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Sample records for junior elite basketball

  1. NIR tracking assists sports medicine in junior basketball training

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    Paeglis, Roberts; Bluss, Kristaps; Rudzitis, Andris; Spunde, Andris; Brice, Tamara; Nitiss, Edgars

    2011-07-01

    We recorded eye movements of eight elite junior basketball players. We hypothesized that a more stable gaze is correlated to a better shot rate. Upon preliminary testing we invited male juniors whose eyes could be reliably tracked in a game situation. To these ends, we used a head-mounted video-based eye tracker. The participants had no record of ocular or other health issues. No significant differences were found between shots made with and without the tracker cap, Paired samples t-test yielded p= .130 for the far and p=..900 > .050 for the middle range shots. The players made 40 shots from common far and middle range locations, 5 and 4 meters respectively for aged 14 years As expected, a statistical correlation was found between gaze fixation (in milliseconds) for the far and middle range shot rates, r=.782, p=.03. Notably, juniors who fixated longer before a shot had a more stable fixation or a lower gaze dispersion (in tracker's screen pixels), r=-.786, p=.02. This finding was augmented by the observation that the gaze dispersion while aiming at the basket was less (i.e., gaze more stable) in those who were more likely to score. We derived a regression equation linking fixation duration to shot success. We advocate infra-red eye tracking as a means to monitor player selection and training success.

  2. Cardiovascular stress on an elite basketball referee during national competition.

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    Leicht, A S

    2004-08-01

    This case report examined the cardiovascular stress imposed on an experienced elite basketball referee during national competition. The average heart rate was similar for all matches, approximated 73% of maximum heart rate, and was experienced for most (>63%) of the match. Similar relative exercise intensity was demonstrated regardless of match play (men's v women's) and officiating type (two v three-referee). Further study is needed to document the physiological characteristics of elite basketball referees for greater performance.

  3. CAREER TRANSITION FROM JUNIOR TO SENIOR IN BASKETBALL PLAYERS

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    Alberto Lorenzo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate what factors affect basketball players in the transition from junior and amateur to senior and professional sport respectively. The study was a qualitative research which uses a semi-structured interview to get the data. There were interviewed five Spanish basketball players who were starting playing in a team of Basketball Club Association (C.B.A.. The results showed that the participants face several changes both in the sport and in the life outside sport. At the same time, the results indicated the existence of several coping strategies that help the player in his career transition.

  4. Increasing mouthguards usage among junior rugby and basketball players.

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    Jalleh, G; Donovan, R J; Clarkson, J; March, K; Foster, M; Giles-Corti, B

    2001-06-01

    To evaluate a Western Australian mouthguard promotion campaign, launched at the start of the 1997/98 junior rugby union and junior basketball seasons, aimed at increasing mouthguard usage at competition and training. A quasi-experimental field design was used to assess the impact of the mouthguard campaign on behavioural change. Observational data were collected pre- and post-campaign on mouthguard usage by players present at a rugby and basketball competition event and at a training session. Junior Australian Rules Football players were used as a control group. Pre-post observational surveys showed a significantly greater increase in mouthguard usage in competition games among rugby union (77% to 84%) and basketball players (23% to 43%) compared with the control group (72% to 73%). All codes showed a post-campaign increase in mouthguard usage at training, but the intervention codes' increases were greater than the control's increase (rugby union: 29% to 40%; basketball: 11% to 36%; football: 34% to 40%). The campaign had a significant and substantial effect on behaviour and provides evidence of the benefits of leveraging a sponsorship to modify the behaviour of the target group. This campaign provides a model for promoting mouthguard usage in other sports among junior players.

  5. Aerobic power and anthropometric characteristics of elite basketball referees.

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    Leicht, A S

    2007-03-01

    The current study aimed to document the aerobic power and body composition of elite basketball referees. Prior to the 2000/2001 Men's National Basketball League season, 25 male elite referees completed the Multistage Shuttle run test followed by body composition (body fat%) determination via bioelectrical impedance (BI) (Adult and Athlete modes) and a restricted anthropometric profile. Significant correlations between BI and anthropometric measures were examined via Pearson product correlation coefficients. Referees demonstrated a mean (SD) aerobic power of 50.8 (3.2) mL . kg-1 . min(-1) and body fat% of 23.8% (8.4%). Body fat% was similar for BI (Adult) and several anthropometric equations. Significant correlations were obtained between BI (Adult) and body fat%, and BI (Adult) and sum of skinfolds. Similar correlations were obtained for BI (Athlete) mode despite a significantly lower body fat%. Regression equations for the prediction of body fat% and sum of skinfolds from BI (Adult) were determined. Elite basketball referees demonstrated significantly greater aerobic power and similar body composition to the general community. In the euhydrated state, BI (Adult) provided a valid measurement of body fat% in elite basketball referees.

  6. Effectiveness during ball screens in elite basketball games.

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    Gómez, Miguel-Ángel; Battaglia, Otavio; Lorenzo, Alberto; Lorenzo, Jorge; Jiménez, Sergio; Sampaio, Jaime

    2015-01-01

    Ball screens are one of the most frequently used tactical behaviour in elite basketball games. The aim of the present study was to identify their predictors of success related to time, space, players, and tasks performed. The sample was composed of 818 ball screens corresponding to 20 close games (mean differences in score of 3.1 ± 0.8 points) randomly selected from the playoff games of the Spanish Basketball League (2008-2011). Classification tree analysis (CHAID) was used to analyse which variable or combination of variables, better predicts effectiveness during ball screens. The main results allowed identifying interactions with dribbler actions after the screen and the orientation of the screen on the ball. The results showed no interaction with game quarter and quarter minute temporal-related variables in both analyses. The present findings allow improving coaches' strategic plans that involve selecting the most appropriate offensive approach when performing ball screens.

  7. Neuromuscular and metabolic characteristics of elite basketball referees.

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    Bonganha, V; Cavaglieri, C R; Daniel, J F; Mercadante, L A; Montagner, P C; Borin, J P

    2013-06-01

    The dynamics of Basketball refereeing has changed and more recently the championships started to use the participation of three referees, but there is still a lack of information about the physical characteristics and performance of the referees. The aim of this study was to characterize the neuromuscular and metabolic performances and body composition of Brazilian elite basketball referees, with a level of national and international refereeing. Thirty-seven referees participated in the study (international level N.=17 and national level N.=20). We evaluated anthropometric and body composition variables, among them: height, body mass, body mass index (BMI) and body fat (%); metabolic parameters: lactate at rest and post-exercise; and neuromuscular performance: speed, explosive lower limbs strength, flexibility and aerobic capacity. The main results showed a statistically significant difference in age, in which the international referees were older than the national level (41.94±6.71; 37.30±7.23; P=0.036). There were not significant differences between the levels for neuromuscular and metabolic parameters and body composition. Comparing the results with athletes, the referees showed lower neuromuscular and metabolic parameters and the body composition showed higher body fat than basketball players. These data may represent physiological parameters to be considered in the prescription of physical training during the preparation and competition period.

  8. Performance analysis of elite men's and women's wheelchair basketball teams.

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    Gómez, Miguel Ángel; Pérez, Javier; Molik, Bartosz; Szyman, Robert J; Sampaio, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to identify which game-related statistics discriminate winning and losing teams in men's and women's elite wheelchair basketball. The sample comprised all the games played during the Beijing Paralympics 2008 and the World Wheelchair Basketball Championship 2010. The game-related statistics from the official box scores were gathered and data were analysed in 2 groups: balanced games (final score differences ≤ 12 points) and unbalanced games (final score differences >13 points). Discriminant analysis allowed identifying the successful 2-point field-goals and free-throws, the unsuccessful 3-point field-goals and free-throws, the assists and fouls received as discriminant statistics between winning and losing teams in men's balanced games. In women's games, the teams were discriminated only by the successful 2-point field-goals. Linear regression analysis showed that the quality of opposition had great effects in final point differential. The field-goals percentage and free-throws rate were the most important factors in men's games, and field-goals percentage and offensive rebounding percentage in women's games. The identified trends allow improving game understanding and helping wheelchair basketball coaches to plan accurate practice sessions and, ultimately, deciding better in competition.

  9. Acute hormonal responses in elite junior weightlifters.

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    Kraemer, W J; Fry, A C; Warren, B J; Stone, M H; Fleck, S J; Kearney, J T; Conroy, B P; Maresh, C M; Weseman, C A; Triplett, N T

    1992-02-01

    To date, no published studies have demonstrated resistance exercise-induced increases in serum testosterone in adolescent males. Furthermore, few data are available on the effects of training experience and lifting performance on acute hormonal responses to weightlifting in young males. Twenty-eight junior elite male Olympic-style weightlifters (17.3 +/- 1.4 yrs) volunteered for the study. An acute weightlifting exercise protocol using moderate to high intensity loads and low volume, characteristic of many weightlifting training sessions, was examined. The exercise protocol was directed toward the training associated with the snatch lift weightlifting exercise. Blood samples were obtained from a superficial arm vein at 7 a.m. (for baseline measurements), and again at pre-exercise, 5 min post-, and 15 min post-exercise time points for determination of serum testosterone, cortisol, growth hormone, plasma beta-endorphin, and whole blood lactate. The exercise protocol elicited significant (p less than or equal to 0.05) increases in each of the hormones and whole blood lactate compared to pre-exercise measures. While not being significantly older, subsequent analysis revealed that subjects with greater than 2 years training experience exhibited significant exercise-induced increases in serum testosterone from pre-exercise to 5 min post-exercise (16.2 +/- 6.2 to 21.4 +/- 7.9 nmol.l-1), while those with less than or equal to 2 years training showed no significant serum testosterone differences. None of the other hormones or whole blood lactate appear to be influenced by training experience.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Somatotype and size of elite female basketball players.

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    Carter, J E L; Ackland, T R; Kerr, D A; Stapff, A B

    2005-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the somatotype and size of elite female basketball players in terms of playing position and team performance. Anthropometry and somatotype data were collected on 168 players from 14 countries before the Women's World Basketball Championship, Australia, 1994. There were 64 guards (mean +/- s: age 25.4 +/- 3.3 years, height 1.72 +/- 0.06 m, mass 66.1 +/- 6.2 kg, somatotype = 2.9-3.9-2.6), 57 forwards (age 25.2 +/- 3.8 years, height 1.81 +/- 0.06 m, mass 73.3 +/- 5.9 kg, somatotype = 2.8-3.5-3.2) and 47 centres (age 24.1 +/- 3.1 years, height 1.90 +/- 0.06 m, mass 82.6 +/- 8.2 kg, somatotype = 3.2-3.1-3.4). Mean somatotypes by position were significantly different (F = 7.73, P somatotypes by position and team placing, but the combination of height, mass and ectomorphy provide the best differentiation by position.

  11. HORMONAL ANALYSIS IN ELITE BASKETBALL DURING A SEASON

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    Xavi Schelling

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In elite basketball, the high demands of competition and training require a detailed follow-up of the effects on the player's performance and health. Controlling these effects could improve the knowledge about the players' recovery process and allow a better design of their individual workloads. Aim: To describe the behavior of the total testosterone serum levels (T, cortisol (C and T/C ratio. Methodology: 8 blood samples were collected during the whole season of an elite basketball team (n=8 of the First Spanish Division (ACB. The samples were taken every 4-6 weeks, at 8:00 AM, after 24-36 hours of post-game recovery. Results: T increases after 4 after 3.5 days of rest (6th vs. 1st, p=0.039; 6th vs. 5th, p=0.041 and decreases significantly at the end of the season (8th vs. 7th, p=0.003. C does not show significant variation along the season. T/C ratio shows a significant decrease at the end of the season (8th vs. 1st , p=0.021; 8th vs. 7th, p=0.017 and in VarT/C (8th vs. 1st, p=0.005; 8th vs. 7th, p=0.036. Conclusions: Concentration values as well as percentages of variation are useful indicators to describe the studied parameters. T/C ratio and/or T could be used as recovery state indicators and could even induce, in conjunction with other indicators, necessary actions to optimize individual workloads. Future investigations should compare these variations to objective workload parameters and/or other hormonal modulators.

  12. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes

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    Lilian Roos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33% was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT. However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries.

  13. Musculoskeletal Injuries and Training Patterns in Junior Elite Orienteering Athletes.

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    Roos, Lilian; Taube, Wolfgang; Zuest, Peter; Clénin, German; Wyss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Findings about the relation between musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns in orienteering athletes are sparse. Therefore, the musculoskeletal injuries and training patterns of 31 Swiss elite orienteering athletes aged 18-19 years were analyzed in a retrospective study. Individual training diaries and medical records were used to assess training data and injury history, respectively. Group comparisons and a multiple linear regression (MLR) were performed for statistical analysis. The junior elite orienteering athletes performed 7.38 ± 2.00 training sessions weekly, with a total duration of 455.75 ± 98.22 minutes. An injury incidence rate (IIR) of 2.18 ± 2.13 injuries per 1000 hours of training was observed. The lower extremity was affected in 93% of all injuries, and the knee (33%) was the most commonly injured location. The MLR revealed that gender and six training variables explained 60% of the variance in the injury severity index in this study. Supported by the low IIR in the observed age group, the training protocol of the junior elite orienteering athletes was generally adequate. In comparison to elite track, marathon, and orienteering athletes, the junior elite athletes performed less high-intensity interval training (HIIT). However, more frequent HIIT seems to be a protective factor against injuries.

  14. Correlation between explosive strength, aerobic power and repeated sprint ability in elite basketball players.

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    Stojanovic, M D; Ostojic, S M; Calleja-González, J; Milosevic, Z; Mikic, M

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between explosive strength and aerobic power with basketball-specific repeated sprint ability in elite male basketball players. Twenty-four elite basketball players (age 22.2±3.4 years, height 197.1±6.2 cm, weight 95.7±8.8 kg; training experience 11.0±3.1 years; mean±SD), participated in the study. Subjects performed countermovement jump (CMJ) test and incremental pseudo-ramp test protocol with measured CMJ height and VO2max, respectively. Specific repeated sprint ability (RSA) test was conducted, with total sprinting time (summation of 10 sprint times - RSAtot) and sprint decrement (fatigue index - RSAFI) calculated. Significant decrements in sprint performance from the eight 30-m sprint (P<0.05) were observed. Strong inverse correlation was found between CMJ and RSAtot (r=-0.74, P<0.01). No significant correlation was found between VO2max and RSA outcomes neither between CMJ and RSAFI. CMJ is a predictor of RSA in elite basketball players. It seems that coaches and strength and conditioning professionals should devote additional time for explosive strength development in elite basketball players during preparatory period to enhance RSA performance.

  15. STUDY ON THE CONTENT OF PHYSICAL TRAINING IN JUNIOR I BASKETBALL PLAYERS

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    Savu Cristian Florian

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available STUDY ON THE CONTENT OF PHYSICAL TRAINING IN JUNIOR I BASKETBALL PLAYERS24 october 2015 back Current archive Domain:Sport de performanta Tags:sport training physical training physiological indicators Savu Cristian Florian Abstract Sports training must benefit from scientific progress of fundamental research, which he conducted on it considerably influence through concrete answers in getting sports performance. Sports training must be subjected to rational application of principles and objectives to ensure a successful and analysing progress in training. Research objectives: To assess the level of general and specific physical training of junior basketball players I in dependent on the objectives of the team and the game. Determine the program for general and specific physical training and operational resources necessary in the framework of the annual training and incorporation of periods of junior basketball players I. Experimental verification of the rationale and effectiveness of sports training methodology based on global and differentiated treatment of General and specific physical training of junior basketball players I. Studies and research will demonstrate that the level of physical preparation has baschetbalistilor is characterized by a rather large difference in age, the dependence of the athletes and team performance goals to which they belong. Contributing research: Investigation will show that the physical training of basketball is characterized by a pretty big difference, depending on the age of the athletes playing position and team performance objectives they belong. Today, basketball is trying to universalise game stations, where each athlete can perform tasks, skills and abilities of every post game in different situations. Our research is based on the scientific-methodical argument preparation and differentiated global players primarily in terms of physical preparation. Hypothesis paper: General and specific physical

  16. Graded shuttle run performance by playing positions in elite female basketball.

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    Štrumbelj, Boro; Vučković, Goran; Jakovljević, Saša; Milanović, Zoran; James, Nic; Erčulj, Frane

    2015-03-01

    A graded shuttle run test was used to assess differences in physiological parameters between playing positions in elite female basketball players. Twenty-four female basketball players (8 guards, 8 forwards, and 8 centers) who played for the senior national teams of Slovenia and Serbia were tested with the 30-15 intermittent fitness test. During the shuttle run, the following physiological parameters were measured: oxygen consumption ((Equation is included in full-text article.)), carbon dioxide production ((Equation is included in full-text article.)), pulmonary ventilation (VE) breath by breath, respiratory quotient, oxygen pulse as the (Equation is included in full-text article.)vs. HR ratio and [LA]. No significant differences were found for any of the measures between the 3 playing positions. Although this finding was surprising, future studies should try to determine whether the tactics used in female basketball determine that the interpositional differences seen in male basketball are not evident.

  17. Online video-based resistance training improves the physical capacity of junior basketball athletes.

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    Klusemann, Markus J; Pyne, David B; Fay, Tristan S; Drinkwater, Eric J

    2012-10-01

    Junior basketball athletes require a well-designed resistance training program to improve their physical development. Lack of expert supervision and resistance training in junior development pathways may be overcome by implementing an online video-based program. The aim of this study was to compare the magnitude of improvement (change) in physical performance and strength and functional movement patterns of junior basketball athletes using either a fully supervised or an online video-based resistance training program. Thirty-eight junior basketball athletes (males, n = 17; age, 14 ± 1 year; height, 1.79 ± 0.10 m; mass, 67 ± 12 kg; females, n = 21; age, 15 ± 1 year; height, 1.70 ± 0.07 m; mass, 62 ± 8 kg) were randomly assigned into a supervised resistance training group (SG, n = 13), video training group (VG, n = 13) or control group (CG, n = 12) and participated in a 6-week controlled experimental trial. Pre- and posttesting included measures of physical performance (20-m sprint, step-in vertical jump, agility, sit and reach, line drill, and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1), strength (15 s push-up and pull-up), and functional movement screening (FMS). Both SG and VG achieved 3-5% ± 2-4% (mean ± 90% confidence limits) greater improvements in several physical performance measures (vertical jump height, 20-m sprint time, and Yo-Yo endurance performance) and a 28 ± 21% greater improvement in push-up strength compared with the CG. The SG attained substantially larger gains in FMS scores over both the VG (12 ± 10%) and CG (13 ± 8%). Video-based training appears to be a viable option to improve physical performance and strength in junior basketball athletes. Qualified supervision is recommended to improve functional movement patterns in junior athletes.

  18. Heart rate and time-motion analyses in top junior players during basketball matches

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    Karel Hůlka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Basketball performance can be classified as an intermittent physical activity due to the changing situational game conditions and the number of intervening variables. It is necessary to have detailed knowledge about the performance of basketball players during a match as a background for more specific planning of the training process. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyse the indicators of internal and external load of basketball player’s performance during a match of U18 top men basketball players as a background for the planning of specific training processes. METHODS: Thirty-two Czech top junior basketball players (male, aged 16.88 ± 0.72 years participated in this research. The heart rate was recorded and time-motion analysis was conducted during six warm-up matches. RESULTS: The average heart rate was measured to be 167.47 ± 13.01 beats • min.–1, which corresponded to 85.06 ± 6.40% of peak heart rate. The percentages of the total time spent over and under 85% were 63.12% and 36.88%, respectively. Average distance covered was measured to be 5,880.91 ± 831.01 meters. The average work : rest ratio was 1 : 7.95 ± 1.83, ranging from 1 : 4.80 to 1 : 10.92. CONCLUSIONS: The results from these matches suggest that the exercise intensity and sprint activity observed during junior basketball are dependent on the player's position and partly on the level of the performance. The heart rate during a match was not dependent on the positions, however, time-motion analysis revealed significant differences between three basketball positions during a match. The combination of heart rate and time-motion analysis is recommended.

  19. Growth and maturity status of elite British junior tennis players.

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    Myburgh, Gillian K; Cumming, Sean P; Coelho E Silva, Manuel; Cooke, Karl; Malina, Robert M

    2016-10-01

    Growth and maturation impact the selection, development and progression of youth athletes. Individual differences in the growth and maturity may afford a performance advantage, clouding coaches and practitioners' perceptions regarding current ability and future potential. This may result in the exclusion of talented, yet less physically gifted athletes. Participants were 91 male (n = 47) and female (n = 44) elite British Junior tennis players, 8-17 years of age (12.5 ± 1.9 years). Height and body mass were measured and compared to growth charts; hand-wrist radiographs were taken. Skeletal age (SA) was estimated with the Fels method and contrasted to chronological age (CA). Mean height and body mass of individual players ranged between the 50th and 90th centiles for age and sex. Females were advanced in SA relative to CA (0.3-0.89 years.) from 8 years. Males were average to delayed in maturation from 8 to 12 years, but advanced in SA from 14 to 16 years (0.75-1.23 years). Individual differences in growth and maturation appear to contribute towards the selection of elite junior tennis players, with a bias towards males and females who are advanced in maturation and comparatively tall and heavy for their age. This has important implications for talent identification and development.

  20. Profile of weekly training load in elite male professional basketball players.

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    Manzi, Vincenzo; D'Ottavio, Stefano; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim; Castagna, Carlo

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the training load (TL) profile of professional elite level basketball players during the crucial parts of the competitive season (pre-play-off finals). Subjects were 8 full-time professional basketball players (age 28 +/- 3.6 years, height 199 +/-7.2 cm, body mass 102 +/- 11.5 kg, and body fat 10.4 +/- 1.5%) whose heart rate (HR) was recorded during each training session and their individual response to TL monitored using the session-rate of perceived exertion (RPE) method (200 training sessions). The association between the session-RPE method and training HR was used to assess the population validity of the session-RPE method. Significant relationships were observed between individual session-RPE and all individual HR-based TL (r values from 0.69 to 0.85; p tapering phase during the competitive weeks irrespective of the number of games played during it (i.e., 1 or 2 games). The individual weekly players' TL resulted in being not significantly different from each other (p > 0.05). Elite male professional basketball imposes great physiological and psychological stress on players through training sessions and official competitions (1-2 per week). Consequently, the importance of a practical and valid method to assess individual TL is warranted. In this research, we demonstrated that session-RPE may be considered as a viable method to asses TL without the use of more sophisticated tools (i.e., HR monitors). The session-RPE method enabled the detection of periodization patterns in weekly planning in elite professional basketball during the crucial part of the competitive season (1 vs. 2 weekly fixtures model).

  1. Game and Training Load Differences in Elite Junior Australian Football

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    Henderson, Brendan; Cook, Jill; Kidgell, Dawson J.; Gastin, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Game demands and training practices within team sports such as Australian football (AF) have changed considerably over recent decades, including the requirement of coaching staff to effectively control, manipulate and monitor training and competition loads. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the differences in external and internal physical load measures between game and training in elite junior AF. Twenty five male, adolescent players (mean ±SD: age 17.6 ± 0.5 y) recruited from three elite under 18 AF clubs participated. Global positioning system (GPS), heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) data were obtained from 32 game files during four games, and 84 training files during 19 training sessions. Matched-pairs statistics along with Cohen’s d effect size and percent difference were used to compare game and training events. Players were exposed to a higher physical load in the game environment, for both external (GPS) and internal (HR, Session-RPE) load parameters, compared to in-season training. Session time (d = 1.23; percent difference = 31.4% (95% confidence intervals = 17.4 – 45.4)), total distance (3.5; 63.5% (17.4 – 45.4)), distance per minute (1.93; 33.0% (25.8 – 40.1)), high speed distance (2.24; 77.3% (60.3 – 94.2)), number of sprints (0.94; 43.6% (18.9 – 68.6)), mean HR (1.83; 14.3% (10.5 – 18.1)), minutes spent above 80% of predicted HRmax (2.65; 103.7% (89.9 – 117.6)) and Session-RPE (1.22; 48.1% (22.1 – 74.1)) were all higher in competition compared to training. While training should not be expected to fully replicate competition, the observed differences suggest that monitoring of physical load in both environments is warranted to allow comparisons and evaluate whether training objectives are being met. Key points Physical loads, including intensity, are typically lower in training compared to competition in junior elite Australian football. Monitoring of player loads in team sports should include both

  2. Absence of left ventricular hypertrophy in elite college basketball players.

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    Wolfe, L A; Martin, R P; Seip, R L

    1985-09-01

    Left ventricular dimensions of 11 successful male college basketball players engaged in pre-season conditioning (mean age, 20.3 years) and 13 tall healthy male controls (mean age, 21.6 years) were studied by echocardiography. Left ventricular internal dimension (LVIDd, mm), posterior wall thickness (PWT, mm), septal thickness (ST, mm), and calculated left ventricular mass (LV mass, g) in the athletes were within or only slightly in excess of echocardiographic normal limits and mean values were not significantly different from the control group. LVIDd (mm/m2 body surface area) was significantly lower in the athletes. However, five guard-type players displayed significantly greater mean values for PWT and LV mass compared to six taller forwards/centers with linear body builds. It was concluded that left ventricular hypertrophy is not a common characteristic of college basketball players. It was hypothesized that cardiac dimensions of young men may vary independently of gross body size in relation to somatotype or other anthropometric variables.

  3. Physical characteristics of elite adolescent female basketball players and their relationship to match performance

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    Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe Azahara

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There were two aims of this study: first, to investigate physical fitness and match performance differences between under-16 (U16 and under-18 (U18 female basketball players, and second, to evaluate the relationship between physical fitness and game-related performances. Twenty-three young, female, elite Spanish basketball players (16.2 1.2 years participated in the study. The sample was divided into two groups: U16 and U18 players. The average scores from pre- and post-season physical fitness measurements were used for subsequent analyses. Anthropometric variables were also measured. To evaluate game performance, game-related statistics, including the number of games and minutes played, points, rebounds, assists, steals and blocks per game, were recorded for every competitive match in one season. When anthropometric and physical performance variables were compared between groups, the U18 group demonstrated significantly (p<0.05 higher values in upper (+21.2% and lower (+27.11% limb strength compared to the U16 group. Furthermore, no significant differences between groups were observed in match performance outcomes. Only two performance variables, steals and assists per game, correlated significantly with jump capacity, speed, agility, anaerobic power, repeated sprint ability and aerobic power (p ≤ 0.005. These findings can help optimize training programs for young, elite female basketball players.

  4. The Spanish "Century XXI" academy for developing elite level basketballers: design, monitoring and training methodologies.

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    Calleja-González, Julio; Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Lekue, José Antonio; Leibar, Xabier; Erauzkin, Julen; Jukic, Igor; Ostojic, Sergej M; Delextrat, Anne; Sampaio, Jaime; Terrados, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    The XXI Century Academy was a 6-year state-initiated intervention program that served as an alternative to basketball clubs for players in the u-14 and u-18 age groups in Spain, under guidelines established by the Spanish Basketball Federation. It was an important and unique project on talent development in basketball. To the best of the authors' knowledge, no evidence has been reported on long-term athlete development programs in basketball worldwide. The main aim of this report is to describe the design and evaluation methods used for the XXI Century Academy as a long-term intervention program in the elite Spanish Basketball Academy, aiming to prepare basketball players to compete at the elite level. The monitoring time lasted from 1996 to 2001. A total of 55 players were assigned to the intervention groups based on age, position, maturation level, and country of origin. During this process, participants competed in up to two categories in addition to playing competitive official matches worldwide in international tournaments in their categories and with the national team in the European and World Championships (u-14 - u-18). Participants included 1 NBA player, 3 national A Team players, 10 ACB (First Spanish League) players, 5 LEB (second League) players and 39 LEB-2 EBA (third League) players. Assessments took place in a High-Performance Sports Center (CPT FADURA-GETXO- Basque Government, Getxo, Vizcaya, Spain) and consisted of health questionnaires, anthropometric measures, blood parameters, maturation level, birth age, fitness tests, training volume and intensity, physical activity, technical and tactical training, dietary intake, supplementation and injuries. Each player was assessed 4 times per year (September, December, April, June) for 4 years (16 data points). This is a purely methodological paper describing the design and evaluation methods used in the XXI Century Project, which will be used as a basis for future reporting of results. Therefore, the

  5. Effects of high-intensity training and resumed training on macroelement and microelement of elite basketball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jiahong; He, Wangxiao; Huang, Hongen

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of high-intensity training and resumed training in hot and humid environment on plasma macro- and microelements levels of elite Han Chinese basketball players. Ten well-trained elite basketball athletes' plasma macroelements (chlorin, sodium, potassium, and calcium), creatine kinase (CK), and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) were measured before and after a 2-h high-intensity training, and microelements (zinc, copper, iron, and selenium) were determined before and after a 1-week high-intensity training and after a 1-week resumed training. The blood CK and CK-MB levels of the elite basketball athletes were significantly increased (P 0.05) were found in zinc and copper levels; nevertheless, the levels of plasma selenium and plasma iron were significantly lower (P iron.

  6. The association between hip and groin injuries in the elite junior football years and injuries sustained during elite senior competition.

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    Gabbe, B J; Bailey, M; Cook, J L; Makdissi, M; Scase, E; Ames, N; Wood, T; McNeil, J J; Orchard, J W

    2010-09-01

    To establish the relationship between the history of hip and groin injuries in elite junior football players prior to elite club recruitment and the incidence of hip and groin injuries during their elite career. Retrospective cohort study. Analysis of existing data. 500 Australian Football League (AFL) players drafted from 1999 to 2006 with complete draft medical assessment data. Previous history of hip/groin injury, anthropometric and demographic information. The number of hip/groin injuries resulting in > or =1 missed AFL game. Data for 500 players were available for analysis. 86 (17%) players reported a hip/groin injury in their junior football years. 159 (32%) players sustained a hip/groin injury in the AFL. Players who reported a previous hip or groin injury at the draft medical assessment demonstrated a rate of hip/groin injury in the AFL >6 times higher (IRR 6.24, 95% CI 4.43 to 8.77) than players without a pre-AFL hip or groin injury history. This study demonstrated that a hip or groin injury sustained during junior football years is a significant predictor of missed game time at the elite level due to hip/groin injury. The elite junior football period should be targeted for research to investigate and identify modifiable risk factors for the development of hip/groin injuries.

  7. Physiological profile of elite Iranian junior freestyle wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Bahman; Curby, David G; Rahmani-Nia, Farhad; Moghadasi, Mehrzad

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to describe the physiological profile of elite Iranian junior freestyle wrestlers. Seventy elite wrestlers (age 19.8 +/- 0.9 years) who were invited to the national training camps, based on their top 10 national ranking, participated in this study. The physiological profile included body weight, flexibility (sit and reach test), maximal oxygen consumption (Bruce protocol), maximal anaerobic power of the legs (Wingate test), muscular endurance and strength (bench press, squat, pull-ups, push-ups, grip strength, and bent-knee sit-up test), speed (40-m sprint), agility (4 x 9-m shuttle run), and body composition (7-site skinfold). The major results (mean +/- SD) are as follows: body weight (kg): 77.5 +/- 19.8; flexibility (cm): 38.2 +/- 3.94; maximal oxygen consumption (ml kg(-1) min(-1)): 50.5 +/- 4.7; maximal anaerobic power of the legs (W): 455.5 +/- 87.6; 1-repetition maximum bench press (weight lifted kg body weight(-1)): 1.4 +/- 0.15; 1-repetition maximum squat (weight lifted kg body weight): 1.7 +/- 0.2; push-ups (n): 66.9 +/- 7.6; pull-ups (n): 31.6 +/- 9.7; grip strength (force in kg body weight kg(-1)) 1.02 +/- 0.11; bent-knee sit-ups (n): 66.5 +/- 8; speed (s): 5.07 +/- 0.17; agility (s): 8.7 +/- 0.25; and body fat (%): 10.6 +/- 3.8. The present study provides baseline physiological data that have been used in the prescription of individual training programs for these athletes. This information is also available to the coaches and can contribute to the general strategy employed by a wrestler and for a specific match.

  8. Physiological and anthropometric characteristics of junior elite and sub-elite rugby league players, with special reference to starters and non-starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim; Kelly, Jason; Ralph, Steve; Driscoll, Damian

    2009-01-01

    While several studies have documented the physiological and anthropometric characteristics of senior rugby league players, investigations of the physical qualities of junior rugby league players are limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physical qualities of junior rugby league players competing at the elite and sub-elite level, and determine if pre-season fitness measures were significantly different for the players selected to play in the first game of the season (i.e. starters) compared to the players not selected (i.e. non-starters). Thirty-six junior sub-elite and 28 junior elite rugby league players participated in this study. All sub-elite players were registered with the same junior recreational rugby league club, while elite players were members of a National Rugby League club junior development program. Subjects underwent measurements of anthropometry (height, body mass, and sum of seven skinfolds), speed (10m, 20m, and 40m sprint), change of direction speed (505 test), estimated lower body power (vertical jump), and estimated maximal aerobic power (multi-stage fitness test) at the beginning of the competitive season. Elite players had better developed speed, change of direction speed, vertical jump, and maximal aerobic power than sub-elite players. Elite starters were taller and heavier than non-starters, while sub-elite starters were taller and had greater change of direction speed than non-starters. A high estimated maximal aerobic power was a common discriminator between starters and non-starters for both elite and sub-elite competitors. These findings demonstrate that some physical qualities can discriminate starters and non-starters in elite and sub-elite junior rugby league teams.

  9. DIFFERENCES IN MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS BETWEEN JUNIOR BASKETBALL PLAYERS WHO HAVE DIFFERENT LEVELS OF EXPLOSIVE STRENGTH

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    Nedim Sisic

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine differences in morphological characteristics between junior basketball players who have different levels of explosive strength. Methods: The study was conducted on a sample of 84 junior basketball players from (B&H Bosnia and Herzegovina (16-18 years in spring 2013th. The sample of morphological variables consited of: body height, leg length, body weight, upper arm girth in extension, calf girth, triceps skinfold, abdominal skinfold, front thigh skinfold, BMI, the relative body fat percentage. The variables of explosive strength were: vertical jump (VJ, broad jump (BJ and throwing a medicine ball from chest with 3 kg from a standing position. Ward's method of cluster analysis, based on variables of explosive strength we formed four homogeneous groups. Subsequently, using the ANOVA and post-hoc analysis, these groups are differentiated with regard to morphological characteristics. Results: Clusters differed significantly in BJ and VJ. ANOVA found significant differences between clusters in variables of skinfolds, such as the: triceps, abdomen and thigh. Discussion: Defined the influence of morphological variables on explosive strength can be regarded as expected, given that it is primarily about a negative influence of the amount of body fat on relative explosive strength type. This research has shown that junior basketball players in B&H are shorter and ligther when compared to top-level European juniors (Jelicic et al., 2002. Subjects with the lowest skinfolds of the upper limbs and body weight, achieved the best results in the manifestation of relative explosive strength, which has so far rarely been found in samples of trained subjects (Milanese et al., 2010. Possible explanations can be required in a number of training, the intensity and quality of training. Although at this point with certainty, we can't determine on which of these factors involved. This can be confirmed by the results of

  10. Game and Training Load Differences in Elite Junior Australian Football

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    Brendan Henderson, Jill Cook, Dawson J. Kidgell, Paul B. Gastin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Game demands and training practices within team sports such as Australian football (AF have changed considerably over recent decades, including the requirement of coaching staff to effectively control, manipulate and monitor training and competition loads. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the differences in external and internal physical load measures between game and training in elite junior AF. Twenty five male, adolescent players (mean ±SD: age 17.6 ± 0.5 y recruited from three elite under 18 AF clubs participated. Global positioning system (GPS, heart rate (HR and rating of perceived exertion (RPE data were obtained from 32 game files during four games, and 84 training files during 19 training sessions. Matched-pairs statistics along with Cohen’s d effect size and percent difference were used to compare game and training events. Players were exposed to a higher physical load in the game environment, for both external (GPS and internal (HR, Session-RPE load parameters, compared to in-season training. Session time (d = 1.23; percent difference = 31.4% (95% confidence intervals = 17.4 – 45.4, total distance (3.5; 63.5% (17.4 – 45.4, distance per minute (1.93; 33.0% (25.8 – 40.1, high speed distance (2.24; 77.3% (60.3 – 94.2, number of sprints (0.94; 43.6% (18.9 – 68.6, mean HR (1.83; 14.3% (10.5 – 18.1, minutes spent above 80% of predicted HRmax (2.65; 103.7% (89.9 – 117.6 and Session-RPE (1.22; 48.1% (22.1 – 74.1 were all higher in competition compared to training. While training should not be expected to fully replicate competition, the observed differences suggest that monitoring of physical load in both environments is warranted to allow comparisons and evaluate whether training objectives are being met.

  11. Effectiveness of elite female basketball players’ technical-tactic actions and ways for their improvement at stage of maximal realization of individual potentials

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    Sushko R.A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: study effectiveness of elite female basketball players’ technical-tactic actions and determine the ways for their improvement at stage of maximal realization of individual potentials. Material: the authors analyzed competition functioning’s indicators of female basketball players of national combined team of Ukraine and their age characteristics. Results: effectiveness of technical-tactic actions in structure of national female basketball players’ combined team of Ukraine competition functioning at European championship. The authors present: indicators of team composition; roles in team; won and lost games; quantity of scored and skipped points; technical-tactic actions; age of sportswomen. Age indicators of elite female basketball players at stage of maximal realization have been given. Conclusions: we have composed a list of the most important technical-tactic actions in competition functioning. We also outlined ways for their perfection at stage of maximal realization of individual potentials of elite female basketball players of different game roles.

  12. Anthropometric characteristics, body composition and somatotype of elite junior tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Muñoz, Cristóbal; Sanz, David; Zabala, Mikel

    2007-11-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the anthropometric characteristics, body composition and somatotype of elite male and female junior tennis players, to compare the anthropometric data, body composition and somatotype of the first 12 elite junior tennis players on the ranking with the lower ranked players, and to establish an anthropometric profile chart for elite junior tennis players. A total of 123 (57 males and 66 females) elite junior tennis players participated in this study. The athletes were divided into two groups, the first 12 and the lower ranked players, according to gender. A total of 17 anthropometric variables were recorded of each subject. There were no significant differences in height and weight between the first 12 and the lower ranked boys, while the first 12 girls were significantly taller than the lower ranked girls (p = 0.009). Significant differences were found for humeral and femoral breadths between the first 12 and the lower ranked girls (p = 0.000; p = 0.004, respectively). The mean (SD) somatotype of elite male junior tennis players could be defined as ectomesomorphic (2.4 (0.7), 5.2 (0.8), 2.9 (0.7)) and the mean (SD) somatotype of elite female junior tennis players evaluated could be defined as endomesomorphic (3.8 (0.9), 4.6 (1.0), 2.4 (1.0)). No significant differences were found in somatotype components between the first 12 and the lower ranked players of both genders. When comparing the first 12 and the lower ranked elite junior tennis players of both genders, no significant differences were observed in any measured item for the boys. By contrast, significant differences were observed in height and humeral and femoral breadths between the first 12 and the lower ranked girls, whereby the first 12 were taller and had wider humeral and femoral breadths than the lower ranked players. These differences could influence the playing style of junior female players.

  13. Speed and agility of 12- and 14-year-old elite male basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Sasa T; Karalejic, Milivoje S; Pajic, Zoran B; Macura, Marija M; Erculj, Frane F

    2012-09-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to identify and compare the speed and agility of 12- and 14-year-old elite male basketball players and (b) to investigate relations between speed and agility for both age groups of basketball players, to help coaches to improve their work. Sixty-four players aged 12 (M = 11.98 years, SD = 0.311) and 54 players aged 14 (M = 14.092 years, SD = 0.275) were tested. Three agility tests: agility t-test, zigzag agility drill, and agility run 4 × 15 m and 3 speed tests: 20-m run, 30-m run, and 50-m run were applied. Fourteen-year-old players achieved significantly better results in all speed and agility tests compared with 12-year-old players. The correlation coefficient (r = 0.81, p = 0.001) showed that 12-year-old players have the same ability in the 30- and 50-m runs. The other correlation coefficient (r = 0.59, p = 0.001) indicated that 20- and 30-m runs had inherently different qualities. The correlation coefficients between agility tests were year-old players, the correlation coefficients between the speed test results were 0.71, which means that all the 3 tests represent the same quality. During the speed training of 12-year-old players, it is advisable to focus on shorter running distances, up to 30 m. During the agility training of the same players, it is useful to apply exercises with various complexities. In speed training of the 14-year-old players, the 30- and 50-m runs should be applied, and agility training should include more specific basketball movements and activities.

  14. The interaction between constituent year and within-1-year effects in elite German youth basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steingröver, C; Wattie, N; Baker, J; Helsen, W F; Schorer, J

    2017-06-01

    The current state of research on relative age effects in basketball shows an uneven picture. These mixed results might be caused by the interaction of constituent year and within-year effects. Our aim was to examine constituent and within-1-year effects in elite German youth basketball. The sample (n = 4400) included players competing in the JBBL (Under-16 first division) and the NBBL (Under-19 first division) from 2011/2012 until 2013/2014. A multi-way frequency analysis revealed an interaction of constituent year effects and within-1-year effects for the JBBL, χ(2) (6, 2590) = 12.76, P year effects, χ(2) (2, n = 1810) = 25.32, P year effects for all three age bands but no interaction. The interaction between constituent year and within-1-year effects in the JBBL showed reduced within-1-year effects with increasing age. Once players enter the system in the JBBL, relatively younger players seem less likely to drop out of the system. Results offer new insight regarding how the regulations of this talent development system may influence athletes' opportunities to enter the system and their likelihood of staying at the highest levels of competition. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Positional Role Differences in the Aerobic and Anaerobic Power of Elite Basketball Players

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    Pojskić Haris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the aerobic and anaerobic power and capacity of elite male basketball players who played multiple positions. Fifty-five healthy players were divided into the following three different subsamples according to their positional role: guards (n = 22, forwards (n = 19 and centers (n = 14. The following three tests were applied to estimate their aerobic and anaerobic power and capacities: the countermovement jump (CMJ, a multistage shuttle run test and the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST. The obtained data were used to calculate the players’ aerobic and anaerobic power and capacities. To determine the possible differences between the subjects considering their different positions on the court, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA with the Bonferroni post-hoc test for multiple comparisons was used. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the different groups of players in eleven out of sixteen measured variables. Guards and forwards exhibited greater aerobic and relative values of anaerobic power, allowing shorter recovery times and the ability to repeat high intensity, basketball-specific activities. Centers presented greater values of absolute anaerobic power and capacities, permitting greater force production during discrete tasks. Coaches can use these data to create more individualized strength and conditioning programs for different positional roles.

  16. Effects of acupuncture stimulation on recovery ability of male elite basketball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zen-Pin; Lan, Lawrence W; He, Tsung-Ying; Lin, Shi-Pin; Lin, Jang-Geng; Jang, Tsong-Rong; Ho, Tsung-Jung

    2009-01-01

    Developing effective methods for helping athletes recover from muscle fatigue is deemed essential, particularly on the eves' important competitions. This study aimed to investigate the effects of acupuncture stimulation on athletes' recovery abilities. Subjects were selected from 30 male elite university basketball players who were randomly assigned to 3 groups: acupuncture group, sham group, and normal (control) group, each containing 10 subjects. Acupuncture was carried out on each athlete in acupuncture group at the Neiguan (PC6) and Zusanli (ST36) acupoints, beginning at 15 min prior to exercise and continuing until exhaustion of the subject. Similar acupuncture was also carried out on each athlete in the sham group but the positions were 1 cm away from the PC6 and ST36 acupoints. No acupuncture was conducted on the athletes in the normal group. During the experiments, each subject performed separate runs on the treadmill. The data of heart rate (HR(max)), oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), and blood lactic acid were measured during the rest period and at 3 recovery points of time (5th, 30th and 60th min) post-exercise. The results showed that the acupuncture group (PC6 and ST36) has significantly lower HR(max), VO(2max) and blood lactic acid than both the sham and normal groups at the 30th min post-exercise. Blood lactic acid of the acupuncture group was also significantly lower than that of the other two groups in the 60th min post-exercise. Our findings have shed some light on the development of effective acupuncture schemes to enhance the recovery ability for elite basketball athletes.

  17. Star Excursion Balance Test performance and application in elite junior rugby union players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlan, Garrett F; Delahunt, Eamonn; O'Sullivan, Eoghan; Fullam, Karl; Green, Brian S; Caulfield, Brian M

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate performance on selected reach directions of the Start Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) in an elite underage rugby union population, and determine if differences exist between the forward and back position units. This information may have implications for the application of this test in player injury prevention and management. Descriptive study. Gymnasium at an elite junior rugby union screening camp. 102 healthy male elite rugby union players (age = 17.9 ± 1.1 years, height = 1.83 ± 0.07 m, body mass = 90.5 ± 11.3 kg). Participants were assessed on the Anterior (A), Posterior-medial (PM), and Posterior-lateral (PL) reach directions of the SEBT. Normative data for SEBT performance in the A, PM and PL reach directions were established for an elite junior rugby union population. No significant differences in dynamic postural stability were observed between the forward and back position units. This study provides normative SEBT data on an elite junior rugby union population, which enables clinicians to compare player dynamic postural stability and has implications for use in the prevention and management of player injuries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype differences of Greek elite female basketball, volleyball and handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayios, I A; Bergeles, N K; Apostolidis, N G; Noutsos, K S; Koskolou, M D

    2006-06-01

    The aims of the present study were: a) to determine the anthropometric profile, body composition and somatotype of elite Greek female basketball (B), volleyball (V) and handball (H) players, b) to compare the mean scores among sports and c) to detect possible differences in relation to competition level. A total of 518 female athletes, all members of the Greek first National League (A1 and A2 division) in B, V and H sport teams participated in the present study. Twelve anthropometric measures required for the calculation of body composition indexes and somatotype components were obtained according to the established literature. V athletes were the tallest (Pathletes, had the lowest values of body fat (Psomatotype was characterized as balanced endomorph (3.4-2.7-2.9). B athletes were taller (Psomatotype characterized as mesomorph-endomorph (3.7-3.2-2.4). H athletes were the shortest of all (Psomatotype was mesomorph-endomorph (4.2-4.7-1.8). In comparison with their A2 counterparts the A1 division players were taller (Psomatotype characteristics (Psomatotype variables of Greek female elite teamball players varied among sports; selection criteria, hours of training and sport-specific physiological demands during the game could explain the observed differences. More data are certainly needed to define the anthropometric profile of B, V and H female athletes internationally.

  19. Time-motion analysis and physiological data of elite under-19-year-old basketball players during competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Abdelkrim, Nidhal; El Fazaa, Saloua; El Ati, Jalila

    2007-02-01

    The physical demands of modern basketball were assessed by investigating 38 elite under-19-year-old basketball players during competition. Computerised time-motion analyses were performed on 18 players of various positions. Heart rate was recorded continuously for all subjects. Blood was sampled before the start of each match, at half time and at full time to determine lactate concentration. Players spent 8.8% (1%), 5.3% (0.8%) and 2.1% (0.3%) of live time in high "specific movements", sprinting and jumping, respectively. Centres spent significantly lower live time competing in high-intensity activities than guards (14.7% (1%) v 17.1% (1.2%); prules of basketball have slightly increased the cardiac efforts involved during competition. The game intensity may differ according to the playing position, being greatest in guards.

  20. Time–motion analysis and physiological data of elite under‐19‐year‐old basketball players during competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkrim, Nidhal Ben; Fazaa, Saloua El; Ati, Jalila El

    2007-01-01

    The physical demands of modern basketball were assessed by investigating 38 elite under‐19‐year‐old basketball players during competition. Computerised time–motion analyses were performed on 18 players of various positions. Heart rate was recorded continuously for all subjects. Blood was sampled before the start of each match, at half time and at full time to determine lactate concentration. Players spent 8.8% (1%), 5.3% (0.8%) and 2.1% (0.3%) of live time in high “specific movements”, sprinting and jumping, respectively. Centres spent significantly lower live time competing in high‐intensity activities than guards (14.7% (1%) v 17.1% (1.2%); prules of basketball have slightly increased the cardiac efforts involved during competition. The game intensity may differ according to the playing position, being greatest in guards. PMID:17138630

  1. The effect of an official match on repeated sprint ability in junior basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprino, Davide; Clarke, Neil David; Delextrat, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an official basketball match on repeated sprint ability indices in male junior players. Ten (16 ± 1 years old; 183.6 ± 7.0 cm; 76.6 ± 8.0 kg) starting players for their teams performed three repeated sprint ability tests, before, at half-time and immediately after an official match. Each repeated sprint ability test consisted of 10 shuttle-run sprints of 30 m (15 + 15 m) separated by 30 seconds of passive recovery. The matches were video-taped to determine the frequency of eight types of movement patterns, and blood lactate concentration was measured before and immediately after each repeated sprint ability test. Differences in total time, ideal time and percentage decrement between tests was assessed by a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures, while a two-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to identify differences in blood lactate concentration. The main results indicated a significant decrease in total movement frequency (-9.9%), high-intensity activity frequency (-13.3%), run frequency (-13.0%) and sprint frequency (-23.3%) in the second compared to the first half, and significantly worse total time and ideal time at the end of the match, compared to the start and half-time (differences ranging from -2.1% to -2.9%, P < 0.05). The practical implications of these findings suggest that regional basketball players should participate in conditioning sessions that focus on the improvement of repeated sprint ability.

  2. Reference Values and Gender Differences of the Functional Parameters in Romanian Elite Junior Tennis Players

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    Adrian NAGEL

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To establish the reference values and gender differences regarding fitness, strength, and time reaction of the Romanian elite junior tennis players. Material and Methods: Thirty four junior tennis players (19 male, 15 female with a mean age of 15 years were selected from the database of the Cardiopulmonary Effort Testing and Physical Performance Laboratory from Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, West University of Timisoara. To be included in the study, a tennis player had to belong to the Romanian Tennis Federation as a junior, be among the 50 best players in his/her category, and have no pathology at the evaluation moment. All subjects underwent functional evaluation by performing a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test, the counter movement jump test and complex opto-acoustic reaction test. Results: The functional performance are significantly different for males and females in all parameters studied, with male tennis players showing better performance than female tennis players. Conclusions: The mean values of functional parameters of the Romanian elite junior tennis players are lower than international competitive tennis athletes. There are significant gender differences in junior tennis players. We hope that the present study results provide useful reference values for coaches and physical trainers in order to improve functional performance of their junior tennis players.

  3. Biomechanical analysis of the snatch technique in junior elite female weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Sezgin; Harbili, Erbil

    2016-01-01

    The strength and technical competence of junior female lifters play a decisive role not only for their current but also adulthood performance. The objective of this study was to investigate the three-dimensional kinematics of the snatch technique in junior female weightlifters. Ten elite junior female weightlifters participated in the study. Two cameras operating at 50 fields per second were used to record the lifts. The heaviest successful lifts were selected for the kinematic analysis. The kinematical data were obtained using a motion analysis system. The duration of the first pull was significantly longer than that of the other phases (P snatch lifting of junior female weightlifters, the angular kinematics of lower limb joints, the linear kinematics and trajectory of the barbell and other energy characteristics are similar to and consistent with the values reported in literature for adult female weightlifters.

  4. Prediction of Basketball Shooting Ability on the Basis of Anthropometric Characteristics, Wrist Range of Motion, and Strength of Upper Extremity in Elite Female Basketball Players

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    Nahid Adibpour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to predict basketball shooting ability on the basis of anthropometric characteristics, wrist range of motion, and strength of upper extremity in elite female basketball players. Methods: The sample of the study included 34 female basketball players invited to attend the national team trainings. 15 subjects were playing in center and 19 subjects in guard and forward positions. Measuring tapes and standard method (ISAK were used to measure the length of segments of dominant or shooting upper extremity. Digital dynamometer and goniometer were used to measure muscular strength and the wrist range of motion, respectively. Shooting ability of players was assessed by standard tests of free throw, three pointer and elbow shot. The research data was statistically analyzed using linear regression analysis. Results: Results showed that only forearm length variable is significantly effective on free throw shot. However, according to measures and regression coefficient, this effect was low. Conclusion: When choosing players for the guard and forward positions, coaches can necessarily ignore the stature and length of upper limb issue, and pay more attention to the other factors such as their shooting technique.

  5. Management and marketing of private basketball clubs for children and juniors

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    Silvia GRĂDINARU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Basketball is in the top of favourite sports. The appearance of private sport clubs on the sports market is caused by the increasingly precarious conditions in state institutions and, at the same time, by the influence of the European Community. We aim at identifying a pattern of activity meant to attract and educated children in the field of basketball through private basketball clubs by making parents aware of the beneficial effects of basketball and of being a member of a sports team. The survey was carried out in 12 private basketball clubs that carry out activities in a consequent manner (in number and in value. Private basketball club managers responded to the questions in our questionnaire showing willingness to cooperate; results show that all private basketball clubs are non-profit organisations and are involved in the competitions organised by the Romanian Federation of Basketball. Private basketball clubs represent half of the affiliated basketball clubs and dominate the competitions reserved to the different age categories, which denotes the efficiency of their activities.

  6. A one-season prospective study of injuries and illness in elite junior tennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluim, B M; Loeffen, F G J; Clarsen, B; Bahr, R; Verhagen, E A L M

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of injury and illness among elite junior tennis players. A cohort of 73 players (11-14 years) in the 2012-2013 Dutch national high-performance program was followed for 32 weeks; all participants completed the study. The OSTRC Questionnaire on Health Problems was used to record self-reported injuries and illnesses and to record training and match exposure. Main outcome measures were average prevalence of overuse injury and illness and incidence density of acute injury. On average, players practiced 9.1 h/week (SD 0.6; range 2.3-12.0) and had 2.2 h of match play (SD 0.6; range 2.3-12.0). During the course of the study, 67 players reported a total of 187 health problems. The average weekly prevalence of all health problems was 21.3% (95% CI: 19.2-22.9), of which 12.1% (95% CI: 10.9-13.3) constituted overuse injuries and 5.8% (95% CI: 4.6-6.9) illnesses. The incidence of acute injuries was 1.2/1000 h of tennis play (95% CI: 0.7-1.7). The high occurrence of overuse injuries among elite junior tennis players suggests that an early focus on preventative measures is warranted, with a particular focus on the monitoring and management of workload.

  7. Enhancing physical performance in elite junior tennis players with a caffeinated energy drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo-Salazar, César; Areces, Francisco; Abián-Vicén, Javier; Lara, Beatriz; Salinero, Juan José; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Portillo, Javier; Muñoz, Victor; Juarez, Daniel; Del Coso, Juan

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a caffeinated energy drink to enhance physical performance in elite junior tennis players. In 2 different sessions separated by 1 wk, 14 young (16 ± 1 y) elite-level tennis players ingested 3 mg caffeine per kg body mass in the form of an energy drink or the same drink without caffeine (placebo). After 60 min, participants performed a handgrip-strength test, a maximal-velocity serving test, and an 8 × 15-m sprint test and then played a simulated singles match (best of 3 sets). Instantaneous running speed during the matches was assessed using global positioning (GPS) devices. Furthermore, the matches were videotaped and notated afterward. In comparison with the placebo drink, the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink increased handgrip force by ~4.2% ± 7.2% (P = .03) in both hands, the running pace at high intensity (46.7 ± 28.5 vs 63.3 ± 27.7 m/h, P = .02), and the number of sprints (12.1 ± 1.7 vs 13.2 ± 1.7, P = .05) during the simulated match. There was a tendency for increased maximal running velocity during the sprint test (22.3 ± 2.0 vs 22.9 ± 2.1 km/h, P = .07) and higher percentage of points won on service with the caffeinated energy drink (49.7% ± 9.8% vs 56.4% ± 10.0%, P = .07) in comparison with the placebo drink. The energy drink did not improve ball velocity during the serving test (42.6 ± 4.8 vs 42.7 ± 5.0 m/s, P = .49). The preexercise ingestion of caffeinated energy drinks was effective to enhance some aspects of physical performance of elite junior tennis players.

  8. MRI findings in the lumbar spines of asymptomatic elite junior tennis players

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajeswaran, G.; Healy, J.C. [Chelsea and Westminster Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London, England (United Kingdom); Turner, M. [The National Tennis Centre, Lawn Tennis Association, London (United Kingdom); Gissane, C. [St Mary' s University, Twickenham, Middlesex (United Kingdom)

    2014-07-15

    To evaluate the MRI findings in the lumbar spines of asymptomatic elite junior tennis players. The lumbar spine MRI studies of 98 asymptomatic junior elite tennis players (51 male, 47 female) with a mean age of 18 years (age range 11.2-26.3 years; standard deviation 3.1) was reviewed by two consultant musculoskeletal radiologists using consensus opinion. Images were assessed using accepted classification systems. Four players (4 %) had no abnormality. Facet joint arthropathy occurred in 89.7 % of the players, being mild in 84.5 % of cases. There were 41 synovial cysts in 22.4 % of the cohort all occurring in the presence of facet arthropathy. Disc degeneration was noted in 62.2 % of players, being mild in 76.2 % of those affected. Disc herniation was noted in 30.6 % of players, with 86.1 % of these being broad based and 13.9 % being focal. There was nerve root compression in 2 %. There were 41 pars interarticularis abnormalities in 29.6 % of patients, 63.4 % of these being grades 1-3. There was grade 1 spondylolisthesis in 5.1 % of players. The prevalence of facet joint arthropathy, disc degeneration, disc herniation and pars interarticularis fracture was lower in female players than in male and lower in the under 16-year-olds compared with the over 20-year-olds. There is a significant amount of underlying pathology that would normally go undetected in this group of asymptomatic elite athletes. Whilst these findings cannot be detected clinically, their relevance is in facilitating appropriate prehabilitation to prevent loss of playing time and potentially career-ending injuries. (orig.)

  9. Iron status in spanish junior soccer and basketball players. Status en hierro de jugadores de fútbol y baloncesto de la categoría junior.

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    Valtueña , Jara

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractAim: To assess the dietary iron intake and the iron status of Spanish junior athletes and its importance on performance, and to discuss abount the consequences of an iron deficiency. Material and methods: Forty six soccer and eleven basketball players aged 17-21 years (mean age 18.2 +1.1 who played in the Spanish national junior soccer and basketball league, respectively, who had neither drugs, medicines intake nor illness during the study which altered the appetite or some studies parameters, took part in the study. Dietary intake was assessed by means of a 7-day weighed food intake record. Iron status was evaluated by means of a complete hemogram, serum iron, ferritin, transferrin and TIBC.Results: Mean iron intake was 19.24±4.58 mg/day. Mean analytical data were all between reference ranges. Basketball players had higher intake levels compared with soccer ones (22.1+6.4 and 19.2+3.9 mg/day, respectively; pConclusions: During adolescence, iron requirements are very high which could place adolescent athletes in a high risk group for iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia. In the current research, the population studied shows an acceptable iron status although there are 3% of iron deficiency anaemia cases.ResumenObjetivos: valorar la ingesta diaria y el estatus de hierro de los atletas junior españoles y su importancia sobre el rendimiento, así como lo que respecta a las consecuencias que tiene una deficiencia de hierro. Material y métodos: cuarenta y seis jugadores de fútbol y once de baloncesto con edades comprendidas entre los 17 y 21 años (la media de edad 18.2 + 1.1 que jugaban en la liga junior nacional de fútbol y baloncesto, respectivamente, y que no tomaban drogas, medicinas ni presentaban ninguna enfermedad durante el desarrollo del estudio que pudiera alterar el apetito o algunos de los parámetros objeto de estudio, tomaron parte en este estudio. La ingesta dietética se cuantificó mediante la técnica de

  10. SHOOTING PERFORMANCE DID NOT CHANGE IN ELITE WOMEN'S NATIONAL BASKETBALL TEAMS FROM 1995 TO 2011

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    Rasa Kreivyte

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Performance indices, i.e. model characteristics, quantitative and qualitative indices of a shot made at the basketball match, are a part of the system of criteria that allow one to objectively determine and evaluate the readiness of basketball teams and the quality of their performance. The aim of this research was to identify and evaluate changes in the key quantitative and qualitative indicators of shooting for the best European women's basketball national teams between 1995 and 2011. The data from official statistical documents for the 1995, 1997, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009 and 2013 European women's basketball championships were collected and statistical analyses (mean, standard deviation of 608 cases were used. It was ascertained that the number of scores in one match of the European championship of the eight best women's basketball teams decreased from 69 to 65 points. The number of shots from close and middle distances dropped sharply - from 51 to 43 points in a match, however, their accuracy remained similar - between 42 and 43 %. The number of long-distance shots increased dramatically, from 9 to 16 points in a match, their accuracy had a tendency to increase from 29 to 33 %. The number of free throws decreased significantly - from 26 to 17 points in a match, but their accuracy remained similar - between 71 and 72 %.

  11. Incidência de lesões musculoesqueléticas em atletas de elite do basquetebol feminino Incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in elite female basketball athletes

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    Alexandre Sabbag da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O basquetebol é esporte competitivo, com alta incidência de lesões de contato e movimentação. OBJETIVO: determinar a incidência de lesões musculoesqueléticas em atletas de elite do basquetebol feminino. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: foram analisadas prospectivamente 66 atletas adultas, 18 a 37 anos (média: 23, de 5 equipes durante o Campeonato Paulista da Divisão A1 (setembro de 99 a janeiro de 2000. Os dados referentes a atleta e as lesões que ocorreram no período, foram registradas por fisioterapeuta. RESULTADOS: foram computadas 78 lesões, em 47 das atletas (71,2%. A incidência de lesão foi de 2,6 lesões/ atleta/ 1000 jogos/treinos, com maior incidência nos jogos. A entorse, com 33%, foi o diagnóstico mais comum especialmente na região do tornozelo, seguida da contusão (24%. O joelho com 21% das lesões, mão/dedos, com 17%, perna/coxa e tornozelo com 14% cada, foram as regiões mais lesadas. O contato com outro atleta foi o principal mecanismo de lesão. Não encontramos relação entre diagnóstico, idade, posição e região anatômica lesada, mas atletas mais novas foram menos afetadas. A maioria das lesões foram leves (88,5% e a região do joelho foi a de maior morbidade. As sobrecargas deste esporte foram mais visíveis na região lombar e joelho, exigindo programas intensivos de prevenção e acompanhamento de atletas de elite no basquetebol feminino.Basketball is a competitive sport, presenting a high incidence of contact and movement injuries. OBJECTIVE: to determine the incidence of musculoskeletal injuries in elite female basketball athletes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 66 adult athletes, with ages ranging from 18 to 37 years (average: 23, from 5 teams playing A1-class São Paulo State Championship were prospectively assessed in the period of September 1999 - January 2000. Data concerning each individual athlete and the injuries occurred within that period were recorded by a physical therapist. RESULTS: 78 injuries were

  12. T he Relationship between Perfectionism and Burnout in Junior - Elite Athletes

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    Mohammad Taghi AGHDASI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present investigation was to examine the relationship between multidimensional perfectionism and athlete burnout. The target population of research consisted of 168 elite handball players who participate in National Junior Championships. 123 athletes were selected randomly as the sample. We used a multi - section inventory to collect data, contained measures of multidimensional perfectionism, dispositional achievem ent goals, athlete burnout, perceived satisfaction with goal attainment and perceived coach satisfaction with goal attainment. In this study was used Pierson correlation and Hierarchical regression for the analysis of collected data. Regression analyses re vealed that socially prescribed perfectionism demonstrated a significant positive association, and self - oriented perfectionism a significant negative association with burnout dimensions. In conclusion, in this study were not supported the hypotheses of the moderating influence of Perceived satisfaction with goal attainment and achievement goal orientations on the relationship between multidimensional perfectionism and athlete burnout .

  13. [Anthropometry of the Swiss junior and elite judo national team - a descriptive study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spieser, Laura; Clijsen, Ron; Rucker, Alfred M L; Cabri, Jan; Clarys, Peter

    2012-12-01

    To establish the anthropometrical characteristics and the hand grip strength of the Swiss junior and elite judo national team. The measured values were compared with data from the literature. 24 members, 19 males (23.01 ± 4.91 years) and five females (19.95 ± 2.02 years), were measured. The following anthropometric measurements were made: body size, body weight, six skinfolds (SFT), two breadths, two circumferences, body fat (tanita scale, Durnin and Womersley method), BMI and determination of somatotypes. In addition, the hand grip strength was measured. The anthropometric measurements were carried out in accordance with ISAK guidelines. The literature search was done electronically using PubMed. The mean somatotype of male judoka was 2,2 ± 0,8 for the endomorphy, 6,0 ± 0,9 for the mesomorphy and 2,0 ± 0,7 for the ectomorphy. The mean somatotype was balanced mesomorph. The mean hand grip strength of male judoka was 47,4 ± 6,7 kg. The mean somatotype of female judoka was 3.7 ± 1.2 for the endomorphy, 4,9 ± 0,7 for the mesomorphy and 1,5 ± 0,3 for the ectomorphy. The mean somatotype was mesomorphic endomorph. The mean hand grip strength of the female judoka was 27,0 ± 3,1 kg. There were anthropometric differences between the Swiss juniors and elite judoka and between the Swiss athletes and the athletes of the reference studies. The anthropometric data and the results of the hand grip strength give information, which components Swiss judoka should improve. A judoka who does not match the ideal profile can still be successful with the help of other factors (technical, tactical, mental strength). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Accelerometer Load Profiles for Basketball-Specific Drills in Elite Players

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    Xavi Schelling, Lorena Torres

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to quantify the workload during basketball-specific drills measured through microtechnology. Twelve professional male basketball players from the Spanish 1st Division were monitored over a 4-week period. Data were collected from 16 sessions, for a total of 95 ± 33 drills per player. Workload data (Acceleration load; AL were obtained from a tri-axial accelerometer at 100Hz sampling frequency, and were expressed over time (AL.min-1. Comparisons among training drills (i.e., 2v2, 3v3, 4v4, and 5v5 were assessed via standardized mean differences. Full-court 3v3 and 5v5 showed the highest physical demand (AL.min-1: 18.7 ± 4.1 and 17.9 ± 4.6, respectively compared with other traditional balanced basketball drills such as 2v2 and 4v4 (14.6 ± 2.8 and 13.8±2.5, respectively. The AL.min-1 on half-court showed trivial-to-moderate differences with a likely increase of ~10-20% in 2v2 drill compared with any other formats. This study provides insight into the specific requirements of a range of exercises typically performed in basketball sessions. The use of accelerometer data is presented as a useful tool in assessing the workload.

  15. The effect of ball compression on the match-play characteristics of elite junior tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachel, Kim; Buszard, Tim; Reid, Machar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine the effect of equipment scaling, through the modification of tennis ball compression, on elite junior tennis players (aged 10 years) within a match-play context. The two types of ball compressions that were compared were the standard compression (the normal ball) and 75% compression (termed the modified ball). Ten boys and 10 girls participated in the study. Participants were stratified into pairs based on their Australian Age Ranking and gender. Each pair played two two-set matches: one match with standard compression balls and one match with modified balls. The characteristics of each match were analysed and compared. The results showed that the use of the modified ball increased rally speed, allowed players to strike the ball at a lower (more comfortable) height on their groundstrokes and increased the number of balls played at the net. Ball compression had no effect on the relative number of winners, forehands, backhands, first serves in and double faults. The results are discussed in relation to skill acquisition for skilled junior tennis players.

  16. Wheelchair Propulsion Biomechanics in Junior Basketball Players: A Method for the Evaluation of the Efficacy of a Specific Training Program

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    Elena Bergamini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available As participation in wheelchair sports increases, the need of quantitative assessment of biomechanical performance indicators and of sports- and population-specific training protocols has become central. The present study focuses on junior wheelchair basketball and aims at (i proposing a method to identify biomechanical performance indicators of wheelchair propulsion using an instrumented in-field test and (ii developing a training program specific for the considered population and assessing its efficacy using the proposed method. Twelve athletes (10 M, 2 F, age = 17.1 ± 2.7 years, years of practice = 4.5 ± 1.8 equipped with wheelchair- and wrist-mounted inertial sensors performed a 20-metre sprint test. Biomechanical parameters related to propulsion timing, progression force, and coordination were estimated from the measured accelerations and used in a regression model where the time to complete the test was set as dependent variable. Force- and coordination-related parameters accounted for 80% of the dependent variable variance. Based on these results, a training program was designed and administered for three months to six of the athletes (the others acting as control group. The biomechanical indicators proved to be effective in providing additional information about the wheelchair propulsion technique with respect to the final test outcome and demonstrated the efficacy of the developed program.

  17. The Commonality Between Approaches to Determine Jump Fatigue During Basketball Activity in Junior Players: In-Game Versus Across-Game Decrements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Aaron T; Fox, Jordan L; Borges, Nattai R; Dalbo, Vincent J

    2017-02-01

    Declines in high-intensity activity during game play (in-game approach) and performance tests measured pre- and postgame (across-game approach) have been used to assess player fatigue in basketball. However, a direct comparison of these approaches is not available. Consequently, this study examined the commonality between in- and across-game jump fatigue during simulated basketball game play. Australian, state-level, junior male basketball players (n = 10; 16.6 ± 1.1 y, 182.4 ± 4.3 cm, 68.3 ± 10.2 kg) completed 4 × 10-min standardized quarters of simulated basketball game play. In-game jump height during game play was measured using video analysis, while across-game jump height was determined pre-, mid-, and postgame play using an in-ground force platform. Jump height was determined using the flight-time method, with jump decrement calculated for each approach across the first half, second half, and entire game. A greater jump decrement was apparent for the in-game approach than for the across-game approach in the first half (37.1% ± 11.6% vs 1.7% ± 6.2%; P = .005; d = 3.81, large), while nonsignificant, large differences were evident between approaches in the second half (d = 1.14) and entire game (d = 1.83). Nonsignificant associations were evident between in-game and across-game jump decrement, with shared variances of 3-26%. Large differences and a low commonality were observed between in- and across-game jump fatigue during basketball game play, suggesting that these approaches measure different constructs. Based on our findings, it is not recommended that basketball coaches use these approaches interchangeably to monitor player fatigue across the season.

  18. ‘The’ pathway towards the elite level in Dutch basketball : A multidimensional and longitudinal study on the development of talented youth basketball players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Wierike, Sanne Cornelia Maria

    2016-01-01

    Veel jonge talentvolle basketballers hebben één doel voor ogen; de top halen in hun sport. Hoe de ontwikkeling van jonge speler tot aan volwassen basketballer verloopt, is onderzocht in het promotieonderzoek van Sanne te Wierike. Dit onderzoek is uitgevoerd bij Bewegingswetenschappen (UMCG, Rijksuni

  19. ‘The’ pathway towards the elite level in Dutch basketball : A multidimensional and longitudinal study on the development of talented youth basketball players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Wierike, Sanne Cornelia Maria

    2016-01-01

    Veel jonge talentvolle basketballers hebben één doel voor ogen; de top halen in hun sport. Hoe de ontwikkeling van jonge speler tot aan volwassen basketballer verloopt, is onderzocht in het promotieonderzoek van Sanne te Wierike. Dit onderzoek is uitgevoerd bij Bewegingswetenschappen (UMCG, Rijksuni

  20. Effects of auricular acupuncture on heart rate, oxygen consumption and blood lactic acid for elite basketball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zen-Pin; Chen, Yi-Hung; Fan, Chia; Wu, Huey-June; Lan, Lawrence W; Lin, Jaung-Geng

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of auricular acupuncture on athletes' recovery abilities after exercise. Subjects were selected from twenty-four male elite university basketball players, randomly divided into two groups: auricular acupuncture group (AAG), and normal control group (NCG), each group containing twelve subjects. Auricular acupuncture was experimented to each AAG athlete while no auricular acupuncture was conducted to each NCG athlete. Each subject in both groups performed a ride on the stationary bike until exhausted. The data of heart rate (HR(max)), oxygen consumption (VO(2 max)), and blood lactic acid were measured at four points of time: during the rest period after warm-ups and at the 5th, 30th and 60th minutes post-exercise, respectively. One-way ANOVA and repeated Scheffé methods were used to test the differences of the data between these two groups. The results showed that both HR(max) and blood lactic acid in AAG were significantly lower than those in NCG at the 30th and 60th minutes post-exercise. This suggests that auricular acupuncture can enhance athletes' recovery abilities after aggressive exercise.

  1. Classification of playing position in elite junior Australian football using technical skill indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carl T; Veale, James; Fransen, Job; Robertson, Sam; Collier, Neil French

    2017-01-26

    ​In team sport, classifying playing position based on a players' expressed skill sets can provide a guide to talent identification by enabling the recognition of performance attributes relative to playing position. Here, elite junior Australian football players were a priori classified into 1 of 4 common playing positions; forward, midfield, defence, and ruck. Three analysis approaches were used to assess the extent to which 12 in-game skill performance indicators could classify playing position. These were a linear discriminant analysis (LDA), random forest, and a PART decision list. The LDA produced classification accuracy of 56.8%, with class errors ranging from 19.6% (midfielders) to 75.0% (ruck). The random forest model performed at a slightly worse level (51.62%), with class errors ranging from 27.8% (midfielders) to 100% (ruck). The decision list revealed 6 rules capable of classifying playing position at accuracy of 70.1%, with class errors ranging from 14.4% (midfielders) to 100% (ruck). Although the PART decision list produced the greatest relative classification accuracy, the technical skill indicators reported were generally unable to accurately classify players according to their position using the 3 analysis approaches. This player homogeneity may complicate recruitment by constraining talent recruiter's ability to objectively recognise distinctive positional attributes.

  2. Endurance training and sprint performance in elite junior cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbakk, Øyvind; Welde, Boye; Holmberg, Hans-Christer

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between aerobic characteristics and sprint skiing performance, and the effects of high-intensity endurance training on sprint skiing performance and aerobic characteristics. Ten male and 5 female elite junior cross-country skiers performed an 8-week intervention training period. The intervention group (IG, n = 7) increased the volume of high-intensity endurance training performed in level terrain, whereas the control group (CG, n = 8) continued their baseline training. Before and after the intervention period, the skiers were tested for 1.5-km time-trial performance on roller skis outdoors in the skating technique. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO₂max) and oxygen uptake at the ventilatory threshold (VO₂VT) were measured during treadmill running. VO₂max and VO₂VT were closely related to sprint performance (r = ~0.75, both p cross-country skiing and highlights the positive effects of high-intensity endurance training in level terrain.

  3. Perfectionism and athlete burnout in junior elite athletes: the mediating role of coping tendencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Andrew P; Hall, Howard K; Appleton, Paul R

    2010-07-01

    Recent research indicates that some dimensions of perfectionism are positively related to athlete burnout, whereas others are negatively related to athlete burnout. The divergent relationship between these dimensions of perfectionism and athlete burnout may be explained by different coping tendencies. The present investigation examined whether different coping tendencies mediate the relationship between self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism and burnout. Two-hundred and six junior elite athletes (M age=15.15 years, SD=1.88 years, range=11-22 years) completed measures of self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism, coping tendencies, and athlete burnout. Structural equation modeling indicated that the relationship between dimensions of perfectionism and athlete burnout was mediated by different coping tendencies. Higher levels of socially prescribed perfectionism was related to higher levels of avoidant coping which, in turn, was related to higher levels of athlete burnout. In contrast, higher levels of self-oriented perfectionism was related to higher levels of problem-focused coping and lower levels of avoidant coping which, in turn, was related to lower levels of athlete burnout. The findings suggest that different coping tendencies may underpin the divergent relationship between self-oriented and socially prescribed dimensions of perfectionism and athlete burnout.

  4. ‘The’ pathway towards the elite level in Dutch basketball: A multidimensional and longitudinal study on the development of talented youth basketball players

    OpenAIRE

    te Wierike, Sanne Cornelia Maria

    2016-01-01

    Veel jonge talentvolle basketballers hebben één doel voor ogen; de top halen in hun sport. Hoe de ontwikkeling van jonge speler tot aan volwassen basketballer verloopt, is onderzocht in het promotieonderzoek van Sanne te Wierike. Dit onderzoek is uitgevoerd bij Bewegingswetenschappen (UMCG, Rijksuniversiteit Groningen). In samenwerking met het Regionaal Trainingscentrum Noord zijn 99 spelers (13 - 19 jaar) van deze jeugdopleiding vijf seizoenen lang gevolgd waarbij verschillende kenmerken zij...

  5. Six weeks of β-alanine supplementation did not enhance repeated-sprint ability or technical performances in young elite basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milioni, Fabio; Redkva, Paulo E; Barbieri, Fabio A; Zagatto, Alessandro M

    2017-06-01

    Supplementation with β-alanine plays an important role as a precursor of carnosine, the most effective intramuscular buffer, and has been seen as a potential ergogenic aid, especially for high-intensity modalities such as basketball. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks of β-alanine supplementation on repeated sprint ability (RSA) and technical performances in young elite Brazilian basketball players. In total, 27 young basketball players (17±1 years) were randomized into a β-alanine group (Gβ - 6.4 g day(-1) of β-alanine) and a placebo group (GP - 6.4 g day(-1) of dextrose). Before and after the supplementation period the athletes performed a RSA test composed of ten 30 m sprints with two 180° changes of direction interspaced by 30 s of recovery. During the recovery period (i.e., after the sprints) the athletes performed a countermovement jump (CMJ) and a set of three free throws. After 48 h they performed a Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1). Both groups increased the distance covered in the Yo-Yo IR1 after the supplementation period ( p = 0.001). On the other hand, both groups presented impairment in RSA time-performance (total time, best time, and mean time, p ≤ 0.04), while no significant changes were observed for technical task performances (i.e., CMJ and free throws) ( p ≥ 0.07). No between-group interactions were observed for any variable measured ( p ≥ 0.31). Thus, 6 weeks of β-alanine supplementation did not improve RSA or technical performances in young elite basketball players.

  6. Kinematical analysis of the snatch in elite male junior weightlifters of different weight categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, José; Poletaev, Petr; Cuesta, Andrés; Pablos, Carlos; Carratalá, Vicente

    2006-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the differences in the technical pattern of the snatch in elite junior weightlifters of different weight categories. The sample was a group of 33 men weightlifters from different weight categories. The comparative study included 2 groups, taking into account weight categories. Group A included 17 weightlifters from the lightest categories, 56 and 62 kg; group B included 16 weightlifters from the heaviest categories, 85 and 105 kg. Three-dimensional photogrammetry technique was utilized. Regarding group differences, we can conclude that lifters belonging to heavier categories are more efficient, as they manage to have longer barbell propulsion trajectories, which allows them to exert actions on the barbell for a longer period, especially in the initial lifting phase. They attain greater barbell vertical velocity (p = 0.029), a longer vertical bar trajectory normalized on first pull (p = 0.011), and a greater, although limited, bar height loss on the catch (p = 0.008). Besides, intergroup differences evidence that heavier category lifters observe a different temporal organization of the movement based on a longer first pull (p = 0.000), a shorter transition (p = 0.030), and a longer turnover (p = 0.049). No significant differences were found in the analyzed angular parameters during the first and second pull. We believe the intergroup differences found not to be determining enough to consider a technical model adapted to the characteristics of each body weight category. This confirms that a successful lift is multifactor based and individual dependent. Given its transcendence, this evidence should be taken into account in the technical training of young lifters.

  7. High-resolution ultrasound of rotator cuff and biceps reflection pulley in non-elite junior tennis players: anatomical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Tennis is believed to be potentially harmful for the shoulder, therefore the purpose of this study is to evaluate the anatomy of the rotator cuff and the coraco-humeral ligament (CHL) in a-symptomatic non-elite junior tennis players with high-resolution ultrasound (US). Methods From August 2009 to September 2010 n = 90 a-symptomatic non-elite junior tennis players (mean age ± standard deviation: 15 ± 3) and a control group of age- and sex- matched subjects were included. Shoulder assessment with a customized standardized protocol was performed. Body mass index, dominant arm, years of practice, weekly hours of training, racket weight, grip (Eastern, Western and semi-Western), kind of strings were recorded. Results Abnormalities were found at ultrasound in 14/90 (15%) players. Two players had supraspinatus tendinosis, two had subacromial impingement and ten had subacromial bursitis. CHL thickness resulted comparable in the dominant and non-dominant arms (11.3 ± 4.4 mm vs. 13 ± 4.2, p > 0.05). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that no association was present among CHL thickness and the variables evaluated. In the control group, abnormalities were found at ultrasound in 6/60 (10%) subjects (sub-acromial bursitis). No statistically significant differences between players and control group were found (p = 0.71). Conclusion In a-symptomatic non-elite junior tennis players only minor shoulder abnormalities were found. PMID:25034864

  8. Acute and Time-Course Effects of Traditional and Dynamic Warm-Up Routines in Young Elite Junior Tennis Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Francisco; Moreno-Pérez, Víctor; Vera-Garcia, Francisco J; Moya, Manuel; Sanz-Rivas, David; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large number of studies that have examined the acute effects of different warm up modalities (WU) on physical performance, none of them have documented the time course of potential performance recovery in tennis players. The aim of this study was twofold: (a) to analyze and compare the acute effects of two different WU modalities (traditional WU [TWU] and dynamic WU [DWU]) on physical performance (i.e., CMJ, sprint, serve speed and accuracy) in elite junior players, as well as (b) to monitor the time course of any WU-induced changes after 30 and 60 min of simulated match-play. Twelve junior elite players completed both WUs modalities (TWU and DWU) in a counterbalanced order on separate days. In each experimental session, counter movement jump (CMJ), 20-m sprint, tennis serve speed and accuracy tests were performed before (immediately after TWU or DWU) during (30 min) and after 60 min of a simulated match play. Measures were compared via four factorial (WU intervention and time) repeated measures ANOVAs. There were main effects of WU (TWU and DWU) throughout the time for all the variables analysed. The results indicate that DWU routine led to significantly faster 20 m sprint times and higher CMJs as well as faster and more accurate tennis serves at both post warm-up and 30 min match-play testing moments in comparison with the scores reported by the TWU routine (p 75-99%). No significant intergroup differences were found at 60-min match-play testing moment in any variable (except for the 20 m sprint). Therefore, the findings of this study recommend for optimal performance in these elite tennis players, DWU routines should be performed prior to formal training and competition rather than TWU routines.

  9. Acute and Time-Course Effects of Traditional and Dynamic Warm-Up Routines in Young Elite Junior Tennis Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Pérez, Víctor; Vera-Garcia, Francisco J.; Moya, Manuel; Sanz-Rivas, David

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large number of studies that have examined the acute effects of different warm up modalities (WU) on physical performance, none of them have documented the time course of potential performance recovery in tennis players. The aim of this study was twofold: (a) to analyze and compare the acute effects of two different WU modalities (traditional WU [TWU] and dynamic WU [DWU]) on physical performance (i.e., CMJ, sprint, serve speed and accuracy) in elite junior players, as well as (b) to monitor the time course of any WU-induced changes after 30 and 60 min of simulated match-play. Twelve junior elite players completed both WUs modalities (TWU and DWU) in a counterbalanced order on separate days. In each experimental session, counter movement jump (CMJ), 20-m sprint, tennis serve speed and accuracy tests were performed before (immediately after TWU or DWU) during (30 min) and after 60 min of a simulated match play. Measures were compared via four factorial (WU intervention and time) repeated measures ANOVAs. There were main effects of WU (TWU and DWU) throughout the time for all the variables analysed. The results indicate that DWU routine led to significantly faster 20 m sprint times and higher CMJs as well as faster and more accurate tennis serves at both post warm-up and 30 min match-play testing moments in comparison with the scores reported by the TWU routine (p 75–99%). No significant intergroup differences were found at 60-min match-play testing moment in any variable (except for the 20 m sprint). Therefore, the findings of this study recommend for optimal performance in these elite tennis players, DWU routines should be performed prior to formal training and competition rather than TWU routines. PMID:27071014

  10. Age at menarche in relation to anthropometric characteristics, competition level and boat category in elite junior rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, A L; Bourgois, J; Beunen, G; Philippaerts, R; Thomis, M; Lefevre, J; Loos, R J E; Vrijens, J

    2003-01-01

    Within the context of the effects of training for sports on growth and maturation, there is very little menarcheal data for elite rowing athletes. Knowledge of the relationship of the maturational status with training level, different boat categories, and somatic features of the athletes will clarify the assumed impact of rowing training on the growth and maturational process of youngsters. The aim of this study was to determine the age at menarche in world top junior rowing athletes and to investigate its relationship with anthropometric characteristics, and competition level, rowing style and boat category. The sample consisted of 212 female junior rowers, with a mean chronological age of 17.6 +/- 0.8 years, all participants at the 1997 FISA World Junior Rowing Championships. Anthropometric dimensions, somatotype and body composition characteristics were measured, and age at menarche and training data were retrospectively obtained by questionnaires. Results revealed that the mean age at menarche of the total group of rowers was 12.8 +/- 1.2 years and did not differ from a non-athletic reference population. Rowers who started their rowing training before menarche (n = 78) showed a significant (p athletes.

  11. Validity and Test-Retest Reliability of the TIVRE-Basket Test for the Determination of Aerobic Power in Elite Male Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquera, Alejandro; Villa, Jose G; Morante, Juan C; Thomas, Gavin; Renfree, Andrew J; Peters, Derek M

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study were to (a) determine the relationship between performance on the court-based TIVRE-Basket test and peak aerobic power determined from a criterion laboratory-based incremental treadmill test and (b) to examine the test-retest reliability of the TIVRE-Basket test in elite male basketball players. To address aim 1, 36 elite male basketball players (age: 25.2 ± 4.7 years, weight: 94.1 ± 11.4 kg, height: 195.83 ± 9.6 cm) completed a graded treadmill exercise test and the TIVRE-Basket within 72 hours. The mean distance recorded during the TIVRE-Basket test was 4001.8 ± 176.4 m, and mean VO2 peak was 54.7 ± 2.8 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1), and the correlation between the 2 parameters was r = 0.824 (p ≤ 0.001). Linear regression analysis identified TIVRE-Basket distance (in meters) as the only unique predictor of VO2 peak in a single variable plus constant model: VO2 peak = 2.595 + (0.13 × TIVRE-Basket distance [in meters]). Performance on the TIVRE-Basket test accounted for 67.8% of the variance in VO2 peak (t = 8.466, p ≤ 0.001, 95% confidence interval: 0.01-0.016, SEE: 1.61). To address aim 2, 20 male basketball players (age: 26.7 ± 4.2 years, height: 1.94 ± 0.92 cm, weight: 94.0 ± 9.1 kg) performed the TIVRE-Basket test on 2 occasions. There was no significant difference in total distance covered between trial 1 (4138.8 ± 677.3 m) and trial 2 (4188.0 ± 648.8 m; t = 0.5798, p = 0.5688). Mean difference between trials was 49.2 ± 399.5 m, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.85 suggesting a moderate level of reliability. Standardized typical error of measurement was 0.88%, representing a moderate degree of trial-to-trial error, and the Coefficient of Variation (CV) was 6.3%. The TIVRE-Basket test therefore represents a valid and moderately reliable court-based sport-specific test of aerobic power for use with individuals and teams of elite-level male basketball players. Future research is required to ascertain its validity

  12. Using Elite Athletes to Promote Drug Abstinence: Evaluation of a Single-Session School-Based Drug Use Prevention Program Delivered by Junior Hockey Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    School-based substance use prevention programs are a common method to approaching drug use in youths. Project SOS is a single-session drug prevention program developed by police officers and delivered by elite junior hockey players to students in grades 6 and 7. The current study evaluates the effects of Project SOS at achieving its objectives of…

  13. Monitoring performance, pituitary-adrenal hormones and mood profiles : how to diagnose non-functional over-reaching in male elite junior soccer players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmikli, Sandor L.; de Vries, Wouter R.; Brink, Michel S.; Backx, Frank J. G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To verify if in male elite junior soccer players a minimum 1-month performance decrease is accompanied by a mood profile and hormone levels typical of non-functional over-reaching (NFOR). Design A prospective case-control study using a monthly performance monitor with a standardised field

  14. Does small-sided-games’ court area influence metabolic, perceptual, and physical performance parameters of young elite basketball players?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PR Marcelino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of court size on physiological responses and physical performance of young elite basketball players. Twelve male basketball players (18.6 ± 0.5 years; 88.8 ± 14.5 kg; 192.6 ± 6.5 cm from an under-19 team performed two small-sided games (matches with different court areas (28x15 m and 28x9 m; 28x15 and 28x9 protocols. The number of players (3x3 was kept the same in each protocol. The players performed a repeated-sprint ability (RSA test before and after each match. Blood lactate concentration was collected before (pre and after (post the matches, and the session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE was determined 30 minutes after the match. Best and mean time in the RSA test were not different between the 28x15 and the 28x9 match protocols (p>0.05. A significant difference was observed for lactate concentration from pre- to post-match (p 0.0S, ES=(0.41. In summary, the results of the current study suggest that the different court areas induced similar responses. Although there was no significant difference in effort perception, players tended to perceive a greater effort in the larger court size.

  15. Monitoring training load, recovery-stress state, immune-endocrine responses, and physical performance in elite female basketball players during a periodized training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João A; Moreira, Alexandre; Crewther, Blair T; Nosaka, Ken; Viveiros, Luis; Aoki, Marcelo S

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of a periodized training program on internal training load (ITL), recovery-stress state, immune-endocrine responses, and physical performance in 19 elite female basketball players. The participants were monitored across a 12-week period before an international championship, which included 2 overloading and tapering phases. The first overloading phase (fourth to sixth week) was followed by a 1-week tapering, and the second overloading phase (eighth to 10th week) was followed by a 2-week tapering. ITL (session rating of perceived exertion method) and recovery-stress state (RESTQ-76 Sport questionnaire) were assessed weekly and bi-weekly, respectively. Pretraining and posttraining assessments included measures of salivary IgA, testosterone and cortisol concentrations, strength, jumping power, running endurance, and agility. Internal training load increased across all weeks from 2 to 11 (p ≤ 0.05). After the first tapering period (week 7), a further increase in ITL was observed during the second overloading phase (p ≤ 0.05). After the second tapering period, a decrease in ITL was detected (p ≤ 0.05). A disturbance in athlete stress-recovery state was noted during the second overloading period (p ≤ 0.05), before returning to baseline level in end of the second tapering period. The training program led to significant improvements in the physical performance parameters evaluated. The salivary measures did not change despite the fluctuations in ITL. In conclusion, a periodized training program evoked changes in ITL in elite female basketball players, which appeared to influence their recovery-stress state. The training plan was effective in preparing participants for competition, as indicated by improvements in recovery-stress state and physical performance after tapering.

  16. Comparison of Athletes' Proneness to Depressive Symptoms in Individual and Team Sports: Research on Psychological Mediators in Junior Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixdorf, Insa; Frank, Raphael; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Depression among elite athletes is a topic of increasing interest and public awareness. Currently, empirical data on elite athletes' depressive symptoms are rare. Recent results indicate sport-related mechanisms and effects on depression prevalence in elite athlete samples; specific factors associated with depression include overtraining, injury, and failure in competition. One such effect is that athletes competing in individual sports were found to be more prone to depressive symptoms than athletes competing in team sports. The present study examined this effect by testing three possible, psychological mediators based on theoretical and empirical assumptions: namely, cohesion in team or training groups; perception of perfectionistic expectations from others; and negative attribution after failure. In a cross-sectional study, 199 German junior elite athletes (M age = 14.96; SD = 1.56) participated and completed questionnaires on perfectionism, cohesion, attribution after failure, and depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. As expected, athletes in individual sports showed higher scores in depression than athletes in team sports [t(197) = 2.05; p < 0.05; d = 0.30]. Furthermore, negative attribution after failure was associated with individual sports (β = 0.27; p < 0.001), as well as with the dependent variable depression (β = 0.26; p < 0.01). Mediation hypothesis was supported by a significant indirect effect (β = 0.07; p < 0.05). Negative attribution after failure mediated the relationship between individual sports and depression scores. Neither cohesion nor perfectionism met essential criteria to serve as mediators: cohesion was not elevated in either team or individual sports, and perfectionism was positively related to team sports. The results support the assumption of previous findings on sport-specific mechanisms (here the effect between individual and team sports) contributing to

  17. Comparison of Athletes’ Proneness to Depressive Symptoms in Individual and Team Sports: Research on Psychological Mediators in Junior Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixdorf, Insa; Frank, Raphael; Beckmann, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    Depression among elite athletes is a topic of increasing interest and public awareness. Currently, empirical data on elite athletes’ depressive symptoms are rare. Recent results indicate sport-related mechanisms and effects on depression prevalence in elite athlete samples; specific factors associated with depression include overtraining, injury, and failure in competition. One such effect is that athletes competing in individual sports were found to be more prone to depressive symptoms than athletes competing in team sports. The present study examined this effect by testing three possible, psychological mediators based on theoretical and empirical assumptions: namely, cohesion in team or training groups; perception of perfectionistic expectations from others; and negative attribution after failure. In a cross-sectional study, 199 German junior elite athletes (Mage = 14.96; SD = 1.56) participated and completed questionnaires on perfectionism, cohesion, attribution after failure, and depressive symptoms. Mediation analysis using path analysis with bootstrapping was used for data analysis. As expected, athletes in individual sports showed higher scores in depression than athletes in team sports [t(197) = 2.05; p < 0.05; d = 0.30]. Furthermore, negative attribution after failure was associated with individual sports (β = 0.27; p < 0.001), as well as with the dependent variable depression (β = 0.26; p < 0.01). Mediation hypothesis was supported by a significant indirect effect (β = 0.07; p < 0.05). Negative attribution after failure mediated the relationship between individual sports and depression scores. Neither cohesion nor perfectionism met essential criteria to serve as mediators: cohesion was not elevated in either team or individual sports, and perfectionism was positively related to team sports. The results support the assumption of previous findings on sport-specific mechanisms (here the effect between individual and team sports) contributing to

  18. Future Achievements, Passion and Motivation in the Transition from Junior-to-Senior Sport in Spanish Young Elite Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, José L; Torregrosa, Miquel; Sánchez Oliva, David; García Calvo, Tomás; León, Benito

    2016-10-20

    Within the context of the transition from junior-to-senior sport, this study aims in first place to explore differences in young Spanish elite soccer players based on the importance given to getting different achievements in their future (including sport, studies and private life) and, in second place, to explore differences among those players in levels of passion, motivation and basic psychological need. 478 elite youth soccer filled out a questionnaire based on the presented theoretical models. A cluster analysis shows a sport oriented group (N = 98) only interested in becoming a professional, a life spheres balance group (N = 288) characterized by balancing the importance of achievements in the sport sphere, as well as in education and a private life and a group (N = 91) only interested in private life achievements. The life spheres balance group shows higher levels of harmonious passion (η2 = .06, F(2, 475) = 9.990, p motivation (η2 = .10, F(2, 475) = 13.597, p sport oriented group as well as lower levels of amotivation (η2 = .04, F(2, 475) = 6.665, p motivation, to cope with the transition to professional soccer.

  19. elites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2016-05-01

    As usual, there are a lot of questions, much more than the answers. The questions are urgent and uneasy. Well, the greater the journal’s chances to become interesting, comprehensive and elite, in a good sense.

  20. Comparison of inflammatory responses and muscle damage indices following a soccer, basketball, volleyball and handball game at an elite competitive level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souglis, A; Bogdanis, G C; Giannopoulou, I; Papadopoulos, Ch; Apostolidis, N

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory responses and muscle damage indices were compared between four popular team sports at an elite level. Seventy two male elite players of four team sports: soccer (n = 18), basketball (n = 18), volleyball (n = 18) and handball (n = 18), completed an official match, while 18 non-athletes served as controls. Blood samples were drawn before, immediately after and 13 and 37 h post-match. Soccer produced the greatest increase in inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6), which were increased by 3-4 fold immediately after the game, as well as in C-reactive protein, which was increased by threefold in the next morning after the match. Metabolic stress (urea, ammonia and cortisol) and muscle damage indices (creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase) were also higher after soccer, with creatine kinase responses being almost 2-3 times higher than the other sports. Volleyball showed the smallest increase in inflammation and muscle damage markers compared with the other three sports.

  1. Do force-time and power-time measures in a loaded jump squat differentiate between speed performance and playing level in elite and elite junior rugby union players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Keir T; Cronin, John B; Pickering, Stuart L; Douglas, Lee

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the discriminative ability of rebound jump squat force-time and power-time measures in differentiating speed performance and competition level in elite and elite junior rugby union players. Forty professional rugby union players performed 3 rebound jump squats with an external load of 40 kg from which a number of force-time and power-time variables were acquired and analyzed. Additionally, players performed 3 sprints over 30 m with timing gates at 5, 10, and 30 m. Significant differences (p rugby union players; however, a number of force and power variables including peak force, PP, force at 100 milliseconds from minimum force, and force and impulse 200 milliseconds from minimum force were significantly (p rugby union players. For speed development in rugby union players, training strategies should aim to optimize the athlete's power to weight ratio, and lower body resistance training should focus on movement velocity. For player development to transition elite junior players to elite status, adding lean mass is likely to be most beneficial.

  2. Improvement of Repeated-Sprint Ability and Horizontal-Jumping Performance in Elite Young Basketball Players With Low-Volume Repeated-Maximal-Power Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Tous-Fajardo, Julio; Arjol-Serrano, José Luis; Suarez-Arrones, Luis; Casajús, José Antonio; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto

    2016-05-01

    To examine the effects of a low-volume repeated-power-ability (RPA) training program on repeated-sprint and change-of- direction (COD) ability and functional jumping performance. Twenty-two male elite young basketball players (age 16.2 ± 1.2 y, height 190.0 ± 10.0 cm, body mass 82.9 ± 10.1 kg) were randomly assigned either to an RPA-training group (n = 11) or a control group (n = 11). RPA training consisted of leg-press exercise, twice a week for 6 wk, of 1 or 2 blocks of 5 sets × 5 repetitions with 20 s of passive recovery between sets and 3 min between blocks with the load that maximized power output. Before and after training, performance was assessed by a repeated-sprint-ability (RSA) test, a repeated-COD-ability test, a hop for distance, and a drop jump followed by tests of a double unilateral hop with the right and left legs. Within-group and between-groups differences showed substantial improvements in slowest (RSAs) and mean time (RSAm) on RSA; best, slowest and mean time on repeated-COD ability; and unilateral right and left hop in the RPA group in comparison with control. While best time on RSA showed no improvement in any group, there was a large relationship (r = .68, 90% CI .43;.84) between the relative decrement in RSAm and RSAs, suggesting better sprint maintenance with RPA training. The relative improvements in best and mean repeated-COD ability were very largely correlated (r = .89, 90% CI .77;.94). Six weeks of lowvolume (4-14 min/wk) RPA training improved several physical-fitness tests in basketball players.

  3. In-season effect of a combined repeated sprint and explosive strength training program on elite junior tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Sanz-Rivas, David; Kovacs, Mark S; Moya, Manuel

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of a combined explosive strength (ExpS) and repeated sprint (RS)-training program (2 times per week) on performance (sprint, jumping ability, and RS ability [RSA]) in young elite tennis players during a competitive period. Eight competitive internationally ranked male junior tennis players participated in an 8-week training intervention. After training, except for percentage of decrement in the RS test (p = 0.72) and maximal aerobic performance (p = 1.0), all performance variables (i.e., sprint, countermovement jump, and RSA) were significantly improved (p ≤ 0.05; effect sizes ranging from 0.56 to 1.12). Although one can expect greater effects of ExpS or RS training programs alone than a combined program, the results obtained here show that the inclusion of a combined ExpS and RS training program seems to be an effective training tool to improve neuromuscular performance (i.e., changes in jumping ability and single sprint) as well as RSA in high-level tennis players.

  4. Serum zinc is associated with plasma leptin and Cu-Zn SOD in elite male basketball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiexiu; Fan, Bin; Wu, Zhaozhao; Xu, Minxiao; Luo, Yufeng

    2015-04-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between plasma trace element and plasma leptin, as well as percent fat mass, in 16 male basketball athletes. Blood samples were obtained before intensive training and 24h after intensive training to measure plasma zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and leptin levels. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), triglyceride (TG), total and cholesterol (TC) levels were determined using commercially available kits for humans. Subjects presented similar values in terms of age (21.1±2.2 years old), body mass index (23.9±2.00kg/m(2)), percent body fat (14.40±1.52%), plasma hemoglobin (150.1±9.4g/L), plasma Zn (17.47±1.28μmol/l), plasma Cu (13.42±1.40μmol/L), plasma Ca (2.41±0.14mmol/L), and plasma Mg (0.96±0.02mmol/L). The correlation analysis between degree of plasma leptin and plasma element contents was performed using the SPSS 16.0 software. Plasma Zn correlated positively with plasma leptin (r=0.746, P0.05). In conclusion, plasma Zn may be involved in the regulation of plasma leptin and may serve as a lipid-mobilizing factor in Chinese men's basketball athletes.

  5. PLAYER MOVEMENT PATTERNS IN AN ELITE JUNIOR AUSTRALIAN RULES FOOTBALL TEAM: AN EXPLORATORY STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Veale

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the physical movement patterns associated with an elite Under 18 Australian Football (AF team. Five field positions were selected with observations recording the number and relative per cent of "working" efforts (jogging, running, and sprinting, "resting" efforts (walking and the total distances associated with "working" or "resting" efforts. Intra-observer reliability, using test- retest method, showed correlations were r = 0.98 or greater. The Wing position covered 11,877 m, the greatest total distance during an entire game, whilst the HBF and Centre positions both recorded 11,545 m and 11,537 m respectively and the Ruck position covered 9,203 m. The HBF recorded the greatest frequency of 'working' and 'resting' efforts (180 and 182 respectively, whilst the Wing (166 and 158, Centre (162 and 149 and Ruck (161 and 166 showed similarities in their results. The Wing position recorded the longest average distance per 'working' effort (58 m whilst the Centre position recorded the longest average distance per 'resting' effort (17 m. Results also show the completion of less total efforts and smaller total distances, in Under 18 players, recorded compared to professional senior AF data. The results from this study suggest that further in-depth research is required into movement patterns and game activity demands in this AF playing group

  6. The relationship between repeated kicking performance and maximal aerobic capacity in elite junior Australian football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Jacob; Woods, Carl; Joyce, Christopher

    2017-08-26

    Australian football (AF) is a physically demanding game, requiring players to engage in a range of anaerobic activities interspersed with prolonged aerobic exercise. Coupled, players have to perform a range of technical skills, the most fundamental of which being to effectively kick (dispose) the ball. The aim of this study was to ascertain the extent to which aerobic capacity influenced kicking performance in AF. Twenty four elite U18 players competing in the same U18 competition performed the Australian Football Kicking test (AFK) three times with the yo-yo IR2 completed twice (between each AFK), with no rest between all three AFKs. Linear mixed models (LMM) reported the extent to which kicking speed and accuracy scores were influenced by the level reached on the yo-yo IR2. Results indicated that players who recorded a higher level on the yo-yo IR2 produced a faster average kicking speed following each AFK (P players, kicking speed was faster and more accurate on their dominant kicking leg regardless of score on the yo-yo IR2 (P players who attain a relatively higher score on the yo-yo IR2 may be better equipped at preserving their kicking speed. Thus, coaches may wish to integrate both technical and aerobic drills in an attempt to preserve a player's capability to execute ball disposals with a high velocity.

  7. The Effects of Individualized Resistance Strength Programs on Knee Muscular Imbalances in Junior Elite Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwowski, Robert; Jadczak, Łukasz; Hejna, Rafał; Wieczorek, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a resistance training program on the muscular strength of soccer players’ knees that initially presented unilateral and bilateral differences. For this study, a team of 24 male well-trained junior soccer players was divided into two strength program training groups: a Resistance Training Control Group (RTCG) composed of 10 players that did not have muscular imbalances and a Resistance Training Experimental Group (RTEG) composed of 14 players that had muscular imbalances. All players followed a resistance training program for six weeks, two times per week, during the transition period. The program of individualized strength training consisted of two parts. The first part, which was identical in terms of the choice of training loads, was intended for both training groups and contained two series of exercises including upper and lower body exercises. The second part of the program was intended only for RTEG and consisted of two additional series for the groups of muscles that had identified unilateral and bilateral differences. The applied program showed various directions in the isokinetic profile of changes. In the case of RTCG, the adaptations related mainly to the quadriceps muscle (the peak torque (PT) change for the dominant leg was statistically significant (p training programs could provide additional benefits to traditional strength training protocols to improve muscular imbalances in post-adolescent soccer players. PMID:26630271

  8. The Effects of Individualized Resistance Strength Programs on Knee Muscular Imbalances in Junior Elite Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliwowski, Robert; Jadczak, Łukasz; Hejna, Rafał; Wieczorek, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a resistance training program on the muscular strength of soccer players' knees that initially presented unilateral and bilateral differences. For this study, a team of 24 male well-trained junior soccer players was divided into two strength program training groups: a Resistance Training Control Group (RTCG) composed of 10 players that did not have muscular imbalances and a Resistance Training Experimental Group (RTEG) composed of 14 players that had muscular imbalances. All players followed a resistance training program for six weeks, two times per week, during the transition period. The program of individualized strength training consisted of two parts. The first part, which was identical in terms of the choice of training loads, was intended for both training groups and contained two series of exercises including upper and lower body exercises. The second part of the program was intended only for RTEG and consisted of two additional series for the groups of muscles that had identified unilateral and bilateral differences. The applied program showed various directions in the isokinetic profile of changes. In the case of RTCG, the adaptations related mainly to the quadriceps muscle (the peak torque (PT) change for the dominant leg was statistically significant (p muscular imbalances in post-adolescent soccer players.

  9. Creatine supplementation improves the anaerobic performance of elite junior fin swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Imre; Györe, I; Csende, Zs; Rácz, L; Tihanyi, J

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether creatine supplementation (CrS) could improve mechanical power output, and swimming performance in highly trained junior competitive fin swimmers. Sixteen male fin swimmers (age:15.9+/-1.6 years) were randomly and evenly assigned to either a creatine (CR, 4x5 g/day creatine monohydrate for 5 days) or placebo group (P, same dose of a dextrose-ascorbic acid placebo) in a double-blind research. Before and after CrS the average power output was determined by a Bosco-test and the swimming time was measured in two maximal 100 m fin swims. After five days of CrS the average power of one minute continuous rebound jumps increased by 20.2%. The lactate concentration was significantly less after 5 minutes restitution at the second measurement in both groups. The swimming time was significantly reduced in both first (pre: 50.69+/-1.41 s; post: 48.86+/-1.34 s) and second (pre: 50.39+/-1.38 s; post: 48.53+/-1.35 s) sessions of swimming in CR group, but remained almost unchanged in the P group.The results of this study indicate that five day Cr supplementation enhances the dynamic strength and may increase anaerobic metabolism in the lower extremity muscles, and improves performance in consecutive maximal swims in highly trained adolescent fin swimmers.

  10. Using testosterone and cortisol as biomarker for training individualization in elite basketball: a 4-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelling, Xavi; Calleja-González, Julio; Torres-Ronda, Lorena; Terrados, Nicolás

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the responses of testosterone and cortisol, with special reference to playing positions, playing time (PT), and phase of the season. We performed a follow-up study during 4 consecutive seasons to investigate the effects of PT, positional role, and phase of the season on anabolic-catabolic biomarkers (plasma total testosterone -TT- and cortisol -C-) on 20 professional male basketball players (27.0 ± 4.2 years; 24.4 ± 1.2 kg·m). First blood samples were collected right after the off-season period and considered as baseline. Samples were taken periodically every 4-6 weeks, always after a 24- to 36-hour break after the last game played. Statistical procedures were nonparametric mainly. Hormonal status was playing position-dependent, power forward (PF) showed the lowest TT values (median ± interquartile range [IQR]; PF: 18.1 ± 4.9; nmol·L), and small forwards showed the highest ones of cortisol (0.55 ± 0.118 μmol·L). Players who played between 13 and 25 minutes per game showed the highest values of TT (22.8 ± 6.9 nmol·L) and TT/C (47.1 ± 21.2). March and April showed the most catabolic or stressed hormonal state (low TT/C values and high ones of cortisol) and that is necessary to take into account according to PT (>25-minute per game) and specific playing position. Monitoring plasma TT and cortisol is recommended to prevent excessive stress caused by professional basketball season requirements.

  11. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF ELITE JUNIOR AUSTRALIAN RULES FOOTBALLERS DURING MATCH-PLAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P. Veale

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Australian Football (AF is Australia's major football code. Despite research in other football codes, to date, no data has been published on the physiological responses of AF players during match play. Fifteen athletes (17.28 ± 0.76 yrs participated in four pre-season matches, sanctioned by Australian Football League (AFL Victoria, investigating Heart Rate (HR, Blood Lactate (BLa, Core Temperature (Tcore, and Hydration status. Match HR was measured continuously using HR monitors. BLa was measured via finger prick lancet at the end of each quarter of play. Tcore was measured by use of ingestible temperature sensor and measured wirelessly at the end of each quarter of play. Hydration status was measured using refractometry, measuring urine specific gravity, and body weight pre and post-match. Environmental conditions were measured continuously during matches. Results of HR responses showed a high exertion of players in the 85-95% maximum HR range. Elevated mean BLa levels, compared to rest, were observed in all players over the duration of the matches (p = 0.007. Mean Tcore rose 0.68 °C between start and end of matches. Mean USG increased between 0.008 g/ml (p = 0.001 with mean body weight decreasing 1.88 kg (p = 0.001. This study illustrates physiological responses in junior AF players playing in the heat as well as providing physiological data for consideration by AF coaching staff when developing specific training programs. Continued research should consider physiological measurements under varying environments, and at all playing levels of AF, to ascertain full physiological responses during AF matches.

  12. The Effects of Individualized Resistance Strength Programs on Knee Muscular Imbalances in Junior Elite Soccer Players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Śliwowski

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a resistance training program on the muscular strength of soccer players' knees that initially presented unilateral and bilateral differences. For this study, a team of 24 male well-trained junior soccer players was divided into two strength program training groups: a Resistance Training Control Group (RTCG composed of 10 players that did not have muscular imbalances and a Resistance Training Experimental Group (RTEG composed of 14 players that had muscular imbalances. All players followed a resistance training program for six weeks, two times per week, during the transition period. The program of individualized strength training consisted of two parts. The first part, which was identical in terms of the choice of training loads, was intended for both training groups and contained two series of exercises including upper and lower body exercises. The second part of the program was intended only for RTEG and consisted of two additional series for the groups of muscles that had identified unilateral and bilateral differences. The applied program showed various directions in the isokinetic profile of changes. In the case of RTCG, the adaptations related mainly to the quadriceps muscle (the peak torque (PT change for the dominant leg was statistically significant (p < 0.05. There were statistically significant changes in RTEG (p < 0.05 related to PT for the hamstrings in both legs, which in turn resulted in an increase in the conventional hamstring/quadriceps ratio (H/Q. It is interesting that the statistically significant (p < 0.05 changes were noted only for the dominant leg. No statistically significant changes in bilateral differences (BD were noted in either group. These results indicate that individualized resistance training programs could provide additional benefits to traditional strength training protocols to improve muscular imbalances in post-adolescent soccer players.

  13. Impact of Fitness Characteristics on Tennis Performance in Elite Junior Tennis Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Alexander; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    The impact of fitness characteristics on tennis performance in adolescent players is not clearly understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test whether physical characteristics are related to players' competitive level (i.e., national youth ranking). A secondary aim was to compare adolescent tennis players by performance level (i.e., regional selected players and the national team). A total of 902 male and female junior players (aged, 11-16 years) in Germany were evaluated using a physical testing battery: grip strength; countermovement jump; 10 and 20-m sprint; tennis-specific sprint; overhead, forehand, and backhand medicine ball throws (MBT); serve velocity and tennis-specific endurance test (hit and turn tennis test). Results showed that serve velocity (r = -0.43 to 0.64 for female subjects [♀]; r = -0.33 to 0.49 for male subjects [♂]) and upper-body power (e.g., MBT r = -0.26 to -0.49 ♀; r = -0.20 to -0.49 ♂) were the most correlated predictors of tennis performance (i.e., national youth ranking) in both female and male tennis players. Moreover, national selected players showed better performance levels than their regional counterparts, mainly in the most predictive physical characteristics (i.e., serve velocity: effect size [ES], 0.78-1.04 ♀; ES 0.92-1.02 ♂, MBT: ES, 0.66-0.88 ♀; ES, 0.67-1.04 ♂) and specific endurance (ES, 0.05-0.95 ♀; ES, 0.31-0.73 ♂). The present findings underline the importance of certain physical attributes, especially serve velocity and strength- and power-related variables (upper body), and suggest the need to include these parameters in the area of training, physical testing, and talent identification of young tennis players.

  14. Salivary hormonal responses and performance changes during 15 weeks of mixed aerobic and weight training in elite junior wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passelergue, Philippe A; Lac, Gérard

    2012-11-01

    To prepare efficiently for competition, wrestlers usually train physically for a period of approximately 12-20 weeks. Numerous physical qualities must be developed during this period of preparation: aerobic fitness, maximal strength, muscular endurance, power, and speed. However, numerous studies have concluded that it is difficult to concurrently develop strength and aerobic fitness for several reasons, in particular antagonistic endocrine variations. The study involved 15 elite junior wrestlers who trained at a sports training school for 15 weeks. To investigate the effects of long-term training and to assess the relationships between hormonal concentrations (salivary testosterone [T] and cortisol [C]) and performance changes during simultaneous strength and aerobic fitness training, 6 saliva samples and 3 physical tests and 2 measures of body composition were made during the training period. Wrestlers had a significant increase (+1.5 kg) in body weight without changes in percentage body fat. Apart from the 20-m maximal shuttle speed, all performances increased significantly during the 15 weeks of training: maximum mechanical power output (Pmax: +12.8%), mean power during 30 seconds (Pmean: +10.8%), bench press (+5.7%), squat (+23.1%), power clean (+6.1%), time to 3,000- and 30-m sprints (-3.6, -1.3% respectively). During the period that the C increased, there was no significant variation for the T. The T/C ratio followed a variation pattern contrary to that of the C. We found strong correlations between salivary T, C, and T/C and the variation in explosive strength. Our results suggest that data about subjects' salivary C, T, and T/C may be employed to optimize the training process for sports people who need to develop strength and aerobic fitness simultaneously.

  15. Peculiarities of psychical stability among basketball players of different performance level

    OpenAIRE

    Malinauskas R.; Brusokas A.

    2010-01-01

    This article deals with questions of psychical stability among basketball players of different performance level. The research was carried out in two Lithuanian basketball leagues: Lithuanian Basketball League (elite division) and the Lithuanian student's basketball league. It was established statistically significant (p

  16. Monitoring performance, pituitary-adrenal hormones and mood profiles: how to diagnose non-functional over-reaching in male elite junior soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmikli, Sándor L; de Vries, Wouter R; Brink, Michel S; Backx, Frank Jg

    2012-11-01

    To verify if in male elite junior soccer players a minimum 1-month performance decrease is accompanied by a mood profile and hormone levels typical of non-functional over-reaching (NFOR). A prospective case-control study using a monthly performance monitor with a standardised field test to detect the performance changes. Players with a performance decrease lasting at least 1 month were compared with control players without a performance decrease on mood scores and pre-exercise and postexercise levels of stress hormones. Sporting field and sports medical laboratory. Ninety-four young elite soccer players were monitored during the 2006-2008 seasons. Twenty-one players were invited to the laboratory, seven of whom showed a significant performance decrease. Performance change over time, scores on the profile of mood states and premaximal and postmaximal exercise serum levels of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), growth hormone (GH) and cortisol. Players with a performance decrease showed psychological and hormonal changes typical of the non-functional state of over-reaching. Scores were higher on depression and anger, whereas the resting GH levels and ACTH levels after maximal exercise were reduced. ACTH and GH were capable of classifying all but one player correctly as either NFOR or control. Performance-related criteria in field tests are capable of identifying players with worsened mood and adaptations of the endocrine system that fit the definition of NFOR. Performance, mood and hormone levels may therefore be considered as valid instruments to diagnose NFOR in young elite soccer players.

  17. Basketball Bowling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabile, Chris; Cooper, Michael; Petrie, Heather

    2006-01-01

    Basketball bowling was developed after students in the authors' physical education class participated in a bowling unit sponsored through Bowl America. Basketball bowling is a lead-up activity for elementary-age students that incorporates basic skills from basketball and bowling. The general object of this activity is to be the first team to roll…

  18. Position-Dependent Cardiovascular Response and Time-Motion Analysis During Training Drills and Friendly Matches in Elite Male Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Ronda, Lorena; Ric, Angel; Llabres-Torres, Ivan; de Las Heras, Bernat; Schelling I Del Alcazar, Xavi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure differences in the cardiovascular workload (heart rate [HR]) and time-motion demands between positional groups, during numerous basketball training drills, and compare the results with in-game competition demands. A convenience sample of 14 top-level professional basketball players from the same club (Spanish First Division, ACB) participated in the study. A total of 146 basketball exercises per player (performed over an 8-week period in 32 team training sessions throughout the competitive season) and 7 friendly matches (FM) played during the preparatory phase were analyzed. The results reveal that HRavg and HRpeak were the highest in FM (158 ± 10; 198 ± 9 b · min(-1), respectively). Time-motion analysis showed 1v1 to be the most demanding drill (53 ± 8 and 46 ± 12 movements per minute for full and half court, respectively). During FM, players performed 33 ± 7 movements per minute. Positional differences exist for both HR and time-motion demands, ranging from moderate to very large for all basketball drills compared with FM. Constraints such as number of players, court size, work-to-rest ratios, and coach intervention are key factors influencing cardiovascular responses and time-motion demands during basketball training sessions. These results demonstrate that systematic monitoring of the physical demands and physiological responses during training and competition can inform and potentially improve coaching strategy, basketball-specific training drills, and ultimately, match performance.

  19. Effects of a 10-Week Nordic Hamstring Exercise and Russian Belt Training on Posterior Lower-Limb Muscle Strength in Elite Junior Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Ezequiel; Paz-Domínguez, Álvaro; Porcel-Almendral, David; Paredes-Hernández, Víctor; Barcala-Furelos, Roberto; Abelairas-Gómez, Cristian

    2017-05-01

    Rey, E, Paz-Domínguez, Á, Porcel-Almendral, D, Paredes-Hernández, V, Barcala-Furelos, R, and Abelairas-Gómez, C. Effects of a 10-week Nordic hamstring exercise and Russian belt training on posterior lower-limb muscle strength in elite junior soccer players. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1198-1205, 2017-The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of 2 eccentric hamstring training exercises, Nordic hamstring exercise (NHE) and Russian belt (RB), on lower-limb strength and bilateral asymmetry using the single-leg hamstring bridge (SLHB) test. Forty-seven elite junior soccer players (age 17.7 ± 0.5 years, height 175.3 ± 3.6 cm, body mass 68.1 ± 7.4 kg) were randomized into 1 of 3 groups, the NHE group (n = 16), RB group (n = 15), or the control group (CG) (n = 16). The eccentric training intervention consisted of 27 supervised training sessions over 10 weeks. Within-group analysis showed significant improvements (p < 0.001) in right SLHB (+25.52% for NHE and +18.33% for RB) and left SLHB (+28.92% for NHE and +20.08% for RB) from pretest to posttest in NHE and RB. However, no significant pre-post changes were observed for the CG in any variable. In addition, a significant time effect (p = 0.028) was also observed for NHE in bilateral asymmetry decreasing from pre- to posttest. In the between-groups analysis, significant better results were found in right SLHB and left SLHB, in the NHE group and RB group in comparison with CG. However, there were no differences between the eccentric training groups (NHE vs. RB). The RB seems to be a viable alternative to the NHE to developing posterior lower-limb muscle strength based on SLHB.

  20. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierike, S.C. te; Jong, M.C. de; Tromp, E.J.; Vuijk, P.J.; Lemmink, K.A.; Malina, R.M.; Elferink-Gemser, M.T.; Visscher, C.

    2013-01-01

    Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated in a mixed-longitudinal sample of 48 elite basketball players 14 to 19 years of age (16.1±1.7 years). Players were observed on six occasions during the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons. Three basketball-specific field tests were administe

  1. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen A.P.M. Lemmink; S.C. te Wierike; E.J. Tromp; M.T. Elferink-Gemser; M.C. de Jong; R.M. Malina; P.J. Vuijk; C. Visscher

    2013-01-01

    Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated in a mixed-longitudinal sample of 48 elite basketball players 14 to 19 years of age (16.1±1.7 years). Players were observed on six occasions during the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons. Three basketball-specific field tests were

  2. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koen A.P.M. Lemmink; S.C. te Wierike; E.J. Tromp; M.T. Elferink-Gemser; M.C. de Jong; R.M. Malina; P.J. Vuijk; C. Visscher

    2013-01-01

    Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated in a mixed-longitudinal sample of 48 elite basketball players 14 to 19 years of age (16.1±1.7 years). Players were observed on six occasions during the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 seasons. Three basketball-specific field tests were administe

  3. 基于多维焦虑理论的初中篮球队赛前心理训练探析%Analysis on junior high school basketball team Pre-competition Psychological Training Based on Multidimensional Anxiety Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋建海

    2013-01-01

    Every one sport athletes must have a good psychological quality, especially before the psychological quality, so mental training is particularly important in the team aspect. This paper focuses on junior high school basketball team made before the psychological research, from a cognitive state anxiety, somatic state anxiety and state anxiety and thorough self-confidence and how to control and regulate the athletes before the psychological, designed to provide some ideas and suggestions counterparts .%  每一项运动的运动员都必须要有良好的心理素质,特别是赛前心理素质,所以,心理训练是球队中尤为重要的一个环节。文章围绕初中篮球队队员赛前心理素质作了研究,从认知状态焦虑、躯体状态焦虑和自信心状态焦虑角度仔细探讨如何控制和调节运动员们赛前心理,旨在为同行提供一些思路和建议。

  4. Predicting higher selection in elite junior Australian Rules football: The influence of physical performance and anthropometric attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Sam; Woods, Carl; Gastin, Paul

    2015-09-01

    To develop a physiological performance and anthropometric attribute model to predict Australian Football League draft selection. Cross-sectional observational. Data was obtained (n=4902) from three Under-18 Australian football competitions between 2010 and 2013. Players were allocated into one of the three groups, based on their highest level of selection in their final year of junior football (Australian Football League Drafted, n=292; National Championship, n=293; State-level club, n=4317). Physiological performance (vertical jumps, agility, speed and running endurance) and anthropometric (body mass and height) data were obtained. Hedge's effect sizes were calculated to assess the influence of selection-level and competition on these physical attributes, with logistic regression models constructed to discriminate Australian Football League Drafted and National Championship players. Rule induction analysis was undertaken to determine a set of rules for discriminating selection-level. Effect size comparisons revealed a range of small to moderate differences between State-level club players and both other groups for all attributes, with trivial to small differences between Australian Football League Drafted and National Championship players noted. Logistic regression models showed multistage fitness test, height and 20 m sprint time as the most important attributes in predicting Draft success. Rule induction analysis showed that players displaying multistage fitness test scores of >14.01 and/or 20 m sprint times of football players being recruited to the highest level of the sport. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Psycho-physiological characteristics of female basketball players with hearing problems as the basis for the technical tactic training methodic in world level teams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhanneta Kozina; Irina Sobko; Tetiana Yermakova; Miroslawa Cieslicka; Walery Zukow; Michael Chia; Volodymyr Goncharenko; Olga Goncharenko; Vitalii Korobeinik

    2016-01-01

      Purpose: to work out and experimentally prove methodic of technical tactic training for elite female basketball players with hearing problems, considering their psycho-physiological characteristics. Material...

  6. Development of Expertise in Spanish Elite Basketball Coaches.(El desarrollo de la pericia en los entrenadores españoles expertos en baloncesto.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Jiménez Sáiz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe present study was designed to address two issues: first, to identify the different development stages that eight expert Spanish basketball coaches go through; and second, to determine the possible factors that have contributed to the formative or training, process of the expert coach. Qualitative data were gathered in semi-structured interviews. The coaches worked with the men’s first Spanish Basketball League (“ACB” league or the Spanish national selection. Our findings reveal four stages in the coach development process. These stages were the consequence mainly of a gradual progression in thinking and reflective practice that enabled the coach to optimize the necessary skills for high performance. In addition, all the coaches interviewed reflected an intense dedication and commitment over many years to their work, as well as an ongoing quest for improvement.ResumenEl presente estudio fue diseñado para hacer frente a dos cuestiones: en primer lugar, identificar las diferentes etapas formativas de ocho entrenadores expertos en baloncesto, y en segundo lugar, determinar los posibles factores que han contribuido a la formación del entrenador experto. La metodología utilizada es la cualitativa y la técnica de recogida de datos fue la entrevista semiestructurada. Los entrenadores entrevistados pertenecían a la liga ACB o a la selección nacional española. Nuestros resultados ponen de manifiesto cuatro etapas en el desarrollo de su pericia. Estas etapas son consecuencia principalmente de un desarrollo de su conocimiento, así como de una profunda reflexión práctica que permitió al entrenador optimizar las habilidades necesarias para trabajar en el alto rendimiento. Además, todos los entrenadores reflejan una intensa dedicación y compromiso durante muchos años hacia su trabajo, así como una búsqueda constante por mejorar.

  7. Physiological demands of basketball refereeing during international competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht, Anthony S

    2008-06-01

    To date, the physiological effects of elite competition on basketball players have been reported while very little information exists concerning the effects of elite competition on referees. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the physiological demands of basketball refereeing during international competition. Seven elite basketball referees volunteered for this study during a pre-Olympic women's basketball tournament. During each of the eight tournament matches, heart rate (HR), relative exercise intensity as a percentage of age-predicted maximum HR (HR(max)), proportion of match time within the ACSM-defined exercise intensity categories were recorded for each referee during each quarter of and the entire match. Comparisons between quarters for each variable were conducted using one-way ANOVAs. There were no significant differences between quarters for any variable. Referees, using a two-referee per match format, worked at an average HR of 150bpm (range 110-181bpm) for each quarter of the match, equating to a relative intensity of >70% HR(max) for the majority ( approximately 76%) of each quarter. Basketball refereeing during international competition results in significant physiological exertion at relatively high exercise intensities for Australian referees. Further studies will assist in the development of appropriate training programs for elite basketball referees to maintain and/or maximise performance.

  8. THE RELATION OF SOME MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS vs. MOTOR ABILITIES IN BASKETBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izedin Mehmeti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the present study was to give a try for clarifying if there is difference present and how the level of differences is in morphologic characteristics and motor abilities (basic and situational specific to basketball abilities between junior basketball club players and their peers –students from secondary high school and to examine some of the properties(causes reasons of the difference. According to the findings obtained from the research, there was not found any statistically significant difference between scores of the participant sample group (n=24 (young basketball players (12 vs high school students (12. Acoording to the study results obtained, basketball coaches should follow the new strategies and developments of modern basketball if they want to fulfill the goals and objectives of every single team. The lack of expertise and competencies of professional staff (coaches-trainers to fulfill their duties and responsibilities correctly is evident in Kosovo’s Junior Basketball League.

  9. Hip abduction weakness in elite junior footballers is common but easy to correct quickly: a prospective sports team cohort based study

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne Hamish R; Quinlan John F; Allison Garry T

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Hip abduction weakness has never been documented on a population basis as a common finding in a healthy group of athletes and would not normally be found in an elite adolescent athlete. This study aimed to show that hip abduction weakness not only occurs in this group but also is common and easy to correct with an unsupervised home based program. Methods A prospective sports team cohort based study was performed with thirty elite adolescent under-17 Australian Rules Footba...

  10. Basketball and Poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coy, John

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of the use of movement in writing classes focuses on a poetry class for eight- to twelve-year-olds that incorporated basketball. Describes listening to the sounds of basketball, recalling memories of basketball, breathing and movement, reading aloud to others, revisions, and public reading for families and friends. (LRW)

  11. Research on Ability of Elite Guards in the 29th Olympic Games Basketball Competition%第29届奥运会男篮比赛中外优秀后卫进攻能力比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹贻伟

    2011-01-01

    By the 29th Beijing Olympic Games men's basketball game in all the analysis data and field performance of the competition,summary and match the technical characteristics of guard members,combined with strong outside China Basketball weak in reality,to identify the Chinese Men's Basketball Guards and the gap between the world's best for the future training of our men's basketball reference offensive guard,and promote China Basketball Offensive Guard standards.%通过对第29届北京奥运会中国男篮参与的全部比赛的分析,根据比赛数据和现场表现,总结与赛队后卫队员的技术特征,结合中国男篮内强外弱的实际,找出中国男篮后卫与世界优秀后卫之间的差距,为今后我国男篮后卫的进攻训练提供参考,促进我国男篮后卫进攻水平的提高。

  12. The effects of a 6 week plyometric training programme on explosive strength and agility in professional basketball players

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Lehnert; Karel Hůlka; Tomáš Malý; Jaroslav Fohler; František Zahálka

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Explosive strength of the lower extremities and agility are important parts of game performance in basketball. Although numerous studies have focused on the assessment of the training effect of plyometric training, studies focusing on elite players are missing. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to find out what changes in explosive strength of the lower extremities take place after a 6 week plyometric training applied in training units during the pre-season in elite basketball p...

  13. Somatotype of elite Italian gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massidda, Myosotis; Toselli, Stefania; Brasili, Patricia; Calò, Carla M

    2013-09-01

    The somatotyping method is especially helpful in sports in which the body could directly influence the biomechanics of movements and the performance's results. The purpose of this study was to determine the somatotype of elite Italian gymnasts and to compare it in terms of competition levels. The sample comprised 64 elite gymnasts (42 females (F), somatotype 1.4-4.4-3.2; and 22 males (M), somatotype 1.6-6.3-2.1) belonging to the Italian National Artistic Gymnastic Team (2007) at different competition levels: Allieve, Junior, and Senior. Mean whole somatotypes, by competition levels, were not significantly different in both sexes (Female gymnasts: Allieve, 1.3-4.6-3.3; Junior, 1.3-4.2-3.6; Senior, 1.7-4.2-2.7; Male gymnasts: Junior, 1.5-6.3-2.5; Senior, 1.7-6.3-1.6). Male Junior gymnasts exhibited greater ectomorphy than Senior athletes (F1,20 = 7.75, p < 0.01). Compared to other elite athletes male and female gymnasts tend to be less endomorphic and more mesomorphic. This study highlighted the peculiarities of the somatotype of Italian elite gymnasts and their strong homogeneity, evident also from the low values of somatotype attitudinal mean (SAM). The results emphasize the need for a specific somatotype to reach an elite level in sport and the need to integrate the somatotype analysis between the scientific instruments for selecting talent also in artistic gymnastics.

  14. Investigation and analysis on sports injuries of youth women basketball athletes of Fujian province elite youth%福建省优秀青年女子篮球运动员运动损伤调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玉龙; 归予恒; 李长飞; 张立坤; 陈斌

    2015-01-01

    Purpose:This article in order to understand the incidence of sports injuries of elite young women bas -ketball players in Fujian Province , to Summarize characteristics and explore the preventive measures.Methods:re-cording the treatment of 16 Fujian Province young women basketball players after training in the infirmary from De-cember 2013 to 2014.Results: there are a total of 92 times damage in different degree in 13 athletes.The injury parts of different position players as follows , the knee joint movement of players in , center-forward, forward are (7 cases, 35 cases, 1 cases), ankle injury (2 cases, 9 cases, 3 cases), waist injury (guard 1 cases, center-forward 9 cases ), thigh injury ( 1 cases, 2 cases , 4 cases ), neck injury (center-forward 6 cases), back inju-ry (guard 1 cases, center-forward 5 cases ), 3 case of shoulder injury, 3 cases of calf injury.In sports injuries, chronic injuries (68 person-time) was more than acute injuries (24 person-time), and the injuries was mainly caused by old injury , sprain and strain.The injury rate in basketball training is the highest , which account for 83.7% is followed by competitions , account for 16.3%respectively.There are 5 major factors cause injury:injury with training , irregular actions , partial overload , body fatigue and inattention.Suggestion: according to damage characteristics of different position players , strengthening joint muscle strength training and proprioceptive sensory training, specification technology action , strengthening medical supervision and monitoring functions , using protec-tive gear reasonably , handling acute injuries correctly , improving self-protect consciousness etc.measures to pre-vent the occurrence of injuries.%目的:了解福建省优秀青年女子篮球运动员运动损伤发病情况,总结特点,探讨预防措施。方法:2013年12月至2014年12月,跟综记录16名福建省青年女篮运动员训练过程中的临床检查情况。结果:共13名

  15. Anthropometric Characteristics of Spanish Professional Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquera Alejandro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of elite basketball players’ anthropometric characteristics alongside those of body composition contributes significantly to their profiling as professional athletes and plays an important role in the selection process, as these characteristics can have a significant impact on performance. In the current study, 110 professional basketball players from a series of Spanish professional Leagues (ACB, LEB and EBA and youth level National Teams (U20 and U18 had their anthropometric profiles measured and compared to determine differences between them. Furthermore, all 110 players were divided into three different categories according to their playing position: guards, forwards and centres. The results obtained show no significant differences between players in different competitions in weight, height and the sum of skinfolds. Nonetheless, there were several differences related to body fat content (13.03% in ACB players and 10.52% in the lower categories and National Teams. There were also several differences found between the different playing positions amongst all playing levels in body mass (79.56 ± 2.41, 91.04 ± 1.51 and 104.56 ± 1.73 kg, height (182.28 ± 0.96, 195.65 ± 1.00 and 204.08 ± 0.67 cm, skinfold distribution and perimeters. However, there were no significant differences in body fat content between the different playing positions. The conclusions obtained from this study provide a better understanding to basketball specialists regarding the selection process of players at the elite level, especially on the transition from youth elite programs to men’s elite leagues.

  16. Analysis of the World Championships men’s basketball (2002 and 2006. Differences between players with different levels of experience (senior and junior Análisis de los campeonatos del mundo de baloncesto masculino (2002 y 2006. Diferencias entre jugadores con diferentes niveles de experiencia (sénior y júnior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cañadas

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The purpose of this study was to identify the differences between junior and senior players. Game-related statistics were used to identify the game actions that discriminated between both levels. Archival data were obtained from the FIBA website. For the analysis, senior´s games from 2002 (n=62 y 2006 (n=74 and junior´s games from 2002 (n=64 y 2006 (n=64 World Championship were used. The game-related statistics gathered included 1-, 2- and 3-points field-goals (both successful and unsuccessful, defensive and offensive rebounds, assist, fouls and turnovers The secondary variables team possession and Offensive Rating. Discriminant analysis was performed to judge which game-related statistics were more useful to discriminate between levels of competition. Men´s teams were discriminated from junior´s by their higher number of assist and 3-point successful field-goals. Junior´s teams were discriminated from senior´s by their higher number of turnovers and defensive rebounds.
    Key Words:
    game-analysis, experience, basketball, discriminant analysis

    El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar las diferencias en el juego entre jugadores junior y sénior. Se utilizaron las estadísticas de juego para identificar las acciones de juego que discriminaban entre categoría junior y sénior. Los datos del estudio fueron obtenidos de la página web de la FIBA. La muestra estuvo compuesta por los partidos sénior masculino 2002 (n=62 y 2006 (n=74 y junior masculino 2002 (n=64 y 2006 (n=64. Las estadísticas de juego incluyeron los lanzamientos de 1, 2 y 3 puntos anotados y fallados, los rebotes defensivos y ofensivos, las asistencias, las faltas personales y las pérdidas de balón. A partir de estas variables primarias se obtuvieron las variables secundarias, posesiones de balón y Coeficiente de Eficacia Ofensiva. El análisis discriminante fue

  17. Epidemiology of concussion in men's elite Rugby-7s (Sevens World Series) and Rugby-15s (Rugby World Cup, Junior World Championship and Rugby Trophy, Pacific Nations Cup and English Premiership).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Colin W; Taylor, Aileen; Raftery, Martin

    2015-04-01

    To determine the incidence, nature and causes of concussions sustained during men's elite professional Rugby-7s and Rugby-15s. A prospective cohort study recording injuries classified as a time-loss concussion. Players competing in the following tournaments: Rugby 15s-English Premiership (2007/2008 to 2010/2011), Rugby World Cup (2007, 2011), Pacific Nations Cup (2012, 2013), Junior World Championship (2008, 2010-2013), Junior World Rugby Trophy (2008, 2010-2013); Rugby 7s-Sevens World Series (2008/2009, 2010/2011 to 2012/2013). The study was implemented according to the international consensus statement for epidemiological studies in rugby union; the main outcome measures included the number, incidence (number of concussions/1000 player-match-hours), mean and median severity (days absence) and cause of concussion. The incidence of concussion in Rugby-7s was significantly higher than that in Rugby-15s (risk ratio=1.84; pRugby-7s than Rugby-15s (mean-Rugby-7s: 19.2, Rugby-15s: 10.1; median-Rugby 7s: 20, Rugby-15s: 7; pRugby-7s and collisions (43.6%) in Rugby-15s. Significantly more (risk ratio=1.49; p=0.004) concussed players were removed immediately from the game in Rugby-7s (69.7%) compared to Rugby-15s (46.7%). Six actions were identified to improve the management of concussion in rugby: implement a pitch-side concussion assessment protocol; improve compliance with return-to-play protocols; work with referees to review the nature and consequences of collisions; improve players' tackle technique; investigate the forces involved in tackles and collisions; and evaluate reasons for the higher incidence of concussions in Rugby-7s. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Differences in the Dominant and Non-Dominant Knee Valgus Angle in Junior Elite and Amateur Soccer Players after Unilateral Landing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Ludwig

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available More than 70% of all knee injuries in soccer occur in non-contact situations. It is known that increased lower limb dynamic knee valgus is associated with such situations. Little has been found out about differences in knee kinematics of the dominant (kicking and non-dominant (supporting leg during a single leg landing. A total of 114 male adolescent soccer players (age 14.6 ± 1.1 years from elite (N = 66 and amateur soccer clubs (N = 48 performed a single leg drop landing down from a box. For each leg, the two-dimensional dynamic knee valgus angle (DKVA was calculated. Paired t-tests were used to statistically determine significant differences between dominant and non-dominant leg DKVA, and t-tests were calculated between the two performance groups. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05 were identified for the DKVA between the dominant and non-dominant leg for both amateur and elite players, showing a greater DKVA for the dominant leg. Group differences for the DKVA between amateur and elite players were not found, neither for the dominant, nor for the non-dominant leg. It can be concluded that the non-dominant leg showed more stable dynamics than the dominant leg during unilateral landing regardless of the player’s performance level. This could be due to adaptions to sport-specific requirements. Therefore, it is recommended that programs to prevent knee injuries among soccer players consider the dynamics of each leg individually.

  19. Effectiveness of a low-frequency sports-specific resistance and plyometric training programme: the case of an elite junior badminton player

    OpenAIRE

    Middleton, Geoff; Bishop, Daniel; Smith, Chris; Gee, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This intervention aimed to improve Badminton-specific functional performance of an elite under-19 player (18 years) via a single-weekly resistance and plyometric training (RPT) session for 8-weeks. The athlete’s ‘response-to’ and ‘withdrawal-from’ the RPT were assessed. The athlete (stature: 1.77 m, mass: 81.5 kg) completed the RPT intervention throughout a competitive season. Performance testing was conducted at; baseline, post-intervention (8-weeks) and after withdrawal-from the RP...

  20. Injuries in women's basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trojian, Thomas H; Ragle, Rosemary B

    2008-03-01

    Women's basketball has changed over time. It is a faster paced game than it was 30 years ago. Greatplayers, like Anne Meyers,who was the first, and only, woman to be signed to an NBA contract, would agree today's game is different. The game is played mostly "below the rim" but with players like Candice Parker, Sylvia Fowles and Maya Moore able to dunk the ball, the game is still changing. The one thing that remains constant in basketball, especially women's basketball, is injury. The majority of injuries in women's basketball are similar to those in men's basketball. Studies at the high school and college level show similar injury rates between women and men. ACL injuries are one exception, with female athletes having atwo to four times higher rate ofACL injuries. In this article, we review the common injuries in women's basketball. We discuss treatment issues and possible preventive measures.

  1. Hip abduction weakness in elite junior footballers is common but easy to correct quickly: a prospective sports team cohort based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osborne Hamish R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip abduction weakness has never been documented on a population basis as a common finding in a healthy group of athletes and would not normally be found in an elite adolescent athlete. This study aimed to show that hip abduction weakness not only occurs in this group but also is common and easy to correct with an unsupervised home based program. Methods A prospective sports team cohort based study was performed with thirty elite adolescent under-17 Australian Rules Footballers in the Australian Institute of Sport/Australian Football League Under-17 training academy. The players had their hip abduction performance assessed and were then instructed in a hip abduction muscle training exercise. This was performed on a daily basis for two months and then they were reassessed. Results The results showed 14 of 28 athletes who completed the protocol had marked weakness or a side-to-side difference of more than 25% at baseline. Two months later ten players recorded an improvement of ≥ 80% in their recorded scores. The mean muscle performance on the right side improved from 151 Newton (N to 202 N (p Conclusions The baseline values show widespread profound deficiencies in hip abduction performance not previously reported. Very large performance increases can be achieved, unsupervised, in a short period of time to potentially allow large clinically significant gains. This assessment should be an integral part of preparticipation screening and assessed in those with lower limb injuries. This particular exercise should be used clinically and more research is needed to determine its injury prevention and performance enhancement implications.

  2. Physics of basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancazio, Peter J.

    1981-04-01

    Does a knowledge of physics help to improve one's basketball skills? Several applications of physical principles to the game of basketball are examined. The kinematics of a basketball shot is studied, and criteria are established for determining the best shooting angle at any given distance from the basket. It is found that there is an optimum shooting angle which requires the smallest launching force and provides the greatest margin for error. Some simple classroom illustrations of Newtonian mechanics based on basketball are also suggested.

  3. Rehabilitation of basketball injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malanga, Gerard A; Chimes, Gary P

    2006-08-01

    Basketball is one of the most popular sports in the United States and throughout the world, and therefore represents one of the most common sources of sports-related injuries. Basketball injuries should be managed by the same general rehabilitation principles as other sports injuries. Additionally, the clinician should be aware not only of general sports injuries but of those injuries most commonly seen in basketball players. By maintaining knowledge of the most common basketball injuries as well as their diagnosis and treatment, the clinician can help to optimize the athlete's return to play and enjoyment of the sport.

  4. Physical and physiological demands of U-19 basketball refereeing: Aerobic and anaerobic demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabli, Mohamed Ali; Ben Abdelkrim, Nidhal; Castagna, Carlo; Jabri, Imed; Batikh, Tahar; Chamari, Karim

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the physical and physiological demands of basketball refereeing. 16 elite-level basketball referees were studied during U-19 basketball games (n=8) for time-motion analyses, exercise heart rates (HR) and blood lactate concentration [La]. Game activities were considered as time spent and distance covered in five locomotors activities (standing, walking, jogging, running and sprinting). Referees spent more time (pReferees covered more distance (pbasketball refereeing is a moderate intensity activity where referees spent 81% of total game time at low-intensity with bouts of high-intensity activities throughout the game.

  5. Special Basketball Player

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Li Qing, the Beijing Mentally Challcngcd Basketball Tcam guard, plays under the same number as NBA star Kobe - eight. Li and his team enjoy their lives to the full, particularly playing basketball. Their favorite topics of conversation are computer games and NBA stars. Studying and playing basketball are the epicenter of Li Qing’s life. At the training ground, a two hour drive from his home, demands on Li and the rest of the team are as strict as for any sports team. The

  6. ANTHROPOLOGICAL PROFILE OF BASKETBALL REFEREES

    OpenAIRE

    Rupčić, Tomislav; Matković, Bojan; Knjaz, Damir

    2010-01-01

    Basketball is a very complex and dynamic sport activity characterized by qiuck and frequent exchanges of attack and defensive actions. Both the players and the referees make the integral part of the basketball game, and in the final result of a basketball match their role is of great importance, sometimes even decisive. The purpose of this research is to identify the anthropological profile of the best Croatian basketball referees. The examinees sample group consisted ...

  7. Vitamin D Deficiency Among Professional Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Matthew P; Lombardo, Stephen J; Kharrazi, F Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin D plays an important role in several systems of the human body. Various studies have linked vitamin D deficiency to stress and insufficiency fractures, muscle recovery and function, and athletic performance. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in the elite athletic population has not been extensively studied, and very few reports exist among professional athletes. There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency among players attending the National Basketball Association (NBA) Combine. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. This is a retrospective review of data previously collected as part of the routine medical evaluation of players in the NBA Combines from 2009 through 2013. Player parameters evaluated were height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and vitamin D level. Statistical analysis using t tests and analysis of variance was used to detect any correlation between the player parameters and vitamin D level. Vitamin D levels were categorized as deficient (32 ng/mL). After institutional review board approval was submitted to the NBA, the NBA released deidentified data on 279 players who participated in the combines from 2009 through 2013. There were 90 players (32.3%) who were deficient, 131 players (47.0%) who were insufficient, and 58 players (20.8%) who were sufficient. A total of 221 players (79.3%) were either vitamin D deficient or insufficient. Among all players included, the average vitamin D level was 25.6 ± 10.2 ng/mL. Among the players who were deficient, insufficient, and sufficient, the average vitamin D levels were 16.1 ± 2.1 ng/mL, 25.0 ± 3.4 ng/mL, and 41.6 ± 8.6 ng/mL, respectively. Player height and weight were significantly increased in vitamin D-sufficient players compared with players who were not sufficient (P = .0008 and .009, respectively). Player age and BMI did not significantly differ depending on vitamin D status (P = .15 and .77, respectively). There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency

  8. Optimal Strategy in Basketball

    CERN Document Server

    Skinner, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This book chapter reviews some of the major principles associated with optimal strategy in basketball. In particular, we consider the principles of allocative efficiency (optimal allocation of shots between offensive options), dynamic efficiency (optimal shot selection in the face of pressure from the shot clock), and the risk/reward tradeoff (strategic manipulation of outcome variance). For each principle, we provide a simple example of a strategic problem and show how it can be described analytically. We then review general analytical results and provide an overview of existing statistical studies. A number of open challenges in basketball analysis are highlighted.

  9. Basketballs and Mortarboards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flygare, Thomas J.

    1985-01-01

    Considers two lost court suits: in one, a basketball referee was sued for a "bad" call that led to a loss by the team promoted on the litigant's merchandise; in the other, a university was sued for permitting graduating students to throw their mortarboards, one of which injured the litigant. (PGD)

  10. Low seroprevalence of bartonella species in danish elite orienteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiellerup, Peter; Dyhr, Thomas; Rolain, Jean Marc

    2004-01-01

    seropositive compared to controls. The aim of our study, designed as a case-control study, was to determine whether similarly high rates of B. elizabethae seropositivity were present among Danish elite orienteers. Cases were 43 elite orienteers; controls were 159 blood donors and 63 elite indoor sportsmen. All...... participants were tested for antibodies against B. henselae, B. quintana and B. elizabethae using immunofluorescent antibody tests. Surprisingly, Bartonella antibodies were only detected in sera from 5 persons: B. henselae from 1 elite orienteer, 1 handball player and 1 blood donor. B. elizabethae antibodies...... were detected in 1 handball player and 1 basketball player. We found no association between elite orienteers and the prevalence of Bartonella antibody positivity. This is in contrast to the Swedish study, and might be explained by the use of different serological methods in the 2 studies; to determine...

  11. Concussions in wheelchair basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Karla K; Broglio, Steven P; Sosnoff, Jacob J

    2012-02-01

    To estimate the incidence rate of concussions in wheelchair basketball. Survey. Wheelchair basketball tournaments during the 2009 to 2010 season. Wheelchair basketball players (N=263) ranging in age from 18 to 60 years. Not applicable. Participants completed a survey on their concussion history including how many concussions they have sustained, how many days they refrained from physical activity because of injury, to whom they reported their injury, and reasons for not reporting an injury if they did not. Participants also provided demographic information about their disability, age, sex, and length of wheelchair use and sports participation. Within the sample of 263 wheelchair basketball players, 6.1% reported experiencing a concussion in the current season. Of those experiencing concussions during the current season, 44% did not report their concussion. Of those not reporting the incident, 67% did not because they did not want to be removed from physical activity. Analysis by sex indicated that 5.82% of the male athletes sustained a concussion during the current season, and 14.36% had sustained an injury during their athletic career. Female athletes, however, sustained concussions at a higher rate, with 6.67% having concussions during the current season and 30.6% during their athletic careers. Women were also 2.5 times more likely to sustain a concussion than men. Athletes were most likely to report their concussion to their coach (60% of concussed athletes). The current investigation was consistent with previous research in that women were more likely to sustain a concussion than men, and injury rates were similar to those in able-bodied basketball. Further work is needed in concussion assessment in persons with disability, as well as greater education concerning concussion in disability sports. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. THE STRUCTURE OF MOTOR ABILITIES IN BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Kocić

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of basketball game, just like up-to-date sports results represent the stimulus for further fundamental researches in the aim of improvement scientific and methodological basis of a training work and all other factors connected to the improvement of a training process and top sports creativity. The research was conducted with the aim to determine the specifics of motor abilities in basketball players of the junior rank of competition. All the examinees were male, 16 (+/-6 months years old, 132 in total, all of them were basketball players of the basketball club ”Student” from Nis. The batery of tests for the evaluation of motor abilities included tests for the evaluation of coordination, strength (explosive, repetitive and static, flexibility and stamina and it consisted of 13 motor tests in total. The gained results were processed by the program system for multivariant analysis of data, especially made by Popovic D. for personal computers. The gained results are shown in tables and they give insight into the structure of latent dimensions of basketball players. The motor structure of basketball players is explained by 72.3% of common variance. From the matrix of intercorrelations, four main components were gained. The fist defines tests of static strength, flexibility and repetitive strength; the second is saturated by the test for the evaluation of explosive strength, balance and two tests for the evaluation of repetitive strength. The third is the best explained by the test for the evaluation of balance, flexibility and coordination. The fourth main component is defined by explosive strength. Then, the rotation of components into the oblimin solution is conducted and some better structure of latent dimensions is gained that way. In basketball and other popular sports games in our country, scientific and expert methods and possibilities of scientific fundation of the trainig work are very slowly but surely accepted.The trend

  13. The basketball problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröer, H.

    In basketball there is the problem of hitting a basket at a determined distance and a determined height. The quantities that can be changed during the inclined throw are the initial velocity and the angle of throw. At first we neglect the air resistance. Then we treat the same problem in a medium (liquid, gas) with constant density. We obtain two differential equations. Then we view special cases of the retarding force. There is an english and a german edition.

  14. Teaching Physics with Basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanpichai, N.; Wattanakasiwich, P.

    2010-07-01

    Recently, technologies and computer takes important roles in learning and teaching, including physics. Advance in technologies can help us better relating physics taught in the classroom to the real world. In this study, we developed a module on teaching a projectile motion through shooting a basketball. Students learned about physics of projectile motion, and then they took videos of their classmates shooting a basketball by using the high speed camera. Then they analyzed videos by using Tracker, a video analysis and modeling tool. While working with Tracker, students learned about the relationships between three kinematics graphs. Moreover, they learned about a real projectile motion (with an air resistance) through modeling tools. Students' abilities to interpret kinematics graphs were investigated before and after the instruction by using the Test of Understanding Graphs in Kinematics (TUG-K). The maximum normalized gain or is 0.77, which indicated students' improvement in determining displacement from the velocity-time graph. The minimum is 0.20, which indicated that most students still have difficulties interpreting the change in velocity from the acceleration-time graph. Results from evaluation questionnaires revealed that students also satisfied with the instructions that related physics contents to shooting basketball.

  15. Risk factors for patellar tendinopathy in basketball and volleyball players: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Worp, H; van Ark, M; Zwerver, J; van den Akker-Scheek, I

    2012-12-01

    Patellar tendinopathy (PT) has a multifactorial etiology, and many possible risk factors have been described in the literature. The findings are conflicting, though, and most research has been conducted on elite athletes. The aim of the current study is to determine the risk factors for PT in a large representative sample of basketball and volleyball players. Separate risk factors for men and women, basketball and volleyball players, and athletes with unilateral and bilateral PT were identified. All basketball and volleyball players between ages 18 and 35 from the Dutch Basketball Association and the Dutch Volleyball Association were invited to complete an online questionnaire on knee complaints and risk factors for PT. The logistic regression analyses included 2224 subjects. The risk factors for PT were age, playing at the national level, being male and playing volleyball (compared with playing basketball). The risk factors for men and women were comparable. Among volleyball players, outside hitters and middle blockers/hitters had an increased risk compared with setters. For basketball players, no risk factors could be identified. No differences in the risk factors were found between athletes with unilateral and bilateral PT. These findings should be taken into account for prevention and rehabilitation purposes. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. The Influence of Whole-Body Vibration on Creatine Kinase Activity and Jumping Performance in Young Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachina, Rafael; da Silva, Antônio; Falcão, William; Montagner, Paulo; Borin, João; Minozzo, Fábio; Falcão, Diego; Vancini, Rodrigo; Poston, Brach; de Lira, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify creatine kinase (CK) activity changes across time following an acute bout of whole-body vibration (WBV) and determine the association between changes in CK activity and jumping performance. Method: Twenty-six elite young basketball players were assigned to 3 groups: 36-Hz and 46-Hz vibration groups (G36 and G46, respectively)…

  17. Basketball Game as Psychology Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyson, James A.; Blick, Kenneth A.

    1985-01-01

    To help undergraduate psychology students learn basic concepts in the experimental method, a basketball game is construed as a psychology experiment. Although no formal evaluation of the effectiveness of the basketball analogy as a learning device was conducted, students responded favorably. (RM)

  18. Análisis de la capacidad de salto antes, durante y después de la competición en jugadores internacionales junior de baloncesto. (Analysis of jumping capacity before, during and after competition in international junior basketball players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime San Román Quintana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Resumen El objetivo de este estudio fue valorar la disminución de la altura de salto en el test CMJ antes, durante y después de la competición en nueve jóvenes jugadores internacionales de baloncesto. Del mismo modo, se analizó la relación entre los minutos que cada jugador permanecía en cancha y la disminución de la capacidad de salto. Para ello, se evaluó la altura de salto mediante el CMJ en 8 momentos diferentes (antes y después del calentamiento, durante el descanso, inmediatamente después del partido y en los minutos 1’, 3’, 5’ y 7’ tras la finalización del encuentro utilizando una plataforma de contacto. Para estimar la presencia de diferencias significativas entre los momentos se utilizó el análisis de la varianza (ANOVA de una cola. Los resultados demuestran que la capacidad de salto empeoró progresivamente durante la competición (F = 89.29, p = 0, descendiendo durante el descanso de 52.7 cm a 50.2 cm (p abstract The main aim of this study was to assess the decrease in jump height in CMJ test before, during and after competition in international youth basketball. Equally, we examined the relationship between minutes played and the decline in jump capacity during the course of the match. To do this, we evaluated the jump height in CMJ by eight different times (before and after warm up, at rest, immediately after the game and within minutes 1', 3', 5 'and 7' after completion of the competition using a contact platform. To estimate the presence of significant differences between the times we used a one – way analysis of variance (ANOVA. The results showed, that the jumping capacity decreased during competition (F = 89.29, p = 0, decrease during the rest of 52.7 cm to 50.2 cm (p

  19. Competitive warm-up in basketball: literature review and proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Berdejo-del-Fresno

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Warm-up is used, accepted and performed by every participant before practising any sport. Warm-up is also considered by most sportmen as fundamental to achieve optimal performance. However, there is little scientific evidence supporting its effectiveness. This lack of evidence, together with the diversity of sports, requires the standardisation of common warm-up patterns for each sport activity. As elite basketball is concerned, a large scientific gap has been found, which the present article will attempt to fill in. Therefore, the objectives of this paper are: first, conducting a literature review on all aspects of warm-up, i.e. warm-up definition, warm up types, warm-up benefits, warm-up structure (intensity, duration, recovery and specificity, influential factors, as well as what kind of stretching must be included in the warm-up; and secondly, from the conclusions obtained,  describing and proposing a methodology which is adapted to competitive warm-up for high-level basketball, so this methodology serves as a justified reference guide when going through the pre-game phase.Key Words: static stretching, dynamic stretching, generic warm-up, specific warm-up, basketball.

  20. Investigation of Management Models in Elite Athlete Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shen-Kai; Cheng, Yun-Min; Huang, Peng-Ju; Chou, Pei-Hsi; Lin, Yen-chung; Hong, Yu-Jue

    2005-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated management models among elite athletes participating in sports including baseball, basketball, soccer, volleyball, tennis, softball, football, handball, track and field, swimming, judo, tae-kwon-do, gymnastics, archery, and weight lifting at the Tsoying National Sport Training Center. Data were collected by questionnaire. Of the 393 athletes investigated, 56% were male and 44% were female, with an average age of 20.9 years and average length of athletic...

  1. Basketball injuries in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaca, Ana Maria [Duke University Health Systems, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); McGovern-Davison Children' s Health Center, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States)

    2009-12-15

    Basketball is a popular, worldwide sport played outdoors and indoors year-round. Patterns of injury are related to abrupt changes in the athlete's direction, jumping, contact between athletes, the hard playing surface and paucity of protective equipment. Intensity of play and training in the quest of scholarships and professional careers is believed to contribute to an increasing occurrence of injury. Radiologists' appreciation of the breadth of injury and its relation to imaging and clinical findings should enhance the care of these children. Some of the patterns of injury are well known to radiologists but vary due to age- and size-related changes; the growing skeleton is affected by differing susceptibilities from biomechanical stresses at different sizes. Beyond screening radiographs, the accuracy of MRI and CT has improved diagnosis and treatment plans in this realm. Investigations to detect symptoms and signs in an attempt to prevent the tragedy of sudden cardiac death in basketball players may lead to MRI and CTA studies that compel radiologists to evaluate cardiac function along with myocardial and coronary artery anatomy. Worthy of mention also is the female athlete triad of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis that is observed in some young women participating in this and other sports. (orig.)

  2. Fragile Elite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbæk, Susanne

    in China. It uncovers the intimate psychological strains students suffer under the pressure imposed on them by parents and state, where the state acts as a parent, and the parents sometimes reinforce the state. The book offers insights into the intergenerational tensions as work in relation to the ongoing......China's One Child Policy and its rigorous national focus on educational testing are well known. But what happens to those "lucky" few at the very top of the pyramid? Fragile Elite explores the contradictions of being an elite student through ethnographic research conducted at two top universities...... shifts in educational policy and definition of what a "quality" student, child, and citizen is in contemporary China....

  3. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Wierike, Sanne C M; de Jong, Mark C; Tromp, Eveline J Y; Vuijk, Pieter J; Lemmink, Koen A P M; Malina, Robert M; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris

    2014-04-01

    Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated in a mixed-longitudinal sample of 48 elite basketball players 14-19 years of age (16.1 ± 1.7 years). Players were observed on 6 occasions during the 2008-09 and 2009-10 seasons. Three following basketball-specific field tests were administered on each occasion: the shuttle sprint test for RSA, the vertical jump for lower body explosive strength (power), and the interval shuttle run test for interval endurance capacity. Height and weight were measured; body composition was estimated (percent fat, lean body mass). Multilevel modeling of RSA development curve was used with 32 players (16.0 ± 1.7 years) who had 2 or more observations. The 16 players (16.1 ± 1.8 years) measured on only 1 occasion were used as a control group to evaluate the appropriateness of the model. Age, lower body explosive strength, and interval endurance capacity significantly contributed to RSA (p ≤ 0.05). Repeated sprint ability improved with age from 14 to 17 years (p ≤ 0.05) and reached a plateau at 17-19 years. Predicted RSA did not significantly differ from measured RSA in the control group (p ≥ 0.05). The results suggest a potentially important role for the training of lower body explosive strength and interval endurance capacity in the development of RSA among youth basketball players. Age-specific reference values for RSA of youth players may assist basketball coaches in setting appropriate goals for individual players.

  4. Sex differences in cardiovascular demands of refereeing during international basketball competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquera, Alejandro; Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Calleja-González, Julio; Leicht, Anthony S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of sex on cardiovascular responses of referees during elite international basketball competition. Twenty-seven elite referees (9 female; 18 male) officiated a random sample of 18 matches during the final round of the 2013 Women's Eurobasket Championship. Continuous recordings of referees' heart rate (HR) during matches were obtained and analyzed for average HR, relative exercise intensity (% maximum HR, HRmax) and proportion of time spent within different exercise-intensity categories. During the championship, the average match HR was >150 bpm and approximated an exercise intensity of >85% HRmax for referees. Female referees exhibited lower average match HR (156.8 ± 10.2 vs. 163.6 ± 11.6 bpm, preferees. Referees spent most (>70%) of each match at a HR intensity of 70-89% HRmax with females experiencing more match time within the 55-69% HRmax category compared to males. Average HR and exercise intensity was greatest for all referees during the early part of the match (Quarter 1) that declined over the match. This study has demonstrated that sex significantly influences cardiovascular responses for elite basketball referees with lower responses for females potentially reflective of different movement patterns. Reductions in cardiovascular response noted during matches for all referees may reflect alterations in metabolism, match activities or induction of fatigue that should be considered in the development and training of elite referees for optimal match performance.

  5. Expo Junior

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2014-01-01

    Fort de son succès Expo Juniors revient du 22 au 23 novembre 2014 - Papa & Maman Noël seront présents ! Nous avons le plaisir de  proposer à nos membres des billets d'entrées  à un tarif préférentiel, au prix de CHF 10.- l'unité au lieu de CHF 18.- (gratuit pour les enfants de 0 à 4 ans). Des centaines d’ateliers répartis en 3 villages : Sports & Loisirs, Jeux & Jouets, Éducation & Vie pratique. Cet événement propose aux familles aussi d'autres thèmes : tourisme, idées cadeaux, mode, bien-être, beauté, décoration, ainsi que des services destinés aux familles. Parades, attractions, castings, défilés de mode, dédicaces, séances photos avec Papa Noël, ainsi que de nombre...

  6. Basketballs as spherical acoustic cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Daniel A.

    2010-06-01

    The sound field resulting from striking a basketball is found to be rich in frequency content, with over 50 partials in the frequency range of 0-12 kHz. The frequencies are found to closely match theoretical expectations for standing wave patterns inside a spherical cavity. Because of the degenerate nature of the mode shapes, explicit identification of the modes is not possible without internal investigation with a microphone probe. A basketball proves to be an interesting application of a boundary value problem involving spherical coordinates.

  7. Factors associated with deep tissue injury in male wheelchair basketball players of a Japanese national team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Mutsuzaki

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of the sporting activity of elite athletes in adapted sports can be difficult if a secondary disorder, such as a pressure ulcer, occurs. Pressure ulcers result from deep tissue injuries by external pressure. The purpose of this study was to use ultrasonography to investigate deep tissue injuries in male wheelchair basketball players of a Japanese national team, and to determine factors associated with the injuries (e.g., body mass index, class of wheelchair basketball, underlying disease, length of athletic career, and whether use of wheelchair is primarily for playing basketball. Twenty male Japanese wheelchair basketball players on the national team for the 2012 London Paralympic Games (12 representative players and eight candidate representative players participated in this study. The sacral region and bilateral ischial regions in each athlete were examined by ultrasonography to detect low-echoic lesions indicative of deep tissue injuries. Nine (45% players had low-echoic lesions, which were detected in 10 of 60 areas. Eight lesions were detected in the sacral region and two lesions were detected in the ischial region. More players with spinal cord injury had low-echoic lesions [9 (69.2% of 13 players], compared to players with skeletal system disease [0 (0% of 7 players, p = 0.002]. Players who used a wheelchair in daily life were more likely to have low-echoic lesions [8 (66.74% of 12 players], compared to players who primarily used a wheelchair for playing basketball [1 (12.5% of 8 players, p = 0.010]. Deep tissue injuries were detected in 45% of male Japanese wheelchair basketball players on the national team. Players with spinal cord injury and players who used a wheelchair in daily life were more likely to have deep tissue injuries, particularly in the sacral region. The lesions were small, but a periodic medical check should be performed to maintain athletes' sporting life.

  8. Physiological testing of basketball players: toward a standard evaluation of anaerobic fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delextrat, Anne; Cohen, Daniel

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether the changes in the rules of the game instituted in 2000 have modified the physiological factors of success in basketball. The performances of 8 elite male players and 8 average-level players were compared in order to identify which components of fitness among agility, speed, anaerobic power, anaerobic capacity, and upper body strength were key determinants of performance in modern basketball. Each subject performed 7 tests, including vertical jump (VJ), 20-m sprint, agility T test, suicide sprint, 30-second Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), isokinetic testing of the knee extensors, and 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press test. The statistical difference in the anaerobic performances was assessed by Student's t test. The main results showed that, compared to average-level players, elite-level players achieved significantly better performances in the agility T test (+6.2%), VJ test (+8.8%), peak torques developed by knee extensors (+20.2%), and 1RM bench press (+18.6%, p 0.05). These results emphasized the importance of anaerobic power in modern basketball, whereas anaerobic capacity does not seem to be a key aspect to consider. In this context, coaches are advised to avoid using exercises lasting >/=30 seconds in their physical fitness programs, but instead to focus on short and intense tests such as VJ, agility T test, and sprints over very short distances (5 or 10 m).

  9. Physiologic Limits of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Elite Junior Football Athletes%青少年足球运动员左室肥厚的生理极限研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯爱民

    2014-01-01

    Objectives:This study was undertaken to define physiologic limits of left ventricular hypertrophy in elite football athletes. Methods: 60 elite football athletes and 60 healthy sedentary controls and 40 sundry items of similar age and gender underwent echocardiography. Results:Compared with controls, football athletes had greater absolute LVWT (9.5±1.7mm vs. 8.4±1.4mm;). Maximal LVWT exceeded predicted upper limits in 5 athletes (8.3%);however, only one trained male athletes had absolute LVWT>12 mm (1.7%). Each of the 5 athletes with a LVWT exceeding predicted limits also showed enlarged left ventricular cavity dimension (54.4±2.1 mm;range 52 to 60 mm). Female athlete had a LVWT>11 mm. Conclusions:Trained adolescent football athletes demonstrated greater absolute LVWT compared with nonathletes. Only a small proportion of athletes exhibited a LVWT exceeding upper limits, very rarely>12 mm, and then always with chamber enlargement. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy should be considered strongly in any trained football male athlete with LVWT>12 mm(females>11mm).%目的:确定青少年足球运动员左室肥厚的生理极限值,预防运动员运动性猝死的发生风险。方法:采用超声心动仪检测60名优秀青少年足球运动员和60名年龄、性别类似的健康对照者及40名其他项目运动员的左心室厚度。结果:与对照组相比,青少年足球运动员的左心室壁厚度(LVWT)较大,为9.5±1.7 mm,对照组为8.4±1.4mm。其中5名运动员(8.3%)的最大LVWT超过了预测值的上限;只有1名男运动员的绝对LVWT值大于12mm(1.7%)。5名运动员的LVWT超过了预测限度,提示左心腔扩大(54.4±2.1mm;范围为52~60mm)。而女运动员LVWT值均小于11 mm。结论:与非运动员相比,有训练的青少年足球运动员的LVWT值更大。只有一小部分运动员的LVWT超过了上限,但少有大于12mm,而腔室一般都有扩大现象。提示,当有训练

  10. Vectors on the Basketball Court

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    An Idea Bank published in the April/May 2009 issue of "The Science Teacher" describes an experiential physics lesson on vectors and vector addition (Brown 2009). Like its football predecessor, the basketball-based investigation presented in this Idea Bank addresses National Science Education Standards Content B, Physical Science, 9-12 (NRC 1996)…

  11. Women Basketball Pioneers in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    In 1931, a Chinese women’s basketball team played amatch abroad for the first time. In that tournament against theJapanese, they achieved a stellar record of nine wins and onetie. The following story is based on the recollections of WangLan, who played guard for the team 67 years ago.

  12. Safety Tips: Basketball (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that he or she is playing too much basketball, work with coaches to try a reduced or modified schedule. A Few Other Reminders If it's on-court and serious, make sure a responsible adult — be it a coach, parent, or referee — is on hand. Kids probably won't need ...

  13. Globalisation and Women's Professional Basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Berber

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Women’s basketball is a global game with professional leagues in Europe, Africa, Australia, Asia, and the Americas. The Women’s National Basketball Association (WNBA in the US is the premier league for the sport. During the off-season, over 100 players from WNBA clubs compete professionally abroad to supplement their incomes. Traveling teams and their visiting friends, relatives, and fans place demands on tourism businesses. This study examines the global migration in women’s professional basketball, including players living and traveling abroad and their tourism impacts. In-depth interviews with the foreign players participating in the Turkish Women’s Basketball League 2011 All-Star Game in Eskişehir were conducted. The foreign all-stars spent on average $US 1200 per month in Turkey for living expenses during the season; most had been visited by family and/or friends since becoming a player in the Turkish league. The implications of professional sport team travel on league sponsorship and marketing strategies, tourism businesses, and host cities are discussed.

  14. An Optimal Basketball Free Throw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppala-Holtzman, David

    2012-01-01

    A basketball player attempting a free throw has two parameters under his or her control: the angle of elevation and the force with which the ball is thrown. We compute upper and lower bounds for the initial velocity for suitable values of the angle of elevation, generating a subset of the configuration space of all successful free throws. A…

  15. Portable basketball rim testing device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, W. Bruce; Davis, Karl C.

    1993-01-01

    A portable basketball rim rebound testing device 10 is illustrated in two preferred embodiments for testing the rebound or energy absorption characteristics of a basketball rim 12 and its accompanying support to determine likely rebound or energy absorption charcteristics of the system. The apparatus 10 includes a depending frame 28 having a C-clamp 36 for releasably rigidly connecting the frame to the basketball rim 12. A glide weight 60 is mounted on a guide rod 52 permitting the weight 60 to be dropped against a calibrated spring 56 held on an abutment surface on the rod to generate for deflecting the basketball rim and then rebounding the weight upwardly. A photosensor 66 is mounted on the depending frame 28 to sense passage of reflective surfaces 75 on the weight to thereby obtain sufficient data to enable a processing means 26 to calculate the rebound velocity and relate it to an energy absorption percentage rate of the rim system 12. A readout is provided to display the energy absorption percentage.

  16. Cardiovascular and perceptual stress of female basketball referees during women's International matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquera, Alejandro; Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Calleja-GONZáLEZ, Julio; Leicht, Anthony S

    2017-04-01

    The current aims were to determine body composition (BC), and heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived effort (RPE) responses by female basketball referees during elite international competition. Pre-competition, BC via skinfolds was assessed in 10 referees (38 ± 3 yr) who officiated 11 matches. Referees' HR and exercise intensity (based upon maximum HR, HRmax) was recorded during each quarter of each match and RPE assessed post- match. Differences between quarters were examined via repeated measures ANOVA while correlations between RPE, HR, BC and experience were also considered. The average match HR was 86.2±5.0 HRmax with this being significantly lower during the 4th quarter compared to the 1st (p = 0.18) and 2nd quarters (p = 0.001), and significantly lower during the 3rd compared to the 2nd quarter (p = 0.005). The average post-match RPE was 12.5 ± 1.6 with significant inverse correlations identified between post-match RPE and exercise intensity (average HR, %HRmax). Significant correlations were identified between the average match HR and BC (0.608, p = 0.016), and experience (-0.653, p = 0.008). The current investigation has demonstrated that elite female basketball referees experience significant cardiovascular and perceptual stress during international matches that may be influenced by referee experience and BC. These unique characteristics may aid in referee preparation for elite competition.

  17. WHY DO THEY ENGAGE IN SUCH HARD PROGRAMS? THE SEARCH FOR EXCELLENCE IN YOUTH BASKETBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos E. Gonçalves

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Excellent performance in sport has a strong positive relationship with the accumulated hours of practice. The specialization years are seen as a decisive moment to lift the skill level, athletic readiness and commitment but the selection and orientation of talent has been strongly dependent of biological and motor variables. The purpose of this study is to describe the achievement and motivation variables that can explain the belonging to an elite competitive level of young basketball players. Eighty-two basketball players under 16 years fulfilled the WOFO Questionnaire (Spence and Helmreich, 1983, and an adapted version of the DPMQ (De Bruin, Rikers and Schmidt, 2007. Forty players (mean age 15. 8 ± 0.96 were engaged in high performance centres and forty-two (mean age 15.6 ± 1.01 played in national level clubs. A decision tree and a random forest analysis between elite and national level players were performed. The most discriminant variable was Will to Excel, with 85,2% true positives in elite or national level. Mastery and competitiveness did not enter the final model. The will to reach excellence in performance can be considered as a condition to engage in more specialized and demanding practice. The assessment of the path to expertise only through motor variables or through the accumulated hours of deliberate practice is limited and can lead to mistaken identification or orientation of young sport talents. The use of a more comprehensive model is needed

  18. Preparation of reserve and player selection for the national basketball team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezmylov Nikolay

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The model of selecting athletes to the national basketball team was substantiated taking into consideration the specific features of competitive activity and the age of athletes. The issue of the selection and training of basketball reserve for the national team of the country is discussed. The need was demonstrated for the use of multi-stage model of the selection of elite players for the national team, which includes: 1 preliminary selection; 2 intermediate selection; and 3 main selection. To evaluate athlete’s performance, the system of informative criteria and indicators was proposed. The features of the selection of the players of different age groups to club and national teams were described. The necessity for continuous and gradual upgrade of team roster was justified.

  19. Injury in the National Basketball Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakos, Mark C.; Domb, Benjamin; Starkey, Chad; Callahan, Lisa; Allen, Answorth A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Injury patterns in elite athletes over long periods continue to evolve. The goal of this study was to review of the injuries and medical conditions afflicting athletes competing in the National Basketball Association (NBA) over a 17-year period. Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: Injuries and player demographic information were reported by each team’s athletic trainer. Criteria for reportable injuries were those that resulted in (1) physician referral, (2) a practice or game being missed, or (3) emergency care. The demographics, frequency of injury, time lost, and game exposures were tabulated, and game-related injury rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Results: A total of 1094 players appeared in the database 3843 times (3.3 ± 2.6 seasons). Lateral ankle sprains were the most frequent orthopaedic injury (n, 1658; 13.2%), followed by patellofemoral inflammation (n, 1493; 11.9%), lumbar strains (n, 999; 7.9%), and hamstring strains (n, 413; 3.3%). The most games missed were related to patellofemoral inflammation (n, 10 370; 17.5%), lateral ankle sprains (n, 5223; 8.8%), knee sprains (n, 4369; 7.4%), and lumbar strains (n, 3933; 6.6%). No correlations were found between injury rate and player demographics, including age, height, weight, and NBA experience. Conclusion: Professional athletes in the NBA experience a high rate of game-related injuries. Patellofemoral inflammation is the most significant problem in terms of days lost in competition, whereas ankle sprains are the most common injury. True ligamentous injuries of the knee were surprisingly rare. Importantly, player demographics were not correlated with injury rates. Further investigation is necessary regarding the consequences and sport-specific treatment of various injuries in NBA players. Clinical Relevance: Knowledge of these injury patterns can help to guide treatments and provide more accurate guidelines for an athlete to return to play. PMID:23015949

  20. Analysis of teamwork in officiating in basketball

    OpenAIRE

    Smid, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to characterise the role, activity and participation of the referees in games with a focus to basketball games. The author generally discusses these issues analysing changes in referees teamwork during the last three years, He presents referees´ individual positions on the basketball court (lead, centre, trail), places of their competences, duties and responsibilities. The method of study was direct observation of 45 basketball games during seasons 2012-2014 in mens b...

  1. Elites, power sources and democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Yetkin, Deniz

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is about elites in general, and the acquisition and maintenance of power in particular. The last concern of the thesis is democracy. For this reason, the classical elite theorists’ and the democratic elite theorists’ perceptions of the elite were critically analyzed. Moreover, power for becoming a part of the elites and power of the elites were discussed. In addition to these discussions, ideas of classical and democratic elite theorists about the possibility of democracy under el...

  2. Non-Linear Approach in Kinesiology Should Be Preferred to the Linear--A Case of Basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trninić, Marko; Jeličić, Mario; Papić, Vladan

    2015-07-01

    In kinesiology, medicine, biology and psychology, in which research focus is on dynamical self-organized systems, complex connections exist between variables. Non-linear nature of complex systems has been discussed and explained by the example of non-linear anthropometric predictors of performance in basketball. Previous studies interpreted relations between anthropometric features and measures of effectiveness in basketball by (a) using linear correlation models, and by (b) including all basketball athletes in the same sample of participants regardless of their playing position. In this paper the significance and character of linear and non-linear relations between simple anthropometric predictors (AP) and performance criteria consisting of situation-related measures of effectiveness (SE) in basketball were determined and evaluated. The sample of participants consisted of top-level junior basketball players divided in three groups according to their playing time (8 minutes and more per game) and playing position: guards (N = 42), forwards (N = 26) and centers (N = 40). Linear (general model) and non-linear (general model) regression models were calculated simultaneously and separately for each group. The conclusion is viable: non-linear regressions are frequently superior to linear correlations when interpreting actual association logic among research variables.

  3. Habits of fluid and electrolytes intake in elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzija Pašalić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dehydration develops when the body fluid losses exceed fluid intake. It may occur during exercise, heat stress, restricted fluid intake, or any combination of these. Marginal dehydration (loss of > 2% body weight can compromise aerobic exercise performance, particularly in hot weather conditions, and may disturb fluid and electrolyte balance. The aim of the study was to determine the quantity, type and dynamic of fluid intake during athletic performance in endurance sports (football and basketball in two age categories: juniors (under the age of 18 and seniors (over the age of 18.Methods: Research included 100 athletes playing in Premier League in Bosnia-Herzegovina. We formed groups by sport type (football and basketball and age (<18 and ≥18 years. Questionnaire with questions about the fluid intake habits was used for data collection.    Results: There were 53 football players and 47 basketball players. All the participants were male. Average age of the participants was 19.3 ± 4.58. Habit of weighing before and after training was present in less than 44% of players among all the groups. Seniors were more frequently measuring their weight compared to junior players (p=0.01. Basketball players and players younger than 18 years were most frequently taking more than 2L of water per day. Most of the players, regardless of sport type or age group were not taking at least ½ L of isotonic fluid before the training. Signs of dehydration were more frequently observed in players under 18 years old, with most frequent sign being dry throat and sudden fatigue.Conclusion: Water and electrolytes intake before, during and after training of the athletes were inadequate regardless of type of sports and the age of athletes.

  4. Bifurcation Adds Flavor to Basketball

    CERN Document Server

    Min, Byeong June

    2016-01-01

    We report an emergence of bifurcation in basketball, a single-particle system governed by Newtonian mechanics. When shooting the basketball, the obvious control parameters are the launch speed and the launch angle. We propose to use the three-dimensional velocity phase-space volume associated with the given launch parameters to quantify the difficulty of the shooting. The optimal launch angle that maximizes the associated phase-space volume undergoes a bifurcation as the launch speed is increased, if the shooter is farther than a critical distance away from the hoop. Thus, the bifurcation makes it very important to control the launch speed accurately. If the air resistance is removed, the bifurcation disappears and the phase-space volume distribution becomes dispersionless and shrinks in magnitude.

  5. Return to Play and Performance After Jones Fracture in National Basketball Association Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begly, John P; Guss, Michael; Ramme, Austin J; Karia, Raj; Meislin, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Basketball players are at risk for foot injuries, including Jones fractures. It is unknown how this injury affects the future play and performance of athletes. National Basketball Association (NBA) players who sustain Jones fractures of the base of the fifth metatarsal have high rates of return to play and do not experience a decrease in performance on return to competition when compared with preinjury and with control-matched peers. Retrospective cohort study. Level 5. Data on 26 elite basketball players with Jones fractures over 19 NBA seasons (1994-1995 to 2012-2013) were obtained from injury reports, press releases, player profiles, and online public databases. Variables included age, body mass index (BMI), player position, experience, and surgical treatment. Individual season statistics pre- and postinjury were collected. Twenty-six controls were identified by matched player position, age, and performance statistics. The mean age at the time of injury was 24.8 years, mean BMI was 24.7 kg/m(2), and the mean experience prior to injury was 4.1 NBA seasons. Return to previous level of competition was achieved by 85% of athletes. There was no change in player efficiency rating (PER) when pre- and postinjury performance was compared. When compared with controls, no decline in PER measured performance was identified. The majority of NBA players sustaining a Jones fracture return to their preinjury level of competition. These elite athletes demonstrate no decrease in performance on their return to play. Jones fractures are well-studied injuries in terms of etiology, diagnosis, and management. However, the effect of these injuries on future performance of athletes is unknown. Using the findings of our study, orthopaedic surgeons may be better prepared to counsel and educate elite athletes who sustain a Jones fracture. © 2015 The Author(s).

  6. Hand preference patterns in expert basketball players: interrelations between basketball-specific and everyday life behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckel, Tino; Vater, Christian

    2014-12-01

    In the present study we examined the interrelation of everyday life handedness and hand preference in basketball, as an area of expertise that requires individuals being proficient with both their non-dominant and dominant hand. A secondary aim was to elucidate the link between basketball-specific practice, hand preference in basketball and everyday life handedness. Therefore, 176 expert basketball players self-reported their hand preference for activities of daily living and for basketball-specific behavior as well as details about their basketball-specific history via questionnaire. We found that compared to the general population the one-hand bias was significantly reduced for both everyday life and basketball-specific hand preference (i.e., a higher prevalence of mixed-handed individuals), and that both concepts were significantly related. Moreover, only preference scores for lay-up and dribbling skills were significantly related to measures of basketball-specific practice. Consequently, training-induced modulations of lateral preference seem to be very specific to only a few basketball-specific skills, and do not generalize to other skills within the domain of basketball nor do they extend into everyday life handedness. The results are discussed in terms of their relevance regarding theories of handedness and their practical implications for the sport of basketball.

  7. The Massive Thermal Basketball Diagram

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, J O; Strickland, Michael T; Andersen, Jens O.; Braaten, Eric; Strickland, Michael

    2000-01-01

    The "basketball diagram" is a three-loop vacuum diagram for a scalar fieldtheory that cannot be expressed in terms of one-loop diagrams. We calculatethis diagram for a massive scalar field at nonzero temperature, reducing it toexpressions involving three-dimensional integrals that can be easily evaluatednumerically. We use this result to calculate the free energy for a massivescalar field with a phi^4 interaction to three-loop order.

  8. Changes of explosive strength in professional basketball players after a six week training cycle with plyometric training and resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lehnert

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Explosive strength of the lower extremities and agility are important parts of game performance in basketball. Although numerous studies have focused on the assessment of the training effect of plyometric training, studies focusing on elite players are missing. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to find out what changes in explosive strength of the lower extremities take place after a 6 week strength training with plyometric exercises and resistance exercises in elite basketball players. METHODS: Elite basketball players (n = 12; age 24.71 ± 1.5 years; height 197.0 ± 7.6 cm; weight 95.8 ± 8.1 kg performed during pre-season a 6 week training program with plyometric exercises and resistance exercises which were conducted biweekly during the pre-season. The changes in explosive strength were measured by the squat jump without arms, the counter movement jump without arms, the counter movement jump free arms and the 2 step run up jump. The players participated in two measurements. The 1st (pretesting was performed on the first day of pre-season and the 2nd (posttesting was completed two days after terminating the PT programme. The differences between the average values of the monitored parameters were determined by the Wilcoxon paired test. To calculate the effect size formula according to Fritz, Morris, and Richler (2012: R = Z/√N was used. RESULTS: Analysis of intra-group changes confirmed significant differences between the two measurements in tests of vertical jump squat (Z = 2.58, p = .01, r = .75, vertical jump from the point of the swing arm (Z = 2.49, p = .01, r = .72 and vertical jump from place without the swing arm (Z = 2.75, p = .01, r = .79. In case of the two step run up jump significant differences were not found (Z = 1.60, p = .11, r = .56. Analysis of intra-individual changes showed the significant interindividual differences in the changes of the explosive power of the lower limbs after a 6 week training. The

  9. Physiological demands of competitive basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narazaki, K; Berg, K; Stergiou, N; Chen, B

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess physiological demands of competitive basketball by measuring oxygen consumption (VO2) and other variables during practice games. Each of 12 players (20.4 +/- 1.1 years) was monitored in a 20-min practice game, which was conducted in the same way as actual games with the presence of referees and coaches. VO2 was measured by a portable system during the game and blood lactate concentration (LA) was measured in brief breaks. Subjects were also videotaped for time-motion analysis. Female and male players demonstrated respective VO2 of 33.4 +/- 4.0 and 36.9 +/- 2.6 mL/kg/min and LA of 3.2 +/- 0.9 and 4.2 +/- 1.3 mmol/L in the practice games (P>0.05). They spent 34.1% of play time running and jumping, 56.8% walking, and 9.0% standing. Pre-obtained VO(2max) was correlated to VO(2) during play (r=0.673) and to percent of duration for running and jumping (r=0.935 and 0.962 for females and males, respectively). This study demonstrated a greater oxygen uptake for competitive basketball than that estimated based on a previous compendium. The correlation between aerobic capacity and activity level suggests the potential benefit of aerobic conditioning in basketball.

  10. Gender differences in learning basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antonio Pereira da Silva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Research carried out by Davisse (1986 concludes that male students presents a better performance in sports learning than females, principally at the beginning of the 5 th year in high school when children begin to have Physical Education with specialized teachers. However, Baur (1988 says that females present a good performance when they work together with males. The porpose of this study is to determine whether gender differences exist in 9-and 10-year-old children of both sexes when learning basketball. An experimental work was carried out over 21 basketball classes distributed in two mixed groups of 35 male and 26 female children AAHPERD test for basketball was applied at the beginning and at end the experimental work. The statistic “t” test showed a better performance of the females. The results at the end of the work showed this same performence in the application of the rules during the games. This was contrary to perspectives, since males presented important differences (p < 0.01 in the pre-test, in the post-test and in the application of the rules out of the games. The final conclusion is that during the games there are other factors which interfere in the learning process, besides good performance in the basic rules, the latter caused a better performance of females than of males in learning situation.

  11. Structure of Coordination Motor Abilities in Male Basketball Players at Different Levels of Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Sadowski

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the structure of coordination motor abilities (CMA in male basketball players at different levels of competition. Material and methods. The study included 183 male basketball players from 10 Polish sports clubs. The examined groups consisted of seniors (n=42 aged 24.5 (± 3.3, juniors (n=37 aged 16.8 (± 0.6, cadets (n=54 aged 14.5 (± 0.1 and children (n=50 aged 13.4 (± 0.2. A battery of motor tests was administered to assess the following CMA: kinesthetic differentiation of movements, spatio-temporal orientation, reaction time, movement coupling, sense of balance, sense of rhythm and adjustment of movements. The structure of CMA under investigation was determined based on the results of Hotelling's principal component analysis in Tucker's modification, completed with Kaiser's Varimax rotation [1, 2]. Results. The CMA structure of basketball players was composed of three or four factors. Most often these included rhythm, movement differentiation, movement coupling and adjustment of movements. Less frequently the structure consisted of spatio-temporal orientation, balance and reaction time. An in-depth analysis of the CMA structure revealed that factors ranged from heterogeneous (children and cadets to homogeneous ones (juniors and seniors. The distribution of identified factors in the common variance was the smallest in children and cadets (58.9% and 62.9%, respectively and the biggest in juniors and seniors (69.3% and 68.48%, respectively.

  12. On Situation and Prevention of College Basketball Sports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baichao Xu

    2015-01-01

    Basketball is one of the favorite sports of the masses, in order to allow a more efficient conduct of basketball for the college student sports activities, it can play a positive role in promoting to enable students to love, enjoy basketball. This paper is to study the current situation and prevent the basketball damage.

  13. Body physique and dominant somatotype in elite and low-profile athletes with different specializations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutnik, Boris; Zuoza, Aurelijus; Zuozienė, Ilona; Alekrinskis, Aleksandras; Nash, Derek; Scherbina, Sergei

    2015-01-01

    Somatotyping is helpful in sports in which the body shape could influence the resulting performance. The purpose of this study was to determine the somatotype of high profile Lithuanian athletes in kayaking, basketball and football and to compare between disciplines and with low level sportsmen of the same age. A total of 72 young male sportsmen aged from 18 to 24 years were divided into three groups (kayakers, basketball and football players). Each group contained almost equal numbers of low level and elite, international level sportsmen. Anthropometric measurements of the players were used to establish somatotypes. The greatest difference was observed in the mesomorphic component of elite kayakers compared to the low profile sportsmen. Mesomorphy could also be used to predict sport ability. The range of mesomorphy for elite footballers was from 0 to 4.6, for basketball players from 4.6 to 5.9, and for kayaking, from 5.9 and higher. Individual groups of elite sportsmen displayed different modes of somatotype. The kayakers were predominantly endomorphic; the basketball players mostly endomorphic and the footballers most often ectomorphic. No distinguishable patterns of somatotype were displayed by the low level sportsmen. Morphometric characteristics of the athlete's body and the fractional somatotype can be used as guiders and markers of the chosen sport and method of training. The results emphasize the necessity for a specific somatotype to reach a high profile in the selected area of sport and thus support morphometric oriented studies. Further studies could elucidate differentiation by age and sex. Copyright © 2015 Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  14. Training Visual Control in Wheelchair Basketball Shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Heubers, Sjoerd; Ruitenbeek, Jean-Rene J. A. C.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the effects of visual control training on expert wheelchair basketball shooting, a skill more difficult than in regular basketball, as players shoot from a seated position to the same rim height. The training consisted of shooting with a visual constraint that forced participants to use target information as late as possible.…

  15. Research on Development Mode of Foreign Competitive Basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xianjiang, Zhou; Bin, Zong; Xianwu, Wu

    Adopting literature material method, survey and comparative method, the paper studies foreign competitive basketball, foreign competitive basketball on behalf of the State management system model, competitive basketball reserve personnel training and development mode system. Rely on different powers of the foreign competitive basketball from amateur to professional development; different modes of foreign competitive basketball management system; foreign competitive basketball back-up personnel training mode, the model on school training in America and other countries, mainly the club training mode in European countries; foreign model of development of competitive basketball, different from social guidance, in the combination operation mode of market regulation and government administrative intervention.

  16. COMPREHENSIVE JUNIOR COLLEGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NIKITAS, CHRISTUS M.; AND OTHERS

    TO MEET THE STATE'S HIGHER EDUCATION NEEDS, THE NEW HAMPSHIRE JUNIOR COLLEGE COMMISSION DEVELOPED A PLAN OF (1) GRADUAL AND SELECTIVE CONVERSION OF THE STATE'S TECHNICAL AND VOCATIONAL SCHOOLS TO COMPREHENSIVE JUNIOR COLLEGES, (2) SELECTIVE ADDITION OF 2-YEAR PROGRAMS AT THE STATE COLLEGES AND INSTITUTES, AND (3) ESTABLISHMENT OF A STATE…

  17. Differences among Elite Female Rowers Regarding Carbohydrate Consumption at Rest

    OpenAIRE

    BADAU, Dana; TOMESCU, VALERIU; BADAU, Adela; MARTIN, Ștefan Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Backround: The objective of this study was interpreting the reported differences within carbohydrate consumption at rest, in female rowing groups. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional study, on a group of elite rowing athletes, monitoring carbohydrate consumption at rest. 34 subjects, divided in 3 groups of activities (senior, youth, junior) took part in this study being monitored through Cosmed Quark CPET device. Results: The average amount of carbohydrates consumed at rest among the group...

  18. Return to Play After Forearm and Hand Injuries in the National Basketball Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Kyle W; Hearns, Krystle A; Carlson, Michelle Gerwin

    2017-02-01

    Hand injuries can result in significant time away from competition for professional basketball players. Time to return to play after hand injuries in elite athletes has not been well described. To report the return to play from metacarpal fractures, phalangeal fractures, and thumb ligament tears in National Basketball Association (NBA) players over a 5-year period. Descriptive epidemiology study. The NBA transaction report was analyzed from January 2009 to May 2014. Players were identified if they were added to the inactive list (IL), missed games due to their injury, or underwent surgery as a result of hand injury. Number of games missed due to injury, days spent on the IL, and age at injury were calculated by injury type and location. One hundred thirty-seven injuries were identified: 39 injuries to the hand and 98 injuries to the finger. Three major injury patterns were identified and analyzed: metacarpal fractures (n = 26), phalangeal fractures (n = 33), and thumb ligament tears (n = 9). The type of injury sustained affected return to play (P basketball players can lead to prolonged periods of time away from competition, especially after surgery. This study provides guidelines on expected return to play in the NBA after these common hand injuries.

  19. Basketball shot types and shot success in different levels of competitive basketball.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frane Erčulj

    Full Text Available The purpose of our research was to investigate the relative frequencies of different types of basketball shots (above head, hook shot, layup, dunk, tip-in, some details about their technical execution (one-legged, two-legged, drive, cut, …, and shot success in different levels of basketball competitions. We analysed video footage and categorized 5024 basketball shots from 40 basketball games and 5 different levels of competitive basketball (National Basketball Association (NBA, Euroleague, Slovenian 1st Division, and two Youth basketball competitions. Statistical analysis with hierarchical multinomial logistic regression models reveals that there are substantial differences between competitions. However, most differences decrease or disappear entirely after we adjust for differences in situations that arise in different competitions (shot location, player type, and attacks in transition. Differences after adjustment are mostly between the Senior and Youth competitions: more shots executed jumping or standing on one leg, more uncategorised shot types, and more dribbling or cutting to the basket in the Youth competitions, which can all be attributed to lesser technical and physical ability of developing basketball players. The two discernible differences within the Senior competitions are that, in the NBA, dunks are more frequent and hook shots are less frequent compared to European basketball, which can be attributed to better athleticism of NBA players. The effect situational variables have on shot types and shot success are found to be very similar for all competitions.

  20. Basketball shot types and shot success in different levels of competitive basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erčulj, Frane; Štrumbelj, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of our research was to investigate the relative frequencies of different types of basketball shots (above head, hook shot, layup, dunk, tip-in), some details about their technical execution (one-legged, two-legged, drive, cut, …), and shot success in different levels of basketball competitions. We analysed video footage and categorized 5024 basketball shots from 40 basketball games and 5 different levels of competitive basketball (National Basketball Association (NBA), Euroleague, Slovenian 1st Division, and two Youth basketball competitions). Statistical analysis with hierarchical multinomial logistic regression models reveals that there are substantial differences between competitions. However, most differences decrease or disappear entirely after we adjust for differences in situations that arise in different competitions (shot location, player type, and attacks in transition). Differences after adjustment are mostly between the Senior and Youth competitions: more shots executed jumping or standing on one leg, more uncategorised shot types, and more dribbling or cutting to the basket in the Youth competitions, which can all be attributed to lesser technical and physical ability of developing basketball players. The two discernible differences within the Senior competitions are that, in the NBA, dunks are more frequent and hook shots are less frequent compared to European basketball, which can be attributed to better athleticism of NBA players. The effect situational variables have on shot types and shot success are found to be very similar for all competitions.

  1. Turkish Media Elites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Ali Arslan

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The media is one of the most important institutions in society. It is a reality that media play very substantial role in the production and social distribution of knowledge. In addition to that, mass media provides the greatest communication opportunities to the people. Also, contemporary media provides very distinctive weapons to obtain power, wealth and prestige in the society. If media owners and elites are so powerful, the identification of media elites is of great importance. Hence, this study aims to analyse contemporary Turkish media: A full picture of Turkish media elites in terms of important social, political and demographic indicators will be given in this paper. The managers, editors, influential columnists and reporters of major Turkish media elites are defined as Turkish media elites. Firstly, the paper will focuse on the demographic peculiarities of Turkish media elites. Secondly, the educational background and family structure of Turkish media elites will be examined. Then, social origins and other social characteristics of Contemporary Turkish media elites will be investigated.

  2. Relative age effect in junior tennis (male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Agricola

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The issues of the age effect (the theory of the age influence have been shown in sport sciences since the 1980s. The theory of age effect works on the assumption that athletes born in the beginning of a calendar year are, particularly in children’s and junior age, more successful than athletes born in the end of the year. This fact has been proved by a number of research studies, mainly in ice hockey, soccer, and tennis but also in other sports. OBJECTIVE: The submitted contribution is aimed at verifying of the age effect in junior tennis. The research objective was to find out the distribution of birth date frequencies in a population of tennis players’ in individual months, quarters, and half-years in the observed period 2007–2011 and to check the significance of differences. METHODS: The research was conducted on male tennis players aged 13–14 (N = 239, participants of the World Junior Tennis Finals. From the methodological point of view, it was an intentional selection. The birth dates of individual tennis players were taken from official materials of the ITF, the research data were processed using Microsoft Excel. The personal data were processed with the approval of players and the hosting organization (ITF. RESULTS: Testing of the hypothesis on the significance of differences in the distribution of frequencies between individual quarters (Q1–Q4 has proved statistically relevant differences between Q1 and Q3, Q1 and Q4, Q2 and Q3, and Q2 and Q4; a statistically relevant difference has been also found in the distribution of frequencies between the first and second half of the year. On the basis of the results of the presented research, the age effect in the studied population of junior male tennis players can be regarded as significant. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the analysis of the research data confirm the conclusions of similar studies in other sports and prove that in the population of elite junior players

  3. The Effectiveness of the Shotloc Training Tool on Basketball Free Throw Performance and Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion J.L. Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shooting technique in young players is dependent on the correct positioning of the hand on the ball during release. The ShotLoc was designed to produce the optimal hand position on the ball for shooting accuracy and correct release. Purpose:  The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the ShotLoc shooting device in improving the shooting technique of young elite basketball players. Method: Eighty male and female adolescent basketball players recruited from an Elite Player Development Program were videotaped shooting three free throws and then scored on the number of free throw shots made out of thirty.  A number of kinematic shooting variables were measured from the video tape. All participants participated in four 20 minute shooting practice sessions on a once per week basis; the experimental group wore the ShotLoc training tool for all of these practices while the control group practiced normally. All players were then videotaped and scored on the number of free throw shots again. Results:  Statistical analysis of free throw percentage showed a 6.6% increase in those participants who were trained with the ShotLoc, while the control group experienced a .6% decrease in shooting percentage. None of the kinematic variables were found to be significantly different between groups, except wrist flexion that increased in the control group following the intervention. Conclusion: the ShotLoc shooting aid could improve free throw shooting percentage following practice using the device.   Keywords:  Motion Analysis, Kinematics, Basketball Shooting

  4. METHODOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF TRAINING STUDENT basketball teams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Considered the leading position of the preparation of basketball teams in high schools. The system includes the following: reliance on top-quality players in the structure of preparedness, widespread use of visual aids, teaching movies and cartoons with a record of technology implementation of various methods by professional basketball players, the application of the methods of autogenic and ideomotor training according to our methodology. The study involved 63 students 1.5 courses from various universities of Kharkov 1.2 digits: 32 experimental group and 31 - control. The developed system of training students, basketball players used within 1 year. The efficiency of the developed system in the training process of students, basketball players.

  5. Oxidative stress status in elite athletes engaged in different sport disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadžović-Džuvo, Almira; Valjevac, Amina; Lepara, Orhan; Pjanić, Samra; Hadžimuratović, Adnan; Mekić, Amel

    2014-05-01

    Exercise training may increase production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species in different ways. The training type and intensity may influence free radicals production, which leads to differences in oxidative stress status between athletes, but the results of the previous studies are incosistent. The aim of our study was to estimate oxidative stress status in elite athletes engaged in different sport disciplines. The study included 39 male highly skilled professional competitors with international experience (2 Olympic players): 12 wrestlers, 14 soccer players and 13 basketball players in whom we determined the levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as markers of oxidative stress and the total antioxidative capacity (ImAnOX) using commercially available assay kits. The mean AOPP concentration was not significantly different between soccer players, wrestler and basketball players (60.0 ± 23.0 vs. 68.5 ± 30.8 and 80.72 ± 29.1 μmol/L respectively). Mean ImAnOX concentration was not different between soccer players (344.8 ± 35.6 μmol/L), wrestlers (342.5 ± 36.2 μmol/L) and basketball players (347.95 ± 31.3 μmol/L). Mean MDA concentration was significantly higher in basketball players (1912.1 ± 667.7 ng/mL) compared to soccer players (1060.1 ± 391.0 ng/mL, p=0.003). In spite of this fact, oxidative stress markers levels were increased compared to referral values provided by the manufacturer. Type of sports (soccer, wrestler or basketball) have no impact on the levels of oxidative stress markers. Elite sports engagement is a potent stimulus of oxidative stress that leads to the large recruitment of antioxidative defense. Oxidative stress status monitoring followed by appropriate use of antioxidants is recommended as a part of training regime.

  6. Oxidative stress status in elite athletes engaged in different sport disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadžović - Džuvo, Almira; Valjevac, Amina; Lepara, Orhan; Pjanić, Samra; Hadžimuratović, Adnan; Mekić, Amel

    2014-01-01

    Exercise training may increase production of free radicals and reactive oxygen species in different ways. The training type and intensity may influence free radicals production, which leads to differences in oxidative stress status between athletes, but the results of the previous studies are incosistent. The aim of our study was to estimate oxidative stress status in elite athletes engaged in different sport disciplines. The study included 39 male highly skilled professional competitors with international experience (2 Olympic players): 12 wrestlers, 14 soccer players and 13 basketball players in whom we determined the levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and malondialdehyde (MDA), as markers of oxidative stress and the total antioxidative capacity (ImAnOX) using commercially available assay kits. The mean AOPP concentration was not significantly different between soccer players, wrestler and basketball players (60.0±23.0 vs. 68.5±30.8 and 80.72±29.1 μmol/L respectively). Mean ImAnOX concentration was not different between soccer players (344.8±35.6 μmol/L), wrestlers (342±36.2 μmol/L) and basketball players (347.95±31.3 μmol/L). Mean MDA concentration was significantly higher in basketball players (1912.1±667.7 ng/mL) compared to soccer players (1060.1±391.0 ng/mL, p=0.003). In spite of this fact, oxidative stress markers levels were increased compared to referral values provided by the manufacturer. Type of sports (soccer, wrestler or basketball) have no impact on the levels of oxidative stress markers. Elite sports engagement is a potent stimulus of oxidative stress that leads to the large recruitment of antioxidative defense. Oxidative stress status monitoring followed by appropriate use of antioxidants is recommended as a part of training regime. PMID:24856375

  7. Prevention of Lower Extremity Injuries in Basketball

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Context: Lower extremity injuries are common in basketball, yet it is unclear how prophylactic interventions affect lower extremity injury incidence rates. Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of current lower extremity injury prevention programs in basketball athletes, focusing on injury rates of (1) general lower extremity injuries, (2) ankle sprains, and (3) anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears. Data Sources: PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and the Cochrane Register of Controlle...

  8. Feeding the Elite: The Evolution of Elite Pathways from Star High Schools to Elite Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeTendre, Gerald K.; Gonzalez, Roger Geertz; Nomi, Takako

    2006-01-01

    During the last 50 years, private "feeder" schools in Japan came to dominate entry into elite colleges. Intense organizational competition shaped the organizational environment and changed the pathways available to social elites. Compared to Japan, elite private feeders in the US have failed to dominate pathways into elite colleges. In…

  9. Skiing economy and efficiency in recreational and elite cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainegren, Mats; Carlsson, Peter; Tinnsten, Mats; Laaksonen, Marko S

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare skiing economy and gross efficiency in cross-country skiers of different performance levels, ages and genders; male recreational skiers and elite senior and junior cross-country skiers of both genders. The skiers performed tests involving roller skiing on a treadmill using the gear 3 and diagonal stride techniques. The elite cross-country skiers were found to have better skiing economy and higher gross efficiency (5-18%) compared with the recreational skiers (p skiing economy and gross efficiency have a great influence on the differences in performance times between recreational and junior and senior elite cross-country skiers, as well as between individual skiers within the different categories. Thus, we recommend cross-country skiers at all performance levels to test not only V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, but also skiing economy and efficiency.

  10. Influence of intellectual impairment (II on basketball players´ capacity to solve a game situation: towards evidence-based classification systems in II-basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier PINILLA

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Basketball for athletes with intellectual impairment (II requires the development of evidence-based eligibility systems to guarantee that only athletes with significant limitations performing basketball participate in these competitions. In addition, this is needed to re-include IIbasketball in the Paralympic program. To do this, it is required to investigate how II impacts on fundamental basketball activities. To address this need, the aim of this study was to compare ablebodied (AB and II-players´ capacity to solve a game situation. A field test was designed ad hoc in which 38 elite II-players from France, Portugal, Australia and Japan who participated in the Global Games (2015 and 38 AB-basketball players competing in Spanish competitions, had to solve 8 standardized game situations. Results indicated that II-players spent significantly (p≤0.05 more time to decide (0.92±0.2s than AB-players (0.63±0.1s and to execute the solution (II: 3.01±0.4s; AB: 2.56±0.3s. Also, II-players made more rule infractions (II: 7.11±1.4; AB: 7.71±0.7, more feints (II:1.37±1.4; AB: 0.3±0.6, more dribbles (II: 15.08±3.9; AB: 12.29±2.3 and they performed less successful solutions (II: 4.42±1.5; AB: 5.39±1.3. However, no differences were found in number of correct decisions made. Decision time, number of dribbles and situations in which they succeeded were the variables that best discriminated between II and AB-players. These results confirmed the negative influence of II on players´ capacity to solve a basketball game situation. The calculated discriminant function let us establish the minimum scores from this test that indicates significant limitations on the capacity to solve a game situation. These scores are applicable to determine eligibility criteria in IIbasketball worldwide.

  11. Basketball teams as strategic networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewell, Jennifer H; Armbruster, Dieter; Ingraham, John; Petersen, Alexander; Waters, James S

    2012-01-01

    We asked how team dynamics can be captured in relation to function by considering games in the first round of the NBA 2010 play-offs as networks. Defining players as nodes and ball movements as links, we analyzed the network properties of degree centrality, clustering, entropy and flow centrality across teams and positions, to characterize the game from a network perspective and to determine whether we can assess differences in team offensive strategy by their network properties. The compiled network structure across teams reflected a fundamental attribute of basketball strategy. They primarily showed a centralized ball distribution pattern with the point guard in a leadership role. However, individual play-off teams showed variation in their relative involvement of other players/positions in ball distribution, reflected quantitatively by differences in clustering and degree centrality. We also characterized two potential alternate offensive strategies by associated variation in network structure: (1) whether teams consistently moved the ball towards their shooting specialists, measured as "uphill/downhill" flux, and (2) whether they distributed the ball in a way that reduced predictability, measured as team entropy. These network metrics quantified different aspects of team strategy, with no single metric wholly predictive of success. However, in the context of the 2010 play-offs, the values of clustering (connectedness across players) and network entropy (unpredictability of ball movement) had the most consistent association with team advancement. Our analyses demonstrate the utility of network approaches in quantifying team strategy and show that testable hypotheses can be evaluated using this approach. These analyses also highlight the richness of basketball networks as a dataset for exploring the relationships between network structure and dynamics with team organization and effectiveness.

  12. Basketball teams as strategic networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer H Fewell

    Full Text Available We asked how team dynamics can be captured in relation to function by considering games in the first round of the NBA 2010 play-offs as networks. Defining players as nodes and ball movements as links, we analyzed the network properties of degree centrality, clustering, entropy and flow centrality across teams and positions, to characterize the game from a network perspective and to determine whether we can assess differences in team offensive strategy by their network properties. The compiled network structure across teams reflected a fundamental attribute of basketball strategy. They primarily showed a centralized ball distribution pattern with the point guard in a leadership role. However, individual play-off teams showed variation in their relative involvement of other players/positions in ball distribution, reflected quantitatively by differences in clustering and degree centrality. We also characterized two potential alternate offensive strategies by associated variation in network structure: (1 whether teams consistently moved the ball towards their shooting specialists, measured as "uphill/downhill" flux, and (2 whether they distributed the ball in a way that reduced predictability, measured as team entropy. These network metrics quantified different aspects of team strategy, with no single metric wholly predictive of success. However, in the context of the 2010 play-offs, the values of clustering (connectedness across players and network entropy (unpredictability of ball movement had the most consistent association with team advancement. Our analyses demonstrate the utility of network approaches in quantifying team strategy and show that testable hypotheses can be evaluated using this approach. These analyses also highlight the richness of basketball networks as a dataset for exploring the relationships between network structure and dynamics with team organization and effectiveness.

  13. Associations between poor oral health and reinjuries in male elite soccer players: a cross-sectional self-report study

    OpenAIRE

    Solleveld, Henny; Goedhart, Arnold; Vanden Bossche, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Background Although it is well known that oral pathogens can enter the systemic circulation and cause disease, it is largely unknown if poor oral health increases the risk of sports injuries. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between poor oral health and reinjuries in male elite soccer players, adjusted for psychosocial problems and player characteristics. Methods 184 Players in premier league soccer clubs and 31 elite, junior soccer players in the Netherlands, Belgi...

  14. Elites and popular nationalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmeyer, Joseph M

    2002-09-01

    Much current theory concerning nationalism holds that elites commonly create or cause popular nationalism. In part, that thesis may be due to an overwhelming emphasis in research on nationalism on positive cases: cases where nationalism has appeared, ignoring cases where it has not. In this article, I challenge the thesis by showing numerous historical cases in which elites have promoted nationalisms that ordinary people have not adopted, or in which ordinary people have adopted a nationalism before it was taken up by elites. Even if elites do not create popular nationalism, however, they can and do shape its expression in a variety of ways, such as organizing it, providing relevant information, or providing opportunity or incentive for it. I show this through historical examples.

  15. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athlet...... be aware of the doping aspects. Systemic ß2-agonist intake is strictly prohibited, whereas inhaled treatment is allowed in therapeutic doses when asthma is documented and dispensation has been granted when needed....

  16. Asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elers, Jimmi; Pedersen, Lars; Backer, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is frequently found among elite athletes performing endurance sports such as swimming, rowing and cross-country skiing. Although these athletes often report symptoms while exercising, they seldom have symptoms at rest. Moreover, compared with nonathletic asthmatic individuals, elite athlet...... be aware of the doping aspects. Systemic β2-agonist intake is strictly prohibited, whereas inhaled treatment is allowed in therapeutic doses when asthma is documented and dispensation has been granted when needed....

  17. Development and Validation of the Basketball Offensive Game Performance Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiyun; Hendricks, Kristin; Zhu, Weimo

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design and validate the Basketball Offensive Game Performance Instrument (BOGPI) that assesses an individual player's offensive game performance competency in basketball. Twelve physical education teacher education (PETE) students playing two 10-minute, 3 vs. 3 basketball games were videotaped at end of a…

  18. The effects of a 6 week plyometric training programme on explosive strength and agility in professional basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Lehnert

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Explosive strength of the lower extremities and agility are important parts of game performance in basketball. Although numerous studies have focused on the assessment of the training effect of plyometric training, studies focusing on elite players are missing. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to find out what changes in explosive strength of the lower extremities take place after a 6 week plyometric training applied in training units during the pre-season in elite basketball players. METHODS: Elite basketball players (N = 12, age 24.36 ± 3.9 years, height 196.2 ± 9.6 cm, weight 92.9 ± 13.9 kg performed a 6 week plyometric training (PT programme predominantly focused on explosive strength of the lower body and upper body and was conducted in sixteen training units during pre-season. The changes in explosive strength were measured by the Counter Movement Jump Free Arms test and Two Step Run Up Jump test; agility was measured using the “T” Drill test and Hexagonal Obstacle test. The players participated in three measurements. The 1st (pretesting was performed on the first day of pre-season, the 2nd (post-testing was done two days after completing the PT programme and the 3rd (post-testing six weeks after completing the PT programme. Friedman’s ANOVA for repeated measurements was used to determine the significance of differences between the measurement sessions (p < .05. RESULTS: A significant effect of the training programme was observed only for the Hexagonal Obstacle test (p = .01. A post hoc analysis revealed a significant increase in test performance between the 1st and 3rd measurement (p < .01 and between the 2nd and 3rd measurement (p < .01. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study of elite basketball players did not positively support the assumption that plyometric exercises can be an effective tool for the improvement of explosive strength and agility. However, in some players the

  19. Investigation of Management Models in Elite Athlete Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Kai Chen

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study investigated management models among elite athletes participating in sports including baseball, basketball, soccer, volleyball, tennis, softball, football, handball, track and field, swimming, judo, tae-kwon-do, gymnastics, archery, and weight lifting at the Tsoying National Sport Training Center. Data were collected by questionnaire. Of the 393 athletes investigated, 56% were male and 44% were female, with an average age of 20.9 years and average length of athletic experience of 9.8 years. At the time of the survey, 74.8% had sporting injuries and were being treated with Chinese and/or Western medicine. Among injured athletes, 14.5% chose Western treatment, 8.1% chose Chinese medicine, and 75.4% received combined treatment. There were various reasons for choosing the management model. Most athletes had ordinary self-recognition of sports injury prevention. Their qualified ability for sports injury prevention was 70%. This ability was significantly correlated with age, education, and sports experience. Within Taiwan's current medical and social environment, elite athletes prefer a combination of Eastern and Western treatments for sports injuries. Each of the medical approaches are widely accepted by elite athletes and their coaches. Doctors trained in Western medicine should learn these alternative treatment methods and apply them effectively in athletes, so that a better medical network can be established.

  20. LONG TERM EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT TRAINING MODALITIES ON POWER, SPEED, SKILL AND ANAEROBIC CAPACITY IN YOUNG MALE BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Balciunas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of 4 months of different training modalities on power, speed, skill and anaerobic capacity in 15-16 year old male basketball players. Thirty five Lithuanian basketball players were randomly assigned into three groups: power endurance group (intermittent exercise, PE, n = 12, general endurance group (continuous exercise, GE, n = 11 and control group (regular basketball training, CG, n = 12. The power endurance model was based in basketball game external structure whereas the general endurance model was based in continuous actions that frequently occur during the basketball game. The training models were used for 16 weeks in sessions conducted 3 times a week during 90 minutes each in the competition period. The following tests were performed: 20 m speed run, Squat jump, Countermovement jump, Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST, 2 min. shooting test and the Shuttle ball-dribbling test. A 3×2 repeated measures ANOVA revealed no statistically significant differences in the 20 m speed run, Squat jump and Countermovement jump (p > 0.05. On the other hand, RAST showed significant increases in PE, with greater increases during the 5th and 6th runs. The PE training model also produced a significant improvement in the shuttle ball-dribbling test (48.7 ± 1.5 in the pretest, 45.5 ± 1.3 in the posttest, p < 0.05. Globally, our results suggest that both training modalities were able to maintain initial values of speed and power, however, the anaerobic capacity and skill increased only in the players from the power endurance group. Therefore, the power endurance training (intermittent high intensity exercise may be more beneficial to prepare junior players according to the game cardiovascular and metabolic specific determinants

  1. An Analysis of Physical Fitness Differences in Soccer,Handball,and Basketball

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUHong; ZHONGPu

    2002-01-01

    This study focuses on the evaluation of the differences of physical fitness among soccer players,handball players,and basktball players,and the investigation of the physical fitness structures of those players,The participants consisted of 160 elite players selected from university teams,Fourteen tests related to health and motor fitness were conducted.The results were subjected to a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) to test the mean vector differences among the three groups of different sport.Nine out of the fourteen tests were of of significantly discriminating results regarding to different group,which include side step,abdominal strength,shuttle running,100m running,pull-up,1,500m running,trunk frunk flexion,grip strength and broad jump,as determined by a stepwise regression approach,MANOVA showed that there was a significant difference(P<0.001) of the mean vectors of the 9 tests among the three events,Discriminant function analysis showed that three discriminant functions were significant,whose correctness was testified by the classification analysis to be over 80.2%,it is demonstrated that elite handball players are good at agility,elite soccer players are speedy,and successful basketball players apparently possess preeeminent muscular strength and endurance.

  2. Outcomes of microfracture in professional basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerynik, Douglas L; Lewullis, Gabriel E; Joves, Brian C; Palmer, Michael P; Tom, James A

    2009-09-01

    Surgical treatment for chondral defects of the knee in competitive running and jumping athletes remains controversial. This study evaluated the performance outcomes of professional basketball players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) who underwent microfracture. Data from 24 professional basketball players from 1997 to 2006 was obtained and analyzed. NBA player efficiency ratings (PER) were calculated for two seasons before and after injury. A control group of 24 players was used for comparison. Study group and control group demographics including age, NBA experience, and minutes per game demonstrated no statistical difference. Mean time to return to an NBA game was 30.0 weeks from the time of surgery. The first season after returning to competition PER and minutes per game decreased by 3.5 (P 0.05) and 3.0 min (P NBA game. On return to competition player performance and minutes per game are diminished.

  3. Random Walk Picture of Basketball Scoring

    CERN Document Server

    Gabel, Alan

    2011-01-01

    We present evidence, based on play-by-play data from all 6087 games from the 2006/07--2009/10 seasons of the National Basketball Association (NBA), that basketball scoring is well described by a weakly-biased continuous-time random walk. The time between successive scoring events follows an exponential distribution, with little memory between different scoring intervals. Using this random-walk picture that is augmented by features idiosyncratic to basketball, we account for a wide variety of statistical properties of scoring, such as the distribution of the score difference between opponents and the fraction of game time that one team is in the lead. By further including the heterogeneity of team strengths, we build a computational model that accounts for essentially all statistical features of game scoring data and season win/loss records of each team.

  4. The price of anarchy in basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Brian

    2010-03-01

    Optimizing the performance of a basketball offense may be viewed as a network problem, wherein each play represents a ``pathway'' through which the ball and players may move from origin (the in-bounds pass) to goal (the basket). Effective field goal percentages from the resulting shot attempts can be used to characterize the efficiency of each pathway. Inspired by recent discussions of the ``price of anarchy'' in traffic networks, this paper makes a formal analogy between a basketball offense and a simplified traffic network. The analysis suggests that there may be a significant difference between taking the highest-percentage shot each time down the court and playing the most efficient possible game. There may also be an analogue of Braess's Paradox in basketball, such that removing a key player from a team can result in the improvement of the team's offensive efficiency.

  5. A review on the basketball jump shot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Victor H A; Rodacki, André L F; Satern, Miriam N

    2015-06-01

    The ability to shoot an effective jump shot in the sport of basketball is critical to a player's success. In an attempt to better understand the aspects related to expert performance, researchers have investigated successful free throws and jump shots of various basketball players and identified movement variables that contribute to their success. The purpose of this study was to complete a systematic review of the scientific literature on the basketball free throw and jump shot for the purpose of revealing the critical components of shooting that coaches, teachers, and players should focus on when teaching, learning, practising, and performing a jump shot. The results of this review are presented in three sections: (a) variables that affect ball trajectory, (b) phases of the jump shot, and

  6. Biomimetics of throwing at basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merticaru, E.; Budescu, E.; Iacob, R. M.

    2016-08-01

    The paper deals with the inverse dynamics of a kinematic chain of the human upper limb when throwing the ball at the basketball, aiming to calculate the torques required to put in action the technical system. The kinematic chain respects the anthropometric features regarding the length and mass of body segments. The kinematic parameters of the motion were determined by measuring the angles of body segments during a succession of filmed pictures of a throw, and the interpolation of these values and determination of the interpolating polynomials for each independent geometric coordinate. Using the Lagrange equations, there were determined the variations with time of the required torques to put in motion the kinematic chain of the type of triple physical pendulum. The obtained values show, naturally, the fact that the biggest torque is that for mimetic articulation of the shoulder, being comparable with those obtained by the brachial biceps muscle of the analyzed human subject. Using the obtained data, there can be conceived the mimetic technical system, of robotic type, with application in sports, so that to perform the motion of ball throwing, from steady position, at the basket.

  7. [Dietary behaviours of volleyball and basketball players].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepańska, Elzbieta; Spałkowska, Agnieszka

    2012-01-01

    In sports, such as basketball and volleyball, players must demonstrate the speed, strength, stamina and concentration. Correct nutrition affects the strength of the muscles and the extension of capacity. It is also necessary for the proper functioning of the nervous system and determines the rate of regeneration after physical effort. The aim of this study was to assess dietary behaviours of professional volleyball and basketball players and compare the prevalence of correct behaviours in both groups. 209 professional volleyball and basketball players from sports clubs localized in six Silesian cities were survived with the mean of author questionnaire. The chi-square test was used to examine differences in the prevalence of the correct behaviours among players. Analysis of the results obtained showed that 52% of the players had 4-5 meals a day. 35% of respondents had wholemeal bread and/or groats daily. Milk and dairy products daily ate 71% of surveyed players, meat and sausages 70% respectively. 41% of respondents had cottage cheese and 28% had fish several times a week. Vegetables and fruit were eaten by 21% and respectively 23% of respondents. Sweets were eaten daily by 40% of surveyed, while fast-food were eaten several times a week by 17% of players. Nutrients for athletes were used by 32%, and vitamin supplementation by 48% of respondents. Prevalence of correct dietary behaviour in the group of professional volleyball and basketball players differed. Basketball players statistically more frequently than volleyball players had 4-5 meals a day, had wholemeal bread and/or thick groats, milk and dairy products, meat and sausages, especially poultry. They had raw vegetables and fruit several times a day. They drank more than 2.5 liters of fluids per day. They also significantly more frequently than volleyball players consumed the fast-food occasionally or never. Dietary behaviours of surveyed players were incorrect. Comparison of prevalence of proper behaviours

  8. Tendinitis rotuliana y pliometría en juniors de alto rendimiento

    OpenAIRE

    Esper Di Cesare, Pablo Alberto; Esper, Pablo Nicolás

    2013-01-01

    Habitualmente los trabajos y estudios publicados sobre el entrenamiento de la potencia pliométrica de miembros inferiores orientados hacia el alto rendimiento deportivo en baloncesto, son realizados sobre atletas de elite, pero no así sobre jugadores que están en la etapa del traspaso de las categorías Junior a las Elites, pero que, en muchos casos, entrenan juntos, sin que se respete su individualidad biológica, llevando en muchos casos a lesiones tendinosas por un inadecuado trabajo metodol...

  9. Back pain in elite sports: A cross-sectional study on 1114 athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platen, Petra

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To establish the prevalence of back pain in German elite athletes; examine the influence of age, sex, sports discipline and training volume; and compare elite athletes with a physically active control group. Methods A standardized and validated online back pain questionnaire was sent by the German Olympic Sports Confederation to approximately 4,000 German national and international elite athletes, and a control group of 253 physically active but non-elite sports students. Results We received responses from 1,114 elite athletes (46.5% male and 53.1% female, mean age 20.9 years ± 4.8 years, mean height 176.5 ± 11.5 cm, mean weight 71.0 ± 10.3 kg) and 166 physically active sports students (74.7% male and 24.1 female, mean age 21.2 ± 2.0 years, mean height 180.0 ± 8.0 cm, mean weight 74.0 ± 14.5 kg). In elite athletes, the lifetime prevalence of back pain was 88.5%, the 12-month prevalence was 81.1%, the 3-month prevalence was 68.3% and the point prevalence was 49.0%, compared with 80.7%, 69.9%, 59.0% and 42.8%, respectively in the control group. The lifetime, 12-month and 3-month prevalences in elite athletes were significantly higher than in the control group. Regarding the individual sports disciplines, the prevalence of back pain was significantly higher in elite rowers, dancers, fencers, gymnasts, track and field athletes, figure skaters and marksmen, and those who play underwater rugby, water polo, basketball, hockey and ice hockey compared with the control group. The prevalence of back pain was significantly lower in elite triathletes. Conclusions Back pain is a common complaint in German elite athletes. Low back pain seems to be a problem in both elite athletes and physically active controls. A high training volume in elite athletes and a low training volume in physically active individuals might increase prevalence rates. Our findings indicate the necessity for specific prevention programs, especially in high-risk sports. Further research

  10. Who needs a referee? How incorrect basketball actions are automatically detected by basketball players' brain

    OpenAIRE

    Alice Mado Proverbio; Nicola Crotti; Mirella Manfredi; Roberta Adorni; Alberto Zani

    2012-01-01

    While the existence of a mirror neuron system (MNS) representing and mirroring simple purposeful actions (such as reaching) is known, neural mechanisms underlying the representation of complex actions (such as ballet, fencing, etc.) that are learned by imitation and exercise are not well understood. In this study, correct and incorrect basketball actions were visually presented to professional basketball players and naïve viewers while their EEG was recorded. The participants had to respond t...

  11. Identifying Power Elites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grau Larsen, Anton; Ellersgaard, Christoph Houman

    2017-01-01

    Specifying network boundaries is fundamental in the study of social structures of elite networks. However, traditional methods do not offer clear criteria on either size or composition of the elite, and rely on numerous ad hoc decisions. A methodological framework that is inductive, reproducible...... and suitable for comparative research is proposed. First, a comprehensive dataset of the 5079 affiliation networks of all potentially powerful sectors in Denmark was assembled. Second, these heterogeneous affiliation networks were weighted to account for potential level of social integration. Third, a weighted...

  12. Immersion Ethnography of Elites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, Brooke

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines an innovative form of data-gathering that brings together two of the greatest methodological challenges social scientists face: conducting classical immersion ethnography and gaining access to elites. The difficulties of accessing elites for research purposes have been well......-documented (Conti and O’Neill 2007; Gilding 2010; Harrington 2003). There has been less scholarly discussion of the challenges posed by traditional ethnography, a method whose claim to scientific status is based on the length and depth of the investigator’s immersion in an organization or culture....

  13. Immersion Ethnography of Elites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, Brooke

    2016-01-01

    This chapter examines an innovative form of data-gathering that brings together two of the greatest methodological challenges social scientists face: conducting classical immersion ethnography and gaining access to elites. The difficulties of accessing elites for research purposes have been well......-documented (Conti and O’Neill 2007; Gilding 2010; Harrington 2003). There has been less scholarly discussion of the challenges posed by traditional ethnography, a method whose claim to scientific status is based on the length and depth of the investigator’s immersion in an organization or culture....

  14. RELATIONS BETWEEN DOMESTIC AND FOREIGN BASKETBALL PLAYER IN BASKETBALL T EAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Morina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this research based on socio-metric test results, to show the relations between domestic basketball players and visitors basketball players within Trepça basketball Club from Mitrovica. The research has been made based on a sample of Kosovo Superleague in basketball, in fact with the basketball players of Trepça from Mitrovica during 2008/09. Based on this sample 16 basketball players aged 19 to 30 have been included. Relevant data about this research have been collected through a questionnaire (Paranosic and Lazareviq, 1975. Based on the socio-metric results we can come to the conclusion that there is a different socio-metric structure in the team. There are individuals who were different from the others in the team based on positive evaluation (+ so-called “star” in the team, who were the domestic players as well as individuals who were negatively (- evaluated, so-called “the negative stars”, who represent a weaker relation in the team, and the were the visitors.

  15. Indicators of technical actions and intensity according to players’ positions in official matches of the brazilian basketball league

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Daniel

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze indicators of technical actions (ITA and intensity according to the players positions in six official matches of the Brazilian Basketball League. Ten elite basketball male players participated in this study (27.60±5.54years. The total frequency of matches’ indicators (∑MI - sum of all matches indicators of each athlete included in the stats and the efficiency ratio (ER from matches’ official stats were the ITA considered. To check the intensity, athletes played with HR transmitter. Were produced descriptive measures; and the magnitude of difference (Δ% between ∑MI and ER second player [Δ%=(1-(ER÷∑MI*100] was calculated. It was observed that when players were classified by Δ% they were automatically classified by their respective positions in 80% of cases. Players’ positions 4 and 5 work closer to the basket and perform the safest and most efficient team play; players’ position 1 plays facing to the basket, organizes the collective game, has the largest ball possession volume which can also enable a safer game. Players' position 5 had higher Δ% between ∑MI and ER, representing safer and efficient game; older players had lower intensity; and the basketball game was developed on average slightly above the lactate threshold HR.

  16. Problem Solvers: Solutions--Playing Basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    In this article, fourth grade Upper Allen Elementary School (Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania) teacher Jeffrey Smith describes his exploration of the Playing Basketball activity. Herein he describes how he found the problem to be an effective way to review concepts associated with the measurement of elapsed time with his students. Additionally, it…

  17. Magnitude of stress reported by basketball referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, D; Winterich, D

    1995-12-01

    723 basketball referees responded to a survey that assessed stress related to officiating. Mean reported ratings were between "very little" and "moderate amount"; only 4% reported high stress. Results are consistent with other accounts, suggesting that most sport officials experience low occupational stress.

  18. Basketball. NAGWS Guide, July 1979 - July 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivino, Geri; And Others

    This guidebook provides the 1979-1980 updated rules and regulations for officiating women's basketball competition. Specifications regarding equipment construction, duties of officials, scoring and timing procedures, definition of playing terms, and player eligibility are provided. Step-by-step instruction for facilitating smooth and…

  19. Problem Solvers: Solutions--Playing Basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    In this article, fourth grade Upper Allen Elementary School (Mechanicsburg, Pennsylvania) teacher Jeffrey Smith describes his exploration of the Playing Basketball activity. Herein he describes how he found the problem to be an effective way to review concepts associated with the measurement of elapsed time with his students. Additionally, it…

  20. Requiring Competencies of Basketball Coaches in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NIKOLAOS KOSTOPOULOS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to identify the competencies of Basketball coaches in Greece. The current study is based on previous work done by Rodrigues et al, (11, and Tripolitsioti et al, (14,17, who measured competencies both in Portuguese basketball coaches and directors of indoor sport facilities in Greece. Two hundred and forty five basketball coaches of three Greek Divisions (first, second and third participated in the study and completed the scale. Exploratory factor analysis revealed 5 factors consisting of 21 competency statements: Sport science/practice (6 items, communication/leadership (5 items, first aid/risk management (2 items, computer skills (4 items, and programming 4 items. Moreover, the results demonstrated that first aid and training skills were the top rated competencies, following by management and computer skills, while facility & event management were the low rated competencies. These results validate that the successful basketball coaches didn’t only have training competencies, but management, computer skills, first aid, communication, facility management and event management.

  1. Kinematics of the free throw in basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, A.; Miller, G.

    1981-06-01

    The kinematics of the two basic styles of free throw in basketball are discussed. It is shown that from a purely kinematic and trajectory point of view, the overhand push shot is preferable to the underhand loop shot. The advantages of the underhand shot lie in the actual execution of the shot.

  2. Metabolic optimisation of the basketball free throw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padulo, Johnny; Attene, Giuseppe; Migliaccio, Gian Mario; Cuzzolin, Francesco; Vando, Stefano; Ardigò, Luca Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The free throw (FT) is a fundamental basketball skill used frequently during a match. Most of actual play occurs at about 85% of maximum heart rate (HR). Metabolic intensity, through fatigue, may influence a technically skilled move as the FT is. Twenty-eight under 17 basketball players were studied while shooting FTs on a regular indoor basketball court. We investigated FT accuracy in young male basketball players shooting at three different HRs: at rest, at 50% and at 80% of maximum experimentally obtained HR value. We found no significant FT percentage difference between rest and 50% of the maximum HR (FT percentage about 80%; P > 0.05). Differently, at 80% of the maximum HR the FT percentage decreased significantly by more than 20% (P < 0.001) down to about 60%. No preliminary warm-up is needed before entering game for the FT accuracy. Furthermore, we speculate that time-consuming, cooling-off routines usually performed by shooters before each FT may be functional to improve its accuracy.

  3. Return to Play After Forearm and Hand Injuries in the National Basketball Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Kyle W.; Hearns, Krystle A.; Carlson, Michelle Gerwin

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hand injuries can result in significant time away from competition for professional basketball players. Time to return to play after hand injuries in elite athletes has not been well described. Purpose: To report the return to play from metacarpal fractures, phalangeal fractures, and thumb ligament tears in National Basketball Association (NBA) players over a 5-year period. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: The NBA transaction report was analyzed from January 2009 to May 2014. Players were identified if they were added to the inactive list (IL), missed games due to their injury, or underwent surgery as a result of hand injury. Number of games missed due to injury, days spent on the IL, and age at injury were calculated by injury type and location. Results: One hundred thirty-seven injuries were identified: 39 injuries to the hand and 98 injuries to the finger. Three major injury patterns were identified and analyzed: metacarpal fractures (n = 26), phalangeal fractures (n = 33), and thumb ligament tears (n = 9). The type of injury sustained affected return to play (P < .05). All thumb ligament tears required surgery and had the longest return to play of 67.5 ± 17.7 days (P < .05). The return to play for surgically treated metacarpal fractures (56.7 ± 26.3 days) was significantly greater than nonsurgically treated metacarpal fractures (26.3 ± 12.1 days; P < .01). Return to play for surgically repaired phalangeal fractures (46.2 ± 10.8 days) trended greater but was not significantly different than phalangeal fractures treated nonsurgically (33.3 ± 28.5 days; P = .21). Conclusion: Hand injuries in professional basketball players can lead to prolonged periods of time away from competition, especially after surgery. This study provides guidelines on expected return to play in the NBA after these common hand injuries. PMID:28251168

  4. A Very Economic Elite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellersgaard, Christoph Houman; Larsen, Anton Grau; Munk, Martin D.

    2012-01-01

    of the top 100 CEOs in Britain, France, Germany and Denmark. In France and Britain, this reproduction is mediated through degrees from elite universities. In Germany, the principle of admission is the incorporated cultural capital acquired through an exclusive bourgeois origin combined with any university...

  5. Hvem bliver morgendagens elite?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weirsøe, Mathilde

    2010-01-01

    Bare fordi du er født med en guldske i munden, er du ikke sikret en plads blandt morgendagens elite. Vidensamfundet kræver mangfoldighed og krøllede hjerner, og det udfordrer de gængse vinder- og taberetiketter. Eller gør det?...

  6. Athletic performance and career longevity following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in the National Basketball Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kester, Benjamin S; Behery, Omar A; Minhas, Shobhit V; Hsu, Wellington K

    2016-03-12

    To identify the impact of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction on performance and career longevity for National Basketball Association (NBA) players. Seventy-nine players (80 knees) with acute ACL tears in the NBA between the 1984-2014 seasons, and 112 age, height, weight, and performance-matched controls were identified. Pre- and post-injury performance outcomes including seasons played, games played, games started, minutes per game, points per game, field goals, 3-point shots, rebounds, assists, steals, blocks, turnovers, personal fouls, usage percentage and player efficiency ratings were compared between cases and controls using independent samples t tests and Fisher's exact tests. Sixty-eight of seventy-nine players (86.1 %) returned to play in the NBA following ACL reconstruction. Mean length of post-operative play was 1.84 years shorter than matched controls (P = 0.001). There was a significantly higher rate of attrition from professional basketball for players with a history of ACL reconstruction (P = 0.014). In the first full season following surgery, players started in 15.5 fewer games (P = 0.001), they played in 17.3 fewer games (P NBA following ACL reconstruction, although playing time, games played, player efficiency ratings and career lengths are significantly impacted in the post-operative period. These data should be used to manage patients' expectations regarding their abilities to return to elite levels of athletic performance.

  7. The Influence of Unsportsmanlike Fouls on Basketball Teams' Performance According to Context-Related Variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Miguel-Ángel; Toro, Enrique Ortega; Furley, Philip

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to analyze the temporal effects that unsportsmanlike fouls may have on basketball teams' scoring performance under consideration of context-related variables. The authors analyzed 130 unsportsmanlike fouls from 362 elite basketball games (men's and women's Olympic Games, European and World Championships). The context-related variables studied were score-line, quality of opposition, timeout situation, minutes remaining, and player status. The data were analyzed with linear-regression models. The results showed that both teams (the team that made the foul and the opponent) had similar positive scoring performances during 1 and 3 ball possessions after the unsportsmanlike foul (short-term effect). However, 5 ball possessions after the foul (midterm effect), the team that made the foul had a scoring disadvantage (-0.96) and the opponent team an advantage (0.78). The context-related variable quality of opposition was significant only during 1 ball possession, with negative effects for the team that made the foul and positive effects for the opponent. The final outcome showed a positive effect for score-line when the unsportsmanlike foul was made (0.96) and for quality of opposition (0.64).

  8. Somatotype characteristics of male sprinters, basketball, soccer, and field hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toriola, A L; Salokun, S O; Mathur, D N

    1985-12-01

    In an effort to describe the physique associated with regular involvement in sports activity, the somatotypes of a group of 51 elite male athletes comprising sprinters (n = 10), basketball (n = 12), soccer (n = 15), and field hockey (n = 14) players, and 11 male nonathletes were studied. The subjects' physiques were assessed using the Health-Carter anthropometric somatotype method. Analysis of variance and Newman-Keuls post hoc method were used to test for significant differences among the mean somatotype ratings of the groups. The findings indicated that the nonathletes (3.5) were significantly more endomorphic (P less than 0.05) than the soccer players (2.5) and sprinters (2.4). The sprinters (3.6) and basketball players (3.7) had markedly higher ectomorphic ratings (P less than 0.05) as compared with the hockey players (2.0). The mesomorphic component did not differentiate the groups. The differences observed among the groups which could be attributed to genetic and environmental influences reflect the variability in the morphological characteristics of athletes and nonathletes.

  9. A caffeinated energy drink improves jump performance in adolescent basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abian-Vicen, Javier; Puente, Carlos; Salinero, Juan José; González-Millán, Cristina; Areces, Francisco; Muñoz, Gloria; Muñoz-Guerra, Jesús; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effects of a commercially available energy drink on shooting precision, jump performance and endurance capacity in young basketball players. Sixteen young basketball players (first division of a junior national league; 14.9 ± 0.8 years; 73.4 ± 12.4 kg; 182.3 ± 6.5 cm) volunteered to participate in the research. They ingested either (a) an energy drink that contained 3 mg of caffeine per kg of body weight or (b) a placebo energy drink with the same appearance and taste. After 60 min for caffeine absorption, they performed free throw shooting and three-point shooting tests. After that, participants performed a maximal countermovement jump (CMJ), a repeated maximal jumps test for 15 s (RJ-15), and the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1). Urine samples were obtained before and 30 min after testing. In comparison to the placebo, the ingestion of the caffeinated energy drink did not affect precision during the free throws (Caffeine = 70.7 ± 11.8 % vs placebo = 70.3 ± 11.0 %; P = 0.45), the three-point shooting test (39.9 ± 11.8 vs 38.1 ± 12.8 %; P = 0.33) or the distance covered in the Yo-Yo IR1 (2,000 ± 706 vs 1,925 ± 702 m; P = 0.19). However, the energy drink significantly increased jump height during the CMJ (38.3 ± 4.4 vs 37.5 ± 4.4 cm; P energy drink (3 mg/kg body weight) increased jump performance although it did not affect basketball shooting precision.

  10. Application of Monte Carlo Simulations to Improve Basketball Shooting Strategy

    CERN Document Server

    Min, Byeong June

    2016-01-01

    The underlying physics of basketball shooting seems to be a straightforward example of the Newtonian mechanics that can easily be traced by numerical methods. However, a human basketball player does not make use of all the possible basketball trajectories. Instead, a basketball player will build up a database of successful shots and select the trajectory that has the greatest tolerance to small variations of the real world. We simulate the basketball player's shooting training as a Monte Carlo sequence to build optimal shooting strategies, such as the launch speed and angle of the basketball, and whether to take a direct shot or a bank shot, as a function of the player's court positions and height. The phase space volume that belongs to the successful launch velocities generated by Monte Carlo simulations are then used as the criterion to optimize a shooting strategy that incorporates not only mechanical, but human factors as well.

  11. Transfer of motor and perceptual skills from basketball to darts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienhoff, Rebecca; Hopwood, Melissa J; Fischer, Lennart; Strauss, Bernd; Baker, Joseph; Schorer, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    The quiet eye is a perceptual skill associated with expertise and superior performance; however, little is known about the transfer of quiet eye across domains. We attempted to replicate previous skill-based differences in quiet eye and investigated whether transfer of motor and perceptual skills occurs between similar tasks. Throwing accuracy and quiet eye duration for skilled and less-skilled basketball players were examined in basketball free throw shooting and the transfer task of dart throwing. Skilled basketball players showed significantly higher throwing accuracy and longer quiet eye duration in the basketball free throw task compared to their less-skilled counterparts. Further, skilled basketball players showed positive transfer from basketball to dart throwing in accuracy but not in quiet eye duration. Our results raise interesting questions regarding the measurement of transfer between skills.

  12. Sprint, agility, strength and endurance capacity in wheelchair basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Yanci

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aims of the present study were, firstly, to determine the reliability and reproducibility of an agility T-test and Yo-Yo 10 m recovery test; and secondly, to analyse the physical characteristics measured by sprint, agility, strength and endurance field tests in wheelchair basketball (WB players. 16 WB players (33.06 ± 7.36 years, 71.89 ± 21.71 kg and sitting body height 86.07 ± 6.82 cm belonging to the national WB league participated in this study. Wheelchair sprint (5 and 20 m without ball, and 5 and 20 m with ball agility (T-test and pick-up test strength (handgrip and maximal pass and endurance (Yo-Yo 10 m recovery test were performed. T-test and Yo-Yo 10 m recovery test showed good reproducibility values (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.74-0.94. The WB players’ results in 5 and 20 m sprints without a ball were 1.87 ± 0.21 s and 5.70 ± 0.43 s and with a ball 2.10 ± 0.30 s and 6.59 ± 0.61 s, being better than those reported in the literature. Regarding the pick-up test results (16.05 ± 0.52 s and maximal pass (8.39 ± 1.77 m, players showed worse values than those obtained in elite players. The main contribution of the present study is the characterization of the physical performance profile of WB players using a field test battery. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the agility T-test and the aerobic Yo-Yo 10 m recovery test are reliable; consequently they may be appropriate instruments for measuring physical fitness in WB.

  13. Injury in the national basketball association: a 17-year overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakos, Mark C; Domb, Benjamin; Starkey, Chad; Callahan, Lisa; Allen, Answorth A

    2010-07-01

    Injury patterns in elite athletes over long periods continue to evolve. The goal of this study was to review of the injuries and medical conditions afflicting athletes competing in the National Basketball Association (NBA) over a 17-year period. Descriptive epidemiological study. Injuries and player demographic information were reported by each team's athletic trainer. Criteria for reportable injuries were those that resulted in (1) physician referral, (2) a practice or game being missed, or (3) emergency care. The demographics, frequency of injury, time lost, and game exposures were tabulated, and game-related injury rates and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. A total of 1094 players appeared in the database 3843 times (3.3 ± 2.6 seasons). Lateral ankle sprains were the most frequent orthopaedic injury (n, 1658; 13.2%), followed by patellofemoral inflammation (n, 1493; 11.9%), lumbar strains (n, 999; 7.9%), and hamstring strains (n, 413; 3.3%). The most games missed were related to patellofemoral inflammation (n, 10 370; 17.5%), lateral ankle sprains (n, 5223; 8.8%), knee sprains (n, 4369; 7.4%), and lumbar strains (n, 3933; 6.6%). No correlations were found between injury rate and player demographics, including age, height, weight, and NBA experience. Professional athletes in the NBA experience a high rate of game-related injuries. Patellofemoral inflammation is the most significant problem in terms of days lost in competition, whereas ankle sprains are the most common injury. True ligamentous injuries of the knee were surprisingly rare. Importantly, player demographics were not correlated with injury rates. Further investigation is necessary regarding the consequences and sport-specific treatment of various injuries in NBA players. Knowledge of these injury patterns can help to guide treatments and provide more accurate guidelines for an athlete to return to play.

  14. CORRELATION BETWEEN ANXIETY AND AGRESSION WITH SPECIFIC BASKETBALL PRECISION

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    Fadil Nika

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The research has been conducted on 89 entities – active basketball players aged from 15 to 18. The aim of the research is to establish the level of correlation between the conative pathological factors and specific basketball precision. According to the obtained data the conclusion is that there is significant interdependence of these two sides of anthropologic status with the treated basketball players.

  15. Effect of External Ankle Support on Ankle and Knee Biomechanics During the Cutting Maneuver in Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klem, Nardia-Rose; Wild, Catherine Y; Williams, Sian A; Ng, Leo

    2017-03-01

    Despite the high prevalence of lower extremity injuries in female basketball players as well as a high proportion of athletes who wear ankle braces, there is a paucity of research pertaining to the effects of ankle bracing on ankle and knee biomechanics during basketball-specific tasks. To compare the effects of a lace-up brace (ASO), a hinged brace (Active T2), and no ankle bracing (control) on ankle and knee joint kinematics and joint reaction forces in female basketball athletes during a cutting maneuver. Controlled laboratory study. Twenty healthy, semi-elite female basketball players performed a cutting task under both ankle brace conditions (lace-up ankle brace and hinged ankle brace) and a no-brace condition. The 3-dimensional kinematics of the ankle and knee during the cutting maneuver were measured with an 18-camera motion analysis system (250 Hz), and ground-reaction force data were collected by use of a multichannel force plate (2000 Hz) to quantify ankle and knee joint reaction forces. Conditions were randomized using a block randomization method. Compared with the control condition, the hinged ankle brace significantly restricted peak ankle inversion (mean difference, 1.7°; P = .023). No significant difference was found between the lace-up brace and the control condition ( P = .865). Compared with the lace-up brace, the hinged brace significantly reduced ankle and knee joint compressive forces at the time of peak ankle dorsiflexion (mean difference, 1.5 N/kg [ P = .018] and 1.4 N/kg [ P = .013], respectively). Additionally, the hinged ankle brace significantly reduced knee anterior shear forces compared with the lace-up brace both during the deceleration phase and at peak ankle dorsiflexion (mean difference, 0.8 N/kg [ P = .018] and 0.9 N/kg [ P = .011], respectively). The hinged ankle brace significantly reduced ankle inversion compared with the no-brace condition and reduced ankle and knee joint forces compared with the lace-up brace in a female

  16. Finger and Palm Dynamic Pressure Monitoring for Basketball Shooting

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    Chiao-Fang Hung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study verified general inferences on the finger and palm pressure distribution of a basketball player in the moment before that player shoots a basketball through a scientific qualitative testing method. We mounted the sensor on the hands of college basketball players and monitored the dynamic pressure of each player’s hand while the player threw a basketball. The dynamic pressure distribution of the fingers and palm of a basketball player throwing a ball can be verified. According to the experimental results, college basketball players typically use the index finger to control the direction and power of force in the moment before shooting a basketball. This study successfully used a scientific qualitative test method to monitor the dynamic pressure of the fingers and palms of basketball players and verified the general inference that a typical basketball player mainly uses the index finger to control the direction and power of force in the moment before throwing a ball. In the future, this study, measuring the dynamic pressure distribution of the fingers and palm, can be applied to simulate hand manipulation in many biomedical and robotic applications.

  17. Individual recovery profiles in basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Jordi; Ramos-Castro, Juan; Rodas, Gil; Tarragó, Joan R; Capdevila, Lluís

    2015-01-01

    In the sport context, recovery has been characterized as a multifactor process (physiological, psychological, behavioral, social, etc.). This study takes a multidisciplinary approach to find psychophysiological markers of the stress-recovery process. It aims to determine how athletes' specific recovery actions relate to their perceptions of recovery, and Heart Rate Variability (HRV). A total of 196 assessments were analyzed from 6 players on a men's professional basketball team within the Liga LEB Oro basketball federation (2012/2013 season). Perceptions of recovery, recovery strategies, and HRV were recorded. The results show a pattern of individual differences in behavior related to athletes' recovery actions and HRV profiles throughout the season (p < .05). Moreover, we observed that each player had different recovery needs. In light of these results, we suggest an individualistic approach to evaluating and monitoring recovery to attend more accurately to each player's recovery needs.

  18. Basketball Surfaces and Coefficient of Restitution

    OpenAIRE

    Kristyn Peacock; Faith Pearson

    2015-01-01

    A basketball was released from varying drop heights to simulate the impact speeds of a typical soft, medium, and hard dribble. This was repeated across four different surfaces that students typically play on–exposed aggregate concrete, maple wood flooring, EPI Outdoor Sport flooring, and playground rubber mesh. From the measured drop and bounce heights, the coefficient of restitution(COR)was calculated. It was concluded that only playground rubber mesh had COR’s below the regula...

  19. Field dependence-independence of basketball referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabernero, B; Márquez, S

    1999-06-01

    This study examined the field dependence-independence of basketball referees. A total of 205 subjects (nonathletes, athletes active in individual or team sports, and referees) completed the Group Embedded Figures Test. Analysis indicated no significant differences among referees due to age, group, or number of years officiating. Statistically significant lower scores were obtained by team-sport players and referees than by nonathletes. Mean scores of team-sport players and referees did not differ significantly.

  20. Applying Deep Learning to Basketball Trajectories

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Rajiv; Romijnders, Rob

    2016-01-01

    One of the emerging trends for sports analytics is the growing use of player and ball tracking data. A parallel development is deep learning predictive approaches that use vast quantities of data with less reliance on feature engineering. This paper applies recurrent neural networks in the form of sequence modeling to predict whether a three-point shot is successful. The models are capable of learning the trajectory of a basketball without any knowledge of physics. For comparison, a baseline ...

  1. The Economics of Discrimination: Evidence from Basketball

    OpenAIRE

    Kahn, Lawrence M.

    2009-01-01

    This Chapter reviews evidence on discrimination in basketball, primarily examining studies on race but with some discussion of gender as well. I focus on discrimination in pay, hiring, and retention against black NBA players and coaches and pay disparities by gender among college coaches. There was much evidence for each of these forms of discrimination against black NBA players in the 1980s. However, there appears to be less evidence of racial compensation, hiring and retention discriminatio...

  2. A Random Walk Picture of Basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Alan; Redner, Sidney

    2012-02-01

    We analyze NBA basketball play-by-play data and found that scoring is well described by a weakly-biased, anti-persistent, continuous-time random walk. The time between successive scoring events follows an exponential distribution, with little memory between events. We account for a wide variety of statistical properties of scoring, such as the distribution of the score difference between opponents and the fraction of game time that one team is in the lead.

  3. Quantification of the perceived training load and its relationship with changes in physical fitness performance in junior soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Rey, Erreka; Lezaun, Alejandro; Los Arcos, Asier

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between perceived respiratory and muscular training load (TL) and changes in physical fitness in elite and non-elite junior soccer players. Twenty-eight elite (n = 14, 17.6 ± 0.6 years, 70.3 ± 4.4 kg, 179.7 ± 5.6 cm) and non-elite (n = 14, 17.5 ± 0.5 years, 71.1 ± 6.5 kg, 178.1 ± 5.6 cm) soccer players belonging to a Spanish first and third division football academies and competing in junior Spanish first division (2012-2013) participated in the study. Countermovement jump (CMJ), CMJ arm swing, 5 and 15 m sprints and the Université de Montreal endurance test were performed in January and 9 weeks later in March. In order to quantify TLs, after each training session and match, players reported their session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) separately for respiratory (sRPEres) and leg musculature (sRPEmus). Elite players accumulated greater weekly training volume (361 ± 14 vs. 280 ± 48 min; effect sizes (ES) = 5.23 ± 1.74; most likely), and perceived respiratory (1460 ± 184 vs. 1223 ± 260 AU; ES = 1.12 ± 0.79; very likely) and muscular (1548 ± 216 vs. 1318 ± 308 AU; ES = 0.99 ± 0.84; likely) TL than did non-elite players. Training volume, sRPEres-TL and sRPEmus-TL were positively and largely correlated (r = 0.67-0.71) with the changes in aerobic fitness. The present results suggest that a low training volume and TL can impair improvement in aerobic fitness in junior soccer players during the in-season period.

  4. Training Patterns of Wheelchair Basketball Players in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatar, Yasar

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze technical drills, warm-up and cool-down exercises used by wheelchair basketball players of the Turkish league in relation to training sessions. 33 male wheelchair basketball players participated in the study (mean age 26.6[plus or minus]5,95 years). All players reported that they used warm-up exercises before…

  5. What Is the Half-Life of Basketball Teams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrepic, Zdeslav

    2013-01-01

    What do basketball teams have in common with radioactive nuclei? It turns out, there is more here than first meets the eye. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) basketball tournaments feeds fans' craving when NBA competitions are not in swing, and the college tournament time has been referred to as "March Madness" or…

  6. Labor Market Structure and Salary Determination among Professional Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Michael

    1988-01-01

    The author investigates the labor market structure and determinants of salaries for professional basketball players. An expanded version of the resource perspective is used. A three-tiered model of labor market segmentation is revealed for professional basketball players, but other variables also are important in salary determination. (Author/CH)

  7. What Is the Half-Life of Basketball Teams?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrepic, Zdeslav

    2013-01-01

    What do basketball teams have in common with radioactive nuclei? It turns out, there is more here than first meets the eye. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) basketball tournaments feeds fans' craving when NBA competitions are not in swing, and the college tournament time has been referred to as "March Madness" or…

  8. Court Reconstruction for Camera Calibration in Broadcast Basketball Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Pei-Chih; Cheng, Wei-Chih; Wang, Yu-Shuen; Chu, Hung-Kuo; Tang, Nick C; Liao, Hong-Yuan Mark

    2016-05-01

    We introduce a technique of calibrating camera motions in basketball videos. Our method particularly transforms player positions to standard basketball court coordinates and enables applications such as tactical analysis and semantic basketball video retrieval. To achieve a robust calibration, we reconstruct the panoramic basketball court from a video, followed by warping the panoramic court to a standard one. As opposed to previous approaches, which individually detect the court lines and corners of each video frame, our technique considers all video frames simultaneously to achieve calibration; hence, it is robust to illumination changes and player occlusions. To demonstrate the feasibility of our technique, we present a stroke-based system that allows users to retrieve basketball videos. Our system tracks player trajectories from broadcast basketball videos. It then rectifies the trajectories to a standard basketball court by using our camera calibration method. Consequently, users can apply stroke queries to indicate how the players move in gameplay during retrieval. The main advantage of this interface is an explicit query of basketball videos so that unwanted outcomes can be prevented. We show the results in Figs. 1, 7, 9, 10 and our accompanying video to exhibit the feasibility of our technique.

  9. Behavioral Momentum in Sports: A Partial Replication with Women's Basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roane, Henry S.; Kelley, Michael E.; Trosclair, Nicole M.; Hauer, Lindsay S.

    2004-01-01

    Previous research has applied the behavioral momentum metaphor to men's college basketball. In the current investigation, the relative rate of reinforcement prior to and following adversities (e.g., turnovers, fouls) and periods of time-out were examined in a subset of women's college basketball games.

  10. Recognition accuracy by experienced men and women players of basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millslagle, Duane G

    2002-08-01

    This study examined 30 experienced basketball players' recognition accuracy by sex, playing position (guard, forward, and center), and situations in the game of basketball. The study used a perceptual cognitive paradigm in which subjects viewed slides of structured and unstructured game situations and accurately recognized the presence or absence of the basketball. A significant difference in recognition accuracy by sex, players' position, and structure of the game situation was found. Male players' recognition accuracy was better than the female players'. The recognition accuracy of subjects who played guard was better than that of subjects who played forward or center. The players' recognition accuracy was more accurate when observing structured plays versus unstructured plays. The conclusion of this study suggested that experienced basketball players differ in their cognitive and visual searching processes by sex and player position within the sport of basketball.

  11. Body Composition of Elite Female Players in Five Different Sports Games

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    Mala Lucia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to identify and compare body composition (BC variables in elite female athletes (age ± years: volleyball (27.4 ± 4.1, softball (23.6 ± 4.9, basketball (25.9 ± 4.2, soccer (23.2 ± 4.2 and handball (24.0 ± 3.5 players. Fat-free mass (FFM, fat mass, percentage of fat mass (FMP, body cell mass (BCM, extracellular mass (ECM, their ratio, the percentage of BCM in FFM, the phase angle (α, and total body water, with a distinction between extracellular (ECW and intracellular water, were measured using bioimpedance analysis. MANOVA showed significant differences in BC variables for athletes in different sports (F60.256 = 2.93, p 0.05. Significant changes in other BC variables were found in analyses when sport was used as an independent variable. Soccer players exhibited the most distinct BC, differing from players of other sports in 8 out of 10 variables. In contrast, the athletes with the most similar BC were volleyball and basketball players, who did not differ in any of the compared variables. Discriminant analysis revealed two significant functions (p < 0.01. The first discriminant function primarily represented differences based on the FFM proportion (volleyball, basketball vs. softball, soccer. The second discriminant function represented differences based on the ECW proportion (softball vs. soccer. Although all of the members of the studied groups competed at elite professional levels, significant differences in the selected BC variables were found. The results of the present study may serve as normative values for comparison or target values for training purposes.

  12. The elite in economics

    OpenAIRE

    RUIZ-CASTILLO, Javier; Carrasco, Raquel; Albarrán, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    We use a sample consisting of economists working in 2007 in the world top 81 Economics departments, and Econometric Society Fellows working elsewhere. Productivity is based in each individual’s publications in four journal equivalent classes. We identify three elites consisting of 123, 332, and 908 researchers in a total sample of 2,605 scholars, which are partitioned into the U.S., the European Union, and the rest of the world. We investigate the following questions. (1) The “fun...

  13. STRESS FRACTURE PREVALENCE IN ELITE FIGURE SKATERS

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    Sanda Dubravcic-Simunjak

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Figure skating is a physically demanding sport that requires a unique combination of artistic ability, speed, agility, flexibility and power. During the last decades not only the competitive schedule has become tougher, but after introduction of the new judging system in 2003, also more emphasis is put on difficult technical elements, jumps, steps and spins (ISU Rules, 2006. More studies about possible increasing prevalence of stress fractures in figure skaters and contributing factors are lacking (Dubravcic-Simunjak et al., 2003; Moran, 2000; Pecina et al., 1990. Therefore the aim of this study was to obtain data about the current stress fracture cumulative risk among elite junior and senior figure skaters, as well as possible factors that may contribute to stress fracture incidence. An anonymous questionnaire, divided into 5 sections, inquired about the prevalence of stress fracture were mailed and distributed to all 62 International Skating Union (ISU members by the ISU headquarters in Lausanne, Switzerland. The guidelines of the Helsinki declaration 2004 were followed. From the 644 skaters who received the questionnaire, 412 completed ones were returned from 110 female juniors (78 single skaters, 12 pair skaters and 20 ice dancers and 135 female seniors (97 single skaters, 16 pair skaters and 22 ice dancers and from 79 male juniors (47 single skaters, 12 pair skaters and 20 ice dancers and 88 male seniors (50 single skaters, 16 pair skaters and 22 ice dancers, coming from different ISU members. The response rate was 62% in females and 67% in males. The median age for female skaters was 16 years and for males 18 years (range 12-25 years. All participants started to skate between 3 and 6 years of age and started to compete in national and international competitions when they were between 5 and 7 years old. At the time of this analysis, they had been skating between 9 and 20 years.In females 41 (16.7%, and in males 25 (13.8% figure skaters

  14. Dinamika Elit Lokal Madura

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    Imam Zamroni

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The priyayi played a vital role in leading the Indonesian community during the colonial era. The same applies to Madura society. During the colonial era, power wielded by the priyayi was constricted on the basis of Madura culture and was strengthened by the bureaucratic power structure at both the village and district/ city level. This was manifested in such ways as serving as a klébun or bupati. However, the pattern of priyayi power, which was underpinned by feudalism waned, being replaced by Islamic religious leaders known as kiai. During the New Order regime, kiai in Madura played a very dominant role which was not only limited to the realm of religion, but also all aspects of life ranging from social, politics, economic, to culture. Nevertheless, with the dawn of the reformation era, economic elites have catapulted themselves to prominence, and there are growing signs that they are replacing the role which religious leaders used to play in Madura society in general and in the political domain in particular through forming shadow state as a tool used to exert control over Madura Political dynamics. This concise paper presents as discussion of ‘political fights’ among cultural, religious, bureaucratic, and economic elites in Madura.

  15. The National Basketball Association eye injury study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagelbaum, B M; Starkey, C; Hersh, P S; Donnenfeld, E D; Perry, H D; Jeffers, J B

    1995-06-01

    To investigate the epidemiology of eye injuries sustained by professional basketball players in the National Basketball Association (NBA). A prospective study involving all NBA athletes who sustained eye injuries between February 1, 1992, and June 20, 1993, was conducted. Twenty-seven NBA team athletic trainers, physicians, and ophthalmologists were provided data forms to complete for any player examined for an eye injury. Practice and game exposures during the preseason, regular season, playoffs, and championships were included. Of the 1092 injuries sustained by NBA players during the 17-month period, 59 (5.4%) involved the eye and adnexa. Eighteen (30.5%) of the injuries occurred while the player was in the act of rebounding, and 16 (27.1%) while the player was on offense. The most common diagnoses included 30 abrasions or lacerations to the eyelid (50.9%), 17 contusions (edema and/or ecchymosis) to the eyelid or periorbital region (28.8%), and seven corneal abrasions (11.9%). There were three orbital fractures (5.1%). Most injuries were caused by fingers (35.6%) or elbows (28.8%). Nine players (15.3%) missed subsequent games because of their injury. Fifty-seven players (96.6%) were not wearing protective eyewear at the time of injury. The incidence of eye injuries in NBA players during the 17-month period was 1.44 per 1000 game exposures. Frequent physical contact in professional basketball players leaves them at great risk for sustaining eye injuries. To prevent these injuries, protective eyewear is recommended.

  16. Basketball Surfaces and Coefficient of Restitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristyn Peacock

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A basketball was released from varying drop heights to simulate the impact speeds of a typical soft, medium, and hard dribble. This was repeated across four different surfaces that students typically play on–exposed aggregate concrete, maple wood flooring, EPI Outdoor Sport flooring, and playground rubber mesh. From the measured drop and bounce heights, the coefficient of restitution(CORwas calculated. It was concluded that only playground rubber mesh had COR’s below the regulation range, with the other three surfaces having COR’s within regulation.

  17. MENSTRUAL STATUS DIFFERENCES OF ELITE TURKISH FEMALE ATHLETES FROM VARIOUS TEAM SPORTS

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    Gülfem ERSÖZ

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the menstrual status of elite Turkish female athletes from different team sports. The study universe was composed of elite female athletes playing in basketball, soccer, field hockey and handball teams in the Turkish Premier League and Turkish Super League. The study sample consisted of 133 randomly-selected female athletes playing in soccer (n=33, basketball (n=29, handball (n=27 and field hockey (n= 44 teams competing in these leagues. An 37-item questionnaire was administered to collect data on the demographic and menstrual status of participants. Cronbach’s alpha reliability coefficient was found 0.78 for the questionnaire. Frequency distributions of the study data were calculated on the basis of two or more variables. A chi-square test was applied to some items and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was applied to unrelated samples. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 10.0. No significant relationship was found between menstrual disorders and sport branches (χ2=3.893, p≥.05. A significant relationship was detected between sports branches and changes to the menstrual cycle related to sporting activity (χ2=12.165, p≤.05. 8.3% of participants suffered from menstrual problems after starting sports. No significant relationship was detected between training frequency and menstrual cycle disorders (χ2=1.178, p≥.05. A statistically-significant relationship was found between sports branches and the effects of menstruation on the sports activity in favor of the female athletes who stated that they were psychologically affected by menstruation (χ2=15.53, p≤.05 and that they experienced psychological symptoms related to menstruation (χ2=15.53, p≤.05. It is concluded that sports activities can affect the menstrual-cycle and that, among elite Turkish female athletes, such effects occur most commonly as psychological symptoms.

  18. The rules and the chance in Basketball: a historical approach

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    António Paulo Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper intends to link positive influence of the evolution in rules and the rising reduction casualty with the basketball game dynamics. Throughout a metaphoric perspective it assumes that casualty factors were somehow covered up since the game invention and they were somehow sleepy during the game evolution. This metaphoric point is justified with an historical analysis to Naismith’s goals, presuming the game was created and reinforced by the evolutionary trends of his rules across the time. It was concluded that casualty role in basketball performance was controlled by an evolutionary direction, where the value of merit, ability and expertise are seen as determinants of basketball dynamics.

  19. Personality of young basketball and feasibility of improving the sport.

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    Artemenko T.G.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of personal psychological features of young basketball players that influence the formation of sports skills and gain value for selection in basketball at the stage of initial training. At this stage of preparation identified personal characteristics (type of thinking, level of intellectual development, trait anxiety, volitional qualities, properties, attention, aggression, which show significant correlation between the parameters of readiness at certain time intervals during the initial training and, accordingly, at the age of young basketball players from 10 to 12 years.

  20. Match intensity and heart rate predictors in top level basketball referees during men's Eurobasket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquera, Alejandro; Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Calleja-González, Julio; Leicht, Anthony S

    2016-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the heart rate (HR) response of referees during men's Eurobasket Championship and identify relationships body composition and other match variables as predictor of HR. Thirty-one elite basketball referees (REF, 40.4±4.3 years) were analyzed during a random sample of 38 matches in the 2013 men's Eurobasket Championship, one of the best basketball competitions in the World. The height, body mass, triceps, abdominal, supraspinale, subscapular, front thigh and medial calf skinfolds were measured. The result was that out of all 4 quarters of every game (Q1, Q2, Q3 and Q4), HR (bpm and % HRmax) in Q1 (164.2±13.9 bpm; 90.5±7.1%) was the highest (P<0.05). Likewise, Q2 (162.5±15.7 bpm; 90.5±7.1%) values were higher (P<0.05) than Q3 (158.5±13.2 bpm; 88.2±7.3%) and Q4 (158.4±13.4 bpm; 88.2±7.5%). The study also showed that variables of triceps skinfold (β: 1.33; P<0.000), years of experience (β: -0.40; P<0.05) and fat mass (β: -2.51; P<0.000) were the variables that significantly predicted the physical performance. In conclusion, the heart rate directly was associated with REF's anthropometric features and years of experience. However did not show any association with different match variables such as: total scores, differences scores among teams, duration of the match or ratio time/point ratio.

  1. Investigation into the Effects of Eight Weeks of Step Aerobic Dance Practice on Static Balance, Flexibility and Selected Basketball Skills in Young Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavli, Özhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of eight weeks of step aerobic exercises on static balance, flexibility and selected basketball skills in young basketball players. A total of 20 basketball players (average age 16.1 ± 0.7 years and average sporting age 4.1 ± 0.7 years) voluntarily joined the study. Participants were randomly…

  2. Obstacles Facing the Iranian Basketball Academy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamta Hadian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study, which is a strategic study with a mixed research approach aimed to identify obstacles facing the academies of Iranian Basketball Federation. The population comprises board of directors and committees responsible for Education and Talent Spotting Association, academy administrators, physical education instructors, qualified experts, professors, coaches, referees and heads of delegations who were asked via interviews and questionnaire (exploratory manner to state internal and external obstacles facing basketball academies in following 8 components in order of importance utilizing the Delphi method: management and planning, training, human resources, financial resources, talent spotting, scientific and research and information technology, venues and infrastructures. Items were identified in 34 external and 49 internal factors. For weighting and prioritizing of items, the questionnaire was completed by 27 subjects employing AHP method based on pairwise comparisons. SPSS software version18 was utilized for descriptive statistics while AHP method in Expert Choice software was utilized for inferential statistics. At the end, a total of 11 executive strategies were proposed for removing the obstacles.

  3. Kinanthropometric characteristics in teenager basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Abella del Campo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Basketball is a sport with a high heterogeneity anthropometric as playing position. Point guard is usually the lowest player but also the fastest. Guard is similar to point guard, faster and more agile than the others. Small forward has an intermediate height between the inside and outside players and it combines height with velocity. And center (pivot has a physical role, it has the highest and more muscle mass. The aim of this study is to describe the kinanthropometric profile of male cadet “Valencia Basket Club”. Material and Methods: A total of 20 male cadet basketball players were evaluated (15.35±0.59 years old. An anthropometrist level 1 took anthropometric measures according to the methodology of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK. Body composition was calculated according to the kinanthropometry consensus of the Kinanthropometry Spanish Group (GREC, somatotype with Heath-Carter’s method and adiposemuscular and cardiovascular risk index. Results: Differences in values of weight, height, skinfold and body composition from variables of sample and position were observed. Lower values were from point guard position and higher values were from center position. An increasing trend of these parameters was established in the following order: point guard, guard, small forward and center. Conclusions: The Valencia Basket Club cadet player overall somatotype is balance ectomorph. To know kinanthropometric profile may be beneficial to develop specific training and nutrition plans as well as to see evolution and characteristics for optimal performance

  4. The problem of shot selection in basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Brian

    2012-01-01

    In basketball, every time the offense produces a shot opportunity the player with the ball must decide whether the shot is worth taking. In this article, I explore the question of when a team should shoot and when they should pass up the shot by considering a simple theoretical model of the shot selection process, in which the quality of shot opportunities generated by the offense is assumed to fall randomly within a uniform distribution. Within this model I derive an answer to the question "how likely must the shot be to go in before the player should take it?" and I show that this lower cutoff for shot quality f depends crucially on the number n of shot opportunities remaining (say, before the shot clock expires), with larger n demanding that only higher-quality shots should be taken. The function f(n) is also derived in the presence of a finite turnover rate and used to predict the shooting rate of an optimal-shooting team as a function of time. The theoretical prediction for the optimal shooting rate is compared to data from the National Basketball Association (NBA). The comparison highlights some limitations of the theoretical model, while also suggesting that NBA teams may be overly reluctant to shoot the ball early in the shot clock.

  5. The problem of shot selection in basketball.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Skinner

    Full Text Available In basketball, every time the offense produces a shot opportunity the player with the ball must decide whether the shot is worth taking. In this article, I explore the question of when a team should shoot and when they should pass up the shot by considering a simple theoretical model of the shot selection process, in which the quality of shot opportunities generated by the offense is assumed to fall randomly within a uniform distribution. Within this model I derive an answer to the question "how likely must the shot be to go in before the player should take it?" and I show that this lower cutoff for shot quality f depends crucially on the number n of shot opportunities remaining (say, before the shot clock expires, with larger n demanding that only higher-quality shots should be taken. The function f(n is also derived in the presence of a finite turnover rate and used to predict the shooting rate of an optimal-shooting team as a function of time. The theoretical prediction for the optimal shooting rate is compared to data from the National Basketball Association (NBA. The comparison highlights some limitations of the theoretical model, while also suggesting that NBA teams may be overly reluctant to shoot the ball early in the shot clock.

  6. TAU INFLUENCE ON DECISION MAKING IN BASKETBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanda Correia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Decision making in sport emerges from the players' interaction with the game context (Araújo, Davids, & Hristovski, 2006. Results from studies on the one-on-one in basketball identified interpersonal distance and relative velocity as relevant variables (i.e., control parameters. These results are reinterpreted in the perspective of the General Tau Theory (Lee, 1998, in which movement is regarded as guided by controlling tau motion-gaps (time to fulfil a gap and taucouplings. Further empirical evidence for this argument, came from a recent study in a team ball sport, where the tau variable was considered and verified as significantly related to decisional behaviour. Following this, it is assumed that the focus in candidate control parameters that detach the spatial component from the temporal one, presented in previous studies, may not be sufficient to explain the decisional behaviour in basketball. In this way, the variable tau is proposed as more informative given that enfolds inextricably spatial-temporal information.

  7. Automated analysis and annotation of basketball video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saur, Drew D.; Tan, Yap-Peng; Kulkarni, Sanjeev R.; Ramadge, Peter J.

    1997-01-01

    Automated analysis and annotation of video sequences are important for digital video libraries, content-based video browsing and data mining projects. A successful video annotation system should provide users with useful video content summary in a reasonable processing time. Given the wide variety of video genres available today, automatically extracting meaningful video content for annotation still remains hard by using current available techniques. However, a wide range video has inherent structure such that some prior knowledge about the video content can be exploited to improve our understanding of the high-level video semantic content. In this paper, we develop tools and techniques for analyzing structured video by using the low-level information available directly from MPEG compressed video. Being able to work directly in the video compressed domain can greatly reduce the processing time and enhance storage efficiency. As a testbed, we have developed a basketball annotation system which combines the low-level information extracted from MPEG stream with the prior knowledge of basketball video structure to provide high level content analysis, annotation and browsing for events such as wide- angle and close-up views, fast breaks, steals, potential shots, number of possessions and possession times. We expect our approach can also be extended to structured video in other domains.

  8. Anthropometry and Performance in Wheelchair Basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, Cristina; Yanci, Javier; Badiola, Aduna; Iturricastillo, Aitor; Otero, Montse; Olasagasti, Jurgi; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Gil, Susana M

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated whether anthropometric characteristics, generic and specific sprinting, agility, strength, and endurance capacity could differentiate between First-Division and Third-Division wheelchair basketball (WB) players. A First-Division WB team (n = 8; age = 36.05 ± 8.25 years, sitting body height = 91.38 ± 4.24 cm, body mass = 79.80 ± 12.63 kg) and a Third-Division WB team (n = 11; age = 31.10 ± 6.37 years, sitting body height = 85.56 ± 6.48 cm, body mass = 71.18 ± 17.63 kg) participated in the study. Wheelchair sprint, agility, strength, and endurance tests were performed. The First-Division team was faster (8.7%) in 20 m without the ball, more agile (13-22%), stronger (18-33%), covered more distance (20%) in the endurance test, and presented higher values of rate of perceived exertion for the exercise load (48%) than the Third-Division team. Moreover, the individual 20-m sprint time values correlated inversely with the individual strength/power values (from r = -0.54 to -0.77, p ≤ 0.05, n = 19). Wheelchair basketball coaches should structure strength and conditioning training to improve sprint and agility and evaluate players accordingly, so that they can receive appropriate training stimuli to match the physiological demands of their competitive level.

  9. Low levels of vitamin D in professional basketball players after wintertime: relationship with dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium Bajos niveles de vitamina D en jugadores profesionales de baloncesto después del invierno: relación con la ingesta oral de vitamina D y calcio

    OpenAIRE

    R. Bescós García; F. A. Rodríguez Guisado

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Although vitamin D deficiency has a high worldwide prevalence among the general population, very little is known about vitamin status in athletes. Aim: To investigate serum vitamin D (25[OH]D) levels after wintertime in male elite basketball players, and to relate these levels to the dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium. Methods: Subjects were 21 players from the same professional Spanish team. Blood samples to assess 25(OH)D levels were collected after wintertime during the ...

  10. Elite Polarization and Public Opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robison, Joshua; Mullinix, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Elite polarization has reshaped American politics and is an increasingly salient aspect of news coverage within the United States. As a consequence, a burgeoning body of research attempts to unravel the effects of elite polarization on the mass public. However, we know very little about how...... polarization is communicated to the public by news media. We report the results of one of the first content analyses to delve into the nature of news coverage of elite polarization. We show that such coverage is predominantly critical of polarization. Moreover, we show that unlike coverage of politics focused...... on individual politicians, coverage of elite polarization principally frames partisan divisions as rooted in the values of the parties rather than strategic concerns. We build on these novel findings with two survey experiments exploring the influence of these features of polarization news coverage on public...

  11. Acute effects of static and dynamic stretching on jump performance after 15 min of reconditioning shooting phase in basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annino, Giuseppe; Ruscello, Bruno; Lebone, Pietro; Palazzo, Francesco; Lombardo, Mauro; Padua, Elvira; Verdecchia, Luca; Tancredi, Virginia; Iellamo, Ferdinando

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of static (SS) and dynamic stretching (DS) on vertical jump performance executed before, immediately after and at the end of the shooting phase (i.e., 15 min later), as to simulate the actual conditions preceding a match, in professional basketball players. Ten elite basketball players (age: 29±6.73 years, height: 194.67±7.75 cm, weight: 91±8.17 kg and BMI 23.8±7.91 kg.m-2) participated to the study. SS and DS protocols were administered during the first training session of the week, 48 hours after the championship match. Stretching protocols consisted in ~7 minutes of general warm-up phase followed by ~8 minutes of SS and DS, performed with a cross-over design., and ~15 minutes of a specific warm-up shooting phase (SP). Vertical jump tests consisted in counter movement jump (CMJ) and CMJ with arm swings (CMJas) and were performed immediately after the end of each stretching phase (preS, postS, postSP). A significant decrease (P=0.05; η2partial=0.29) in jumping tests height occurred in CMJas, when performed after the SS (i.e., PostS). However, no significant differences in jumping performances, occurred after the general warm phase and the specific warm-up shooting phase, between the two stretching protocols. These results would indicate that, overall, stretching routines either dynamic or static, performed before a basketball match are transient and affect only marginally leg muscles performance. Stretching routines, particularly the dynamic ones, may be useful to maintain muscle performance before a competition, provided that this latter begins shortly after.

  12. The global elite of power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pečujlić Miroslav

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author discusses contradictions in the contemporary process of globalization related to its current proponents (participants. The first part of the papers tries to solve the enigma of the key participants and social forces shaping the globalization, so it discusses the tree rival theories: the theory of classes, oligarchy and elite of power. The author chooses the third theory of the global elite of power. Its theoretical foundations range from classic theories of elite (Pareto Mosca, Weber to Mill's famous elite of power. However, the trans-national elite of power is an entirely new social entity. The global elite of power is firmly established in the economic sphere, in the ownership and management of global means of production and capital, and in the use of global labor force. It is characterized by a highly articulated status culture or "class consciousness" - the cosmopolitan "Davos-culture". It represents more a network of groups than one monolithic entity, so it should be discussed synthetically. The second part analyses a collective portrait of the global elite of power in which the outstanding place is occupied by the owners and top managers of trans-national corporations and banks (whose capital highly surpasses the wealth of many countries in the world together with them, there is the political elite (the leaders of the G-7 Group and the rulers of the trans-national organizations like MMF, World Bank, Security Council of the UN,NATO. The intellectual elite, like "The Trilateral Committee" or "Economic Forum" occupies a less conspicuous, but not insignificant place. The third part discuses the current role of the dominant (authoritarian wing of the global elite of power, and the fourth points to the alternative possibilities and potential participants in the democratization of the global world order. The concluding, fifth part points to the historical situation in which the democratic alternative although necessary

  13. Algorithm of athletes’ fitness structure individual features’ determination with the help of multidimensional analysis (on example of basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh.L. Kozina

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine main laws of determination of athletes’ fitness structure’s individual characteristics with the help of multidimensional analysis (on example of basketball. Material: in the research elite basketball players (n=54 participated. Pedagogic testing included 12 tests, applied in combined teams of Ukraine and Russia. For every test three attempts were given and the best result was registered. The tests were passed during 2-3 training sessions. Results: we worked out general scheme of ways of athletes’ training individualization. For every athlete we determined the groups of leading and secondary factors in individual structure of fitness. The process of athletes’ training shall contain basic and variable components. Basic component was 70% of means in general system of athletes' training. Variable component was 30% of means and implies application of individual training means. Percentage of means in individual programs varies depending on the following: leading factors in fitness individual structure; period of individual dynamic of competition efficiency. In every micro-cycle 30% is assigned for athletes’ individual training: athletes received individual tasks; groups on the base of cluster analysis data were formed, if necessary. Conclusions: when working out individual training programs, development of leading factors in individual factorial structure of athletes’ fitness shall be accented. Application of individual programs, combined with universal individualization methods creates preconditions for rising competition activities’ efficiency.

  14. Athletic Performance at the National Basketball Association Combine After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran, Nima; Williams, Phillip N; Keller, Robert A; Khalil, Lafi S; Lombardo, Stephen J; Kharrazi, F Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are significant injuries in elite-level basketball players. In-game statistical performance after ACL reconstruction has been demonstrated; however, few studies have reviewed functional performance in National Basketball Association (NBA)-caliber athletes after ACL reconstruction. To compare NBA Combine performance of athletes after ACL reconstruction with an age-, size-, and position-matched control group of players with no previous reported knee injury requiring surgery. We hypothesized that there is no difference between the 2 groups in functional performance. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 1092 NBA-caliber players who participated in the NBA Combine between 2000 and 2015 were reviewed. Twenty-one athletes were identified as having primary ACL reconstruction prior to participation in the combine. This study group was compared with an age-, size-, and position-matched control group in objective functional performance testing, including the shuttle run test, lane agility test, three-quarter court sprint, vertical jump (no step), and maximum vertical jump (running start). With regard to quickness and agility, both ACL-reconstructed athletes and controls scored an average of 11.5 seconds in the lane agility test and 3.1 seconds in the shuttle run test (P = .745 and .346, respectively). Speed and acceleration was measured by the three-quarter court sprint, in which both the study group and the control group averaged 3.3 seconds (P = .516). In the maximum vertical jump, which demonstrates an athlete's jumping ability with a running start, the ACL reconstruction group had an average height of 33.6 inches while the controls averaged 33.9 inches (P = .548). In the standing vertical jump, the ACL reconstruction group averaged 28.2 inches while the control group averaged 29.2 inches (P = .067). In athletes who are able to return to sport and compete at a high level such as the NBA Combine, there is no

  15. Characteristics of competitive activity of qualified basketball with hearing impairment compare to qualified healthy basketball player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobko I. N.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose - the comparison of competitive activity skilled basketball players with normal hearing and impaired hearing aid. The study involved female athletes Ukrainian National Team with hearing (n = 12 and healthy female athletes (n = 12. Technical protocols processed 20 games World Cup, Europe, Ukraine among deaf athletes. Processed records 20 games of the Ukrainian Championship. Found that healthy athletes for the game significantly longer perform and get into the basket fine and three point shots, fewer mistakes, but they are inferior in rebounds. Installed insignificant differences between the number of throws, entering the basket from the middle distance, interceptions in athletes with hearing impairment and healthy athletes. Recommended to increase the coherence of group and team interactions basketball with hearing during the game to use the special visual aids.

  16. Sprint, agility, strength and endurance capacity in wheelchair basketball players

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yanci, J; Granados, C; Otero, M; Badiola, A; Olasagasti, J; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, I; Iturricastillo, A; Gil, Sm

    ...; and secondly, to analyse the physical characteristics measured by sprint, agility, strength and endurance field tests in wheelchair basketball (WB) players. 16 WB players (33.06 ± 7.36 years, 71.89...

  17. Competition Efficiency Analysis of Croatian Junior Wrestlers in European Championship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristijan Slacanac

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Croatian junior wrestler won a bronze medal at the European Championship 2016 year. Considering the potential of our wrestlers there is an obvious need of technical and tactical analysis so our juniors and seniors U23 wrestlers would be able to achieve even better results. Match analysis were conducted by LongoMatch 0.20.1. Seven matches of Croatian wrestlers were analysed. Time parameters, score efficiency, technical efficiency and tactical structure were observed and analysed from the aspect of attack and defence phase and successful/unsuccessful techniques. This paper shows descriptive parameters and competitor efficiency were calculated. The results show a great number of positive score in a standing position in relation to parterre position. The parameters of competitive efficiency (0.49 points per minute show better attacking efficiency (1.32 points per minute in relation to defence efficiency (0.83 points per minute. Croatian wrestlers achieve less score per minute in relation with elite wrestlers, but it is visible a significant progress in technical and tactical efficiency in relation in the past three year. According to place realization of technique, Croatian wrestlers realized more technique in the center, while opponents realized technique in the zone and moving to the zone. Further analysis of efficiency and individualisation training will improve efficiency of Croatian national wrestlers.

  18. Who needs a referee? How incorrect basketball actions are automatically detected by basketball players' brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Crotti, Nicola; Manfredi, Mirella; Adorni, Roberta; Zani, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    While the existence of a mirror neuron system (MNS) representing and mirroring simple purposeful actions (such as reaching) is known, neural mechanisms underlying the representation of complex actions (such as ballet, fencing, etc.) that are learned by imitation and exercise are not well understood. In this study, correct and incorrect basketball actions were visually presented to professional basketball players and naïve viewers while their EEG was recorded. The participants had to respond to rare targets (unanimated scenes). No category or group differences were found at perceptual level, ruling out the possibility that correct actions might be more visually familiar. Large, anterior N400 responses of event-related brain potentials to incorrectly performed basketball actions were recorded in skilled brains only. The swLORETA inverse solution for incorrect–correct contrast showed that the automatic detection of action ineffectiveness/incorrectness involved the fronto/parietal MNS, the cerebellum, the extra-striate body area, and the superior temporal sulcus. PMID:23181191

  19. Who needs a referee? How incorrect basketball actions are automatically detected by basketball players' brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Crotti, Nicola; Manfredi, Mirella; Adorni, Roberta; Zani, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    While the existence of a mirror neuron system (MNS) representing and mirroring simple purposeful actions (such as reaching) is known, neural mechanisms underlying the representation of complex actions (such as ballet, fencing, etc.) that are learned by imitation and exercise are not well understood. In this study, correct and incorrect basketball actions were visually presented to professional basketball players and naïve viewers while their EEG was recorded. The participants had to respond to rare targets (unanimated scenes). No category or group differences were found at perceptual level, ruling out the possibility that correct actions might be more visually familiar. Large, anterior N400 responses of event-related brain potentials to incorrectly performed basketball actions were recorded in skilled brains only. The swLORETA inverse solution for incorrect-correct contrast showed that the automatic detection of action ineffectiveness/incorrectness involved the fronto/parietal MNS, the cerebellum, the extra-striate body area, and the superior temporal sulcus.

  20. DISTANCE LEARNING AND ATTITUDES OF GREEK BASKETBALL COACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Tsamourtzis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the present research was the determination of the attitudes of Greek Basketball coaches towards their distance learning with the use of ICT in comparison with the classical learning and the examination of the perspective of their distance learning with the use of ICT. Therefore a closed questionnaire was used which included 3 different parts. 60 basketball coaches from Northern Greece comprised the sample (N=60. An interactive software was created which included the teaching of an offensive basketball system. The methodology of distance learning was used for the creation of the offensive system. The software was copied to a CD-Rom and accompanied with the questionnaires it was given to 20 Basketball coaches of Northern Greece as a pilot program. After the corrections of the primary questionnaires, the distribution of the final questionnaire accompanied with the CD-Rom followed. Multiple reciprocations were used for the data analysis. According to the results the more relaxing, easier and faster distance learning was considered in relation to the conventional one, a the fewer difficulties would the Basketball coaches face by using the distance learning method and b the friendlier and more relaxing would the distance learning method be. Also according to data research: a the more attractive the reading of software was, b the fewer the difficulties during the reading of software and c the more relaxing, easier and faster distance learning was considered in relation to the conventional one, the stronger was the perspective of Basketball coaches to believe in distance learning. In conclusion the more relaxing, easier and faster distance learning was considered in relation to the conventional one, the more positive were the attitudes of Basketball coaches towards their distance learning, while a positive perspective of Basketball coaches towards their distance learning is being formed.

  1. How to run a successful and educational basketball camp

    OpenAIRE

    Brooke LeMar; Joe Deutsch

    2015-01-01

    Camps are a great introduction to the sport of basketball for children. Universities and colleges usually offer different types of camps, typically during the summer months. Depending on the skill and maturity level of the player, basketball camps can serve a variety of purposes. Some popular types of camps include offensive skills, shooting, team, and youth camps. Regardless of the camp that is chosen, children need to have goals set for themselves before, during, and after to enhance the be...

  2. Outcomes After Lumbar Disc Herniation in the National Basketball Association

    OpenAIRE

    Minhas, Shobhit V.; Kester, Benjamin S; Hsu, Wellington K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Professional basketball players are at risk for lumbar disc herniation (LDH), yet the evidence guiding treatment after operative or nonoperative management of this condition in the National Basketball Association (NBA) is limited. Hypothesis: NBA players with LDH will have different performance outcomes based on treatment type. Study Design: Case-control study. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Methods: Athletes in the NBA with an LDH were identified through team injury reports, transac...

  3. Association of anthropometric qualities with vertical jump performance in elite male volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouadi, R; Jlid, M C; Khalifa, R; Hermassi, S; Chelly, M S; Van Den Tillaar, R; Gabbett, T

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association between physical and anthropometric profiles and vertical jump performance in elite volleyball players. Thirty-three elite male volleyball players (21±1 y, 76.9±5.2 kg, 186.5±5 cm) were studied. Several anthropometric measurements (body mass, stature, body mass index, lower limb length and sitting height) together with jumping height anaerobic power of counter movement jump with arm swing (CMJarm) were obtained from all subjects. Forward stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine if any of the anthropometric parameters were predictive of CMJarm. Anaerobic power was significantly higher (P≤0.05) in the tallest players relative to their shorter counterparts. A significant relationship was observed between CMJarm and lower limb length (r2=0.69; P0.05) predictors of CMJarm performance. This study demonstrates that lower limb length is correlated with CMJarm in elite male volleyball players. The players with longer lower limbs have the better vertical jump performances and their anaerobic power is higher. These results could be of importance for trained athletes in sports relying on jumping performance, such as basketball, handball or volleyball. Thus, the measurement of anthropometric characteristics, such as stature and lower limb length may assist coaches in the early phases of talent identification in volleyball.

  4. Sport-specific influences on respiratory patterns in elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tijana Durmic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in lung function among sports that are of a similar nature and to determine which anthropometric/demographic characteristics correlate with lung volumes and flows. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving elite male athletes (N = 150; mean age, 21 4 years engaging in one of four different sports, classified according to the type and intensity of exercise involved. All athletes underwent full anthropometric assessment and pulmonary function testing (spirometry. RESULTS: Across all age groups and sport types, the elite athletes showed spirometric values that were significantly higher than the reference values. We found that the values for FVC, FEV1, vital capacity, and maximal voluntary ventilation were higher in water polo players than in players of the other sports evaluated (p < 0.001. In addition, PEF was significantly higher in basketball players than in handball players (p < 0.001. Most anthropometric/demographic parameters correlated significantly with the spirometric parameters evaluated. We found that BMI correlated positively with all of the spirometric parameters evaluated (p < 0.001, the strongest of those correlations being between BMI and maximal voluntary ventilation (r = 0.46; p < 0.001. Conversely, the percentage of body fat correlated negatively with all of the spirometric parameters evaluated, correlating most significantly with FEV1 (r = −0.386; p < 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the type of sport played has a significant impact on the physiological adaptation of the respiratory system. That knowledge is particularly important when athletes present with respiratory symptoms such as dyspnea, cough, and wheezing. Because sports medicine physicians use predicted (reference values for spirometric parameters, the risk that the severity of restrictive disease or airway obstruction will be underestimated might be greater for athletes.

  5. MAJOR INJURIES MUSCULOSKELETALS IN YOUNG ATHLETES BASKETBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Simão Rodrigues Filho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The growth of participation of youth in sports is accompanied by an increase in the number of musculoskeletal injuries, especially in contact sports. Basketball gained prominence among contact sports not only for its plastic and beauty of their games, but because it is a sport that demands much of its practitioners, and in the case of young athletes, this requirement can endanger children and adolescents are not properly monitored for health professionals sports. In this study we can see that the ankle is the most affected, followed by knee and fingers and wrists. The mechanisms of injury most frequently reported were sprains, after the bruises and fractures. Highlight for disturbances dorsolumbar, pointed out by many authors. The prevention programs and pre-competition oriented properly treated as paramount by all the authors investigated, in order to reduce the number of injuries in young athletes.

  6. Research concerning the Ball Screen in Basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Ionescu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of basketball, due to the relatively small court but also to regulations concerning the time of attack, has required finding, by the specialists in this field, new ways of collaboration and specific actions between a certain team’s players. Thus has appeared the 2 on 2 play, with its improved version called pick and roll, which has ”exploded” over the last years, becoming the most important element in many coaches’ strategy. As a description, pick and roll represents the tactic move to which participate the player in possession of the ball and a tall player, which screen him out, temporarily blocking the way of its defender. The purpose of this research is analyzing, in a national champion team, the frequency, the versions and the efficiency of these tactic moves.

  7. COACHING A MINI-BASKETBALL TEAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar\\u00EDa Ca\\u00F1adas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study arises from the importance of analyzing the coaching process and knowing how to coach in the first stages of sports initiation. The purpose of this study was to analyze how a basketball coach establishes teaching the game phases in youth categories, through the relationship between the pedagogical variables that define each of the coaching tasks. A total of 452 tasks, organized in 80 training sessions that were planned by a coach of mini-basketball (10-11 yearolds from the 2004-2005 season were analyzed. After a descriptive analysis of the game phase variable, a non-parametric inferential analysis (chi-square and contingency coefficient was carried out to study the relationships between the variables of the study (game phase, game situation, type of content, and content.The results make clear that for the coach that was analyzed, there is a disproportionate amount of work done on phases of offense to the detriment of defensive work. The aspects of the attack that are developed most are those without opposition, 1-on-0 (RAS=9.7 and to a lesser degree 1-on-1 (RAS=-10.7, although the opposite happens in the case of defensive fundamentals, 1-on-0 (RAS=-5.4 and 1-on-1 (RAS=12.3. A higher proportion of tasks without opposition, 1- on-0, were planned to work on individual offense technique (RAS=15.7, such as shooting. The analysis of the coaching process provides much information when generating sport teaching principles. The results have an important practical application, and they facilitate the process of continuing education and reflection on coaches' actions.

  8. Junior Professors Question Job Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren

    2007-01-01

    Female and minority faculty members rated their institutions less positively as places for junior professors to work than did their male and white counterparts, according to a new report. Young professors said institutional policies designed to help them succeed were important, but they were less satisfied that those policies were effective. Women…

  9. Improving Junior High Classroom Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmer, Edmund T.; And Others

    A field experiment was conducted to determine whether descriptive-correlational results from classroom management research could be implemented by junior high school teachers, and whether such implementation would result in improved classroom management. An experimental group (18 teachers) received management manuals developed by researchers, and…

  10. Holography in the Junior High.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszkiewicz, Frank

    1988-01-01

    Examines the use of holography in the art technology program of a junior high school. Characterizing holography as a valuable artistic experience and discovery experience and stressing the importance of student interest and involvement, the author discusses the necessary equipment for the project and includes two diagrams of a holographic setup.…

  11. Dynamic balance in elite karateka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Matteo; Mapelli, Andrea; Shirai, Yuri Francesca; Ciprandi, Daniela; Lovecchio, Nicola; Galvani, Christel; Sforza, Chiarella

    2015-12-01

    In karate, balance control represents a key performance determinant. With the hypothesis that high-level athletes display advanced balance abilities, the purpose of the current study was to quantitatively investigate the motor strategies adopted by elite and non-elite karateka to maintain balance control in competition. The execution of traditional karate techniques (kihon) in two groups of elite Masters (n = 6, 31 ± 19 years) and non-elite Practitioners (n = 4, 25 ± 9 years) was compared assessing body center of mass (CoM) kinematics and other relevant parameters like step width and angular joint behavior. In the considered kihon sequence, normalized average CoM height was 8% lower (p < 0.05), while CoM displacement in the horizontal direction was significantly higher in Masters than in Practitioners (2.5 vs. 1.9 m, p < 0.05), as well as CoM average velocity and rms acceleration (p < 0.05). Step width was higher in Masters in more than half of the sequence steps (p < 0.05). Results suggest that elite karateka showed a refined dynamic balance control, obtained through the increase of the base of support and different maneuvers of lower limbs. The proposed method could be used to objectively detect talented karateka, to measure proficiency level and to assess training effectiveness.

  12. Measurement precision of body composition variables in elite wheelchair athletes, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Mhairi; Totosy de Zepetnek, Julia O; Brooke-Wavell, Katherine; Goosey-Tolfrey, Victoria L

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the reproducibility of body composition measurements by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 12 elite male wheelchair basketball players (age 31 ± 7 years, BMI 21 ± 2 kg/m(2) and onset of disability 25 ± 9 years). Two whole body scans were performed on each participant in the supine position on the same day, using Lunar Prodigy Advance DXA (GE Lunar, Madison, WI, USA). Participants dismounted from the scanning table and were repositioned in-between the first and second scan. Whole body coefficient of variation (CV) values for bone mineral content (BMC), fat mass (FM) and soft tissue lean mass (LTM) were all effect of treatment intervention in an individual is 1.0 kg, 1.1 kg, 0.12 kg for FM, LTM, and BMC, respectively. This information can be used to determine meaningful changes in body composition when assessed using the same methods longitudinally. Whilst there may be challenges in the correct positioning of an individual with disability that can introduce greater measurement error, DXA is a highly reproducible technique in the estimation of total and regional body composition of elite wheelchair basketball athletes.

  13. A Comparison of Athletic Movement Among Talent-Identified Juniors From Different Football Codes in Australia: Implications for Talent Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carl T; Keller, Brad S; McKeown, Ian; Robertson, Sam

    2016-09-01

    Woods, CT, Keller, BS, McKeown, I, and Robertson, S. A comparison of athletic movement among talent-identified juniors from different football codes in Australia: implications for talent development. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2440-2445, 2016-This study aimed to compare the athletic movement skill of talent-identified (TID) junior Australian Rules football (ARF) and soccer players. The athletic movement skill of 17 TID junior ARF players (17.5-18.3 years) was compared against 17 TID junior soccer players (17.9-18.7 years). Players in both groups were members of an elite junior talent development program within their respective football codes. All players performed an athletic movement assessment that included an overhead squat, double lunge, single-leg Romanian deadlift (both movements performed on right and left legs), a push-up, and a chin-up. Each movement was scored across 3 essential assessment criteria using a 3-point scale. The total score for each movement (maximum of 9) and the overall total score (maximum of 63) were used as the criterion variables for analysis. A multivariate analysis of variance tested the main effect of football code (2 levels) on the criterion variables, whereas a 1-way analysis of variance identified where differences occurred. A significant effect was noted, with the TID junior ARF players outscoring their soccer counterparts when performing the overhead squat and push-up. No other criterions significantly differed according to the main effect. Practitioners should be aware that specific sporting requirements may incur slight differences in athletic movement skill among TID juniors from different football codes. However, given the low athletic movement skill noted in both football codes, developmental coaches should address the underlying movement skill capabilities of juniors when prescribing physical training in both codes.

  14. Elite Education Abroad and Social Reproduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Poutvaara, Panu; Foged, Mette

    Previous research has shown that family background still plays a role in educational choices, especially when it comes to elite education. We examine how family background affects the likelihood of graduating in an elite or non-elite university abroad. We use two unique surveys of Danish emigrant...

  15. Risk factors for patellar tendinopathy in volleyball and basketball players: A survey-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, A J; van der Worp, H; Diercks, R L; van den Akker-Scheek, I; Zwerver, J

    2015-10-01

    Patellar tendinopathy (PT) is a common overuse injury of the patellar tendon in jumping athletes. In a recent large cross-sectional study from 2008 several factors were identified that may be associated with the etiology of PT. However, because of the study design no conclusions could be drawn about causal relations. The primary aim of the current study is to investigate whether the factors identified in the previous 2008 study can also be prospectively recognized as predictors of symptomatic PT in 2011. Nine hundred twenty-six Dutch elite and non-elite basketball and volleyball players from the previous study were invited again to complete an online survey about knee complaints and risk factors for PT in 2011. The logistic regression included 385 athletes of which 51 (13%) developed PT since 2008. Male gender [odds ratio (OR) 2.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-3.5] was found to be a risk factor for developing PT. No sports-related variables could be identified to increase the risk of developing PT, but some evidence was found for performing heavy physically demanding work, like being a nurse or a physical education teacher (OR 2.3, 95% CI 0.9-6.3). These findings indicate that, when considering preventive measures, it is important to take into account the total tendon load.

  16. ANTHROPOMETRIC AND PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS ON INDIAN INTERUNIVERSITY BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamal Koley

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was two-fold, firstly, to evaluate the anthropometric profile of Indian interuniversity basketball players and, secondly, to search the correlation of body mass index, % body fat, hand grip strength (right dominant and Vo2max,with other anthropometric characteristics studied. Eleven anthropometriccharacteristics, four body composition parameters, two physical and two physiological variables were measured on randomly selected 60 inter-university Indian basketball players (35 males and 25 females aged 18–25 years from Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab, India with adequate controls (n = 102, 52 males and 50 females. The results indicated that male basketball players were taller (6.63% and heavier (7.31% and female basketball players were slightly taller (0.31% and lighter (3.74% than their control counterparts. One way analysis of variance showed significant (p ≤ .004 - .000 between group differences in all the variables (excepthip circumference between basketball players and controls. In basketball players, significantly positive correlations were found with BMI and other 12 variables, with percent body fat and 7 variables, with right hand grip strength and 12 variables and with Vo2max and other 9 variables, and significantly negative correlationswere found with BMI and other 1 variable (% lean body mass, with percent body fat and other 6 variables, with right hand grip strength and other 2 variables and with Vo2max with other 3 variables. The findings of the present study might be useful in future investigation on player selection, talent identification in the game of basketball and its training program development.

  17. Relationship between Functional Classification Levels and Anaerobic Performance of Wheelchair Basketball Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molik, Bartosz; Laskin, James J.; Kosmol, Andrzej; Skucas, Kestas; Bida, Urszula

    2010-01-01

    Wheelchair basketball athletes are classified using the International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF) functional classification system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between upper extremity anaerobic performance (AnP) and all functional classification levels in wheelchair basketball. Ninety-seven male athletes…

  18. Effects of Sport Participation on the Basketball Skills and Physical Self of Adolescents with Conduct Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiano, Christophe; Ninot, Gregory; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Bilard, Jean

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the long-term effects of sport participation on the basketball skills and physical self-concept of adolescents with conduct disorders (CD). Participants were 24 adolescent males with CD, divided equally into three groups: (a) interestablishment basketball (IEBB), (b) integrated scholastic basketball (ISBB),…

  19. Cultura intelectual das elites coloniais

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Discutir o peso que a cultura intelectual das elites coloniais teve nas experiências imperiais da Europa Moderna é um dos primeiros objectivos do conjunto de ensaios que constitui este número temático da revista Cultura – História e Teoria das Ideias. Tema relevante na historiografia internacional, onde são inúmeros os exemplos de reflexões em torno dos instrumentos intelectuais de que as elites coloniais dispunham, bem como a respeito dos objectos culturais por elas produzidos, ele tem sido ...

  20. 内蒙古高校男子篮球运动员体型特征分析%Study on the Somatotype of Male Basketball Players of the Universities and Colleges in Inner Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉玲; 高娃; 张磊; 张玉柱; 陈琛; 傅媛; 西吉利

    2011-01-01

    The Heath-Carter somatotyping method was used to study the somatotype of 101 male specialized basketball players of Inner Mongolia. The results are as follows: The mean somatotype value of the male basketball players is 2. 7-4. 5-2. 8. There are no significant differences in the somatotypes between groups in different position in the game of Inner Mongolia. Compared with athletes of other male sports in China,the somatotype of male basketball athletes is featured by well-developed muscles and skeletons,and low subcutaneous fat,which accord with the needs of basketball players. However,there still is a larger gap for the male specialized basketball players in Inner Mongolia compared with the professional elites from all over the countries.%运用Heath-Carter人体测量体型法,对内蒙古高校101名男子篮球运动员进行体型分析.结果显示:内蒙古高校男子篮球运动员的平均体型值为2.7-4.5-2.8,属于均衡的中胚层体型;前锋、中锋和后卫的体型特征无明显差异.与我国其他男子项目优秀运动员相比.内蒙古高校男子篮球运动员的体型符合篮球运动所要求的身材高大、骨骼肌肉发达、线性度较好的特点,但其体型特征与“理想体型”还有较大差距.

  1. A Comparison of Serve Speed and Motor Coordination between Elite and Club Level Tennis Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söğüt Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the serve speed and motor coordination of elite and club level junior tennis players aged 11-14 years. Participants (n=35 were assigned to one of the two groups according to their experience, weekly training volume and competition level. Serve speed was assessed with a sports radar gun. Motor coordination was evaluated by means of the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. The main results revealed that serve speed and motor coordination performance levels of the elite group were significantly higher than those of the club group. This study emphasized the importance of early participation and training intensity, which can play an important role in enhancement of serve speed and motor coordination.

  2. A Comparison of Serve Speed and Motor Coordination between Elite and Club Level Tennis Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to compare the serve speed and motor coordination of elite and club level junior tennis players aged 11-14 years. Participants (n=35) were assigned to one of the two groups according to their experience, weekly training volume and competition level. Serve speed was assessed with a sports radar gun. Motor coordination was evaluated by means of the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder. The main results revealed that serve speed and motor coordination performance levels of the elite group were significantly higher than those of the club group. This study emphasized the importance of early participation and training intensity, which can play an important role in enhancement of serve speed and motor coordination. PMID:28210349

  3. Pilot study of female high school basketball players' anterior cruciate ligament injury knowledge, attitudes, and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, M D; Friden, C

    2009-08-01

    An anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury prevention program was evaluated. One hundred and thirteen female high school varsity and junior varsity basketball players and 12 coaches participated in an 8-week educational and skills program. Demographic and injury history data were collected. At pre-intervention and at the end of season, knowledge, attitudes, and practices about ACL risk and injury prevention were assessed via questionnaires, and frequency of two-footed landings were videotaped during games. Univariate statistics described the sample. Paired t-tests evaluated the program's impact. Cronbach's alpha, correlations, and kappa statistics assessed the validity and reliability of questionnaires and video analysis. Of the 113 players, 74 completed the study. The players' mean age was 16.25 years (SD=1.07; range=14.2-18.8). Baseline knowledge score was 57.2%, practice 58.4%, and attitude 73.5%. The mean baseline knowledge score of the 12 coaches (mean age=40.8 years; SD=10.3; range=26.9-56.3) was 68.7%. Players' knowledge about ACL injury prevention improved (t=2.57; Pinjury prevention were found (t(diff)=1.88; PACL injury risk and improved player's landing skills.

  4. Evidence-based post-exercise recovery strategies in basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja-González, Julio; Terrados, Nicolás; Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Delextrat, Anne; Jukic, Igor; Vaquera, Alejandro; Torres, Lorena; Schelling, Xavier; Stojanovic, Marko; Ostojic, Sergej M

    2016-01-01

    Basketball can be described as a moderate-to-long duration exercise including repeated bouts of high-intensity activity interspersed with periods of low to moderate active recovery or passive rest. A match is characterized by repeated explosive activities, such as sprints, jumps, shuffles and rapid changes in direction. In top-level modern basketball, players are frequently required to play consecutive matches with limited time to recover. To ensure adequate recovery after any basketball activity (i.e., match or training), it is necessary to know the type of fatigue induced and, if possible, its underlying mechanisms. Despite limited scientific evidence to support their effectiveness in facilitating optimal recovery, certain recovery strategies are commonly utilized in basketball. It is particularly important to optimize recovery because players spend a much greater proportion of their time recovering than they do in training. Therefore, the main aim of this report is to facilitate useful information that may lead to practical application, based on the scientific evidence and applied knowledge specifically in basketball.

  5. Performance Analysis in Elite Sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, Bertus Gatze

    2013-01-01

    The central theme of this dissertation concerns the development of techniques for analyzing and comparing performances of elite sportsmen. When performances are delivered under varying circumstances, or are influenced by other factors than the athletes' abilities, a fair comparison, for instance

  6. Self Hypnosis for Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Colin P.

    A summary of the use of hypnosis in sport (Morgan 1980) has suggested that the evidence in this area is equivocal, particularly in strength, endurance, and psychomotor tasks. However, some experiments have demonstrated the potential use of hypnosis. This paper presents examples of two elite Australian athletes who achieve success using hypnosis or…

  7. Performance Analysis in Elite Sports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talsma, Bertus Gatze

    2013-01-01

    The central theme of this dissertation concerns the development of techniques for analyzing and comparing performances of elite sportsmen. When performances are delivered under varying circumstances, or are influenced by other factors than the athletes' abilities, a fair comparison, for instance whe

  8. Self Hypnosis for Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davey, Colin P.

    A summary of the use of hypnosis in sport (Morgan 1980) has suggested that the evidence in this area is equivocal, particularly in strength, endurance, and psychomotor tasks. However, some experiments have demonstrated the potential use of hypnosis. This paper presents examples of two elite Australian athletes who achieve success using hypnosis or…

  9. How to run a successful and educational basketball camp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke LeMar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Camps are a great introduction to the sport of basketball for children. Universities and colleges usually offer different types of camps, typically during the summer months. Depending on the skill and maturity level of the player, basketball camps can serve a variety of purposes. Some popular types of camps include offensive skills, shooting, team, and youth camps. Regardless of the camp that is chosen, children need to have goals set for themselves before, during, and after to enhance the benefits. Each camper should have the opportunity to grow and develop as a basketball player as well as an individual. Running a successful camp is not only rewarding for the coaches, but for the players and campers too, which ultimately leads to the campers choosing to come back every year.

  10. INTERVALS OF ACTIVE PLAY AND BREAK IN BASKETBALL GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavle Rubin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the research comes from the need for decomposition of a basketball game. The aim was to determine the intervals of active game (“live ball” - term defined by rules and break (“dead ball” - term defined by rules, by analyzing basketball games. In order to obtain the relevant information, basketball games from five different competitions (top level of quality were analyzed. The sample consists of seven games played in the 2006/2007 season: NCAA Play - Off Final game, Adriatic League finals, ULEB Cup final game, Euroleague (2 games and the NBA league (2 games. The most important information gained by this research is that the average interval of active play lasts approximately 47 seconds, while the average break interval lasts approximately 57 seconds. This information is significant for coaches and should be used in planning the training process.

  11. Some Aspects of the Physics of Shooting a Basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontanella, John J.

    2006-12-01

    The flight of a basketball is considered.1 Video analysis of the path and spin for several shots was carried out. It is shown that four forces are required to reproduce the trajectory: gravity, buoyancy, the drag force and the Magnus force. The relative contribution of each force is determined. The model is used to evaluate what it is that good shooters do. For a foul shot, the approach speed (speed when the basketball is just above the rim), launch speed, and launch angle were calculated. It is found that the minimum in the approach speed occurs at a launch angle closer to the experimental values for good shooters than does the minimum in the launch speed. This suggests the hoopothesis that a good shooter strives for the “softest” shot. 1. J. J. Fontanella, The Physics of Basketball, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 2006.

  12. Situation criticality and basketball officials' stress levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Jason; Basevitch, Itay; Rodenberg, Ryan; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2017-11-01

    Officials are expected to perform impeccably despite the wide range of stressors they experience. A stressor that officials frequently report is situation criticality. Situation criticality is comprised of score differential (i.e., more pressure in close games) and time remaining in a game (i.e., more pressure as time expires), which affects athletes' stress levels. The present study explored the effect of situation criticality on officials' stress levels. High school basketball officials (n = 108) with an average of 18.1 (SD = 11.2) years of officiating experience were given a survey packet containing game situations that varied in criticality. For each game situation (n = 9) officials completed the overall stress and appraisal portions of the Stress Appraisal Measure (SAM). Results revealed that situation criticality has an effect on officials' perceived stress levels. Both threat and challenge appraisals were positively correlated with perceived stress. Overall, these findings indicate that officials' stress levels fluctuate within games depending on score differential and time of game. The findings encourage officials to recognise and manage their stress, possibly through their appraisals. Additionally, the findings can affect the training of officials in the management of stress, as well as prompt the consideration of potential rule changes that reflect the increased situational demands on officials in critical situations (e.g., expanded instant replay).

  13. Sports injuries in adolescents' ball games: soccer, handball and basketball.

    OpenAIRE

    Yde, J; Nielsen, A.B.

    1990-01-01

    In a prospective study of 302 adolescent players in three ball games (soccer, handball and basketball), 119 incurred injuries. The injury incidence (number of injuries per 1000 playing hours) was 5.6 in soccer, 4.1 in handball and 3.0 in basketball. Ankle sprains accounted for 25 per cent of the injuries, finger sprains 32 per cent, strains in the thigh and leg 10 per cent, and tendinitis/apophysitis 12 per cent. The most serious injuries were four fractures, one anterior cruciate ligament ru...

  14. The Effects of Rule Changes on Basketball Game Results in the Men’s European Basketball Championships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pluta Beata

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim the study was to analyze the effects of rule changes in men’s professional basketball. Univariate analysis examined game statistics, concentrating only on points scores from selected basketball games and did not include situational variables that may have affected game dynamics. Methods. Data on the results of all games played in the men’s European Basketball Championships between 1935 and 2013 were collected and subjected to statistical analysis. Six main rule modifications which directly affected game play were identified in chronological order. Results. The number of points scored and allowed changed significantly after 1956. The greatest changes in game scores as a result of rule modifications were after rule changes in 1956 and after 1984. Conclusions. Rule changes involve processes that modify game conditions and should be validated following reflective analysis.

  15. Specific physiological and biomechanical performance in elite, sub-elite and in non-elite male team handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Herbert; Fuchs, Philip X; von Duvillard, Serge P

    2017-05-30

    Team handball is a dynamic sport game that is played professionally in numerous countries. However, knowledge about training and competition is based mostly on practical experience due to limited scientific studies. Consequently, the aims of our study were to compare specific physiological and biomechanical performance in elite, sub-elite and in non-elite male team handball players. Thirty-six elite, sub-elite and non-elite male team handball players performed a game based performance test, upper-body and lower-body strength tests, 30m sprint test, counter movement jump test and an incremental treadmill running test. Significant differences (Pperformance test, maximal oxygen uptake in the incremental treadmill running test as well as in maximal leg strength and leg explosive strength in the isometric strength test. Elite male players have an enhanced specific agility, a better throwing performance, a higher team handball specific oxygen uptake and higher leg strength compared to sub-elite and non-elite players. Based on these results we recommend that training in team handball should focus on game based training methods to improve performance in specific agility, endurance and technique.

  16. Widening margin in activity profile between elite and sub-elite Australian football: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aughey, Robert J

    2013-07-01

    It is not known if the activity profile of elite Australian football players changes across two levels of competition. The aims of this study were therefore to: (1) classify the activity profile of elite and sub-elite Australian football for players from one elite Australian football club; and (2) compare the activity profile of elite footballers across both elite and sub-elite competitions. Quantitative case-study approach. Movement was recorded by 5Hz global positioning system and expressed relative to game time for total; and high-velocity running distance (4.17-10.00ms(-1)) and maximal accelerations (2.78-10.00ms(-2)). The difference was expressed as a percentage and effect size statistic with confidence intervals. Elite Australian football players had 8% greater total 11% more high intensity running; and 16% more maximal accelerations during matches in 2009 compared to 2008. Players at a sub-elite level had no change in total; 9% less high intensity running but 23% greater maximal accelerations during the same period. In 2008 there was a 5% lower total covered by players in sub-elite competition; no difference in high intensity running; and 28% less maximal accelerations compared to elite. In 2009 the gap was larger for distance of running as sub-elite had 15% less total and 20% less high intensity running than elite. Similar to 2008, sub-elite players had 23% less maximal accelerations in 2009. The activity profile of players in the elite competition has increased over these two seasons, but not in the sub-elite. This has implications for teams where players must move between competitions during the season. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Elite Rationalities and Curricular Form: "Meritorious" Class Reproduction in the Elite Thinking Curriculum in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Leonel; Apple, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    While much of the critical scholarship around elite schooling has focused on the students who attend elite institutions, their social class locations, privileged habituses and cultural capital, this paper foregrounds curricular form itself as a central mechanism in the (re)production of elites. Using Basil Bernstein's conceptual framework of…

  18. Exhaustion Experiences in Junior Athletes:The Importance of Motivation and Self - Control Competencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gro Jordalen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Quality of motivation, self-control competencies, as well as past performance experience influence sport participation outcomes in developing athletes. Studies have shown that junior athletes high in self-determined motivation are less prone to experience burnout, while self-control competencies help developing athletes to be conscious and deliberate in their self-regulatory efforts toward elite sport performances and avoid negative sport participation outcomes. Combining the self-determination theory (SDT framework and psychosocial theories of self-regulation, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine how various types of motivation and self-control competencies together are associated with the development of burnout symptoms in junior athletes. High-level Norwegian winter-sport athletes from elite sport academies (N = 199; female n = 72; 16 to 20 years of age consented to participate. Associations between six types of motivational regulation, self-control, and indices of exhaustion were investigated. We hypothesized that athletes’ self-control competencies are important to operate successfully, and influenced by different types of motivation, they are expected to help athletes avoid negative sport participation outcomes such as emotional and physical exhaustion. Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to analyze these relationships, and results revealed some multifaceted associations. When identifying antecedents of sport participation exhaustion and burnout, there is a need to go beyond the unique framework of motivation theories, and explore what cognitive competencies ensure fulfillment of motivation desires. In the current study, differences in junior athletes’ quality of motivation influenced self-control competencies when predicting exhaustion. Interestingly, young athletes driven by self-determined (intrinsic, integrated, and identified, and controlled (introjected and amotivation regulations in association

  19. Exhaustion Experiences in Junior Athletes: The Importance of Motivation and Self-Control Competencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordalen, Gro; Lemyre, Pierre-Nicolas; Durand-Bush, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    Quality of motivation, self-control competencies, as well as past performance experience influence sport participation outcomes in developing athletes. Studies have shown that junior athletes high in self-determined motivation are less prone to experience burnout, while self-control competencies help developing athletes to be conscious and deliberate in their self-regulatory efforts toward elite sport performances and avoid negative sport participation outcomes. Combining the self-determination theory framework and psychosocial theories of self-regulation, the aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine how various types of motivation and self-control competencies together are associated with the development of burnout symptoms in junior athletes. High-level Norwegian winter-sport athletes from elite sport academies (N = 199; female n = 72; 16-20 years of age) consented to participate. Associations between six types of motivational regulation, self-control, and indices of exhaustion were investigated. We hypothesized that athletes' self-control competencies are important to operate successfully, and influenced by different types of motivation, they are expected to help athletes avoid negative sport participation outcomes such as emotional and physical exhaustion. Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to analyze these relationships, and results revealed some multifaceted associations. When identifying antecedents of sport participation exhaustion and burnout, there is a need to go beyond the unique framework of motivation theories, and explore what cognitive competencies ensure fulfillment of motivation desires. In the current study, differences in junior athletes' quality of motivation influenced self-control competencies when predicting exhaustion. Interestingly, young athletes driven by self-determined (intrinsic, integrated, and identified), and controlled (introjected and amotivation) regulations in association with self-control offered the

  20. Traumatic shoulder dislocation with combined bankart lesion and humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament in a professional basketball player: three-year follow-up of surgical stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Aakash A; Selesnick, F Harlan

    2010-10-01

    Traumatic anterior shoulder instability has been well documented to have associated lesions such as a Bankart tear, humeral avulsion of the glenohumeral ligament (HAGL), Hill-Sachs lesion, fracture, and nerve injury. To our knowledge, the combined Bankart and HAGL injury in a single acute anterior shoulder dislocation has not yet been reported. We describe a traumatic first-time anterior-inferior shoulder dislocation in a professional basketball player with a combined Bankart and HAGL lesion. The patient underwent arthroscopic Bankart repair followed by open repair of the HAGL lesion with an open capsular shift reconstruction. At 3 years' follow-up, the patient had returned to an elite level of play, with an excellent outcome. Copyright © 2010 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Fostering Elite Athlete Development and Recreational Sport Participation: a Successful Club Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Rafaela Galatti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The overall aim of this article was to present a positive case study about how a sport club can foster both elite athlete development in parallel with offering a diverse range of sport activities to attract and maintain a greater number of children and youth for continued participation in a long term sport program.  To this end, an in-depth case study was conducted of a model Spanish Basketball Club, considered an example of success in achieving consistent level of performance and high rates of participation among their youth. Data were collected from in-depth interviews with administrators, setting observation, and analysis of current and archived club documents. The results show that the club has created changes over the years that have led to a clear organizational structure with a philosophy that connects its youth development teams and elite teams. An increase focus on youth development, the addition of recreational activities, and the implementation of a coach education program have been linked to enhanced participation rate and performance.

  2. Soccer and Relative Age Effect: A Walk among Elite Players and Young Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Jacob Sierra-Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grouping people according to chronological age is popular in fields such as education and sport. Athletes who are born in the first months of the year usually have cognitive and physical development differences in contrast to those born in the last months of the same year. That is why competitive teams tend to select older players more often than youngsters. Age differences between athletes born in the same year as well as an over-representation of older players are known as the Relative Age Effect. This effect is extensively described in young and elite team sports such as basketball, volleyball or, ice-hockey, as well as in soccer. The purpose of this study is to examine the state-of-the-art of the Relative Age Effect in youth and elite soccer players. This review summarizes recent research articles on the Relative Age Effect related to competitive soccer from 2010 to 2016. The systematic literature search was conducted in four databases: SPORTDiscus, Medline, EBSCO host and Google Scholar. Although causes and final solutions have not been clearly achieved yet, it is necessary to continue investigating this phenomenon in order to provide a starting point for future research.

  3. Quantitative evaluation of trunk muscle strength in wheelchair basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sileno da Silva Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Trunk muscle strength affects trunk controlling playing an important role in performance and to define the classes of wheelchair basketball players. Trunk control capacity differs among players and quantitative assessments of trunk muscle strength have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to identify and correlate quantitative measures of trunk muscle strength with the wheelchair basketball players' classification. Forty-two male wheelchair basketball players with spinal cord injury, amputation, post-poliomyelitis sequelae, and cerebral palsy had their trunk extension and flexion strength evaluated with isokinetic dynamometer. The classes 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 were considered for statistical analysis. Comparison of trunk muscle strength differed significantly between classes: 1.0 and 3.0; 1.0 and 4.0; 2.0 and 3.0; and 2.0 and 4.0. High correlation was found between the trunk muscle strength and players' classes. The findings of the present study showed a strong correlation of trunk muscle strength and wheelchair basketball classes being able to distinguish players in their classes. However, this quantitative method of evaluation of the trunk muscle strength cannot be solely used to make a decision on the full trunk control.

  4. Multidimensional Self-Efficacy and Affect in Wheelchair Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey J.

    2008-01-01

    In the current study, variables grounded in social cognitive theory with athletes with disabilities were examined. Performance, training, resiliency, and thought control self-efficacy, and positive (PA) and negative (NA) affect were examined with wheelchair basketball athletes (N = 79). Consistent with social cognitive theory, weak to strong…

  5. Development of Repeated Sprint Ability in Talented Youth Basketball Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; de Jong, Mark C.; Tromp, Eveline J. Y.; Vuijk, Pieter J.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Malina, Robert M.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    te Wierike, SCM, de Jong, MC, Tromp, EJY, Vuijk, PJ, Lemmink, KAPM, Malina, RM, Elferink-Gemser, MT, and Visscher, C. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 28(4): 928-934, 2014-Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated

  6. March Math Madness: The Mathematics of the NCAA Basketball Tournament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    This article explores the mathematics involved in the NCAA basketball tournament including data analysis, basic probability, expected value, and the multiplication principle. A fun activity is presented that applies these concepts and involves students shooting Ping-Pong balls to discover a best strategy. (Contains 3 tables and 3 figures.)

  7. The Role of Metaphor in the Interpretation of Basketball Jargons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯伟

    2012-01-01

      Based upon Lakoff and Johnson’s theory of conventional metaphor, this paper takes some basketball jargons as a case for analysis from the cognitive perspective. The analysis verifies the indispensable role that metaphor as an important cogni⁃tive instrument plays in people’s interpreting and understanding the target domain by carrying over concepts from the source domain.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Competitive Balanceo f Basketball League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siniša Jungić

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Basketball is a sport that has a very long tradition in the territory of ex-Yugoslavia. The breakdown of the country led to a de- crease in quality of basketball in the newly created countries. The unsteadiness of quality of the teams in national leagues resulted in formation of the Regional Adriatic Basketball League (ABA in 2001. The main goal of this research was to measure the competitive balance in ABA, Spanish (ACB and National Basketball Association League (NBA. The competitive balance was calculated by using Ratio of Standard Deviation index (RSD and Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI.The results of RSD showed that the most equable was ABA league, then came ACB league, while the most unequable was NBA league. The calculating of HHI index gave a different result. NBA is the most equable, then comes ABA league, and the last one is ACB league, which is the most unequable according to this parameter. ABA league has less quality than ACB and NBA league, but the results show that it is competitively the most balanced league. According to the RSD rates, NBA league is the most unequable. The main reason for that is a huge number of teams taking part in the league, which causes the unequable distribution of quality players. Ac- cording to HHI, NBA is the most equable. Reason for that are different mechanisms whose goal is to reach and maintain the competitive balance.

  9. Development of Repeated Sprint Ability in Talented Youth Basketball Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; de Jong, Mark C.; Tromp, Eveline J. Y.; Vuijk, Pieter J.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Malina, Robert M.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    te Wierike, SCM, de Jong, MC, Tromp, EJY, Vuijk, PJ, Lemmink, KAPM, Malina, RM, Elferink-Gemser, MT, and Visscher, C. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 28(4): 928-934, 2014-Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated i

  10. ANTROPOMETRIC CHARACTERISTICS AND MOTOR SKILLS OF YOUNG MONTENEGRO BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovan Ljubojević

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Testing and measurement in basketball is basically supposed to help in the initial evaluation and interpretation of features and capabilities of players that are important for their activity. The main objective of testing is the possibility of obtaining information about the three general indicators in basketball practice, namely: the level of current results in certain ability, the pace of results improvement in the ability and stability of the results in tests of ability. For this purpose, testing and measurement of young basketball players, members of the Montenegro under-18 team, was carried out. The aim of this paper is to present the basic features and capabilities of young basketball players of Montenegro and their comparison with some other teams. Variables from anthropometry space were measured: body height, arm span, reach height, body mass. Motor skills were observed by variables: the last squat, thrust from a flat bench, rear thrust, lying-sitting for 30 seconds, sargent test, long jump, 20 yard test, kamikaze, špagat, sitting bow. Based on the processed results it can be concluded that the motor skills of our young players, tested in this study, are at the level of the young players of other representations. The results will be of great help to coaches who work with these players.

  11. Development of Repeated Sprint Ability in Talented Youth Basketball Players

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Wierike, Sanne C. M.; de Jong, Mark C.; Tromp, Eveline J. Y.; Vuijk, Pieter J.; Lemmink, Koen A. P. M.; Malina, Robert M.; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T.; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    te Wierike, SCM, de Jong, MC, Tromp, EJY, Vuijk, PJ, Lemmink, KAPM, Malina, RM, Elferink-Gemser, MT, and Visscher, C. Development of repeated sprint ability in talented youth basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 28(4): 928-934, 2014-Factors affecting repeated sprint ability (RSA) were evaluated i

  12. Comparing the Age Related Mood Profile of Veteran Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robabeh Rostami

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Basketball, as an exciting team sport, is very popular among athletes with disabilities. Among psychological skills, mood states as an important variable have been of special interest to researchers. Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate and compare profile of mood states (BRUMS of disabled former soldiers who play basketball in different age groups. Methodology: After getting permit to conduct the research, 28 disabled basketball players completed the demographic survey and the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS questionnaire. BRUMS consisted of 24 items in subscales of stress, anger, depression, fatigue, confusion and vigor. The one-way analysis of variance test was used for the data analysis. The significance level was set at P≤0.05. SPSS Statistics 22.0 was used for the analysis of data. Results: The results showed that mood states become less negative with age. However, scores showed a rising trend in the 35-39 age groups (mood of anger with P=0/02 fatigue with P=0/03 and confusion with P=0/04. Conclusion: It seems that examining the psychological variables in relation to age can help develop more effective strategies in physical and mental training programs for disabled players. Keywords: Mood States, Basketball Players, veteran with disabilities, Age

  13. A Research into Evaluation of Basketball Athletes' Risk Perception Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Ozgur

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the risk perception levels of Basketball athletes in Turkish League teams according to some variables. In this research the "general screening model," which is one of the descriptive screening methods, was used. While the population of the study consists of athletes actively engaged in the Turkish…

  14. When English Language Arts, Basketball, and Poetry Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, W. Douglas

    2007-01-01

    A former high school teacher's reflections on the connections between basketball and poetry suggest the significance of extracurricular activities for teachers and students. W. Douglas Baker recounts how he guided students to make connections among "the collision of activities in their lives" by delving into the practices and discourses of three…

  15. Teaching History in the Junior College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    1989-01-01

    Recommends techniques for teaching history in the junior college. Discusses subject matter to be taught, the psychology of learning, and the philosophy of teaching history. Addresses the special needs of the junior college classroom. Outlines criteria to be followed in teaching history. (RW)

  16. Junior High Career Planning: What Students Want

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardick, Angela D.; Bernes, Kerry B.; Magnusson, Kris C.; Witko, Kim D.

    2004-01-01

    This research used "The Comprehensive Career Needs Survey" to assess the career counselling needs of 3,562 junior high students in Southern Alberta. This article examines junior high students' responses regarding their perceptions of (a) the relevance of career planning, (b) who they would approach for help with career planning, and (c)…

  17. Junior High Norms for the Bender Gestalt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grow, Richard T.

    1980-01-01

    Junior high students were tested to supply normative data supporting the Bender Gestalt. Subject's performance was not significantly related to sex or occupation of the family bread winner. These variables do not have to be controlled for in norming visual motor tests at the junior high level. (Author)

  18. Effective Management in Junior High Mathematics Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmer, Edmund T.

    Reporting on part of the data collected in the Junior High Classroom Organization Study, this document focuses on the mathematics subsample. Twenty-six mathematics teachers in 11 junior high schools were observed in two classes. The major purpose of this paper is to describe the classroom procedures and behaviors of teachers identified as…

  19. Vocabulary Development of Junior Teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Nikonova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the communicative competence formation of young adolescents in the secondary school at the Russian language lessons. The author maintains that the key element of the above problem is the vocabulary development guaranteeing both comprehension and verbal expression formation – oral and written. The theoretical part of the research explores different word functions: nominal, communicative, text generating and semantic. The correlation between the mental development level and lexical semantic system formation is emphasized. The age specific features of junior teens are listed: rising interest to various life spheres and activi- ties, capability of formulating opinions and judgments, self-awareness, formation of values. The relationship complexity stimulates vocabulary development of 10 to 12 year-old children; however, the process requires peda- gogical facilitation.The monitoring of speech development proves the necessity of commutative competence formation of the fifth- and sixth-year pupils. The paper presents the model of communicative competence development and its approbation results received for the junior adolescents. 

  20. Vocabulary Development of Junior Teens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Nikonova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the communicative competence formation of young adolescents in the secondary school at the Russian language lessons. The author maintains that the key element of the above problem is the vocabulary development guaranteeing both comprehension and verbal expression formation – oral and written. The theoretical part of the research explores different word functions: nominal, communicative, text generating and semantic. The correlation between the mental development level and lexical semantic system formation is emphasized. The age specific features of junior teens are listed: rising interest to various life spheres and activi- ties, capability of formulating opinions and judgments, self-awareness, formation of values. The relationship complexity stimulates vocabulary development of 10 to 12 year-old children; however, the process requires peda- gogical facilitation.The monitoring of speech development proves the necessity of commutative competence formation of the fifth- and sixth-year pupils. The paper presents the model of communicative competence development and its approbation results received for the junior adolescents. 

  1. Rehabilitation and Return to Sport Following Surgical Repair of the Rectus Abdominis and Adductor Longus in a Professional Basketball Player: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Steven M; Anloague, Philip A; Strack, Donald S

    2016-08-01

    Study Design Case report. Background Acute traumatic avulsion of the rectus abdominis and adductor longus is rare. Chronic groin injuries, often falling under the athletic pubalgia spectrum, have been reported to be more common. There is limited evidence detailing the comprehensive rehabilitation and return to sport of an athlete following surgical or conservative treatment of avulsion injuries of the pubis or other sports-related groin pathologies. Case Description A 29-year-old National Basketball Association player sustained a contact injury during a professional basketball game. This case report describes a unique clinical situation specific to professional sport, in which a surgical repair of an avulsed rectus abdominis and adductor longus was combined with a multimodal impairment- and outcomes-based rehabilitation program. Outcomes The patient returned to in-season competition at 5 weeks postoperation. Objective measures were tracked throughout rehabilitation and compared to baseline assessments. Measures such as the Copenhagen Hip and Groin Outcome Score and numeric pain-rating scale revealed progress beyond the minimal important difference. Discussion This case report details the clinical reasoning and evidence-informed interventions involved in the return to elite sport. Detailed programming and objective assessment may assist in achieving desired outcomes ahead of previously established timelines. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(8):697-706. Epub 3 Jul 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6352.

  2. Sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ito E

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Eri Ito, Jun Iwamoto, Koichiro Azuma, Hideo MatsumotoInstitute for Integrated Sports Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: The purpose of the present study was to investigate sex-specific differences in injury types among basketball players. According to our database, during the 20-year period between October 1991 and June 2011, 1,219 basketball players (640 males and 579 females consulted our sports medicine clinic; in total, 1,414 injuries in basketball players (729 injuries in males and 685 injuries in females were recorded. The mean age of patients was 19.6 years. The most common injury site was the knee, followed by the foot and ankle, lower back, and upper extremities. There was a higher proportion of female players presenting with a knee injury, compared with male players (50.4% vs 41.7%, and a lower proportion of female players presenting with an upper extremity injury (5.1% vs 9.7%. The proportion of anterior cruciate ligament injury in the 10–19-year-old age group was higher among female players than among male players (45.9% vs 22.1%, while the proportions of Osgood–Schlatter disease in the 10–19-year-old age group and jumper's knee (patellar and femoral tendinopathy in the 20–29-year-old age group were higher among male players than among female players (12.5% vs 1.8% and 14.6% vs 3.7%, respectively. However, the proportions of other injuries did not differ significantly between male and female players. The present observational study, which was performed using a retrospective case-series design, showed the existence of sex-specific differences in knee injuries sustained while participating in basketball.Keywords: sports injury, sex, anterior cruciate ligament injury, Osgood–Schlatter disease, basketball

  3. Fluid Balance During Training in Elite Young Athletes of Different Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaoutis, Giannis; Kavouras, Stavros A; Angelopoulou, Athanasia; Skoulariki, Chara; Bismpikou, Stefani; Mourtakos, Stamatis; Sidossis, Labros S

    2015-12-01

    Although there are many studies demonstrating a high percentage of adult athletes who start exercise in suboptimal hydration state, limited data concerning hydration levels in athletic youth exist. The purpose of this study was to identify the hydration status of elite young athletes of different sports, during a typical day of training. Fifty-nine young elite male athletes from different sports (basketball, gymnastics, swimming, running, and canoeing) participated in the study (age: 15.2 ± 1.3 years; years of training: 7.7 ± 2.0). Hydration status was assessed in the morning, before and immediately after practice. Data collection took place at the same time of the day, with mean environmental temperature and humidity at the time of the measurements at 27.6 ± 0.9° C and 58 ± 8%, respectively. All athletes trained for approximately 90 minutes, and they were consuming fluids ad libitum throughout their practice. Over 89% of the athletes were hypohydrated (urine specific gravity [USG] ≥1.020 mg·dl) based on their first morning urine sample. Pretraining urine samples revealed that 76.3% of the athletes were hypohydrated, whereas a significant high percent remained hypohydrated even after training according to USG values ≥1.020 mg·dl (74.5%) and urine color scale: 5-6 (76.3%). Mean body weight loss during training was -1.1 ± 0.07%. We concluded that the prevalence of hypohydration among elite young athletes is very high, as indicated by the USG and urine color values. The majority of the athletes was hypohydrated throughout the day and dehydrated even more during practice despite fluid availability.

  4. Effects of Reasoning Ability on Field Goal Shooting Skills of Female Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Kumar Singh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, field goal shooting skills of female basketball players were assessed in the background to their reasoning ability. The sample consists of 100 female intercollegiate basketball players (age = 21.05±1.67 yrs.. Shooting skills reasoning ability were assessed by Johnson’s “Basketball Field Goal Speed Shooting Test” and Mixed Type Group Test of Intelligence prepared by Mehrotra (1984, respectively. Results reveal that field goal shooting ability of female basketball players exhibiting superior reasoning ability was found to be significantly better as compared to field goal shooting ability of female basketball players with low and average reasoning ability. It was concluded that shooting skills of female basketball players is influenced by their cognitive ability i.e. ability to rationalize problems in proper sequence.

  5. Self-reported versus diagnosed stress fractures in norwegian female elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyen, Jannike; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Sundgot-Borgen, Jorunn

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of self- reported versus diagnosed stress fractures in female elite athletes and non-athletic controls. A random sample of Norwegian elite athletes from the national teams, aged 13-39 years (n = 186) and a random sample of non-athletic controls (n = 145) in the same age group participated in the study. The athletes represented a junior- or senior team, or a recruiting squad for one of these teams, in one of 46 different sports/events. A higher percentage of athletes self-reported stress fractures (14.0%) compared to those diagnosed with stress fractures (8.1%) (p stress fractures, but none of them were diagnosed with stress fractures. These results indicate that self-reporting of stress fractures has low validity. This finding has important implications for further research on stress fractures in athletes. Key pointsThis study is the first to compare self-reported and diagnosed stress fractures in the total population of elite athletes representing all kinds of sports.The results indicate that self-reporting of stress fractures has low validity in both athletes and non-athletic controls, and other measurement methods should be considered when evaluating possible stress fractures.Based on our results, stress fractures seem to be a sport-related injury.

  6. Special Judo Fitness Test Level and Anthropometric Profile of Elite Spanish Judo Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, Cristina; Huertas, Jesús R; Franchini, Emerson; Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Katarzyna; Sterkowicz, Stanislaw; Gutiérrez-García, Carlos; Escobar-Molina, Raquel

    2017-05-01

    Casals, C, Huertas, JR, Franchini, E, Sterkowicz-Przybycień, K, Sterkowicz, S, Gutiérrez-García, C, and Escobar-Molina, R. Special judo fitness test level and anthropometric profile of elite spanish judo athletes. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1229-1235, 2017-The aim of this study was to determine the anthropometric variables that best predict Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT) performance. In addition, anthropometric profiles of elite Spanish judo athletes were compared by sex and age category (seniors and juniors). In this cross-sectional study, a total of 51 (29 females) athletes from the Spanish National Judo Team were evaluated during a competitive period. All athletes performed the SJFT and underwent an anthropometric assessment through skinfold thickness measurements. Mann-Whitney comparisons by sex and age category showed that males had significantly higher muscle mass and lower fat mass than females (p elite athletes (R = 0.31, p somatotypes as predictors. Higher muscle and bone masses and lower ectomorphy were associated with better SJFT performance (R = 0.44, p athletes in conjunction with other factors.

  7. Competition and Cooperation, Equality and Elites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flew, Antony

    1983-01-01

    Cooperation and competition are often seen as polar opposites; yet they are not necessarily in opposition. Similarly, quality and elitism are not opposed if the goal of equality is seen as equality of opportunity rather than equality of outcome and the elite are the product of fair competition. (IS)

  8. Elite co-occurrence in the media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traag, V.A.; Reinanda, R.; van Klinken, G.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new computational methodology to identify national political elites, and demonstrate it for Indonesia. On the basis that elites have an "organised capacity to make real and continuing political trouble", we identify them as those individuals who occur most frequently in a large corpus o

  9. Exploring Biographical Learning in Elite Soccer Coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh

    2014-01-01

    Qualified and skilled sport coaches are vital to the development of sport in general and of elite sport in particular. Research suggests that the development of coaching expertise in elite sport is a complex matter involving mediated, unmediated and internal learning situations. However, it is less clear to what extent and in which ways these…

  10. Mechanical Determinants of Faster Change of Direction and Agility Performance in Female Basketball Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiteri, Tania; Newton, Robert U; Binetti, Molly; Hart, Nicolas H; Sheppard, Jeremy M; Nimphius, Sophia

    2015-08-01

    Change of direction (COD) and agility require the integration of multiple components to produce a faster performance. However, the mechanisms contributing to a faster performance without the confounding factor of athlete expertise or gender is currently unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess body composition, strength, and kinetic profile required for a faster COD and agility performance across multiple directional changes. Six faster and 6 slower (n = 12) elite female basketball athletes completed a maximal dynamic back squat; eccentric and concentric only back squat; isometric midthigh pull; whole-body scan to determine lean, fat, and total mass; 505 COD test; T-test; and a multidirectional agility test over in-ground force plates to obtain relevant kinetic measures. Group (faster and slower) by test (2 × 3) multivariate analyses of variance with follow-up analyses of variance were conducted to examine differences between faster and slower groups and each COD and agility test (p ≤ 0.05). Faster athletes during the 505 COD test produced significantly greater vertical force (p = 0.002) and eccentric and isometric strength capacity (p = 0.001). Faster agility and T-test athletes demonstrated significantly shorter contact times (p = 0.001), greater propulsive impulse (p = 0.02), isometric strength, and relative lean mass compared with slower athletes. Differences between faster athletes across each test seem to be attributed to the mechanical demands of the directional change, increasing force and impulse application as the degree of directional change increased. These findings indicate that different mechanical properties are required to produce a faster COD and agility performances, and the importance of a greater strength capacity to enable greater mechanical adjustment through force production and body control, during different directional changes.

  11. UNSPORTSMANLIKE BEHAVIORS IN THE TURKISH BASKETBALL AND SOCCER LEAGUES FROM THE VIEW OF REFEREES

    OpenAIRE

    GÜRPINAR, Bahri; GÜVEN, Özbay

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the unsportsmanlike behaviors the basketball and soccer referees are subject to and reveal the differences in unsportsmanlike behaviors between the leagues. There are 192 basketball, 129 soccer referees officiating in Turkey’s league of basketball and soccer in the season of 2007-2008, participated in this study. “Personal Information and View Form” and “Unsportsmanlike Behaviors Questionnaire” were used as the data-collection tools. At the end of this ...

  12. Effect of playing basketball on the posture of cervical spine in healthy collegiate students

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess and compare the cervical posture of collegiate students and collegiate basketball players.Procedure: Craniovertebral angle and Sagittal head tilt were measured using photogrammetric method in 15 collegiate students and 15 collegiate basketball players.Results: Significant differences were not found between two groups for any of the two angles at p<0.05.Conclusions: Playing basketball does not place any significant impact on the posture of cervical spine of collegiate s...

  13. CARIES PREVENTION AMONG JUNIOR SCHOOLCHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.К. Matelo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biennial program of controlled tooth brushing performed econdary school among junior schoolchildren from Minsk secondary school № 166 proved to be highly effective. Decrease in caries increment has been shown on the average up to 50%. No credible differences between remineralising defluorinated toothpastes or pastes enriched with aminofluoride (F = 500 ppm and sodium fluoride  (F = 1000 ppm efficacy were found in this study. Credibility of the results was determined by comparison with similar study conducted on a bigger population of children. Though anti-caries effect of the same tooth-pastes in a bigger-scale study was lower — within 30%. Such difference can be explained by a different level of motivation and discipline of participants.Key words: schoolchildren, dental caries prevention, toothpastes. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (6: 48–51

  14. The system of tactical training basketball teams of students using interactive technologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozina Zh.L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A program for improving the effectiveness of tactical training of basketball teams of students with techniques to enhance the perception of figurative elements of technique and tactics of basketball on the basis of modern information technology. The study involved 23 female basketball players of 18-23 years of student teams, 11 of which were experimental group and 12 - control. Established that the developed system improves the quality of performance technique techniques of basketball, the effectiveness of actions in the game, raising the number of implemented in-game tactical interactions.

  15. Effect of carbohydrate or sodium bicarbonate ingestion on performance during a validated basketball simulation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afman, Gregg; Garside, Richard M; Dinan, Neal; Gant, Nicholas; Betts, James A; Williams, Clyde

    2014-12-01

    Current recommendations for nutritional interventions in basketball are largely extrapolated from laboratory-based studies that are not sport-specific. We therefore adapted and validated a basketball simulation test relative to competitive basketball games using well-trained basketball players (n = 10), then employed this test to evaluate the effects of two common preexercise nutritional interventions on basketball-specific physical and skilled performance. Specifically, in a randomized and counterbalanced order, participants ingested solutions providing either 75 g carbohydrate (sucrose) 45 min before exercise (Study A; n = 10) or 2 × 0.2 g · kg(-1) sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) 90 and 20 min before exercise (Study B; n = 7), each relative to appropriate placebos (H2O and 2 × 0.14 g · kg(-1) NaCl, respectively). Heart rate, sweat rate, pedometer count, and perceived exertion did not systematically differ between the 60-min basketball simulation test and competitive basketball, with a strong positive correlation in heart rate response (r = .9, p basketball simulation test provides a valid reflection of physiological demands in competitive basketball and is sufficiently sensitive to detect meaningful changes in physical and skilled performance. While there are benefits of preexercise carbohydrate or sodium bicarbonate ingestion, these should be balanced against potential negative side effects.

  16. 福建省少年篮球运动员的身体素质和技术现状%On the Physical Quality and Current Technological Situation of Teenage Basketball Player in Fujian Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马黎磊

    2012-01-01

    The paper aims to make the current assessment and statistics about physical quality and technology for 168 men and women athletes who attended the junior group basketball championship in 2011,according to the projects and requirements of the National Teenage and Children Basketball Teaching Training Program promulgated in 2009 and through adopting the field test,the literature material,field interview methods.In the process of analyzing statistics,the author has found some problems and put forward some suggestions in order to make the overall level of teenage basketball sports so as to form a good pyramid in Fujian,make the level of the teenagers closer,make a more competitive situation appearing in each team,and convey good basketball reserve talents for the first-line and second-line teams and physical universities in our province.%为了了解福建省篮球后备人才的发展现状,采用现场测试的方法,对参加福建省2011年少年乙组篮球锦标赛的168名男女学生运动员,按国家体育总局2009年颁布的全国青少年儿童篮球教学训练大纲的标准进行身体素质和技术的测评。研究表明:福建省少年篮球运动员的技术动作、球感和速度差距明显;60 s多点移动投篮、20 s卧推、单脚起跳助跑摸高成绩不理想;无论是身体素质还是技术水平,福州女队明显高出其他球队。

  17. Elite athletes and pubertal delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapczuk, Karina

    2017-10-01

    Intensive physical training and participation in competitive sports during childhood and early adolescence may affect athletes' pubertal development. On the other hand, pubertal timing, early or late, may impact on an athlete selection for a particular sport. Genetic predisposition, training load, nutritional status and psychological stress determine athletes' pubertal timing. Athletes that practice esthetic sports, especially gymnasts, are predisposed to a delay in pubertal development. The growing evidence indicates that energy deficiency, not a systemic training per se, plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of functional hypothalamic hypogonadism in female athletes. Metabolic and psychologic stress activate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and suppress hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Female athletes who do not begin secondary sexual development by the age of 14 or menstruation by the age of 16 warrant a comprehensive evaluation and a targeted treatment. Somatic growth and sexual maturation of elite female athletes are largely sport-specific since each sport favors a particular somatotype and requires a specific training. Chronic negative energy balance resulting from a systemic physical training and inadequate energy intake may delay pubertal development in elite athletes. Youth athletes, especially those engaged in competitive sports that emphasize prepubertal or lean appearance, are at risk of developing relative energy deficiency in sport associated with disordered eating or eating disorders. Management strategies should address the complex conditions underlying functional hypothalamic hypogonadism.

  18. Assessment succession of student's goes in for basketball.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temchenko V.A.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The questions of working out of the criteria for assessment the results of students by subject "Physical education" (basketball section are considered. The article focuses on variants of assessing the results physical training employment of the students under the credit and module system. It is set that at the choice of type of sport (or directions motive activity about 40% students of basic separation are given by a preference the playing types of sport. From this number 12% choose basket-ball. Norms in special physical training are given. It's emphasized that there is no common system of assessment the results of students; the model of sectional form of physical training is worked out not enough.

  19. INCIDENCE OF FREE THROWS IN PROFESSIONAL BASKETBALL GAMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente García Tormo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to describe the incident of the free throw on the final results of the basketball match, and see how other factors may influence the final average of successful free throws, comparing national leagues with European competition. A total of 59,364 free throws have been analyzed, corresponding to 1722 matches from two seasons of the Spanish professional basketball league (ACB and LFB and European league (Euroleague Euroleague and women. Has been made descriptive analysis, an analysis of synchrony and an analysis of the residuals corrected. The results demonstrate the importance of free throws for the final score, especially in male and when is a close match. Likewise, the home court advantage is related to higher efficiency in free throws and win the match.Key words:

  20. Psychological predictors of coping responses among Greek basketball referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaissidis-Rodafinos, A; Anshel, M H

    2000-06-01

    The authors examined the effects of situational appraisals (perceived control and intensity), coping styles (monitoring and blunting), and personal dispositions (optimism and self-esteem) on the approach and avoidance coping responses of skilled Greek basketball referees (N = 162) and the consistency of their responses following 3 game-related stressful situations. In an effort to clarify the variables involved in coping and to consider the theoretical principles both within and beyond sports, the authors replicated an earlier study among Australian basketball referees (A. Kaissidis-Rodafinos, M. H. Anshel, & A. Porter, 1997). The results were equivocal: The Greek referees were not consistent in using avoidance and approach coping responses across situations. Approach coping was more predictable than avoidance coping in accounting for both situational and personal variables.

  1. The influence of in-game emotions on basketball performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uphill, Mark; Groom, Ryan; Jones, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the influence of emotions on performance in basketball. Six female basketball players were videotaped in six games. Frequency of performance behaviours was recorded minute-by-minute and indices of successful (SGI) and unsuccessful (UGI) game involvement derived for each player. Post-game, players reported the intensity of experienced emotions (anger, anxiety, embarrassment, excitement and happiness), and the time of the eliciting incident. The only emotion revealed as a significant predictor of SGI was happiness; both anger and embarrassment were significant predictors of increased UGI. Consideration of individual player analyses suggests that there is variation in the magnitude of the influence of emotions on performance and the extent to which this influence was helpful or harmful to performance. The study provides evidence that emotions are associated with changes in game behaviours in competition. Implications for further research examining the emotion-performance relationship are discussed.

  2. Precision: A motor capability that defines a successful basketball player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaković Marko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Precision, as a basic motor ability, represents, along with coordination, the least explored area of motorics. Insufficient research of this phenomenon is also true of basketball. Within it, we monitor displays of precision in the most specific of all conditions - during a basketball game. This paper represents a review of research concerning precision, with a brief critical overview of the mentioned phenomenon. Apart from the conclusions, which speak about precision as the basic motor capability (and have been presented as products of speculation and earlier findings, a review of empirical research related to situational precision has also been presented. These studies have been aimed at finding a connection between shot patterns and distance to target; goal visualisation; influence of skeleton dimension on precision. One of the goals of this paper is to point out the significance of precision of players at guard position, which could be a significant selection factor.

  3. Multimodal Semantic Analysis and Annotation for Basketball Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Song; Xu, Min; Yi, Haoran; Chia, Liang-Tien; Rajan, Deepu

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents a new multiple-modality method for extracting semantic information from basketball video. The visual, motion, and audio information are extracted from video to first generate some low-level video segmentation and classification. Domain knowledge is further exploited for detecting interesting events in the basketball video. For video, both visual and motion prediction information are utilized for shot and scene boundary detection algorithm; this will be followed by scene classification. For audio, audio keysounds are sets of specific audio sounds related to semantic events and a classification method based on hidden Markov model (HMM) is used for audio keysound identification. Subsequently, by analyzing the multimodal information, the positions of potential semantic events, such as "foul" and "shot at the basket," are located with additional domain knowledge. Finally, a video annotation is generated according to MPEG-7 multimedia description schemes (MDSs). Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Athletic Cardiac Remodeling in US Professional Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, David J; Schwartz, Allan; Homma, Shunichi

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of sudden cardiac death is higher in US basketball players compared with other athlete groups. However, the recognition of the risk for sudden cardiac death among basketball players is challenging because little is known regarding athletic cardiac remodeling in these athletes or athletes of similarly increased size. To perform a comprehensive cardiac structural analysis of National Basketball Association (NBA) professional athletes. Echocardiographic observational study of NBA players on the active rosters for the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 seasons was performed from December 16, 2013, to December 12, 2014. The policy of the NBA mandates annual preseason stress echocardiograms for each player. The NBA has sanctioned Columbia University Medical Center to conduct annual health and safety reviews of these echocardiograms. Data were analyzed from January to May 2015. Cardiac variables assessed included left ventricular (LV) size, mass, wall thickness, and hypertrophy patterns and function; left atrial volume; and aortic root diameter. All dimensions were biometrically scaled. Of the 526 athletes included in the study, 406 (77.2%) were African American and 107 (20.3%) were white, with a mean (SD) age of 25.7 (4.3) years. Mean (SD) athlete height was 200.2 (8.8) cm; mean body surface area, 2.38 (0.19) m2. Left ventricular size and mass in NBA athletes were proportional to body size, extending to the uppermost biometrics of the cohort. Left ventricular hypertrophy was present in 144 athletes (27.4%). African American athletes had increased LV wall thickness (unadjusted mean, 11.2 mm; 95% CI, 11.1-11.3 mm) and LV mass (unadjusted mean, 106.3 g/m2; 95% CI, 104.6-108.0 g/m2) compared with LV wall thickness (unadjusted mean, 10.5 mm; 95% CI, 10.3-10.7 mm; P basketball players and the athletic community at large.

  5. Factorized Point Process Intensities: A Spatial Analysis of Professional Basketball

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Andrew; Bornn, Luke; Adams, Ryan Prescott; Goldsberry, Kirk P

    2014-01-01

    We develop a machine learning approach to represent and analyze the underlying spatial structure that governs shot selection among professional basketball players in the NBA. Typically, NBA players are discussed and compared in an heuristic, imprecise manner that relies on unmeasured intuitions about player behavior. This makes it difficult to draw comparisons between players and make accurate player specific predictions. Modeling shot attempt data as a point process, we create a low dimensio...

  6. Acute hormonal, immunological and enzymatic responses to a basketball game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Foschini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to analyze the acute hormonal, immunological and enzymatic responses of professional basketball players to a basketball game. The sample was composed of eight basketball athletes, with a minimum of 4 years’ experience in basketball. A real game was simulated with a total duration of 40 minutes, divided into two halves of 20 minutes each and an interval of 10 minutes between halves. Blood samples were collected before andimmediately after the game (20 ml, vacuum tube system. The variables analyzed were: testosterone and cortisol hormones, total leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and the enzymes creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Statistical analysis was with descriptive statistics and the Student’s t test for paired samples to p≤0.05. The pre (13.34 nmol/L and 301.97 nmol/L and post game (17.34 nmol/L and 395.91 nmol/L levels of testosterone and cortisol were statistically different, with higher levels after the game for both hormones. The immune cell counts exhibited significant differences for total leukocytes (6393.75 nmol/L and 9158.75 nmol/L and neutrophils (3532.5 nmol/L and 6392.62 nmol/L, with levels being higher after the game. No statistical differences were observed for the enzymatic variables. Therefore, based on the markers analyzed, testosterone and cortisol exhibited pronounced increases after the game and the samebehavior was observed for total leukocytes and neutrophils.

  7. A survey of orofacial injuries among basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azodo, Clement Chinedu; Odai, Chukwuemeka Danielson; Osazuwa-Peters, Nosayaba; Obuekwe, Ozoemene Ndubuisi

    2011-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of orofacial injuries among basketball players in Benin City, Nigeria and to survey the athletes' awareness, attitude and use of mouthguards. A cross-sectional survey of basketball players in the standard basketball arena in Benin City was conducted between November 2009 and January 2010. A self-administered questionnaire elicited information on demography, the prevalence of oral and facial injuries, distribution of site and cause of orofacial injuries, athletes' knowledge, attitudes and usage of mouthguards. Data were subjected to descriptive statistics and Chi square test. The response rate was 78%. Of the 156 respondents, 79.5% were male and 20.5% female, with a mean age of 23.1 years. The distributions was amateurs (61.5%) professionals (38.5%). The mean number of injuries in previous 12 months was 3.7 ± 1.8. The prevalence of both facial and oral injuries among the respondents was 62.8% with the lip and gingiva most commonly involved respectively. The common causes of the orofacial injury reported were from elbows of opponents, falling and collisions with other players. The prevalence of injury was not significantly associated with demography, category, competition and duration of participation. More than half had heard and seen mouthguards and the coach was the leading source of information. The reasons for non-use of mouthguard were mostly ignorance, non-availability and non-affordability. The high prevalence of orofacial injury among basketball players reported in this study justifies the need for multidisciplinary injury prevention interventional approach with emphasis on the rules of the games. © 2011 FDI World Dental Federation.

  8. Physical Characteristics Of Female Basketball Players According To Playing Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kucsa Richard

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical characteristics play an important role in the selection of young basketball players and the progress in their playing performance. The aim of the study was to analyze differences in chosen physical characteristics of Slovak U17 female basketball players with respect to their playing positions. We assumed, that there will be statistically significant differences between playing positions in each performance tests results. Chosen characteristics were analyzed for 14 players (mean/SD, age 16.34±0.82; body height 179.72±8.04 cm; body weight 67.62±7.10 kg; body fat 16.59±2.04 %; VO2max 46.20±4.71 ml.kg−1.min−1 according to their playing positions (guard, forward, center. Five specific performance tests for each player were conducted as a 3/4 Basketball court sprint, 10 × 5m Shuttle test, Lane agility drill, No-step vertical jump and Maximum vertical jump. The differences in tests results by playing positions were evaluated by one-way ANOVA. There were no significant differences found in results of chosen performance tests between playing positions (p>.05. In spite of fact, that there were no significant differences, we found interesting results between playing positions in physical characteristics. Guards had better results in speed (3.73±0.16 s, quickness (17.43±0.56 s and both lower-body power tests (47.16±3.06 cm; 57.00±3.40 cm than forwards and centers. Forwards had the best results in agility test (12.54±0.43 s. The results of this study produce useful information about physical characteristics of young basketball players according to their playing position and help to diagnose and improve their performance.

  9. Massive basketball diagram for a thermal scalar field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Jens O.; Braaten, Eric; Strickland, Michael

    2000-08-01

    The ``basketball diagram'' is a three-loop vacuum diagram for a scalar field theory that cannot be expressed in terms of one-loop diagrams. We calculate this diagram for a massive scalar field at nonzero temperature, reducing it to expressions involving three-dimensional integrals that can be easily evaluated numerically. We use this result to calculate the free energy for a massive scalar field with a φ4 interaction to three-loop order.

  10. Personal attributes of female basketball athletes in training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Folle

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study, based on the Bioecological Theory of Human Development, was aimed at examining the personal attributes of athletes belonging to a prominent club in the field of developing female basketball athletes. Participants were 31 athletes and two coaches who participate in youth sports divisions. Data were collected through semi structured interviews, guided by the following main themes: personal characteristics, motivation for sports, best moments of the sporting career (athletes, sports talent identification process (coaches. Participants’ interviews were analyzed using the content analysis technique, through the categorical type. The information found highlighted the presence of the three dimensions emphasized in the Bioecological Theory of Human Development. Height is presented as an important measure for the detection of athletes (positive demand. Interpersonal relationships stood out as motivating factors for entry in basketball practice, while psychological skills reinforced engagement and maintaining the sports career (generating provisions. Passive features, as well as incompatibilities between mesosystem of athletes’ participation and negative affective interpersonal relationships stood out in terms of favoring disruptive provisions of the temporary withdrawal or feelings of sport abandonment. Finally, positive moments (active resources exceeded negative moments (passive resources when it comes to important moments in sports history. The results found suggest that personal attributes of athletes, in addition to the training process occurred in the sporting environment, have enabled the experience of competence results in the process of development of female basketball athletes.

  11. Biomechanical Analysis of the Jump Shot in Basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Struzik Artur

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Basketball players usually score points during the game using the jump shot. For this reason, the jump shot is considered to be the most important element of technique in basketball and requires a high level of performance. The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical characteristics of the lower limbs during a jump shot without the ball and a countermovement jump without an arm swing. The differences between variables provide information about the potential that an athlete can utilise during a game when performing a jump shot. The study was conducted among 20 second-league basketball players by means of a Kistler force plate and the BTS SMART system for motion analysis. The variables measured included the take-off time, mean power, peak power, relative mean power, jump height, maximum landing force and calculated impact ratio. Surprisingly, more advantageous variables were found for the jump shot. This finding suggests a very high performance level in the jump shot in the studied group and a maximum utilisation of their motor abilities. Both types of jumps were characterised by high mean and peak power values and average heights. The high forces at landing, which result in considerable impact ratios, may have prompted the studied group to land softly. Use of the countermovement jump without an arm swing is recommended to assess and predict the progression of player’s jumping ability

  12. Relative age effect and selection of young basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vučković Igor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the present study was to examine whether influence of relative age effect (RAE exists or not in the selected 13 year old basketball players. Subjects were 20 basketball players (HT=177.35cm±6.73, BW=61.42kg±8.98, average age 13 years and 7 months ±.28, average experience in basketball training 4 years and 6 months ±1.15. Sample was divided in two groups: 11 players born in first half of the year and 9 players born in the second half of the year. One-way ANOVA was used in order to analyze the differences between the two groups of players in set of anthropometric variables (body height, arm span, standing reach height, body weight and percentage of body fat, motor variables (velocity of neuromuscular reaction time, vertical jump, 5 meters sprint, 10 meters sprint, 20 meters sprint, T-test, Zig-zag test, ball throw from sitting position, Sit-ups for 30 seconds and standing forward bend and one functional variable (20-M shuttle run test. Subjects do not differ in applied set of parameters, except in on variable (sit-ups for 30 seconds, p=.040. It was concluded that RAE does not exist in this sample of examinees.

  13. Factors Affecting Ankle Support Device Usage in Young Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Cusimano

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional study explores factors affecting the decision of basketball players to wear ankle support devices (ASDs. A questionnaire regarding attitudes towards ASD usage was developed based on the Health Belief Model (HBM. The questionnaire assessed HBM perceptions (susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers and modifying factors (demographic, personal history of ankle injury, influence of coach to preventive action that may affect an athlete’s decision to wear ASDs. One hundred forty basketball players competing at the recreational, high school, or university levels completed the questionnaire, with the questionnaires being completed at the basketball gymnasium or at home. It was found that athletes whose coaches enforced ASD use were significantly more likely to wear them (OR: 35.71; 95% CI: 10.01, 127.36, as were athletes who perceived ankle injuries to be severe (OR: 2.77; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.37. Previous injury did not significantly increase the odds of using an ASD. The combined influence of coach enforcement and previous injury had the greatest effect on increasing ASD use. The largest barrier to ASD use was a lack of aesthetic appeal. Strategies aimed at increasing players’ willingness to wear ankle protection should be emphasized among coaches and parents as this may increase use of ASDs.

  14. Retention of quiet eye in older skilled basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Lennart; Rienhoff, Rebecca; Tirp, Judith; Baker, Joseph; Strauss, Bernd; Schorer, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    There is mounting research to suggest that cognitive and motor expertise is more resistant to age-related decline than more general capacities. The authors investigated the retention of skills in medium-aged skilled (n = 14) and older-aged skilled (n = 7) athletes by comparing them with medium-aged less skilled (n = 15) and older-aged less skilled (n = 15) participants. Participants performed basketball free throws and dart throws as a transfer task under standardized conditions. Motor performance (accuracy) and perceptual performance (quiet eye) were examined across the four groups. There were significant differences between skill groups and age groups in throwing accuracy on both throwing tasks. Skilled players outperformed less skilled and medium-aged players outperformed older-aged players in basketball and dart throws. There were no significant differences in quiet eye duration across the skill or age groups in either task. These results indicate expertise in a perceptual motor task such as the basketball free throw can be retained in older athletes and that present models of skill maintenance should be re-evaluated to consider the issue of transfer.

  15. Previously identified patellar tendinopathy risk factors differ between elite and sub-elite volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, I; Steele, J R; Munro, B J; Brown, N A T

    2015-06-01

    Patellar tendinopathy is the most common knee injury incurred in volleyball, with its prevalence in elite athletes more than three times that of their sub-elite counterparts. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patellar tendinopathy risk factors differed between elite and sub-elite male volleyball players. Nine elite and nine sub-elite male volleyball players performed a lateral stop-jump block movement. Maximum vertical jump, training history, muscle extensibility and strength, three-dimensional landing kinematics (250 Hz), along with lower limb neuromuscular activation patterns (1500 Hz), and patellar tendon loading were collected during each trial. Multivariate analyses of variance (P volleyball players. Interventions designed to reduce landing frequency and improve quadriceps extensibility are recommended to reduce patellar tendinopathy prevalence in volleyball players. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Cardiac Damage Biomarkers Following a Triathlon in Elite and Non-elite Triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Ho; Kim, Kwi-Baek; Han, Jin; Ji, Jin-Goo; Kwak, Yi-Sub

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate cardiac damage biomarkers after a triathlon race in elite and non-elite athlete groups. Fifteen healthy men participated in the study. Based on performance, they were divided into elite athlete group (EG: n=7) and non-elite athlete group (NEG: n=8). Participants' blood samples were obtained during four periods: before, immediately, 2 hours and 7 days after finishing the race. creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-myoglobin (CK-MB), myoglobin, and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were significantly increased in both groups immediately after, and 2 hours after finishing the race (ptriathlon race and, is greater in elite than in non-elite. However, all cardiac damage markers return to normal range within 1 week.

  17. Amount of Minutes Played Does Not Contribute to Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in National Basketball Association Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoroha, Kelechi R; Marfo, Kojo; Meta, Fabien; Matar, Robert; Shehab, Ramsy; Thompson, Terry; Moutzouros, Vasilios; Makhni, Eric C

    2017-07-01

    There is limited information on the potential risk factors for sustaining an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear in National Basketball Association (NBA) athletes. This study evaluated 83 NBA players who sustained an ACL injury between 1984 and 2015 to determine the influence of minutes played on injury risk. Minutes played in the injury game, during the season, and over their career were assessed, along with the ability to return to play, player efficiency rating, and playing time after return. Athletes in the NBA played significantly fewer minutes before sustaining an ACL injury (17.1 minutes) than their average minutes per game that season (23.5 minutes; PNBA competition the season following ACL injury. Players who were drafted as lottery picks (draft pick 1 to 15) or those who were starters played significantly more minutes the season following injury than those who were not (both PNBA game did not contribute to the risk of sustaining an ACL injury. Although there was a high rate of return to NBA competition the season following injury, those who were elite athletes played more minutes per game than those who were not. Athletes who returned to play sustained a decrease in player efficiency ratings compared with similar athletes without ACL injury. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(4):e658-e662.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Elite y naturaleza. ¿Naturaleza de elite?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myriam Luz Jaramillo Giraldo

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available El artículo da cuenta de las actitudes y representaciones de una colectividad particular con respecto a la naturaleza, su origen y consecuencias sobre el paisaje, la tierra, la estructura agraria, en la primera mitad del siglo XX –partiendo del XIX–. Ideas y representaciones de la elite que se encarga de “dirigir” el destino del país y que repercuten en todos los estratos, creando no sólo políticas y técnicas; también actitudes profundas y sus efectos visibles en los paisajes reales y en las mediaciones complejas de las representaciones fantásticas que los conforman.

  19. Do field position and playing standard influence athlete performance in wheelchair basketball?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, Annemarie M. H.; Hoozemans, Marco J. M.; Berger, Monique A. M.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Veeger, Dirkjan (H. E. J)

    2016-01-01

    Improved understanding of mobility performance in wheelchair basketball is required to increase game performance. The aim of this study was to quantify the wheelchair-athlete activities of players in different field positions and of different playing standard during wheelchair basketball matches.

  20. Validity and reliability of tests determining performance-related components of wheelchair basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Sonja; Balvers, Inge J. M.; Kouwenhoven, Sanne M.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of wheelchair basketball field tests. Nineteen wheelchair basketball players performed 10 test items twice to determine the reliability. The validity of the tests was assessed by relating the scores to the players'

  1. Validity and reliability of tests determining performance-related components of wheelchair basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Sonja; Balvers, Inge J. M.; Kouwenhoven, Sanne M.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of wheelchair basketball field tests. Nineteen wheelchair basketball players performed 10 test items twice to determine the reliability. The validity of the tests was assessed by relating the scores to the players' classificat

  2. Do field position and playing standard influence athlete performance in wheelchair basketball?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, Annemarie M. H.; Hoozemans, Marco J. M.; Berger, Monique A. M.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Veeger, Dirkjan (H. E. J)

    2016-01-01

    Improved understanding of mobility performance in wheelchair basketball is required to increase game performance. The aim of this study was to quantify the wheelchair-athlete activities of players in different field positions and of different playing standard during wheelchair basketball matches. Fr

  3. Shooting for Lithuania: Migration, national identity and men's basketball in the East of England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Adam Brian; Piggott, David

    2016-01-01

    a figurational framework to investigate the lived experiences of basketball amongst male Lithuanian migrants in the rural east of England. Semi-structured interviews highlighted participants’ motivations to migrate, their acculturation experiences and the role that basketball played during their sojourn...

  4. Gaze Behavior in Basketball Shooting: Further Evidence for Online Visual Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Rita F.; Oudejans, Raoul R. D.; Beek, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to help resolve conflicting findings and interpretations regarding the visual control of basketball shooting by examining the looking behavior of 6 expert basketball players (3 with a low shooting style and 3 with a high shooting style) executing both free throws and jump shots. Based on previous findings, they…

  5. Identification the Relation between Active Basketball Classification Referees' Empathetic Tendencies and Their Problem Solving Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaçam, Aydin; Pulur, Atilla

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the relation between basketball classification referees' problem solving ability and empathetic tendencies. Research model of the study is relational screening model. Sampling of the study is constituted by 124 male and 18 female basketball classification referees who made active refereeing within Turkish Basketball…

  6. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  7. The Effects of Basketball Basic Skills Training on Gross Motor Skills Development of Female Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayazit, Betul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of basketball basic skills training on gross motor skills development of female children in Turkey. For that purpose, 40 female children took part in the study voluntarily. Basketball basic skills test was used to improve the gross motor skills of the female children in the study. Also,…

  8. Demographic Profile and Athletic Identity of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injured Wheelchair Basketball Athletes in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliadis, Angelo; Evaggelinou, Christina; Avourdiadou, Sevastia; Grekinis, Petros

    2010-01-01

    An epidemiological study conducted across the country of Greece was conducted in order to determine the profile and the athletic identity of spinal cord injured (SCI) wheelchair basketball athletes who participated to the 13th Greek Wheelchair Basketball Championship and Cup. The Disability Sport Participation questionnaire was used for data…

  9. Mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injury in basketball - Video analysis of 39 cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krosshaug, Tron; Nakamae, Atsuo; Boden, Barry P.; Engebretsen, Lars; Smith, Gerald; Slauterbeck, James R.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Bahr, Roald

    2007-01-01

    Background: The mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injury in basketball are not well defined. Purpose: To describe the mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injury in basketball based on videos of injury situations. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Six international

  10. Basketball rules and the influence of their changes on the game

    OpenAIRE

    Lamačová, Eva

    2010-01-01

    The topic of this work is basketball, its evolution and its place in the world. This development is inherently put together with the rules and their changes. Changes happens in this sport quite often. Research describes the influence of selected changes in rules on the game, namely the direction in which is basketball now developed, thanks to its changes in the rules.

  11. Mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injury in basketball - Video analysis of 39 cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krosshaug, Tron; Nakamae, Atsuo; Boden, Barry P.; Engebretsen, Lars; Smith, Gerald; Slauterbeck, James R.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Bahr, Roald

    2007-01-01

    Background: The mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injury in basketball are not well defined. Purpose: To describe the mechanisms of anterior cruciate ligament injury in basketball based on videos of injury situations. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Six international

  12. Do field position and playing standard influence athlete performance in wheelchair basketball?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, Annemarie M. H.; Hoozemans, Marco J. M.; Berger, Monique A. M.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Veeger, Dirkjan (H. E. J)

    2016-01-01

    Improved understanding of mobility performance in wheelchair basketball is required to increase game performance. The aim of this study was to quantify the wheelchair-athlete activities of players in different field positions and of different playing standard during wheelchair basketball matches. Fr

  13. Validity and reliability of tests determining performance-related components of wheelchair basketball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Sonja; Balvers, Inge J. M.; Kouwenhoven, Sanne M.; Janssen, Thomas W. J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the reliability and validity of wheelchair basketball field tests. Nineteen wheelchair basketball players performed 10 test items twice to determine the reliability. The validity of the tests was assessed by relating the scores to the players' classificat

  14. Do field position and playing standard influence athlete performance in wheelchair basketball?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Witte, Annemarie M H; Hoozemans, Marco J M; Berger, Monique A M; van der Woude, Lucas H V; Veeger, Dirkjan H E J

    2015-01-01

    Improved understanding of mobility performance in wheelchair basketball is required to increase game performance. The aim of this study was to quantify the wheelchair-athlete activities of players in different field positions and of different playing standard during wheelchair basketball matches. Fr

  15. We Killed Them: Trials and Tribulations of a Special Olympic Basketball Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ron

    1980-01-01

    The coach of a basketball team recounts the experiences encountered by his team in the California Special Olympics Basketball Tournament. Three days in the team's life are traced from the time the team boards the plane to Los Angeles, through initial defeat, to victory in the fourth game and winning third place medals. (SB)

  16. Líderes y elites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sánchez Herrera

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El liderazgo representa una “personalización del poder”. El desarrollo de los medios de comunicación de masas, especialmente la televisión, ha dado preeminencia a las actividades directas de los líderes. Lo que aquí pretendemos es explorar la influencia del líder en la vida política y su relación con las elites políticas. Las oscilaciones en el voto entre distintas elecciones se explican mejor por factores coyunturales como la valoración política de los candidatos o el aprecio por el partido que por factores estructurales como la clase social. En definitiva, está probado el influjo del líder como factor de decisión y explicación del voto a los partidos que representan.

  17. Analysis of inside play in basketball Analysis of inside play in basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pintor

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available

    In this research a descriptive analysis about some of the parameters implied in the inside play in basketball has been studied. Data of the 16 teams of the A.C.B. league were collected: each team was studied in an official game chosen randomly. Items of observation related with the frequency of apparition of the inside play in the game, with the time expended to offence as well as the way used to finish the play, were established. Data obtained show that in the 41,61% of global possessions appears inside play while in the 37,45% of these take place a pass toward the positions near the basket. The average time expended since starting the possession of the ball until the moment in which a pass is made is 8,41 seconds. The analysis shows the considerable capacity of resolution of players who receives an inside ball, which is represented by the percentage of times in which these players finish the offence (82,78%. A bigger number of direct actions than indirect actions to finish the offence play and a very low degree of opposition to the shot have been detected, overcoat taking in account that these shots were made in areas with a big amount of players.
    KEY WORDS: Basketball, inside play, inside pass.

     

    En el presente estudio se ha realizado una análisis descriptivo de algunos parámetros que definen el juego interior en baloncesto. Se tomaron datos de cada uno de los 16 equipos que participan en la liga A.C.B.: cada equipo fue estudiado en un encuentro oficial de competición, elegido de forma aleatoria. Se establecieron conductas de observación relacionadas con la frecuencia de aparición del juego interior en los partidos, con el tiempo empleado en el ataque, así como con la forma de resolución de la jugada. Los datos obtenidos reflejan que en el 4l,61% del total de posesiones se produce juego interior, mientras que en el 37

  18. The Chronotype of Elite Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lastella Michele

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (i to compare the chronotype distribution of elite athletes to a young adult population and (ii to determine if there was a tendency for athletes to select and/or participate in sports which suited their chronotype. A total of 114 elite athletes from five sports (cricket, cycling, hockey, soccer and triathlon participated in this study. The participants’ chronotype, sleepiness, sleep satisfaction and sleep quality were determined using the Horne and Östberg Morningness and Eveningness questionnaire, the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and questions concerning their sleep satisfaction and quality. All questionnaires were administered during a typical training phase that was not in the lead up to competition and/or post competition. No differences between chronotype group for sleepiness, sleep satisfaction or sleep quality were found. There was a significantly higher proportion of triathletes that were morning and intermediate types compared to the control group χ2 (2 = 7.5, p = 0.02. A significant relationship between sport and chronotype group (χ2(4=15.9, p = 0.04 was observed, with a higher frequency of morning types involved in sports that required morning training. There was a clear indication that athletes tended to select and pursue sports that suited their chronotype. This was evident by the amount of morning types involved in morning sports. Given that athletes are more likely to pursue and excel in sports which suit their chronotype, it is recommended that coaches consider the athlete’s chronotype during selection processes or if possible design and implement changes to training schedules to either suit the athletes’ chronotype or the timing of an upcoming competition.

  19. Transtorno do comportamento alimentar em atletas de elite de nado sincronizado Eating disorders in elite synchronized swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Adão Perini

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar a presença de transtorno do comportamento alimentar (TCA ou síndromes precursoras e o grau de distorção da imagem corporal em atletas de elite de nado sincronizado. Essa modalidade é considerada de risco para desenvolvimento de TCA por valorizar, além de outros aspectos, a leveza e beleza de movimentos que, de certa forma, estão associados a baixa massa corporal. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliadas 27 atletas de nado sincronizado, sendo 19 da categoria juniores (15,6 ± 0,8 anos e oito da categoria de seniores (19,0 ± 1,3 anos que compunham a seleção brasileira na época do estudo (2000. Um grupo de 32 adolescentes não-atletas (15,0 ± 1,6 anos foi usado para comparação com as atletas. Os procedimentos metodológicos adotados foram: aplicação de três instrumentos de auto-relato, validados. 1 EAT-26 - presença de comportamentos alimentares inadequados; 2 BITE - presença de atitudes sugestivas de bulimia nervosa; e 3 BSQ - insatisfação da auto-imagem corporal. RESULTADOS: Embora tanto o grupo de atletas, quanto o de não-atletas tenham apresentado parâmetros antropométricos compatíveis com padrões saudáveis para a idade e sexo, os resultados evidenciam a presença de insatisfação com a auto-imagem corporal e a adoção de práticas patológicas de controle da massa corporal, sobretudo entre atletas da categoria juniores e entre as adolescentes não-atletas. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados encontrados no presente estudo retratam uma tendência mundial de preocupação com a aparência entre adolescentes capaz de levá-las à adoção de condutas não-saudáveis.OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to identify the Eating Behavior Disorder (EBD or precursory syndromes and the level of distortion of the body image of elite synchronized swimming athletes. This sport modality is considered of risk for development of eating disorders for valuing, among other aspects, the

  20. Predictors of Airway Hyperresponsiveness in Elite Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toennesen, Louise L; Porsbjerg, Celeste; Pedersen, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Elite athletes frequently suffer from asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). We aimed to investigate predictors of airway pathophysiology in a group of unselected elite summer-sport athletes, training for the summer 2008 Olympic Games, including markers of airway inflammation......, systemic inflammation and training intensity. METHODS: 57 Danish elite summer-sport athletes with and without asthma symptoms all gave a blood sample for measurements of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF....... In these subjects, no association was found between the levels of AHR to mannitol and methacholine (r=0.032, p=0.91). CONCLUSION: Airway hyperresponsiveness in elite athletes is related to the amount of weekly training and the level of serum TNF-α. No association was found between the level of AHR to mannitol...

  1. When do ruling elites support productive sectors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette

    that the ruling elite initially supported the fishing industry because of industry pressure. They have failed to enforce fisheries management because there are big political costs associated with such enforcement. The dairy sector in the southwestern milk region was initially supported because the ruling elite......This paper explains the differences in ruling elite support for the fisheries and dairy sectors in Uganda. Although production in Uganda has not generally been promoted in any sustained way, ruling elites have to varying degrees supported the dairy and fisheries sectors. The paper shows...... production is possible if there is strong industry pressure and when the initiatives to promote the sector are also seen to help build or maintain the ruling coalition....

  2. The preparation for the year main competition teams in basketball with hearing impairments with innovative technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobko I.N.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : develop and prove experimentally comprehensive training program on the Ukrainian national team basketball with hearing impairment in the annual cycle for the major competitions. Material : The study involved 12 basketball hearing impaired 20-25 years old - female players team of Ukraine on basketball. Also analyzed the test results and competitive activity 12 basketball players with hearing impairments - Lithuanian team players. Results : We showed the need for a qualitative change in the training process through the development and application of innovative technologies. This allows a greater level of communication between the coach and athletes to intensify training process. Developed and experimentally substantiated comprehensive training program for the Ukrainian national team. In technical training device used light. This increased mobility, agility, activity and intensity workouts. In tactical training improved situational and planned change tactical drawing game using copyright protection of video tutorials with animated illustrations. Conclusions : A positive impact of the developed system for basketball training result in major competitions.

  3. Explosive strength training improves speed and agility in wheelchair basketball athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarik Ozmen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Wheelchair basketball is a paralympic sport characterized by intermittent high-intensity activities that require explosive strength and speed. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of explosive strength training on speed and agility performance in wheelchair basketball players. METHODS: Ten male wheelchair basketball players (Mage=31±4 yrs were divided into two groups [i.e. explosive strength training (ES; control (CN] based on International Wheelchair Basketball Federation (IWBF classification scores. The ES group underwent 6-weeks of training, twice weekly, at 50% 1RM, 10-12 repetitions and 3-4 sets in addition to routine training. Effects of training were measured by the 20 m sprint test and Illinois agility test. RESULTS: The ES group, showed significantly higher increases in speed and agility performance (p ≤ .05. CONCLUSION: A short-duration (i.e. 6-week explosive strength training programme in wheelchair basketball athletes results in significant improvements in sprint and agility performance.

  4. Business and corporate elites in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratković-Njegovan Biljana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the issue of new business and corporate elites in Serbian society as one of the neglected aspects of two-decades-long social and economic transition away from the eyes of the general public. These elites haven't reached their status through typical channels of social mobility, such as education and achievements in professional work. In the struggle for capital allocation most of the business elites took advantage of the accelerated privatization of public property which took place in a climate of illegal business. The political establishment was in favor of the new business tycoons since they themselves also took advantage of the moment to convert their political power into the economic one. By devaluing public enterprises, selling them for a pittance and deceiving small shareholders massively, new corporate owners eroded the social capital. The society was impoverished and instead of developing it followed the path of antimodernization and peripheralization of the economy. That was a clear case of obstructing the democratic development of society by its elites. The majority of the new economic elite have originated from those social layers of the socialist era who had already possessed significant resources, economic, organizational and cultural capital, as well as political power. It can be argued that it was a transition without transformation, i.e. a process of 'remaking' the old establishment into a new elite. However, since the mid-nineties, the business and corporate elites have been penetrated by a new generation of business people, generally not related to the previous establishment. They accept the rules of doing business in a responsible manner. On the other hand, the state has found enough strength to start sanctioning transitional financial frauds and fraudsters from the closed circles of the current financial (pseudo elite.

  5. Competitiveness of the Hungarian elite sport system

    OpenAIRE

    Gulyás, Erika

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the initial results of significant research conducted under the IOC PhD Student Research Grant Programme with the support of the Hungarian Olympic Committee. The main objectives of the research were to understand why Hungary is successful in specific sports and to explore the relationship between elite sport policy systems and success in international competitions. The increasing international sporting competition forces governments to invest more money in elite sport deve...

  6. Doping in sports: knowledge and attitudes among parents of Austrian junior athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blank, C; Leichtfried, V; Schaiter, R; Fürhapter, C; Müller, D; Schobersberger, W

    2015-02-01

    Strategies for doping prevention are based on prior identification of opportunities for intervention. There is no current research focusing on the potential role in doping prevention, which might be played by the parents of junior elite athletes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and attitudes toward doping among parents of Austrian junior athletes and to analyze factors potentially influencing these beliefs. In this study, two questionnaires were distributed to 1818 student athletes, each with instructions that these surveys were to be completed by their parents (n(total) = 3636). Parents filled in questionnaires at home without observation. Responses from 883 parents were included in this analysis. Compared to female parents, male parents demonstrated significantly better knowledge about doping and its side effects and were more likely to be influenced by their own sporting careers and amounts of sports activities per week. Parental sex did not demonstrate a significant influence on responses reflecting attitudes toward doping. Additional research is needed to compare these results with young athletes' knowledge and attitudes to determine if and to what degree parental attitudes and beliefs influence the behavior and attitudes of their children.

  7. Learner Reading Problems: A Case of Khoe Learners at Junior ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Learner Reading Problems: A Case of Khoe Learners at Junior Secondary School. ... learners' reading ability of English at junior secondary school in Botswana. ... teachers' schemes and records of work to explore the subjects' reading skills.

  8. Analysis of the Relative Age Effect in Elite Youth Judo Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, David H

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate relative age effects (RAEs) in elite youth judo athletes from different chronological age groups, between sexes, and across weight categories. Data from 1542 place winners of the cadet (under 17 y, 2009-2013) and junior judo world championships (under 20/21 y, 1990-2013) were separated by birth month into quarters (Q1, Q2, Q3, and Q4). The observed values were compared with expected annual age distributions using χ2 analyses, and odd ratios (OR) were used to evaluate effect sizes between quarters. The observed frequency of place winners was significantly different from the expected frequency for the age-group and sex comparisons and all body-mass groups (P competitive advantages while adopting strategies that encourage long-term participation in youth judo athletes.

  9. Perceived Sources of Team Confidence in Soccer and Basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Katrien; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; De Cuyper, Bert; Vande Broek, Gert; Boen, Filip

    2015-07-01

    Although it is generally accepted that team confidence is beneficial for optimal team functioning and performance, little is known about the predictors of team confidence. The present study was aimed to shed light on the precursors of both high and low team confidence in two different sports. A distinction is made between sources of process-oriented team confidence (i.e., collective efficacy) and sources of outcome-oriented team confidence (i.e., team outcome confidence), which have often been confounded in previous research. In a first step, two qualitative studies were conducted to identify all possible sources of team confidence in basketball and in soccer. In a second step, three quantitative studies were conducted to further investigate the sources of team outcome confidence in soccer (N = 1028) and in basketball (N = 867), and the sources of collective efficacy in basketball (N = 825). Players perceived high-quality performance as the most important factor for their team outcome confidence. With regard to collective efficacy, team enthusiasm was perceived as most predictive determinant. Positive coaching emerged as second most decisive factor for both types of team confidence. In contrast, negative communication and expression by the players or the coach was perceived as the most decisive predictor of low levels of team confidence. At item level, all studies pointed to the importance of team confidence expression by the athlete leaders (i.e., leader figures within the team) and the coach. The present manuscript sheds light on the precursors of high and low levels of team confidence. Athlete leaders and the coach emerged as key triggers of both upward and downward spirals of team confidence, thereby contaminating all team members.

  10. Cognitive Functions in Elite and Sub-Elite Youth Soccer Players Aged 13 to 17 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijgen, Barbara C H; Leemhuis, Sander; Kok, Niels M; Verburgh, Lot; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Visscher, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Soccer players are required to anticipate and react continuously in a changing, relatively unpredictable situation in the field. Cognitive functions might be important to be successful in soccer. The current study investigated the relationship between cognitive functions and performance level in elite and sub-elite youth soccer players aged 13-17 years. A total of 47 elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.5 years, SD = 0.9) and 41 sub-elite youth soccer players (mean age 15.2 years, SD = 1.2) performed tasks for "higher-level" cognitive functions measuring working memory (i.e., Visual Memory Span), inhibitory control (i.e., Stop-Signal Task), cognitive flexibility (i.e., Trail Making Test), and metacognition (i.e., Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System Design Fluency Test). "Lower-level" cognitive processes, i.e., reaction time and visuo-perceptual abilities, were also measured with the previous tasks. ANOVA's showed that elite players outscored sub-elite players at the "higher-level" cognitive tasks only, especially on metacognition (p soccer players on inhibitory control (p = .001), and cognitive flexibility (p = .042), but not on metacognition (p = .27). No differences were found concerning working memory nor the "lower-level" cognitive processes (p > .05). In conclusion, elite youth soccer players have better inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and especially metacognition than their sub-elite counterparts. However, when training hours are taken into account, differences between elite and sub-elite youth soccer players remain apparent on inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility in contrast to metacognition. This highlights the need for longitudinal studies to further investigate the importance of "higher-level" cognitive functions for talent identification, talent development and performance in soccer.

  11. Can Timeouts Change the Outcome of Basketball Games?

    CERN Document Server

    Saavedra, Serguei; Bagrow, James P

    2012-01-01

    In basketball, timeouts are believed to reverse the momentum of a game. However, here we show timeouts have no significant effect on the final outcomes of games. Moreover, we find that the timeout factor only appears to reinforce the game of dominant teams, meaning that only the most successful teams can find any positive benefit. We find no association with team payrolls, suggesting that richer teams are not particularly better at capitalizing on timeouts. Our findings support that strategic breaks have little impact on workplace performance and productivity.

  12. Physical rehabilitation athletes for prevention of fatigue in women's basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osipov Vitalij Nikolaevich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The results of research on the impact of physical rehabilitation for adaptive systems of the body athletes, especially the functioning of which were determined by the parameters of central hemodynamics and physical performance for the step-test PWC170. The study attended by 17 basketball Premier League at the age of 18-25 years. In developed and offered by us Rehabilitation Complex includes the following remedial means: special breathing exercises, yoga elements of gymnastics, Motivational, different types of sports massage and hidroprotsedury, which contributed to more effective recovery of athletes and improve their physical performance.

  13. Basketball in physical education of non sport universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaschuk S.G.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available A health of students of unathletic institutes of higher level is studied. It is rotined that over modernization of the system of physical education brought to considerable reduction of audience employments on a physical culture. Connection is considered between the low level of health of student young people and reduction of audience employments on physical education. Insufficient motivation is marked to independent employments by physical exercises, decline of motive activity of students. Efficiency of application of basket-ball is grounded in the process of physical education of students.

  14. Offensive tactical thinking level of wheelchair basketball players in Arab countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindawi, Omar S; Orabi, Samira; Al Arjan, Jafar; Judge, Lawrence W; Cottingham, Michael; Bellar, David Michael

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the appropriateness of offensive tactical decision-making of Arab basketball players, and to determine if there are differences in the appropriateness of offensive tactical decision-making within the various disability classifications of Arab basketball players. A twenty-question survey was formulated to assess decision-making in offensive tactical situations in wheelchair basketball players. Participants in the present study were 108 athletes from 10 Arab national teams participating in wheelchair basketball. The mean offensive tactical thinking level of wheelchair basketball players in the 20 different situations in the Arab countries ranged between 1.38-2.84, and the standard deviations for these 20 means ranged from 0.41 to 0.90. The total mean of all tactical situations was 2.33, which is moderate thinking level. The influence of the disability classification on the offensive tactical thinking of wheelchair basketball players was addressed by examining the data via a one-way ANOVA. The ANOVA revealed no significant differences among disability classifications/categories in tactical thinking (F(3, 104)=1.12, p=0.34). This study represents the first attempt to identify why Arab nations have not consistently qualified for the Paralympics or World Championships. These findings indicate that the moderate offensive tactical thinking level of wheelchair basketball players on Arab national teams may be part of the reason that performances of these teams have not been as strong as they would like.

  15. A comparison of the injuries sustained by female basketball and netball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, G D; Payne, W R; Goldie, P A; Oakes, B W; Stanley, J J

    1996-03-01

    A prospective and reliable method of injury surveillance was implemented to document a comprehensive injury profile in female basketball and netball. The study further aimed to compare the injury profiles of the two sports. Trained observers viewed basketball and netball games, noting the occurrence of injuries. Injuries were confirmed by questioning all players on site after the game. Injured players completed a questionnaire and the progress of their injury was monitored by telephone interview. A total of 16,162 player participations were observed; 6,972 for basketball and 9,190 for netball. Comparable injury rates were observed for female basketball and netball players; 18.22 and 17.30 injuries per 1,000 participations, respectively. The ankle, hand and knee were the body parts injured most frequently in both sports, whilst head and neck injuries were prevalent in basketball only. Netball players sustained severe injuries at a rate 3.3 times that of female basketball players. The major and severe injuries occurred at an average of one injury in 625 games in female basketball and one in 250 games in netball. The ankle, knee and calf/shin were the body parts most frequently involved in the more serious injuries.

  16. EFFECT OF INFORMATION PROCESSING AND DEPTH PERCEPTION UPON THROWING ACCURACY OF BASKETBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Virendra Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the present study is to analyze throwing accuracy of basketball players in relation to their reasoning ability and depth perception. Materials and Methods : For present study, 200 intercollegiate basketball players (Ave. age = 21.34±1.87 years were selected as sample. Johnson Basketball Throw for Accuracy (Passing Test was the instrument which was used to assess shooting skills of selected subjects whereas reasoning ability of the selected subjects was assessed by MGTI prepared by Mehrotra (1984. To conduct the study, a 2x2 factorial design was used. Superior and inferior reasoning and perceptual abilities were ascertained by statistical method Q1 and Q3. 2x2 ANOVA results showed that the main effect of reasoning ability was not found to be statistically significant upon throwing accuracy of basketball players although it is close to .05 level of significance. Results : The main effect of depth perception upon throwing accuracy of basketball players turned out to be statistically significant. The two factor interaction effect of reasoning ability and depth perception upon throwing accuracy of basketball players was found to be statistically insignificant. Conclusion : It was concluded that reasoning ability and to some extent depth perception, are the two major variables which generate variance upon throwing accuracy of basketball players.

  17. The Influence of Basketball on the Asymmetry in the Use of Limbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Čvorović

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine how basketball affects the uneven use of the limbs in relation to non-basketball population. Participants were compared by multiple motoric and situational tests, and for each participant tested the relationship between all limbs, both upper and lower. Before the motoric and situational tests participants completed a questionnaire on preference in limb use in everyday life and during sports activities. Participants belong to two groups, one group of young players with the rank of at least four years experience in basketball training, while the second group consists of members of the healthy school population, but with no experience in the continuous training of basketball. The study tested the explosive power of the lower and upper limbs, and the reaction time and agility in the lower limbs. Statistical analysis of results showed significant differences in certain tests between groups and within groups, both among the upper and lower extremities. It can be concluded that basketball as a specific sporting activity has positive influence on the development of the tested variables, while the level of asymmetry at basketball player is less than in the non-basketball population.

  18. The relationship between physical fitness and shooting accuracy of professional basketball players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haris Pojskić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among physical fitness of professional Bosnian basketball players (n = 38 and shooting accuracy during one basketball season. A related, secondary aim was to examine relationships between basketball shooting assessments and competitive shooting accuracy during game play. Physical fitness components included: muscular endurance and aerobic endurance, lower and upper-body power, speed, agility, anaerobic capacity and anaerobic power. The specific basketball shooting accuracy was assessed by stationary and dynamic shooting assessments. Competitive shooting accuracy was represented by data collected during one basketball season for each player (free throw, field goal, and three-point %. Results of the regression analyses showed that there were significant positive relationships among shooting assessments and competitive shooting accuracy during game play. The relationship was stronger when the dynamic shooting tests were applied compared to the stationary tests. However, few or weak relationships existed among physical fitness components and competitive shooting accuracy. Only the power tests showed to be good predictors for shooting over longer distances. The findings support the inclusion of the dynamic basketball shooting accuracy tests in regular basketball assessment procedures as a valuable testing instrument.

  19. Visual tracking speed is related to basketball-specific measures of performance in NBA players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangine, Gerald T; Hoffman, Jay R; Wells, Adam J; Gonzalez, Adam M; Rogowski, Joseph P; Townsend, Jeremy R; Jajtner, Adam R; Beyer, Kyle S; Bohner, Jonathan D; Pruna, Gabriel J; Fragala, Maren S; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between visual tracking speed (VTS) and reaction time (RT) on basketball-specific measures of performance. Twelve professional basketball players were tested before the 2012-13 season. Visual tracking speed was obtained from 1 core session (20 trials) of the multiple object tracking test, whereas RT was measured by fixed- and variable-region choice reaction tests, using a light-based testing device. Performance in VTS and RT was compared with basketball-specific measures of performance (assists [AST]; turnovers [TO]; assist-to-turnover ratio [AST/TO]; steals [STL]) during the regular basketball season. All performance measures were reported per 100 minutes played. Performance differences between backcourt (guards; n = 5) and frontcourt (forward/centers; n = 7) positions were also examined. Relationships were most likely present between VTS and AST (r = 0.78; p basketball-specific performance measures. Backcourt players were most likely to outperform frontcourt players in AST and very likely to do so for VTS, TO, and AST/TO. In conclusion, VTS seems to be related to a basketball player's ability to see and respond to various stimuli on the basketball court that results in more positive plays as reflected by greater number of AST and STL and lower turnovers.

  20. The Effects of Plyometric Type Neuromuscular Training on Postural Control Performance of Male Team Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Abbas; Saez de Villarreal, Eduardo; Arazi, Hamid

    2015-07-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are common in basketball athletes; common preventive programs for decreasing these injures may be enhancing postural control (PC) or balance with plyometric training. This study investigated the efficiency of plyometric training program within basketball practice to improve PC performance in young basketball players. Sixteen players were recruited and assigned either to a plyometric + basketball training group (PT) or basketball training group (BT). All players trained twice per week, but the PT + BT followed a 6-week plyometric program implemented within basketball practice, whereas the BT followed regular practice. The star excursion balance test (SEBT) at 8 directions (anterior, A; anteromedial, AM; anterolateral, AL; medial, M; lateral, L; posterior, P; posteromedial, PM; and posterolateral, PL) was measured before and after the 6-week period. The PT group induced significant improvement (p ≤ 0.05) and small to moderate effect size in the SEBT (A = 0.95, AM = 0.62, AL = 0.61, M = 0.36, L = 0.47, P = 0.27, PM = 0.25, PL = 0.24). No significant improvements were found in the BT group. Also, there were significant differences between groups in all directions except PM and PL. An integrated plyometric program within the regular basketball practice can lead to significant improvements in SEBT and consequently PC. It can be recommended that strength and conditioning professionals use PT to enhance the athletes' joint awareness and PC to reduce possible future injuries in the lower extremity.

  1. "White men can't jump." But can they throw? Social perception in European basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furley, P; Dicks, M

    2014-10-01

    In the present article, we investigate the influence of sociocultural stereotypes on the impression formation of basketball players and coaches. In Experiment 1 (n = 32), participants were shown a picture of a black or white basketball player prior to observation of a point-light video of a player executing a basketball free throw. The participant was informed that the player depicted in the picture was executing the free throw. Results indicated that ethnicity of the target player significantly influenced participant evaluations, demonstrating specific stereotypes about black and white basketball players when evaluating performance. In Experiment 2 (n = 30), results derived from the Implicit Association Test indicated that black players are implicitly associated with athletic player attributes. The results are in line with social schema theory and demonstrate that - similar to findings that have been reported in the United States - a subpopulation of German basketball players and coaches hold specific stereotypes about the abilities of black and white basketball athletes. These stereotypes bias impression formation when coaches and players make assessments of basketball performance.

  2. Relationship between general and specific coordination in 8- to 17-year-old male basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamandulis, Sigitas; Venckūnas, Tomas; Masiulis, Nerijus; Matulaitis, Kestutis; Balciūnas, Mindaugas; Peters, Derek; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships between general coordination, sport-specific coordination, and sport-specific fitness of 8- to 17-year-old male basketball players. 312 males with training experience ranging from one year in the 8-year-old cohort up to 10 years for the 17-year-olds performed basketball-specific fitness (20 m sprint, Illinois, countermovement jump), general coordination (20 m run with three obstacles), semi-basketball-specific coordination (20 m sprint dribbling two balls, countermovement jump with arm swing) and basketball-specific coordination (Illinois ball dribbling) tests. There were moderate to large correlations between the results of both general and basketball-specific coordination with the results of most basketball-specific coordination tests in all age groups. Correlations between general and basketball-specific coordination were large in four age groups (11-14 yr., r = .52 to r = .76), moderate in five groups (8-10, 15 & 16 yr., r = .37 to r = .46), while not significant in the 17-year-olds. These results suggest that the importance of general coordination for sport-specific skills improvements during a sports-specific skill acquisition phase, remains high at the skill refinement phase, and decreases when sport-specific skills have been mastered to near-perfection.

  3. Marginal Micronutrient Intake in High-Performance Male Wheelchair Basketball Players: A Dietary Evaluation and the Effects of Nutritional Advice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Grams

    Full Text Available Wheelchair basketball has evolved into a high-performance sport over several years, and small variations in player performance can determine the difference between winning and losing. Therefore, adequate micronutrient intake may influence this difference if performance-promoting macronutrient intake and physical fitness are equal between teams. Seventeen elite male wheelchair basketball players belonging to the Spanish National Team participated in this study. Macro- and micronutrient intake were determined using a food-weighing diary over three consecutive days during three training camps in two consecutive years. Current Dietary Reference Intake levels were used to determine the adequacy of intake of seventeen micronutrients of particular interest for athletes. After categorizing the consumed foods into fourteen food groups according to the National Nutrient Database for Standard References (USDA these groups were used to identify the best predictors of the adequacy of intake for each micronutrient. Total energy intake correlated positively with the adequacy of all micronutrient intake levels, except for vitamins A and E. Five B vitamins and phosphorus, selenium, and iron showed 100% adequacy. All other micronutrient intake levels were found to be inadequate, e.g., vitamin E (51% adequacy and calcium (73%. The fruit, fish and cereal food groups were found to be predictors of adequate intake of most micronutrients. Together with energy intake (p = .009, η2 = 0.49, the intake of the fruit (p = .032, η2 = 0.39 and egg (p = .036, Kendall's W = 0.42 food groups increased significantly over time, along with improved iodine (p = .008, W = 0.61 and magnesium (p = .030, W = 0.44 adequacy levels. Because the adequacy of micronutrient intake correlates positively with energy intake (R = 0.64, p < .001, a varied diet that includes cereals, fish and fruits is especially important for players with low levels of energy intake. Supplements may be a possible

  4. 42 CFR 21.25 - Eligibility; junior assistant grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligibility; junior assistant grade. 21.25 Section... COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.25 Eligibility; junior assistant grade. (a) Requirements; all candidates... for appointment in the grade of junior assistant: (1) Shall be a citizen of the United States; (2...

  5. Elite High Schools Breed Higher Risk of Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Elite High Schools Breed Higher Risk of Addiction: Study Rates are two to three times higher ... Privilege doesn't necessarily offer protection from drug addiction, new research suggests. Teens at elite U.S. high ...

  6. The Examination of Self - Talk Ability of Elite Fencers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf BARSBUĞA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to measure and evaluate self - talk ability. 100 athletes ch osen randomly from 23 countries , who attended the Heracles Junior World Cup competition (29 held in Budapest, Hungary between the dates of 15 - 16/02/2014, junior and cadet fencing championship held in Plovdiv, Bulgaria (38 between the dates of 3 - 12/04/2014 which was included in the 2014 activity calendar of FIE (International Fencing Federation and athletes among elite fencers (33 representing our country abroad attended in our research. In this performed study based on the scanning (survey method; the Self - Talk Questionnaire (S - TQ which was improved by Zervas, Stavrau and Psychountaki (2007 , whose validity and reliability in Turkish were performed by Engür (2011 , was used . In order to evaluat e the data and find the estimated values, the SPSS 16.0 statistical package program was used. The data were summarised giving averages and standard deviations. Since the data show ed a normal distribution , for the dual group comparisons, independent group t - test was used for the determination of the difference between independent parameters, the error level was regarded to be 0,05 in this study. Within the result s of the survey, no statistically meaningful difference s were observed. When the sub - dimensions of both motivational function s were evaluated in terms of age and experience time concerning self - talk abilities in the athletes attended in the survey . When self - talk ability was eval u ated due to the gender parameter; while not seeing a sta tistically meaningful difference in the cognitive , functional sub - dimension among the athletes, a statistically meaningful difference was observed on the motivational , functional sub - dimension in favor of sportswoman . Furthermore , there was not a signifi cant difference when comparing the self - talk ability of Turkish athletes and other countries' athletes who attended in the research in

  7. Bagaimanakah Persepsi Keterpercayaan Masyarakat terhadap Elit Politik?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Handrix Chris Haryanto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify Jakarta residents’ perceptions on the trustworthiness of political elites. The study used qualitative content analysis method involving as many as 461 persons as subjects. These political elites referred to the members of the House of Representatives, members of the People’s Consultative Council, the president and the members of his governmental cabinet, political parties, people or groups involved in politics and those participating in managing the state. The top ten factors able to degrade people’s trust in political elites were identical with the subjects’ perception about lie (29.28%, corruption (14.75%, selfishness (8.24%, incompetence (6.07%, scandals (5.64%, irresponsibility (1.95%, abuse of power (1.52%, laziness (1.52%, lack of transparency (1,30%, and lack of firmness (0.22%. The description about political elites worth trusting concerned about their honesty (39.70%, accountability (12.80%, integrity (1280%, caring (8.89%, morality (6.29%, firmness (4.34%, competence (3.69%, transparency (1.74%, and wisdom (1.74%. The study concluded that the trustworthiness of political elites refers to their dispositions that are considered to have good motives and go with any prevailing norms.

  8. Projectile motion in real-life situation: Kinematics of basketball shooting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changjan, A.; Mueanploy, W.

    2015-06-01

    Basketball shooting is a basic practice for players. The path of the ball from the players to the hoop is projectile motion. For undergraduate introductory physics courses student must be taught about projectile motion. Basketball shooting can be used as a case study for learning projectile motion from real-life situation. In this research, we discuss the relationship between optimal angle, minimum initial velocity and the height of the ball before the player shoots the ball for basketball shooting problem analytically. We found that the value of optimal angle and minimum initial velocity decreases with increasing the height of the ball before the player shoots the ball.

  9. An examination of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale using collegiate wheelchair basketball student athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermillion, Mark; Dodder, Richard A

    2007-04-01

    The purpose was to examine the construct validity of the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale (RSES). The construct validity of the scale was examined by applying it to collegiate wheelchair basketball student athletes at an NCAA sanctioned wheelchair basketball tournament at a mid-sized university in the south central United States (N=68). In accordance with previous research on the scale, Cronbach alpha was .86; confirmatory factor analysis supported a one-factor structure. The scale is useful for measuring global self-esteem in collegiate wheelchair basketball student athletes.

  10. The effect of perceived streakiness on the shot-taking behaviour of basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Peter; Avugos, Simcha; Raab, Markus; Bar-Eli, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We examine behavioural changes of basketball players arising from the hot-hand belief and use data of 1216 National Basketball Association games to measure the effect of cold and hot streaks on three proxies of shot difficulty. We find that the more consecutive shots players make (miss), the more difficult (easier) shots become along the three dimensions. Furthermore, most players' performance seems to improve during hot streaks because they attempt more difficult shots while no significant decrease in shooting accuracy takes place. This might explain why most previous studies could not find empirical evidence for the hot-hand belief in basketball when considering in-game field goal shooting.

  11. Does Elite Sport Degrade Sleep Quality? A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Luke; Morgan, Kevin; Gilchrist, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background Information on sleep quality and insomnia symptomatology among elite athletes remains poorly systematised in the sports science and medicine literature. The extent to which performance in elite sport represents a risk for chronic insomnia is unknown. Objectives The purpose of this systematic review was to profile the objective and experienced characteristics of sleep among elite athletes, and to consider relationships between elite sport and insomnia symptomatology. Methods Studies...

  12. Accounting Boot Camp for College Juniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myring, Mark; Wrege, William; Van Alst, Lucinda

    2008-01-01

    We describe a day-long introduction to new accounting majors, which we call a boot camp. Boot camp it is an effort to make juniors more aware of their identity, career purposes and learning resources that are now parts of their world, much of which is not covered explicitly in the accounting curriculum. This paper provides an overview of the…

  13. 7 CFR 765.206 - Junior liens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Junior liens. 765.206 Section 765.206 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... determinations for future requests for assistance and may adversely impact such requests. (b) Conditions...

  14. Pygmalion Effect on Junior English Teaching

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yurong Wang; Li Lin

    2014-01-01

    .... This thesis mainly focuses on the application of Pygmalion effect in English teaching, especially junior English teaching in China. If we can make good use of the Pygmalion Effect to conduct teaching and have positive expectations to students, it will improve teaching greatly.

  15. Organizing and Managing the Junior High Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmer, Edmund T.; And Others

    This manual provides guidelines and activities for organizing and managing junior high school classes. The first five chapters are devoted to the topic of getting ready for the beginning of the school year; the last four chapters suggest guidelines and activities that are helpful in maintaining a management system. Chapter 1 deals with organizing…

  16. A Senior Partner in the Junior College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL.

    The development and current status of the student personnel program at Sante Fe Junior College is described. Statements of purpose and philosophy are amplified through an outline of the needs and characteristics of Santa Fe students and a description of the elements of the program as they relate to specific needs and characteristics. The elements…

  17. Mathematics for Junior High School. Supplementary Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. D.; And Others

    This is a supplementary SMSG mathematics text for junior high school students. Key ideas emphasized are structure of arithmetic from an algebraic viewpoint, the real number system as a progressing development, and metric and non-metric relations in geometry. Chapter topics include sets, projective geometry, open and closed paths, finite…

  18. DEVELOPING STUDENTS' READING ABILITIES IN JUNIOR SCHOOL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Bixi

    2001-01-01

    In This Article, the writer focus on an over- all analysis of the present situation of the students' reading activities in junior middle school in the countryside and put forward some suggestions on improving the teaching arts to enhance the students' fast reading abilities . It provided some theoretical basis on the further improcement of students' reading abilities in the school

  19. Do junior doctors take sick leave?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkin, M R; Higton, A; Witcomb, M

    2003-09-01

    Nosocomial infections place a heavy burden on overstretched health services. An audit of junior doctors' sick leave behaviour was undertaken in 1993 and again in 2001. The object was to ascertain the level of common infectious illness and to investigate whether junior doctors were remaining at work inappropriately. The doctors were asked if any factors had influenced their decision to take sick leave or not. Between the two audits several initiatives have been introduced to improve the working conditions of junior doctors, including the New Deal to reduce hours of work. Eighty one junior doctors in a large teaching hospital participated in 1993 and 110 in 2001. The number reporting an infectious illness in the previous six months was similar (61.7% in 1993, 68.2% in 2001). There had been a significant increase in the percentage of infectious illness episodes for which the doctors took sick leave (15.1% in 1993, 36.8% in 2001, p work (72% in 1993, 68% in 2001). Consultant pressure was cited by 26% (1993) and 20% (2001). Use of the staff occupational health unit was minimal, with none of the ill doctors contacting the department in 1993 and only three in 2001. Overall, despite the reduction in the number of infectious doctors not taking sick leave, the majority remained at work. Fundamental changes are needed if potentially infected doctors are not to present a risk of iatrogenic infection.

  20. Foreign Languages at Tarrant County Junior College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Jane

    Even during the 1970's when diminished national interest in foreign language study was reflected in declining enrollments at most colleges, Tarrant County Junior College (TCJC) was able to maintain a vigorous language program by emphasizing oral communication and developing a flexible curriculum. Since 1975, the college has offered its preparatory…

  1. Curriculum Reviews: Middle/Junior High Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faller, Richard

    1982-01-01

    Reviews "Pathways in Science" (Globe Book Company), designed as a complete middle/junior high school science program. Strengths (including sixth-grade readability) and weaknesses (indicating that limited process skill development may not challenge more capable students). Limited process skill development and the possibility for the program…

  2. Theme: Junior High and Middle School Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillison, John; And Others

    1994-01-01

    On the topic of agricultural education programs in middle/junior high schools, nine articles address developing self-concept, selecting materials, the benefits of agriscience contests, adopting new curricula, the role of Future Farmers of America in the development of adolescents, teaming science and agriculture, and the rationale for middle…

  3. Santa Fe Junior College, Gainesville, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudill, Rowlett and Scott, Architects, Houston, TX.

    The design of Santa Fe Junior College is examined, beginning with the development of an educational philosophy. Subsequent design decisions are based largely upon this philosophy which emphasizes the development of the individual student and the fulfillment of his needs. Further, the need for flexibility is recognized and is an important aspect of…

  4. Redskin Images. Roy Junior High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, William M.

    The school and self-improvement programs instituted at Roy Junior High School include the development of a self-performance evaluative instrument, the incorporation of a daily 15-minute reading session, the encouragement of dance and movement education through use of visiting professionals, and implementation of a self-esteem improvement mechanism…

  5. Public Relations for Community/Junior Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodress, Fred A.

    This monograph is a practical manual on public relations (PR) for community and junior colleges, containing numerous suggestions and recommendations for establishing and operating an effective public relations effort while avoiding PR pitfalls. An overview of the history of public relations in academe, the rationale underlying today's PR programs…

  6. Reciprocity on the hardwood: passing patterns among professional basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willer, Robb; Sharkey, Amanda; Frey, Seth

    2012-01-01

    Past theory and research view reciprocal resource sharing as a fundamental building block of human societies. Most studies of reciprocity dynamics have focused on trading among individuals in laboratory settings. But if motivations to engage in these patterns of resource sharing are powerful, then we should observe forms of reciprocity even in highly structured group environments in which reciprocity does not clearly serve individual or group interests. To this end, we investigated whether patterns of reciprocity might emerge among teammates in professional basketball games. Using data from logs of National Basketball Association (NBA) games of the 2008-9 season, we estimated a series of conditional logistic regression models to test the impact of different factors on the probability that a given player would assist another player in scoring a basket. Our analysis found evidence for a direct reciprocity effect in which players who had "received" assists in the past tended to subsequently reciprocate their benefactors. Further, this tendency was time-dependent, with the probability of repayment highest soon after receiving an assist and declining as game time passed. We found no evidence for generalized reciprocity - a tendency to "pay forward" assists - and only very limited evidence for indirect reciprocity - a tendency to reward players who had sent others many assists. These findings highlight the power of reciprocity to shape human behavior, even in a setting characterized by extensive planning, division of labor, quick decision-making, and a focus on inter-group competition.

  7. Reciprocity on the hardwood: passing patterns among professional basketball players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robb Willer

    Full Text Available Past theory and research view reciprocal resource sharing as a fundamental building block of human societies. Most studies of reciprocity dynamics have focused on trading among individuals in laboratory settings. But if motivations to engage in these patterns of resource sharing are powerful, then we should observe forms of reciprocity even in highly structured group environments in which reciprocity does not clearly serve individual or group interests. To this end, we investigated whether patterns of reciprocity might emerge among teammates in professional basketball games. Using data from logs of National Basketball Association (NBA games of the 2008-9 season, we estimated a series of conditional logistic regression models to test the impact of different factors on the probability that a given player would assist another player in scoring a basket. Our analysis found evidence for a direct reciprocity effect in which players who had "received" assists in the past tended to subsequently reciprocate their benefactors. Further, this tendency was time-dependent, with the probability of repayment highest soon after receiving an assist and declining as game time passed. We found no evidence for generalized reciprocity - a tendency to "pay forward" assists - and only very limited evidence for indirect reciprocity - a tendency to reward players who had sent others many assists. These findings highlight the power of reciprocity to shape human behavior, even in a setting characterized by extensive planning, division of labor, quick decision-making, and a focus on inter-group competition.

  8. IMPORTANCE OF STRATEGIC INFORMATIONS FOR PLANNING IN BASKETBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavle Rubin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Planning in basketball (like in other sports is one aspect of the job of a sport coach. Every coach while writting (creating, composing the plan and programme of a trainning (trainning proces should have the informations important for achievingsuccess. That kontigent of informations should be hierarchy arranged. Driving the pro- gramme the coach should always barring in mind what is the most important aim which in particular moment he wants to realise. Problem of this work is in fact that difference between coaches is that thay dont give certain importance to the particular informati- ons. Beside the necessity to know wich informations are the most important for solving a problem, it is important to prove their corelations. The aim of the research is to present the importance of identification and using of strategic infomations in planning (and pro- gramming in basketball. According to all infomations colected by coach he creates his strategic koncept. Using the strategic koncept he can create tactical koncept, particular koncept for the particular opponent (tactical plan and to (more or less use intime cer- tain tactical variance on the game (operative tactics. The coach (as the most important in the trainning process should be familiar with the science aspects of sport activities. That way he can overtake expected integral functions and be a lieder who gain the aim.

  9. Space Creation Dynamics in Basketball Small-Sided Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredt, Sarah G T; Morales, Juan C P; Andrade, André G P; Torres, Juliana O; Peixoto, Gustavo H; Greco, Pablo J; Praça, Gibson M; Chagas, Mauro H

    2017-01-01

    Space creation dynamics (SCDs) describe actions players perform to create a scoring opportunity. This study compared SCDs and types of offense during three different three versus three (3vs.3) basketball small-sided games (SSGs) played in half court: 3vs.3 with man-to-man defense in half playing area (3vs.3HALF), 3vs.3 with man-to-man defense in full playing area (3vs.3FULL), and 3vs.3 with reduced shot clock (3vs.3RT). We also investigated the efficacy of SCDs in all SSGs and the reliability of SCDs in 3vs.3HALF. While the efficacy of SCDs did not differ among these SSGs, 3vs.3RT presented significantly more "space creation with ball dribbled" and "shot clock violations," and less "on ball screens." 3vs.3FULL presented no differences in the SCDs and types of offense compared with 3vs.3HALF. Reliability within 3vs.3HALF was higher for "space creation with ball dribbled," "space creation without the ball," "set offenses," "fast breaks," and "loss of ball during passing or dribbling." We concluded that 3vs.3 basketball SSGs with different rules can be used for training different tactical behaviors important to formal games, especially since the 3vs.3HALF presented good reliability for many variables related to tactical behavior.

  10. EFFECTS OF BASKETBALL GAMES ON COMMON ABILITIES OF ASSOCIATES INVOLVED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budimir Bijelić

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Basketball is a sports discipline and activity distinguished by a number of advan- tages and therefore it is suitable to be included in different SPORT FOR ALL organiza- tion. This Paper has dealt with research of the effects of basketball games on certain motor and function abiliteies of associates regularly involved. 53 male associates, age 35-50, have undergone testing for seven motor variables where 2 km long walking activity (fitness index = general motor ability mean criteria variable. Systems of predictive motr and criteria variables have been tested in complian- ce with the methodology of Eurofit battery for adults. Based on the results obtained therein and related statistical analysis it has been found that 61 % of variability for criteria variable can be explained by the system of six predictive variables: lying - rising up in sitting position; leaning up forward in sitting position; standing on one leg - “flamingo”; jumping up; hand tapping and flexible han- ging down in bending motions. This statistical effect (at the level of p =.00 has accomplished the overall system of predictive motor variables, but not a snigle variable could have any special statistical effects on criteria variable UKK-2 km

  11. Comparative Kinematic Analysis of the Snatch Lifts in Elite Male Adolescent Weightlifters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbili, Erbil; Alptekin, Ahmet

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the linear kinematics of the barbell and the angular kinematics of the lower limb during the snatch lifts of two different barbell weights in elite male adolescent weightlifters. In the national team level, nine elite male adolescent weightlifters participated in the study. The snatch lifts were recorded by two video cameras under competitive conditions in preparation period before the European Junior Championship (Sony MiniDv PAL- 50 field/s) and the two heaviest successful lifts were selected for kinematic analysis. The little toe, ankle, knee, hip, and shoulder on the body and one point on the barbell were digitized using Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS, San Diego, CA, USA). Significant decreases were found in the maximum barbell height, the relative power output during the second pull, and the maximum vertical velocity of the barbell during the second pull of the heaviest lift (p adolescent weightlifters. Coaches should pay attention to assistant exercises to increase explosive strength during the second pull with maximum strength in male adolescent weightlifters. Key points The results demonstrate that the maximum strength of the extensor muscles of the hip during the first pull and their explosive strength during the second pull must be improved. Coaches should pay attention to assistant exercises to increase explosive strength during the second pull with maximum strength in male adolescent weightlifters. PMID:24790499

  12. Comparative Kinematic Analysis of the Snatch Lifts in Elite Male Adolescent Weightlifters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbil Harbili

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to compare the linear kinematics of the barbell and the angular kinematics of the lower limb during the snatch lifts of two different barbell weights in elite male adolescent weightlifters. In the national team level, nine elite male adolescent weightlifters participated in the study. The snatch lifts were recorded by two video cameras under competitive conditions in preparation period before the European Junior Championship (Sony MiniDv PAL- 50 field/s and the two heaviest successful lifts were selected for kinematic analysis. The little toe, ankle, knee, hip, and shoulder on the body and one point on the barbell were digitized using Ariel Performance Analysis System (APAS, San Diego, CA, USA. Significant decreases were found in the maximum barbell height, the relative power output during the second pull, and the maximum vertical velocity of the barbell during the second pull of the heaviest lift (p < 0.05. Maximum extension velocity of the hip joint significantly increased during the first pull of the heaviest lift (p < 0.05. As the mass of the barbell increased, the maximum vertical velocity and the maximum height of the barbell and relative power output during the second pull decreased in the heaviest lift performed by adolescent weightlifters. Coaches should pay attention to assistant exercises to increase explosive strength during the second pull with maximum strength in male adolescent weightlifters.

  13. Elite Schools, Postcolonial Chineseness and Hegemonic Masculinities in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Daniel P. S.

    2015-01-01

    The educational reproduction of elite masculinity in postcolonial societies has not been properly studied. This is partly because the postcolonial masculinities of non-western elites are accomplished through the cultivation of naturalized practices signifying the body politic of the nation-state. In Singapore, same-sex elite schools of colonial…

  14. Elite Schools, Postcolonial Chineseness and Hegemonic Masculinities in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Daniel P. S.

    2015-01-01

    The educational reproduction of elite masculinity in postcolonial societies has not been properly studied. This is partly because the postcolonial masculinities of non-western elites are accomplished through the cultivation of naturalized practices signifying the body politic of the nation-state. In Singapore, same-sex elite schools of colonial…

  15. Jumping Together: Apprenticeship Learning among Elite Trampoline Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Ole; Ravn, Susanne; Christensen, Mette Krogh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Elite athletes often take part in group trainings and use teammates as learning resources. Despite this, research on the training and learning of elite athletes tends to characterise this training and learning as primarily individual. Purpose: This study, explores interrelated learning processes among elite athletes by exploring the…

  16. Why are junior doctors reluctant to consult attending physicians?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, Otto H

    2010-03-01

    A physician performs two tasks: making diagnoses and determining treatments. To reduce medical error, junior doctors are supposed to consult their supervisors when they face uncommon circumstances. However, recent research shows that junior doctors are reluctant to do so. This paper presents a model that explains (i) which junior doctors shy away from consulting; (ii) when junior doctors are reluctant; (iii) the importance of protocols in the medical sector; and (iv) when consulting is a sign of strength or a sign of weakness. Furthermore, I show that encouraging junior doctors to consult by investigating mishaps leads to another distortion: they will give too much weight to own assessments.

  17. Physical demands in elite team handball

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michalsik, L B; Aagaard, Per

    2015-01-01

    AIM: The aim of the present study was to examine differences in the physical demands imposed on male vs. female adult elite team handball players during match--play. METHODS: Male and female elite team handball players were monitored over a six and five season time span, respectively. Each player.......4±6.1 cm, 69.5±6.5 kg, pteam handball were observed, with MP performing more high--intense, strength--related playing actions and high--intensity running than FP. Conversely, FP covered a greater total distance...... and demonstrated a higher relative workload than MP. The physical training of male and female elite team handball players should be designed to reflect these contrasting needs....

  18. Injury incidence and cause in elite gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felländer-Tsai, L; Wredmark, T

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the incidence, localization, and cause of injuries in Swedish male and female elite gymnasts during 18 active months (three seasons). Thirty-one elite gymnast clubs with all together 437 gymnasts were included in the study, which consisted of a written questionnaire reporting morphometric facts as well as data concerning the injury. There were in total 82 injury reports. The injury incidence was 6.25 per 100 elite gymnasts and season. A majority of the injuries occurred in the lower extremities. The right leg was injured more often than the left. Most of the severe injuries occurred during mounting and dismounting which advocates the need for preventive measures in association with these particular events. Male gymnasts were more prone to sustain severer injuries such as dislocations and fractures. Severe injuries affected the upper extremity in 83%, and the right side was injured more often than the left.

  19. Global Elite as Transnational Capitalist Class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Kantor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a contribution to the burgeoning field of multidisciplinary globalization studies, this article evaluates how IR grand theories can conceptualize the phenomenon of global elite. It compares and synthesizes (neoliberalism, constructivism, feminism and neo-Marxism. Liberal approaches use the analytical tool of transnational actors or transnational networks. In constructivist’s perspective, part of global elite falls into the category of epistemic community. Feminists offer the term Davos Men. Neo-Marxist conceptualization revolves around the notion of transnational capitalist class. The paper concludes that neo-Marxist IR theory best accounts for the global elite and therefore, the debates on the transnational capitalist class are thoroughly and critically reviewed.

  20. Anthropometric and Physical Qualities of Elite Male Youth Rugby League Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Kevin; Scantlebury, Sean; Jones, Ben

    2017-06-03

    Rugby league is a collision team sport played at junior and senior levels worldwide, whereby players require highly developed anthropometric and physical qualities (i.e. speed, change-of-direction speed, aerobic capacity, muscular strength and power). Within junior levels, professional clubs and national governing bodies implement talent identification and development programmes to support the development of youth (i.e. 13-20 years) rugby league players into professional athletes. This review presents and critically appraises the anthropometric and physical qualities of elite male youth rugby league players aged between 13 and 20 years, by age category, playing standard and playing position. Height, body mass, body composition, linear speed, change-of-direction speed, aerobic capacity, muscular strength and power characteristics are presented and demonstrate that qualities develop with age and differentiate between playing standard and playing position. This highlights the importance of anthropometric and physical qualities for the identification and development of youth rugby league players. However, factors such as maturity status, variability in development, longitudinal monitoring and career attainment should be considered to help understand, identify and develop the physical qualities of youth players. Further extensive research is required into the anthropometric and physical qualities of youth rugby league players, specifically considering national standardised testing batteries, links between physical qualities and match performance, together with intervention studies, to inform the physical development of youth rugby league players for talent identification and development purposes.

  1. Whither Elite Cohesion in Mexico: A Comment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-11-01

    Generacicnes: Los Protagonistas de Ia Reforma y la Revoluci(n Mexicana, Secretaria de Educacion Pblica, Consejo Nacional de Fomento Educat ivo, Mexico City...t-, ~ ir;opy 000 WHITHER ELITE COHESION IN MEXICO : A COMMENT David Ronfeldt November 1988 DTIC ELECTEI Novo 6 la ... . ... ,D The RAND...Monica, CA 90406 21:8 WHITHER ELITE COHESION IN MEXICO : A COMMENT Pavii Ronfeldt Por dec:ies . .I(,xi -as had a ,henomena!!y cohr sive ruling e I ite non

  2. Changing the Corporate Elite? Not So Easy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregoric, Aleksandra; Oxelheim, Lars; Randøy, Trond;

    the social identity and critical mass theory to further show how these responses may vary with the current composition of the board. Viewing the board as a locus for the maintenance of the positive distinctiveness of the established corporate elite, we conjecture that new female appointments will not only...... new women to their boards. To address this issue we – in this study – introduce the cognitive and affective processes related to directors’ identification with the traditional corporate elite as an explanation for the slow organizational response to pressure for gender diversity on boards. We bridge...... these propositions on a sample of 387 publicly traded Nordic corporations during 2001–2008....

  3. Development of Elite Programmes at Aalborg University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove

    2008-01-01

    Europe and  the United States on higher educations  tailored  to challenge  the most  talented and motivated students. Further details are provided on  the current situation  in Denmark, where the government has decided  to support  the development of highly specialised elite programmes at  the  master.......  More  importantly,  up  to  84%  of  the  elite  students  are  potentially  interested  in pursuing a career in academia....

  4. Physiological characteristics of elite sport parachutists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitrick, R W; Holmes, D L; Murphy, M

    1985-04-01

    The physiological characteristics of 10 male elite sport parachutists (31.6 +/- 3.69 years of age) were determined and compared to 10 male non-sport parachutist controls (30.2 +/- 4.31 years) and other selected elite athletes. The typical sport parachutist was a highly educated (16.4 +/- 2.41 years), first born (9 out of 10), and, more often than not, single individual. During their mean 10.8 years of sport parachuting, these individuals made an average total number of 1,950 jumps (range 980 to 3,100) with a mean of 237.5 jumps during each of the last three years. Mean total free fall time was 22 h and 40 min. Compared to the non-sport parachutist control group, the elite sport parachutists were significantly higher (p less than 0.05) in aerobic power (47.4 +/- 9.04 vs. 37.2 +/- 4.67 ml X kg-1 X min-1), vital capacity (5.27 +/- 0.49 vs. 5.05 +/- 0.31 L), maximum heart rate (203.2 +/- 9.2 vs. 190.1 +/- 7.4 bpm), and back hyperextension flexibility (21.12 +/- 4.1 vs. 18.41 +/- 2.4 in). The elite sport parachutist were also significantly lower (p less than 0.05) in relative (%) body fat when compared to the control group (15.7 +/- 4.51 vs. 20.1 +/- 2.12%). The two groups were not significantly different (p greater than 0.05) with respect to resting heart rate, absolute body weight, dominant hand-grip strength, or lower back/hamstring flexibility as measured by the sit-and-reach test. Regarding somatotype, the elite sport parachutist can be classified as a balanced mesomorph. Compared to other selected elite athletes, the sport parachutists were lower in aerobic power and higher in relative body fat, yet with a summation of triceps, suprailiac, and abdominal skinfolds in the acceptable range for male athletes. The elite sport parachutists were approximately mid-range in absolute body weight and lower back/hamstring flexibility when compared to other selected elite athletes. Based on the findings of this study, there is evidence to suggest that some form of regular

  5. Scaphoid fracture in the elite athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsky, Mark R; Leibman, Matthew I; Ruchelsman, David E

    2012-08-01

    Scaphoid fracture remains a common, potentially devastating, injury that can impair upper extremity function. Early recognition with proper imaging and treatment provides the best opportunity to heal and return to a normal activity level. Surgical treatment offers the patient a quicker return to the rehabilitation of the extremity and therefore an earlier return to elite play. There is evidence that healing occurs faster if the fractured scaphoid is fixed with internal fixation. Absolute compliance by the athlete and the training program that surrounds the athlete is critical to protect the wrist while maintaining the necessary conditioning of an elite athlete.

  6. The effects of resistance training on explosive strength indicators in adolescent basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eduardo J A M; Janeira, Manuel A A S

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a lower- and upper-body 10-week in-season resistance training program on explosive strength development in young basketball players. Twenty-five adolescent male athletes, aged 14-15 years old, were randomly assigned to an experimental group (EG; n = 15) and a control group (CG; n = 10). The subjects were assessed at baseline and after training for squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), Abalakov test, drop jump, and seated medicine ball throw (MBT). The EG showed significant increases (p training program with moderate volume and intensity loads increased vertical jump and MBT performance in adolescent male basketball players. Coaches should know that such a short resistance training program specifically designed for young basketball players induce increased explosivity levels, which are essential to a better basketball performance, with no extra overload on adolescents' skeletal muscle development.

  7. Communication and Their Role in The Preparation and Presentation of The Basketball Referee

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fabiana Martinescu-Bădălan

    2017-01-01

    The present paper wishes to start from the premise that we are preparing to express, namely that there is a correlation between the degree of preparation of the basketball referees and their results...

  8. Personal and situational factors that predict coping strategies for acute stress among basketball referees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaissidis-Rodafinos, A; Anshel, M H; Porter, A

    1997-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the ways in which coping style and situational appraisals are related to the consistency of using approach and avoidance coping strategies for skilled Australian basketball referees (n = 133) after three game-related stressful events. The events, 'making a mistake', 'aggressive reactions by coaches or players' and 'presence of important others', were determined from previous research on sources of acute stress among basketball officials. Our findings indicated that: referees exhibited consistent avoidance, but not approach, coping styles; they used more avoidance than approach strategies; and they perceived stress to be positively correlated with approach, and negatively associated with avoidance, coping strategies. These findings suggest that individual differences exist in perceptions of stress (i.e. situational appraisals), controllability and coping styles among moderately and highly skilled basketball referees. The implications for teaching cognitive and behavioural strategies for effective coping with acute stress in basketball officiating are discussed.

  9. STRUCTURE TEHNICAL-TACTICS ACTIVITIEST FROM BASKETBALL TEAMS IN NBA-LEAGUE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vesna Jovanova-Simeva

    2007-01-01

    league in the world-NBA league. Population which at to draw out this exemplar consist 102 teams, who is best successful the presents structure of the basketball games of expression above presentation factors...

  10. The System Design of Wireless Basketball Timer Based on MCU and NRF24L01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Ying

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, Basketball players must know the progress well in time in the game, the presence of electronic timer with LED display influences the basketball games. The wired operation influences the control distance, control reliability, control efficiency and so on. So how to make it longer, anti-interference, easy operation and high efficiency is a difficult problem. A kind of wireless basketball timer is designed based on micro-computer unit (MCU and wireless nRF24L01 module to compensate for the existing disadvantages, which has LED digital tube of large size for the section number display and middle size for game display and 24s display. The user is easy to carry and control the timer wirelessly at any place in the basketball court using the sending control device. The test results show that the system, easy to control and stable to operate, is reliable to transmit the wireless data.

  11. Feature of the reaction to physical exertion of the students, engaged in basketball and judo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evdokimov E.I.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the results of multifactor method of express-diagnostics S. Dushanin and evaluation vegetovascular regulation to predict the reaction of students involved in basketball and judo to physical activity. It is shown that the reaction of basketball has the same type that suits the sport. In judo identified two opposing tendencies of functional changes. Study shows promise to control the training process, the ratio of different types of metabolism.

  12. Relationship between Core Stability Muscle Endurance and Static and Dynamic Balance in Basketball Players

    OpenAIRE

    farzaneh saki; masumeh Baghban

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Balancing is the most basic function of the neuromuscular system in performing all simple and complex activities that contribute to health-related physical fitness. Core stability may be a contributing factor to static and dynamic balance. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between core stability muscle endurance and static and dynamic balance in basketball players. Methods: 100 basketball players (50 female and 50 male players) were selected randomly bas...

  13. Impact of Bony Stress Injuries on Professional Basketball Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Moin; Madden, Kim; Rogowski, Joseph P.; Stotts, Jeff; Burrus, Matthew Tyrrell; Samani, Marisa; Sikka, Robby Singh; Bedi, Asheesh

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Players in the National Basketball Association (NBA) subject their lower extremities to significant repetitive loading during the season as well as during off-season training. Little is known about the incidence and impact of lower extremity bony stress injuries in these athletes. Methods: Using the player injury database maintained by the NBA Players’ Association, all bony stress injuries from 1992 to May 2016 were identified. Those not involving the lower extremity were excluded from the study. Stress fractures and stress reactions were grouped together. Number of games missed due to the injury as well as player statistics including points per game (ppg), assists per game (apg), steals per game (spg), and blocks per game (bpg) were collected from two years prior to the injury to two years after the injury. Results: 76 lower extremity bony stress injuries were identified involving 75 different NBA players with an average player age of 25.4 ± 4.1 years. 55.3% (42/76) involved the foot, 21.1% (16/76) involved the ankle or fibula, 17.1% (13/76) involved the tibia, and 6.6% (5/76) involved either the knee or patella. The majority of injuries occurred in season 82.9% (63/76) with half of the injuries occurring within the first 6 weeks of the season. 38.2% (29/76) of these injuries were managed surgically. An average of 25.1 ± 21.3 games were missed. 19.7% (15/76) of patients who sustained a stress fracture also had a subsequent injury. 29.2% (21/76) of players were not able to return to professional basketball after the season in which the injury was sustained; however, those who were able to return to the same level of play did not see a significant change in performance as measured by ppg, apg, spg, or bpg when comparing the season prior to the injury and either one or two years after the injury. Stress injuries to the foot carried the worst prognosis, 57.1% (12/21) of those unable to return to professional basketball sustained such an injury

  14. Institutionalizing elites: political elite formation and change in the KwaZulu-Natal provincial legislature

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    This book expands and redefines the approach to the study of political elites through an interrogation of political elite formation in the context of the provincial legislature of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, over the period 1994-2004. The period covers two successive provincial government elections and two terms of office. KwaZulu-Natal is the only province where the Inkatha Freedom Party remains a significant political contender. The author presents a detailed study of the realization, accu...

  15. Yo-Yo IR2 testing of elite and sub-elite soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen; Bendiksen, Mads; Randers, Morten Bredsgaard

    2012-01-01

    Abstract We examined performance, heart rate response and construct validity of the Yo-Yo IR2 test by testing 111 elite and 92 sub-elite soccer players from Norway and Denmark. VO(2)max, Yo-Yo IR1 and repeated sprint tests (RSA) (n = 51) and match-analyses (n = 39) were also performed. Yo-Yo IR2...

  16. The Norwegian financial elite : elite configurations in present-day financialized capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Toft, Maren

    2013-01-01

    The recent accentuation of elites in public and scholarly debate originates in the growth of the financial sector in the economy since the late 1970s. Linking trends of financial expansion to increasing economic inequalities, the concept of financialization has taken center stage in global media, while only incipiently in sociology. By subdividing the economic upper class, this study presents the first sociological contribution to the structuring of the Norwegian financial elite. Based on pop...

  17. Spectator Motives and Points of Attachment: an Investigation on Professional Basketball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gencer, R. Timucin; Kiremitci, Olcay; Boyacioglu, Hayal

    2011-01-01

    Spectator attendance to professional basketball in Turkey is significantly less than desired. Keeping in mind how important spectators are for team sports, understanding factors that affect game attendance will offer essential clues in terms of increasing spectator attendance. The main purpose of this study was to determine the relationships between basketball spectators’ motives and points of attachment. With consideration to this purpose, the present study has tested the validity and reliability of the Motivation Scale for Sport Consumption and the Points of Attachment Index for Turkish basketball spectators. 197 basketball spectators participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis results demonstrated that the original models of the measurement tools employed for the study showed an acceptable degree of fit with the data. The internal consistency coefficients of the scales were found to be between 0.59 and 0.80 for the Motivation Scale for Sport Consumption and between 0.53 and 0.88 for the Points of Attachment Index. The canonical correlation analysis only returned a single significant function. The motives aesthetics and escape stood out in terms of the significant function, while the sport type (basketball in this study) stood out in the sense of attachment. Relationships identified between basketball spectators’ motives and points of attachment could help sports managers and marketing experts to develop strategies focusing on increasing spectator attendance to their teams’ games. PMID:23487414

  18. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT TEACING TECHNOLOGIES ON BEING INFORMED ABOUT MOBILE ELEMENTS OF BASKETBALL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Šekeljić

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This work is dedicated to the comparative presentation of the results achieved by the pupils that have been partecipated in basketball tests after the implementation of the alternative curriculum having the basketbal as its contentsl. The research has been done during 2005/2006 school year on the sample of 183 male and female pupils of the fourth grade of the primary school. The pupils have been divided in two experimental groups. The first one has realized its curriculum in basketball playground according to the stan- dards and rules of mini-basket, while the the other, experimental group, has realized its teaching contents in the standard basketball playground. The results have pointed out that the dimension of the ball, such as the height of the basket are very important related to the achievements of certain basketball tests. On the other hand, certain number of the basketball tests has not shown any significant differences that can be statistically confirmed. This work can be useful in the methodical approach while teaching the basic elements of the basketball technique

  19. The influence of visual contextual information on the emergence of the especial skill in basketball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckel, Tino; Breslin, Gavin

    2013-10-01

    We examined whether basketball throwing performance in general and motor skill specificity from the free throw distance in particular are influenced by visual contextual information. Experienced basketball players (N = 36) performed basketball set shots at five distances from the basket. Of particular interest was the performance from the free throw distance (4.23 m), at which experienced basketball players are expected to show superior performance compared with nearby locations as a result of massive amounts of practice. Whereas a control group performed the shots on a regular basketball court, the distance between the rim and the free throw line was either increased or decreased by 30 cm in two experimental groups. Findings showed that only the control group had a superior performance from the free throw distance, and the experimental groups did not. Moreover, all groups performed more accurately from the perceived free throw line (independent of its location) compared with nearby locations. The findings suggest that visual context information influences the presence of specificity effects in experienced performers. The findings have theoretical implications for explaining the memory representation underlying the especial skill effect in basketball.

  20. Anaerobic work capacity in elite wheelchair athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Bakker, W H; Elkhuizen, J W; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Gwinn, T

    1997-01-01

    To study the anaerobic work capacity in wheelchair athletes, 67 elite wheelchair athletes (50 male) were studied in a 30-second sprint test on a computer-controlled wheelchair ergometer during the World Championships and Games for the Disabled in Assen (1990). The experimental set-up (ergometer,

  1. Elites and Stars of Modern Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Rappaport

    2016-01-01

    In the shift from aristocratic society to democracy professional and social elites still are lacking definite cultural norms and attitudes. Rapid change of tastes and political influence blurs common attitudes and values, intuitive and rational methods of decision making, moral and artistic values. Architectural schools trying to accommodate to those changes lose their professional permanency.

  2. Elites and Stars of Modern Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Rappaport

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the shift from aristocratic society to democracy professional and social elites still are lacking definite cultural norms and attitudes. Rapid change of tastes and political influence blurs common attitudes and values, intuitive and rational methods of decision making, moral and artistic values. Architectural schools trying to accommodate to those changes lose their professional permanency.

  3. Anaerobic work capacity in elite wheelchair athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Woude, L H; Bakker, W H; Elkhuizen, J W; Veeger, DirkJan (H. E. J.); Gwinn, T

    1997-01-01

    To study the anaerobic work capacity in wheelchair athletes, 67 elite wheelchair athletes (50 male) were studied in a 30-second sprint test on a computer-controlled wheelchair ergometer during the World Championships and Games for the Disabled in Assen (1990). The experimental set-up (ergometer, pro

  4. Motivational Traits of Elite Young Soccer Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Craig; Meyers, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    Among the most overlooked aspects in the development of elite young soccer players is that of specific psychological traits. Of those traits, motivation has important implications for programs whose objectives are identification and cultivation of young, skilled performers. The growth in popularity of soccer by youth and the successes experienced…

  5. Asymmetry of Muscle Strength in Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drid, Patrik; Drapsin, Miodrag; Trivic, Tatjana; Lukac, Damir; Obadov, Slavko; Milosevic, Zoran

    2009-01-01

    "Study aim": To determine muscle strength variables in elite judoists and wrestlers since thigh muscle strength and bilaterally balanced flexor-to-extensor ratio minimise injury risk and are desirable for achieving sport successes. "Material and methods": Judoists, wrestlers and untrained subjects, 10 each, were subjected to isokinetic strength…

  6. [Iron and performance in elite athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, Elisa; Cristani, Alessandro

    2006-09-01

    The negative relationship between performance and iron deficiency anemia is well known. There is still debate in the literature on the exercise-induced iron loss and if low iron store, even in the absence of frank anemia, can adversely affected performance of elite athletes. We analyse the physiologic changes induced by strong exercise, the diagnostic problems and therapeutic supplementation.

  7. A Career Assistance Program for Elite Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitpas, Al; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a career assistance program to assist elite athletes (n=142) in coping with the transition out of active sport competition. Uses a lifespan development framework to describe formulation of the program. Presents outline of program and discusses implications for counseling. Notes feedback from participants has been positive and the…

  8. The political economy of women’s professional basketball in the United States: A structure-conduct-performance approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel ANTHONY

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the political economy of women’s professional basketball in the United States, including both the American Basketball League (ABL and the Women’s National Basketball Association (WNBA. To do so, we employ the structure-conductperformance paradigm (hereafter SCP from industrial organization. In addition to the importance of television revenues and corporate sponsorships to the success of the leagues, we find evidence of economies of scope, bilateral monopoly issues, and reverse causality in the SCP paradigm as applied to women’s professional basketball in the United States.

  9. Accuracy of Skill Performance in the Basketball Free Throw Shooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igawa Shoji

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study were to investigates how timing of shot of skilled player and assess performance accuracy of free throw shooting. Ten college students participated in this study (5 skilled players, and 5 naïve participants aged 18-23 years. They performed free throw shooting at 10 times. Shooting seen was recorded three cameras and analyzed shooting successful rate, off-target distance (the distance between the basketball through point and the center of the goal and shot timing. Shot timing was not significant difference. Shooting successful rate of skilled players was higher than unskilled players. Offtarget distance of skilled players was significant smaller than naive player. Consequently, skilled player is possible to aim at the center of the goal and shooting near the center of goal.

  10. Traumatic manubriosternal joint subluxations in two basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, C C

    1988-10-01

    Two cases of traumatic manubriosternal joint subluxation without rib fractures in basketball players are illustrated. The incidence of this sport injury is rare. Accidental or intentional violent blows of the elbow to the body of the sternum is the mechanism of this injury. Radiographic analysis of the manubriosternal joint is discussed. Radiographically, the body of the sternum in each case has subluxated posteriorly. The athletes present pain directly at the manubriosternal joint; this may be aggravated by active thoracic hyperflexion or hyperextension. Ordinary or deep breathing does not cause discomfort. Palpation may reveal local tenderness that will be accentuated by ballottement against the manubrium. Conservative treatment consists of manipulative hyperflexion reduction supplemented with antiinflammatory or analgesic cream, cryotherapy, taping or with pad, strapping and rest.

  11. Media value of the Basketball World Cup 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Garcia-del-Barrio

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The number of businesses whose activities are based on immaterial assets is growing very rapidly, which demands new ways of evaluating the economic relevance of intangible assets. The aim of this study is precisely to examine the Basketball World Cup 2006 -a particular experience within the industry of spectacle - through applying a novel methodology. The analysis of this sport event is an interesting exercise in itself, since it allows achieving important lessons and conclusions. Yet, the scope of this paper is broader, including another major goal. Effectively, the present study illustrates the potential capacity that ESIrg methodology has for evaluating intangible assets of different types and character (that must not necessary be linked to the sport industry.

  12. Asthma in elite athletes: how do we manage asthma-like symptoms and asthma in elite athletes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Thomas Kromann

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Asthma is frequent in elite athletes and the high prevalence of asthma might be associated with specific types of sport. It has been suggested that chronic endurance training might increase the number of neutrophils in the airways, and this may reflect airway injury. The use of anti......-asthmatic medication in elite athletes is also currently under scrutiny in order to reduce the risk of under-treatment or over treatment. OBJECTIVES: Determine the use of anti-asthmatic medication and the prevalence of asthma-like symptoms and asthma in Danish elite athletes. Further, to determine whether elite...... survey of elite athletes (N = 418); and (iii) a clinical study of elite athletes. A total of 54 elite athletes (19 with physician-diagnosed asthma) participated together with two control groups: (i) 22 non-athletes with physician-diagnosed asthma (steroid naïve for 4 weeks before the examination) and (ii...

  13. Dating With Super Junior-M

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    担心情人节没人陪?还在幻想能与谁约会?2009年2月14日,梦想照进现实,SJ-M将在上海举办“情人Superman-Super Junior-M 2009上海歌会”,化身你的甜蜜情人,与你一起共度浪漫情人节。

  14. Outcomes After Lumbar Disc Herniation in the National Basketball Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhas, Shobhit V; Kester, Benjamin S; Hsu, Wellington K

    2016-01-01

    Professional basketball players are at risk for lumbar disc herniation (LDH), yet the evidence guiding treatment after operative or nonoperative management of this condition in the National Basketball Association (NBA) is limited. NBA players with LDH will have different performance outcomes based on treatment type. Case-control study. Level 4. Athletes in the NBA with an LDH were identified through team injury reports, transaction records, and public sports archives. A 1:2 case-control study was performed in which LDH players and players without LDH were matched for player variables. Statistical analysis was employed to compare pre- and postindex season performance (games played and player efficiency rating [PER]) and career longevity between test subjects and controls in the operatively treated (OT) and nonoperatively treated (NOT) cohorts. A total of 61 NBA players with LDH were included, of whom 34 underwent discectomy and 27 were managed nonoperatively. Return-to-play (RTP) rates did not differ between NOT and OT players (77.8% vs. 79.4%). When compared with controls, OT players played significantly fewer games and had a lower PER than controls during the first postoperative season, but no difference was seen 2 and 3 years after surgery, with no difference in postoperative career length. In contrast, no difference in games played or PER was seen between NOT players and controls, although NOT players played significantly fewer postindex seasons. NBA players have a high RTP rate regardless of type of treatment for LDH; however, postindex performance differs between surgically and nonoperatively managed patients when compared with players without an LDH. However, further studies with a larger sample size are required for more definitive recommendations. There is a high RTP rate after LDH in the NBA, although postindex performance may differ based on operative versus nonoperative treatment. © 2015 The Author(s).

  15. Junior doctors' knowledge of applied clinical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Yuri; Morgan, Mia; Singh, Annika; Ellis, Harold

    2008-05-01

    This study examines the level of knowledge of applied clinical anatomy among junior doctors. A multiple-choice questionnaire was designed, which covered 15 areas of anatomical knowledge essential to clinical practice, for example, important surface landmarks and interpretation of radiographs. The questionnaire was completed by 128 individuals. They comprised anatomy demonstrators, preregistration house officers (PRHOs), senior house officers (SHOs) and specialist registrars (SpRs) across the range of medical and surgical specialities. Answers were scored and analyzed by group, allowing comparison not only between newly qualified PRHOs and more senior doctors, but also with anatomy demonstrators who had undergone more traditional anatomical training. The results reveal a wide variation of knowledge among junior doctors, with PRHOs scoring an average of 72.1%, SHOs 77.1%, SpRs 82.4%, and demonstrators 82.9%. This progression in knowledge up the clinical hierarchy may reflect clinical experience building upon the foundations laid in medical school, although with demonstrators topping the league table, it seems that intensive academic training is the most beneficial. With junior doctors' training in the UK currently in flux, these results highlight the need for training in clinical anatomy to hold an important place in the development of tomorrow's clinicians.

  16. A Study of the 1968 Graduates of Manatee Junior College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stivers, Earl R.

    This study of the 1968 graduates of Manatee Junior College, Florida, showed that: (1) it is not necessary to be in the top 40% of grade 12 to succeed in junior college, (2) students in the lowest percentiles at entrance can earn a degree, (3) the average candidate for a degree should expect to spend more than four terms at the junior college, (4)…

  17. 关于中国篮球文化建设中几个关系的思考%A Study about the Relationships of Chinese Basketball Culture Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖宗涛

    2013-01-01

      对我国篮球文化建设的理论与实践的分析梳理,发现存在重开放交流轻文化安全(包括了重引进轻继承);重产品文化轻观念文化;重精英文化轻大众文化;重移植、借鉴轻自主创新的问题。深入探讨了开放引进与文化安全;文化产品与文化观念;精英文化与大众文化;移植、借鉴与自主创新的关系。%According to the analysis of the theory and practice of Chinese basketball culture construction, and finding out there are some problems: for example, We pay attention to opening and introduction, But neglect the culture security; We value the products, but neglect concepts; we pay more attention to elites than public; We prefer reference and imitation to innovation. Discuss the relationships about open introduction and culture security; culture products and culture concepts;Elites culture and public culture; Reference、Imitation and independent innovation.

  18. Do Basketball Players Have a High Risk of Pulmonary Embolism? A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, Martí; Martínez, Jose A; Caylà, Joan A; Martín, Vicente

    2016-03-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a serious preventable disease that requires urgent care. In recent years, there have been several reports in the media about basketball players experiencing PE. The aim of the present study was to assess whether there is a need for in-depth studies to determine whether basketball players constitute a group particularly at risk of PE and to describe some hypotheses to be investigated. We reviewed original articles about PE among professional and amateur basketball players in the scientific literature (PubMed) and the Internet (Google search) for the seasons 2010-2011 to 2014-2015, both of which were included. We used search strategies that included some combination of PE-related terms. Rates of PE were calculated and were compared with those obtained from other studies. Of the 15 cases detected, the majority were men (66.7%), mean ages being 28.8 yr among males and 20.4 yr among females. We focused on six cases which, were detected among National Basketball Association and Asociación de Clubes de Baloncesto basketball players, resulting in an average incidence of 1.27 and 2.06 cases per 1000 players per year in the National Basketball Association and Asociación de Clubes de Baloncesto, respectively. This incidence is much higher than that observed in general population studies for the same age group. Basketball players seem to have a higher risk of PE than their peers from the general population. More studies are needed to confirm these findings and identify factors predisposing them to PE to contribute to its prevention.

  19. Temporal associations between individual changes in hormones, training motivation and physical performance in elite and non-elite trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crewther, B T; Carruthers, J; Kilduff, L P; Sanctuary, C E; Cook, C J

    2016-09-01

    To advance our understanding of the hormonal contribution to athletic performance, we examined the temporal associations between individual changes in testosterone (T) and/or cortisol (C) concentrations, training motivation and physical performance in elite and non-elite trained men. Two male cohorts classified as elites (n = 12) and non-elites (n = 12) completed five testing sessions over a six-week period. The athletes were tested for salivary T, C, T/C ratio, self-perceived training motivation, countermovement jump (CMJ) height and isometric mid-thigh pull peak force (IMTP PF), after which an actual training workout was performed. The elite men reported higher motivation to train and they produced greater CMJ height overall, whereas the non-elites had higher pooled T levels (p training motivation in the elite men only (p = 0.033), but the hormonal and motivation measures did not predict CMJ height or IMTP PF in either group. The monitoring of elite and non-elite men across a short training block revealed differences in T levels, motivation and lower-body power, which may reflect training and competitive factors in each group. Despite having lower T levels, the elite athletes showed better linkage between pre-training T fluctuations and subsequent motivation to train. The nature of the performance tests (i.e. single repetition trials) could partly explain the lack of an association with the hormonal and motivational measures.

  20. Airway dysfunction in elite swimmers: prevalence, impact, and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomax M

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitch Lomax Department of Sport and Exercise Science, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, UK Abstract: The prevalence of airway dysfunction in elite swimmers is among the highest in elite athletes. The traditional view that swimmers naturally gravitate toward swimming because of preexisting respiratory disorders has been challenged. There is now sufficient evidence that the higher prevalence of bronchial tone disorders in elite swimmers is not the result of a natural selection bias. Rather, the combined effects of repeated chlorine by-product exposure and chronic endurance training can lead to airway dysfunction and atopy. This review will detail the underpinning causes of airway dysfunction observed in elite swimmers. It will also show that airway dysfunction does not prevent success in elite level swimming. Neither does it inhibit lung growth and might be partially reversible when elite swimmers retire from competition. Keywords: exercise, aquatic athletes, bronchoconstriction