) or PlayerLoad™ (PC L : 0.71 to 0.98). HSD was the only variable to relate to the 2nd PC (PC L : 0.72 to 1.00), which captured additional TL information (+19 to 28%). Findings suggest practitioners could quantify the TL of rugby union skills training with one of PlayerLoad™, TD, or sRPE plus HSD whilst limiting omitted information of the TL imposed during professional rugby union skills training.

  3. Effects of heavy episodic drinking on physical performance in club level rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Christopher; Stannard, Stephen R; Barnes, Matthew J

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of acute alcohol consumption, in a natural setting, on exercise performance in the 2 days after the drinking episode. Additionally, alcohol related behaviours of this group of rugby players were identified. Prospective cohort study. Nineteen male club rugby players volunteered for this study. Measures of counter movement jump, maximal lower body strength, repeated sprint ability and hydration were made 2 days before and in the 2 days following heavy episodic alcohol consumption. Participants completed a questionnaire at each time point so that alcohol consumption and sleep hours from the previous 24 h period could be quantified. Additionally, participants completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Test (AUDIT) prior to completing baseline measures of performance. Reported alcohol consumption ranged from 6 to >20 standard drinks (mean category scale score=11-19 standard drinks). A significant decrease in sleep hours (p=0.01) was reported after the drinking episode with participants reporting 1-3 h for the night. A significant reduction (-1.8±1.5 cm) in counter movement jump (p0.05). AUDIT scores for this group (18.2±4.3) indicate regular alcohol consumption at a hazardous level. Heavy episodic alcohol use, and associated reduced sleep hours, results in a reduction in lower body power output but not other measures of anaerobic performance the morning after a drinking session. Full recovery from this behaviour is achieved by 2 days post drinking episode. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Kinetic Sprint Asymmetries on a non-motorised Treadmill in Rugby Union Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Scott R; Cross, Matt R; Girard, Olivier; Brocherie, Franck; Samozino, Pierre; Morin, Jean-Benoît

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to present a potential link between sprint kinetic (vertical [F V ] and horizontal force [F H ]) asymmetries and athletic performance during acceleration and maximal velocity (v max ) sprinting. Thirty un-injured male rugby athletes performed 8-s sprints on a non-motorised treadmill. Kinetic data were divided into 'strong' and 'weak' legs based on individually averaged peak values observed during sprinting and were analysed to evaluate asymmetry. Large differences were found between the strong and weak legs in F H during acceleration (4.3 vs. 3.5 N·kg -1 ) and v max (3.7 vs. 2.8 N·kg -1 ) sprinting (both ES=1.2), but not in F V (21.8 vs. 20.8 N·kg -1 , ES=- 0.6 for acceleration; 23.9 vs. 22.8 N·kg -1 , ES=- 0.5 for v max , respectively). Group mean asymmetry was lower in F V compared to F H during acceleration (1.6 vs. 6.8%) and v max (1.6 vs. 8.2%). The range of asymmetry was much lower in F V (0.03-4.3%) compared to F H (0.2-28%). In un-injured rugby athletes, the magnitude and range of asymmetry scores in F H , occurring during acceleration and v max phases, where much greater than those found in F V . These findings highlight the potential for some un-injured athletes to possess kinetic asymmetries known as crucial components for acceleration performance in sprinting. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Long-term health outcomes after exposure to repeated concussion in elite level: rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, T M; McSkimming, P; Wainman-Lefley, J; Maclean, L M; Hay, J; McConnachie, A; Stewart, W

    2017-06-01

    There is continuing concern about effects of concussion in athletes, including risk of the neurodegenerative disease chronic traumatic encephalopathy. However, information on long-term health and wellbeing in former athletes is limited. Outcome after exposure to repeated brain injury was investigated in 52 retired male Scottish international rugby players (RIRP) and 29 male controls who were similar in age and social deprivation. Assessment included history of playing rugby and traumatic brain injury, general and mental health, life stress, concussion symptoms, cognitive function, disability and markers of chronic stress (allostatic load). The estimated number of concussions in RIRP averaged 14 (median=7; IQR 5-40). Performance was poorer in RIRP than controls on a test of verbal learning (p=0.022) and of fine co-ordination of the dominant hand (p=0.038) and not significantly different on other cognitive tests (p>0.05). There were no significant associations between number of concussions and performance on cognitive tests. Other than a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease in controls, no group differences were detected in general or mental health or estimates of allostatic load. In RIRP, persisting symptoms attributed to concussion were more common if reporting more than nine concussions (p=0.028), although these symptoms were not perceived to affect social or work functioning. Despite a high number of concussions in RIRP, differences in mental health, social or work functioning were not found late after injury. Subtle group differences were detected on two cognitive tests, the cause of which is uncertain. Prospective group comparison studies on representative cohorts are required. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. The development, retention and decay rates of strength and power in elite rugby union, rugby league and American football: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Daniel Travis; Gill, Nicholas; Cronin, John; McGuigan, Michael

    2013-05-01

    Strength and power are crucial components to excelling in all contact sports; and understanding how a player's strength and power levels fluctuate in response to various resistance training loads is of great interest, as it will inevitably dictate the loading parameters throughout a competitive season. This is a systematic review of training, maintenance and detraining studies, focusing on the development, retention and decay rates of strength and power measures in elite rugby union, rugby league and American football players. A literature search using MEDLINE, EBSCO Host, Google Scholar, IngentaConnect, Ovid LWW, ProQuest Central, ScienceDirect Journals, SPORTDiscus and Wiley InterScience was conducted. References were also identified from other review articles and relevant textbooks. From 300 articles, 27 met the inclusion criteria and were retained for further analysis. STUDY QUALITY: Study quality was assessed via a modified 20-point scale created to evaluate research conducted in athletic-based training environments. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) quality rating of the included studies was 16.2 ± 1.9; the rating system revealed that the quality of future studies can be improved by randomly allocating subjects to training groups, providing greater description and detail of the interventions, and including control groups where possible. Percent change, effect size (ES = [Post-Xmean - Pre-Xmean)/Pre-SD) calculations and SDs were used to assess the magnitude and spread of strength and power changes in the included studies. The studies were grouped according to (1) mean intensity relative volume (IRV = sets × repetitions × intensity; (2) weekly training frequency per muscle group; and (3) detraining duration. IRV is the product of the number of sets, repetitions and intensity performed during a training set and session. The effects of weekly training frequencies were assessed by normalizing the percent change values to represent the weekly changes in

  7. Efficacy of a movement control injury prevention programme in adult men's community rugby union: a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Matthew J; Roberts, Simon P; Trewartha, Grant; England, Mike E; Stokes, Keith A

    2018-03-01

    Exercise programmes aimed at reducing injury have been shown to be efficacious for some non-collision sports, but evidence in adult men's collision sports such as rugby union is lacking. To evaluate the efficacy of a movement control injury prevention exercise programme for reducing match injuries in adult men's community rugby union players. 856 clubs were invited to participate in this prospective cluster randomised (single-blind) controlled trial where clubs were the unit of randomisation. 81 volunteered and were randomly assigned (intervention/control). A 42-week exercise programme was followed throughout the season. The control programme reflected 'normal practice' exercises, whereas the intervention focused on proprioception, balance, cutting, landing and resistance exercises.Outcome measures were match injury incidence and burden for: (1) all ≥8 days time-loss injuries and (2) targeted (lower limb, shoulder, head and neck, excluding fractures and lacerations) ≥8 days time-loss injuries. Poisson regression identified no clear effects on overall injury outcomes. A likely beneficial difference in targeted injury incidence (rate ratio (RR), 90% CI=0.6, 0.4 to 1.0) was identified, with a 40% reduction in lower-limb incidence (RR, 90% CI=0.6, 0.4 to 1.0) and a 60% reduction in concussion incidence (RR, 90% CI=0.4, 0.2 to 0.7) in the intervention group. Comparison between arms for clubs with highest compliance (≥median compliance) demonstrated very likely beneficial 60% reductions in targeted injury incidence (RR, 90% CI=0.4, 0.2 to 0.8) and targeted injury burden (RR, 90% CI=0.4, 0.2 to 0.7). The movement control injury prevention programme resulted in likely beneficial reductions in lower-limb injuries and concussion. Higher intervention compliance was associated with reduced targeted injury incidence and burden. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  8. The worst case scenario: Locomotor and collision demands of the longest periods of gameplay in professional rugby union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Cillian; Tobin, Daniel P.; Tierney, Peter; Delahunt, Eamonn

    2017-01-01

    A number of studies have used global positioning systems (GPS) to report on positional differences in the physical game demands of rugby union both on an average and singular bout basis. However, the ability of these studies to report quantitative data is limited by a lack of validation of certain aspects of measurement by GPS micro-technology. Furthermore no study has analyzed the positional physical demands of the longest bouts of ball-in-play time in rugby union. The aim of the present study is to compare the demands of the single longest period of ball-in-play, termed “worst case scenario” (WCS) between positional groups, which have previously been reported to have distinguishable game demands. The results of this study indicate that WCS periods follow a similar sporadic pattern as average demands but are played at a far higher pace than previously reported for average game demands with average meters per minute of 116.8 m. The positional differences in running and collision activity previously reported are perpetuated within WCS periods. Backs covered greater total distances than forwards (318 m vs 289 m), carried out more high-speed running (11.1 m·min-1 vs 5.5 m·min-1) and achieved higher maximum velocities (MaxVel). Outside Backs achieved the highest MaxVel values (6.84 m·sec-1). Tight Five and Back Row forwards underwent significantly more collisions than Inside Back and Outside Backs (0.73 & 0.89 collisions·min-1 vs 0.28 & 0.41 collisions·min-1 respectively). The results of the present study provide information on the positional physical requirements of performance in prolonged periods involving multiple high intensity bursts of effort. Although the current state of GPS micro-technology as a measurement tool does not permit reporting of collision intensity or acceleration data, the combined use of video and GPS provides valuable information to the practitioner. This can be used to match and replicate game demands in training. PMID:28510582

  9. The worst case scenario: Locomotor and collision demands of the longest periods of gameplay in professional rugby union.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cillian Reardon

    Full Text Available A number of studies have used global positioning systems (GPS to report on positional differences in the physical game demands of rugby union both on an average and singular bout basis. However, the ability of these studies to report quantitative data is limited by a lack of validation of certain aspects of measurement by GPS micro-technology. Furthermore no study has analyzed the positional physical demands of the longest bouts of ball-in-play time in rugby union. The aim of the present study is to compare the demands of the single longest period of ball-in-play, termed "worst case scenario" (WCS between positional groups, which have previously been reported to have distinguishable game demands. The results of this study indicate that WCS periods follow a similar sporadic pattern as average demands but are played at a far higher pace than previously reported for average game demands with average meters per minute of 116.8 m. The positional differences in running and collision activity previously reported are perpetuated within WCS periods. Backs covered greater total distances than forwards (318 m vs 289 m, carried out more high-speed running (11.1 m·min-1 vs 5.5 m·min-1 and achieved higher maximum velocities (MaxVel. Outside Backs achieved the highest MaxVel values (6.84 m·sec-1. Tight Five and Back Row forwards underwent significantly more collisions than Inside Back and Outside Backs (0.73 & 0.89 collisions·min-1 vs 0.28 & 0.41 collisions·min-1 respectively. The results of the present study provide information on the positional physical requirements of performance in prolonged periods involving multiple high intensity bursts of effort. Although the current state of GPS micro-technology as a measurement tool does not permit reporting of collision intensity or acceleration data, the combined use of video and GPS provides valuable information to the practitioner. This can be used to match and replicate game demands in training.

  10. Psychological skills usage and the competitive anxiety response as a function of skill level in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil, Richard; D Mellalieu, Stephen; Hanton, Sheldon

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the intensity and direction of competitive anxiety symptoms and psychological skill usage in rugby union players of different skill levels. Elite (n=65) and nonelite (n=50) participants completed measures of competitive anxiety, self- confidence, and psychological skills. The elite group reported more facilitative interpretations of competitive anxiety symptoms, higher levels of self-confidence, lower relaxation usage, and greater imagery and self-talk use than their nonelite counterparts. The findings suggest that nonelite performers primarily use relaxation strategies to reduce anxiety intensity. In contrast, elite athletes appear to maintain intensity levels and adopt a combination of skills to interpret symptoms as facilitative to performance. Potential mechanisms for this process include the use of imagery and verbal persuasion efficacy-enhancement techniques to protect against debilitating symptom interpretations. Key PointsNonelite performers primarily use relaxation strategies to reduce anxiety intensity.Elite athletes maintain intensity levels and adopt a combination of psychological skills to interpret symptoms as facilitative.This process occurs through imagery and verbal persuasion efficacy-enhancement techniques.Nonelite performers who are debilitators should implement relaxation-based programs. However, in high activation level sports performers should reduce symptom intensity, restructure cognitions, and then raise activation states again to appropriate levels.Elite performers who are debilitators should implement cognitive restructuring techniques to interpret their anxiety as facilitative via a combination of goal setting, self-talk, and imagery.

  11. The influence of an artificial playing surface on injury risk and perceptions of muscle soreness in elite Rugby Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, S; Trewartha, G; Kemp, S P T; Michell, R; Stokes, K A

    2016-01-01

    This prospective cohort study investigated the influence of an artificial playing surface on injury risk and perceptions of muscle soreness in elite English Premiership Rugby Union players. Time loss (from 39.5 matches) and abrasion (from 27 matches) injury risk was compared between matches played on artificial turf and natural grass. Muscle soreness was reported over the 4 days following one match played on each surface by 95 visiting players (i.e., normally play on natural grass surfaces). There was a likely trivial difference in the overall injury burden relating to time-loss injuries between playing surfaces [rate ratio = 1.01, 90% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-1.38]. Abrasions were substantially more common on artificial turf (rate ratio = 7.92, 90% CI: 4.39-14.28), although the majority of these were minor and only two resulted in any reported time loss. Muscle soreness was consistently higher over the 4 days following a match on artificial turf in comparison with natural grass, although the magnitude of this effect was small (effect sizes ranging from 0.26 to 0.40). These results suggest that overall injury risk is similar for the two playing surfaces, but further surveillance is required before inferences regarding specific injury diagnoses and smaller differences in overall injury risk can be made. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Changes in body size and physical characteristics of South African under-20 rugby union players over a 13-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Wayne P; Durandt, Justin J; Masimla, Herman; Green, Mervin; Lambert, Michael I

    2015-04-01

    This study compared changes in the body size and physical characteristics of South African under-20 rugby union players over a 13-year period. A total of 453 South African under-20 players (forwards: n = 256 and backs: n = 197) underwent measurements of body mass, stature, muscular strength, endurance, and 10- and 40-m sprint times. A 2-way analysis of variance was used to determine significant differences for the main effects of position (forwards vs. backs) and time (1998-2010). The pooled data showed that forwards were significantly heavier (22%), taller (5%), and stronger (18%) than the backs. However, when 1 repetition maximum strength scores were adjusted for body mass, backs were stronger per kg body mass. Stature did not change over the 13-year period for both groups. There were, however, significant increases in muscular strength (50%), body mass (20%), and muscular endurance (50%). Furthermore, an improvement in sprint times over 40 (4%) and 10 m (7%) was evident over the period of the study. In conclusion, the players became heavier, stronger, taller, and improved their upper-body muscular endurance over the 13 years of the study. Furthermore, sprint times over 10 and 40 m improved over the same time period despite the increase in body mass. It can be speculated that the changes in physical characteristics of the players over time are possibly a consequence of (a) adaptations to the changing demands of the game and (b) advancements in training methods.

  13. Injury risk and a tackle ban in youth Rugby Union: reviewing the evidence and searching for targeted, effective interventions. A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Ross; Raftery, Martin; Verhagen, Evert

    2016-08-01

    It has recently been proposed that the tackle, an integral part of Rugby Union, be banned in school rugby, as a means to reduce the risk of injury. This proposal held that harmful contact should be removed in response to what was termed an unacceptably high-injury risk. Such a ban would represent a significant intervention that could change the nature of Rugby Union. As such, the basis and rationale for such a ban is worthy of critical evaluation. This review aims to describe the research on which such a ban is proposed. It does so through an assessment (identification), estimation (understanding of the magnitude and occurrence) and evaluation (determining acceptability) of the risk before decisions can be made about implementing any risk mitigation strategies. The body of literature describing injury risk, particularly among youths, is indeed thin and fraught with methodological differences that makes definitive conclusions impossible. We describe these, and their implications, arguing that the complete ban on the tackle may be unnecessary in young children, in whom injury risk may not be as high as is often argued, but also that it may have detrimental consequences. Finally, we propose alternative strategies and research questions which must be pursued to effectively reduce risk without creating unintended consequences or changing the nature of the sport. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. β-Hydroxy β-Methylbutyrate (HMB) Supplementation Effects on Body Mass and Performance in Elite Male Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Nicholas D; Love, Thomas D; Haszard, Jillian J; Osborne, Hamish R; Black, Katherine E

    2018-01-01

    McIntosh, ND, Love, TD, Haszard, J, Osborne, H, and Black, KE. β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation effects on body mass and performance in elite male rugby union players. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 19-26, 2018-Preseason is characterized by high training volumes with short recovery periods β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) has been postulated to assist with recovery. β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate has been shown to improve strength and body composition among untrained groups; the benefits of HMB among trained populations are unclear because of the methodologies employed. This randomized control trail determined the effects of 11 weeks HMB supplementation on body mass and performance measures in 27 elite rugby players. β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate group (n = 13), mean ± SD age 20.3 ± 1.2 years, body mass 99.6 ± 9.1 kg; placebo group (n = 14), age 21.9 ± 2.8 years body mass 99.4 ± 13.9 kg for placebo. During the supplementation period, body mass increased with HMB 0.57 ± 2.60 kg but decreased with placebo 1.39 ± 2.02 kg (p = 0.029). There were no significant differences in any of the 4 strength variables (p > 0.05). However, on the yo-yo intermittent recovery test (YoYo IR-1), the placebo group improved 4.0 ± 2.8 levels but HMB decreased 2.0 ± 3.0 levels (p = 0.003). The results of this study suggest that HMB could be beneficial for gaining or maintaining body mass during periods of increased training load. However, it appears that HMB may be detrimental to intermittent running ability in this group although further research is required before firm conclusions can be made. Only 6 participants on HMB managed to complete both YoYo IR-1 tests because of injury, a larger sample size is required to fully investigate this potentially negative effect. Further, the mechanisms behind this decrement in performance cannot be fully explained and requires further biochemical and psychological investigation.

  15. Planning the diffusion of a neck-injury prevention programme among community rugby union coaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Alex; Poulos, Roslyn G

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a theory-informed and evidence-informed, context-specific diffusion plan for the Mayday Safety Procedure (MSP) among community rugby coaches in regional New South Wales, Australia. Step 5 of Intervention Mapping was used to plan strategies to enhance MSP adoption and implementation. Coaches were identified as the primary MSP adopters and implementers within a system including administrators, players and referees. A local advisory group was established to ensure context relevance. Performance objectives (eg, attend MSP training for coaches) and determinants of adoption and implementation behaviour (eg, knowledge, beliefs, skills and environment) were identified, informed by Social Cognitive Theory. Adoption and implementation matrices were developed and change-objectives for coaches were identified (eg, skills to deliver MSP training to players). Finally, intervention methods and specific strategies (eg, coach education, social marketing and policy and by-law development) were identified based on advisory group member experience, evidence of effective coach safety behaviour-change interventions and Diffusion of Innovations theory. This is the first published example of a systematic approach to plan injury prevention programme diffusion in community sports. The key strengths of this approach were an effective researcher-practitioner partnership; actively engaging local sports administrators; targeting specific behaviour determinants, informed by theory and evidence; and taking context-related practical strengths and constraints into consideration. The major challenges were the time involved in using a systematic diffusion planning approach for the first time; and finding a planning language that was acceptable and meaningful to researchers and practitioners.

  16. Effects of an off-season conditioning program on the physical characteristics of adolescent rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Daniel J; Gill, Nicholas D

    2013-03-01

    The aims of the study were to determine if a supervised off-season conditioning program enhanced gains in physical characteristics compared with the same program performed in an unsupervised manner and to establish the persistence of the physical changes after a 6-month unsupervised competition period. Forty-four provincial representative adolescent rugby union players (age, mean ± SD, 15.3 ± 1.3 years) participated in a 15-week off-season conditioning program either under supervision from an experienced strength and conditioning coach or unsupervised. Measures of body composition, strength, vertical jump, speed, and anaerobic and aerobic running performance were taken, before, immediately after, and 6 months after the conditioning. Post conditioning program the supervised group had greater improvements in all strength measures than the unsupervised group, with small, moderate and large differences between the groups\\x{2019} changes for chin-ups (9.1%; ± 11.6%), bench-press (16.9%; ± 11.7%) and box-squat (50.4%; ± 20.9%) estimated 1RM respectively. Both groups showed trivial increases in mass; however increases in fat free mass were small and trivial for supervised and unsupervised players respectively. Strength declined in the supervised group while the unsupervised group had small increases during the competition phase, resulting in only a small difference between the long-term changes in box-squat 1RM (15.9%; ± 13.2%). The supervised group had further small increases in fat free mass resulting in a small difference (2.4%; ± 2.7%) in the long-term changes. The postconditioning differences between the 2 groups may have been a result of increased adherence and the attainment of higher training loads during supervised training. The lack of differences in strength after the competition period indicates that supervision should be maintained to reduce substantial decrements in performance.

  17. Tackle-related injury rates and nature of injuries in South African Youth Week tournament rugby union players (under-13 to under-18): an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Nicholas; Lambert, Mike I; Viljoen, Wayne; Brown, James C; Readhead, Clint; Hendricks, Sharief

    2014-08-12

    The tackle situation is most often associated with the high injury rates in rugby union. Tackle injury epidemiology in rugby union has previously been focused on senior cohorts but less is known about younger cohorts. The aim of this study was to report on the nature and rates of tackle-related injuries in South African youth rugby union players representing their provinces at national tournaments. Observational cohort study. Four South African Youth Week tournaments (under-13 Craven Week, under-16 Grant Khomo Week, under-18 Academy Week, under-18 Craven Week). Injury data were collected from 3652 youth rugby union players (population at risk) in 2011 and 2012. Tackle-related injury severity ('time-loss' and 'medical attention'), type and location, injury rate per 1000 h (including 95% CIs). Injury rate ratios (IRR) were calculated and modelled using a Poisson regression. A χ(2) analysis was used to detect linear trends between injuries and increasing match quarters. The 2012 under-13 Craven Week had a significantly greater 'time-loss' injury rate when compared with the 2012 under-18 Academy Week (IRR=4.43; 95% CI 2.13 to 9.21, p<0.05) and under-18 Craven Week (IRR=3.52; 95% CI 1.54 to 8.00, p<0.05). The Poisson regression also revealed a higher probability of 'overall' ('time-loss' and 'medical attention' combined) and 'time-loss' tackle-related injuries occurring at the under-13 Craven Week. The proportion of 'overall' and 'time-loss' injuries increased significantly with each quarter of the match when all four tournaments were combined (p<0.05). There was a difference in the tackle-related injury rate between the under-13 tournament and the two under-18 tournaments, and the tackle-related injury rate was higher in the final quarter of matches. Ongoing injury surveillance is required to better interpret these findings. Injury prevention strategies targeting the tackle may only be effective once the rate and nature of injuries have been accurately determined

  18. Tackle-related injury rates and nature of injuries in South African Youth Week tournament rugby union players (under-13 to under-18): an observational cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Nicholas; Lambert, Mike I; Viljoen, Wayne; Brown, James C; Readhead, Clint; Hendricks, Sharief

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The tackle situation is most often associated with the high injury rates in rugby union. Tackle injury epidemiology in rugby union has previously been focused on senior cohorts but less is known about younger cohorts. The aim of this study was to report on the nature and rates of tackle-related injuries in South African youth rugby union players representing their provinces at national tournaments. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Four South African Youth Week tournaments (under-13 Craven Week, under-16 Grant Khomo Week, under-18 Academy Week, under-18 Craven Week). Participants Injury data were collected from 3652 youth rugby union players (population at risk) in 2011 and 2012. Outcome measures Tackle-related injury severity (‘time-loss’ and ‘medical attention’), type and location, injury rate per 1000 h (including 95% CIs). Injury rate ratios (IRR) were calculated and modelled using a Poisson regression. A χ2 analysis was used to detect linear trends between injuries and increasing match quarters. Results The 2012 under-13 Craven Week had a significantly greater ‘time-loss’ injury rate when compared with the 2012 under-18 Academy Week (IRR=4.43; 95% CI 2.13 to 9.21, p<0.05) and under-18 Craven Week (IRR=3.52; 95% CI 1.54 to 8.00, p<0.05). The Poisson regression also revealed a higher probability of ‘overall’ (‘time-loss’ and ‘medical attention’ combined) and ‘time-loss’ tackle-related injuries occurring at the under-13 Craven Week. The proportion of ‘overall’ and ‘time-loss’ injuries increased significantly with each quarter of the match when all four tournaments were combined (p<0.05). Conclusions There was a difference in the tackle-related injury rate between the under-13 tournament and the two under-18 tournaments, and the tackle-related injury rate was higher in the final quarter of matches. Ongoing injury surveillance is required to better interpret these findings. Injury prevention strategies

  19. A video analysis of head injuries satisfying the criteria for a head injury assessment in professional Rugby Union: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Ross; Raftery, Martin; Fuller, Gordon Ward; Hester, Ben; Kemp, Simon; Cross, Matthew J

    2017-08-01

    Concussion is the most common match injury in professional Rugby Union, accounting for 25% of match injuries. The primary prevention of head injuries requires that the injury mechanism be known so that interventions can be targeted to specifically overall incidence by focusing on characteristics with the greatest propensity to cause a head injury. 611 head injury assessment (HIA) events in professional Rugby Union over a 3-year period were analysed, with specific reference to match events, position, time and nature of head contact. 464 (76%) of HIA events occur during tackles, with the tackler experiencing a significantly greater propensity for an HIA than the ball carrier (1.40 HIAs/1000 tackles for the tackler vs 0.54 HIAs/1000 tackles for the ball carrier, incidence rate ratio (IRR) 2.59). Propensity was significantly greater for backline players than forwards (IRR 1.54, 95% CI 1.28 to 1.84), but did not increase over the course of the match. Head to head contact accounted for the most tackler HIAs, with the greatest propensity. By virtue of its high propensity and frequency, the tackle should be the focus for interventions that may include law change and technique education. A specific investigation of the characteristics of the tackle is warranted to refine the approach to preventative strategies. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Next Day Subjective and Objective Recovery Indices Following Acute Low and High Training Loads in Academy Rugby Union Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Noon

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the sensitivity of selected subjective and objective monitoring assessments in detecting changes in group and individual responses to low and high load bouts of high intensity intermittent exercise. In a counterbalanced crossover design, Thirteen Academy Rugby Union players (mean ± SD: age: 18 ± 1 years performed a low load (15 min and a high load (90 min bout of high intensity intermittent exercise (Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test one week apart. Monitoring assessments were performed immediately prior to and 20 h following each trial. Subjective self-report Well-being Questionnaire (WQ items showed small to large deteriorations following the high load compared to low load (d = 0.4–1.5, p = 0.03–0.57. A very large increase in resting HR (HRrest (d = 2.1, p = 0.02, moderate decrease in heart rate variability (HRV indices (d = 0.7, p = 0.04 and d = 0.7, p = 0.01 for the natural logarithm of the standard deviation of R-R intervals (ln SDNN and the root square of the mean squared differences of successive R-R intervals (rMSSD, respectively and no change in countermovement jump (d = 0.0, p = 0.97 were evident following the high load compared to low load. Individual WQ responses revealed 7/9, 7/9, 6/9, 6/9, 5/9, 3/9 and 1/9 participants reported deteriorations in recovery, sleep quality, motivation, muscle soreness, fatigue, stress and appetite, respectively, following the high load compared to low load. Individual analysis indicated a negative response following the high load compared to low load in HRrest, ln SDNN and ln rMSSD for 4/6, 2/6 and 1/6 participants, respectively. Selected WQ items detected group and individual responses to high load and low load highlighting their potential utility. However, objective assessments lacked the sensitivity to detect small individual changes.

  1. The effects of two equal-volume training protocols upon strength, body composition and salivary hormones in male rugby union players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BT Crewther

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of two equal-volume resistance-training protocols upon strength, body composition and salivary hormones in male rugby union players. Using a crossover design, 24 male rugby players completed a 4-week full-body (FB and split-body (SB training protocol of equal volume during the competitive season. One repetition maximum (1RM strength, body composition via skinfold measurements and salivary testosterone (T and cortisol (C concentrations were assessed pre and post training. The FB and SB protocols improved upper (7.3% and 7.4% and lower body 1RM strength (7.4% and 5.4%, whilst reducing body fat (-0.9% and -0.4% and fat mass (-5.7% and -2.1%, respectively (all p ≤ 0.021. The SB protocol elevated T (21% and C (50% concentrations with a higher T/C ratio (28% after FB training (all p ≤ 0.039. The strength changes were similar, but the body composition and hormonal results differed by protocol. Slope testing on the individual responses identified positive associations (p ≤ 0.05 between T and C concentrations and absolute 1RM strength in stronger (squat 1RM = 150.5 kg, but not weaker (squat 1RM = 117.4 kg, men. A short window of training involving FB or SB protocols can improve strength and body composition in rugby players. The similar strength gains highlight training volume as a key adaptive stimulus, although the programme structure (i.e. FB or SB did influence the body composition and hormonal outcomes. It also appears that 1RM strength is associated with individual hormonal changes and baseline strength.

  2. The effects of two equal-volume training protocols upon strength, body composition and salivary hormones in male rugby union players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heke, TOL; Keogh, JWL

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of two equal-volume resistance-training protocols upon strength, body composition and salivary hormones in male rugby union players. Using a crossover design, 24 male rugby players completed a 4-week full-body (FB) and split-body (SB) training protocol of equal volume during the competitive season. One repetition maximum (1RM) strength, body composition via skinfold measurements and salivary testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations were assessed pre and post training. The FB and SB protocols improved upper (7.3% and 7.4%) and lower body 1RM strength (7.4% and 5.4%), whilst reducing body fat (-0.9% and -0.4%) and fat mass (-5.7% and -2.1%), respectively (all p ≤ 0.021). The SB protocol elevated T (21%) and C (50%) concentrations with a higher T/C ratio (28%) after FB training (all p ≤ 0.039). The strength changes were similar, but the body composition and hormonal results differed by protocol. Slope testing on the individual responses identified positive associations (p ≤ 0.05) between T and C concentrations and absolute 1RM strength in stronger (squat 1RM = 150.5 kg), but not weaker (squat 1RM = 117.4 kg), men. A short window of training involving FB or SB protocols can improve strength and body composition in rugby players. The similar strength gains highlight training volume as a key adaptive stimulus, although the programme structure (i.e. FB or SB) did influence the body composition and hormonal outcomes. It also appears that 1RM strength is associated with individual hormonal changes and baseline strength. PMID:27274103

  3. The Physiological and Performance Effects of Caffeine Gum Consumed During A Simulated Half-Time By Professional Academy Rugby Union Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Russell; N A, Reynolds; B T, Crewther; C J, Cook; L, Kilduff

    2017-11-27

    Despite the prevalence of caffeine as an ergogenic aid, few studies have examined the use of caffeinated gums, especially during half-time in team sports. The physiological (blood lactate, salivary hormone concentrations) and performance (repeated sprints, cognitive function) effects of consuming caffeine gum during a simulated half-time were examined. Professional academy rugby union players (n=14) completed this double-blind, randomized, counterbalanced study. Following pre-exercise measurements , players chewed a placebo (PL) gum for five min before a standardized warm-up and completing repeated sprint testing (RSSA1). Thereafter, during a 15 min simulated half-time period, players chewed either caffeine (CAF: 400 mg; 4.1 ± 0.5 mg·kg) or PL gum for five min before completing a second repeated sprint test (RSSA2). Blood lactate, salivary testosterone and cortisol concentrations, and indices of cognitive function (i.e., reaction time and Stroop test) were measured at baseline, pre-RSSA1, post-RSSA1, pre-RSSA2 and post-RSSA2. Sprint performance was not affected by CAF (P=0.995) despite slower sprint times following the first sprint of both RSSA tests (all P0.05). Although performance effects were absent, chewing caffeine gum increased the salivary testosterone concentrations of professional rugby union players over a simulated half-time. Practitioners may therefore choose to recommend caffeine gum between successive exercise bouts due to the increases in salivary testosterone observed; a variable associated with increased motivation and high-intensity exercise performance.

  4. Efficacy of a movement control injury prevention programme in adult men’s community rugby union: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attwood, Matthew J; Roberts, Simon P; Trewartha, Grant; England, Mike E; Stokes, Keith A

    2018-01-01

    Background Exercise programmes aimed at reducing injury have been shown to be efficacious for some non-collision sports, but evidence in adult men’s collision sports such as rugby union is lacking. Objective To evaluate the efficacy of a movement control injury prevention exercise programme for reducing match injuries in adult men’s community rugby union players. Methods 856 clubs were invited to participate in this prospective cluster randomised (single-blind) controlled trial where clubs were the unit of randomisation. 81 volunteered and were randomly assigned (intervention/control). A 42-week exercise programme was followed throughout the season. The control programme reflected ‘normal practice’ exercises, whereas the intervention focused on proprioception, balance, cutting, landing and resistance exercises. Outcome measures were match injury incidence and burden for: (1) all ≥8 days time-loss injuries and (2) targeted (lower limb, shoulder, head and neck, excluding fractures and lacerations) ≥8 days time-loss injuries. Results Poisson regression identified no clear effects on overall injury outcomes. A likely beneficial difference in targeted injury incidence (rate ratio (RR), 90% CI=0.6, 0.4 to 1.0) was identified, with a 40% reduction in lower-limb incidence (RR, 90% CI=0.6, 0.4 to 1.0) and a 60% reduction in concussion incidence (RR, 90% CI=0.4, 0.2 to 0.7) in the intervention group. Comparison between arms for clubs with highest compliance (≥median compliance) demonstrated very likely beneficial 60% reductions in targeted injury incidence (RR, 90% CI=0.4, 0.2 to 0.8) and targeted injury burden (RR, 90% CI=0.4, 0.2 to 0.7). Conclusions The movement control injury prevention programme resulted in likely beneficial reductions in lower-limb injuries and concussion. Higher intervention compliance was associated with reduced targeted injury incidence and burden. PMID:29055883

  5. The effects of different pre-game motivational interventions on athlete free hormonal state and subsequent performance in professional rugby union matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Christian J; Crewther, Blair T

    2012-07-16

    We examined the effect of different pre-match motivational interventions on athlete free testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) concentrations and subsequent match performance in professional rugby union. Male participants (n=12) playing at a senior or academy level in rugby union were recruited and each completed three interventions (15 min each) before a competitive game; 1) watching a video clip of successful skill execution by the player with positive coach feedback [VPCF1]; 2) watching a video clip of successful skill execution by an opposing player with cautionary coach feedback [VCCF], 3) the player left alone to self-motivate [SM1]. The first and last interventions were retested [VPCF2 and SM2]. Salivary free T and C measures were taken pre-intervention and pre-game. Within each game, players were rated by coaching staff on a key performance indicator (KPI) from identified skills and an overall performance indicator (OPI), where 1 = best performance to 5 = worst performance. The VPCF1 and VPCF2 interventions both promoted significant T responses (11.8% to 12.5%) before each game and more so than SM1, SM2 and VCCF. The VCCF approach produced the largest C response (17.6%) and this differed from all other treatments. The VPCF interventions were also associated with better game KPI (1.5 to 1.8) and OPI ratings (1.7 to 1.8) than SM1, SM2 and/or VCCF. Across all treatments, greater individual T responses and lower C responses were associated with better KPI and OPI outcomes. In conclusion, the pre-game presentation of motivational strategies to athletes involving specific video footage and coach feedback produced different outcomes on two indicators of match performance, which were also associated with changes in free hormonal state. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. SA Rugby

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    (SA Rugby) Youth Week players: a pilot study. J Brown,1,2 ... management guidelines, to which all rugby-playing nations need to ... Consensus Statement for Concussion in Sport [1] and World. Rugby's ... Players with a “time-loss” injury (an ...

  7. Interim evaluation of the effect of a new scrum law on neck and back injuries in rugby union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianotti, S; Hume, P A; Hopkins, W G; Harawira, J; Truman, R

    2008-06-01

    In January 2007 the International Rugby Board implemented a new law for scrum engagement aimed at improving player welfare by reducing impact force and scrum collapses. In New Zealand the new law was included in RugbySmart, an annual compulsory workshop for coaches and referees. To determine the effect of the new law on scrum-related moderate to serious neck and back injury claims in 2007. Claims filed with the Accident Compensation Corporation (the provider of no-fault injury compensation and rehabilitation in New Zealand) were combined with numbers of registered players to estimate moderate to serious scrum-related claims for players who take part in scrums (forwards). Poisson linear regression was used to compare the observed claims per 100 000 forwards for 2007 with the rate predicted from data for 2002-6. The observed and predicted claims per 100 000 forwards were 52 and 76, respectively (rate ratio 0.69; 90% CI 0.42 to 1.12). The likelihoods of substantial benefit (rate ratio 1.1) attributable to the scrum law were 82% and 5%, respectively. The decline in scrum-related injury claims is consistent with a beneficial effect of the new scrum law in the first year of its implementation. Another year of monitoring should provide more evidence for the efficacy of the new law.

  8. Risk factors for head injury events in professional rugby union: a video analysis of 464 head injury events to inform proposed injury prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Ross; Raftery, Martin; Kemp, Simon; Brown, James; Fuller, Gordon; Hester, Ben; Cross, Matthew; Quarrie, Ken

    2017-08-01

    The tackle is responsible for the majority of head injuries during rugby union. In order to address head injury risk, risk factors during the tackle must first be identified. This study analysed tackle characteristics in the professional game in order to inform potential interventions. 464 tackles resulting in a head injury assessment (HIA) were analysed in detail, with tackle type, direction, speed, acceleration, nature of head contact and player body position the characteristics of interest. Propensity to cause an HIA was significantly greater for active shoulder tackles, front-on tackles, high speeder tackles and an accelerating tackler. Head contact between a tackler's head and ball carrier's head or shoulder was significantly more likely to cause an HIA than contact below the level of the shoulder (incident rate ratio (IRR) 4.25, 95%-CI 3.38 to 5.35). The tackler experiences the majority (78%) of HIAs when head-to-head contact occurs. An upright tackler was 1.5 times more likely to experience an HIA than a bent at the waist tackler (IRR 1.44, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.76). This study confirms that energy transfer in the tackle is a risk factor for head injury, since direction, type and speed all influence HIA propensity. The study provides evidence that body position and the height of tackles should be a focus for interventions, since lowering height and adopting a bent at the waist body position is associated with reduced risk for both tacklers and ball carriers. To this end, World Rugby has implemented law change based on the present data. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Breaking the mould? Whiteness, masculinity, Welshness, working-classness and rugby league in Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Spracklen, K; Spracklen, C

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, rugby in Wales has meant rugby union, the once-amateur, fifteen-a-side code that has a long history of working-class, male involvement in the Valleys of South Wales (Williams, G., 1985). In recent years, however, rugby union has been joined in South Wales by the non-traditionally Welsh sport of rugby league. Once upon a time, rugby league was the sport that “bought” Welsh rugby players who went north (Collins, 2006). Rugby league has now expanded into Wales, developing its vers...

  10. Health amongst former rugby union players: A cross-sectional study of morbidity and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Madeleine A M; D Judge, Andrew; Delmestri, Antonella; P T Kemp, Simon; Stokes, Keith A; Arden, Nigel K; Newton, Julia L

    2017-09-28

    In the general population, physical activity is associated with improved health outcomes. However, long-term sports participation may be associated with adverse outcomes, particularly at the elite level. The aims of this study were to assess morbidity and health-related quality of life (HrQoL) amongst former rugby players, compared to an age-standardised general population sample. A cross-sectional study of former elite, male, rugby players (n = 259) was undertaken, and standardised morbidity ratios (SMR) calculated, assessing morbidity prevalence relative to English Longitudinal Study of Aging participants (ELSA, n = 5186). HrQoL, measured using the EQ-5D, was compared to a Health Survey for England (HSE, n = 2981) sample. In SMR analyses of participants aged 50+, diabetes was significantly lower amongst former players, (0.28, 95% CI 0.11-0.66), whereas osteoarthritis (4.00, 95% CI 3.32-4.81), joint replacement (6.02, 95% CI 4.66-7.77), osteoporosis (2.69, 95% CI 1.35-5.38), and anxiety (2.00, 95% CI 1.11-3.61) were significantly higher. More problems in HrQoL were reported amongst former players within the domains of mobility (p < 0.001), self-care (p = 0.041), usual activities (p < 0.001) and pain/discomfort (p < 0.001). Morbidity and HrQoL differ between players and the general population, with higher musculoskeletal morbidity and lower diabetes amongst former players. The magnitude of musculoskeletal morbidity may warrant proactive osteoarthritis management within this population.

  11. Tackle technique and tackle-related injuries in high-level South African Rugby Union under-18 players: real-match video analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Nicholas; Lambert, Michael I; Viljoen, Wayne; Brown, James C; Readhead, Clint; Hendricks, Sharief

    2016-08-01

    The high injury rate associated with rugby union is primarily due to the tackle, and poor contact technique has been identified as a risk factor for injury. We aimed to determine whether the tackle technique proficiency scores were different in injurious tackles versus tackles that did not result in injury using real-match scenarios in high-level youth rugby union. Injury surveillance was conducted at the under-18 Craven Week tournaments (2011-2013). Tackle-related injury information was used to identify injury events in the match video footage and non-injury events were identified for the injured player cohort. Injury and non-injury events were scored for technique proficiency and Cohen's effect sizes were calculated and the Student t test (p<0.05) was performed to compare injury versus non-injury scores. The overall mean score for front-on ball-carrier proficiency was 7.17±1.90 and 9.02±2.15 for injury and non-injury tackle events, respectively (effect size=moderate; p<0.05). The overall mean score for side/behind ball-carrier proficiency was 4.09±2.12 and 7.68±1.72 for injury and non-injury tackle events, respectively (effect size=large; p<0.01). The overall mean score for front-on tackler proficiency was 7.00±1.95 and 9.35±2.56 for injury and non-injury tackle events, respectively (effect size=moderate; p<0.05). The overall mean score for side/behind tackler proficiency was 5.47±1.60 and 8.14±1.75 for injury and non-injury tackle events, respectively (effect size=large; p<0.01). Higher overall mean and criterion-specific tackle-related technique scores were associated with a non-injury outcome. The ability to perform well during tackle events may decrease the risk of injury and may manifest in superior performance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. A passive heat maintenance strategy implemented during a simulated half-time improves lower body power output and repeated sprint ability in professional Rugby Union players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Russell

    Full Text Available Reduced physical performance has been observed following the half-time period in team sports players, likely due to a decrease in muscle temperature during this period. We examined the effects of a passive heat maintenance strategy employed between successive exercise bouts on core temperature (Tcore and subsequent exercise performance. Eighteen professional Rugby Union players completed this randomised and counter-balanced study. After a standardised warm-up (WU and 15 min of rest, players completed a repeated sprint test (RSSA 1 and countermovement jumps (CMJ. Thereafter, in normal training attire (Control or a survival jacket (Passive, players rested for a further 15 min (simulating a typical half-time before performing a second RSSA (RSSA 2 and CMJ's. Measurements of Tcore were taken at baseline, post-WU, pre-RSSA 1, post-RSSA 1 and pre-RSSA 2. Peak power output (PPO and repeated sprint ability was assessed before and after the simulated half-time. Similar Tcore responses were observed between conditions at baseline (Control: 37.06±0.05°C; Passive: 37.03±0.05°C and for all other Tcore measurements taken before half-time. After the simulated half-time, the decline in Tcore was lower (-0.74±0.08% vs. -1.54±0.06%, p<0.001 and PPO was higher (5610±105 W vs. 5440±105 W, p<0.001 in the Passive versus Control condition. The decline in PPO over half-time was related to the decline in Tcore (r = 0.632, p = 0.005. In RSSA 2, best, mean and total sprint times were 1.39±0.17% (p<0.001, 0.55±0.06% (p<0.001 and 0.55±0.06% (p<0.001 faster for Passive versus Control. Passive heat maintenance reduced declines in Tcore that were observed during a simulated half-time period and improved subsequent PPO and repeated sprint ability in professional Rugby Union players.

  13. Rugby Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Rugby Club

    2012-01-01

    The Wildcats started out in September 2005 and we are currently the only female club in the Geneva. We train on Tuesdays and Thursdays evenings in Meyrin (at the pitch off the chemin de Arbères) from 7-9pm. We have a huge mix of nationalities and levels of experience so don't hesitate to come and join us. Aside from trainings, there are also matches throughout the year in the form of rugby XVs (national women's league) and rugby VIIs (Super Swiss Sevens). We also enjoy the non sporting side of things and often organise events such as pub quizzes (to train the basics) and outings in town as well as ski excursions in winter and also a fun rugby tour in the summer. So, come and check out our Facebook page. Infos, contacts: www.cern-rugby.ch Facebook page : wildcats women's rugby wildcats@cern-rugby.ch

  14. A Comparison of Cognitive Function in Former Rugby Union Players Compared with Former Non-Contact-Sport Players and the Impact of Concussion History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Patria A; Theadom, Alice; Lewis, Gwyn N; Quarrie, Kenneth L; Brown, Scott R; Hill, Rosamund; Marshall, Stephen W

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated differences in cognitive function between former rugby and non-contact-sport players, and assessed the association between concussion history and cognitive function. Overall, 366 former players (mean ± standard deviation [SD] age 43.3 ± 8.2 years) were recruited from October 2012 to April 2014. Engagement in sport, general health, sports injuries and concussion history, and demographic information were obtained from an online self-report questionnaire. Cognitive functioning was assessed using the online CNS Vital Signs neuropsychological test battery. Cohen's d effect size statistics were calculated for comparisons across player groups, concussion groups (one or more self-reported concussions versus no concussions) and between those groups with CNS Vital Signs age-matched norms (US norms). Individual differences within groups were represented as SDs. The elite-rugby group (n = 103) performed worse on tests of complex attention, processing speed, executive functioning, and cognitive flexibility than the non-contact-sport group (n = 65), and worse than the community-rugby group (n = 193) on complex attention. The community-rugby group performed worse than the non-contact group on executive functioning and cognitive flexibility. Compared with US norms, all three former player groups performed worse on verbal memory and reaction time; rugby groups performed worse on processing speed, cognitive flexibility and executive functioning; and the community-rugby group performed worse on composite memory. The community-rugby group and non-contact-sport group performed slightly better than US norms on complex attention, as did the elite-rugby group for motor speed. All three player groups had greater individual differences than US norms on composite memory, verbal memory and reaction time. The elite-rugby group had greater individual differences on processing speed and complex attention, and the community-rugby group had greater individual

  15. Injuries at Johannesburg high school rugby festivals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1 Centre for Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, School of Therapeutic Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences ... withdrawal from play at time of injury and management. ..... 2011 South African Rugby Union (SARU) Youth Week tournaments.

  16. A descriptive study of step alignment and foot positioning relative to the tee by professional rugby union goal-kickers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockcroft, John; Van Den Heever, Dawie

    2016-01-01

    This study describes foot positioning during the final two steps of the approach to the ball amongst professional rugby goal-kickers. A 3D optical motion capture system was used to test 15 goal-kickers performing 10 goal-kicks. The distance and direction of each step, as well as individual foot contact positions relative to the tee, were measured. The intra- and inter-subject variability was calculated as well as the correlation (Pearson) between the measurements and participant anthropometrics. Inter-subject variability for the final foot position was lowest (placed 0.03 ± 0.07 m behind and 0.33 ± 0.03 m lateral to the tee) and highest for the penultimate step distance (0.666 ± 0.149 m), performed at an angle of 36.1 ± 8.5° external to the final step. The final step length was 1.523 ± 0.124 m, executed at an external angle of 35.5 ± 7.4° to the target line. The intra-subject variability was very low; distances and angles for the 10 kicks varied per participant by 1.6-3.1 cm and 0.7-1.6°, respectively. The results show that even though the participants had variability in their run-up to the tee, final foot position next to the tee was very similar and consistent. Furthermore, the inter- and intra-subject variability could not be attributed to differences in anthropometry. These findings may be useful as normative reference data for coaching, although further work is required to understand the role of other factors such as approach speed and body alignment.

  17. Professional Rugby Union players have a 60% greater risk of time loss injury after concussion: a 2-season prospective study of clinical outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Matthew; Kemp, Simon; Smith, Andrew; Trewartha, Grant; Stokes, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Aim To investigate incidence of concussion, clinical outcomes and subsequent injury risk following concussion. Methods In a two-season (2012/2013, 2013/2014) prospective cohort study, incidence of diagnosed match concussions (injuries/1000 h), median time interval to subsequent injury of any type (survival time) and time spent at each stage of the graduated return to play pathway were determined in 810 professional Rugby Union players (1176 player seasons). Results Match concussion incidence was 8.9/1000 h with over 50% occurring in the tackle. Subsequent incidence of any injury for players who returned to play in the same season following a diagnosed concussion (122/1000 h, 95% CI 106 to 141) was 60% higher (IRR 1.6, 95% CI 1.4 to 1.8) than for those who did not sustain a concussion (76/1000 h, 95% CI 72 to 80). Median time to next injury following return to play was shorter following concussion (53 days, 95% CI 41 to 64) than following non-concussive injuries (114 days, 95% CI 85 to 143). 38% of players reported recurrence of symptoms or failed to match their baseline neurocognitive test during the graduated return to play protocol. Summary and conclusions Players who returned to play in the same season after a diagnosed concussion had a 60% greater risk of time-loss injury than players without concussion. A substantial proportion of players reported recurrence of symptoms or failed to match baseline neurocognitive test scores during graduated return to play. These data pave the way for trials of more conservative and comprehensive graduated return to play protocols, with a greater focus on active rehabilitation. PMID:26626266

  18. Rugby Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Rugby Club

    2017-01-01

    L’école de rugby du Rugby Club CERN Meyrin Saint Genis Pouilly organise son tournoi le Dimanche 30 Avril 2017 de 12h à 16h au terrain de rugby situé proche du Golf des Serves à Saint Genis Pouilly. Ne manquez pas de venir encourager nos jeunes rugby(wo)men. C’est également l’occasion de faire découvrir ce sport à votre enfant ! Le reste de l’année, les entraînements des enfants (de 4 à 16 ans) ont lieu le mercredi de 17h30 à 19h au terrain de rugby de Meyrin situé avenue Louis Rendu (jouxtant le parking de la piscine de Meyrin). Après trois séances d’essais offertes, vos enfants pourront alors décider de transformer l’essai en s’inscrivant.    Le Rugby Club CERN Meyrin St Genis c'est aussi une section Masculine et une section F&...

  19. Rugby club

    CERN Multimedia

    Rugby club

    2016-01-01

    Pour le rugby club du CERN… c’est la rentrée ! La fin des vacances rime aussi avec la reprise des activités sportives et le club de rugby du CERN ne fait pas exception : ses 3 sections reprennent du service. L’école de rugby reprend ses entrainements le Mercredi 31 août 2016 à 17h30. Vous voulez faire découvrir à vos enfants un nouveau sport? N’hésitez pas. Le rugby c’est l’école de la vie. L’Ecole de Rugby du Rugby Club CERN Meyrin St Genis et ses éducateurs accueillent les enfants dès l’âge de 5 ans, de tous gabarits et origines et les invitent à découvrir de façon ludique un sport d’équipe. Après trois séances offertes, ils pourront alors décider de transformer l’essai en s’inscrivant...

  20. Rugby Club

    CERN Document Server

    Rugby Club

    2012-01-01

    CERN Wildcats (Women Rugby Team),  Season_2011-2012_act_II   After a booming start of season, the reputed Wildcats team (women team of the RC CMSG) went all around Switzerland to play their away games for the second part of the championship, Basel, Berne, Lucerne and Zurich. The team still motivated and united tried to play its best Rugby and rise up its play level game after game. The statement is promising, indeed our players end up at the forth place just behind the biggest teams gathering most of the Swiss National players. Besides the regular championship, the Wildcats, this year again, acquired experiences at Rugby 7’s in participating to an international Rugby sevens tournament, the famous Amsterdam Sevens and also in being part of the Swiss sevens tournament. To end on a high note this excellent season, the Wildcats organized on June the 9th, a friendly women Rugby tournament at St-Genis-Pouilly pitch. With the attendance of 6 teams, this day was a success; it deligh...

  1. Rugby school

    CERN Multimedia

    Rugby Club

    2015-01-01

    Choosing a sport for your kid? How about Rugby? Rugby is a team sport that allows children to develop their motor skills as well as their intellectual skills in a fun way. The CERN-Meyrin-Saint Genis Pouilly Rugby school, given its international location, welcomes children from the age of 5 from all nationalities and levels. Diversity is welcomed and encouraged to build a strong sense of belonging and team spirit. Training sessions take place on Wednesdays from 17h30 to 19h00 at the pitch by the parking lot of the Meyrin pool. Adding to the training sessions, children are also have the opportunity to participate in several Swiss tournaments. One of these tournaments will be organized by the CERN rugby school on Sunday, October 4th 2015 from 12h-16h in the Saint Genis Pouilly Rugby pitch (by the Gold des Serves). Do not hesitate to come see us for more information and support the kids on the date. The first 2015/2016 practice will take place on Wednesday, 26th of August. Come join us in Meyrin! For more...

  2. New Zealand rugby health study: motor cortex excitability in retired elite and community level rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gwyn N; Hume, Patria A; Stavric, Verna; Brown, Scott R; Taylor, Denise

    2017-01-13

    Rugby union is a high contact sport in which players frequently experience brain injuries. Acute brain injury is associated with altered corticomotor function. However, it is uncertain if long-term exposure to rugby is associated with any alterations in corticomotor function. The aim of the study was to assess measures of corticomotor excitability and inhibition in retired rugby players in comparison to retired non-contact sport players. The design was a cross-sectional study with three groups of retired athletes: elite rugby (n=23), community level rugby (n=28) and non-contact sport control (n=22). Assessments of corticomotor excitability were made using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Resting motor threshold was significantly higher and long-interval intracortical inhibition was greater in the elite rugby group compared to the control group. Participants in the two rugby groups had sustained significantly more concussions than the control group. We provide some evidence of altered corticomotor excitation and inhibition in retired elite rugby players in comparison to retired non-contact sport players. Given the absence of findings in the community rugby group, who had experienced a similar number of concussions, the association with previous brain injury is unclear.

  3. An evidence-driven approach to scrum law modifications in amateur rugby played in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendricks, S.; Lambert, M.I.; Brown, J.; Readhead, C.; Viljoen, W.

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2012, the South African Rugby Union (SARU) approved a new set of scrum laws for amateur rugby played in the country, to be implemented at the start of the 2013 rugby season. These law changes were primarily based on the relatively high proportion of scrum-related catastrophic injury

  4. Science of rugby league football: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the science of rugby league football at all levels of competition (i.e. junior, amateur, semi-professional, professional), with special reference to all discipline-specific scientific research performed in rugby league (i.e. physiological, psychological, injury epidemiology, strength and conditioning, performance analysis). Rugby league football is played at junior and senior levels in several countries worldwide. A rugby league team consists of 13 players (6 forwards and 7 backs). The game is played over two 30 - 40 min halves (depending on the standard of competition) separated by a 10 min rest interval. Several studies have documented the physiological capacities and injury rates of rugby league players. More recently, studies have investigated the physiological demands of competition. Interestingly, the physiological capacities of players, the incidence of injury and the physiological demands of competition all increase as the playing standard is increased. Mean blood lactate concentrations of 5.2, 7.2 and 9.1 mmol . l(-1) have been reported during competition for amateur, semi-professional and professional rugby league players respectively. Mean heart rates of 152 beats . min(-1) (78% of maximal heart rate), 166 beats . min(-1) (84% of maximal heart rate) and 172 beats . min(-1) (93% of maximal heart rate) have been recorded for amateur, semi-professional and junior elite rugby league players respectively. Skill-based conditioning games have been used to develop the skill and fitness of rugby league players, with mean heart rate and blood lactate responses during these activities almost identical to those obtained during competition. In addition, recent studies have shown that most training injuries are sustained in traditional conditioning activities that involve no skill component (i.e. running without the ball), whereas the incidence of injuries while participating in skill-based conditioning

  5. The Effects of Goal Setting on Rugby Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellalieu, Stephen D.; Hanton, Sheldon; O'Brien, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Goal-setting effects on selected performance behaviors of 5 collegiate rugby players were assessed over an entire competitive season using self-generated targets and goal-attainment scaling. Results suggest that goal setting was effective for enhancing task-specific on-field behavior in rugby union. (Contains 1 figure.)

  6. A simulated rugby match protocol induces physiological fatigue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: A rugby union game consists of 80 minutes of strenuous exertion. Forwards are required to participate in the arduous activity of scrummaging throughout a game. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to identify whether rugby-match simulated fatigue modified individual scrummaging technique and ...

  7. Assessing worst case scenarios in movement demands derived from global positioning systems during international rugby union matches: Rolling averages versus fixed length epochs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Daniel J.; Shearer, David A.; Carter, Neil; Drawer, Scott; Pollard, Ben; Bennett, Mark; Eager, Robin; Cook, Christian J.; Farrell, John; Russell, Mark

    2018-01-01

    The assessment of competitive movement demands in team sports has traditionally relied upon global positioning system (GPS) analyses presented as fixed-time epochs (e.g., 5–40 min). More recently, presenting game data as a rolling average has become prevalent due to concerns over a loss of sampling resolution associated with the windowing of data over fixed periods. Accordingly, this study compared rolling average (ROLL) and fixed-time (FIXED) epochs for quantifying the peak movement demands of international rugby union match-play as a function of playing position. Elite players from three different squads (n = 119) were monitored using 10 Hz GPS during 36 matches played in the 2014–2017 seasons. Players categorised broadly as forwards and backs, and then by positional sub-group (FR: front row, SR: second row, BR: back row, HB: half back, MF: midfield, B3: back three) were monitored during match-play for peak values of high-speed running (>5 m·s-1; HSR) and relative distance covered (m·min-1) over 60–300 s using two types of sample-epoch (ROLL, FIXED). Irrespective of the method used, as the epoch length increased, values for the intensity of running actions decreased (e.g., For the backs using the ROLL method, distance covered decreased from 177.4 ± 20.6 m·min-1 in the 60 s epoch to 107.5 ± 13.3 m·min-1 for the 300 s epoch). For the team as a whole, and irrespective of position, estimates of fixed effects indicated significant between-method differences across all time-points for both relative distance covered and HSR. Movement demands were underestimated consistently by FIXED versus ROLL with differences being most pronounced using 60 s epochs (95% CI HSR: -6.05 to -4.70 m·min-1, 95% CI distance: -18.45 to -16.43 m·min-1). For all HSR time epochs except one, all backs groups increased more (p < 0.01) from FIXED to ROLL than the forward groups. Linear mixed modelling of ROLL data highlighted that for HSR (except 60 s epoch), SR was the only group not

  8. The Functional Movement Screen and modified Star Excursion Balance Test as predictors of T-test agility performance in university rugby union and netball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ross; Greig, Matt

    2018-05-01

    Agility is a functional requirement of many sports, challenging stability, and commonly cited as a mechanism of injury. The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and modified Star Excursion Balance Test (mSEBT) have equivocally been associated with agility performance. The aim of the current study was to establish a hierarchical ordering of FMS and mSEBT elements in predicting T-test agility performance. Cross-sectional study design. University. Thirty-two female rugby players, 31 male rugby players and 39 female netballers MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: FMS, mSEBT, T-test performance. The predictive potential of composite FMS and mSEBT scores were weaker than when discrete elements were considered. FMS elements were better predictors of T-test performance in rugby players, whilst mSEBT elements better predicted performance in netballers. Hierarchical modelling highlighted the in-line lunge (ILL) as the primary FMS predictor, whereas mSEBT ordering was limb and sport dependent. The relationship between musculoskeletal screening tools and agility performance was sport-specific. Discrete element scores are advocated over composite scores, and hierarchical ordering of tests might highlight redundancy in screening. The prominence of the ILL in hierarchical modelling might reflect the functional demands of the T-test. Sport-specificity and limb dominance influence hierarchical ordering of musculoskeletal screens. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rugby Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Rugby Club

    2011-01-01

    Women’s Rugby Team – CERN Wildcats The season 2010/2011 has been a challenging one for the Wildcats, hit by injuries and a lack of players. But the RCMSG women’s Rugby team have never lost heart. At the beginning of the summer 2011, the team welcomed a group of recruits, new to rugby, but bursting with enthusiasm to become part of the Wildcats. The summer is a  moment for the Wildcats to rebuild their team, creating a group of friends willing to train hard, play well and party together.  Early in the season, the coach’s words are clear: for the championship matches it won’t be a question of victory or defeat, but the goal is to gain  experience, confidence and to keep improving and developing the skills and techniques learnt during  training. The work is positive; the Wildcats end this first half of the season with enthusiasm and satisfaction: 3 Victories, 3 defeats. The Wildcats have given everything for each game, whi...

  10. Strength and Conditioning Practices in Adolescent Rugby Players: Relationship with Changes in Physical Qualities

    OpenAIRE

    Weakley, JJS; Till, K; Roe, G; Darrall-Jones, J; Phibbs, P; Read, D; Jones, B

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent rugby players benefit from the implementation of resistance training. However resistance training practices and how they influence short-term physical change is unknown. Therefore the purpose of this study was to quantify resistance training practices, evaluate physical development, and relate these changes to resistance training variables across 12-weeks in adolescent rugby union players. Thirty-five male adolescent rugby union players participated in the study with subjects compl...

  11. The incidence of rugby-related catastrophic injuries (including cardiac events) in South Africa from 2008 to 2011: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Craig; Lambert, Mike I; Verhagen, Evert; Readhead, Clint; van Mechelen, Willem; Viljoen, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To establish an accurate and comprehensive injury incidence registry of all rugby union-related catastrophic events in South Africa between 2008 and 2011. An additional aim was to investigate correlates associated with these injuries. Design Prospective. Setting The South African amateur and professional rugby-playing population. Participants An estimated 529 483 Junior and 121 663 Senior rugby union (‘rugby’) players (population at risk). Outcome measures Annual average incidences of rugby-related catastrophic injuries by type (cardiac events, traumatic brain and acute spinal cord injuries (ASCIs)) and outcome (full recoveries—fatalities). Playing level (junior and senior levels), position and event (phase of play) were also assessed. Results The average annual incidence of ASCIs and Traumatic Brain Injuries combined was 2.00 per 100 000 players (95% CI 0.91 to 3.08) from 2008 to 2011. The incidence of ASCIs with permanent outcomes was significantly higher at the Senior level (4.52 per 100 000 players, 95% CI 0.74 to 8.30) than the Junior level (0.24 per 100 000 players, 95% CI 0 to 0.65) during this period. The hooker position was associated with 46% (n=12 of 26) of all permanent ASCI outcomes, the majority of which (83%) occurred during the scrum phase of play. Conclusions The incidence of rugby-related catastrophic injuries in South Africa between 2008 and 2011 is comparable to that of other countries and to most other collision sports. The higher incidence rate of permanent ASCIs at the Senior level could be related to the different law variations or characteristics (eg, less regular training) compared with the Junior level. The hooker and scrum were associated with high proportions of permanent ASCIs. The BokSmart injury prevention programme should focus efforts on these areas (Senior level, hooker and scrum) and use this study as a reference point for the evaluation of the effectiveness of the programme. PMID:23447464

  12. Trying Physics: Analyzing the Motion of the Quickest Score in International Rugby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, John Eric; Lipscombe, Trevor Davis

    2015-01-01

    The hearts of sports fans were stirred recently by the fastest-ever try scored in international rugby. Welsh winger Dafydd Howells crossed the Fijian try line to score a mere six seconds after Angus O'Brien had started the game with a kickoff, in one of the fixtures in rugby's Junior World Cup played on June 2, 2014, in New Zealand. This…

  13. ULTRASONOGRAPHIC ASSESSMENT OF NECK MUSCULAR SIZE AND RANGE OF MOTION IN RUGBY PLAYERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemelryck, Walter; Calistri, Josselin; Papadopoulou, Virginie; Theunissen, Sigrid; Dugardeyn, Christian; Balestra, Costantino

    2018-02-01

    World Rugby Union laws are constantly evolving towards stringent injury-prevention, particularly for contested scrums, since front row players are most at risk of cervical spine injuries. Recently, some countries have also introduced tailored training programs and minimum performance requirements for playing in the front row. Nevertheless, these approaches lack an objective assessment of each cervical muscle that would provide protective support. Since front row players are the most at risk for cervical spine injuries due to the specific type of contact during scrums, the purpose of this study was to ascertain whether significant differences exist in neck muscle size and range of motion between front row players and players of other positions, across playing categories. Cross-sectional controlled laboratory study. 129 sub-elite male subjects from various first-team squads of Belgian Rugby clubs were recruited. Subjects were grouped according to age: Junior (J)  35 years old; as well as playing position: Front row players (J = 10, S = 12, V = 11 subjects), (Rest of the) pack (J = 12, S = 12, V = 10), backs (J = 10, S = 11, V = 11). An age-matched control group of non-rugby players was also recruited (J = 10, S = 10, V = 10).For each subject, the total neck circumference (NC) and the cervical range of motion (CROM) were measured. In addition, the thickness of the trapezius (T), splenius capitis (SCa), semispinalis capitis (SCb), semispinalis cervicis (SPC), sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCOM), and the total thickness of all four structures (TT), were measured using ultrasonography. In each age category, compared to controls, rugby players were found to have decreased CROM, an increase in neck circumference (NC), and increased total thickness (TT), trapezius (T), semispinalis capitis (SCb) and sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCOM) sizes. For junior players, the thickness of the semispinalis cervicis (SPC) was also increased compared to controls. The CROM was decreased

  14. Rugby World Cup 2015: World Rugby injury surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W; Taylor, Aileen; Kemp, Simon P T; Raftery, Martin

    2017-01-01

    To determine the incidence, severity and nature of injuries sustained during the Rugby World Cup (RWC) 2015 together with the inciting events leading to the injuries. A prospective, whole population study. 639 international rugby players representing 20 countries. The study protocol followed the definitions and procedures recommended in the consensus statement for epidemiological studies in rugby union; output measures included players' age (years), stature (cm), body mass (kg) and playing position, and the group-level incidence (injuries/1000 player-hours), mean and median severity (days-absence), location (%), type (%) and inciting event (%) for match and training injuries. Incidence of injury was 90.1 match injuries/1000 player-match-hours (backs: 100.4; forwards: 81.1) and 1.0 training injuries/1000 player-training-hours (backs: 0.9; forwards: 1.2). The mean severity of injuries was 29.8 days-absence (backs: 30.4; forwards: 29.1) during matches and 14.4 days-absence (backs: 6.3; forwards: 19.8) during training. During matches, head/face (22.0%), knee (16.2%), muscle-strain (23.1%) and ligament-sprain (23.1%) and, during training, lower limb (80.0%) and muscle-strain (60.0%) injuries were the most common locations and types of injury. Being-tackled (24.7%) was the most common inciting event for injury during matches and rugby-skills-contact activities (70.0%) the most common during training. While the incidence, nature and inciting events associated with match injuries at RWC 2015 were similar to those reported previously for RWCs 2007 and 2011, there were increasing trends in the mean severity and total days-absence through injury. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Estimating success probability of a rugby goal kick and developing a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was firstly to derive a formula to estimate the success probability of a particular rugby goal kick and, secondly to derive a goal kicker rating measure that could be used to rank rugby union goal kickers. Various factors that could influence the success of a particular goal kick were considered.

  16. A Comparison of Rugby Seasons Presented in Traditional and Sport Education Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Tom B. J.; Carlson, Teresa B.; Hastie, Peter A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact that two instructional approaches to teaching rugby had on students' learning, enjoyment and affect. Fifty-three boys (aged 12-13) from a large metropolitan private boy's school in eastern Australia participated in either a 20 lesson unit of rugby union taught using a skill-drill-game approach (n…

  17. Injury Profile of American Women's Rugby-7s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Richard; Lopez, Victor; Weinstein, Meryle G; Chen, James L; Black, Christopher M; Gupta, Arun T; Harbst, Justin D; Victoria, Christian; Allen, Answorth A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study is to determine incidence (injuries/1000 playing hours (ph)), severity (days of absence), and cause of match injuries in US women's Rugby-7s. We performed a prospective epidemiological study (2010-2013) of injury of 3876 under-19 to elite/national female Rugby-7s players (nonelite = 3324, elite = 552) on 323 teams (nonelite = 277, elite = 46), applying methodology and injury definitions compliant with the international consensus statement on rugby research. Injuries occurred in USA Rugby-sanctioned tournament series: USA Rugby Local Area (2010), Territorial Union (2011-2013), National and All-Star Sevens Series, and USA Sevens Invitational (2011-2012) and Collegiate Rugby Championships (2012). One hundred and twenty time-loss injuries were encountered (elite, n = 15; 13%) with an injury rate of 46.3 injuries/1000 ph. Injury rates in nonelite were 49.3/1000 ph, and in national level (elite) candidates, 32.6/1000 ph (RR = 1.5, P = 0.130). Mean days missed found elite level players at 74.9 d per injury, whereas nonelite at 41.8 d (P = 0.090). Acute injuries were significant (95%, RR = 1.9, P Rugby-7s tournaments. Overall injury rates in US women are lower than those in international elite men and women's Rugby-7s. The head and neck area in our female players was injured at greater rates (16%) than in international male Rugby-7s (5%). Injury prevention in US women's Rugby-7s must focus on injuries of the knee, head, and neck. Understanding risk factors will allow safe return-to-play decisions and formulate injury prevention protocols.

  18. ECOLE DE RUGBY DE CERN / MEYRIN / ST-GENIS

    CERN Multimedia

    RUGBY CLUB

    2010-01-01

    La période de rentrée des classes coïncide également avec la reprise des activités sportives de nos enfants. L’Ecole de Rugby du CMSG Rugby Club, une des plus grandes de Suisse avec près d’une de licenciés de 6 à 18 ans, profite de cette période pour vous informer sur la réelle alternative que représente le Rugby. Pourquoi le rugby pour mon enfant ? Parce qu’il contribue à l’épanouissement harmonieux des enfants et des jeunes, ainsi qu’à la formation de leur personnalité. C’est même le ‘Sport Collectif par Excellence’ selon le Manuel des Castor Juniors ! Le rugby est un sport complet qui sollicite et développe les capacités motrices, intellectuelles, sociales et affectives de celui qui l’exerce. Le rugby...

  19. Imaging the cervical spine following rugby related injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, J.J.W.

    2016-01-01

    Rugby Union and Rugby League are popular sports with high participation across the world. The high impact nature of the sport results in a high proportion of injuries. Rugby has an association with cervical spine injury which has potentially catastrophic consequences for the patient. Anecdotal evidence suggests that radiographers find it challenging to visualise the cervicothoracic junction on the lateral supine cervical spine projection in broad shouldered athletes. This paper intends to analyse the risk factors for cervical spine injuries in rugby and discuss the imaging strategy in respect to radiography and CT scanning in high risk patient groups such as rugby players who are suspected of suffering a cervical spine injury. - Highlights: • Rugby as a participation sport represents a risk of cervical spine injury. • Conventional radiography lacks sensitivity in identifying cervical spine injury. • The body habitus of rugby players makes the imaging of the cervicothoracic junction challenging. • CT scanning should replace radiography in the event of serious suspicion of cervical spine injury. • The notion of CT being a high dose modality should be questioned.

  20. The effect of Experimental Law Variations on the Super 14 Rugby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Experimental Law Variations on the Super 14 Rugby Union Tournaments. ... Three hundred and seventy games were recorded on video and analysed by means of the Opta Sports Data software ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  1. Injury and biomechanical perspectives on the rugby scrum:a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Trewartha, Grant; Preatoni, Ezio; England, Michael E.; Stokes, Keith A.

    2015-01-01

    As a collision sport, rugby union has a relatively high overall injury incidence, with most injuries being associated with contact events. Historically, the set scrum has been a focus of the sports medicine community due to the perceived risk of catastrophic spinal injury during scrummaging. The contemporary rugby union scrum is a highly dynamic activity but to this point has not been well characterised mechanically. In this review, we synthesise the available research literature relating to ...

  2. Optimal development of rugby players: a case study | Rainsford ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An empirical study was conducted among 40 contracted Vodacom players from the Golden Lions Rugby Union who completed structured questionnaires prior to a physical testing. The majority of players were between 19 and 31 years. Ninety percent belonged to the white population group and 10% identified themselves ...

  3. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Impact of the International Rugby Board's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rugby union is a contact team sport played throughout the world by adults and ... World Cup (RWC) and to professional club competitions staged in northern and .... training activities planned for that day and/or match play for more than one ...

  4. Contact technique and concussions in the South African under-18 Coca-Cola Craven Week Rugby tournament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Sharief; O'connor, Sam; Lambert, Michael; Brown, James; Burger, Nicholas; Mc Fie, Sarah; Readhead, Clint; Viljoen, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    In rugby union, understanding the techniques and events leading to concussions is important because of the nature of the injury and the severity and potential long-term consequences, particularly in junior players. Proper contact technique is a prerequisite for successful participation in rugby and is a major factor associated with injury. However, the execution of proper contact technique and its relationship to injury has yet to be studied in matches. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare contact techniques leading to concussion with a representative sample of similarly matched non-injury (NI) contact events. Injury surveillance was conducted at the 2011-2013 under-18 Craven Week Rugby tournaments. Video footage of 10 concussive events (5 tackle, 4 ruck and 1 aerial collision) and 83 NI events were identified (19 tackle, 61 ruck and 3 aerial collisions). Thereafter, each phase of play was analysed using standardised technical proficiency criteria. Overall score for ruck proficiency in concussive events was 5.67 (out of a total of 15) vs. 6.98 for NI events (n = 54) (effect size = 0.52, small). Overall average score for tackler proficiency was 7.25 (n = 4) and 6.67 (n = 15) for injury and NI tackles, respectively (out of 16) (effect size = 0.19, trivial). This is the first study to compare concussion injury contact technique to a player-matched sample of NI contact techniques. Certain individual technical criteria had an effect towards an NI outcome, and others had an effect towards a concussive event, highlighting that failure to execute certain techniques may substantially increase the opportunity for concussion.

  5. Mild traumatic brain injuries in early adolescent rugby players: Long-term neurocognitive and academic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, D G; Shuttleworth-Edwards, A B; Kidd, M; Malcolm, C M

    2015-01-01

    Information is scant concerning enduring brain injury effects of participation in the contact sport of Rugby Union (hereafter rugby) on early adolescents. The objective was prospectively to investigate differences between young adolescent male rugby players and non-contact sports controls on neurocognitive test performance over 3 years and academic achievement over 6 years. A sample of boys from the same school and grade was divided into three groups: rugby with seasonal concussions (n = 45), rugby no seasonal concussions (n = 21) and non-contact sports controls (n = 30). Baseline neurocognitive testing was conducted pre-season in Grade 7 and post-season in Grades 8 and 9. Year-end academic grades were documented for Grades 6-9 and 12 (pre-high school to year of school leaving). A mixed model repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to investigate comparative neurocognitive and academic outcomes between the three sub-groups. Compared with controls, both rugby groups were significantly lower on the WISC-III Coding Immediate Recall sub-test. There was a significant interaction effect on the academic measure, with improved scores over time for controls, that was not in evidence for either rugby group. Tentatively, the outcome suggests cognitive vulnerability in association with school level participation in rugby.

  6. Joueuse de rugby de première division : une activité dangereuse ?

    OpenAIRE

    JONCHERAY , Hélène; Tlili , Haïfa

    2010-01-01

    International audience; This paper is about women’s rugby union and dangerousness, two themes which are oftenassociated. Indeed, when women say they play rugby a lot of people instantly think about danger. Theresearch is based upon 197 questionnaires filled out by rugbywomen who play in the french first division.If the analysis (using the Sphinx2 software) of some results does not encourage women to start playingrugby (75 % of the players said they had been injured), social explanations have ...

  7. Retrospective analysis of anthropometric and fitness characteristics associated with long-term career progression in Rugby League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Kevin; Cobley, Steve; O'Hara, John; Morley, David; Chapman, Chris; Cooke, Carlton

    2015-05-01

    The current study retrospectively investigated the differences in anthropometric and fitness characteristics of junior rugby league players selected onto a talent identification and development (TID) programme between long-term career progression levels (i.e., amateur, academy, professional). Retrospective design. Former junior rugby league players (N=580) selected to a TID programme were grouped according to their career progression level. Anthropometric (height, sitting height, body mass and sum of four skinfolds), maturational and fitness (power, speed, change of direction speed and estimated V̇O2max) assessments were conducted at 13-15 years. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) analyzed differences between career progression levels controlling for chronological age. 57.1% and 12.1% of players selected to the TID programme progressed to academy and professional levels in rugby league, respectively. Sum of four skinfolds (η(2)=0.03), vertical jump (η(2)=0.02), 10 m (η(2)=0.02), 20 m (η(2)=0.02), 30 m (η(2)=0.02), and 60 m (η(2)=0.03) speed, agility 505 left (η(2)=0.06), agility 505 right (η(2)=0.05) and estimated V̇O2max (η(2)=0.03) were superior within junior players who progressed to professional compared to amateur levels. No significant differences were identified between future academy and professional players for any measure. Findings suggest that lower sum of four skinfolds and advanced fitness characteristics within junior (13-15 years) rugby league players may partially contribute to long-term career progression. Therefore, TID programmes within rugby league should aim to assess and develop body composition and fitness characteristics, especially change of direction speed. However, TID programmes should also consider technical, tactical and psycho-social characteristics of junior rugby league players that may be important for long-term career progression. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  8. Incidence of Stingers in Young Rugby Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takayuki; Ota, Chihiro; Yoneda, Takeshi; Maki, Nobukazu; Urayama, Shingo; Nagao, Masashi; Nagayama, Masataka; Kaketa, Takefumi; Takazawa, Yuji; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2015-11-01

    A stinger is a type of neurapraxia of the cervical roots or brachial plexus and represents a reversible peripheral nerve injury. The incidence of and major risk factors for stingers among young rugby players remain uninvestigated. To investigate the incidence, symptoms, and intrinsic risk factors for stingers in elite rugby union teams of young players. Descriptive epidemiology study. A total of 569 male rugby players, including 358 players from 7 high school teams and 211 players from 2 university teams, were investigated using self-administered preseason and postseason questionnaires. The prevalence of a history of stingers was 33.9% (95% CI, 30.3-37.9), and 20.9% (119/569) of players experienced at least 1 episode of a stinger during the season (34.2 [95% CI, 26.2-42.1] events per 1000 player-hours of match exposure). The reinjury rate for stingers per season was 37.3% (95% CI, 30.4-44.2). Using the multivariate Poisson regression method, a history of stingers in the previous season and the grade and position of the player were found to be risk factors for stingers during the current season. The mean severity of injury was 2.9 days, with 79.3% (191/241) of the players not losing any time from playing after sustaining a stinger injury and 5.8% (14/241) of the players recovering within more than 14 days. The most frequent symptom was numbness in the unilateral upper extremity, and the most severe symptom was weakness of grasping (mean severity, 6 days). A logistic regression analysis indicated that a history of stingers in the previous season and an injury with more than 3 symptoms, especially motor weakness, were correlated with the severity of injury. Young rugby players with a history of stingers have a significantly high rate of repeat injuries. Although nearly 80% of the players experienced only minimal (0-1 day) time loss injuries, neurological deficits sometimes last beyond 1 month. A history of stingers was identified to be the strongest risk factor for

  9. Acute response to hydrotherapy after a simulated game of rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Trevor R; Cameron, Melainie L; Climstein, Mike

    2013-10-01

    Despite lacking clear scientific evidence, hydrotherapies (water treatments) are accepted techniques to help team sport athletes recover from the physical effects of games. The purpose of this study was to assess the comparative effectiveness of cold water immersions (CWIs) and hot-and-cold contrast baths on athletes' recovery after a simulated game of rugby union. Twenty-four experienced, well-trained, male rugby union players were divided into 3 groups to receive recovery interventions: CWI for 1 group, contrast baths for a second group, and passive recovery for a third (control) group. Pregame and postgame measurements included a countermovement jump (normalized as a ratio to body weight), a sit-and-stretch flexibility test (centimeters), thigh circumference (to detect swelling; centimeters), and participants' perception of delayed-onset muscular soreness (DOMS, 100-mm visual analog scale). Statistical analysis included analysis of variance, and the calculation of omnibus effect sizes for each group ((Equation is included in full-text article.)) and the magnitudes of change within and between groups (Cohen's d). The participants in the contrast bath group reported statistically significantly greater measures of DOMS than participants in the control group did at 1 hour postintervention (p = 0.05, control group: d = 1.80; contrast bath: d = 4.75), and than participants in the CWI group did at 48 hours postintervention (p = 0.02, CWI: d = 1.17; contrast bath: d = 1.97). These findings provide modest evidence that contrast baths are a less effective strategy for recovery from rugby union than are CWI or passive recovery. Specifically, 2 × 5-minute CWI is superior to both contrasts baths and passive recovery in alleviating DOMS after exercise-induced muscle damage. Our recommendation for rugby union players aiming to attenuate the effects of DOMS postgames is to take 2 × 5-minute CWIs baths immediately after the game.

  10. Symptoms Of Common Mental Disorders In Professional Rugby: An International Observational Descriptive Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Hopley, Phil; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Verhagen, Evert; Viljoen, Wayne; Wylleman, Paul; Lambert, Mike I

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders among professional rugby players across countries. A cross-sectional analysis of the baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study was conducted. Nine national players' associations and three rugby unions distributed questionnaires based on validated scales for assessing symptoms of common mental disorders. Among the whole study sample (N=990; overall response rate of 28%), prevalence (4-week) of symptoms of common mental disorders ranged from 15% for adverse alcohol use to 30% for anxiety/depression. These findings support the prevalence rates of symptoms of common mental disorders found in previous studies among professional (i. e., elite) athletes across other sports, and suggestions can be made that the prevalence of symptoms of anxiety/depression seems slightly higher in professional rugby than in other general/occupational populations. Awareness of the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders should be improved in international rugby, and an interdisciplinary approach including psychological attention should be fostered in the medical care of professional rugby players. Adequate supportive measures to enhance awareness and psychological resilience would lead not only to improved health and quality of life among rugby players but arguably to enhanced performance in rugby. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Concussive Injuries in Rugby 7s: An American Experience and Current Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Victor; Ma, Richard; Weinstein, Meryle G; Cantu, Robert C; Myers, Laurel S D; Nadkar, Nisha S; Victoria, Christian; Allen, Answorth A

    2016-07-01

    There is a comparative lack of concussion incidence data on the new Olympic sport Rugby 7s. This study aimed to determine the incidence (number of concussions per 1000 playing hours [ph]), mean and median severity (days absence), and cause of concussive injuries. This is a prospective epidemiology study, amateur to elite/national candidate, male (9768) and female (3876) players in USA Rugby sanctioned tournaments, compliant with the international consensus statement for studies in rugby union. Concussions in US Rugby 7s were 7.7/1000 ph (n = 67). Women encountered concussions at 8.1/1000 ph, and men at 7.6/1000 ph (risk ratio [RR] = 1.10, P = 0.593). Elite/national-level players encountered concussions at higher rates (18.3/1000 ph) than lower levels (6.4/1000 ph; RR = 5.48, P Rugby 7s players. US Elite tournament players sustained concussions at much higher rates than international male Rugby 7s counterparts. A substantial portion of US players who sustained a concussion had previous concussion injuries. Given the high rate of concussion, including repetitive concussive injuries, US Rugby 7s may benefit from concussion prevention measures similar to other contact sports such as instruction on proper tackling techniques, in-game and postgame medical assessment, and a standardized return-to-play protocol.

  12. Evidence in support of the call to ban the tackle and harmful contact in school rugby: a response to World Rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, Allyson M; White, Adam John; Kirkwood, Graham

    2017-08-01

    In a paper published in BJSM (June 2016), World Rugby employees Ross Tucker and Martin Raftery and a third coauthor Evert Verhagen took issue with the recent call to ban tackling in school rugby in the UK and Ireland. That call (to ban tackling) was supported by a systematic review published in BJSM Tucker et al claim that: (1) the mechanisms and risk factors for injury along with the incidence and severity of injury in youth rugby union have not been thoroughly identified or understood; (2) rugby players are at no greater risk of injury than other sports people, (3) this is particularly the case for children under 15 years and (4) removing the opportunity to learn the tackle from school pupils might increase rates of injuries. They conclude that a ban 'may be unnecessary and may also lead to unintended consequences such as an increase in the risk of injury later in participation.' Here we aim to rebut the case by Tucker et al We share new research that extends the findings of our original systematic review and meta-analysis. A cautionary approach requires the removal of the tackle from school rugby as the quickest and most effective method of reducing high injury rates in youth rugby, a public health priority. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Injury and biomechanical perspectives on the rugby scrum: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewartha, Grant; Preatoni, Ezio; England, Michael E; Stokes, Keith A

    2015-04-01

    As a collision sport, rugby union has a relatively high overall injury incidence, with most injuries being associated with contact events. Historically, the set scrum has been a focus of the sports medicine community due to the perceived risk of catastrophic spinal injury during scrummaging. The contemporary rugby union scrum is a highly dynamic activity but to this point has not been well characterised mechanically. In this review, we synthesise the available research literature relating to the medical and biomechanical aspects of the rugby union scrum, in order to (1) review the injury epidemiology of rugby scrummaging; (2) consider the evidence for specific injury mechanisms existing to cause serious scrum injuries and (3) synthesise the information available on the biomechanics of scrummaging, primarily with respect to force production. The review highlights that the incidence of acute injury associated with scrummaging is moderate but the risk per event is high. The review also suggests an emerging acknowledgement of the potential for scrummaging to lead to premature chronic degeneration injuries of the cervical spine and summarises the mechanisms by which these chronic injuries are thought to occur. More recent biomechanical studies of rugby scrummaging confirm that scrum engagement forces are high and multiplanar, but can be altered through modifications to the scrum engagement process which control the engagement velocity. As the set scrum is a relatively 'controlled' contact situation within rugby union, it remains an important area for intervention with a long-term goal of injury reduction. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. Xhosa people and the rugby game: Diffusion of sport in the Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It documents the history of a previously disadvantaged populationes and/or black peoplees (specifically AmaXhosa of the then Cape Colony in the 19th and the 20th centuries and the Cape Province following the unification of South Africa in 1910) sport (cricket and rugby union) and way of life. The history and the ...

  15. Head, Neck, Face, and Shoulder Injuries in Female and Male Rugby Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havkins, Sabina B.

    1986-01-01

    Injuries to 150 players in the Southern California Rugby Football Union were studied in order to compare head, neck, face, and shoulder injury rates for female and male players. While overall rates did not differ significantly, women received fewer disabling injuries. Ways to decrease injuries are recommended. (Author/MT)

  16. Prevalent morphometric vertebral fractures in professional male rugby players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Hind

    Full Text Available There is an ongoing concern about the risk of injury to the spine in professional rugby players. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of vertebral fracture using vertebral fracture assessment (VFA dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA imaging in professional male rugby players. Ninety five professional rugby league (n = 52 and union (n = 43 players (n = 95; age 25.9 (SD 4.3 years; BMI: 29.5 (SD 2.9 kg.m2 participated in the research. Each participant received one VFA, and one total body and lumbar spine DXA scan (GE Lunar iDXA. One hundred and twenty vertebral fractures were identified in over half of the sample by VFA. Seventy four were graded mild (grade 1, 40 moderate (grade 2 and 6 severe (grade 3. Multiple vertebral fractures (≥2 were found in 37 players (39%. There were no differences in prevalence between codes, or between forwards and backs (both 1.2 v 1.4; p>0.05. The most common sites of fracture were T8 (n = 23, T9 (n = 18 and T10 (n = 21. The mean (SD lumbar spine bone mineral density Z-score was 2.7 (1.3 indicating high player bone mass in comparison with age- and sex-matched norms. We observed a high number of vertebral fractures using DXA VFA in professional rugby players of both codes. The incidence, aetiology and consequences of vertebral fractures in professional rugby players are unclear, and warrant timely, prospective investigation.

  17. Non-sanctioning of illegal tackles in South African youth community rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J C; Boucher, S J; Lambert, M; Viljoen, W; Readhead, C; Hendricks, S; Kraak, W J

    2018-06-01

    The tackle event in rugby union ('rugby') contributes to the majority of players' injuries. Referees can reduce this risk by sanctioning dangerous tackles. A study in elite adult rugby suggests that referees only sanction a minority of illegal tackles. The aim of this study was to assess if this finding was similar in youth community rugby. Observational study. Using EncodePro, 99 South African Rugby Union U18 Youth Week tournament matches were coded between 2011 and 2015. All tackles were coded by a researcher and an international referee to ensure that laws were interpreted correctly. The inter- and intra-rater reliabilities were 0.97-1.00. A regression analysis compared the non-sanctioned rates over time. In total, 12 216 tackles were coded, of which less than 1% (n=113) were 'illegal'. The majority of the 113 illegal tackles were front-on (75%), high tackles (72%) and occurred in the 2nd/4th quarters (29% each). Of the illegal tackles, only 59% were sanctioned. The proportions of illegal tackles and sanctioning of these illegal tackles to all tackles improved by 0.2% per year from 2011-2015 (p<0.05). In these youth community rugby players, 59% of illegal tackles were not sanctioned appropriately. This was better than a previous study in elite adult rugby, where only 7% of illegal tackles were penalised. Moreover, the rates of illegal tackles and non-sanctioned illegal tackles both improved over time. However, it is critical that referees consistently enforce all laws to enhance injury prevention efforts. Further studies should investigate the reasons for non-sanctioning. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Misunderstandings of concussion within a youth rugby population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Philip E; See, James

    2017-11-01

    The recognition and management of concussion has become a major health concern within rugby union. Identifying misconceptions and attitudes regarding concussion is valuable for informing player education. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore the knowledge of, and attitudes towards, concussion in subgroups of youth rugby players. Cross-sectional survey. Information sheets and consent forms were distributed at training sessions for multiple teams at each of three schools and three clubs. Players who returned consent forms completed a custom-designed survey at a subsequent session. Two hundred and fifty-five English players, aged 11-17 years, completed the anonymous survey. Sixty-one participants reported a total of 77 concussions. Self-reported return to play ranged from 0 to 365 days; only seven players (11%) reported a return to play after the Rugby Football Union's recommendation of 23 days. Although the majority of findings relating to players' knowledge of concussion were positive, a number of important misunderstandings were revealed. While the majority of players reported positive attitudes towards concussion, a substantial minority (up to 30%) reported inappropriate attitudes in response to specific questions. Participants who played at multiple venues did report superior knowledge and attitudes relative to their peers who played at a single venue. Despite generally positive results, youth rugby players were found to hold a number of misconceptions regarding concussion which should be the focus for education initiatives. Considering general subgroups of players by concussion history, age, or playing position appears unlikely to enhance the design of concussion education programmes. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Peak Running Intensity of International Rugby: Implications for Training Prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Jace A; Thornton, Heidi R; Pryor, John F; Stewart, Andrew M; Dascombe, Ben J; Duthie, Grant M

    2017-09-01

    To quantify the duration and position-specific peak running intensities of international rugby union for the prescription and monitoring of specific training methodologies. Global positioning systems (GPS) were used to assess the activity profile of 67 elite-level rugby union players from 2 nations across 33 international matches. A moving-average approach was used to identify the peak relative distance (m/min), average acceleration/deceleration (AveAcc; m/s 2 ), and average metabolic power (P met ) for a range of durations (1-10 min). Differences between positions and durations were described using a magnitude-based network. Peak running intensity increased as the length of the moving average decreased. There were likely small to moderate increases in relative distance and AveAcc for outside backs, halfbacks, and loose forwards compared with the tight 5 group across all moving-average durations (effect size [ES] = 0.27-1.00). P met demands were at least likely greater for outside backs and halfbacks than for the tight 5 (ES = 0.86-0.99). Halfbacks demonstrated the greatest relative distance and P met outputs but were similar to outside backs and loose forwards in AveAcc demands. The current study has presented a framework to describe the peak running intensities achieved during international rugby competition by position, which are considerably higher than previously reported whole-period averages. These data provide further knowledge of the peak activity profiles of international rugby competition, and this information can be used to assist coaches and practitioners in adequately preparing athletes for the most demanding periods of play.

  20. Shoulder injuries in professional rugby: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Ian G; Fowler, Elizabeth M; Rolf, Christer G

    2013-04-26

    In the literature, little is known about the level and pattern of rugby injuries. Of the shoulder injuries reported, 51% of these are caused during a tackle, and 65% of all match injuries affected the shoulder. The study aims to describe a sport-specific unique intra-articular shoulder pathology of professional rugby players, who presented with persistent pain and dysfunction despite physiotherapeutic treatment and rest. This study is a retrospective analysis set at a university sports medicine clinic. Eighty-seven professional rugby players, referred by their professional medical team since they could no longer play, underwent shoulder arthroscopy between June 2001 and October 2007 due to persistent shoulder pain and dysfunction. All were full-time professional male rugby union and rugby league players. They all had failed conservative treatment for their complaint, and the diagnosis was unclear. Arthroscopic findings were used as a measure of main outcome. The primary mechanism of injury was reported as direct tackling (56%; n = 49) followed in succession by falling onto the arm (10%; n = 8). However, in 30% of the cases, no definite injury could be recalled. The main operative finding was that most patients exhibited multiple shoulder pathologies, with 75% of cases presenting with two or more pathologies. A superior labrum anterior to posterior (SLAP) lesion was evident at arthroscopy in 72 of the 87 cases (83%), while rotator cuff tears were evident in 43% of cases (n = 37). One-third of all cases had a Bankart tear (n = 29), despite none of them reporting previous dislocations, while other labral tears, excluding SLAP tears, to the inferior or posterior labrum were present in 34% (n = 30) of the cohort. Repeated tackling, which is clearly rugby specific, is most likely to be responsible for most of these shoulder injuries, which upon arthroscopic examination, showed signs of mixed pathology. We suggest that an early arthroscopic investigation is valuable in

  1. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in elite rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambe, Amol; Badge, Ravi; Funk, Lennard

    2009-01-01

    Rugby is an increasingly popular collision sport. A wide spectrum of injuries can be sustained during training and match play. Rotator cuff injury is uncommon in contact sports and there is little published literature on the treatment of rotator cuff tears in rugby players. We therefore reviewed the results and functional outcomes of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in elite rugby players. Eleven professional rugby players underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair at our hospital over a 2-year period. We collected data on these patients from the operative records. The patients were recalled for outcome scoring and ultrasound scans. There were seven rugby league players and four rugby union players, including six internationals. Their mean age was 25.7 years. All had had a traumatic episode during match play and could not return to the game after the injury. The mean time to surgery was 5 weeks. The mean width of the cuff tear was 1.8 cm. All were full- thickness cuff tears. Associated injuries included two Bankart lesions, one bony Bankart lesion, one posterior labral tear, and two 360 degrees labral tears. The biceps was involved in three cases. Two were debrided and a tenodesis was performed in one. Repair was with suture anchors. Following surgery, all patients underwent a supervised accelerated rehabilitation programme. The final follow-up was at 18 months (range: 6-31 months) post surgery. The Constant scores improved from 44 preoperatively to 99 at the last follow-up. The mean score at 3 months was 95. The Oxford shoulder score improved from 34 to 12, with the mean third month score being 18. The mean time taken to return to full match play at the preinjury level was 4.8 months. There were no complications in any of the patients and postoperative scans in nine patients confirmed that the repairs had healed. We conclude that full-thickness rotator cuff tears in the contact athlete can be addressed successfully by arthroscopic repair, with a rapid return to

  2. Rugby-metoden SCRUM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene

    2012-01-01

    En ny måde at bedrive projekter på breder sig i disse år med overraskende fart. Selv om de første tanker om ”Scrum” – hvor navnet og fremgangsmåden er inspireret af Rugby-spillet – blev tænkt for mere end 10 år siden, så er det først nu at fremgangsmåden for alvor har vundet udbredelse i Danmark....... Denne artikel gennemgår metoden og fortæller om både positive resultater og udfordringer i tre danske organisationer: Et softwarehus, en bank, og et universitet. De tre cases illustrer meget forskellige anvendelsessituationer af Scrum set i forhold til projekternes størrelse, karakter og den...... organisatoriske kontekst. Artiklen slutter med at diskutere, hvad det er der gør, at Scrum er blevet så populær, og i dag fremstår som et reelt alternativ til klassisk plandreven projektledelse...

  3. Expo Junior

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Fort de son succès Expo Juniors revient du 22 au 23 novembre 2014 - Papa & Maman Noël seront présents ! Nous avons le plaisir de  proposer à nos membres des billets d'entrées  à un tarif préférentiel, au prix de CHF 10.- l'unité au lieu de CHF 18.- (gratuit pour les enfants de 0 à 4 ans). Des centaines d’ateliers répartis en 3 villages : Sports & Loisirs, Jeux & Jouets, Éducation & Vie pratique. Cet événement propose aux familles aussi d'autres thèmes : tourisme, idées cadeaux, mode, bien-être, beauté, décoration, ainsi que des services destinés aux familles. Parades, attractions, castings, défilés de mode, dédicaces, séances photos avec Papa Noël, ainsi que de nombre...

  4. Nature and proportion of total injuries at the Stellenbosch rugby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    introduced as a professional sport by the International Rugby. Board (IRB). Rugby ... to as SRFC) is made up of five senior teams (including one women's team) ..... and rugby players – comparison of incidence and characteristics. Br J Sports.

  5. An evidence-driven approach to scrum law modifications in amateur rugby played in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Sharief; Lambert, Mike I; Brown, James C; Readhead, Clint; Viljoen, Wayne

    2014-07-01

    In 2012, the South African Rugby Union (SARU) approved a new set of scrum laws for amateur rugby played in the country, to be implemented at the start of the 2013 rugby season. These law changes were primarily based on the relatively high proportion of scrum-related catastrophic injury data collected as part of the BokSmart National Rugby Safety Programme (BokSmart) over the preceding 4 years (2008-2011). To describe the scrum-related catastrophic injury data in South Africa over the past 5 years (2008-2012), and to discuss how this evidence justifies the change in the Amateur Scrum Laws to make this aspect of the game safer in South Africa. Catastrophic injury data were collected through BokSmart at amateur and professional levels, during training and matches over 5 years (2008-2012). The scrum phase accounted for 33% (n=20 of 60) of all catastrophic injuries between 2008 and 2012. Eighteen of the 20 scrum injuries (90%) were confirmed as acute spinal cord injuries, with 13 of these being permanent injuries. For the scrum injury mechanisms that were provided (n=19), 'impact on the engagement' was the most frequently reported (n=11 of 19, 58%), followed by 'collapsed scrum' (n=7 of 19, 37%) and 'popping out' (n=1 of 19, 5%). Based on these scrum-related catastrophic injury data, a change in the Amateur Scrum Laws of South African Rugby was justified. The main purpose of these scrum law changes is to reduce the number of scrum-related catastrophic injuries in the country, by minimising the opportunity for impact injury and subsequent scrum collapse in amateur rugby in South Africa, thereby making this aspect of the game of rugby safer. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Passing and Catching in Rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namudu, Mike M.

    This booklet contains the fundamentals for rugby at the primary school level. It deals primarily with passing and catching the ball. It contains instructions on (1) holding the ball for passing, (2) passing the ball to the left--standing, (3) passing the ball to the left--running, (4) making a switch pass, (5) the scrum half's normal pass, (6) the…

  7. Strength and Conditioning Practices in Adolescent Rugby Players: Relationship with Changes in Physical Qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weakley, Jonathon J S; Till, Kevin; Darrall-Jones, Joshua; Roe, Gregory A B; Phibbs, Padraic J; Read, Dale; Jones, Ben L

    2017-01-30

    Adolescent rugby players benefit from the implementation of resistance training. However resistance training practices and how they influence short-term physical change is unknown. Therefore the purpose of this study was to quantify resistance training practices, evaluate physical development, and relate these changes to resistance training variables across 12-weeks in adolescent rugby union players. Thirty-five male adolescent rugby union players participated in the study with subjects completing an anthropometric and physical testing battery pre- and post- a 12-week in-season mesocycle. Subjects recorded resistance training frequency, exercises, repetitions, load, minutes, and rating of perceived exertion for each session using weekly training diaries during the 12-week period. Paired sample t-tests and Cohen's d effect sizes were used to assess change, while Pearson correlation coefficients assessed relationships between variables. Resistance training practices were variable, while significant (p ≤0.05) improvements in body mass, countermovement jump (CMJ) height, front squat, bench press, and chin up strength were observed. Resistance training volume load had moderate to strong relationships with changes in CMJ (r =0.71), chin up (r =0.73) and bench press (r =0.45). Frequency of upper and lower body compound exercises had significant moderate to large relationships with changes in CMJ (r =0.68), chin up (r =0.65), and bench press (r =0.41). Across a 12-week in-season period, adolescent rugby union players have varying resistance training practices, while anthropometric and physical characteristics appear to improve. Given the observed relationships, increased volume loads through the implementation of free-weight compound exercises could be an effective method for improving physical qualities in young rugby players.

  8. Progress of Rugby Hohlraum Experiments on Omega

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Franck; Tassin, Veronique; Casner, Alexis; Gauthier, Pascal; Seytor, Patricia; Monteil, Marie-Christine; Park, Hye-Sook; Robey, Harry; Ross, Steven; Amendt, Peter; Girard, Frederic; Villette, Bruno; Reverdin, Charles; Loiseau, Pascal; Caillaud, Tony; Landoas, Olivier; Li, Chi Kang; Petrasso, Richard; Seguin, Fredrick; Rosenberg, Markus

    2011-10-01

    The rugby hohlraum concept is predicted to enable better coupling and higher gains in the indirect drive approach to ignition. A collaborative experimental program is currently pursued on OMEGA to test this concept in preparation for future megajoule-scale ignition designs. A direct comparison of gas-filled rugby hohlraums with classical cylinders was recently performed, showing a significant (up to ~40%) observed x-ray drive enhancement and neutron yields that are consistently higher in the rugby case. This work extends and confirms our previous findings in empty rugby hohlraums.

  9. 77 FR 4458 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rugby, ND

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ...-0433; Airspace Docket No. 11-AGL-12] Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rugby, ND AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace for Rugby, ND. Decommissioning of the Rugby non-directional beacon (NDB) at Rugby Municipal Airport has made this action...

  10. Perceived Injury Risk among Junior Cricketers: A Cross Sectional Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna J. Gamage

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how junior athletes perceive injury risks when participating in sport and the environment they play in is an important component of injury prevention. This study investigates how Sri Lankan junior cricketers (n = 365, aged 11–14 years, boys perceive injury risks associated with playing cricket. The study used a Sri Lankan modification of an Australian junior cricket injury risk perception survey that considered playing cricket versus other sports, different cricket playing positions and roles, and different ground conditions. The risk of playing cricket was considered to be greater than that for cycling, but lower than that for rugby and soccer. Fast-bowlers, batters facing fast-bowlers, fielding close in the field, and wicket-keeping without a helmet were perceived to pose greater risks of injury than other scenarios. Playing on hard, bumpy and/or wet ground conditions were perceived to have a high risk opposed to playing on a grass field. Fielding in the outfield and wicket-keeping to fast-bowlers whilst wearing a helmet were perceived as low risk actions. The risk perceptions of junior cricketers identified in this study, do not necessarily reflect the true injury risk in some instances. This information will inform the development of injury prevention education interventions to address these risk perceptions in junior cricketers.

  11. The Measurement and Interpretation of Dietary Protein Distribution During a Rugby Preseason.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Kristen; Slater, Gary; King, Neil; Byrne, Nuala

    2015-08-01

    Evidence suggests that increasing protein distribution may be desirable to promote muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in combination with resistance exercise. However, there is a threshold above which additional protein consumption has limited benefit for MPS and may promote protein loss due to increased oxidation. This study aimed to measure daily protein intake and protein distribution in a cohort of rugby players. Twenty-five developing elite rugby union athletes (20.5 ± 2.3 years, 100.2 ± 13.3 kg, 184.4 ± 7.4 cm) were assessed at the start and end of a rugby preseason. Using a 7-day food diary the reported daily protein intake was 2.2 ± 0.7 g · kg · day(-1) which exceeds daily recommendations. The reported carbohydrate intake was 3.6 ± 1.3 g · kg · day(-1) which may reflect a suboptimal intake or dietary underreporting. In general, the rugby athletes were regularly consuming more than 20 g of protein; 3.8 ± 0.9 times per day (68 ± 18% of eating occasions). In addition to documenting current dietary intakes, an excess protein estimation score was calculated to determine how frequently the rugby athletes consumed protein above a known effective dose with a margin of error. 2.0 ± 0.9 eating occasions contained protein in excess of doses (20 g) known to promote MPS. Therefore, it is currently unclear whether the consumption of regular large doses of protein will benefit rugby athletes via increasing protein distribution, or whether high protein intakes may have unintended effects including a reduction in carbohydrate and/or energy intake.

  12. Teaching and Assessing Tag Rugby Made Simple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Stephen; Hughes, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    The game of rugby is a fast and fluid invasion game, similar to football, that involves scoring with an oval ball into an end zone. The game presents, like other invasion games, a series of highly complex tactical problems so that the ball can be maneuvered into a scoring position. Pugh and Alford (2004) recently indicated that rugby is now…

  13. Searching for sponsors for four national rugby teams in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Ylönen, Niina

    2017-01-01

    How to get more sponsors to four national rugby teams in Finland? Finnish Rugby Federation and its four national teams are in the need of new long lasting sponsorship deals to fund the national teams’ tournaments in Finland and abroad. Since rugby is quite unknown sports in Finland it faces challenges in getting new sponsorship deals and also its visibility is currently very low. The purpose of this thesis is to analyse the current situation of rugby, sponsorship contracts Finnish rugby F...

  14. Protective equipment use among female rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, R Dawn; Fields, Sarah K; Knox, Christy L

    2005-07-01

    Our objective was to assess the prevalence of protective equipment use and the motivation for using protective equipment among a sample of US female rugby players. We surveyed a convenience sample of 234 current US female rugby players from 14 teams participating in a US women's rugby tournament, obtaining self-reported demographic, rugby exposure, and protective equipment use information. Mouthguards were the most commonly used piece of protective equipment: 90.8% of players reported having always worn a mouthguard while playing or practicing rugby within their most recent 3 months of play. Fewer than 15% of players reported having always worn other types of protective equipment. Equipment use varied by playing position. Whereas over 80% of players in all other positions always wore a mouthguard, 66.7% of scrum halves reported always wearing one. Both backs and forwards reported wearing shoulder pads, but only forwards reported always wearing padded headgear. Mouthguards, padded headgear, and shoulder pads were worn "to prevent injury," whereas ankle braces, neoprene sleeves, and athletic tape on joints were worn "to protect a current/recent injury." This is the first study of female rugby players to assess the prevalence of protective equipment use by playing position and the motivation for using protective equipment. With the exception of mouthguards, US female rugby players infrequently use protective equipment. Protective equipment use varies by playing position. Some types of protective equipment appear to be used as primary prevention mechanisms, whereas others are used as secondary or tertiary prevention mechanisms.

  15. Women’s rugby tournament | 27 September

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Women’s rugby tournament Saint-Genis rugby pitch - Golf des Serves 27 September 2014 - 10 a.m. For the third consecutive year, the women's rugby club of CERN Meyrin St Genis, The Wildcats, are organising a women’s 7's rugby tournament. With the support of the Office Municipal des Sports of St Genis-Pouilly and various other sponsors, we will be welcoming 10 teams ready to fight it out for victory! Bring your family and friends for a great day of rugby! Come and discover the values of team spirit in rugby and support your local team (RC CMSG). An initiation for kids between 4 and 10 years old will be organised by school rugby trainers. There will also be a live music concert. Food and drink will be available all day. Concert schedule 6 p.m.: Bad spirits out of the boot 7 p.m.: SoundHazard 8 p.m.: Miss Proper & the Moving Targets 9 p.m.: Fuzzy Dunlop More information on: http://www.facebook.com/events/509236532536269/

  16. Strength and energetics of elite rugby union players | Lombard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The greater absolute strength spectrum (p < 0.05) measured on an isokinetic dynamometer for quadriceps and hamstring muscles of elite backs and forwards, confirmed the acquisition of strength for elite performance. The elite backs and forwards did not possess greater quadriceps and hamstring endurance (p < 0.05) than ...

  17. Spinal cord injuries in South African Rugby Union (1980 - 2007 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    related spinal cord injuries (SCIs) in South Africa, a retrospective case-series study was conducted on injuries that occurred between 1980 and 2007. We aimed to identify preventable causes to reduce the overall rate of SCIs in South African ...

  18. From Competitive Balance to Match Attractiveness in Rugby Union

    OpenAIRE

    Johan Fourie; Krige Siebrits

    2008-01-01

    Professional sports leagues aim to provide attractive contests that maximise fan interest. Literature on the demand for professional sport suggests that fans derive utility from identifying with teams and from the quality of contests, which depends on uncertainty of outcome and demonstration of the skills required to excel at the game. Measures of the attractiveness of sports contests should incorporate these two dimensions of quality. This paper proposes measures of the attractiveness of rug...

  19. Guidelines for Professional Training of Junior Medical Staff in the Context of European Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnova, Myroslava

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with outlining guidelines for improving professional training of junior medical staff based on European experience. Consequently, guidelines and recommendations on enhancing the efficiency of medical education in general and junior medical specialists' professional training, in particular, published by European Union of Medical…

  20. The Blindside Flick: Race and Rugby League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew Cottle

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The issue of race was virtually beyond the touchline in Australian rugby league before the 1960s. It was a white man’s game. Institutionalised racism meant that few Aboriginal men played rugby league at the highest professional level. It is now presumed that race and racism has no place in a game where these questions have been historically ‘out of bounds’. The dearth of critical writing in rugby league history indicates that racism in the sport has been subject to a form of social blindness and deemed unworthy of study. Rugby league’s white exclusionist past and the denial of racism in the present era indicate habits of mind which may be described in league argot as the ‘blindside flick’.

  1. The incidence of rugby-related catastrophic injuries (including cardiac events) in South Africa from 2008 to 2011: a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.C.; Lambert, M.I.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.; Readhead, C.; van Mechelen, W.; Viljoen, W.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To establish an accurate and comprehensive injury incidence registry of all rugby union-related catastrophic events in South Africa between 2008 and 2011. An additional aim was to investigate correlates associated with these injuries. Design: Prospective. Setting: The South African

  2. Caffeine use in a Super Rugby game and its relationship to post-game sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunican, Ian C; Higgins, Charles C; Jones, Maddison J; Clarke, Michael W; Murray, Kevin; Dawson, Brian; Caldwell, John A; Halson, Shona L; Eastwood, Peter R

    2018-05-01

    To examine the relationship between regular game-related caffeine consumption on sleep after an evening Super Rugby game. Twenty elite rugby union players wore a wrist-activity monitor to measure sleep for three days before, three days after and on the night of an evening Super Rugby game (19:00-21:00). Players ingested caffeine as they would normally (i.e. before and sometimes during a game) and saliva samples were collected before (17:00) and after (21:30) the game for caffeine concentration. Compared to the nights leading up to the game, on the night of the game, players went to bed 3 h later (23:08 ± 66 min vs 02:11 ± 114 min; p sleep (5:54 ± 2:59 vs 8:02 ± 1:24 hh:mm; p sleep after the game. Post-game caffeine saliva concentrations were greater than pre-game levels in 17 players (Pre-game 0.40 µg/mL vs Post-game 2.77 µg/mL; p sleep latency (p sleep efficiency (p sleep duration (p = .06) on game night. Caffeine consumption before a Super Rugby game markedly increases post-game saliva caffeine levels. This may contribute to the observed 3.5 h delay in time at sleep onset and the 1.5 h reduction in sleep duration on the night of the game. This study highlights the need for a strategic approach to the use of caffeine within a Super Rugby team considering the potential effect on post-game sleep.

  3. Rugby and Shoulder Trauma: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Papalia, R.; Tecame, A.; Torre, G.; Narbona, P.; Maffulli, N.; Denaro, V.

    2014-01-01

    Rugby is a popular contact sport worldwide. Collisions and tackles during matches and practices often lead to traumatic injuries of the shoulder. This review reports on the epidemiology of injuries, type of lesions and treatment of shoulder injuries, risk factors, such as player position, and return to sport activities. Electronic searches through PubMed (Medline), EMBASE, and Cochrane Library retrieved studies concerning shoulder injuries in rugby players. Data regarding incidence, type and ...

  4. Modifying scoring system at South African University rugby level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Success in rugby is measured by winning the game and in order to do so, teams need to score more points ... if modifying the scoring system at South African University rugby level changes the game dynamics. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  5. Music and Careers for the Junior High Student.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Bruce

    The curriculum guide describes an exemplary project designed to provide junior high school students with an opportunity to explore careers related to the world of music. The units present objectives, activities, and resources related to the following occupations: pop music artist, professional musician (union), instrumental and vocal music…

  6. Arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in elite rugby players

    OpenAIRE

    Tambe, Amol; Badge, Ravi; Funk, Lennard

    2009-01-01

    Background: Rugby is an increasingly popular collision sport. A wide spectrum of injuries can be sustained during training and match play. Rotator cuff injury is uncommon in contact sports and there is little published literature on the treatment of rotator cuff tears in rugby players. Aims: We therefore reviewed the results and functional outcomes of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair in elite rugby players. Materials and Methods: Eleven professional rugby players underwent arthroscopic ...

  7. Upper limb fractures in rugby in Huddersfield 1986-1990.

    OpenAIRE

    Eyres, K S; Abdel-Salam, A; Cleary, J

    1991-01-01

    Most injuries sustained by rugby players affect the soft tissues, and fracture is relatively uncommon. Whereas the lower limb is most affected in footballers, the upper limb tends to be injured in rugby players. Thirty consecutive fractures and ten dislocations affecting the upper limb, sustained by 35 rugby players, are reported.

  8. Epidemiology of rugby injuries sustained by Free State University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Rugby results in more hospitalisations and visits to the emergency rooms of hospitals than any other sport. It is also the sport with the highest injury rate. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and profile of the rugby injuries that were sustained by hostel-league rugby players at the University of the ...

  9. Morphological evolution of Springbok rugby players: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physique of rugby players has evolved over the course of the Twentieth Century. A novel morphological dataset was constructed of all Springbok rugby players until 2014. Although most of the change in body structure, particularly body weight, occurs during the era of professionalism, white Springbok rugby players ...

  10. Injuries at Johannesburg high school rugby festivals | Constantinou ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... with simple first aid at the primary care level. Conclusion. The number, nature and mechanisms of rugby injuries at this rugby festival were similar to numerous local and international studies of schoolboy rugby players. Adequate standardised record keeping is recommended to increase knowledge and monitor trends.

  11. Return to rugby after brain concussion: a prospective study in 35 high level rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermann, Jean Francois; Klouche, Shahnaz; Savigny, Alexis; Lefevre, Nicolas; Herman, Serge; Bohu, Yoann

    2014-12-01

    Although guidelines based on expert opinions have been developed for the immediate management and return to play of athletes after a concussion, data are lacking on this issue. Evaluate a standardized management of brain concussion among rugby players to prevent the recurrence. A prospective study was performed from September 2009 to June 2012. All rugby players who had a concussion when playing rugby were included. Patients were managed by a specialized hospital team with a specific protocol developed in collaboration with the medical staff of the rugby clubs included in the study. The series included 35 rugby players, with 23 professionals and 12 high-level players, 30 men and 5 women, mean age 23.1 ± 5.5 years old. The median number of previous concussions was 2 (0-30) episodes. According to the Cantu concussion severity classification, 3 athletes were grade 1, 12 were grade 2 and 20 were grade 3. None of the injured athletes was lost to follow-up. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of a new concussion within 3 months after the first in patients who returned to rugby. Thirty-three patients returned to rugby after a mean 22.1 ± 10 days. The recurrence rate within 3 months was 2/33 (6.1%). The median delay before returning to rugby was 21 (7-45) days. Factors associated with a delayed return to play were young age, initial loss of consciousness, severity Cantu grade 3 and post-concussive syndrome of more than 5 days. Analysis of two failures showed that the initial injury was grade 3 and that both were professional athletes and had a history of concussion. This prospective study validated the study protocol for the management of concussion in rugby players.

  12. 76 FR 66870 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rugby, ND

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-28

    ...-0433; Airspace Docket No. 11-AGL-12] Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Rugby, ND AGENCY: Federal... proposes to amend Class E airspace at Rugby, ND. Decommissioning of the Rugby non-directional beacon (NDB) at Rugby Municipal Airport, Rugby, ND, has made this action necessary for the safety and management...

  13. Fatigue and Recovery in Rugby: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Francisco; Smith, Tiaki Brett; Driller, Matthew

    2017-08-01

    The physical demands and combative nature of rugby lead to notable levels of muscle damage. In professional rugby, athletes only have a limited timeframe to recover following training sessions and competition. Through the implementation of recovery strategies, sport scientists, practitioners and coaches have sought to reduce the effect of fatigue and allow athletes to recover faster. Although some studies demonstrate that recovery strategies are extensively used by rugby athletes, the research remains equivocal concerning the efficacy of recovery strategies in rugby. Moreover, given the role of inflammation arising from muscle damage in the mediation of protein synthesis mechanisms, some considerations have been raised on the long-term effect of using certain recovery modalities that diminish inflammation. While some studies aimed to understand the effects of recovery modalities during the acute recovery phase (rugby training or competition. Given that cold modalities may potentially affect muscle size adaptations from training, their inclusion should be treated with caution and perhaps restricted to certain periods where athlete readiness is more important than increases in muscle size.

  14. The epidemiology of schoolboy rugby injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, C E; Goedeke, R; Visser, G R; van Zyl, W A; Noakes, T D

    1987-03-07

    During one 18-week season, in which players from 26 high schools played 3,350 rugby matches, 495 injuries prevented players from participating in rugby for at least 1 week; 71% occurred during matches and 29% during practices. Injury was more common during the first 4 weeks of the season and again in the same time period after the mid-season vacation. At all ages, A-team players suffered the greatest number of injuries. The safest playing positions were tight-forward and scrum-half; the most dangerous loose-forward and in the back-line excluding the scrum-half. Overall, eightmen were the most often injured players. Of all injuries 55% occurred while the player was tackling or being tackled and 18% during the loose scrum/maul. The lower limb (37%), the head and neck (29%) and the upper limb (20%) were most commonly injured, and fractures (27%), ligament/tendon injuries (25%) and muscle injuries (17%) were commonest. However, concussion injuries were underreported in 19 of the 26 schools. This study shows: that monitoring rugby injuries through correspondence results in underreporting of injuries; that rugby injuries show specific trends with age, team level, playing position, time of the season and phase of play; and that players in the different positions suffer specific injuries in predictable phases of the game. Speed of play may be the most important aetiological factor in the majority of rugby injuries.

  15. Common rugby league injuries. Recommendations for treatment and preventative measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, N

    1994-12-01

    Rugby league is the main professional team sport played in Eastern Australia. It is also very popular at a junior and amateur level. However, injuries are common because of the amount of body contact that occurs and the amount of running that is required to participate in the game. Injuries to the lower limbs account for over 50% of all injuries. The most common specific injuries are ankle lateral ligament tears, knee medial collateral and anterior cruciate ligament tears, groin musculotendinous tears, hamstring and calf muscle tears, and quadriceps muscle contusions. Head injuries are common and consist of varying degrees of concussion as well as lacerations and facial fractures. Serious head injury is rare. Some of the more common upper limb injuries are to the acromioclavicular and glenohumeral joints. Accurate diagnosis of these common injuries using appropriate history, examination and investigations is critical in organising a treatment and rehabilitation plan that will return the player to competition as soon as possible. An understanding of the mechanism of injury is also important in order to develop preventative strategies.

  16. Measuring Recovery in Elite Rugby Players: The Brief Assessment of Mood, Endocrine Changes, and Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, David A; Kilduff, Liam P; Finn, Charlotte; Jones, Rhys M; Bracken, Richard M; Mellalieu, Stephen D; Owen, Nic; Crewther, Blair T; Cook, Christian J

    2015-01-01

    There is demand in applied sport settings to measure recovery briefly and accurately. Research indicates mood disturbance as the strongest psychological predictor of mental and physical recovery. The Brief Assessment of Mood (BAM) is a shortened version of the Profile of Mood States that can be completed in less than 30 s. The purpose of this study was to examine the BAM as a quick measure of mood in relation to recovery status in elite rugby players alongside established physiological markers of recovery. Using elite rugby union players (N = 12), this study examined the utility of BAM as an indicator of mental and physical recovery in elite athletes by exploring pattern change in mood disturbance, energy index, power output, cortisol, and testosterone 36 hr before and 12 hr, 36 hr, and 60 hr after a competitive rugby match. Repeated-measures multivariate analysis of variance indicated significant changes in all variables across the 4 time points (p < .05, η(2) range = .20-.48), concurrent with previous study findings. Although visual inspection of the graphs indicated that the pattern of change for mood disturbance and energy index mapped changes in all physiological variables, only a low correlation was observed for power output (r = - .34). Although BAM scores changed significantly over time in accordance with the hypotheses, further testing is required to confirm the utility of the BAM as a measure of recovery. The results indicate that the BAM could be used as 1 indicator of recovery status alongside other measures.

  17. Teaching Touch Rugby in Physical Education Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Steven F.; Alford, Alan

    2004-01-01

    Physical educators are always looking for new ideas that introduce moderate-to-vigorous activity, involve skill, encourage teamwork, and increase student interest. Touch rugby has the potential to contribute to these outcomes. Though the sport is not new, it is not a mainstream sport. Therefore, students see it as something new. Their motivation…

  18. The Nature and Frequency of Rugby Injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-11-16

    Nov 16, 1974 ... medical services that are sport-orientated (with the recent exception of the University ... field and weather conditions, the time of injury in relation to the practice ..... the truth be known, the type of youth that engages in vigorous contact ... prevention and management of rugby injuries should come from doctors ...

  19. Pacific Island rugby: Histories, mobilities, comparisons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besnier, N.

    2014-01-01

    The migration of rugby players from Fiji and neighbouring Pacific Island nations poses fundamental questions about the way in which sport is embedded in historical, political, social and global dynamics, all of which give specific meanings to sports and those who play it. An approach that bestows a

  20. Investigating the relationship between Malaysian rugby sevens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is is to investigate the relationship between rugbgby match officials physical fitness to their perfor formance. 132 rugby side match official seven wewere selected as the respondent of the study. ANOANOVA indicated no significant differences [F = (3, 128) = 0.322, p = 0.809] in physical fitness ac ...

  1. Acromioclavicular disruption in first class rugby players.

    OpenAIRE

    Webb, J; Bannister, G

    1992-01-01

    In a random sample of 105 first class rugby players, 45% gave a history of injury of the acromioclavicular joint. All continued to play at the highest level. The effects of the injury appeared to be minimal. Supraspinatus impingement syndrome commonly associated with acromioclavicular pathology was sought, but not found.

  2. European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaller, K.

    1995-01-01

    Different instruments used by European Commission of the European Union for financial support radioactive waste management activities in the Russian Federation are outlined. Three particular programmes in the area are described

  3. Incidence of and risk factors for traumatic anterior shoulder dislocation: an epidemiologic study in high-school rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takayuki; Ota, Chihiro; Urayama, Shingo; Maki, Nobukazu; Nagayama, Masataka; Kaketa, Takefumi; Takazawa, Yuji; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2014-11-01

    The incidence of reinjuries due to glenohumeral instability and the major risk factors for primary anterior shoulder dislocation in youth rugby players have been unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence, mechanisms, and intrinsic risk factors of shoulder dislocation in elite high-school rugby union teams during the 2012 season. A total of 378 male rugby players from 7 high-school teams were investigated by use of self-administered preseason and postseason questionnaires. The prevalence of a history of shoulder dislocation was 14.8%, and there were 21 events of primary shoulder dislocation of the 74 overall shoulder injuries that were sustained during the season (3.2 events per 1000 player-hours of match exposure). During the season, 54.3% of the shoulders with at least one episode of shoulder dislocation had reinjury. This study also indicated that the persistence of glenohumeral instability might affect the player's self-assessed condition, regardless of the incidence during the current season. By a multivariate logistic regression method, a history of shoulder dislocation on the opposite side before the season was found to be a risk factor for contralateral primary shoulder dislocation (odds ratio, 3.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-9.97; P = .02). High-school rugby players with a history of shoulder dislocation are not playing at full capacity and also have a significant rate of reinjury as well as a high risk of dislocating the other shoulder. These findings may be helpful in deciding on the proper treatment of primary anterior shoulder dislocation in young rugby players. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The efficacy of a movement control exercise programme to reduce injuries in youth rugby: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hislop, M D; Stokes, K A; Williams, S; McKay, C D; England, M; Kemp, S P T

    2016-01-01

    Background Injuries to youth rugby players have become an increasingly prominent health concern, highlighting the importance of developing and implementing appropriate preventive strategies. A growing body of evidence from other youth sports has demonstrated the efficacy of targeted exercise regimens to reduce injury risk. However, studies have yet to investigate the effect of such interventions in youth contact sport populations like rugby union. Objective To determine the efficacy of an evidence-based movement control exercise programme compared with a sham exercise programme to reduce injury risk in youth rugby players. Exercise programme compliance between trial arms and the effect of coach attitudes on compliance will also be evaluated. Setting School rugby coaches in England will be the target of the researcher intervention, with the effects of the injury prevention programmes being measured in male youth players aged 14–18 years in school rugby programmes over the 2015–2016 school winter term. Methods A cluster-randomised controlled trial with schools randomly allocated to either a movement control exercise programme or a sham exercise programme, both of which are coach-delivered. Injury measures will derive from field-based injury surveillance, with match and training exposure and compliance recorded. A questionnaire will be used to evaluate coach attitudes, knowledge, beliefs and behaviours both prior to and on the conclusion of the study period. Outcome measures Summary injury measures (incidence, severity and burden) will be compared between trial arms, as will the influence of coach attitudes on compliance and injury burden. Additionally, changes in these outcomes through using the exercise programmes will be evaluated. Trial registration number ISRTCNN13422001. PMID:27900148

  5. Recognition and Prevention of Rugby Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasin, J D; Martin, D F; Curl, W W

    1989-06-01

    In brief: Rugby is a popular, strenuous contact sport that demands almost continuous action by the players. Players, coaches, and physicians must be aware of the potential for and types of injuries that occur during matches and of ways to avoid, or at least reduce, this number and severity. Minor and moderate injuries are more frequent than severe injuries, but all must be regarded seriously. Concussions, although relatively rare, can have serious consequences, and cervical spine injuries can be catastrophic. Player fitness and conditioning and a pregame warm-up are all essential for preventing injuries. Equally important are coaching, adherence to the rules of the game, and avoidance of dangerous play. If these measures are practiced consistently, rugby will be safer.

  6. Severe brachial plexus injuries in rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaf, F; Mannan, K; Bharania, P; Sewell, M D; Di Mascio, L; Sinisi, M

    2012-03-01

    We describe the mechanisms, pattern of injuries, management and outcomes of severe injuries to the brachial plexus sustained during the play of rugby. Thirteen cases of severe injury to the brachial plexus caused by tackles in rugby had detailed clinical assessment, and operative exploration of the brachial plexus. Seventeen spinal nerves were avulsed, two were ruptured and there were traction lesions in continuity of 24 spinal nerves. The pattern of nerve lesion was related to the posture of the neck and the forequarter at the moment of impact. Early repair by nerve transfer enabled some functional recovery, and decompression of lesions in continuity was followed by recovery of nerve function and relief of pain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High Foot Implosion Experiments in Rugby Hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Joseph; Leidinger, J.-P.; Callahan, D.; Kaiser, P.; Morice, O.; Marion, D.; Moody, J. D.; Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P.; Kritcher, A. L.; Milovich, J. L.; Strozzi, D.; Hinkel, D.; Michel, P.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Pak, A.; Dewald, E. L.; Divol, L.; Khan, S.; Rygg, R.; Hurricane, O.; Lawrence Livermore National Lab Team; CEA/DAM Team

    2015-11-01

    The rugby hohlraum design is aimed at providing uniform x-ray drive on the capsule while minimizing the need for crossed beam energy transfer (CBET). As part of a series of experiments at the NIF using rugby hohlraums, design improvements in dual axis shock tuning experiments produced some of the most symmetric shocks measured on implosion experiments at the NIF. Additionally, tuning of the in-flight shell and hot spot shape have demonstrated that capsules can be tuned between oblate and prolate with measured velocities of nearly 340 km/s. However, these experimental measurements were accompanied by high levels of Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) that may result from the long inner beam path length, reamplification of the inner SRS by the outers, significant (CBET) or a combination of these. All rugby shots results were achieved with lower levels of hot electrons that can preheat the DT fuel layer for increased adiabat and reduced areal density. Detailed results from these experiments and those planned throughout the summer will be presented and compared with results obtained from cylindrical hohlraums. This work performed under the auspices of U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Lab under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  8. Rugby and Shoulder Trauma: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, R; Tecame, A; Torre, G; Narbona, P; Maffulli, N; Denaro, V

    2015-01-01

    Rugby is a popular contact sport worldwide. Collisions and tackles during matches and practices often lead to traumatic injuries of the shoulder. This review reports on the epidemiology of injuries, type of lesions and treatment of shoulder injuries, risk factors, such as player position, and return to sport activities. Electronic searches through PubMed (Medline), EMBASE, and Cochrane Library retrieved studies concerning shoulder injuries in rugby players. Data regarding incidence, type and mechanisms of lesion, risk factors and return to sport were extracted and analyzed. The main reported data were incidence, mechanism of injury and type of lesion. Most of the studies report tackle as the main event responsible for shoulder trauma (between 50% and 85%), while the main lesions reported were Bankart lesions, Superior Labral tear from Anterior to Posterior (SLAP tears), anterior dislocation and rotator cuff tears. Open or arthroscopic repair improve clinical outcomes. Shoulder lesions are common injuries in rugby players. Surgical treatment seems to be effective in for rotator cuff tears and shoulder instability. More and better designed studies are needed for a higher Level of Evidence analysis of this topic.

  9. The role of the visual hardware system in rugby performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study explores the importance of the 'hardware' factors of the visual system in the game of rugby. A group of professional and club rugby players were tested and the results compared. The results were also compared with the established norms for elite athletes. The findings indicate no significant difference in hardware ...

  10. Playing time between senior rugby players of different ethnic groups ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Following the formation of a single body to govern rugby in South. Africa in 1992, the ... Players from across the country were identified and invited to various ... different levels of rugby cannot be evaluated because the players representing ..... programmes for youth and young adults is the disparity in body size and fitness of ...

  11. Teaching Youth Rugby: Instructional Strategies and Models that Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Edward B.; Caram, Courtney; Griffin, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Rookie Rugby is a continuous team invasion game of tag with a ball. It is also inclusive giving every participant an active role regardless of their size, shape, gender, or experience. In essence, all players are quarterbacks who can run, catch, pass, tag, evade, and score. Thus, rugby empowers students to create and react, cooperate and compete,…

  12. Inadequate pre-season preparation of schoolboy rugby players - a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in prospective studies at the same schools. The players' knowledge of techniques known to prevent rugby injuries was inadequate and too little attention was paid at the start of the rugby season to training and coaching techniques to reduce injury risk. Coaching errors may therefore have predisposed players to injury.

  13. Impact of the International Rugby Board's experimental law ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Injury causation was similar for the two competitions but there were significantly fewer ruck/maul (p=0.001) and more tackled (p=0.010) injuries in Super 14 compared with English Premiership rugby and fewer collision (p=0.002) and more tackling (p<0.001) injuries compared with Rugby World Cup. In the Vodacom Cup, ...

  14. Nature and proportion of total injuries at the Stellenbosch Rugby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to compare the nature and proportion of total injuries occurring at Stellenbosch Rugby Football Club in Stellenbosch, South Africa, between the years 1973 - 1975 and 2003 - 2005. Design. Retrospective, descriptive study. Main outcome measures. Injured rugby players from the ...

  15. Mental skills of South African male high school rugby players ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to establish preliminary South African high school rugby norms for the BMSQ. The sample consisted of 152 male high school rugby players from two schools in the Ethekwini region. Preliminary norms are presented in the form of means and standard deviations. Results are compared with those of ...

  16. Disabling injuries of the cervical spine in Argentine rugby over the last 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secin, F P; Poggi, E J; Luzuriaga, F; Laffaye, H A

    1999-02-01

    To investigate the incidence and risk factors of disabling injuries to the cervical spine in rugby in Argentina. A retrospective review of all cases reported to the Medical Committee of the Argentine Rugby Union (UAR) and Rugby Amistad Foundation was carried out including a follow up by phone. Cumulative binomial distribution, chi 2 test, Fisher test, and comparison of proportions were used to analyse relative incidence and risk of injury by position and by phase of play (Epi Info 6, Version 6.04a). Eighteen cases of disabling injury to the cervical spine were recorded from 1977 to 1997 (0.9 cases per year). The forwards (14 cases) were more prone to disabling injury of the cervical spine than the backs (four cases) (p = 0.03). Hookers (9/18) were at highest risk of injury (p < 0.01). The most frequent cervical injuries occurred at the 4th, 5th, and 6th vertebrae. Seventeen of the injuries occurred during match play. Set scrums were responsible for most of the injuries (11/18) but this was not statistically significant (p = 0.44). The mean age of the injured players was 22. Tetraplegia was initially found in all cases. Physical rehabilitation has been limited to the proximal muscles of the upper limbs, except for two cases of complete recovery. One death, on the seventh day after injury, was reported. The forwards suffered a higher number of injuries than the backs and this difference was statistically significant. The chance of injury for hookers was statistically higher than for the rest of the players and it was particularly linked to scrummaging. However, the number of injuries incurred in scrums was not statistically different from the number incurred in other phases of play.

  17. Reconceptualising the Standard of Care in Sport: The Case of Youth Rugby in England and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Greenfield

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sport is an important area of civil society in both South Africa and England, and this article is broadly concerned with the relationship between sport and personal injury. More specifically, the article compares how rugby is regulated by the tort of negligence in England and delict in South Africa respectively. Regarding liability, for sport there are very specific factors that need to be taken into account. The article is concerned with, firstly, the broader context of sport as an important social and cultural activity, and secondly the specific sporting context that includes the rules of the game as well as the playing culture, with a focus on rugby at junior level. Through a critical and comparative analysis of how the standards of care in sport have been developed in both jurisdictions, the aim of this article is to consider how sport specific elements can be incorporated into the traditional legal principles. This comparative analysis contextualises the various discussions in the light of the differences between the English tort of negligence and the South African law of delict. Our argument is that the context and specificity of rugby should be more explicitly taken into account when evaluating potential liability. To establish a standard of care for sport is complex, with many factors to be taken into account and balanced against one another. The law of negligence/delict therefore needs to be adaptable and flexible to resolve new situations where injuries have occurred. Even in established situations where liability has been previously determined, novel events do occur and knowledge develops that requires a reconsideration of the principles that govern liability. In junior rugby, the risk of very serious injuries is relatively small and the law needs to tread a cautious path through liability, ensuring it is a vehicle that promotes sport rather than creating barriers to its enjoyment and practice. A greater understanding of sport

  18. Shoulder injuries in rugby: Report of its incidence and severity in a group of Portuguese male players during a season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cruz-Ferreira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Rugby union is a fast growing sport all over the world, due to its nature as a contact sport it is frequent for players to sustain injuries, more specifically on the shoulder joint, were the injuries occur with greater severity. Method: The authors present a cohort prospective study focusing on the incidence and severity of shoulder injuries in a population of 51 male of top-tier Portuguese Rugby Union players aiming, to characterize relevant epidemiological aspects, conducted between September 2013 and May 2014. All data was collected and recorded according to the consensus statement for epidemiological studies in Rugby Union. Results: A total injury incidence rate of 23.68 per 1000 player match-hours was found with a mean severity of injuries of 34.22, a value higher than expected when comparing with previous studies. New and recurrent injuries occurred in a 7:2 ratio. Reported mean severity of 41.57 days in new injuries versus 8.50 days. Conclusion: The proportion of recurrent injuries alerts us for the importance of preventing measures. Poor physical condition of the players seems to have contributed to the increased number of shoulder injuries of our target population. Specific training programs to improve muscle strength and directed training to improve correct technical aspects of the tackling engagement during the fatigue periods of the game could be very important in the prevention of shoulder injuries. Resumen: Objetivo: El rugby es un deporte de rápido crecimiento en todo el mundo, debido a su naturaleza, tratándose de un deporte de contacto es frecuente que los jugadores sufran lesiones, más específicamente en la articulación del hombro, donde las lesiones suceden con mayor severidad. Método: Los autores presentan un estudio de cohorte prospectivo centrado en la incidencia y la gravedad de las lesiones de hombro en una población de 51 jugadores de primer nivel de Rugby de la liga portuguesa, caracterizando aspectos

  19. Acceleratory match-play demands of a Super Rugby team over a competitive season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Shaun M; Venter, Rachel E; du Toit, Stephan; Kraak, Wilbur J

    2015-01-01

    The match-play demands of rugby union have increased over time, and these demands should be quantified so as to provide a basis for optimal player loading during training. The primary aim of this article was to quantify accelerations, decelerations, impacts and aggregated body demands during the first half of match-play in a Super Rugby team. The secondary aim was to determine whether these characteristics are position-specific. Thirty-three players were monitored for 14 matches using global positioning system units with inbuilt microtechnology. Players were grouped according to positional roles and data were analysed for those who completed the entire duration of the first half of a given match. Forwards sustained more (d = 0.44) high-intensity impacts and greater (d = 0.26) aggregated body demands, while backs had more moderate (d = 0.55) and heavy accelerations (d = 0.76), and moderate (d = 0.23) and heavy decelerations (d = 0.54). These differences suggest that conditioning and recovery strategies should reflect the physical demands placed on players in different playing positions. Forwards should be conditioned with a focus on impacts and require longer recovery for the same duration of playing time, whereas conditioning for backs should emphasise rapid accelerations and decelerations.

  20. Effects of Variable Resistance Using Chains on Bench Throw Performance in Trained Rugby Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godwin, Mark S; Fernandes, John F T; Twist, Craig

    2018-04-01

    Godwin, MS, Fernandes, JFT, and Twist, C. Effects of variable resistance using chains on bench throw performance in trained rugby players. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 950-954, 2018-This study sought to determine the effects of variable resistance using chain resistance on bench throw performance. Eight male rugby union players (19.4 ± 2.3 years, 88.8 ± 6.0 kg, 1RM 105.6 ± 17.0 kg) were recruited from a national league team. In a randomized crossover design, participant's performed 3 bench throws at 45% one repetition maximum (1RM) at a constant load (no chains) or a variable load (30% 1RM constant load and 15% 1RM variable load; chains) with 7 days between conditions. For each repetition, the peak and mean velocity, peak power, peak acceleration, and time to peak velocity were recorded. Differences in peak and mean power were very likely trivial and unclear between the chain and no chain conditions, respectively. Possibly greater peak and likely greater mean bar velocity were accompanied by likely to most likely greater bar velocity between 50 and 400 ms from initiation of bench press in the chain condition compared with the no chain condition. Accordingly, bar acceleration was very likely greater in the chain condition compared with the no chain condition. In conclusion, these results show that the inclusion of chain resistance can acutely enhance several variables in the bench press throw and gives support to this type of training.

  1. Concussion knowledge and management practices among coaches and medical staff in Irish professional rugby teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraas, M R; Coughlan, G F; Hart, E C; McCarthy, C

    2015-06-01

    Self-reported concussion rates among U-20 and elite rugby union players in Ireland are 45-48%. Half of these injuries go unreported. Accurate knowledge of concussion signs and symptoms and appropriate management practices among coaches and medical staff is important to improve the welfare of players. Examine concussion knowledge among coaches, and management techniques among medical staff of professional Irish rugby teams. Surveys were administered to 11 coaches and 12 medical staff at the end of the 2010-2011 season. Coaches demonstrated an accurate knowledge of concussion with a good understanding of concussion-related symptoms. Medical staff reported using a variety of methods for assessing concussion and making return-to-play decisions. Reliance on subjective clinical methods was evident, with less reliance on objective postural stability performance. Overall, the coaches in this investigation have accurate knowledge of concussion and medical staff use effective techniques for managing this injury. On-going education is needed to assist coaches in identifying concussion signs and symptoms. It is recommended that medical staff increase their reliance on objective methods for assessment and return-to-play decision making.

  2. The accuracy and reproducibility of video assessment in the pitch-side management of concussion in elite rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, G W; Kemp, S P T; Raftery, M

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the accuracy and reliability of side-line video review of head impact events to aid identification of concussion in elite sport. Diagnostic accuracy and inter-rater agreement study. Immediate care, match day and team doctors involved in the 2015 Rugby Union World Cup viewed 20 video clips showing broadcaster's footage of head impact events occurring during elite Rugby matches. Subjects subsequently recorded whether any criteria warranting permanent removal from play or medical room head injury assessment were present. The accuracy of these ratings were compared to consensus expert opinion by calculating mean sensitivity and specificity across raters. The reproducibility of doctor's decisions was additionally assessed using raw agreement and Gwets AC1 chance corrected agreement coefficient. Forty rugby medicine doctors were included in the study. Compared to the expert reference standard overall sensitivity and specificity of doctors decisions were 77.5% (95% CI 73.1-81.5%) and 53.3% (95% CI 48.2-58.2%) respectively. Overall there was raw agreement of 67.8% (95% CI 57.9-77.7%) between doctors across all video clips. Chance corrected Gwets AC1 agreement coefficient was 0.39 (95% CI 0.17-0.62), indicating fair agreement. Rugby World Cup doctors' demonstrated moderate accuracy and fair reproducibility in head injury event decision making when assessing video clips of head impact events. The use of real-time video may improve the identification, decision making and management of concussion in elite sports. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Finger Injuries in Football and Rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzinga, Kate E; Chung, Kevin C

    2017-02-01

    Football and rugby athletes are at increased risk of finger injuries given the full-contact nature of these sports. Some players may return to play early with protective taping, splinting, and casting. Others require a longer rehabilitation period and prolonged time away from the field. The treating hand surgeon must weigh the benefits of early return to play for the current season and future playing career against the risks of reinjury and long-term morbidity, including post-traumatic arthritis and decreased range of motion and strength. Each player must be comprehensively assessed and managed with an individualized treatment plan. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Intermittent claudication in a professional rugby player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, A E; Lewis, W A

    1992-04-01

    Intermittent claudication in a professional rugby player is described. The typical features of a delayed and difficult diagnosis of an external iliac artery stenosis were found. The noninvasive diagnostic protocol used to investigate this young patient with a minimal arterial lesion enabled accurate localization and angioplasty to be performed at the same time as diagnostic angiography. The patient was symptom free with normal arterial pressures on follow-up. It is suggested that appropriate noninvasive investigations should be performed before angiography in young people with minimal lesions.

  5. A rugby-shaped cavity for the LMJ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenboomgaerde, M.; Bastian, J.; Casner, A.; Galmiche, D.; Jadaud, J.P.; Lafitte, S.; Liberatore, S.; Malinie, G.; Philippe, F.

    2008-01-01

    Numerical studies show that a rugby-shaped hohlraum for indirect drive laser ignition has some advantages: it allows a better symmetry for the X-ray irradiation of the central target and it required less laser power. Rugby-shaped cavities have been tested successfully at the Omega facility. The energetic advantage is all the more important as the cavity is bigger. Simulations have shown that a rugby-shaped hohlraum plus adequate materials for the intern wall plus an optimization of the central target could open the way to an ignition with only 160 laser beams at the LMJ (Megajoule Laser) facility. (A.C.)

  6. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hendricks, S. Vol 24, No 2 (2012) - Articles The incidence and severity of injuries at the 2011 South African Rugby Union (SARU) Youth Week tournaments. Abstract PDF · Vol 25, No 1 (2013) - Articles Attitudes and behaviours of top-level junior rugby union coaches towards the coaching of proper contact technique in the ...

  7. A rugby-shaped cavity for the LMJ; Une cavite en forme de ballon de rugby pour le LMJ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenboomgaerde, M.; Bastian, J.; Casner, A.; Galmiche, D.; Jadaud, J.P.; Lafitte, S.; Liberatore, S.; Malinie, G.; Philippe, F. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France)

    2008-07-01

    Numerical studies show that a rugby-shaped hohlraum for indirect drive laser ignition has some advantages: it allows a better symmetry for the X-ray irradiation of the central target and it required less laser power. Rugby-shaped cavities have been tested successfully at the Omega facility. The energetic advantage is all the more important as the cavity is bigger. Simulations have shown that a rugby-shaped hohlraum plus adequate materials for the intern wall plus an optimization of the central target could open the way to an ignition with only 160 laser beams at the LMJ (Megajoule Laser) facility. (A.C.)

  8. Rugby--The New Kid on the Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Jim

    1979-01-01

    A brief description of the rules and play for rugby are presented along with arguments for its inclusion and promotion in athletic programs. It is economical, exciting, individualistic, social, and fun. (JMF)

  9. A rugby tournament for CERN's 50th anniversary

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 4 April the rugby pitch at the Meyrin sports centre will be the venue for the Swiss Rugby Schools' tournament, organised by the CERN-Meyrin-St Genis Rugby Club. The organisers will be unmistakable, kitted out in CERN Staff Association t-shirts specially dedicated to the CERN clubs for the Organization's 50th anniversary. Come along and cheer on the 250 players from Switzerland and neighbouring France, aged from 6 to 18, who will do battle on the rugby field over the course of 50 matches from 11.00 a.m. to 3.30 p.m. At the end of the tournament, the winners will be presented with 50th anniversary memorabilia by the Mayor and a CERN representative who will say a few words about the Laboratory.

  10. Laser-plasma interactions and implosion symmetry in rugby hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Pierre; Berger, R. L.; Lasinski, B. F.; Ross, J. S.; Divol, L.; Williams, E. A.; Meeker, D.; Langdon, B. A.; Park, H.; Amendt, P.

    2011-10-01

    Cross-beam energy transfer is studied in the context of ``rugby''-hohlraum experiments at the Omega laser facility in FY11, in preparation for future NIF experiments. The transfer acts in opposite direction between rugby and cylinder hohlraums due to the different beam pointing geometries and flow patterns. Its interaction with backscatter is also different as both happen in similar regions inside rugby hohlraums. We will analyze the effects of non-linearities and temporal beam smoothing on energy transfer using the code pF3d. Calculations will be compared to experiments at Omega; analysis of future rugby hohlraum experiments on NIF will also be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. Optimizing implosion yields using rugby-shaped hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Sook; Robey, H.; Amendt, P.; Philippe, F.; Casner, A.; Caillaud, T.; Bourgade, J.-L.; Landoas, O.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R.; Seguin, F.; Rosenberg, M.; Glebov, V. Yu.

    2009-11-01

    We present the first experimental results on optimizing capsule implosion experiments by using rugby-shaped hohlraums [1] on the Omega laser, University of Rochester. This campaign compared D2-filled capsule performance between standard cylindrical Au hohlraums and rugby-shaped hohlraums for demonstrating the energetics advantages of the rugby geometry. Not only did the rugby-shaped hohlraums show nearly 20% more x-ray drive energy over the cylindrical hohlraums, but also the high-performance design of the capsules provided nearly 20 times more DD neutrons than in any previous Omega hohlraum campaigns, thereby enabling use of neutron temporal diagnostics. Comparison with simulations on neutron burn histories, x-ray core imaging, backscattered laser light and radiation temperature are presented. [1] P. Amendt et al., Phys. Plasmas 15, 012702 (2008)

  12. A comparison of talented south african and english youth rugby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... reference to game-specific-, anthropometric-, physical and motor variables. ... English youth rugby players (18-year old) with reference to game-specific-, anthropometric- and physical and motor variables. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  13. A simulated rugby match protocol induces physiological fatigue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kathryn van Boom

    physiological fatigue may develop during a rugby simulation, no differences were ..... ensure player safety and was deemed safe to have live one-on- one scrummaging .... This work was supported by the National Research. Foundation under ...

  14. Sports-related concussion relevant to the South African rugby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    memory loss and fatigue are particularly significant in young people .... modified for rugby, to assess recent memory. ... and non-concussed players (Table III). 31 ..... Petterson J, Skelton R. Glucose enhances long-term declarative memory in.

  15. A systematic review of concussion in rugby league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andrew; Iverson, Grant L; Levi, Christopher R; Schofield, Peter W; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Kohler, Ryan M N; Stanwell, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Concussion remains one of the inherent risks of participation in rugby league. While other injuries incurred by rugby league players have been well studied, less focus and attention has been directed towards concussion. The current review examined all articles published in English from 1900 up to June 2013 pertaining to concussion in rugby league players. Publications were retrieved via six databases using the key search terms: rugby league, league, football; in combination with injury terms: athletic injuries, concussion, sports concussion, sports-related concussion, brain concussion, brain injury, brain injuries, mild traumatic brain injury, mTBI, traumatic brain injury, TBI, craniocerebral trauma, head injury and brain damage. Observational, cohort, correlational, cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were all included. 199 rugby league injury publications were identified. 39 (20%) were related in some way to concussion. Of the 39 identified articles, 6 (15%) had the main aim of evaluating concussion, while the other 33 reported on concussion incidence as part of overall injury data analyses. Rugby league concussion incidence rates vary widely from 0.0 to 40.0/1000 playing hours, depending on the definition of injury (time loss vs no time loss). The incidence rates vary across match play versus training session, seasons (winter vs summer) and playing position (forwards vs backs). The ball carrier has been found to be at greater risk for injury than tacklers. Concussion accounts for 29% of all injuries associated with illegal play, but only 9% of injuries sustained in legal play. In comparison with other collision sports, research evaluating concussion in rugby league is limited. With such limited published rugby league data, there are many aspects of concussion that require attention, and future research may be directed towards these unanswered questions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  16. Shoulder injuries in professional rugby: a retrospective analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Horsley, Ian G; Fowler, Elizabeth M; Rolf, Christer G

    2013-01-01

    Background In the literature, little is known about the level and pattern of rugby injuries. Of the shoulder injuries reported, 51% of these are caused during a tackle, and 65% of all match injuries affected the shoulder. Objective The study aims to describe a sport-specific unique intra-articular shoulder pathology of professional rugby players, who presented with persistent pain and dysfunction despite physiotherapeutic treatment and rest. Method This study is a retrospective analysis set a...

  17. Implosion spectroscopy in Rugby hohlraums on OMEGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Franck; Tassin, Veronique; Bitaud, Laurent; Seytor, Patricia; Reverdin, Charles

    2014-10-01

    The rugby hohlraum concept has been validated in previous experiments on the OMEGA laser facility. This new hohlraum type can now be used as a well-characterized experimental platform to study indirect drive implosion, at higher radiation temperatures than would be feasible at this scale with classical cylindrical hohlraums. Recent experiments have focused on the late stages of implosion and hotspot behavior. The capsules included both a thin buried Titanium tracer layer, 0-3 microns from the inner surface, Argon dopant in the deuterium gas fuel and Germanium doped CH shells, providing a variety of spectral signatures of the plasma conditions in different parts of the target. X-ray spectroscopy and imaging were used to study compression, Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities growth at the inner surface and mix between the shell and gas.

  18. Aerobic, Anaerobic, and Skill Performance with Regard to Classification in Wheelchair Rugby Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Kosmol, Andrzej; Molik, Bartosz; Yilla, Abu B.; Laskin, James J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the sport-specific performance of wheelchair rugby players with regard to their classification. A group of 30 male athletes from the Polish Wheelchair Rugby League participated in the study. The seven International Wheelchair Rugby Federation classes were collapsed into four groups. Standardized measures of…

  19. Concussions in Community-Level Rugby: Risk, Knowledge, and Attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R Kyle; Hrubeniuk, Travis J; Witiw, Christopher D; MacDonald, Peter; Leiter, Jeff

    Rugby is a popular collision sport where participants are at risk of sustaining concussions. Most research focuses on elite-level or youth divisions. Comparatively, little is known about adult community rugby. The aim of this research was to estimate the risk of sustaining a concussion during participation in community-level rugby and summarize the collective knowledge and attitudes toward concussions. Concussion symptoms will be reported frequently among community-level rugby players and a substantial proportion will report a willingness to continue participation despite the risk. Cross-sectional analysis. Level 3. An anonymous, voluntary survey was administered to all 464 senior rugby players registered in the province of Manitoba in 2015. Two primary domains were assessed: (1) concussion history from the preceding season including occurrence, symptomatology, and impact on daily activities and (2) knowledge and attitudes toward concussion risks and management. In total, 284 (61.2%) rugby players responded. Concussive symptoms were reported by 106 (37.3%). Of those, 87% were formally diagnosed with a concussion and 27% missed school and/or work as a result. The danger of playing while symptomatic was recognized by 93.7% of participants, yet 29% indicated they would continue while symptomatic. Furthermore, 39% felt they were letting others down if they stopped playing due to a concussion. Concussive symptoms were common among the study cohort and had a notable impact on daily activities. A high proportion of players were willing to continue while experiencing symptoms despite recognizing the danger. The observed discord between knowledge and attitudes implicates a culture of "playing injured." Understanding the risk of injury may affect an individual's decision to participate in community-level rugby. Moreover, evidence of discord between the knowledge and attitudes of players may direct future research initiatives and league governance.

  20. Rotational and peak torque stiffness of rugby shoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballal, Moez S; Usuelli, Federico Giuseppe; Montrasio, Umberto Alfieri; Molloy, Andy; La Barbera, Luigi; Villa, Tomaso; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2014-09-01

    Sports people always strive to avoid injury. Sports shoe designs in many sports have been shown to affect traction and injury rates. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the differing stiffness and torque in rugby boots that are designed for the same effect. Five different types of rugby shoes commonly worn by scrum forwards were laboratory tested for rotational stiffness and peak torque on a natural playing surface generating force patterns that would be consistent with a rugby scrum. The overall internal rotation peak torque was 57.75±6.26 Nm while that of external rotation was 56.55±4.36 Nm. The Peak internal and external rotational stiffness were 0.696±0.1 and 0.708±0.06 Nm/deg respectively. Our results, when compared to rotational stiffness and peak torques of football shoes published in the literature, show that shoes worn by rugby players exert higher rotational and peak torque stiffness compared to football shoes when tested on the same natural surfaces. There was significant difference between the tested rugby shoes brands. In our opinion, to maximize potential performance and lower the potential of non-contact injury, care should be taken in choosing boots with stiffness appropriate to the players main playing role. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pupil Behavior in Junior Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, D.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of the exploratory study reported here was to investigate the nature of children's behavior in unstreamed, informal, junior classrooms where the children sit in small groups and the incidence of private teacher talk to small groups and individual children is high. (Author)

  2. 300 Junior Novel Anticipation Guides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polette, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    In this book, the author has created reproducible anticipation guides to 300 popular junior novels (grades 4-8) ranging from classics like Ben and Me and Cricket in Times Square to the current award winner, Kira, Kira. The book consists of 300 reproducible sets of open ended values questions to pique the interest of readers. Librarians and…

  3. Junior College Faculty Job Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Joanne

    Some of the research done to date concerning job satisfaction of junior college faculty is reviewed in this "Brief." Part I of the "Brief" describes four frameworks that have been applied to the analysis of job satisfaction: the traditional approach, the two-factor approach, the need hierarchy, and the cognitive dissonance approach. Part II…

  4. Junior PC-Kørekort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansbøl, Mikala; Mathiasen, Helle

    udviklingsprojekt med forsøg med DANSK IT's Junior PC-kørekort® som metode og redskab til at evaluere og dokumentere elevernes IT-kompetencer. Projektet blev gennemført i perioden fra 2002-2003 og afsluttet i foråret 2003. Rapporten er baseret på kvalitative case studier af elever og læreres arbejde med Junior PC......-kørekort® prøverne. DANSK IT's Junior PC-kørekort® kan betragtes som et forsøg på at etablere en bestemt fælleskulturel tilgang til elevernes IT-kompetencer i folkeskolen. Ud fra et situeret læringsperspektiv problematiserer rapporten anvendelsen af de standardiserede prøver som metode til at dokumentere og evaluere...... elevernes IT-kompetencer. Rapporten (2MB) fylder 80 sider ekskl. bilag. Bemærk, at forskningsrapporten handler om Dansk IT's Junior PC-kørekort - ikke at forveksle med det IT-bevis for folkeskolens elever, som Undevisningsministeriet har udviklet. Dette IT-bevis koncept skiftede navn i januar 2004, hvor...

  5. Holography in the Junior High.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszkiewicz, Frank

    1988-01-01

    Examines the use of holography in the art technology program of a junior high school. Characterizing holography as a valuable artistic experience and discovery experience and stressing the importance of student interest and involvement, the author discusses the necessary equipment for the project and includes two diagrams of a holographic setup.…

  6. Harmonization of European neurology education: the junior doctor's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macerollo, Antonella; Struhal, Walter; Sellner, Johann

    2013-10-29

    The objective of this article, written by executives of the European Association of Young Neurologists and Trainees (EAYNT), is to illustrate the status quo of neurology training in Europe and give an outlook on ongoing efforts and prospects for junior neurologists. The European Union is an economic and political union that currently encompasses 27 member states with more than 500 million inhabitants (or 7.3% of the world population) (interested readers are referred to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Union). Countries of the European Union act as a single market with free movement of citizens, goods, services, and finances. As a consequence, a diploma and postgraduate training obtained in one EU country will be automatically recognized by all other EU member states. At the Lisbon European Council in March 2000, the Heads of State or Government signed a treaty that expresses their ambition of making Europe "the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion" (www.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lisbon_Strategy). More than 1.6 million physicians in all the different medical specialties are represented by the European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS). The UEMS was founded in 1958 and the objectives include the study, promotion, and harmonization of the highest level of training of medical specialists, medical practice, and health care within the European Union. The European Board of Neurology (UEMS-EBN; www.uems-neuroboard.org) is in charge of the implementation of the UEMS policy regarding neurology.

  7. Effect of squatting on sprinting performance and repeated exposure to complex training in male rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comyns, Thomas M; Harrison, Andrew J; Hennessy, Liam K

    2010-03-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effect of a heavy weight training exercise on sprinting performance and on the effect of repeated exposure to a complex training protocol. Eleven male rugby union players (age 20.9 +/- 3.1 years) participated in the study, which involved 5 separate testing sessions. Back squat 3 repetition maximum (3RM) was established in session 1. Sessions 2-5 were identical and involved the subjects completing a 30-m sprint before and after a 3RM back squat protocol. Four minutes of rest was given between the back squatting and the posttest 30-m sprint. All sprint trials were measured with a laser measurement device (LAVEG, Jenoptik, Jena, Germany). Sprint time and instantaneous, average, and maximum velocity were the dependent variables. The criterion for significance was set at an alpha level of p > or = 0.05. No significant improvement was evident for any of the testing sessions (p > or = 0.05). In session 1, there was a significant increase in 30-m time and a significant reduction in average 30-m velocity and maximum velocity (p benefits in sprinting may not have been realized because of intra and intersubject variations in sprint technique. The session x phase interaction revealed a significant improvement in the pre to posttest changes in instantaneous velocity at 20 m (p = 0.035) and 30 m (p = 0.036) from session 1 to session 4. This indicates that the rugby players may be able to learn to apply the potentiation effects of complex training. From a practical perspective, players may need repeated exposure to this training modality to gain benefit from it, and this should be reflected in program planning.

  8. COL5A1 gene variants previously associated with reduced soft tissue injury risk are associated with elite athlete status in rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Shane M; Kilduff, Liam P; Erskine, Robert M; Day, Stephen H; Stebbings, Georgina K; Cook, Christian J; Raleigh, Stuart M; Bennett, Mark A; Wang, Guan; Collins, Malcolm; Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Williams, Alun G

    2017-11-14

    Two common single nucleotide polymorphisms within the COL5A1 gene (SNPs; rs12722 C/T and rs3196378 C/A) have previously been associated with tendon and ligament pathologies. Given the high incidence of tendon and ligament injuries in elite rugby athletes, we hypothesised that both SNPs would be associated with career success. In 1105 participants (RugbyGene project), comprising 460 elite rugby union (RU), 88 elite rugby league athletes and 565 non-athlete controls, DNA was collected and genotyped for the COL5A1 rs12722 and rs3196378 variants using real-time PCR. For rs12722, the injury-protective CC genotype and C allele were more common in all athletes (21% and 47%, respectively) and RU athletes (22% and 48%) than in controls (16% and 41%, P ≤ 0.01). For rs3196378, the CC genotype and C allele were overrepresented in all athletes (23% and 48%) and RU athletes (24% and 49%) compared with controls (16% and 41%, P ≤ 0.02). The CC genotype in particular was overrepresented in the back and centres (24%) compared with controls, with more than twice the odds (OR = 2.25, P = 0.006) of possessing the injury-protective CC genotype. Furthermore, when considering both SNPs simultaneously, the CC-CC SNP-SNP combination and C-C inferred allele combination were higher in all the athlete groups (≥18% and ≥43%) compared with controls (13% and 40%; P = 0.01). However, no genotype differences were identified for either SNP when RU playing positions were compared directly with each other. It appears that the C alleles, CC genotypes and resulting combinations of both rs12722 and rs3196378 are beneficial for rugby athletes to achieve elite status and carriage of these variants may impart an inherited resistance against soft tissue injury, despite exposure to the high-risk environment of elite rugby. These data have implications for the management of inter-individual differences in injury risk amongst elite athletes.

  9. Unions, Vitamins, Exercise: Unionized Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewberry, David R.

    2005-01-01

    After the turbulent labor history of America in the early to mid twentieth century, there has been a general decline of unions. Nevertheless, many graduate school teaching assistants are unionizing in attempts to gain better pay and benefits and remove themselves from an "Ivory Sweatshop." This article discusses a history of unions…

  10. Changes in selected physical, motor performance and anthropometric components of university-level rugby players after one microcycle of a combined rugby conditioning and plyometric training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienaar, Cindy; Coetzee, Ben

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a microcycle (4 weeks) combined rugby conditioning plyometric compared with a nonplyometric rugby conditioning program on selected physical and motor performance components and anthropometric measurements of university-level rugby players. Players (18.94 ± 0.40 years) were assigned to either a control (n = 16) or experimental group (n = 19) from the U/19 rugby teams of the North-West University (South Africa). Twenty-six direct and indirect anthropometric measurements were taken, and the players performed a battery of 5 physical and motor performance tests before and after a microcycle (4 week) combined rugby conditioning plyometric (experimental group) and a nonplyometric rugby conditioning program (control group). The dependent t-test results showed that the control group's upper-body explosive power decreased significantly, whereas the stature, skeletal mass, and femur breadth increased significantly from pre- to posttesting. The experimental group showed significant increases in wrist breadth, speed over 20 m, agility, and power and work measurements of the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT). Despite these results, the independent t-test revealed that speed over 20 m, average power output at 20 seconds, relative work of the WAnT, and agility were the only components of the experimental group that improved significantly more than the control group. A microcycle combined rugby conditioning plyometric program therefore leads to significantly bigger changes in selected physical and motor performance components of university-level rugby players than a nonplyometric rugby conditioning program alone. Based on these findings, coaches and sport scientists should implement 3 weekly combined rugby conditioning plyometric programs in rugby players' training regimens to improve the players' speed, agility, and power.

  11. Credit Union Headquarters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The National Credit Union Administration (NCUA) is the independent federal agency that charters and supervises federal credit unions. NCUA, backed of the full faith...

  12. Users and Union Catalogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, R. J.; Booth, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Union catalogues have had an important place in libraries for many years. Their use has been little investigated. Recent interest in the relative merits of physical and virtual union catalogues and a recent collaborative project between a physical and several virtual union catalogues in the United Kingdom led to the opportunity to study how users…

  13. NIF Rugby High Foot Campaign from the design side

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidinger, J.-P.; Callahan, D. A.; Berzak-Hopkins, L. F.; Ralph, J. E.; Amendt, P.; Hinkel, D. E.; Michel, P.; Moody, J. D.; Ross, J. S.; Rygg, J. R.; Celliers, P.; Clouët, J.-F.; Dewald, E. L.; Kaiser, P.; Khan, S.; Kritcher, A. L.; Liberatore, S.; Marion, D.; Masson-Laborde, P.-E.; Milovich, J. L.; Morice, O.; Pak, A. E.; Poujade, O.; Strozzi, D.; Hurricane, O. A.

    2016-05-01

    The NIF Rugby High Foot campaign results, with 8 shots to date, are compared with the 2D FCI2 design simulations. A special emphasis is placed on the predictive features and on those areas where some work is still required to achieve the best possible modelling of these MJ-class experiments.

  14. Laser plasma interaction in rugby-shaped hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson-Laborde, P.-E.; Philippe, F.; Tassin, V.; Monteil, M.-C.; Gauthier, P.; Casner, A.; Depierreux, S.; Seytor, P.; Teychenne, D.; Loiseau, P.; Freymerie, P.

    2014-10-01

    Rugby shaped-hohlraum has proven to give high performance compared to a classical similar-diameter cylinder hohlraum. Due to this performance, this hohlraum has been chosen as baseline ignition target for the Laser MegaJoule (LMJ). Many experiments have therefore been performed during the last years on the Omega laser facility in order to study in details the rugby hohlraum. In this talk, we will discuss the interpretation of these experiments from the point of view of the laser plasma instability problem. Experimental comparisons have been done between rugby, cylinder and elliptical shape rugby hohlraums and we will discuss how the geometry differences will affect the evolution of laser plasma instabilities (LPI). The efficiency of laser smoothing techniques on these instabilities will also be discussed as well as gas filling effect. The experimental results will be compared with FCI2 hydroradiative calculations and linear postprocessing with Piranah. Experimental Raman and Brillouin spectrum, from which we can infer the location of the parametric instabilities, will be compared to simulated ones, and will give the possibility to compare LPI between the different hohlraum geometries.

  15. Iliopsoas haematoma in a rugby player | Janse van Rensburg ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traumatic iliopsoas haematoma is a serious complication of haemorrhage disorders rarely seen in young healthy athletes. It is mostly described in patients on anticoagulant therapy and commonly associated with various degrees of femoral nerve palsy. A 22-year-old male rugby player presented with severe onset of pain in ...

  16. Learning Masculinities in a Japanese High School Rugby Club

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This paper draws on research conducted on a Tokyo high school rugby club to explore diversity in the masculinities formed through membership in the club. Based on the premise that particular forms of masculinity are expressed and learnt through ways of playing (game style) and the attendant regimes of training, it examines the expression and…

  17. Concussion in rugby - an update | Kohler | South African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Sports Medicine. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2003) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Concussion in rugby - an update. Ryan MN ...

  18. The rehabilitation process of an injured South African rugby player ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The goal of this article is to explore the dominant, positive epistemology that describes the understanding and management of sports injury and rehabilitation, and to compare it with an alternative epistemology, namely social constructionism. A single case study was used within a qualitative research design. One male rugby ...

  19. Acetabular fractures following rugby tackles: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Seamus

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Rugby is the third most popular team contact sport in the world and is increasing in popularity. In 1995, rugby in Europe turned professional, and with this has come an increased rate of injury. Case presentation In a six-month period from July to December, two open reduction and internal fixations of acetabular fractures were performed in young Caucasian men (16 and 24 years old who sustained their injuries after rugby tackles. Both of these cases are described as well as the biomechanical factors contributing to the fracture and the recovery. Acetabular fractures of the hip during sport are rare occurrences. Conclusion Our recent experience of two cases over a six-month period creates concern that these high-energy injuries may become more frequent as rugby continues to adopt advanced training regimens. Protective equipment is unlikely to reduce the forces imparted across the hip joint; however, limiting 'the tackle' to only two players may well reduce the likelihood of this life-altering injury.

  20. Acetabular fractures following rugby tackles: a case series

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Good, Daniel W

    2011-10-05

    Abstract Introduction Rugby is the third most popular team contact sport in the world and is increasing in popularity. In 1995, rugby in Europe turned professional, and with this has come an increased rate of injury. Case presentation In a six-month period from July to December, two open reduction and internal fixations of acetabular fractures were performed in young Caucasian men (16 and 24 years old) who sustained their injuries after rugby tackles. Both of these cases are described as well as the biomechanical factors contributing to the fracture and the recovery. Acetabular fractures of the hip during sport are rare occurrences. Conclusion Our recent experience of two cases over a six-month period creates concern that these high-energy injuries may become more frequent as rugby continues to adopt advanced training regimens. Protective equipment is unlikely to reduce the forces imparted across the hip joint; however, limiting \\'the tackle\\' to only two players may well reduce the likelihood of this life-altering injury.

  1. Rugby headgear and concussion prevention: misconceptions could increase aggressive play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menger, Richard; Menger, Austin; Nanda, Anil

    2016-04-01

    OBJECTIVE Multiple studies have illustrated that rugby headgear offers no statistically significant protection against concussions. However, there remains concern that many players believe rugby headgear in fact does prevent concussions. Further investigation was undertaken to illustrate that misconceptions about concussion prevention and rugby headgear may lead to an increase in aggressive play. METHODS Data were constructed by Internet survey solicitation among United States collegiate rugby players across 19 teams. Initial information given was related to club, age, experience, use of headgear, playing time, whether the rugger played football or wrestling in high school, and whether the player believed headgear prevented concussion. Data were then constructed as to whether wearing headgear would increase aggressive playing style secondary to a false sense of protection. RESULTS A total of 122 players responded. All players were male. The average player was 19.5 years old and had 2.7 years of experience. Twenty-three of 122 players (18.9%) wore protective headgear; 55.4% of players listed forward as their primary position. Overall, 45.8% (55/120) of players played 70-80 minutes per game, 44.6% (54/121) played football or wrestled in high school, 38.1% (45/118) believed headgear prevented concussions, and 42.2% (51/121) stated that if they were using headgear they would be more aggressive with their play in terms of running or tackling. Regression analysis illustrated that those who believed headgear prevented concussions were or would be more likely to engage in aggressive play (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS Nearly 40% of collegiate rugby players surveyed believed headgear helped to prevent concussions despite no scientific evidence that it does. This misconception about rugby headgear could increase aggressive play. Those who believed headgear prevented concussion were, on average, 4 times more likely to play with increased aggressive form than those who believed

  2. A Five-Year Review of Tag Rugby Hand Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, C W; Woods, J F C; Murphy, S; Bollard, S; Kelly, J L; Carroll, S M; O'Shaughnessy, M

    2016-10-01

    Tag rugby is one of the fastest growing sports in Ireland. It is a soft-contact team game that is loosely based on the rugby league format except players try to remove Velcro tags from their opponents' shorts rather than engage in a typical rugby tackle. The purpose of this study was to examine all tag rugby associated hand injuries over a five-year period in three large tertiary referral hospitals in Ireland. Using the patient corresponding system, 228 patients with hand injury related tag rugby injuries were observed from 2010 to 2015. There were 138 males and 90 females in the study and over 40% of patients required surgery. Most of the patients were young professionals with an average age of 30. Twenty-five patients worked in the financial services whilst there were 23 teachers. Fractures accounted for 124 of the 228 injuries and mallet injuries accounted for 53. Eighty percent of all injuries occurred during the tackle. The mean number of days missed from work was 9.1±13.8 days. These injuries resulted in an average of seven hospital appointments per patient. Considering it is a soft-contact sport, it is surprising the number of hand injuries that we have observed. Although safety measures have been introduced to decrease the number of hand injuries in recent years, there is a need for further improvements. Better player education about seeking prompt medical attention once an injury occurs, coupled with longer shorts worn by players may improve measures for the sport. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Laser plasma interaction on rugby hohlraum on the Omega Laser Facility: Comparisons between cylinder, rugby, and elliptical hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson-Laborde, P. E.; Monteil, M. C.; Tassin, V.; Philippe, F.; Gauthier, P.; Casner, A.; Depierreux, S.; Neuville, C.; Villette, B.; Laffite, S.; Seytor, P.; Fremerye, P.; Seka, W.; Teychenné, D.; Debayle, A.; Marion, D.; Loiseau, P.; Casanova, M.

    2016-02-01

    Gas-filled rugby-shaped hohlraums have demonstrated high performances compared to a classical similar diameter cylinder hohlraum with a nearly 40% increase of x-ray drive, 10% higher measured peak drive temperature, and an increase in neutron production. Experimental comparisons have been done between rugby, cylinder, and elliptical hohlraums. The impact of these geometry differences on the laser plasma instabilities is examined. Using comparisons with hydrodynamic simulations carried out with the code FCI2 and postprocessed by Piranah, we have been able to reproduce the stimulated Raman and Brillouin scattering spectrum of the different beams. Using a methodology based on a statistical analysis for the gain calculations, we show that the behavior of the laser plasma instabilities in rugby hohlraums can be reproduced. The efficiency of laser smoothing techniques to mitigate these instabilities are discussed, and we show that while rugby hohlraums exhibit more laser plasma instabilities than cylinder hohlraum, the latter can be mitigated in the case of an elliptical hohlraum.

  4. Demonstrated high performance of gas-filled rugby-shaped hohlraums on Omega

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippe, F.; Villette, B. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Michel, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Petrasso, R. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Stoeckl, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Giraldez, E. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Tassin, V.; Depierreux, S.; Gauthier, P.; Masson-Laborde, P. E.; Monteil, M. C.; Seytor, P.; Lasinski, B.; Park, H. S.; Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P.; Döppner, T.; Hinkel, D. E.; Wallace, R.; Williams, E.; and others

    2014-07-15

    A direct experimental comparison of rugby-shaped and cylindrical shaped gas-filled hohlraums on the Omega laser facility demonstrates that higher coupling and minimal backscatter can be achieved in the rugby geometry, leading to significantly enhanced implosion performance. A nearly 50% increase of x-ray drive is associated with earlier bangtime and increase of neutron production. The observed drive enhancement from rugby geometry in this study is almost twice stronger than in previously published results.

  5. Demonstrated high performance of gas-filled rugby-shaped hohlraums on Omega

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, F.; Tassin, V.; Depierreux, S.; Gauthier, P.; Masson-Laborde, P. E.; Monteil, M. C.; Seytor, P.; Villette, B.; Lasinski, B.; Park, H. S.; Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P.; Döppner, T.; Hinkel, D. E.; Wallace, R.; Williams, E.; Michel, P.; Frenje, J.; Gatu-Johnson, M.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R.; Glebov, V.; Sorce, C.; Stoeckl, C.; Nikroo, A.; Giraldez, E.

    2014-07-01

    A direct experimental comparison of rugby-shaped and cylindrical shaped gas-filled hohlraums on the Omega laser facility demonstrates that higher coupling and minimal backscatter can be achieved in the rugby geometry, leading to significantly enhanced implosion performance. A nearly 50% increase of x-ray drive is associated with earlier bangtime and increase of neutron production. The observed drive enhancement from rugby geometry in this study is almost twice stronger than in previously published results.

  6. Demonstrated high performance of gas-filled rugby-shaped hohlraums on Omega

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, F.; Villette, B.; Michel, P.; Petrasso, R.; Stoeckl, C.; Giraldez, E.; Tassin, V.; Depierreux, S.; Gauthier, P.; Masson-Laborde, P. E.; Monteil, M. C.; Seytor, P.; Lasinski, B.; Park, H. S.; Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P.; Döppner, T.; Hinkel, D. E.; Wallace, R.; Williams, E.

    2014-01-01

    A direct experimental comparison of rugby-shaped and cylindrical shaped gas-filled hohlraums on the Omega laser facility demonstrates that higher coupling and minimal backscatter can be achieved in the rugby geometry, leading to significantly enhanced implosion performance. A nearly 50% increase of x-ray drive is associated with earlier bangtime and increase of neutron production. The observed drive enhancement from rugby geometry in this study is almost twice stronger than in previously published results

  7. Demonstrated high performance of gas-filled rugby-shaped hohlraums on Omega

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippe, F. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Tassin, V. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Depierreux, S. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Gauthier, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Masson-Laborde, P. E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Monteil, M. C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Seytor, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Villette, B. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), Arpajon (France); Lasinski, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Park, H. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Ross, J. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Amendt, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Doeppner, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hinkel, D. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wallace, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Williams, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Michel, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Frenje, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Gatu-Johnson, M. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Li, C. K. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Petrasso, R. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Science and Fusion Center; Glebov, V. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Sorce, C. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Stoeckl, C. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States). Lab. for Laser Energetics; Nikroo, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Giraldez, E. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2014-07-25

    A direct experimental comparison of rugby-shaped and cylindrical shaped gas-filled hohlraums on the Omega laser facility demonstrates that higher coupling and minimal backscatter can be achieved in the rugby geometry, leading to significantly enhanced implosion performance. A nearly 50% increase of x-ray drive is associated with earlier bangtime and increase of neutron production. The observed drive enhancement from rugby geometry in this study is almost twice stronger than in previously published results.

  8. Prolate-Spheroid ('Rugby-Shaped') Hohlraum for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandenboomgaerde, M.; Bastian, J.; Casner, A.; Galmiche, D.; Jadaud, J.-P.; Laffite, S.; Liberatore, S.; Malinie, G.; Philippe, F.

    2007-01-01

    A novel rugby-ball shaped hohlraum is designed in the context of the indirect-drive scheme of inertial-confinement fusion (ICF). Experiments were performed on the OMEGA laser and are the first use of rugby hohlraums for ICF studies. Analysis of experimental data shows that the hohlraum energetics is well understood. We show that the rugby-ball shape exhibits advantages over cylinder, in terms of temperature and of symmetry control of the capsule implosion. Simulations indicate that rugby hohlraum driven targets may be candidates for ignition in a context of early Laser MegaJoule experiments with reduced laser energy

  9. Decision making and decision communications in elite rugby union referees: An inductive investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, I; Mellick, M; Mascarenhas, Duncan R

    2012-01-01

    The application of law, combined with contextual judgment and communication have been shown to be essential skills of the elite sports official (Mascarenhas, Collins & Mortimer, 2005). Further, the behaviours that officials demonstrate to communicate decisions to sport participants have important implications for match outcomes and perceptions of fairness (Mellick et al., 2005; Simmons, 2010). The purpose of the present study was to explore the higher - order decision making and decision comm...

  10. Junior High Career Planning: What Students Want

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardick, Angela D.; Bernes, Kerry B.; Magnusson, Kris C.; Witko, Kim D.

    2004-01-01

    This research used "The Comprehensive Career Needs Survey" to assess the career counselling needs of 3,562 junior high students in Southern Alberta. This article examines junior high students' responses regarding their perceptions of (a) the relevance of career planning, (b) who they would approach for help with career planning, and (c)…

  11. Trade union revitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Tapia, Maite

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we review and assess research on the role of trade unions in labour markets and society, the current decline of unions and union revitalisation. The review shows three main trends. First, trade unions are converging into similar strategies of revitalisation. The ‘organising model...... their traditional strongholds of collective bargaining and corporatist policy-making. Second, research has shown that used strategies are not a panacea for success for unions in countries that pearheaded revitalisation. This finding points to the importance of supportive institutional frameworks if unions...... in adverse institutional contexts, can be effective when they reinvent their repertoires of contention, through political action or campaigning along global value chains....

  12. A systematic review protocol investigating tests for physical or physiological qualities and game-specific skills commonly used in rugby and related sports and their psychometric properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiwaridzo, Matthew; Ferguson, Gillian D; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M

    2016-07-27

    Scientific focus on rugby has increased over the recent years, providing evidence of the physical or physiological characteristics and game-specific skills needed in the sport. Identification of tests commonly used to measure these characteristics is important for the development of test batteries, which in turn may be used for talent identification and injury prevention programmes. Although there are a number of tests available in the literature to measure physical or physiological variables and game-specific skills, there is limited information available on the psychometric properties of the tests. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to systematically review the literature for tests commonly used in rugby to measure physical or physiological characteristics and rugby-specific skills, documenting evidence of reliability and validity of the identified tests. A systematic review will be conducted. Electronic databases such as Scopus, MEDLINE via EBSCOhost and PubMed, Academic Search Premier, CINAHL and Africa-Wide Information via EBSCOhost will be searched for original research articles published in English from January 1, 1995, to December 31, 2015, using a pre-defined search strategy. The principal investigator will select potentially relevant articles from titles and abstracts. To minimise bias, full text of titles and abstracts deemed potentially relevant will be retrieved and reviewed by two independent reviewers based on the inclusion criteria. Data extraction will be conducted by the principal investigator and verified by two independent reviewers. The Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist will be used to assess the methodological quality of the selected studies. Choosing an appropriate test to be included in the screening test battery should be based on sound psychometric properties of the test available. This systematic review will provide an overview of the tests commonly used in rugby union

  13. Overground-Propulsion Kinematics and Acceleration in Elite Wheelchair Rugby.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydon, David S; Pinder, Ross A; Grimshaw, Paul N; Robertson, William S P

    2018-02-01

    Maximal acceleration from standstill has been identified as a key performance indicator in wheelchair rugby; however, the impact of classification and kinematic variables on performance has received limited attention. This study aimed to investigate kinematic variables during maximal acceleration, with level of activity limitation accounted for using sport-classification scores. Based on their sporting classification scores, which reflect combined trunk, arm, and hand function, 25 elite wheelchair rugby players were analyzed in high-, mid-, and low-point groups before completing five 5-m sprints from a stationary position. Inertial measurement units and video analysis were used to monitor key kinematic variables. Significant differences in kinematic variables were evident across the classification groups, particularly for the first stroke-contact angle (1-way ANOVA F 2,122  = 51.5, P propulsion approaches exist across classification groups, with this information potentially informing individual wheelchair setups and training programs.

  14. Mechanisms of traumatic shoulder injury in elite rugby players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, James; Jones, Doug R; Funk, Lennard

    2012-01-01

    Background Shoulder injuries in rugby players are common, but the mechanisms of injury are less well understood. This study aims to elucidate common mechanisms of injury and identify the patterns of injury they produce. Materials and methods Twenty-four elite rugby players, referred to the senior author for diagnosis and management of shoulder injuries, were selected. Videos of the injuries were independently reviewed by rugby-medical experts to describe the mechanisms of injury. The mechanisms reported were collated and analysed to determine the level of agreement between reviewers and conclude an overall description of injury mechanisms. Results The authors identified three mechanisms of shoulder injury from the video analysis. These are the ‘Try-Scorer’, characterised by hyperflexion of the outstretched arm such as when scoring a try; the ‘Tackler’, extension of the abducted arm behind the player while tackling; and the ‘Direct Impact’, a direct blow to the arm or shoulder when held by the side in neutral or slight adduction. The Try Scorer and Tackler mechanisms both involve a levering force on the glenohumeral joint (GHJ). These mechanisms predominantly cause GHJ dislocation, with Bankart, reverse Bankart and superior labrum anterior–posterior tears. The Try-Scorer Mechanism also caused the majority (83%) of rotator cuff tears. The Direct Hit mechanism resulted in GHJ dislocation and labral injury in 37.5% of players and was most likely to cause acromioclavicular joint dislocation and scapula fractures, injuries that were not seen with the other mechanisms. Conclusion Greater understanding of the mechanisms involved in rugby shoulder injury is useful in understanding the pathological injuries, guiding treatment and rehabilitation and aiding the development of injury-prevention methods. PMID:22510645

  15. Do stingers affect scapular kinematics in rugby players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takayuki; Maki, Nobukazu; Shimizu, Kyoko; Ota, Chihiro; Urayama, Shingo; Moriya, Shuichi; Kaketa, Takefumi; Kobayashi, Hideo; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2014-12-01

    Scapular dyskinesis is observed in subjects with pathologic conditions of the shoulder; however, there is limited information about the factors related to scapular dyskinesis among participants in rugby. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence, reliability, and relationships between scapular dyskinesis and variables related to the shoulder in high-school rugby players. A total of 164 Japanese high-school rugby players were evaluated with questionnaires, physical examinations, and a video analysis during their preseason. After evaluation of the inter-rater reliability of a classification of scapular dyskinesis, the outcomes were analyzed to assess the relationships between scapular dyskinesis and other variables during the preseason. The data were assessed with a logistic regression analysis calculating the odds ratios (OR). The inter-rater reliability among 3 blinded observers based on the Fleiss κ value and percentage agreement was .52 and 79.0%, respectively, which indicates that the method is moderately reliable. Scapular dyskinesis was identified in 16 (10.1%) shoulders among 159 players, with type I being prominent. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that a type I dyskinesis was significantly associated with a past history of stingers with projected pain to the affected side of the shoulder (OR, 3.7) and the player's competitive grade at the time of the survey (OR, 3.9). Scapular dyskinesis is significantly associated with a past history of stingers. This suggests that stingers are a causative factor of scapular dyskinesis in the rugby population. Our method of evaluating scapular dyskinesis in collision athletes exhibits moderate reliability. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. CARIES PREVENTION AMONG JUNIOR SCHOOLCHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.К. Matelo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biennial program of controlled tooth brushing performed econdary school among junior schoolchildren from Minsk secondary school № 166 proved to be highly effective. Decrease in caries increment has been shown on the average up to 50%. No credible differences between remineralising defluorinated toothpastes or pastes enriched with aminofluoride (F = 500 ppm and sodium fluoride  (F = 1000 ppm efficacy were found in this study. Credibility of the results was determined by comparison with similar study conducted on a bigger population of children. Though anti-caries effect of the same tooth-pastes in a bigger-scale study was lower — within 30%. Such difference can be explained by a different level of motivation and discipline of participants.Key words: schoolchildren, dental caries prevention, toothpastes. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (6: 48–51

  17. Physical Fitness Qualities of Professional Rugby League Football Players: Determination of Positional Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Rudi; Newton, Robert; Curtis, Edgar; Fardell, Matthew; Butler, Benjamin

    2001-01-01

    Australian and English professional rugby players completed various physical fitness performance tests to determine differences when grouping players into three different rugby positional categories. Results found minimal differences in test scores on the basis of players' specific positions on a team, however, when players were grouped according…

  18. Is the game of touch rugby safe for female adolescents? | Vijam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mechanisms producing the musculoskeletal injuries were rapid, rotational movement (33.3%) and poor landing (26.6%) (p<0.05). Female adolescent touch rugby players experience a high prevalence of acute musculoskeletal knee and ankle injuries. Keywords: Touch rugby, musculoskeletal injury, female adolescents.

  19. Brand confusion in South African Rugby – Super 12 brands vs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brand confusion in South African Rugby – Super 12 brands vs Currie-Cup brands? ... Through the application of marketing principles and practice, sport marketers should anticipate, manage ... 12 rugby brands and the apparent lack of differentiation from the traditional Currie Cup brands. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  20. League Bilong Laif: Rugby, Education and Sport-for-Development Partnerships in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Emma; Schulenkorf, Nico

    2016-01-01

    League Bilong Laif (LBL) is a sport-for-development (SFD) programme that was established in 2013 as a three-way partnership between the Australian Government, the Papua New Guinea (PNG) Government (Department of Education) and the Australian Rugby League Commission (National Rugby League). As a contribution to addressing low rates of school…

  1. Influence of Glove Type on Mobility Performance for Wheelchair Rugby Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mason, Barry S.; van der Woude, L. H. V.; Goosey-Tolfrey, V. L.

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of different glove types on mobility performance in a series of field tests specific to wheelchair rugby. Design: Ten international wheelchair rugby players performed three drills in each glove condition: (i) players' current

  2. Determinants of sport-specific postural control strategy and balance performance of amateur rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Gary C C; Fong, Shirley S M; Chung, Joanne W Y; Chung, Louisa M Y; Ma, Ada W W; Macfarlane, Duncan J

    2016-11-01

    Postural control strategy and balance performance of rugby players are important yet under-examined issues. This study aimed to examine the differences in balance strategy and balance performance between amateur rugby players and non-players, and to explore training- and injury-related factors that may affect rugby players' balance outcomes. Cross-sectional and exploratory study. Forty-five amateur rugby players and 41 healthy active individuals participated in the study. Balance performance and balance strategies were assessed using the sensory organization test (SOT) of the Smart Equitest computerized dynamic posturography machine. Rugby training history and injury history were solicited from the participants. The SOT strategy scores were 1.99-54.90% lower in the rugby group than in the control group (prugby group than in the control group (prugby training (in years) was independently associated with the SOT condition 6 strategy score, explaining 15.7% of its variance (p=0.006). There was no association between SOT condition 6 strategy/equilibrium scores and injury history among the rugby players (p>0.05). Amateur rugby players demonstrated inferior balance strategy and balance performance compared to their non-training counterparts. Their suboptimal balance strategy was associated with insufficient training experience but not with history of injury. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Paralysis due to the high tackle - a black spot South African rugby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high tackle around the neck is illegal but still commonplace in South African rugby. An analysis of 40 rugby players who sustained spinal cord injury during the period 1985 1989 revealed that 8 were injured by a high tackle. The case histories and radiographs of these 8 players were analysed. The majority sustained ...

  4. BANKING UNION - ROMANIAN PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coroiu Sorina Ioana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The financial crisis showed that banks were not able to face the loss, because there is no framework for a resolution, so that it intervened with money from taxpayers. So, it has been highlighted the need to update the regulations applicable to the banking sector. Creating a single supervisory mechanism in the fall of 2014 was a time reference point to achieve a banking union in Europe. Banking Union is one of the four foundations for a genuine Economic and Monetary Union. The paper’s purpose is to analyze the Banking Union structure, based on three pillars: (i The Single Supervisory Mechanism - the transfer of the main responsibility regarding banking supervision from national to European level, (ii The Single Resolution Mechanism - introduction of common provisions to ensure legal support required to manage bank failures problem, (iii The Deposit Guarantee Schemes - harmonization of deposit guarantee rules. These measures were adopted at European Union level to ensure the stability of the European banking system and to prevent future crises. Because countries that are not part of the euro area are not required to join the Banking Union, the dilemma of these countries lies in the decision to join the Banking Union quickly or to wait. It is the case of Romania, also, so, this paper analyze the opportunity of Romania's accession to the Banking Union before adopting the euro. There are analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of Romania's participation in the Banking Union, showing that, in the context of single currency introduction, Romania's participation is required. So far, there are reduced debates regarding the need, advantages and disadvantages of Romania's participation in the European Banking Union, the top representatives of the National Bank of Romania being among the few who expressed their views in public and published papers on the subject.

  5. Rugby Club CERN Meyrin St-Genis (RC CMSG) – Women’s team

    CERN Multimedia

    Rugby Club

    2015-01-01

    The 2015-2016 rugby season start is just around the corner for the “RUGBY CERN” ladies team. In order to be ready for the first official clash to be held mid-September, the Wildcats have engaged in fitness training sessions throughout the month of August. Every Thursday, the players meet at 19h30 by the Perl du Lac in Geneva for a bootcamp session while on Tuesdays, the team gathers for an aerobic training session, in Meyrin. Feel free to join the ladies for any of the sessions. Not only will you have a great workout but also enjoy the well-known rugby fun environment. All levels are welcome! For more information, do not hesitate to contact us: wildcats@cern-rugby.ch www.cern-rugy.ch // facebook : Wildcats Women’s Rugby

  6. Influence of rugby injuries on players' subsequent health and lifestyle: beginning a long term follow up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A J; Garraway, W M; Hepburn, W; Laidlaw, R

    2001-02-01

    To describe the current rugby playing status of a cohort of 1,169 men who had previously participated in an epidemiological survey of rugby injuries during the 1993-1994 season, and assess the consequences of rugby injuries sustained. In May 1998, 911 (78%) men completed a questionnaire reporting their current involvement in rugby and the influence that the 324 (71%) injuries they had sustained four years earlier had since had on their health and wellbeing. The most common reasons given by the 390 (43%) ex-players for ceasing to play rugby were family (10%), employment (25%), and an injury sustained while playing rugby (26%), 80% of which were dislocations, strains, and sprains, mainly to the knee (35%), back (14%), and shoulder (9%). A significantly (chi2 test 21.7, df = 1, pnegative effects to employment, family life, and health up to mid-1998 from injuries that occurred during the 1993-1994 season, although the impact on their lifestyle had been substantial in some cases. With the recent increase in the incidence of dislocation, strain, and sprain injuries in rugby football, the findings of this follow up could have a great impact on the game in the future. Although this survey has shown that, so far, only a small proportion of players suffer significant effects of rugby injuries, four years is not long enough to assess the long term effects. This cohort of rugby players need to be followed up for at least a further 20 years to determine whether there is a higher incidence of subsequent degenerative joint disease or other long term sequelae to injuries sustained while playing rugby.

  7. Neural bases of a specific strategy for visuospatial processing in rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Yokoyama, Satoru; Kasahara, Satoshi; Yomogida, Yukihito; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Ogawa, Takeshi; Taki, Yasuyuki; Niwa, Shin-Ichi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2011-10-01

    Rugby is one of the most tactically complex sports. Rugby coaching theory suggests that rugby players need to possess various cognitive abilities. A previous study claimed that rugby players have high visuospatial awareness, which is induced by a strategy described as taking a "bird's eye view." To examine if there were differential cortical networks related to visuospatial processing tasks among top-level rugby players and control novices, we compared brain activities during a visuospatial processing task between 20 male top-level rugby players (Top) and 20 control novice males (Novice) using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). To avoid the effect of differential behavioral performances on brain activation, we recruited novices whose visuospatial ability was expected to match that of the rugby players. We adopted a 3-D mental rotation task during fMRI scanning as a visuospatial processing task. Significantly greater activations from baseline were observed for the Top group than for the Novice group in the right superior parietal lobe and lateral occipital cortex. Significantly greater deactivations from baseline were observed for the Top group than for the Novice group in the right medial prefrontal cortex. The discrepancy between psychobehavioral outputs and the fMRI results suggested the existence of a cognitive strategy among top-level rugby players that differs from that among control novices. The greater activation of the right superior parietal lobe and lateral occipital cortex in top-level rugby players suggested a strategy involving visuospatial cognitive processing with respect to the bird's eye view. In addition, the right medial prefrontal cortex is known to be a part of the default mode networks, suggesting an additional cognitive load for the Top group when using the bird's-eye-view strategy. This further supported the existence of a specific cognitive strategy among top-level rugby players.

  8. Teacher Pupil Contact in Junior Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, D.

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of the exploratory study reported here was to examine the nature of teacher-pupil contact in informal junior classrooms in terms of the teacher's method of talking to children and the teacher's conversational approach. (Author/RK)

  9. The Community Junior College: An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rarig, Emory W., Jr., Ed.

    This annotated bibliography on the junior college is arranged by topic: research tools, history, functions and purposes, organization and administration, students, programs, personnel, facilities, and research. It covers publications through the fall of 1965 and has an author index. (HH)

  10. Junior High School Pupils' Perceptions of Air

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cce

    Abstract. The study examined Junior High School (JHS) pupils' ideas of the concept air. The ... Stavy (1991) reported that students in his physics class had ... Research studies found that even after having been taught the particulate theory and.

  11. Trade Union Organisers in Trade Union Organising Strategies: building workplace unionism or reinforcing bureaucracy

    OpenAIRE

    Looker, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    This thesis considers the role of union full time officers in union organising strategies. Two decades of promoting union organising influenced by models developed by the AFL-CIO, has failed to arrest the decline of UK trade unions let alone produce evidence of renewal. Focusing mainly on one region in the UKs largest public sector trade union, Unison, the research provides for a detailed account of how organising strategies affect union work, presenting thick and deep data from full time off...

  12. Metabolic power demands of rugby league match play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Tom; Sirotic, Anita Claire; Rampinini, Ermanno; Coutts, Aaron James

    2015-01-01

    To describe the metabolic demands of rugby league match play for positional groups and compare match distances obtained from high-speed-running classifications with those derived from high metabolic power. Global positioning system (GPS) data were collected from 25 players from a team competing in the National Rugby League competition over 39 matches. Players were classified into positional groups (adjustables, outside backs, hit-up forwards, and wide-running forwards). The GPS devices provided instantaneous raw velocity data at 5 Hz, which were exported to a customized spreadsheet. The spreadsheet provided calculations for speed-based distances (eg, total distance; high-speed running, >14.4 km/h; and very-high-speed running, >18.1 km/h) and metabolic-power variables (eg, energy expenditure; average metabolic power; and high-power distance, >20 W/kg). The data show that speed-based distances and metabolic power varied between positional groups, although this was largely related to differences in time spent on field. The distance covered at high running speed was lower than that obtained from high-power thresholds for all positional groups; however, the difference between the 2 methods was greatest for hit-up forwards and adjustables. Positional differences existed for all metabolic parameters, although these are at least partially related to time spent on the field. Higher-speed running may underestimate the demands of match play when compared with high-power distance-although the degree of difference between the measures varied by position. The analysis of metabolic power may complement traditional speed-based classifications and improve our understanding of the demands of rugby league match play.

  13. Injury frequency and body composition of elite Romanian rugby players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan ALMĂJAN-GUȚĂ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The physical exertion in the game of rugby is intense and depends on the playing position. This study hypothesized that peculiarities of body composition are important and should be properly interpreted in order to improve fitness and particularly in order to reduce the risk of injuries. Purpose: The aim of the present paper is to highlight the importance of body composition evaluation and to underline the usefulness of the data thus obtained for both training individualization and sports injuries risk reduction. Material and Methods: Thirty seven senior male rugby players from the former Romanian national team were assessed on body composition using a segmental multi-frequency bio-impedance analyzer InBody 720 (The Body Composition Analyzer – South Korea. We compared the results from both the preseason and the regular season 2012 with the international norms for elite players and we categorized the data by playing positions. Results: We have analyzed the amount of lean mass on each limb (kg, body water content (l, percentage of body fat, bone mineral and protein content (kg. We observed that the number of injuries is directly correlated to high levels of body fat percentage, low lean mass, and edema scores. Conclusions: The risk of injury can be identified among elite rugby players not only by using fitness tests, but also by using a simple and objective test of body composition. These results show how important it is to monitor the level of body fat, lean muscle mass and muscular development in order to modify nutrition and food habits, individualize trainings and thus reduce the number of injuries.

  14. Rugby en Chivilcoy, un deporte que no es tan elitista

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Fernando; Caggiano, Martín

    2016-01-01

    La historia del rugby nos remonta al año 1823. En Inglaterra, un joven estudiante decide tomar la pelota de futbol con sus manos, desobedeciendo las reglas de ese deporte, y la deposita en el arco rival tras atravesar todo el campo. A partir de ese hecho, nace un deporte que se diferencia del futbol y que recorre caminos paralelos pero distintos. Esta no sería la única diferencia desde su raíz, ya que esta actividad fue acogida por estudiantes y practicantes de clases media y alta; el futbol ...

  15. Remodelamiento ventricular izquierdo secundario al entrenamiento en jugadores de rugby

    OpenAIRE

    Ennis, Irene L.; Pinilla, Oscar Andrés; Escudero, Eduardo Manuel

    2016-01-01

    La actividad física en deportistas puede asociarse con adaptaciones eléctricas, estructurales y funcionales del miocardio que configuran el corazón de atleta. Las características de la sobrecarga de trabajo impuesta por la actividad deportiva son las principales responsables de este fenotipo. El rugby es un deporte con moderada carga isométrica y moderada a intensa carga dinámica, pudiendo estas condiciones variar según la posición del jugador en el campo [fowards (F) vs. backs (B)]. Este tra...

  16. Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Body Water Status Markers after a Rugby Sevens Match

    OpenAIRE

    Trabelsi, Khaled; Rebai, Haithem; el-Abed, Kais; Stannard, Stephen R.; Khannous, Hamdi; Masmoudi, Liwa; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Hakim, Ahmed; Fellman, Nicole; Tabka, Zouhair

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on body water status markers of rugby players at basal condition and following a simulation of rugby sevens match. Methods Twelve recreational rugby sevens players played three matches: one day before Ramadan (before Ramadan), at the end of the first week of Ramadan (Beg-R) and at the end of Ramadan (End-R). Before and immediately after each match, body weight was determined and blood samples were taken for the measurement of body water status...

  17. The incidence and nature of injuries in South African rugby players in the rugby Super 12 competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzhausen, Louis J; Schwellnus, Martin P; Jakoet, Ismail; Pretorius, A L

    2006-12-01

    There are sparse scientific data concerning the aetiology and incidence of injuries in the Super 12 rugby competition. Aim. The aim of the study was to document the incidence, nature and risk factors associated with injuries during a Super 12 rugby competition. Injuries, defined as injuries preventing playing or training, or requiring medical treatment, were recorded in a cohort of 75 South African Super 12 players over one season. Injury severity was graded according to sessions missed: minor (1 - 3 missed), intermediate (4 - 9) and severe (> 9). During the tournament, a total of 740 player game hours and 4 900 player training hours were recorded. The overall incidence of injuries was 55.4 injuries/1,000 player game hours, and 4.3 injuries/1,000 player training hours. The most common injury types were: ligament sprains (25.8%), musculotendinous strains/tears (24.2%). The most common injured sites were: pelvis, hip (19.3%), head and knee (12.9% each). The tackle caused 40.3%, and rucks and mauls 11.3% of injuries. Injuries sustained during training accounted for 34%, and chronic overuse injuries 9.7% of injuries. There is a high injury rate during a Super 12 rugby competition. However, the majority of injuries were minor injuries. The most dangerous phase of play was the tackle. Training in tackling and rucking techniques, and rule enforcement are therefore recommended to reduce risk of injury. Injuries tended to occur late in games and early in the season, suggesting lack of physical conditioning and fatigue as possible causes of injury.

  18. Barriers facing junior doctors in rural practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Deborah M

    2005-01-01

    Early postgraduate, or junior doctors, are still required to practise in rural and remote communities, and they continue to face numerous issues and difficulties. Within the hospital setting, exposure to rural practice appears to be very limited during internship, and also to some extent, during the second postgraduate year and beyond. This is a major issue for those required to undertake country relieving, rural terms or who will be bonded to rural and remote practice for several years after internship. This research investigated the current issues and difficulties faced by junior doctors, required to undertake rural and remote practice in Queensland, Australia. An exploratory study was undertaken. Primary data were collected through semi-structured interviews held with key stakeholders. Stakeholders included: directors of clinical training; medical educators; junior doctors; rural practitioners; academic rural practitioners; and medical administrators. Of the 23 people approached, a total of 19 agreed to be interviewed. The response rate was 82.6%. Similar to the issues identified in the literature, there are currently a number of barriers influencing the ability of junior doctors to practise competently and confidently when undertaking practice in rural and remote communities. Minimal clinical experience, lack of supervision and on-site support, inadequate orientation and uninformed expectations, limited access to relevant education, and the influence of isolation, results in an overall lack of preparation both professionally and personally. When asked, respondents supported the identification of core skills and knowledge, and integration of these and other issues affecting rural practice, into their hospital-based programs. Current hospital-based education and training programs were not adequately preparing junior doctors for rural and remote practice. It was commented that orientation and education, with a rural emphasis, could assist junior doctors in their

  19. Anthropometry profiles of elite rugby players: quantifying changes in lean mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duthie, G M; Pyne, D B; Hopkins, W G; Livingstone, S; Hooper, S L

    2006-03-01

    To demonstrate the utility of a practical measure of lean mass for monitoring changes in the body composition of athletes. Between 1999 and 2003 body mass and sum of seven skinfolds were recorded for 40 forwards and 32 backs from one Super 12 rugby union franchise. Players were assessed on 13 (7) occasions (mean (SD)) over 1.9 (1.3) years. Mixed modelling of log transformed variables provided a lean mass index (LMI) of the form mass/skinfolds(x), for monitoring changes in mass controlled for changes in skinfold thickness. Mean effects of phase of season and time in programme were modelled as percentage changes. Effects were standardised for interpretation of magnitudes. The exponent x was 0.13 for forwards and 0.14 for backs (90% confidence limits +/-0.03). The forwards had a small decrease in skinfolds (5.3%, 90% confidence limits +/-2.2%) between preseason and competition phases, and a small increase (7.8%, 90% confidence limits +/-3.1%) during the club season. A small decrease in LMI (approximately 1.5%) occurred after one year in the programme for forwards and backs, whereas increases in skinfolds for forwards became substantial (4.3%, 90% confidence limits +/-2.2%) after three years. Individual variation in body composition was small within a season (within subject SD: body mass, 1.6%; skinfolds, 6.8%; LMI, 1.1%) and somewhat greater for body mass (2.1%) and LMI (1.7%) between seasons. Despite a lack of substantial mean changes, there was substantial individual variation in lean mass within and between seasons. An index of lean mass based on body mass and skinfolds is a potentially useful tool for assessing body composition of athletes.

  20. Influence of ballistic bench press on upper body power output in professional rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel J; Cunningham, Daniel J; Crewther, Blair T; Cook, Christian J; Kilduff, Liam P

    2013-08-01

    The use of heavy resistance exercise provides an effective preload stimulus for inducing postactivation potentiation (PAP) and increasing peak power output (PPO). However, this approach has limited application in many sporting situations (e.g., incorporation in a precompetition warm-up); and therefore, more practical strategies for inducing PAP need to be investigated. The aim of the present study was to compare the PPO changes after performing a preload stimulus of either a ballistic exercise or a traditional heavy resistance exercise. Twenty professional rugby union players completed 3 testing sessions, each separated by 48 hours. On the first occasion, subjects underwent a 3 repetition maximum (3RM)-bench press testing session. On the next 2 occasions, subjects performed a ballistic bench throw at baseline (30% of 1RM), followed by a preload stimulus of either heavy resistance training (HRT) (heavy bench press: 3 sets of 3 repetitions at 87% 1RM) or BBP (3 sets of 3 repetitions at 30% on 1RM) followed by ballistic bench throw after 8 minutes recovery. The trials were randomized and counterbalanced. Both preload stimuli protocols increased PPO compared with baseline (BBP baseline 892 ± 108 vs. 8 minutes 924 ± 119 W, p < 0.001; HRT baseline 893 ± 104 vs. 8 minutes 931 ± 116 W; p < 0.001). There were no conditional differences between PPO at 8 minutes (p = 0.141); moreover, the change in PPO from baseline was also similar between conditions (BBP Δ + 33 ± 18; HRT Δ + 38 ± 21 W; p = 0.112). In conclusion, a ballistic exercise provided an effective method of inducing PAP and increasing upper-body PPO; moreover, this elicited similar increases in PPO as a traditional heavy resistance exercise preloading stimulus.

  1. Union banking a step towards achieving fiscal Union in the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ Marius Croitoru

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Union policy needs in addition to the official language of four major components: a monetary union, a fiscal union, a union diplomatic and military union A stage in the Union is the Union banking tax. Materials and Methods: Union Bank has three pillars: a single banking supervisor (single supervisory mechanism, the only mechanism of bank resolution and a single scheme of bank guarantees. Results and conclusions: Union Bank, strengthen supervision is an inevitable process, and Romania will have to enroll in it. Option Romania is to be part of Romania deaorece bank Union can not remain outside the structures of decision as long as banks operating in Romania are predominantly Eurozone.

  2. Casual spectators and die-hard fans’ reactions to their team defeat: A look at the role of territorial identification in elite French rugby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iouri Bernache-Assollant

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the role of two foci of identification (team and territory on identity management strategies used by sport followers in the particular context of elite French rugby union. In study 1 which dealt with casual spectators (N = 153, the results corroborated numerous studies conducted in the North-American context and showed that team identification constitutes a strong driver for offensive and loyalty reactions. In study 2 which dealt with die-hard fans (N = 64, it appeared that team identification seems to be the best predictor of team loyalty strategy whereas territorial identification seems to be the first predictor of offensive strategies. Taken together, the studies showed the importance of considering the specific context in which sport fanship takes place.

  3. MR Spectroscopy Findings in Retired Professional Rugby League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andrew J; Iverson, Grant L; Wojtowicz, Magdalena; Levi, Christopher R; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Schofield, Peter W; Zafonte, Ross; Shultz, Sandy R; Lin, Alexander P; Stanwell, Peter

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine brain neurometabolite concentrations in retired rugby league players who had a history of numerous self-reported concussions. Participants were 16 retired professional rugby league players (ages 30-45 years) with an extensive history of concussion and participation in contact sports, and 16 age- and education-matched controls who had no history of neurotrauma or participation in contact sports. All completed a clinical interview, psychological and cognitive testing, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) investigation. MRS voxels were placed in posterior cingulate grey matter and parietal white matter. Neurometabolite concentrations were quantified using LCModel. It was hypothesized that retired athletes would differ on N-acetyl aspartate, myo-inositol, choline, glutamate, and glutathione. Retired players had significantly lower concentrations of grey matter glutathione (p=0.02, d=0.91). They did not significantly differ in concentrations of other neurometabolites. There were no significant differences between groups on measures of depression, anxiety, or cognitive functioning. The retired athletes reported significantly greater alcohol use (pcognitive performance and self-reported psychological functioning. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Are unions an anachronism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrank, R

    1979-01-01

    The labor movement in the United States has its roots deep in the soil of worker discontent over grueling working conditions, low pay, and indifference of bosses, who profited from others' sweaty labor. As more and more grubby jobs are replaced by technological innovations, as work becomes more abstract and everyone wears a white shirt, and as managers schooled in motivation theory and humane ideals of participation replace the owner-bosses of yesterday, what role will the unions have left to play? The author of this article, who has been in both the labor force and management, explores what the changes in the labor market will be in the future and what these changes will mean for labor-management relations. He does not conclude that there is no role for unions-only that it will be very different and that to survive unions will have to tackle new issues in the workplace. That adaptation will affect management's stance as well.

  5. European [Security] Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    The past 20 years, since the 1992 Treaty on European Union, have seen the gradual creation of both an “Area of Freedom, Security and Justice” and a “Common Foreign and Security Policy”. More recent is the development of a “European Neighbourhood Policy” over the past 10 years. All three...... of these policies involved the navigation and negotiation of security, borders and governance in and by the European Union (EU). This article analyses these practices of bordering and governance through a five-fold security framework. The article argues that a richer understanding of EU security discourses can...

  6. BokSmart: Pre-participation screening of rugby players by coaches ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sion sport such as rugby, using easily understood questions that cast the screening net wide .... at the time of questioning should preclude him or her from training .... tion statement on the management of sports-related concussion. Journal.

  7. Experimental Demonstration of X-Ray Drive Enhancement with Rugby-Shaped Hohlraums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippe, F.; Casner, A.; Caillaud, T.; Landoas, O.; Monteil, M. C.; Liberatore, S.; Park, H. S.; Amendt, P.; Robey, H.; Sorce, C.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F.; Rosenberg, M.; Petrasso, R.; Glebov, V.; Stoeckl, C.

    2010-01-01

    Rugby-shaped hohlraums have been suggested as a way to enhance x-ray drive in the indirect drive approach to inertial confinement fusion. This Letter presents an experimental comparison of rugby-shaped and cylinder hohlraums used for D 2 and D 3 He-filled capsules implosions on the Omega laser facility, demonstrating an increase of x-ray flux by 18% in rugby-shaped hohlraums. The highest yields to date for deuterium gas implosions in indirect drive on Omega (1.5x10 10 neutrons) were obtained, allowing for the first time the measurement of a DD burn history. Proton spectra measurements provide additional validation of the higher drive in rugby-shaped hohlraums.

  8. Experimental Demonstration of X-Ray Drive Enhancement with Rugby-Shaped Hohlraums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, F.; Casner, A.; Caillaud, T.; Landoas, O.; Monteil, M. C.; Liberatore, S.; Park, H. S.; Amendt, P.; Robey, H.; Sorce, C.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F.; Rosenberg, M.; Petrasso, R.; Glebov, V.; Stoeckl, C.

    2010-01-01

    Rugby-shaped hohlraums have been suggested as a way to enhance x-ray drive in the indirect drive approach to inertial confinement fusion. This Letter presents an experimental comparison of rugby-shaped and cylinder hohlraums used for D2 and DHe3-filled capsules implosions on the Omega laser facility, demonstrating an increase of x-ray flux by 18% in rugby-shaped hohlraums. The highest yields to date for deuterium gas implosions in indirect drive on Omega (1.5×1010 neutrons) were obtained, allowing for the first time the measurement of a DD burn history. Proton spectra measurements provide additional validation of the higher drive in rugby-shaped hohlraums.

  9. Rugby and cervical spine injuries – has anything changed? A 5-year ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    related cervical spine injuries treated at the acute spinal injury (ASCI) unit at Groote Schuur Hospital from April 2003 to June 2008, and followed up with telephone interviews. Patient profile, rugby profile, subsequent injury management from the ...

  10. Comparison of Injuries in American Collegiate Football and Club Rugby: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willigenburg, Nienke W; Borchers, James R; Quincy, Richard; Kaeding, Christopher C; Hewett, Timothy E

    2016-03-01

    American football and rugby players are at substantial risk of injury because of the full-contact nature of these sports. Methodological differences between previous epidemiological studies hamper an accurate comparison of injury rates between American football and rugby. To directly compare injury rates in American collegiate football and rugby, specified by location, type, mechanism, and severity of injury, as reported by licensed medical professionals. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Licensed medical professionals (athletic trainer or physician) associated with the football and rugby teams of a National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I university reported attendance and injury details over 3 autumn seasons. Injuries were categorized by the location, type, mechanism, and severity of injury, and the injury rate was calculated per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs). Injury rate ratios (IRRs) were calculated to compare overall, game, and practice injury rates within and between sports. The overall injury rate was 4.9/1000 AEs in football versus 15.2/1000 AEs in rugby: IRR = 3.1 (95% CI, 2.3-4.2). Game injury rates were higher than practice injury rates: IRR = 6.5 (95% CI, 4.5-9.3) in football and IRR = 5.1 (95% CI, 3.0-8.6) in rugby. Injury rates for the shoulder, wrist/hand, and lower leg and for sprains, fractures, and contusions in rugby were >4 times as high as those in football (all P ≤ 0.006). Concussion rates were 1.0/1000 AEs in football versus 2.5/1000 AEs in rugby. Most injuries occurred via direct player contact, especially during games. The rate of season-ending injuries (>3 months of time loss) was 0.8/1000 AEs in football versus 1.0/1000 AEs in rugby: IRR = 1.3 (95% CI, 0.4-3.4). Overall injury rates were substantially higher in collegiate rugby compared with football. Similarities between sports were observed in the most common injury types (sprains and concussions), locations (lower extremity and head), and mechanisms (direct player contact

  11. Injuries in youth amateur soccer and rugby players—comparison of incidence and characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Junge, A; Cheung, K; Edwards, T; Dvorak, J

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: In reviewing the literature on sports injuries, few studies could be found in which exposure related incidences of injury in different types of sport were compared. These studies indicated that ice hockey, handball, basketball, soccer, and rugby are popular team sports with a relatively high risk of injury. The aim of the study was to compare the characteristics and incidence of injuries in male youth amateur soccer and rugby players.

  12. Traumatic fracture-dislocation of the hip following rugby tackle: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatachalam Santosh

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Posterior fracture-dislocation of hip is uncommonly encountered in rugby injuries. We report such a case in an adult while playing rugby. The treating orthopaedician can be caught unaware and injuries in such sports can be potentially misdiagnosed as hip sprains. Immediate reduction of the dislocation was performed in theatres. The fracture was fixed with two lag screws and a neutralization plate. This led to early rehabilitation and speedy recovery with return to sporting activities by 12 months.

  13. Biomechanical predictors of ball velocity during punt kicking in elite rugby league kickers

    OpenAIRE

    Sinclair, Jonathan Kenneth; Taylor, Paul John; Atkins, Stephen; Hobbs, Sarah Jane

    2016-01-01

    Punt kicking is integral to the attacking and defensive elements of rugby league and the ability to kick the ball with high\\ud velocity is desirable. This study aimed to identify important technical aspects of kicking linked to the generation of ball\\ud velocity. Maximal punt kicks were obtained from six elite rugby league kickers using a 10-camera motion capture system.\\ud Three-dimensional kinematics of the lower extremities was obtained. Regression analysis with ball velocity as criterion\\...

  14. Tendense in populêre werke oor Suid-Afrikaanse rugby, 1948-1995: 'n Historiografiese studie

    OpenAIRE

    de Wet, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    Die hervatting van internasionale rugby na die Tweede Wereldoorlog het nuwe belangstelling onder rugby ondersteuners wêreldwyd gekweek. Tientalle populêre rugbyboeke het in die daaropvolgende jare in Suid-Afrika verskyn en rugby het een van die land se grootste sporte geword. Rugbyboeke het algemene items op Suid-Afrikaanse boekrakke geword. Hierdie artikel stel ondersoek in na die ontwikkeling van tendense in populêre Suid-Afrikaanse rugbygeskiedskrywing tussen 1948 en 1995. Tendense word ge...

  15. Trade Union Channels for Influencing European Union Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengt Larsson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes what channels trade unions in Europe use when trying to influence European Union (EU policies. It compares and contrasts trade unions in different industrial relations regimes with regard to the degree to which they cooperate with different actors to influence EU policies, while also touching on the importance of sector differences and organizational resources. The study is based on survey data collected in 2010–2011 from unions affiliated with the European Trade Union Confederation and from below peak unions in 14 European countries. Results of the survey show that the ‘national route’ is generally the most important for trade unions in influencing EU policies in the sense that this channel is, on average, used to the highest degree. In addition, the survey delineates some important differences between trade unions in different industrial relations regimes with regard to the balance between the national route and different access points in the ‘Brussels route’.

  16. Teaming Up with Unions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Beverly

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses the concept, first encouraged by Irving Bluestone of the United Auto Workers, that union and management personnel should work together to achieve company goals. The history of this cooperative effort movement within the United Auto Workers is described. (CH)

  17. Perspectives and expectations of union member and non- union member teachers on teacher unions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncer FİDAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Unions, which can be regarded as one of the constitutive elements of democracy, are the pressure groups in political and social fields. Unions were born out of industrial confrontations and expanded into the field of public services over time, and thus teachers – who are also public employees-, also obtained the right to establish and affiliate to unions. In this research the views of union member and non-union member teachers on the most important functions and operational effectiveness of unions, teachers’ expectations from unions and teachers’ evaluation of the solidarity, competition and cooperation between unions were determined and the perspectives of teachers on unionization were revealed. qualitative research design was used. The data needed were collected through semi-structured interviews from volunteering union member and non-union member teachers who were working in the primary and secondary schools in Ankara province and who were selected through “maximum variation sampling approach”. The data were then analyzed by using the content analysis technique. In conclusion, it was found that political ideology was the most important reason for membership of teachers’ unions. Protection and development of personal rights was found to be the most important function of teacher unions and unions were thought to be insufficient in performing those functions.

  18. Junior Sport and the Evolution of Sport Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedentop, Daryl

    2002-01-01

    Addresses junior sport and sport culture in New Zealand, recommending that it receive serious consideration for its crucial role in the future of New Zealand's sport culture. The paper presents three goals for junior sport programs (educative, public health, and elite development), describes characteristics of junior sport (e.g., youth want to…

  19. Correlating continuous assessment scores to junior secondary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relationship between continuous assessment scores and junior secondary school certificate examination(JSCE) final scores in Imo State. A sample of four hundred students were purposively selected from thirty eight thousand students who took the 1997 JSCE in Imo State. The data used were ...

  20. Skills training of junior medical students

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-02

    Nov 2, 2013 ... Peer tutors enjoyed and benefited from this teaching method without it negatively affecting their own learning. Discussion. ... addressing the problem of skills training of junior medical students where there is a shortage of trained clinical teachers. AJHPE 2013 ... [1] Informal peer teaching usually takes place.

  1. Reproductive Health Knowledge And Practices Among Junior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A cross sectional survey of the reproductive health knowledge and practices of 412 junior secondary school pupils from 12 schools in Enugu State, Nigeria was undertaken using a uniform set of structured self-administered questionnaire. Results: The results revealed that while the pupils demonstrated fair ...

  2. HUMANITIES IN A JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KNIGHT, BONNIE M.

    A HUMANITIES COURSE HAS BEEN DEVELOPED FOR ACADEMICALLY ABLE SEVENTH-GRADE STUDENTS IN BRANCIFORTE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL IN SANTA CRUZ, CALIFORNIA. IN A TWO-PERIOD DAILY TIME BLOCK, STUDENTS LEARN ENGLISH, LITERATURE, AND LATIN, AND INVESTIGATE TOPICS IN ARCHEOLOGY, CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY, LINGUISTICS, PSYCHOLOGY, PHILOSOPHY, GREEK LITERATURE AND…

  3. Report: Immersion French at Meriden Junior School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Marie-Josee

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the French immersion program at Meriden Junior School, an Anglican school for girls from pre-Kindergarten to Year 12 in Sydney. Four teachers (one of whom is the coordinator) and three assistants are involved in the program. They include six French native speakers and one non-French-born teacher who speaks…

  4. Junior High School Pupils' Perceptions of Air

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cce

    learning of science at the basic level. ... Stavy (1991) reported that students in his physics class had ... In a cross-level study of junior secondary, senior secondary and .... interview guide consisted of the items culled from Section B of the test.

  5. The Development of Trade Unionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ronald W.

    1979-01-01

    Traces the growth and evolution of the British labor union movement, troubles between the national officials and the local shop stewards, class differences and conflict between the artisans and laborers, violence between unions, and eventual transition to peaceful constitutionalism. (MF)

  6. RISUS study: Rugby Injury Surveillance in Ulster Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archbold, H A P; Rankin, A T; Webb, M; Nicholas, R; Eames, N W A; Wilson, R K; Henderson, L A; Heyes, G J; Bleakley, C M

    2017-04-01

    To examine injury patterns in adolescent rugby players and determine factors associated with injury risk. Prospective injury surveillance study. N=28 Grammar Schools in Ulster, Ireland (2014-2015 playing season). 825 adolescent rugby players, across in 28 school first XV rugby squads; mean age 16.9 years. Injuries were classified by body part and diagnosis, and injury incidence using injuries per 1000 match hours of exposure. HRs for injury were calculated through Cox proportional hazard regression after correction for influential covariates. A total of n=426 injuries were reported across the playing season. Over 50% of injuries occurred in the tackle situation or during collisions (270/426), with few reported during set plays. The 3 most common injury sites were head/face (n=102, 23.9%), clavicle/shoulder (n=65, 15.3%) and the knee (n=56, 13.1%). Sprain (n=133, 31.2%), concussion (n=81, 19%) and muscle injury (n=65, 15.3%) were the most common diagnoses. Injury incidence is calculated at 29.06 injuries per 1000 match hours. There were no catastrophic injuries. A large percentage of injuries (208/424) resulted in absence from play for more than 28 days. Concussion carried the most significant time out from play (n=33; 15.9%), followed by dislocations of the shoulder (n=22; 10.6%), knee sprains (n=19, 9.1%), ankle sprains (n=14, 6.7%), hand/finger/thumb (n=11; 5.3%). 36.8% of participants in the study (304/825) suffered at least one injury during the playing season. Multivariate models found higher risk of injury (adjusted HR (AHR); 95% CI) with: higher age (AHR 1.45; 1.14 to 1.83), heavier weight (AHR 1.32; 1.04 to 1.69), playing representative rugby (AHR 1.42; 1.06 to 1.90) and undertaking regular strength training (AHR 1.65; 1.11 to 2.46). Playing for a lower ranked team (AHR 0.67; 0.49 to 0.90) and wearing a mouthguard (AHR 0.70; 0.54 to 0.92) were associated with lower risk of injury. There was a high incidence of severe injuries, with concussion, ankle and

  7. Costal cartilage fractures and disruptions in a rugby football player.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Victor; Ma, Richard; Li, Xinning; Steele, John; Allen, Answorth A

    2013-05-01

    Costal cartilage fracture of the rib cage, or costochondral, is a rare sporting injury. For contact athletes, the instability of the rib cage may lead to potential serious complications, similar to rib fractures or thorax disruption. Most authors recommend initial conservative treatment with surgery reserved for only recalcitrant cases. We report a case of an amateur American male rugby football player who sustained a costal cartilage fracture and disruption involving the anterior left fifth and sixth rib costal cartilages. The case highlights the difficulty in establishing the diagnosis based on clinical examination and standard radiographs alone. Computed tomography was used to assist in diagnosing this destabilizing injury to the rib cage. Costal cartilage fractures and disruptions in athletes are rarely reported in the literature and can have serious implications for the athlete's ability to return to play if the rib cage is destabilized.

  8. Los orígenes del rugby femenino en Inglaterra

    OpenAIRE

    Martín, Montse

    2001-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo tiene dos vertientes. Por un lado quiere aportar datos “objetivos” sobre cuándo y dónde los equipos femeninos empezaron a tener una razón de ser en Inglaterra, y por otro lado, lo que se pretende, es hacer un primer análisis de las experiencias vividas por unas cuantas mujeres que en un momento dado de su vida se pusieron calzón corto y decidieron que esto del rugby se tenía que probar. Los marcos teóricos referenciados en el análisis de los datos son básicamente ...

  9. Video Analysis of Primary Shoulder Dislocations in Rugby Tackles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Nobukazu; Kawasaki, Takayuki; Mochizuki, Tomoyuki; Ota, Chihiro; Yoneda, Takeshi; Urayama, Shingo; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2017-06-01

    Characteristics of rugby tackles that lead to primary anterior shoulder dislocation remain unclear. To clarify the characteristics of tackling that lead to shoulder dislocation and to assess the correlation between the mechanism of injury and morphological damage of the glenoid. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Eleven elite rugby players who sustained primary anterior shoulder dislocation due to one-on-one tackling between 2001 and 2014 were included. Using an assessment system, the tackler's movement, posture, and shoulder and head position were evaluated in each phase of tackling. Based on 3-dimensional computed tomography, the glenoid of the affected shoulder was classified into 3 types: intact, erosion, and bone defect. Orientation of the glenoid defect and presence of Hill-Sachs lesion were also evaluated. Eleven tackles that led to primary shoulder dislocation were divided into hand, arm, and shoulder tackle types based on the site at which the tackler contacted the ball carrier initially. In hand and arm tackles, the tackler's shoulder joint was forcibly moved to horizontal abduction by the impact of his upper limb, which appeared to result from an inappropriate approach to the ball carrier. In shoulder tackles, the tackler's head was lowered and was in front of the ball carrier at impact. There was no significant correlation between tackle types and the characteristics of bony lesions of the shoulder. Although the precise mechanism of primary anterior shoulder dislocation could not be estimated from this single-view analysis, failure of individual tackling leading to injury is not uniform and can be caused by 2 main factors: failure of approach followed by an extended arm position or inappropriate posture of the tackler at impact, such as a lowered head in front of the opponent. These findings indicate that injury mechanisms should be assessed for each type of tackle, as it is unknown whether external force to the glenoid is different in each mechanism

  10. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in University Rugby Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Nirengi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity improves various metabolic disturbances. The effect of physical activity on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has not been defined, particularly in athletes who are able to consume a diet to increase body mass. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of NAFLD and associated factors of NAFLD among male university rugby football players [n = 69, 37 forwards (FW and 32 backs (BK], relative to age-matched controls (CON; n = 29. For FW players exercise consists of physical contact play, such as ruck, mall, scrum, and tackle. For BK players exercise consists of sprints and endurance running. Liver function tests and bioimpedance analysis to assess body composition were performed. Subjects consuming ≤ 20 g/day of ethanol and exhibiting an aspartate transaminase (AST level ≥ 33 U/L, and/or alanine transaminase (ALT level ≥ 43 U/L, were considered to have NAFLD. The PNPLA3 and MTP genotypes were determined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The body mass index, body fat mass, and lean body mass were significantly higher in the FW group than in the BK and CON groups (P < 0.05. The total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, AST, ALT, and alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly higher in the FW group than in the CON group (P < 0.05. The prevalence of NAFLD was significantly higher in the FW group than in the BK group and CON group (18.9, 8.6, and 0.0%, respectively, whereas there were non-significant between-group differences in the frequency of the PNPLA3 and MTP genotypes. These findings indicate that rugby football players, especially those in the FW position, are at higher risk of developing NAFLD, which emphasizes the role of diet and exercise in the development of NAFLD.

  11. Union Directions - Army Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-06

    reflects the long-held belief in the Army that employee participation in decisions that affect their worklife is healthy and desirable. Although some...pluralistic society, checks and balances are as important for the economy as for the government. Business executives who salivate at the thought of vanishing...Unions. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1976. 37. National Federation of Federal Employees. NFFE’s Guide to Quality of Worklife Programs. No. G-21

  12. European Union Budget Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele

    2015-01-01

    The marginal involvement of the European Union (EU) in redistributive policies and its limited fiscal resources have led to a notable lack of attention by EU scholars towards the EU budget and its dynamics. Yet the nature of the budgetary data and their high usability for statistical analysis make...... to form winning coalitions in the Council, the ideological positioning of the co-legislators and the inclusion of the cohesion countries have played a significant role in driving budget change....

  13. Epidemiology and location of rugby injuries treated in US emergency departments from 2004 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabesan V

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vani Sabesan,1 Zachary Steffes,2 Daniel J Lombardo,1 Graysen R Petersen-Fitts,1 Toufic R Jildeh2 1Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, 2Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI, USA Abstract: Rugby participation in the US is increasing, and with its inclusion in the 2016 Summer Olympics, the increased participation rates are expected to continue. Naturally, as participation increases, so too do rugby-related injuries. The difference in injury patterns with regard to age and gender illustrates differences in how the game is being played. Understanding what accounts for these emerging injury patterns will help guide future injury prevention efforts. This study provides an update on injury rates for the growing population of rugby players in the US, especially young players. Our results focus on the variation of injury types and the injury rates of various levels of rugby players, including youth, collegiate, and recreational. Using injury data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System, we analyzed data in rugby patients for age, gender, body region, type of injury, and severity. We employed statistical weights to calculate national injury estimates. During the 10 years studied, the trend in the number of rugby injuries among all age groups showed a statistically significant increase (R=0.804, P=0.005. The average age of injury was 21.5±6.3 years with facial and head injuries constituting >33% of all injuries, representing a proportional increase of >10%. Men were most frequently injured in the face (18.2% and head (15.9%; women were most frequently injured in the head (23% and shoulder (12.3%. There were 9,059 concussions, constituting 7% of all injuries. Keywords: rugby, injury pattern, epidemiology

  14. Semi-Professional Rugby League Players have Higher Concussion Risk than Professional or Amateur Participants: A Pooled Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Doug; Hume, Patria; Gissane, Conor; Clark, Trevor

    2017-02-01

    A combined estimate of injuries within a specific sport through pooled analysis provides more precise evidence and meaningful information about the sport, whilst controlling for between-study variation due to individual sub-cohort characteristics. The objective of this analysis was to review all published rugby league studies reporting injuries from match and training participation and report the pooled data estimates for rugby league concussion injury epidemiology. A systematic literature analysis of concussion in rugby league was performed on published studies from January 1990 to October 2015. Data were extracted and pooled from 25 studies that reported the number and incidence of concussions in rugby league match and training activities. Amateur rugby league players had the highest incidence of concussive injuries in match activities (19.1 per 1000 match hours) while semi-professional players had the highest incidence of concussive injuries in training activities (3.1 per 1000 training hours). This pooled analysis showed that, during match participation activities, amateur rugby league participants had a higher reported concussion injury rate than professional and semi-professional participants. Semi-professional participants had nearly a threefold greater concussion injury risk than amateur rugby league participants during match participation. They also had nearly a 600-fold greater concussion injury risk than professional rugby league participants during training participation.

  15. ‘It is where blokes can be blokes’ : making places in a New Zealand rugby club

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Campenhout, Gijs; van Hoven, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Using the case study of a New Zealand rugby club, in this article, we highlight the role of gender and performance in place attachment. We discuss various performances that contribute to achieving a sense of attachment of club members to the (imagined) community of the rugby club and the different

  16. 75 FR 8178 - Application of Rugby Aviation LLC D/B/A Northwest Sky Ferry for Commuter Air Carrier Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Application of Rugby Aviation LLC D/B/A Northwest Sky Ferry for Commuter Air Carrier Authority AGENCY: Department of Transportation. ACTION: Notice... Transportation is directing all interested persons to show cause why it should not issue an order finding Rugby...

  17. Playing by the Rules: Researching, Teaching and Learning Sexual Ethics with Young Men in the Australian National Rugby League

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albury, Kath; Carmody, Moira; Evers, Clifton; Lumby, Catharine

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, the Australian National Rugby League (NRL) commissioned the Playing By The Rules research project in response to allegations of sexual assault by members of a professional rugby league team. This article offers an overview of the theoretical and methodological approaches adopted by the team, and the subsequent workplace education…

  18. Research Resources Survey: Radiology Junior Faculty Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Votaw, John R

    2015-07-01

    To assess resources available to junior faculty in US academic radiology departments for research mentorship and funding opportunities and to determine if certain resources are more common in successful programs. An anonymous survey covering scientific environment and research mentorship and was sent to vice-chairs of research of radiology departments. Results were evaluated to identify practices of research programs with respect to mentorship, resources, and opportunities. Academy of Radiology Research's 2012 National Institutes of Health (NIH) grants and awards list was used to determine if environment and practices correlate with funding. There was a 51% response rate. A greater fraction of clinical faculty gets promoted from assistant to associate professor than research faculty. Research faculty overall submits more funding applications. Most programs support start-up costs and K-awards. Over half of the departments have a vice-chair for faculty development, and most have formal mentorship programs. Faculty members are expected to teach, engage in service, publish, and apply for and get research funding within 3 years of hire. Top-tier programs as judged by NIH awards have a combination of MDs who devote >50% effort to research and PhD faculty. Key factors holding back both clinical and research junior faculty development were motivation, resources, and time, although programs reported high availability of resources and support at the department level. Better marketing of resources for junior faculty, effort devoted to mentoring clinical faculty in research, and explicit milestones/expectations for achievement could enhance junior faculty success, promote interest in the clinician–scientist career path for radiologists, and lead to greater research success.

  19. Junior Leader Training Development in Operational Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    UNITS Successful operational units do not arise without tough, realistic, and challenging training. Field Manual (FM) 7-0, Training Units and D...operations. The manual provides junior leaders with guidance on how to conduct training and training management. Of particular importance is the definition...1 Relation htp between ADDIE and the Anny Training Management Model. The Army Training Management Model and ADDIE process appear in TRADOC PAM 350

  20. Intensity and direction of competitive state anxiety as interpreted by rugby players and rifle shooters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanton, S; Jones, G; Mullen, R

    2000-04-01

    This study reports the findings of part of an ongoing research program examining sports performers' interpretations of competitive anxiety prior to competition. The notion of 'directional perceptions' has questioned the limited utility of examining only the intensity of competitive anxiety responses as has Jones. The purpose of this study was to examine intensity and direction, i.e., interpretation of intensity as facilitative or debilitative, of anxiety symptoms as a function of two types of sport. The types of sport were explosive (rugby league) versus fine motor skills (target rifle shooting). The sample comprised 50 male rugby league participants and 50 target rifle shooters who completed a modified version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 prior to competition. Contingency analysis yielded a significant difference in the number of rugby players who reported somatic anxiety as facilitative and the number of rifle shooters who reported somatic states as debilitative. No such differences were evident for cognitive anxiety. Analysis of variance indicated no differences between the two groups on the intensity of cognitive and somatic anxiety, but the performers competing in rugby league interpreted both states as being more facilitative to performance; the rugby league players also had higher scores on self-confidence than the shooters. These findings provide continuing support for the measurement of directional perceptions of competitive anxiety and highlight the importance of examining individual sports.

  1. Experiences of music listening among rugby players at North-West University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamaryn L. Aslett

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This article documents a study that investigated the reasons why a group of student rugby players habitually listen to music as part of their pre-match routine. The investigation followed a hermeneutic phenomenological approach that allowed the players to verbalise their personal music listening experiences. The investigation links the music listening practices of the players with the concept of musical experience as an innate human capacity directed towards general well-being. For the players, well-being is a basic condition of happiness and optimism. Achieving and maintaining this condition draws on the emotive qualities of musical sound patterns, as well as the powerful, socially situated meanings of song lyrics. Consequent states of mind conceptualise a rewarding existence by integrating experiences in sport as well as in music. Directed towards rugby practice, the study found that music listening is an informal, individual activity that involves the use of earphones. The sense of personal isolation this induces is a prerequisite for generating focus as well as controlled energy, a state of mind regarded as essential for effective participation in rugby. The pervasive use yet informal application of this strategy by rugby players points to an officially undervalued psychological resource. This finding has implications for fuller exploitation and incorporation of music listening into rugby training programmes.

  2. Proof of Concept of Automated Collision Detection Technology in Rugby Sevens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Anthea C; Anson, Judith M; Pyne, David B

    2017-04-01

    Clarke, AC, Anson, JM, and Pyne, DB. Proof of concept of automated collision detection technology in rugby sevens. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 1116-1120, 2017-Developments in microsensor technology allow for automated detection of collisions in various codes of football, removing the need for time-consuming postprocessing of video footage. However, little research is available on the ability of microsensor technology to be used across various sports or genders. Game video footage was matched with microsensor-detected collisions (GPSports) in one men's (n = 12 players) and one women's (n = 12) rugby sevens match. True-positive, false-positive, and false-negative events between video and microsensor-detected collisions were used to calculate recall (ability to detect a collision) and precision (accurately identify a collision). The precision was similar between the men's and women's rugby sevens game (∼0.72; scale 0.00-1.00); however, the recall in the women's game (0.45) was less than that for the men's game (0.69). This resulted in 45% of collisions for men and 62% of collisions for women being incorrectly labeled. Currently, the automated collision detection system in GPSports microtechnology units has only modest utility in rugby sevens, and it seems that a rugby sevens-specific algorithm is needed. Differences in measures between the men's and women's game may be a result of physical size, and strength, and physicality, as well as technical and tactical factors.

  3. European Union, 2017

    OpenAIRE

    Malone Margaret Mary

    2018-01-01

    The year 2017 was eventful for the EU and its member states. Given the widespread Euroscepticism and populism which appeared to be on the rise last year, election results in the Netherlands, France and Germany were greeted with relief and hope for the future. The EU was in an optimistic mood. European Commission President Jean- Claude Juncker used his State of the European Union speech in September to note that the EU had the ‘wind in its sails’ (Juncker, 2017). At the same time, he cautioned...

  4. Currency union entries and trade

    OpenAIRE

    Nitsch, Volker

    2005-01-01

    Recent research suggests that adopting a common currency increases bilateral trade. In this paper, I explore experiences of currency union entry in the post-war period and find no effect on trade. Previous results derived from a large panel data set (covering more than 200 countries from 1948 through 1997) appear to depend crucially on the assumption of symmetry between currency union exits and entries: While countries leaving a currency union experience significant declines in trade, currenc...

  5. O Rugby, identidade e processos econômicos no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Diego Monteiro Gutierrez

    2016-01-01

    A dissertação cria um panorama amplo da prática do rugby no Brasil abordando aspectos sociológicos e históricos da modalidade em território nacional com o objetivo de compreender a sua prática, características e dinâmicas na atualidade. A partir do referencial teórico de Bourdieu e Mauss, entre outros, o trabalho constrói uma história do rugby no Brasil, utilizando como base documentos e entrevistas. A dissertação procura demonstrar que o rugby, inicialmente praticado quase que só por jogador...

  6. Official Union Time Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Official Union Time Tracking System captures the reporting and accounting of the representational activity for all American Federation of Government Employees (AFGE)...

  7. Effects of Caffeine Ingestion on Skill Performance During an International Female Rugby Sevens Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portillo, Javier; Del Coso, Juan; Abián-Vicén, Javier

    2017-12-01

    Portillo, J, Del Coso, J, and Abián-Vicén, J. Effects of caffeine ingestion on skill performance during an international female rugby sevens competition. J Strength Cond Res 31(12): 3351-3357, 2017-The aim of this study was to establish the effects of a caffeine-containing energy drink on skills and technical performance during a match in female elite rugby sevens players. On 2 nonconsecutive days of a friendly tournament, 16 women from the Spanish national rugby sevens team (mean age = 23 ± 2 years) ingested 3 mg of caffeine per kilogram of body mass in the form of an energy drink or the same drink without caffeine (placebo drink). After 60 minutes for caffeine absorption, participants played 3 rugby sevens matches against another national team. Body impacts during the matches were assessed by triaxial accelerometers. The matches were videotaped, and each individual technical action was notated afterward by 2 experienced observers. In comparison with the placebo drink, the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink increased the rate of body impacts in zone 1 (16.1 ± 4.9 vs. 20.8 ± 9.9 impacts/min, p rugby-specific technical actions during the games. In conclusion, the ingestion of 3 mg·kg of caffeine in the form of an energy drink increased the number of body impacts during a rugby sevens international competition which suggests a higher engagement of the players during the game. However, the caffeine ingestion did not influence the quality of the technical actions performed during the competition.

  8. Assessing the Personal Financial Problems of Junior Enlisted Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buddin, Richard

    2002-01-01

    .... Surveys of military personnel show that, particularly for junior personnel, financial problems constitute a major source of stress, subordinate only to increased workload and family separation...

  9. Insights into relationships between body mass, composition and bone: findings in elite rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hind, Karen; Gannon, Lisa; Brightmore, Amy; Beck, Belinda

    2015-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that bone strength is not proportional to body weight in obese populations. Elite rugby players have a similar body mass index (BMI) to obese individuals but differ markedly with low body fat, high lean mass, and frequent skeletal exposure to loading through weight-bearing exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine relationships between body weight, composition, and bone strength in male rugby players characterized by high BMI and high lean mass. Fifty-two elite male rugby players and 32 nonathletic, age-matched controls differing in BMI (30.2 ± 3.2 vs 24.1 ± 2.1 kg/m²; p = 0.02) received 1 total body and one total hip dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan. Hip structural analysis of the proximal femur was used to determine bone mineral density (BMD) and cross-sectional bone geometry. Multiple linear regression was computed to identify independent variables associated with total hip and femoral neck BMD and hip structural analysis-derived bone geometry parameters. Analysis of covariance was used to explore differences between groups. Further comparisons between groups were performed after normalizing parameters to body weight and to lean mass. There was a trend for a positive fat-bone relationship in rugby players, and a negative relationship in controls, although neither reached statistical significance. Correlations with lean mass were stronger for bone geometry (r(2): 0.408-0.520) than for BMD (r(2): 0.267-0.293). Relative to body weight, BMD was 6.7% lower in rugby players than controls (p Rugby players were heavier than controls, with greater lean mass and BMD (p rugby players (p rugby players was reduced in proportion to body weight and lean mass. However, their superior bone geometry suggests that overall bone strength may be adequate for loading demands. Fat-bone interactions in athletes engaged in high-impact sports require further exploration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Health and safety implications of injury in professional rugby league football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gissane, C; White, J; Kerr, K; Jennings, S; Jennings, D

    2003-12-01

    Professional sport is characterized by high injury rates but is also covered by health and safety legislation. To examine the incidence of injury in professional rugby league as defined by the Reporting of Diseases and Dangerous Occurrences Regulations 1995 (RIDDOR 95). All injuries received during playing and training to both first-team and 'academy' (rugby league is much higher than reported in other high-risk occupations such as mining and quarrying. The large differences in injury rates between first and academy teams have implications for young players likely to progress to first-team status.

  11. Revue épidémiologique des blessures lors de la pratique du rugby à XV

    OpenAIRE

    Kaux, Jean-François; Julia, Marc; Chupin, Marie; Delvaux, François; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Forthomme, Bénédicte; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; LE GOFF, Caroline; Durez, Patrick; Ernst, Philippe; Guns, Sébastien; Laly, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    Le rugby est un sport en plein développement. Sport de contact par excellence, il est à l’origine d’un nombre important de blessures. Au rugby à XV, l’incidence des blessures s’élève de 30 à 91/1000 heures de match. Cette revue épidémiologique des blessures chez le rugbyman évoque la localisation et le type de blessures, les causes, les moments des matches et de la saison auxquels elles se produisent, la position des joueurs et le type de terrain, ainsi que le temps d’absence des joueurs à la...

  12. Traumatic humeral articular cartilage shear (THACS) lesion in a professional rugby player: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, I-H; Wallace, W A

    2004-08-01

    A 20 year old male professional rugby player was seen at the clinic for evaluation of shoulder pain after rugby play. Magnetic resonance imaging showed extensive subchondral bone bruising of the humeral head with defect of the articular cartilage. Arthroscopy showed that the inferior half of the humeral head had extensive articular cartilage loss with nearly 70% of the inferior head having lost its cartilage. Sports medicine doctors should be aware that the shoulder joint in young competitive athletes playing contact sports may be exposed to greater risk of this kind of injury.

  13. Peak power, force, and velocity during jump squats in professional rugby players

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, Anthony P; Unholz, Cedric N; Potts, Neill; Coleman, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Training at the optimal load for peak power output (PPO) has been proposed as a method for enhancing power output, although others argue that the force, velocity, and PPO are of interest across the full range of loads. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of load on PPO, peak barbell velocity (BV), and peak vertical ground reaction force (VGRF) during the jump squat (JS) in a group of professional rugby players. Eleven male professional rugby players (age, 26 ± 3 years; height, ...

  14. Motivation and burnout among top amateur rugby players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresswell, Scott L; Eklund, Robert C

    2005-03-01

    Self-determination theory has proven to be a useful theoretical explanation of the occurrence of ill-being on a variety of accounts. Self-determination theory may also provide a useful explanation of the occurrence of athlete burnout. To date, limited evidence exists to support links between motivation and burnout. To examine relationships and potential causal directions among burnout and types of motivation differing in degree of self-determination. Data were collected on burnout using the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire and Sport Motivation Scale from 392 top amateur male rugby players. Structural equation modeling procedures were employed to evaluate a measurement model and three conceptually grounded structural models. One conceptual model specified concomitant (noncausal) relationships between burnout and motivations varying in self-determination. The other conceptual models specified causal pathways between burnout and the three motivation variables considered in the investigation (i.e., intrinsic motivation, external regulation, and amotivation). Within the models, amotivation, the least self-determined type of motivation, had a large positive association with burnout. Externally regulated motivation had trivial and nonsignificant relationships with burnout. Self-determined forms of motivation (i.e., intrinsic motivation) exhibited significant negative associations with burnout. Overall the results support the potential utility of a self-determination theory explanation of burnout. As all models displayed reasonable and comparable fits, further research is required to establish the nature (concomitant vs directional causal vs reciprocal causal) of the relationship between burnout and motivation.

  15. Running with rugby balls: bulk renormalization of codimension-2 branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M.; Burgess, C. P.; van Nierop, L.; Salvio, A.

    2013-01-01

    We compute how one-loop bulk effects renormalize both bulk and brane effective interactions for geometries sourced by codimension-two branes. We do so by explicitly integrating out spin-zero, -half and -one particles in 6-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Scalar theories compactified to 4 dimensions on a flux-stabilized 2D geometry. (Our methods apply equally well for D dimensions compactified to D - 2 dimensions, although our explicit formulae do not capture all divergences when D > 6.) The renormalization of bulk interactions are independent of the boundary conditions assumed at the brane locations, and reproduce standard heat-kernel calculations. Boundary conditions at any particular brane do affect how bulk loops renormalize this brane's effective action, but not the renormalization of other distant branes. Although we explicitly compute our loops using a rugby ball geometry, because we follow only UV effects our results apply more generally to any geometry containing codimension-two sources with conical singularities. Our results have a variety of uses, including calculating the UV sensitivity of one-loop vacuum energy seen by observers localized on the brane. We show how these one-loop effects combine in a surprising way with bulk back-reaction to give the complete low-energy effective cosmological constant, and comment on the relevance of this calculation to proposed applications of codimension-two 6D models to solutions of the hierarchy and cosmological constant problems.

  16. Casimir effect in rugby-ball type flux compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elizalde, Emilio; Minamitsuji, Masato; Naylor, Wade

    2007-01-01

    As a continuation of the work by Minamitsuji, Naylor, and Sasaki [J. High Energy Phys. 12 (2006) 079], we discuss the Casimir effect for a massless bulk scalar field in a 4D toy model of a 6D warped flux compactification model, to stabilize the volume modulus. The one-loop effective potential for the volume modulus has a form similar to the Coleman-Weinberg potential. The stability of the volume modulus against quantum corrections is related to an appropriate heat kernel coefficient. However, to make any physical predictions after volume stabilization, knowledge of the derivative of the zeta function, ζ ' (0) (in a conformally related spacetime) is also required. By adding up the exact mass spectrum using zeta-function regularization, we present a revised analysis of the effective potential. Finally, we discuss some physical implications, especially concerning the degree of the hierarchy between the fundamental energy scales on the branes. For a larger degree of warping our new results are very similar to the ones given by Minamitsuji, Naylor, and Sasaki [J. High Energy Phys. 12 (2006) 079] and imply a larger hierarchy. In the nonwarped (rugby ball) limit the ratio tends to converge to the same value, independently of the bulk dilaton coupling

  17. Confusion and abdominal symptoms following a rugby tackle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannides, Demetris; Davies, Madeleine; Kluzek, Stefan

    2017-09-23

    A 19-year-old man was sent to the emergency department following a pitch-side assessment for suspected concussion, unexplained upper abdominal tenderness and vomiting, following a high-impact tackle during a rugby match. A Focussed Assessment with Sonography for Trauma (FAST) scan performed in the emergency department suggested intra-abdominal free fluid, and subsequent head and abdominal CT imaging showed no intracranial lesion but confirmed a significant haemoperitoneum due to large splenic tear and bleeding. An emergency splenectomy was performed, which confirmed the rupture of an enlarged spleen with blood loss of almost 2 L into the peritoneal cavity. The patient made a full recovery following surgery. A subsequent histological examination revealed granulomatous inflammation characteristic of infectious mononucleosis. This unique case illustrates that physically fit patients with early hypovolaemic shock can present with symptoms mimicking concussion. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. European Union, 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malone Margaret Mary

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The year 2017 was eventful for the EU and its member states. Given the widespread Euroscepticism and populism which appeared to be on the rise last year, election results in the Netherlands, France and Germany were greeted with relief and hope for the future. The EU was in an optimistic mood. European Commission President Jean- Claude Juncker used his State of the European Union speech in September to note that the EU had the ‘wind in its sails’ (Juncker, 2017. At the same time, he cautioned that the fair weather conditions would not last long - there was no room for complacency. The EU had to act to protect, empower and defend its citizens. The EU moved forward on a number of policy fronts in the wake of the Brexit vote and also concluded high-profile international trade deals in an effort to fill the vacuum left by the protectionist policies of the Trump administration.

  19. Disorganized junior doctors fail the MRCP (UK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Adrian G; Khan, Khalid M; Hussain, Walayat; Tweed, Michael

    2006-02-01

    Career progression during undergraduate and early postgraduate years is currently determined by successfully passing examinations. Both academic factors (secondary school examination results, learning style and training opportunities) and non-academic factors (maturity, ethnic origin, gender and motivation) have been identified as predicting examination outcome. Few studies have examined organization skills. Disorganized medical students are more likely to perform poorly in end-of-year examinations but this observation has not been examined in junior doctors. This study asked whether organization skills relate to examination outcome amongst junior doctors taking the clinical Part II examination for the Membership of the Royal College of Physicians (Practical Assessment of Clinical Examination Skills). The study was conducted prospectively at four consecutive clinical courses that provided clinical teaching and practice to prepare trainees for the examination. Arrival time at registration for the course was the chosen surrogate for organization skills. Trainees were advised that they should arrive promptly at 8.00 a.m. for registration and it was explained that the course would start at 8.30 a.m. Recorded arrival times were compared with the pass lists published by the Royal College of Physicians. The mean arrival time was 8.17 a.m. A total of 81 doctors (53.3%) passed the examination with a mean arrival time of 8.14 a.m. However, 71 doctors failed the exam and arrived, on average, six minutes later than doctors who passed (p?=?0.006). Better-prepared junior doctors were more likely to pass the final examination. Arriving on time represents a composite of several skills involved in the planning of appropriate travel arrangements and is therefore a valid marker of organization skills and preparation. This novel study has shown that good time-keeping skills are positively associated with examination outcome.

  20. Professional Employees Turn to Unions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamot, Dennis

    1976-01-01

    White-collar and professional employees are increasingly turning to unions to combat their loss of independence as employees of large organizations. Managers should realize that they and professional employees have different viewpoints about job situations and that the current trend toward white-collar unionism is apt to continue. (JG)

  1. Is Union Job Dissatisfaction Real?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersch, Joni; Stone, Joe A.

    1990-01-01

    A comparison of data from a Eugene, Oregon, worker survey with data from the Quality of Employment Survey found that union job dissatisfaction arises from factors independent of wages and working conditions. Union perspectives of working conditions do not accurately reflect objective measures of conditions. The dissatisfaction expressed has real…

  2. Grassmann codes and Schubert unions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Johan Peder; Johnsen, Trygve; Ranestad, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    We study subsets of Grassmann varieties over a field , such that these subsets are unions of Schubert cycles, with respect to a fixed flag. We study such sets in detail, and give applications to coding theory, in particular for Grassmann codes. For much is known about such Schubert unions with a ...

  3. Toward a More Perfect Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, Ron

    2010-01-01

    This article explores school districts such as New Haven (Connecticut) Public Schools, whose local union is an American Federation of Teachers (AFT) affiliate and where a shared concern for students has trumped the often adversarial union-management relationship. The author discusses what makes the successful contract negotiations headed by David…

  4. To Assess Sleep Quality among Pakistani Junior Physicians (House ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sleep deprivation among junior physicians (house officers) is of growing concern. In developed countries, duty hours are now mandated, but in developing countries, junior physicians are highly susceptible to develop sleep impairment due to long working hours, on‑call duties and shift work schedule. Aim: We ...

  5. Poor interpretation of chest X-rays by junior doctors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Janus Mølgaard; Gerke, Oke; Karstoft, Jens

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Studies targeting medical students and junior doctors have shown that their radiological skills are insufficient. Despite the widespread use of chest X-ray; however, a study of Danish junior doctors' skills has not previously been performed. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 22...

  6. Multiple Intelligences Profiles of Junior Secondary School Students in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmiyati, Nuri; Rasyid, Muhammad Amin; Rahman, M. Asfah; Arsyad, Azhar; Dirawan, Gufran Darma

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the Multiple Intelligences profiles of the students at junior secondary school in Makassar. The Multiple Intelligences Inventory was used to identify the dominant intelligence among the students. The sample of this research was 302 junior secondary schools students in Makassar Indonesia who willing to participated…

  7. Parental Resources and the Transition to Junior High.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grolnick, Wendy S.; Kurowski, Carolyn O.; Dunlap, Kelly G.; Hevey, Cheryl

    2000-01-01

    This study examined whether maternal resources of involvement and autonomy support might buffer children against the negative effects of the transition to junior high. School, cognitive, and personal involvement were examined. Findings highlight the importance of the home environment in children's coping with the transition to junior high.…

  8. Theorizing Food Sharing Practices in a Junior High Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This reflective essay analyzes interactions where food was shared between a teacher and her junior high school students. The author describes the official uses of food in junior high school classrooms and in educational contexts in general. The author then theorizes these interactions, suggesting other semiotic, dialogic, and culturally encoded…

  9. Attitude of Junior Secondary School Students towards the Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of girls' education in Science subjects, as it exists in Ghana with reference to J.S.S. pupils' attitude to Science. Using a stratified random sample of junior secondary school students from public and private schools, the study investigated the attitudes of junior secondary school students towards the study of science. Data were ...

  10. Potential benefits of student- and junior doctor-led textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Zeshan U; Lattey, Katherine; Bryne, Patrick; Rodrigues, Mark; Ross, Michael; Maxwell, Simon

    2015-06-01

    Medical textbooks are an important teaching supplement. Few have junior doctors or medical students ('juniors') as primary contributors. However, the strengths of junior-led face-to-face teaching are now well-established, and we hypothesized that similar advantages would be transferrable to a textbook setting. Juniors were approached to contribute to an independently published medical textbook, with senior clinicians recruited in parallel to ensure factual accuracy. Juniors directed every aspect of textbook writing and the production process. The published book stressed that it was an open collaboration with readers, inviting them to get in touch to evaluate the text and suggest ideas for new titles. Of 75 respondents, 93 % awarded the first textbook in the series 4 or 5 out of 5 for overall quality. Five other titles have been released, with seven more in development. Over 100 juniors are currently involved, with two students progressing from reviewers to editors after less than a year of mentorship. Juniors can be a motivated, dynamic, innovative group, capable of significant contributions to the medical textbook literature. This initiative has generated a sustainable infrastructure to facilitate junior-led publishing, and has the capacity for expansion to accommodate new initiatives and ideas.

  11. Professional Training of Junior Medical Staff: European Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliasova, Yuliia

    2017-01-01

    The article covers current problems of professional training of junior medical staff. The main disadvantages of Ukrainian system of medical education that impede the intention of improving quality of professional training of junior medical staff have been analyzed. European experience in organizing medical education, namely, in Great Britain,…

  12. Sexuality Education in Junior High Schools in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, N.; Shinohara, H.; Tashiro, M.; Suzuki, S.; Hirose, H.; Ikeya, H.; Ushitora, K.; Komiya, A.; Watanabe, M.; Motegi, T.; Morioka, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to determine via responses to three questionnaire surveys how sexuality education programs are conducted at junior high schools in Japan. Study 1 examined the practice of sexuality education in schools, Study 2 investigated junior high school students' (age 12-13 and 14-15 years) knowledge of sexuality, and Study 3 examined…

  13. Do players and staff sleep more during the pre- or competitive season of elite rugby league?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caia, Johnpaul; Scott, Tannath J; Halson, Shona L; Kelly, Vincent G

    2017-09-01

    This study establishes the sleep behaviour of players and staff during the pre- and competitive seasons of elite rugby league. For seven days during both the pre- and competitive seasons, seven rugby league players and nine full-time staff from one professional Australian rugby league club had their sleep monitored via wrist actigraphy and self-report sleep diaries. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance determined differences between the pre- and competitive season in players and staff, with effect sizes (ES) used to interpret the practical magnitude of differences. Findings show an earlier bed time and wake time for players (-34 min, ES = 1.5; ±0.5 and -39 min, 2.1; ±0.5 respectively) and staff (-29 min, ES = 0.8; ±0.3 and -35 min, ES = 1.7; ±0.4 respectively) during pre-season when compared to the competitive season. Despite this, no differences were seen when considering the amount of time in bed, sleep duration or sleep efficiency obtained between the pre- and competitive seasons. Our results suggest that early morning training sessions scheduled during pre-season advances wake time in elite rugby league. However, both players and staff can aim to avoid reductions in sleep duration and sleep efficiency with subsequent adjustment of night time sleep patterns. This may be particularly pertinent for staff, who wake earlier than players during both the pre- and competitive seasons.

  14. Hematological Profile and Martial Status in Rugby Players during Whole Body Cryostimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Giovanni; Lanteri, Patrizia; Porcelli, Simone; Mauri, Clara; Colombini, Alessandra; Grasso, Dalila; Zani, Viviana; Bonomi, Felice Giulio; Melegati, Gianluca; Banfi, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Cold-based therapies are commonly applied to alleviate pain symptoms secondary to inflammatory diseases, but also to treat injuries or overuse, as done in sports rehabilitation. Whole body cryotherapy, a relatively new form of cold therapy, consists of short whole-body exposure to extremely cold air (−110°C to −140°C). Cryostimulation is gaining wider acceptance as an effective part of physical therapy to accelerate muscle recovery in rugby players. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of repeated cryostimulation sessions on the hematological profile and martial status markers in professional rugby players. Twenty-seven professional rugby players received 2 daily cryostimulation treatments for 7 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected before and after administration of the cryotherapic protocol and hematological profiles were obtained. No changes in the leukocyte count or composition were seen. There was a decrease in the values for erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin content, and an increase in mean corpuscular volume and red cell distribution width. Platelet count and mean volume remained unchanged. Serum transferrin and ferritin decreased, while soluble transferrin receptor increased. Serum iron and transferrin saturation were unchanged, as was reticulocyte count, whereas the immature reticulocyte fraction decreased substantially. In conclusion, in this sample of professional rugby players, cryostimulation modified the hematological profile, with a reduction in erythrocyte count and hemoglobinization paralleled by a change in martial status markers. PMID:23383348

  15. Effect of ramadan fasting on body water status markers after a rugby sevens match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Khaled; Rebai, Haithem; El-Abed, Kais; Stannard, Stephen R; Khannous, Hamdi; Masmoudi, Liwa; Sahnoun, Zouheir; Hakim, Ahmed; Fellman, Nicole; Tabka, Zouhair

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting on body water status markers of rugby players at basal condition and following a simulation of rugby sevens match. TWELVE RECREATIONAL RUGBY SEVENS PLAYERS PLAYED THREE MATCHES: one day before Ramadan (before Ramadan), at the end of the first week of Ramadan (Beg-R) and at the end of Ramadan (End-R). Before and immediately after each match, body weight was determined and blood samples were taken for the measurement of body water status markers. Total body water was measured with an impedancemeter only before matches. At rest, an increase in hematocrit (+4.4%, P=0.03), hemoglobin (+3.4%, P=0.01) and plasma osmolarity (+2.8%, PRamadan. Total body water measured before Ramadan did not differ significantly from that of Ramadan. After the match, values of hematocrit and plasma osmolarity increased significantly at End-R (+1.4%, P=0.02; +3.1%, PRamadan. Although, hemoglobin measured after matches occurring during Ramadan did not differ from those of before Ramadan. In response to matches, the change of percentage of body water status markers did not differ during each period of the investigation. The present results show that Ramadan fasting induces dehydration at basal conditions. Also, rugby sevens match played during Ramadan did not exacerbate the magnitude of responses to matches of blood and body water status markers.

  16. An Exploration of Gender-Role Expectations and Conflict among Women Rugby Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Melissa A.; Jome, LaRae M.

    2007-01-01

    Gender-role conflict theory has suggested that women athletes will experience role conflict because they are attempting to enact both feminine and masculine gender roles, yet research findings have shown mixed support for this notion. The purpose of this study was to explore how women rugby players negotiate gender-role expectations and conflict…

  17. Keeping the Body in Play: Pain, Injury, and Socialization in Male Rugby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Lindsay T.; Pitter, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses participant observation studies of two rugby seasons--one rural high school and one university club--in which one author served as a first aid provider and student athletic trainer, respectively. Through analysis using triangulation, we explored how the rules, athlete's status, and return-to-play boundary influenced decisions…

  18. Rugby and Mathematics: A Surprising Link among Geometry, the Conics, and Calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Troy; Jackson, Steven

    2001-01-01

    Describes a rugby problem designed to help students understand the maximum-minimum situation. Presents a series of explorations that locate an optimal place for kicking the ball to maximize the angle at the goalposts. Uses interactive geometry software to construct a model of the situation. Includes a sample student activity. (KHR)

  19. A Study on In-Match Rugby Coaches' Communications with Players: A Holistic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchet, Alain; Harvey, Stephen; Light, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background: While there is significant interest in coach behaviour during training sessions and recognition of what it could add to existing knowledge on coaching, in-game coach behaviour has received little attention. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify coaches' in-competition communications with rugby players, through a series of…

  20. Collection of in-Field Impact Loads Acting on a Rugby Wheelchair Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bettella

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This work was included in a wider project oriented to the improvement of residual neuromuscular skills in disabled athletes playing wheelchair rugby: the wheelchair rugby Italian national team was involved and tests allowed to analyse the impact loads on a rugby wheelchair frame. The frame of a rugby wheelchair offensive model, made by OffCarr Company, was instrumented with four strain gauge bridges in four different points. Then, three test types were conducted in laboratory: two static calibrations with the application of known loads, the first with horizontal load and the second with vertical load, and a dynamic horizontal calibration, impacting against a fix load cell in order to validate the results of horizontal static calibration. Finally, a test session took place in the field with the collaboration of two team players. The test consisted in voluntary frontal impacts between the two players, starting from 6 meters distance each other. The opponent of the instrumented wheelchair was a defender. From this test, the value of the horizontal load received by the frame in the impact instant was quantified. Moreover, also the vertical load acting on the wheelchair during the rebound of the player after the hit was evaluated: these informations were useful to the wheelchair frame manufacturer for the proper static, impact and fatigue design.

  1. The athlete's body and the global condition: Tongan rugby players in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besnier, N.

    2012-01-01

    The mobility of rugby professionals from Tonga to Japan and points beyond poses new questions about the role of the body as a mediator between the subjective and the objective, which anthropologists and other social scientists have generally examined within the confines of specific societies.

  2. Dispositions of Elite-Level Australian Rugby Coaches towards Game Sense: Characteristics of Their Coaching Habitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Richard L.; Evans, John Robert

    2013-01-01

    Bourdieu's analytic concept of "habitus" has provided a valuable means of theorising coach development but is yet to be operationalised in empirical research. This article redresses this oversight by drawing on a larger study that inquired into how the "coaching 'habitus'" of elite-level Australian and New Zealand rugby coaches…

  3. Symptoms Of Common Mental Disorders In Professional Rugby: An International Observational Descriptive Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Hopley, Phil; Kerkhoffs, Gino; Verhagen, Evert; Viljoen, Wayne; Wylleman, Paul; Lambert, Mike I.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders among professional rugby players across countries. A cross-sectional analysis of the baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study was conducted. Nine national players' associations and

  4. Hematological profile and martial status in rugby players during whole body cryostimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Lombardi

    Full Text Available Cold-based therapies are commonly applied to alleviate pain symptoms secondary to inflammatory diseases, but also to treat injuries or overuse, as done in sports rehabilitation. Whole body cryotherapy, a relatively new form of cold therapy, consists of short whole-body exposure to extremely cold air (-110°C to -140°C. Cryostimulation is gaining wider acceptance as an effective part of physical therapy to accelerate muscle recovery in rugby players. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of repeated cryostimulation sessions on the hematological profile and martial status markers in professional rugby players. Twenty-seven professional rugby players received 2 daily cryostimulation treatments for 7 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected before and after administration of the cryotherapic protocol and hematological profiles were obtained. No changes in the leukocyte count or composition were seen. There was a decrease in the values for erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin content, and an increase in mean corpuscular volume and red cell distribution width. Platelet count and mean volume remained unchanged. Serum transferrin and ferritin decreased, while soluble transferrin receptor increased. Serum iron and transferrin saturation were unchanged, as was reticulocyte count, whereas the immature reticulocyte fraction decreased substantially. In conclusion, in this sample of professional rugby players, cryostimulation modified the hematological profile, with a reduction in erythrocyte count and hemoglobinization paralleled by a change in martial status markers.

  5. Coaching Whiteness: Stories of "Pacifica Exotica" in Australian High School Rugby

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Brent

    2016-01-01

    The intersection of sport and education is a potentially powerful site for the production of class and gender. This paper examines how the relationship between sport and education can also serve to (re)produce ideas about "race". Drawing on research conducted during my time as a coach of the first XV rugby team at an elite private school…

  6. Swallows Rugby Football Club, South Africa: The story of a century ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims to deconstruct and isolate a century-long story of the Swallows RFC from a multifarious Xhosa and black peoplees rugby history and locate it in the epicentre of research in the country. This Club was established in 1911 at the East Bank Location (EBL) of East London, in the present day Eastern Cape ...

  7. Factors That Influence Running Intensity in Interchange Players in Professional Rugby League.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Jace A; Thornton, Heidi R; Duthie, Grant M; Dascombe, Ben J

    2016-11-01

    Rugby league coaches adopt replacement strategies for their interchange players to maximize running intensity; however, it is important to understand the factors that may influence match performance. To assess the independent factors affecting running intensity sustained by interchange players during professional rugby league. Global positioning system (GPS) data were collected from all interchanged players (starters and nonstarters) in a professional rugby league squad across 24 matches of a National Rugby League season. A multilevel mixed-model approach was employed to establish the effect of various technical (attacking and defensive involvements), temporal (bout duration, time in possession, etc), and situational (season phase, recovery cycle, etc) factors on the relative distance covered and average metabolic power (P met ) during competition. Significant effects were standardized using correlation coefficients, and the likelihood of the effect was described using magnitude-based inferences. Superior intermittent running ability resulted in very likely large increases in both relative distance and P met . As the length of a bout increased, both measures of running intensity exhibited a small decrease. There were at least likely small increases in running intensity for matches played after short recovery cycles and against strong opposition. During a bout, the number of collision-based involvements increased running intensity, whereas time in possession and ball time out of play decreased demands. These data demonstrate a complex interaction of individual- and match-based factors that require consideration when developing interchange strategies, and the manipulation of training loads during shorter recovery periods and against stronger opponents may be beneficial.

  8. Eight-season epidemiological study of injuries in men's international Under-20 rugby tournaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W; Taylor, Aileen; Raftery, Martin

    2018-08-01

    The aim of this study was to define the incidence and nature of match injuries sustained in men's international under-20 rugby. The study comprised an 8-season prospective study of 16 international under-20 rugby tournaments. Procedures complied with the consensus statement for epidemiological studies in rugby. Outputs included players' mean age, stature and body mass and incidence, severity, location, type and cause of match injuries. The overall incidence of injury was 49.7 injuries/1000 player-match-hours (backs: 48.3; forwards: 50.9) with a mean severity of 32.2 days-absence (backs: 29.4; forwards: 34.4). There were no significant changes in incidence or severity of injury over the study period. Shoulder/clavicle (18.3%), head/face (16.4%), knee (13.7%) and ankle (13.7%) were the most common injury locations and ligament sprain (35.4%), haematoma/bruise (15.9%), concussion (12.5%) and muscle strain (11.2%) the most common types of injury. Being-tackled (29.2%), tackling (24.0%) and collisions (14.3%) were the most common events leading to injury. The results confirm that international under-20 rugby has a high incidence and severity of injury but the incidence is half that reported for senior international players. There was no significant change in the overall incidence of injury at the Under-20 level in the period 2008 to 2016.

  9. A high rate of injury during the 1995 Rugby World Cup | Jakoet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the frequency and nature of injuries sustained by the 416 players from 16 countries participating in the 1995 Rugby World Cup played in South Africa in May/June 1995. Methods. The study was a prospective analysis of all injuries requiring medical attention during that competition. Data were ...

  10. Bibliometric study (1922-2009) on rugby articles in research journals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research was to perform a bibliometric analysis of research journals containing scientific articles on the sport of rugby from 1922 to 2009. In this field 2057 articles were selected from major databases. The journals, authors and contents published were selected by taking into account the year of ...

  11. Communicating in and through "Murderball": Masculinity and Disability in Wheelchair Rugby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Kurt; Cherney, James L.

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates communicative practices surrounding wheelchair rugby, a growing sport played worldwide by people with quadriplegia. Researchers have studied extensively the practice of using sport for rehabilitation, but the role of communication in this process has been overlooked. We argue that participating in this sport is itself a…

  12. The nature and incidence of injuries in a Currie Cup rugby team ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Injury data collected included the type and mechanism of injury as well as the body part .... contributing factors such as inadequate nutrition, muscu- loskeletal ..... ned from the Implementation of o nve-year sports Injury prevention. Program. ... study of the South Sydney Professional Rugby League Football Club. Am. J Sports ...

  13. The Incidence of Concussion in a Professional Australian Rugby League Team, 1998–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Savage

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Rugby league is a physically demanding team sport and the National Rugby League is the highest-level competition of rugby league in Australia. Frequent tackles and collisions between players result in a high incidence of injury to players. Concussion injuries have been the source of much debate, with reporting varying greatly depending on the definition used. Method. Injury records of 239 players from one professional National Rugby League were analysed during a continuous period of 15 years, with particular interest in the incidence and recurrence of concussions and the change in incidence over time. Result. A total of 191 concussions were recorded, affecting 90 players. The incidence of concussion injuries was found to be 28.33 per 1000 player match hours, with an increase over time (P=0.0217. Multiple concussions were recorded for 51 players. Conclusion. A statistically significant increase in the incidence of concussion injuries was found, without a concurrent increase in the number of head injuries or total injuries. New rules which mandate removal of players from the field may be beneficial for protection of players on the long term, although they risk being counterproductive, if they make players less likely to report their symptoms during matches.

  14. Caffeine-containing energy drink improves physical performance of elite rugby players during a simulated match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coso, Juan; Ramírez, Juan A; Muñoz, Gloria; Portillo, Javier; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Muñoz, Víctor; Barbero-Álvarez, José C; Muñoz-Guerra, Jesús

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a caffeine-containing energy drink in enhancing rugby players' physical performance during a simulated match. A second purpose was to determine the urinary caffeine excretion derived from the energy drink intake. In a randomized and counterbalanced order, 26 elite rugby players (mean ± SD for age and body mass, 25 ± 2 y and 93 ± 15 kg) played 2 simulated rugby games (2 × 30 min) 60 min after ingesting (i) 3 mg of caffeine per kilogram of body mass in the form of an energy drink (Fure, ProEnergetics) or (ii) the same drink without caffeine (placebo). During the matches, the individual running distance and the instantaneous speed were measured, and the number of running actions above 20 km·h(-1) (i.e., sprints) were determined, using global positioning system devices. The number of impacts above 5 g during the matches was determined by accelerometry. The ingestion of the energy drink, compared with the placebo, increased the total distance covered during the match (4749 ± 589 vs 5139 ± 475 m, p caffeine concentration (0.1 ± 0.1 vs 2.4 ± 0.9 μg·mL(-1), p caffeine dose equivalent to 3 mg·kg(-1) considerably enhanced the movement patterns of rugby players during a simulated match.

  15. A high rate of injury during the 1995 Rugby World Cup

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the frequency and nature of injuries sustained by the 416 players from 16 countries participating in the 1995 Rugby World Cup played in South. Africa in May/June 1995. Methods. The study was a prospective analysis of all injuries requiring medical attention during that competition. Data were ...

  16. Characteristics and prognosis of medial epicondylar fragmentation of the humerus in male junior tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Mikio; Takahara, Masatoshi; Maruyama, Masahiro; Takagi, Michiaki

    2014-10-01

    Although medial epicondylar fragmentation of the humerus is a reported elbow injury in junior tennis players, there have been only a few studies on this entity, and none have investigated the characteristics and prognosis of medial epicondylar fragmentation. Forty-one male junior tennis players, aged 11 to 14 years (mean, 13 years), underwent elbow examination by ultrasonography. Elbow re-examination was performed in subjects with medial epicondylar fragmentation at an average of 20 months (12-30 months) after the initial examination. On examination, 9 subjects (22%) had elbow pain. Ultrasonography showed that 6 subjects (15%) had medial epicondylar fragmentation, all of whom had elbow pain. Medial epicondylar fragmentation was present in 5 (38%) of 13 subjects aged 11 to 12 years and in 1 (4%) of 28 aged 13 to 14 years. More subjects aged 11 to 12 years had medial epicondylar fragmentation (P = .0084). All 6 subjects with medial epicondylar fragmentation continued to play tennis between the initial elbow examination and the re-examination. At re-examination, although ultrasonography showed that 5 developed bone union and 1 had nonunion, 3 subjects (50%) reported elbow pain. Our results demonstrated that subjects aged 11 to 12 years had a high frequency (38%) of medial epicondylar fragmentation. Although medial epicondylar fragmentation was the main cause of elbow pain (67%) at the initial elbow examination, all 6 players with medial epicondylar fragmentation continued to play tennis between the initial elbow examination and the re-examination. At re-examination, 5 subjects presented spontaneous bone union (83%), but 3 subjects (50%) reported elbow pain. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Casimir effect in rugby-ball type flux compactifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minamitsuji, M

    2008-01-01

    We discuss volume stabilization in a 6D braneworld model based on 6D supergravity theory. The internal space is compactified by magnetic flux and contains codimension two 3-branes (conical singularities) as its boundaries. In general the external 4D spacetime is warped and in the unwrapped limit the shape of the internal space looks like a 'rugby ball'. The size of the internal space is not fixed due to the scale invariance of the supergravity theory. We discuss the possibility of volume stabilization by the Casimir effect for a massless, minimally coupled bulk scalar field. The main obstacle in studying this case is that the brane (conical) part of the relevant heat kernel coefficient (a 6 ) has not been formulated. Thus as a first step, we consider the 4D analog model with boundary codimension two 1-branes. The spacetime structure of the 4D model is very similar to that of the original 6D model, where now the relevant heat kernel coefficient is well known. We derive the one-loop effective potential induced by a scalar field in the bulk by employing zeta function regularization with heat kernel analysis. As a result, the volume is stabilized for most possible choices of the parameters. Especially, for a larger degree of warping, our results imply that a large hierarchy between the mass scales and a tiny amount of effective cosmological constant can be realized on the brane. In the non-warped limit the ratio tends to converge to the same value, independently of the bulk gauge coupling constant. Finally, we will analyze volume stabilization in the original model 6D by employing the same mode-sum technique

  18. The Casimir effect in rugby-ball type flux compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minamitsuji, M [ASC, LMU, Theresienst. 37, 80333 Munich (Germany)], E-mail: Masato.Minamitsuji@physik.uni-muenchen.de

    2008-04-25

    We discuss volume stabilization in a 6D braneworld model based on 6D supergravity theory. The internal space is compactified by magnetic flux and contains codimension two 3-branes (conical singularities) as its boundaries. In general the external 4D spacetime is warped and in the unwrapped limit the shape of the internal space looks like a 'rugby ball'. The size of the internal space is not fixed due to the scale invariance of the supergravity theory. We discuss the possibility of volume stabilization by the Casimir effect for a massless, minimally coupled bulk scalar field. The main obstacle in studying this case is that the brane (conical) part of the relevant heat kernel coefficient (a{sub 6}) has not been formulated. Thus as a first step, we consider the 4D analog model with boundary codimension two 1-branes. The spacetime structure of the 4D model is very similar to that of the original 6D model, where now the relevant heat kernel coefficient is well known. We derive the one-loop effective potential induced by a scalar field in the bulk by employing zeta function regularization with heat kernel analysis. As a result, the volume is stabilized for most possible choices of the parameters. Especially, for a larger degree of warping, our results imply that a large hierarchy between the mass scales and a tiny amount of effective cosmological constant can be realized on the brane. In the non-warped limit the ratio tends to converge to the same value, independently of the bulk gauge coupling constant. Finally, we will analyze volume stabilization in the original model 6D by employing the same mode-sum technique.

  19. The Energy Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auverlot, Dominique; Beeeker, Etienne; Hossie, Gaelle; Bettzuege, Marc Oliver; Helm, Dieter; Roques, Fabien

    2015-08-01

    A synthesis of contributions is firstly proposed in this collective publication. In this synthesis, the authors describes the crisis faced by European energy (economic crisis, closure of some thermal power plants due to a lack of profitability, increase of electricity prices, low CO 2 quota prices resulting in a greater use of coal, an ageing refinery system, dependence on the Russian gas for some countries), identify four principles which could be used as guidelines for the European policy (responsibility, solidarity, economic rationality, resilience), define seven recommendations as objectives of a European energy policy. Then, the contributions address the following topics: security of electricity supply, security of European Union's gas supply called into question again, reforming the ETS market to strengthen the credibility of the European climate policy, a necessary evolution of the European energy and climate policy, the issue of a definition of a European energy policy as a dogma or a strategy, the challenge for building up a sustainable and consistent European energy and climate policy

  20. The State of the Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This special issue of Angles marks the three hundredth anniversary of the Union of the two kingdoms of Scotland and England. The nature and development of the relations between the constituent parts of the United Kingdom is a fascinating topic also to outside observers, and some of the contributi...... of the contributions to this volume deal with the Union in a comparative European context. Both Scottish nationalism and Scottish unionism are analysed, and Anglo-Scottish relations are looked at from historical, sociological, linguistic and literary angles...