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Sample records for juniata river pennsylvania

  1. Synthesizing Evidence to Assess the Causes of Smallmouth Bass Declines at the Susquehanna and Juniata Rivers, Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unusual mortality events of smallmouth bass (SMB) have been observed in the Susquehanna River Basin annually since 2005 and have coincided with a decline in recruitment of young-of-year fish into the adult SMB population. In 2014, the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Pro...

  2. A Case Study on Collaboration: Sharing the Responsibility of Economic Development in Juniata Valley, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Shakoor A.; Clark, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to better understand the need and importance of the community college's role in economic development, this article takes a closer look at how collaboration in the Juniata Valley of Pennsylvania between Industrial Development Corporations (IDCs) of Mifflin and Juniata counties, career and technical centers, and other agencies is…

  3. Rivers and valleys of Pennsylvania, revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisawa, Marie

    1989-09-01

    The 1889 paper by William Morris Davis on the "Rivers and Valleys of Pennsylvania" is a landmark in the history of geomorphology. It was in this manuscript that he set forth what came to be known as the Davisian system of landscape. It is important to understand that Davis' interpretation of landforms was restricted by the geologic paradigms of his day. Uniformitarianism was strongly entrenched and Darwin's theory of evolution had become popularly accepted. The concept of the landmass Appalachia and then current theories on mountain building affected the approach that Davis took in hypothesizing the origin and development of the Folded Appalachian drainage. All of these geologic precepts influenced the formulation and explanation of his theories. In his exposition he adapted, synthesized and embellished on ideas he derived from fellow geologists such as Gilbert, Dutton, Powell, and McGee. A number of the concepts he proposed in the 1889 paper quickly became the bases for geomorphic studies by others: the cycles of river erosion and landscape evolution and the peneplain (here called base level erosion). The cycle of erosion became the model for subsequent geomorphic analyses, and peneplain hunting became a popular sport for geomorphologists. Davis' hypothesis of the origin and development of Pennsylvanian drainage stimulated subsequent discussion and further hypotheses by others. In fact, many of the later theories were refinements and/or elaborations of ideas mentioned in this paper of Davis. He proposed the origin of the drainage as consequent streams, then antecedence, superposition, headward extension of divides by piracy, erosion along lines of weaknesses (faults, easily erodible beds) through resistant ridges and normal fluvial erosion. Thus, the hypotheses of regional superposition (Johnson), extended consequents (Ruedemann), consequents and local superposition (Meyerhoff and Olmstead), the utilization of structural weaknesses in development of transverse

  4. Water-Quality Monitoring in Response to Young-of-the-Year Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieu) Mortality in the Susquehanna River and Major Tributaries, Pennsylvania: 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Jeffrey J.; Crawford, J. Kent; Brightbill, Robin A.

    2009-01-01

    Mortalities of young-of-the-year (YOY) smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu) recently have occurred in the Susquehanna River due to Flavobacterium columnare, a bacterium that typically infects stressed fish. Stress factors include but are not limited to elevated water temperature and low dissolved oxygen during times critical for survival and development of smallmouth bass (May 1 through July 31). The infections were first discovered in the Susquehanna River and major tributaries in the summer months of 2005 but also were prevalent in 2007. The U.S. Geological Survey, Pennsylvania Fish and Boat Commission, Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, and PPL Corporation worked together to monitor dissolved oxygen, water temperature, pH, and specific conductance on a continuous basis at seven locations from May through mid October 2008. In addition, nutrient concentrations, which may affect dissolved-oxygen concentrations, were measured once in water and streambed sediment at 25 locations. Data from water-quality meters (sondes) deployed as pairs showed daily minimum dissolved-oxygen concentration at YOY smallmouth-bass microhabitats in the Susquehanna River at Clemson Island and the Juniata River at Howe Township Park were significantly lower (p-value < 0.0001) than nearby main-channel habitats. The average daily minimum dissolved-oxygen concentration during the critical period (May 1-July 31) was 1.1 mg/L lower in the Susquehanna River microhabitat and 0.3 mg/L lower in the Juniata River. Daily minimum dissolved-oxygen concentrations were lower than the applicable national criterion (5.0 mg/L) in microhabitat in the Susquehanna River at Clemson Island on 31 days (of 92 days in the critical period) compared to no days in the corresponding main-channel habitat. In the Juniata River, daily minimum dissolved-oxygen concentration in the microhabitat was lower than 5.0 mg/L on 20 days compared to only 5 days in the main-channel habitat. The maximum time periods

  5. Photo Essay: An East Asian Circulation: Asa Mattice on the USS Juniata, 1883–1885

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bickers

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available On Tuesday, May 12, 1885, 210 men from the U.S. navy warships Juniata and Monocacy marched up Shanghai’s Nanjing Road, from the riverside Bund to the Shanghai racecourse, led by a sixteen-man band. There, on the recreation ground inside the track, they exercised and paraded for two hours, putting their field gun teams through their maneuvers, and in the afternoon the band played for the spectators. The weather was fine that day. Toward the end of the proceedings, before the men were paraded back through the streets of the foreign-run International Settlement to embark for the ships moored in the Huangpu River, the North China Herald (May 15, 1885, p. 552 recorded that “past Assistant Engineer Mattice of the Juniata took a photographic view of the battalion by the dry plate process.”

  6. Chemical analysis of sediments and fish from the Mahoning River, Lawrence County, Pennsylvania

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In July, 1988, the Ohio Department of Health issued a swimming, wading and fish consumption advisory for the Mahoning River between Warren, Ohio and the Pennsylvania...

  7. Chemical quality of surface water in the West Branch Susquehanna River basin, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarren, Edward F.

    1964-01-01

    The West Branch Susquehanna River is 228 miles long and drains 6,913 square miles of mountainous area in central Pennsylvania. Much of this area is forestcovered wilderness, part of which is reserved as State game land. Wild animals, such as deer, bear, turkey and grouse, are sheltered there, and many streams contain trout and other game fish. This helps to make the region one of the best hunting and fishing areas in Pennsylvania. The Congress has approved Federal funds for the construction of several reservoirs to prevent flooding of the main river and several of its tributaries. Water stored behind the dams will not be withdrawn below a minimum level designated as conservation pools. These pools will be available for recreation. Several headwater streams, such as Clearfield, Moshannon, and at times Sinnemahoning Creek, that carry drainage from coal mines are acid and contain high concentrations of dissolved solids, especially sulfates. These streams acidify the West Branch Susquehanna River downstream as far as Jersey Shore. One of the most influential tributaries affecting the quality of the West Branch Susquehanna River after they merge is Bald Eagle Creek. Bald Eagle Creek enters the main river downstream from Lock Haven which is approximately 100 river miles from the river's source. Because of its alkaline properties, water of Bald Eagle Creek can neutralize acidic water. Many streams draining small areas and several draining large areas such as Pine Creek, Lycoming Creek, and Loyalsock Creek are clear nearly neutral water low in dissolved solids whose pH is about 7.0 most of the time. These streams have a diluting and neutralizing effect on the quality of the West Branch Susquehanna River, so that from Williamsport downstream the river water is rarely acid, and for most of the time it is of good chemical quality.

  8. Chemical characteristics of Delaware River water, Trenton, New Jersey, to Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfor, Charles N.; Keighton, Walter B.

    1954-01-01

    This progress report gives the results of an investigation of the quality of water in the Delaware River from Trenton, N. J. to Marcus Hook, Pa., for the period August 1949 to December 1952. The Delaware River is the principal source of water for the many industries and municipal water supplies along this reach of the river and both industries and municipalities use it for the disposal of their wastes. Consequently, a study of the quality of the water and variations in the quality caused by changes in streamflow, tidal effects, pollution and other factors is important to the many users. In both New Jersey and Pennsylvania steps are being taken to abate pollution, thus it is of more than passing interest to measure the effects of waste treatment on the quality of the Delaware River water. At average or higher rates of streamflow the mineral content of the water increases slightly from Trenton to Marcus Hook. There is little variation in the concentration of dissolved minerals from bank to bank or from top to bottom of the river. At times of protracted low rates of flow the effect of ocean water mixing with the river water may be noted as far upstream as Philadelphia. At such times the salinity is often greater near the bottom of the river than near the top. The increase in chloride concentration upstream from Philadelphia is small compared to the rapid increase downstream from Philadelphia. Temperatures of offshore water vary with the season, but on a given day are substantially uniform throughout the reach of the river from Trenton to Marcus Hook. The water contains less dissolved oxygen as it flows downstream indicating that oxygen is being consumed by oxidizable matter. From Philadelphia downstream there are periods, especially in late summer, when the dissolved oxygen is barely sufficient to meet the oxygen demands of the pollution load.

  9. Evaluation of the streamgage network for estimating streamflow statistics at ungaged sites in Pennsylvania and the Susquehanna River Basin in Pennsylvania and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Stuckey, Marla H.; Hoffman, Scott A.

    2017-05-10

    The current (2015) streamgage network in Pennsylvania and the Susquehanna River Basin in Pennsylvania and New York was evaluated in order to design a network that would meet the hydrologic needs of many partners and serve a variety of purposes and interests, including estimation of streamflow statistics at ungaged sites. This study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection and the Susquehanna River Basin Commission. The study area includes the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the Susquehanna River Basin in Pennsylvania and New York. For this study, 229 streamgages were identified as reference streamgages that could be used to represent ungaged watersheds. Criteria for a reference streamgage are a minimum of 10 years of continuous record, minimally altered streamflow, and a drainage area less than 1,500 square miles. Some of the reference streamgages have been discontinued but provide historical hydrologic information valuable in the determination of streamflow characteristics of ungaged watersheds. Watersheds in the study area not adequately represented by a reference streamgage were identified by examining a range of basin characteristics, the extent of geographic coverage, and the strength of estimated streamflow correlations between gaged and ungaged sites.Basin characteristics were determined for the reference streamgage watersheds and the 1,662 12-digit hydrologic unit code (HUC12) subwatersheds in Pennsylvania and the Susquehanna River Basin using a geographic information system (GIS) spatial analysis and nationally available GIS datasets. Basin characteristics selected for this study include drainage area, mean basin elevation, mean basin slope, percentage of urbanized area, percentage of forested area, percentage of carbonate bedrock, mean annual precipitation, and soil thickness. A GIS spatial analysis was used to identify HUC12 subwatersheds outside the range of basin

  10. Effects of high salinity wastewater discharges on unionid mussels in the Allegheny River, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathleen Patnode,; Hittle, Elizabeth A.; Robert Anderson,; Lora Zimmerman,; Fulton, John W.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of high salinity wastewater (brine) from oil and natural gas drilling on freshwater mussels in the Allegheny River, Pennsylvania, during 2012. Mussel cages (N = 5 per site) were deployed at two sites upstream and four sites downstream of a brine treatment facility on the Allegheny River. Each cage contained 20 juvenile northern riffleshell mussels Epioblasma torulosa rangiana). Continuous specific conductance and temperature data were recorded by water quality probes deployed at each site. To measure the amount of mixing throughout the entire study area, specific conductance surveys were completed two times during low-flow conditions along transects from bank to bank that targeted upstream (reference) reaches, a municipal wastewater treatment plant discharge upstream of the brine-facility discharge, the brine facility, and downstream reaches. Specific conductance data indicated that high specific conductance water from the brine facility (4,000–12,000 µS/cm; mean 7,846) compared to the reference reach (103–188 µS/cm; mean 151) is carried along the left descending bank of the river and that dilution of the discharge via mixing does not occur until 0.5 mi (805 m) downstream. Juvenile northern riffleshell mussel survival was severely impaired within the high specific conductance zone (2 and 34% at and downstream of the brine facility, respectively) and at the municipal wastewater treatment plant (21%) compared to background (84%). We surveyed native mussels (family Unionidae) at 10 transects: 3 upstream, 3 within, and 4 downstream of the high specific conductance zone. Unionid mussel abundance and diversity were lower for all transects within and downstream of the high conductivity zone compared to upstream. The results of this study clearly demonstrate in situ toxicity to juvenile northern riffleshell mussels, a federally endangered species, and to the native unionid mussel assemblage located downstream of a brine discharge to the

  11. Flood-inundation maps for the Susquehanna River near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Mark A.; Underwood, Stacey M.; Thomas, Craig M.; Miller, Jason F.; Pratt, Benjamin A.; Hogan, Laurie G.; Wnek, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    A series of 28 digital flood-inundation maps was developed for an approximate 25-mile reach of the Susquehanna River in the vicinity of Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The study was selected by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) national Silver Jackets program, which supports interagency teams at the state level to coordinate and collaborate on flood-risk management. This study to produce flood-inundation maps was the result of a collaborative effort between the USACE, National Weather Service (NWS), Susquehanna River Basin Commission (SRBC), The Harrisburg Authority, and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). These maps are accessible through Web-mapping applications associated with the NWS, SRBC, and USGS. The maps can be used in conjunction with the real-time stage data from the USGS streamgage 01570500, Susquehanna River at Harrisburg, Pa., and NWS flood-stage forecasts to help guide the general public in taking individual safety precautions and will provide local municipal officials with a tool to efficiently manage emergency flood operations and flood mitigation efforts. The maps were developed using the USACE HEC–RAS and HEC–GeoRAS programs to compute water-surface profiles and to delineate estimated flood-inundation areas for selected stream stages. The maps show estimated flood-inundation areas overlaid on high-resolution, georeferenced, aerial photographs of the study area for stream stages at 1-foot intervals between 11 feet and 37 feet (which include NWS flood categories Action, Flood, Moderate, and Major) and the June 24, 1972, peak-of-record flood event at a stage of 33.27 feet at the Susquehanna River at Harrisburg, Pa., streamgage.

  12. Water resources of the Clarion River and Redbank Creek basins, northwestern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckwalter, Theodore F.; Dodge, C.H.; Schiner, G.R.; Koester, H.F.

    1981-01-01

    The Clarion River and Redbank Creek basin occupy 1,280 and 545 square miles, respectively, in northwatern Pennsylvania. The area is mostly in Clerion, Elk, and Jefferson Counties and is approximately 70 miles long and 30 miles wide. All drainage is to the Allegheny River. Sedimentary rocks of Late Devionian Early Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian age underlie the area. Rocks of Late Devonian age underlie the entire area and crop out in the deep stream valleys in the north. Lower Mississippian rocks generally crop out in strips along major stream valleys; the strips are narrow in the south and broaden northward. Pennsylvanian rocks cover most of the interfluvial areas between major streams. The Upper Devonian and Lower Mississippian rocks are composed mostly of alternating sandstone and shale. Sandstone may intertongue laterally with shale. The Pennsylvanian rocks are most heterogeneous and contain many commercial coal beds. The major mineral resources are bituminous coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Narly all coal production is from strip mining in Clarion, Elk, and Jefferson Counties. Total coal production exceeded 8 million short tons in 1976. The basins are south and east of the major oil-producing regions in Pennsylvania, but more than 50,000 barrels of crude oil were produced here in 1975. Commercial quantities of natural gas are also obtained. Thirty-three public water-supply systems furnish about two-thirds of the water for domestic use. Surface water is the source of about 90 percent of public-supply water. The remainder is from wells and springs. In an average year, 64 percent of the precipitation in the Clarion River basin and 60 percent in the Redbank Creek basin leave the area as streamflow. The percentage of annuual discharge from each basin that is base runoff averaged 53 and 51 percent, respectively, during 1972-75. Only 4 of 10 stream-gaging stations recorded an average 10-year, 7-consecutive day low flow of at least 0.15 cubic feet per second per

  13. Photo Essay: Notes on “The Voyage of the USS Juniata (1883–1885”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Dowling

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The images included in the June 2013 Cross-Currents photo essay, “The Voyage of the USS Juniata (1883–1885,” are digital scans made from a set of five-by-eight-inch glass plate negatives depicting scenes from a three-year (1883–1885 naval expedition to the Far East by the USS Juniata. The photographer was Asa M. Mattice, an officer on board (figure 1. Mattice, a native of New York State, graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy at the head of his class as a cadet engineer in 1874 and was later appointed to the teaching staff at Annapolis. He served on the USS Juniata beginning on November 30, 1882, when the ship departed from New York to join five other ships at the Asiatic Squadron.

  14. 76 FR 13446 - Juniata Valley Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... Surface Transportation Board Juniata Valley Railroad Company-Operation Exemption-SEDA-COG Joint Rail... is owned or leased by SEDA-COG Joint Rail Authority (SEDA-COG). JVRR states that the line it proposes to operate is an extension of its existing line of railroad it operates for SEDA- COG and that...

  15. Water-quality conditions during low flow in the lower Youghiogheny River basin, Pennsylvania, October 5-7, 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, J. I.; Schroeder, K.T.; Ackman, T.E.; Crawford, J.K.; Otto, K.L.

    2001-01-01

    In October 1998, a chemical synoptic survey was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory, in the Lower Youghiogheny River Basin in Pennsylvania to give a snapshot of present (1998) water quality during low-flow conditions. Water samples from 38 sites?12 mainstem sites, 22 tributaries, and 4 mine discharges that discharge directly to the Youghiogheny River?were used to identify sources of contaminants from mining operations. Specific conductance, water temperature, pH, and dissolved oxygen were measured in the field at each site and concentrations of major ions and trace elements were measured in the laboratory. Unaccounted for gains and losses in streamflow were measured during the study. Unaccounted for losses in streamflow might be attributed to water loss through streambed fractures. Extensive mine tunnels are present in the basin and loss of water to these tunnels seems likely. Unaccounted for gains in streamflow may be from unmeasured tributaries or surface seeps, but most of the gains are suspected to come from artesian flow through fractures in the streambed from underground mine pools. Influent flows of rust-colored water were noted in some river sections. The pH values for all the samples collected during this survey were above 5.8, and most (33 of 38 samples) were above 7.0. Samples from the four minedischarge sites also had pH values between 6.3 and 6.7. The lowest pH (5.8) was in a tributary, Galley Run. All 38 sampling sites had net alkalinity. The alkalinity load in the Youghiogheny River increased between Connellsville and McKeesport from 35 to 79 tons per day. Above Smithton, the measured alkalinity load in the Lower Youghiogheny River agreed well with the estimated alkalinity load. Below Smithton, measured alkalinity loads in the Lower Youghiogheny River are greater than calculated loads, resulting in unaccounted for gains in alkalinity. These gains are

  16. Sediment transport and capacity change in three reservoirs, Lower Susquehanna River Basin, Pennsylvania and Maryland, 1900-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langland, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has conducted numerous sediment transport studies in the Susquehanna River and in particular in three reservoirs in the Lower Susquehanna River Basin to determine sediment transport rates over the past century and to document changes in storage capacity. The Susquehanna River is the largest tributary to Chesapeake Bay and transports about one-half of the total freshwater input and substantial amounts of sediment and nutrients to the bay. The transported loads are affected by deposition in reservoirs (Lake Clarke, Lake Aldred, and Conowingo Reservoir) behind three hydropower dams. The geometry and texture of the deposited sediments in each reservoir upstream from the three dams has been a subject of research in recent decades. Particle size deposition and sediment scouring processes are part of the reservoir dynamics. A Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment was established for Chesapeake Bay to attain water-quality standards. Six states and the District of Columbia agreed to reduce loads to the bay and to meet load allocation goals for the TMDL. The USGS has been estimating annual sediment loads at the Susquehanna River at Marietta, Pennsylvania (above Lake Clarke), and Susquehanna River at Conowingo, Maryland (below Conowingo Reservoir), since the mid-1980s to predict the mass balance of sediment transport through the reservoir system. Using streamflow and sediment data from the Susquehanna River at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania (upstream from the reservoirs), from 1900 to 1981, sediment loads were greatest in the early to mid-1900s when land disturbance activities from coal production and agriculture were at their peak. Sediment loads declined in the 1950s with the introduction of agricultural soil conservation practices. Loads were dominated by climatic factors in the 1960s (drought) and 1970s (very wet) and have been declining since the 1980s through 2012. The USGS developed a regression equation to

  17. Environmental renaissance in Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, J.

    2009-07-15

    During centuries of rapid growth of the coal mining industry and expanded development in Pennsylvania, trees were felled, streams were diverted and strip mining caused much environmental damage. All that has now changed. The article gives examples of land and water restoration carried out by organizations such as the Susquehanna River Basin Commission, the West Branch Susquehanna Restoration Coalition and the Anthracite Region Independent Power Producers Association. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection directs and coordinates environmental projects. 5 photos.

  18. Flood-inundation maps for the West Branch Susquehanna River near the Boroughs of Lewisburg and Milton, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Mark A.; Hoffman, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Digital flood-inundation maps for an approximate 8-mile reach of the West Branch Susquehanna River from approximately 2 miles downstream from the Borough of Lewisburg, extending upstream to approximately 1 mile upstream from the Borough of Milton, Pennsylvania, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Susquehanna River Basin Commission (SRBC). The inundation maps, which can be accessed through the USGS Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict the estimated areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the USGS streamgage 01553500, West Branch Susquehanna River at Lewisburg, Pa. In addition, the information has been provided to the Susquehanna River Basin Commission (SRBC) for incorporation into their Susquehanna Inundation Map Viewer (SIMV) flood warning system (http://maps.srbc.net/simv/). The National Weather Service (NWS) forecasted peak-stage information (http://water.weather.gov/ahps) for USGS streamgage 01553500, West Branch Susquehanna River at Lewisburg, Pa., may be used in conjunction with the maps developed in this study to show predicted areas of flood inundation. In this study, flood profiles were computed for the stream reach by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. Calibration of the model was achieved using the most current stage-discharge relations (rating number 11.1) at USGS streamgage 01553500, West Branch Susquehanna River at Lewisburg, Pa., a documented water-surface profile from the December 2, 2010, flood, and recorded peak stage data. The hydraulic model was then used to determine 26 water-surface profiles for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum ranging from 14 feet (ft) to 39 ft. Modeled flood stages, as defined by NWS, include Action Stage, 14 ft; Flood Stage, 18 ft; Moderate Flood Stage, 23 ft; and Major Flood Stage, 28 ft. Geographic information system (GIS) technology

  19. Evaluation of agricultural best-management practices in the Conestoga River headwaters, Pennsylvania; hydrology of a small carbonate site near Ephrata, Pennsylvania, prior to implementation of nutrient management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerkle, E.H.; Hall, D.W.; Risser, D.W.; Lietman, P.L.; Chichester, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture and Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, investigated the effects of agricultural best-management practices on water quality in the Conestoga River headwaters watershed. This report describes environmental factors and the surface-water and ground-water quality of one 47.5-acre field site, Field-Site 2, from October 1984 through September 1986, prior to implementation of nutrient management. The site is partially terraced agricultural cropland underlain by carbonate rock. Twenty-seven acres are terraced, pipe-drained, and are under no-till cultivation. The remaining acreage is under minimum-till cultivation. Corn is the primary crop. The average annual rate of fertilization at the site was 480 pounds per acre of nitrogen and 110 pounds per acre of phosphorus. An unconfined limestone and dolomitic aquifer underlies the site, Depth to bedrock ranges from 5 to 30 feet below land surface. Estimated specific yields range from 0.05 to 0.10, specific capacities of wells range from less than 1 to about 20 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown, and estimates of transmissivities range from 10 to 10,000 square feet per day. Average ground-water recharge was estimated to be about 23 inches per year. The specific capacity and transmissivity data indicate that two aquifer regimes are present at the site. Wells drilled into dolomites in the eastern part of the site have larger specific capacities (averaging 20 gallons per minute per foot of drawdown) relative to specific capacities (averaging less than 1 gallon per minute per foot of drawdown) of wells drilled into limestones in the western part of the site. Median concentrations of soil-soluble nitrate and soluble phosphorus in the top 4 feet of silt- or silty-clay-loam soil ranged from 177 to 329 and 8.5 to 35 pounds per acre, respectively. Measured runoff from the pipe-drained terraces ranged from 10 to 48,000 cubic feet and was

  20. Delaware River water quality Bristol to Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania, August 1949 to December 1963

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keighton, Walter B.

    1965-01-01

    During the 14-year period from August 1949 to July 1963, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Philadelphia, collected samples of river water once each month in the 43-mile reach of the Delaware River from Bristol to Marcus Hook, Pa., and daily at Trenton, 10 miles upstream from Bristol. This part of the Delaware is an estuary into which salt water is brought by tides; fresh water flows into the estuary at Trenton, NJ, and farther downstream from the Schuylkill River and other tributaries of the Delaware. In March, April, and May, when fresh-water flow is high, the average concentration of dissolved solids in the water at Bristol was 76 ppm (parts per million), and at Marcus Hook 112 PPM In August and September, streamflow is lower, and the average concentration of dissolved solids increased to 117 PPM at Bristol and 804 PPM at Marcus Hook. Major salinity invasions of the Delaware River occurred in 1949, 1953, 1954, 1957, and 1963. In each of these years the fresh-water flow into the tidal river at Trenton was low during the period from July to October. The greatest dissolved-solids concentrations in these monthly samples were 160 PPM at Bristol and 4,000 PPM at Marcus Hook. At times the dissolved-oxygen concentration of the river water has become dangerously low, especially in that reach of the river between Wharton Street and League Island. At the Benjamin Franklin Bridge, one-third of the samples of river water were less than 30 percent saturated with oxygen; however, no trend, either for better or for worse, was apparent during the 14-year period. It is useful now to summarize these monthly analyses for the period 1949-63 even though a much more detailed description of water quality in this reach of the estuary will soon become available through the use of recording instrumental conditions. This compendium of water-quality data is useful as an explicit statement of water quality during the 14-year study period and is valuable for directing

  1. Streamflow and water-quality monitoring in response to young-of-year smallmouth bass (micropterus dolomieu) mortality in the Susquehanna River and major tributaries, with comparisons to the Delaware and Allegheny Rivers, Pennsylvania, 2008-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Jeffrey J.; Crawford, J. Kent

    2012-01-01

    Since 2005, spring hatched young-of-year (YOY) smallmouth bass in Pennsylvania reaches of the Susquehanna River have experienced above-normal mortality when summertime streamflows are near or lower than normal. Stress factors include, but are not limited to, low dissolved oxygen and elevated water temperatures during times critical for survival and development (critical period is May 1 through July 31). At this time (2010), widespread disease and mortality are believed to be more prevalent for YOY smallmouth bass in the Susquehanna River Basin than in the Delaware or Allegheny River Basins.

  2. Surface-water and groundwater interactions in an extensively mined watershed, upper Schuylkill River, Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles A.; Goode, Daniel J.; Bartles, Michael D.; Risser, Dennis W.; Galeone, Daniel G.

    2014-01-01

    Streams crossing underground coal mines may lose flow, while abandoned mine drainage (AMD) restores flow downstream. During 2005-12, discharge from the Pine Knot Mine Tunnel, the largest AMD source in the upper Schuylkill River Basin, had near-neutral pH and elevated concentrations of iron, manganese, and sulfate. Discharge from the tunnel responded rapidly to recharge but exhibited a prolonged recession compared to nearby streams, consistent with rapid infiltration and slow release of groundwater from the mine. Downstream of the AMD, dissolved iron was attenuated by oxidation and precipitation while dissolved CO2 degassed and pH increased. During high-flow conditions, the AMD and downstream waters exhibited decreased pH, iron, and sulfate with increased acidity that were modeled by mixing net-alkaline AMD with recharge or runoff having low ionic strength and low pH. Attenuation of dissolved iron within the river was least effective during high-flow conditions because of decreased transport time coupled with inhibitory effects of low pH on oxidation kinetics. A numerical model of groundwater flow was calibrated using groundwater levels in the Pine Knot Mine and discharge data for the Pine Knot Mine Tunnel and the West Branch Schuylkill River during a snowmelt event in January 2012. Although the calibrated model indicated substantial recharge to the mine complex took place away from streams, simulation of rapid changes in mine pool level and tunnel discharge during a high flow event in May 2012 required a source of direct recharge to the Pine Knot Mine. Such recharge produced small changes in mine pool level and rapid changes in tunnel flow rate because of extensive unsaturated storage capacity and high transmissivity within the mine complex. Thus, elimination of stream leakage could have a small effect on the annual discharge from the tunnel, but a large effect on peak discharge and associated water quality in streams.

  3. Estimated use of water in the Delaware River Basin in Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Susan S.; Linsey, Kristin S.; Ludlow, Russell A.; Reyes, Betzaida; Shourds, Jennifer L.

    2016-11-07

    The Delaware River Basin (DRB) was selected as a Focus Area Study in 2011 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) as part of the USGS National Water Census. The National Water Census is a USGS research program that focuses on national water availability and use and then develops new water accounting tools and assesses water availability at both the regional and national scales. One of the water management needs that the DRB study addressed, and that was identified by stakeholder groups from the DRB, was to improve the integration of state water use and water-supply data and to provide the compiled water use information to basin users. This water use information was also used in the hydrologic modeling and ecological components of the study.Instream and offstream water use was calculated for 2010 for the DRB based on information received from Delaware, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania. Water withdrawal, interbasin transfers, return flow, and hydroelectric power generation release data were compiled for 11 categories by hydrologic subregion, basin, subbasin, and subwatershed. Data availability varied by state. Site-specific data were used whenever possible to calculate public supply, irrigation (golf courses, nurseries, sod farms, and crops), aquaculture, self-supplied industrial, commercial, mining, thermoelectric, and hydroelectric power withdrawals. Where site-specific data were not available, primarily for crop irrigation, livestock, and domestic use, various techniques were used to estimate water withdrawals.Total water withdrawals in the Delaware River Basin were calculated to be about 7,130 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) in 2010. Calculations of withdrawals by source indicate that freshwater withdrawals were about 4,130 Mgal/d (58 percent of the total) and the remaining 3,000 Mgal/d (42 percent) were from saline water. Total surface-water withdrawals were calculated to be 6,590 Mgal/d, or 92 percent of the total; about 54 percent (3,590 Mgal/d) of surface

  4. Evaluation of agricultural best-management practices in the Conestoga River headwaters, Pennsylvania; methods of data collection and analysis and description of study areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichester, Douglas C.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting a water quality study as part of the nationally implemented Rural Clean Water Program in the headwaters of the Conestoga River, Pennsylvania. The study, which began in 1982, was designed to determine the effect of agricultural best management practices on surface--and groundwater quality. The study was concentrated in four areas within the intensively farmed, carbonate rock terrane located predominately in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. These areas were divided into three monitoring components: (1) a Regional study area (188 sq mi): (2) a Small Watershed study area (5.82 sq mi); and (3) two field site study areas, Field-Site 1 (22.1 acres) and Field 2 (47.5 acres). The type of water quality data and the methods of data collection and analysis are presented. The monitoring strategy and description of the study areas are discussed. The locations and descriptions for all data collection locations at the four study areas are provided. (USGS)

  5. Effects of acid mine drainage on fish and macroinvertebrates of the Tioga River, Pennsylvania and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Acid water from abandoned coal mines in the vicinity of Morris Run and Blossburg, Pa., severely alter the aquatic environment of the Tioga River. From Morris Run to Crooked Creek, a reach of 19 miles, the river bed is influenced by a smothering blanket of heavy metal precipitates and highly acidic water. Biologically, this reach of the river is devoid of fishlife and nearly devoid of benthic macroinvertebrates. Downstream from Crooked Creek the water quality and biota are slowly restored. At Presho, N.Y., the river again supports an abundant and diversified population of fish and bottom-dwelling organisms.

  6. Preliminary results of preimpoundment water-quality studies in the Tioga River Basin, Pennsylvania and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Janice R.

    1976-01-01

    The Tioga River and its major tributaries were sampled monthly from September 1973 to May 1975. Water quality in the Tioga River is degraded by acid-mine drainage entering the stream near Blossburg from both strip- and deep-mined areas. The stream supports few species of aquatic life from Blossburg to its confluence with Crooked Creek. Alkaline water of tributaries Mill Creek, Crooked Creek, and the Cowanesque River counteract the acidity carried downstream from Blossburg, and the water quality of the Tioga River gradually improves, supporting a more diversified population of fish and aquatic life.

  7. The impact of commercially treated oil and gas produced water discharges on bromide concentrations and modeled brominated trihalomethane disinfection byproducts at two downstream municipal drinking water plants in the upper Allegheny River, Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, Matthew S; Kamal, Ali S; Kovalcik, Kasey D; Croghan, Carry; Norris, Gary A; Bergdale, Amy

    2016-01-15

    In 2010, a dramatic increase in the levels of total trihalomethane (THM) and the relative proportion of brominated species was observed in finished water at several Pennsylvania water utilities (PDW) using the Allegheny River as their raw water supply. An increase in bromide (Br(-)) concentrations in the Allegheny River was implicated to be the cause of the elevated water disinfection byproducts. This study focused on quantifying the contribution of Br(-) from a commercial wastewater treatment facility (CWTF) that solely treats wastes from oil and gas producers and discharges into the upper reaches of the Allegheny River, and impacts on two downstream PDWs. In 2012, automated daily integrated samples were collected on the Allegheny River at six sites during three seasonal two-week sampling campaigns to characterize Br(-) concentrations and river dispersion characteristics during periods of high and low river discharges. The CWTF discharges resulted in significant increases in Br(-) compared to upstream baseline values in PDW raw drinking water intakes during periods of low river discharge. During high river discharge, the assimilative dilution capacity of the river resulted in lower absolute halide concentrations, but significant elevations Br(-) concentrations were still observed at the nearest downstream PDW intake over baseline river levels. On days with active CWTF effluent discharge the magnitude of bromide impact increased by 39 ppb (53%) and 7 ppb (22%) for low and high river discharge campaigns, respectively. Despite a declining trend in Allegheny River Br(-) (2009-2014), significant impacts from CWTF and coal-fired power plant discharges to Br(-) concentrations during the low river discharge regime at downstream PDW intakes was observed, resulting in small modeled increases in total THM (3%), and estimated positive shifts (41-47%) to more toxic brominated THM analogs. The lack of available coincident measurements of THM, precursors, and physical parameters

  8. Simulation of streamflow and water quality in the Christina River subbasin and overview of simulations in other subbasins of the Christina River Basin, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware, 1994-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Koerkle, Edward H.

    2003-01-01

    The Christina River Basin drains 565 square miles (mi2) in Pennsylvania and Delaware and includes the major subbasins of Brandywine Creek, Red Clay Creek, White Clay Creek, and Christina River. The Christina River subbasin (exclusive of the Brandywine, Red Clay, and White Clay Creek subbasins) drains an area of 76 mi2. Streams in the Christina River Basin are used for recreation, drinking water supply, and support of aquatic life. Water quality in some parts of the Christina River Basin is impaired and does not support designated uses of the stream. A multi-agency water-quality management strategy included a modeling component to evaluate the effects of point- and nonpoint-source contributions of nutrients and suspended sediment on stream water quality. To assist in nonpoint-source evaluation, four independent models, one for each of the four main subbasins of the Christina River Basin, were developed and calibrated using the model code Hydrological Simulation Program?Fortran (HSPF). Waterquality data for model calibration were collected in each of the four main subbasins and in small subbasins predominantly covered by one land use following a nonpoint- source monitoring plan. Under this plan, stormflow and base-flow samples were collected during 1998 at two sites in the Christina River subbasin and nine sites elsewhere in the Christina River Basin. The HSPF model for the Christina River subbasin simulates streamflow, suspended sediment, and the nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition, the model simulates water temperature, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and plankton as secondary objectives needed to support the sediment and nutrient simulations. For the model, the basin was subdivided into nine reaches draining areas that ranged from 3.8 to 21.9 mi2. Ten different pervious land uses and two impervious land uses were selected for simulation. Land-use areas were determined from 1995 land-use data. The predominant land uses in the Christina

  9. Simulation of Runoff and Reservoir Inflow for Use in a Flood-Analysis Model for the Delaware River, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York, 2004-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Daniel J.; Koerkle, Edward H.; Hoffman, Scott A.; Regan, R. Steve; Hay, Lauren E.; Markstrom, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    A model was developed to simulate inflow to reservoirs and watershed runoff to streams during three high-flow events between September 2004 and June 2006 for the main-stem subbasin of the Delaware River draining to Trenton, N.J. The model software is a modified version of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), a modular, physically based, distributed-parameter modeling system developed to evaluate the impacts of various combinations of precipitation, climate, and land use on surface-water runoff and general basin hydrology. The PRMS model simulates time periods associated with main-stem flooding that occurred in September 2004, April 2005, and June 2006 and uses both daily and hourly time steps. Output from the PRMS model was formatted for use as inflows to a separately documented reservoir and riverrouting model, the HEC-ResSim model, developed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Center to evaluate flooding. The models were integrated through a graphical user interface. The study area is the 6,780 square-mile watershed of the Delaware River in the states of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and New York that drains to Trenton, N.J. A geospatial database was created for use with a geographic information system to assist model discretization, determine land-surface characterization, and estimate model parameters. The USGS National Elevation Dataset at 100-meter resolution, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), was used for model discretization into streams and hydrologic response units. In addition, geospatial processing was used to estimate initial model parameters from the DEM and other data layers, including land use. The model discretization represents the study area using 869 hydrologic response units and 452 stream segments. The model climate data for point stations were obtained from multiple sources. These sources included daily data for 22 National Weather Service (NWS) Cooperative Climate Station network

  10. Simulation of streamflow and water quality in the Brandywine Creek subbasin of the Christina River basin, Pennsylvania and Delaware, 1994-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Koerkle, Edward H.

    2003-01-01

    The Christina River Basin drains 565 mi2 (square miles) in Pennsylvania and Delaware. Water from the basin is used for recreation, drinking-water supply, and to support aquatic life. The Christina River Basin includes the major subbasins of Brandywine Creek, Red Clay Creek, White Clay Creek, and Christina River. The Brandywine Creek is the largest of the subbasins and drains an area of 327 mi2. Water quality in some parts of the Christina River Basin is impaired and does not support designated uses of the streams. A multi-agency water-quality management strategy included a modeling component to evaluate the effects of point and nonpoint-source contributions of nutrients and suspended sediment on streamwater quality. To assist in nonpoint-source evaluation, four independent models, one for each of the four main subbasins of the Christina River Basin, were developed and calibrated using the model code Hydrological Simulation Program?Fortran (HSPF). Water-quality data for model calibration were collected in each of the four main subbasins and in small subbasins predominantly covered by one land use following a nonpoint-source monitoring plan. Under this plan, stormflow and base-flow samples were collected during 1998 at six sites in the Brandywine Creek subbasin and five sites in the other subbasins. The HSPF model for the Brandywine Creek Basin simulates streamflow, suspended sediment, and the nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition, the model simulates water temperature, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and plankton as secondary objectives needed to support the sediment and nutrient simulations. For the model, the basin was subdivided into 35 reaches draining areas that ranged from 0.6 to 18 mi2. Three of the reaches contain regulated reservoir. Eleven different pervious land uses and two impervious land uses were selected for simulation. Land-use areas were determined from 1995 land-use data. The predominant land uses in the basin are forested

  11. Simulation of streamflow and water quality in the Red Clay Creek subbasin of the Christina River Basin, Pennsylvania and Delaware, 1994-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Koerkle, Edward H.

    2003-01-01

    (mi2) in Pennsylvania and Delaware and includes the major subbasins of Red Clay Creek, White Clay Creek, Brandywine Creek, and Christina River. The Red Clay Creek is the smallest of the subbasins and drains an area of 54 mi2. Streams in the Christina River Basin are used for recreation, drinking-water supply, and to support aquatic life. Water quality in some parts of the Christina River Basin is impaired and does not support designated uses of the stream. A multi-agency, waterquality management strategy included a modeling component to evaluate the effects of point and nonpointsource contributions of nutrients and suspended sediment on stream water quality. To assist in nonpointsource evaluation, four independent models, one for each of the four main subbasins of the Christina River Basin, were developed and calibrated using the model code Hydrological Simulation Program?Fortran (HSPF). Water-quality data for model calibration were collected in each of the four main subbasins and in smaller subbasins predominantly covered by one land use following a nonpoint-source monitoring plan. Under this plan, stormflow and base-flow samples were collected during 1998 at 1 site in the Red Clay Creek subbasin and at 10 sites elsewhere in the Christina River Basin. The HSPF model for the Red Clay Creek subbasin simulates streamflow, suspended sediment, and the nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition, the model simulates water temperature, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and plankton as secondary objectives needed to support the sediment and nutrient simulations. For the model, the basin was subdivided into nine reaches draining areas that ranged from 1.7 to 10 mi2. One of the reaches contains a regulated reservoir. Ten different pervious land uses and two impervious land uses were selected for simulation. Land-use areas were determined from 1995 land-use data. The predominant land uses in the Red Clay Creek subbasin are agricultural, forested, residential

  12. Simulation of streamflow and water quality in the White Clay Creek subbasin of the Christina River Basin, Pennsylvania and Delaware, 1994-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Koerkle, Edward H.

    2003-01-01

    The Christina River Basin drains 565 square miles (mi2) in Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Delaware. Water from the basin is used for recreation, drinking water supply, and to support aquatic life. The Christina River Basin includes the major subbasins of Brandywine Creek, White Clay Creek, and Red Clay Creek. The White Clay Creek is the second largest of the subbasins and drains an area of 108 mi2. Water quality in some parts of the Christina River Basin is impaired and does not support designated uses of the streams. A multi-agency water-quality management strategy included a modeling component to evaluate the effects of point and nonpoint-source contributions of nutrients and suspended sediment on stream water quality. To assist in non point-source evaluation, four independent models, one for each of the three major subbasins and for the Christina River, were developed and calibrated using the model code Hydrological Simulation Program?Fortran (HSPF). Water-quality data for model calibration were collected in each of the four main subbasins and in smaller subbasins predominantly covered by one land use following a nonpoint-source monitoring plan. Under this plan, stormflow and base- flow samples were collected during 1998 at two sites in the White Clay Creek subbasin and at nine sites in the other subbasins. The HSPF model for the White Clay Creek Basin simulates streamflow, suspended sediment, and the nutrients, nitrogen and phosphorus. In addition, the model simulates water temperature, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and plankton as secondary objectives needed to support the sediment and nutrient simulations. For the model, the basin was subdivided into 17 reaches draining areas that ranged from 1.37 to 13 mi2. Ten different pervious land uses and two impervious land uses were selected for simulation. Land-use areas were determined from 1995 land-use data. The predominant land uses in the White Clay Creek Basin are agricultural, forested, residential

  13. An overview of Pennsylvania`s experience with NORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusko, J.G. [Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Although Pennsylvania may be thought of as the state who brought you indoor radon, courtesy of a discovery of a residence with radon concentrations in excess of a few thousand picocuries per liter, this is not the states only claim to NORM fame. In the early years of the twentieth century, Pennsylvania was the largest producer of radium, utilizing its industrial base to produce large quantities of this {open_quotes}miracle cure{close_quotes} from ores mined in the West, and transported to a separation and purification facility in Western Pennsylvania. The company successfully held off foreign and political pressure, and generated large quantities of uranium tailings as well, until a fire one New Year`s Eve destroyed the separation plant, and the company faded from view. The tailings were remediated as part of the Uranium Mill Tailings, Remedial Action Project, on the only site east of the Mississippi River. This article goes on to discuss the states experiences with NORM in various projects, coming in contact with human populations from different sources.

  14. Pennsylvania Historical Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tabular monthly and annual weather data for Pennsylvania stations. Data produced by the climatological service of the U.S. Weather Bureau. Images are in full color....

  15. Pennsylvania forests 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Albright; William H. McWilliams; Richard H. Widmann; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Shawn Lehman; Tonya W. Lister; Patrick D. Miles; Randall S. Morin; Rachel Riemann; James E. Smith

    2017-01-01

    This report summarizes the third cycle of annualized inventory of Pennsylvania with field data collected from 2009 through 2014. Pennsylvania has 16.9 million acres of forest land dominated by sawtimber stands of oak/hickory and maple/beech/birch forest-type groups. Volumes continue to increase as the forests age with an average of 2,244 cubic feet per acre on...

  16. FLOODPLAIN, JUNIATA COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  17. Effects of coal-mine discharges on the quality of the Stonycreek River and its tributaries, Somerset and Cambria counties, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Donald R.; Sams, James I.; Mulkerrin, Mary E.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, done in cooperation with the Somerset Conservation District, to locate and sample abandoned coal-mine discharges in the Stonycreek River Basin, to prioritize the mine discharges for remediation, and to determine the effects of the mine discharges on water quality of the Stonycreek River and its major tributaries. From October 1991 through November 1994, 270 abandoned coal-mine discharges were located and sampled. Discharges from 193 mines exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency effluent standards for pH, discharges from 122 mines exceeded effluent standards for total-iron concentration, and discharges from 141 mines exceeded effluent standards for total-manganese concentration. Discharges from 94 mines exceeded effluent standards for all three constituents. Only 40 mine discharges met effluent standards for pH and concentrations of total iron and total manganese. A prioritization index (PI) was developed to rank the mine discharges with respect to their loading capacity on the receiving stream. The PI lists the most severe mine discharges in a descending order for the Stonycreek River Basin and for subbasins that include the Shade Creek, Paint Creek, Wells Creek, Quemahoning Creek, Oven Run, and Pokeytown Run Basins. Passive-treatment systems that include aerobic wetlands, compost wetlands, and anoxic limestone drains (ALD's) are planned to remediate the abandoned mine discharges. The successive alkalinity-producing-system treatment combines ALD technology with the sulfate reduction mechanism of the compost wetland to effectively remediate mine discharge. The water quality and flow of each mine discharge will determine which treatment system or combination of treatment systems would be necessary for remediation. A network of 37 surface-water sampling sites was established to determine stream-water quality during base flow. A series of illustrations show how water quality in the

  18. National Dam Inspection Program. Page’s Lake Dam NDI Number PA 00062 PennDER Number 58-5) Susquehanna River Basin, Salt Lick Creek, Susquehanna County, Pennsylvania. Phase I Inspection Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    dated 29 May 1913, from the Burgess of New Milford, Pennsylvania, informing the Pennsylvania State Water Commission of the dangerous condition of the...Catskill Formation in the Susquehanna Group. These are chiefly red and gray shales and sandstones of Upper Devonian age. The formation may also contain

  19. Water quality of the Upper West Branch Susquehanna River and tributary streams between Curwensville and Renovo, Pennsylvania, May and July 1984

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainly, R.A.; Barker, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    The soils and rocks of the Upper West Branch Susquehanna River basin, from its headwaters downstream for 150 miles, are laden with pyritic materials that have the potential to produce acid mine drainage. The effects of mine drainage are severe, particularly in the reach between Curwensville and Renovo where present water quality cannot support viable populations of benthic macroinvertebrates or fish. During base-flow periods in May and July 1984, streamflow and water quality were measured at four sites on the West Branch Susquehanna River and near the mouths of 94 tributaries. Water-quality constituents determined were temperature, specific conductance, pH, acidity, alkalinity, and concentrations of dissolved sulfate and total and dissolved forms of iron, manganese, aluminum, and zinc. The data collected for the study indicate that the predominant influence on water quality of the tributaries is land use. An area where few or no coal deposits or disturbed area were present was found to have relatively good surface-water quality (median pH was nearly 5.5 units), whereas areas where coal mining was active in the basin, or where large areas of unreclaimed mines were present, were found to have poorest water quality (median pH was generally less than 4.0 units). In general, Moshannon, Sinnemahoning, Clearfield, and Kettle Creeks were found to be the largest tributary sources of acidity and total-recoverable iron to the river. During the May sampling, Moshannon, Sinnemahoning, and Clearfield Creeks contributed 63 percent of the 365 tons/day of acidity, and Moshannon and Clearfield Creeks contributed 76 percent of the 44.8 tons/day of total-recoverable iron that were discharged to the river. During the July sampling, Moshannon, Kettle, and Clearfield Creeks contributed 60 percent of the 131 tons/day of acidity, and Moshannon and Kettle Creeks contributed 51 percent of the 6.5 tons/day of total-recoverable iron discharged to the river . The West Branch Susquehanna River

  20. Pennsylvania's Retrenchment Battle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Kenneth P.

    1981-01-01

    The retrenchment experience of Pennsylvania's state college system is described. The specter of retrenchment scared the campuses into finding new nonpersonnel cuts to make; a policy of intrasystem faculty transfer was finally adopted; and although campus presidents opposed retrenchment, by 1979-80 they were convinced of its necessity. (MLW)

  1. Brightside Academy: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Since its inception in 1992, Brightside Academy has been providing quality care to children six weeks to 12 years old. Operating 49 locations in Pennsylvania, Ohio, and New York, the company is committed to strengthening learners and respecting families. Currently, the organization provides early education for 6,700 children on a daily basis. 90%…

  2. Organic Compounds and Trace Elements in Fish Tissue and Bed Sediment in the Delaware River Basin, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, New York, and Delaware, 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanok, Kristin M.; Fischer, Jeffrey M.; Riva-Murray, Karen; Brightbill, Robin; Bilger, Michael

    2006-01-01

    As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program activities in the Delaware River Basin (DELR), samples of fish tissue from 21 sites and samples of bed sediment from 35 sites were analyzed for a suite of organic compounds and trace elements. The sampling sites, within subbasins ranging in size from 11 to 600 square miles, were selected to represent 5 main land-use categories in the DELR -forest, low-agricultural, agricultural, urban, and mixed use. Samples of both fish tissue and bed sediment were also collected from 4 'large-river' sites that represented drainage areas ranging from 1,300 to 6,800 square miles, areas in which the land is used for a variety of purposes. One or more of the organochlorine compounds-DDT and chlordane metabolites, polychlorinated biphenyls (total PCBs), and dieldrin- were detected frequently in samples collected over a wide geographic area. One or more of these compounds were detected in fish-tissue samples from 92 percent of the sites and in bed-sediment samples from 82 percent of the sites. Concentrations of total DDT, total chlordanes, total PCBs, and dieldrin in whole white suckers and in bed sediment were significantly related to urban/industrial basin characteristics, such as percentage of urban land use and population density. Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs)-total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), total phthalates, and phenols- were detected frequently in bed-sediment samples. All three types of SVOCs were detected in samples from at least one site in each land-use category. The highest detection rates and concentrations typically were in samples from sites in the urban and mixed land-use categories, as well as from the large-river sites. Concentrations of total PAHs and total phthalates in bed-sediment samples were found to be statistically related to percentages of urban land use and to population density in the drainage areas represented by the sampling sites. The samples of fish tissue and bed

  3. 77 FR 58975 - Pennsylvania Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... the Pennsylvania statutory scheme via Pennsylvania's Solid Waste Management Act (``SWMA''), the Clean... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 938 Pennsylvania Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), Interior. ] ACTION: Proposed rule...

  4. Landscape characteristics affecting streams in urbanizing regions of the Delaware River Basin (New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania, U.S.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva-Murray, K.; Riemann, R.; Murdoch, P.; Fischer, J.M.; Brightbill, R.

    2010-01-01

    Widespread and increasing urbanization has resulted in the need to assess, monitor, and understand its effects on stream water quality. Identifying relations between stream ecological condition and urban intensity indicators such as impervious surface provides important, but insufficient information to effectively address planning and management needs in such areas. In this study we investigate those specific landscape metrics which are functionally linked to indicators of stream ecological condition, and in particular, identify those characteristics that exacerbate or mitigate changes in ecological condition over and above impervious surface. The approach used addresses challenges associated with redundancy of landscape metrics, and links landscape pattern and composition to an indicator of stream ecological condition across a broad area of the eastern United States. Macroinvertebrate samples were collected during 2000-2001 from forty-two sites in the Delaware River Basin, and landscape data of high spatial and thematic resolution were obtained from photointerpretation of 1999 imagery. An ordination-derived 'biotic score' was positively correlated with assemblage tolerance, and with urban-related chemical characteristics such as chloride concentration and an index of potential pesticide toxicity. Impervious surface explained 56% of the variation in biotic score, but the variation explained increased to as high as 83% with the incorporation of a second land use, cover, or configuration metric at catchment or riparian scales. These include land use class-specific cover metrics such as percent of urban land with tree cover, forest fragmentation metrics such as aggregation index, riparian metrics such as percent tree cover, and metrics related to urban aggregation. Study results indicate that these metrics will be important to monitor in urbanizing areas in addition to impervious surface. ?? 2010 US Government.

  5. Libraries in Pennsylvania: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/pennsylvania.html Libraries in Pennsylvania To use the sharing features on ... Altoona James E. Van Zandt VA Medical Center Library Service 12E-L 2907 Pleasant Valley Boulevard Altoona, ...

  6. Allegheny County Pennsylvania Senate District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the Pennsylvania Senate district boundaries within Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania Regional Data...

  7. 78 FR 66419 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Highway in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... Walnut Street, Room 508, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 17101-1720; Office Hours 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.; telephone....S.C. 401-406; Wild and Scenic Rivers Act, 16 U.S.C. 1271-1287; Emergency Wetlands Resources Act, 16...

  8. Geothermal investigations in Ohio and Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckstein, Y.; Heimlich, R.A.; Palmer, D.F.; Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1982-04-01

    New values of heat flow were determined for the Appalachian Plateau in eastern Ohio and northwestern Pennsylvania. Corrected values for wells in Washington and Summit Counties, Ohio, are 1.36 and 1.37 heat-flow units (HFU), respectively. Those of 1.84 and 2.00 HFU define a previously unknown heat-flow high in Venango and Clarion counties, Pennsylvania. Thermal conductivity was measured for core samples from 12 wells in Ohio and 6 wells in Pennsylvania. Heat production was determined for 34 core and outcrop samples from Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey.

  9. River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morel Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The OECD report “Boosting Resilience through Innovative Risk Governance” examines the efforts of OECD countries to prevent or reduce future disaster impacts, and highlights several key areas where improvements can be made. International collaboration is insufficiently utilised to address shocks that have increasingly global consequences. Institutional design plays a significant role in facilitating or hampering the engagement and investments of governmental and non-governmental stakeholders in disaster risk prevention and mitigation. To inform the design of “better” institutions, the OECD proposes the application of a diagnostic framework that helps governments identify institutional shortcomings and take actions to improve them. The goal of the case study on the Rhone River is to conduct an analysis of the progress, achievements and existing challenges in designing and implementing disaster risk reduction strategies through the Rhone Plan from a comparative perspective across a set of selected countries of this study, like Austria and Switzerland, will inform how to improve institutional frameworks governing risk prevention and mitigation. The case study will be used to identify examples of successful practice taking into account their specific country contexts, and analyse their potential for policy transfer.

  10. Occurrence and trends in the concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria and the relation to field water-quality parameters in the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers and selected tributaries, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania, 2001–09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, John W.; Koerkle, Edward H.; McCoy, Jamie L.; Zarr, Linda F.

    2016-01-21

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Allegheny County Health Department and Allegheny County Sanitary Authority, collected surface-water samples from the Allegheny, Monongahela, and Ohio Rivers and selected tributaries during the period 2001–09 to assess the occurrence and trends in the concentrations of fecal-indicator bacteria during both wet- and dry-weather conditions.

  11. 76 FR 5647 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00036

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00036 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 01/25/2011. Incident: Apartment Building Fire. Incident Period: 01/10/2011. Effective Date:...

  12. 77 FR 65044 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00054

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00054 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 10/18/2012. Incident: Cheltenham Township Condominium Complex Fire. Incident Period:...

  13. 75 FR 2165 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00030

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00030 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 01/07/2010. Incident: Bellefonte Borough Apartment Complex Fire. Incident Period:...

  14. 77 FR 60004 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00053

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00053 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania dated 09/21/2012. Incident: Apartment Building Fire in Bellefonte Borough. Incident Period:...

  15. Application of ICP-OES for Evaluating Energy Extraction and Production Wastewater Discharge Impacts on Surface Waters in Western Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil and gas extraction and coal-fired electrical power generating stations produce wastewaters that are treated and discharged to rivers in Western Pennsylvania with public drinking water system (PDWS) intakes. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) w...

  16. Pennsylvania's Telecommunications Classrooms: Considerations for Planners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanard, Marilynn; Horner, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Pennsylvania's distance education programs are a part of a national and international new trend in educational delivery. Planners need to work closely with school district officials and teachers in designing facilities that will enhance this new educational technology. (Author)

  17. The ORSER LANDSAT Data Base of Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, B. J.; Williams, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    A mosaicked LANDSAT data base for Pennsylvania, installed at the computation center of the Pennsylvania State University is described. Initially constructed by Penn State's Office for Remote Sensing of Earth Resources (ORSER) for the purpose of assisting in state-wide mapping of gypsy moth defoliation, the data base will be available to a variety of potential users. It will provide geometrically correct LANDSAT data accessible by political, jurisdictional, or arbitrary boundaries.

  18. Projected Climate Change Impacts on Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najjar, R.; Shortle, J.; Abler, D.; Blumsack, S.; Crane, R.; Kaufman, Z.; McDill, M.; Ready, R.; Rydzik, M.; Wagener, T.; Wardrop, D.; Wilson, T.

    2009-05-01

    We present an assessment of the potential impacts of human-induced climate change on the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, U.S.A. We first assess a suite of 21 global climate models for the state, rating them based on their ability to simulate the climate of Pennsylvania on time scales ranging from submonthly to interannual. The multi-model mean is superior to any individual model. Median projections by late century are 2-4 degrees C warming and 5-10 percent precipitation increases (B1 and A2 scenarios), with larger precipitation increases in winter and spring. Impacts on the commonwealth's aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, water resources, agriculture, forests, energy, outdoor recreation, tourism, and human health, are evaluated. We also examine barriers and opportunities for Pennsylvania created by climate change mitigation. This assessment was sponsored by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection which, pursuant to the Pennsylvania Climate Change Act, Act 70 of 2008, is required to develop a report on the potential scientific and economic impacts of climate change to Pennsylvania.

  19. Seismicity in Pennsylvania: Evidence for Anthropogenic Events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homman, K.; Nyblade, A.

    2015-12-01

    The deployment and operation of the USArray Transportable Array (TA) and the PASEIS (XY) seismic networks in Pennsylvania during 2013 and 2014 provide a unique opportunity for investigating the seismicity of Pennsylvania. These networks, along with several permanent stations in Pennsylvania, resulted in a total of 104 seismometers in and around Pennsylvania that have been used in this study. Event locations were first obtained with Antelope Environmental Monitoring Software using P-wave arrival times. Arrival times were hand picked using a 1-5 Hz bandpass filter to within 0.1 seconds. Events were then relocated using a velocity model developed for Pennsylvania and the HYPOELLIPSE location code. In this study, 1593 seismic events occurred between February 2013 and December 2014 in Pennsylvania. These events ranged between magnitude (ML) 1.04 and 2.89 with an average MLof 1.90. Locations of the events occur across the state in many areas where no seismicity has been previously reported. Preliminary results indicate that most of these events are related to mining activity. Additional work using cross-correlation techniques is underway to examine a number of event clusters for evidence of hydraulic fracturing or wastewater injection sources.

  20. Challenges in establishing LLW disposal capacity: Pennsylvania`s perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornsife, W.P.; Saraka, L.J.

    1989-11-01

    Even though Pennsylvania is host state for the Compact, state implementing legislation was non-existent until early 1988. In February of 1998 Governor Casey signed the Los-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Act (Act) into law. The Act incorporates three years of Departmental work and interaction with the legislature, a Public Advisory Committee on Low-Level Waste, many interest groups and the general public. It is a comprehensive Act that: provides the Department with broad powers and duties to manage, license and regulate a low-level waste disposal program; requires development phase; and establishes benefits and guarantees for communities affected by the establishment and operation of a low-level waste site. The Department considers that its powers and duties to manage, license and regulate a low-level waste disposal program begins with interpreting the provisions established by the Act. Interpretation will establish how the Department intends to implement its authority. The Department is communicating interpretations through various methods such as regulation, policy, and written or verbal guidance. Interpretations typically require a mix of technical, policy, and social solutions to clarify concepts established by law. This paper identifies select items established by law that require technical solutions. Its purpose is to share some creative approaches for solving unmanageable legislature requirements.

  1. Selected Ground-Water-Quality Data in Pennsylvania - 1979-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Dennis J.; Chichester, Douglas C.; Zarr, Linda F.

    2009-01-01

    This study, by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP), provides a compilation of ground-water-quality data for a 28-year period (January 1, 1979, through December 31, 2006) based on water samples from wells and springs. The data are from 14 source agencies or programs - Borough of Carroll Valley, Chester County Health Department, Montgomery County Health Department, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection 2002 Pennsylvania Water-Quality Assessment, Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection Agency Act 537 Sewage Facilities Program, Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection-Ambient and Fixed Station Network, Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection-North-Central Region, Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection-South-Central Region, Pennsylvania Drinking Water Information System, Pennsylvania Topographic and Geologic Survey, Susquehanna River Basin Commission, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The ground-water-quality data from the different source agencies or programs varied in type and number of analyses; however, the analyses are represented by 11 major analyte groups: antibiotics, major ions, microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms), minor ions (including trace elements), nutrients (predominantly nitrate and nitrite as nitrogen), pesticides, pharmaceuticals, radiochemicals (predominantly radon or radium), volatiles (volatile organic compounds), wastewater compounds, and water characteristics (field measurements, predominantly field pH, field specific conductance, and hardness). For the USGS and the PADEP-North-Central Region, the pesticide analyte group was broken down into fungicides, herbicides, and insecticides. Summary maps show the areal distribution of wells and springs with ground-water-quality data statewide by source agency or

  2. Community gun safety in Central Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Christina; Erdman, Deborah A; Smith, Jill Gray; Widom, Kenneth; Reardon, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Firearm-related injuries are a public health issue in the United States. In rural Pennsylvania, it is a familiar way of life to have a gun or guns in the home. Safety behaviors along with gun storage in the home, specifically where there are young children (aged 6 years and younger), are a concern for this level I regional resource center in rural Pennsylvania. Head Start families were surveyed regarding gun safety habits before and after safety educational activities. A noteworthy number of families reported changing behaviors regarding better safety habits for storing and use of firearms in the home postsurvey.

  3. U. S. Geological Survey programs in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is involved in mapping and studying land, mineral, biological, and water resources and determining the risk from earthquakes and other natural hazards, which are of importance to the citizens of Pennsylvania. This Fact Sheet describes how the USGS is addressing some of the major environmental issues in Pennsylvania, which include availability of mineral resources; contamination of the environment by hazardous wastes; effects of coal mining, oil and gas production, and agriculture on the environment; nutrient input to streams and estuaries; and adequacy of good-quality water supplies. Information on acquiring the thousands of map, book, and aerial photographic products of the USGS also is given.

  4. Tip Saves Energy, Money for Pennsylvania Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    A wastewater treatment plant in Berks County, Pennsylvania is saving nearly $45,000 a year and reducing hundreds of metric tons of greenhouse gases since employing an energy conservation tip offered by the Water Protection Division in EPA’s R3 and PADEP.

  5. Water Curriculum Evaluation for Educators in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruver, Joshua B.; Smith, Sanford S.; Finley, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Results are presented from a formal evaluation of The Pennsylvania Bureau of State Park's Watershed Education (WE) curriculum developed for students in grades 6-12. The primary research objective was to measure the impact the training and subsequent use of the WE curriculum had on teachers' behavior, confidence, and self-efficacy in teaching about…

  6. Fosfomycin Resistance in Escherichia coli, Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrowais, Hind; McElheny, Christi L; Spychala, Caressa N; Sastry, Sangeeta; Guo, Qinglan; Butt, Adeel A; Doi, Yohei

    2015-11-01

    Fosfomycin resistance in Escherichia coli is rare in the United States. An extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing E. coli clinical strain identified in Pennsylvania, USA, showed high-level fosfomycin resistance caused by the fosA3 gene. The IncFII plasmid carrying this gene had a structure similar to those found in China, where fosfomycin resistance is commonly described.

  7. Rural Leaders and Leadership Development in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lee L.; Lindsey, Maria Julietta

    2011-01-01

    Throughout Pennsylvania, rural residents have taken on leadership roles to support and promote their communities and their residents. The challenges these leaders face continue to become more complex, as economic, political, social, cultural and even global forces influence local events. This research was conducted to understand how a sample of…

  8. 78 FR 60366 - Pennsylvania Disaster #PA-00064

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster PA-00064 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Application Deadline Date: 06/24/2014. ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small...

  9. 75 FR 46877 - Pennsylvania Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-04

    ... permits a State to assume primacy for the regulation of surface coal mining and reclamation operations on... other things, ``a State law which provides for the regulation of surface coal mining and reclamation... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 938 Pennsylvania Regulatory Program...

  10. 78 FR 13002 - Pennsylvania Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-26

    ... Section 503(a) of the SMCRA permits a State to assume primacy for the regulation of surface coal mining... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 938 Pennsylvania Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (``OSM''), Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule...

  11. 76 FR 12920 - Pennsylvania Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... ] regulation of surface coal mining and reclamation operations on non- Federal and non-Indian lands within its... the regulation of surface coal mining and reclamation operations in accordance with the requirements... inspections of sites conducting incidental coal extraction. Pennsylvania's noncoal mining regulations in 25 Pa...

  12. 76 FR 6587 - Pennsylvania Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... regulation of surface coal mining and reclamation operations on non- Federal and non-Indian lands within its... the regulation of surface coal mining and reclamation operations in accordance with the requirements... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 938 Pennsylvania Regulatory Program...

  13. Pennsylvania Cyber School Funding: Follow the Money

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr-Chellman, Alison A.; Marsh, Rose M.

    2009-01-01

    Cyber charter schools are public charter schools which are entirely online and typically serve all grades from pre-kindergarten through 12th grade. Pennsylvania implemented widespread charter school legislation as early as 1997. This has offered a great number of Pennsylvanians options in their public schooling. One of these options has been…

  14. An analysis of Pennsylvania's forest resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas S. Powell; Thomas J., Jr. Considine; Thomas J. Considine

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the current status and trends of the forest resources of Pennsylvania. Topics include forest area, timber volume, biomass, timber products, timber's role in the state's economy, growth, and removals. Forest area, volume, growth and removals are projected through 2008. A detailed treatment is glven to water, soil, minerals, fish,...

  15. 27 CFR 9.47 - Hudson River Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to the New York-Pennsylvania state line in the Delaware River. (11) The boundary proceeds easterly along the Delaware River to the New York-New Jersey state line. (12) The boundary proceeds easterly... proceeds easterly along the northern side of Interstate Route 287 to the junction with N.Y. Route 15....

  16. Scales over Shale: How Pennsylvania Got Fracked

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Carlo E.

    Shale gas has become one of Pennsylvania's major resources in recent years and the gas boom has proceeded in spite of uncertainty over the environmental risks of its production process. This thesis argues that location alone cannot explain why shale gas boomed in Pennsylvania. Using interviews with corporate and state executives, I argue that the scalar dimensions of the neoliberal environmental governance of shale gas were critical to understanding why shale gas boomed in Pennsylvania. These actors supported the preemption of local scales of governance by the state as a scalar fix for capital accumulation from shale gas development. They also legitimated the scalar fix by assembling a neat stack of scale frames that made shale gas seem to benefit everyone. These scale frames made shale gas appear as if it would provide local employment, regional supplies of cheap gas, national energy security, abundant gas for tight global markets, and a mitigating strategy for global climate change. In arguing this point, I present a history of how shale gas became a resource that outlines the critical role of the state in that process.

  17. Perceptions of Emergency Department Crowding in Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pines, Jesse M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The state of emergency department (ED crowding in Pennsylvania has not previously been reported.Methods: We assessed perceptions of ED crowding by surveying medical directors/chairs from Pennsylvania EDs in the spring of 2008.Results: A total of 106 completed the questionnaire (68% response rate. A total of 83% (86/104 agreed that ED crowding was a problem; 26% (27/105 reported that at least half of admitted patients boarded for more than 4 hours. Ninety-eight percent (102/104 agreed that patient satisfaction suffers during crowding and 79% (84/106 stated that quality suffers. Sixty-five percent (68/105 reported that crowding had worsened during the past 2 years. Several hospital interventions were used to alleviate crowding: expediting discharges, 81% (86/106; prioritizing ED patients for inpatient beds, 79% (84/ 106; and ambulance diversion, 55% (57/105. Almost all respondents who had improved ED operations reported that it had reduced crowding.Conclusion: ED crowding is a common problem in Pennsylvania and is worsening in the majority of hospitals, despite the implementation of a variety of interventions. [West J EmergMed. 2013;14(1:1–10.

  18. 78 FR 28779 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations for Armstrong County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... Armstrong County, Pennsylvania (All Jurisdictions) AGENCY: Federal Emergency Management Agency, DHS. ACTION... proposed rule concerning proposed flood elevation determinations for Armstrong County, Pennsylvania (All... sources in Armstrong County, Pennsylvania. Because FEMA has or ] will be issuing a Revised...

  19. 77 FR 34987 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology & Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... & Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology & Anthropology has completed an...: Dr. Richard Hodges, Director, University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology &...

  20. Elk viewing in Pennsylvania: an evolving eco-tourism system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce E. Lord; Charles H. Strauss; Michael J. Powell

    2002-01-01

    In 1997, the Pennsylvania Game Commission established an Elk Viewing Area within Pennsylvania's elk range. The viewing area has become the focus for a developing eco-tourism system. During the four years of operation, a research team from Penn State has measured the number of visitors, their expenditure patterns, and other parameters of their visit. The trends...

  1. Ground-water-quality data in Pennsylvania: A compilation of computerized [electronic] databases, 1979-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Dennis J.; Chichester, Douglas C.

    2006-01-01

    This study, by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP), provides a compilation of ground-water-quality data for a 25-year period (January 1, 1979, through August 11, 2004) based on water samples from wells. The data are from eight source agencies唯orough of Carroll Valley, Chester County Health Department, Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection-Ambient and Fixed Station Network, Montgomery County Health Department, Pennsylvania Drinking Water Information System, Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture, Susquehanna River Basin Commission, and the U.S. Geological Survey. The ground-water-quality data from the different source agencies varied in type and number of analyses; however, the analyses are represented by 12 major analyte groups:biological (bacteria and viruses), fungicides, herbicides, insecticides, major ions, minor ions (including trace elements), nutrients (dominantly nitrate and nitrite as nitrogen), pesticides, radiochemicals (dominantly radon or radium), volatile organic compounds, wastewater compounds, and water characteristics (dominantly field pH, field specific conductance, and hardness).A summary map shows the areal distribution of wells with ground-water-quality data statewide and by major watersheds and source agency. Maps of 35 watersheds within Pennsylvania are used to display the areal distribution of water-quality information. Additional maps emphasize the areal distribution with respect to 13 major geolithologic units in Pennsylvania and concentration ranges of nitrate (as nitrogen). Summary data tables by source agency provide information on the number of wells and samples collected for each of the 35 watersheds and analyte groups. The number of wells sampled for ground-water-quality data varies considerably across Pennsylvania. Of the 8,012 wells sampled, the greatest concentration of wells are in the southeast (Berks, Bucks, Chester, Delaware

  2. Spatial and temporal variation of stream chemistry associated with contrasting geology and land-use patterns in the Chesapeake Bay watershed—Summary of results from Smith Creek, Virginia; Upper Chester River, Maryland; Conewago Creek, Pennsylvania; and Difficult Run, Virginia, 2010–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyer, Kenneth E.; Denver, Judith M.; Langland, Michael J.; Webber, James S.; Böhlke, J.K.; Hively, W. Dean; Clune, John W.

    2016-11-17

    Despite widespread and ongoing implementation of conservation practices throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed, water quality continues to be degraded by excess sediment and nutrient inputs. While the Chesapeake Bay Program has developed and maintains a large-scale and long-term monitoring network to detect improvements in water quality throughout the watershed, fewer resources have been allocated for monitoring smaller watersheds, even though water-quality improvements that may result from the implementation of conservation practices are likely to be first detected at smaller watershed scales.In 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey partnered with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Department of Agriculture to initiate water-quality monitoring in four selected small watersheds that were targeted for increased implementation of conservation practices. Smith Creek watershed is an agricultural watershed in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia that is dominated by cattle and poultry production, and the Upper Chester River watershed is an agricultural watershed on the Eastern Shore of Maryland that is dominated by row-cropping activities. The Conewago Creek watershed is an agricultural watershed in southeastern Pennsylvania that is characterized by mixed agricultural activities. The fourth watershed, Difficult Run, is a suburban watershed in northern Virginia that is dominated by medium density residential development. The objective of this study was to investigate spatial and temporal variations in water chemistry and suspended sediment in these four relatively small watersheds that represent a range of land-use patterns and underlying geology to (1) characterize current water-quality conditions in these watersheds, and (2) identify the dominant sources, sinks, and transport processes in each watershed.The general study design involved two components. The first included intensive routine water-quality monitoring at an existing streamgage within each study

  3. Allegheny County Pennsylvania U.S. Legislative Congressional District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the U.S. Legislative Congressional district boundaries within Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western Pennsylvania...

  4. Allegheny County Pennsylvania House of Representatives District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the Pennsylvania House of Representatives district boundaries within Allegheny County. If viewing this description on the Western...

  5. Institutional Arrangements for River Basin Management: A Case Study of Comparison between the United States and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Gang-yan

    2007-01-01

    This note compares institutional arrangements for water resources management in two river basins, namely, those of the Susquehanna River in the United States and the Yangtze River in China. The Susquehanna River Basin Commission is composed of the US federal government and the three states of New York, Pennsylvania, and Maryland through which the Susquehanna River passes. Under the authority of the Susquehanna River Basin Compact, the Commission deals with water resources problems throughout its vast drainage area. In contrast, the Changjiang(Yangtze River) Water Resources Commission (CWRC) lacks relative effectiveness in mobilizing provincial governments in transboundary water resources management.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Pennsylvania. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Pennsylvania.

  7. Eesti president Toomas H. Ilves Pennsylvania ülikooli ajakirjas / Airi Vaga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaga, Airi, 1940-

    2008-01-01

    University of Pennsylvania ajakirjas "The Pennsylvania Gazette" ilmunud artiklist "From Estonian Exile to Executive Office", autor Susan Frith - järjekordsest võimalusest tutvustada Eestit ja eestlasi USA ülikoolide kaudu

  8. 76 FR 67640 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Attainment Plan for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... mobile sources for their attainment demonstrations. These inventories provide a detailed accounting of... systems used for previous inventory submissions in Pennsylvania. The Pennsylvania Department of... measures (RACM) and reasonably available control technology (RACT), a base year emissions inventory,...

  9. Eesti president Toomas H. Ilves Pennsylvania ülikooli ajakirjas / Airi Vaga

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaga, Airi, 1940-

    2008-01-01

    University of Pennsylvania ajakirjas "The Pennsylvania Gazette" ilmunud artiklist "From Estonian Exile to Executive Office", autor Susan Frith - järjekordsest võimalusest tutvustada Eestit ja eestlasi USA ülikoolide kaudu

  10. Data compilation and assessment for water resources in Pennsylvania state forest and park lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeone, Daniel G.

    2011-01-01

    As a result of a cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources (PaDCNR), available electronic data were compiled for Pennsylvania state lands (state forests and parks) to allow PaDCNR to initially determine if data exist to make an objective evaluation of water resources for specific basins. The data compiled included water-quantity and water-quality data and sample locations for benthic macroinvertebrates within state-owned lands (including a 100-meter buffer around each land parcel) in Pennsylvania. In addition, internet links or contacts for geographic information system coverages pertinent to water-resources studies also were compiled. Water-quantity and water-quality data primarily available through January 2007 were compiled and summarized for site types that included streams, lakes, ground-water wells, springs, and precipitation. Data were categorized relative to 35 watershed boundaries defined by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection for resource-management purposes. The primary sources of continuous water-quantity data for Pennsylvania state lands were the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the National Weather Service (NWS). The USGS has streamflow data for 93 surface-water sites located in state lands; 38 of these sites have continuous-recording data available. As of January 2007, 22 of these 38 streamflow-gaging stations were active; the majority of active gaging stations have over 40 years of continuous record. The USGS database also contains continuous ground-water elevation data for 32 wells in Pennsylvania state lands, 18 of which were active as of January 2007. Sixty-eight active precipitation stations (primarily from the NWS network) are located in state lands. The four sources of available water-quality data for Pennsylvania state lands were the USGS, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP), and

  11. 76 FR 30703 - Delegation of Authority to the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania To Implement and Enforce Additional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ...). ACTION: Notice of delegation of authority. SUMMARY: Pennsylvania has requested that EPA delegate to... requested that EPA delegate to Pennsylvania the authority to implement and enforce twelve additional NESHAP... delegates to Pennsylvania the authority to implement and enforce the additional NESHAP for which...

  12. Local Property Tax Limitations vs. School District Employee Pension Costs in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, William T.; Shrom, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    In Pennsylvania as in many other states, employee pension costs are a significant source of financial pressure for school districts (Zeehandelaar and Northern 2013, Pennsylvania Public Employees' Retirement Commission 2013). In order to gain greater insight into the nature of Pennsylvania school districts' financial burden related to pension…

  13. 77 FR 41279 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Regional Haze State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... choose, so long as the state explains its analysis of the CAA factors. PADEP did address each of the five... proposed SO 2 reductions from Pennsylvania sources as substitute measures addressing Pennsylvania's failure... RPOs were addressed in Pennsylvania's RH SIP submittal. The requirement for the state...

  14. Local Property Tax Limitations vs. School District Employee Pension Costs in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, William T.; Shrom, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    In Pennsylvania as in many other states, employee pension costs are a significant source of financial pressure for school districts (Zeehandelaar and Northern 2013, Pennsylvania Public Employees' Retirement Commission 2013). In order to gain greater insight into the nature of Pennsylvania school districts' financial burden related to…

  15. Counselors' Use of Functional Assessment: A Survey of Pennsylvania Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Mildred D.

    As people with disabilities are becoming more included in society, professional counselors are required to develop skills and identify tools to assess, counsel, and advocate for these clients. This article presents Pennsylvania counselors' definition of functional assessment and procedures, techniques, and instruments currently in use. Most…

  16. Workplace: Linking Career Counselors and Librarians in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinger, Stephen Mark

    1991-01-01

    Pennsylvania's implementation of Education Information Centers sought to develop a feasible library career guidance model. Training workshops dealt with sensitive issues such as counselor and librarian stereotypes and use of the term "counseling." New linkages with community agencies were developed. (SK)

  17. Developing GAP Training for Growers: Perspectives from Pennsylvania Supermarkets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Daniel; Thomson, Joan; LaBorde, Luke; Bagdonis, Jessica

    2011-01-01

    Major supermarket chains increasingly are requiring their produce suppliers to provide evidence of compliance with on-farm food safety standards, known as Good Agricultural Practices (GAPs). To develop a relevant GAP training curriculum that meets the needs of Pennsylvania growers, supermarkets that operate in the state were surveyed to determine…

  18. Measuring Tree Seedlings and Associated Understory Vegetation in Pennsylvania's Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. McWilliams; Todd W. Bowersox; Patrick H. Brose; Daniel A. Devlin; James C. Finley; Kurt W. Gottschalk; Steve Horsley; Susan L. King; Brian M. LaPoint; Tonya W. Lister; Larry H. McCormick; Gary W. Miller; Charles T. Scott; Harry Steele; Kim C. Steiner; Susan L. Stout; James A. Westfall; Robert L. White

    2005-01-01

    The Northeastern Research Station's Forest Inventory and Analysis (NE-FIA) unit is conducting the Pennsylvania Regeneration Study (PRS) to evaluate composition and abundance of tree seedlings and associated vegetation. Sampling methods for the PRS were tested and developed in a pilot study to determine the appropriate number of 2-m microplots needed to capture...

  19. Divergent Fortunes: Top Incomes and the Middle Class in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Mark; Sommeiller, Estelle; Wazeter, Ellis; Basurto, Luis

    2014-01-01

    The pace of income growth since the 1970s has been slower for Pennsylvanians than in the 30 years following 1945. In addition to being slower, income growth since the 1970s has also been lopsided, with a small fraction of the highest-income households capturing most income growth in Pennsylvania. This report examines the extent to which these…

  20. University of Pennsylvania Scorecard: The Cure for Analexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truhlar, Gary

    2007-01-01

    A few years ago, the University of Pennsylvania's Division of Human Resources began a data-based approach to the development of strategic plans and the measurement of programmatic effectiveness. One of its more successful endeavors in this area has been the creation of an HR scorecard that compares and contrasts individual school or administrative…

  1. 78 FR 7848 - Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00057

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... ADMINISTRATION Pennsylvania Disaster Number PA-00057 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION.... ADDRESSES: Submit completed loan applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing And..., Office of Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite...

  2. The Rural Mystique and Tourism Development: Data from Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willits, Fern K.

    1993-01-01

    Telephone surveys of 1,881 of 2,729 Pennsylvania households and follow-up with 1,241 showed that rural residents, older adults, and those with less income and education were more likely to accept the image of rurality as wholesome and desirable. Acceptance of the rural mystique was also related to lifestyle and consumer choices, suggesting…

  3. 400 Systems Later: Outcomes of the Pennsylvania Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Colleen

    A program was developed to provide long-term loans of high technology equipment to severely handicapped students who require such assistance to meet educational goals. Coordinated by the Pennsylvania Special Education Assistive Device Center (ADC), the program enables handicapped students to communicate, to access computers for instruction, and to…

  4. Pennsylvania's Pre-Kindergarten Crisis: A Crime Prevention Tragedy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003

    Noting that at-risk children who attend high quality early childhood care and pre-kindergarten programs are less likely to commit delinquent or criminal behaviors than children denied access to such programs, this report presents information on the effectiveness of such programs for preventing crime and argues that Pennsylvania can prevent crime…

  5. Rabies in Captive Deer, Pennsylvania, USA, 2007–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Danielle M.; Longenberger, Allison; Simeone, Aliza; Moll, Mària E.; Deasy, Marshall P.; Blanton, Jesse D.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Since January 2007, a total of 11 rabid deer from 4 deer farms have been identified in 2 neighboring Pennsylvania counties. Vaccination of deer against rabies, decreasing wildlife animal contact with deer, and education of deer farmers may prevent further cases of rabies in captive deer and exposures to humans. PMID:22260956

  6. Schools Can Become Living Museums for Pennsylvania's Tercentenary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Larry

    1981-01-01

    Describes a variety of fourth-grade student projects on Pennsylvania history which could be used in a schoolwide Tercentenary Fair. Individuals or small groups of students become experts on particular subjects (historical figures, state products, or important historical events) and serve as resource people at their booths during the fair. (AM)

  7. Water resources of Indiana County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D.R.; McElroy, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    Indiana County, west-central Pennsylvania, is a major producer of coal and natural gas. Water managers and residents are concerned about the effects of mining and natural gas exploration on the surface- and ground-water resources of the county. This study assesses the quality and quantity of water in Indiana County. Ground- and surface-water sources are used for public supplies that serve 61 percent of the total population of the county. The remaining 39 percent of the population live in rural areas and rely on cisterns and wells and springs that tap shallow aquifers. Most of the county is underlain by rocks of Middle to Upper Pennsylvanian age. From oldest to youngest, they are the Allegheny Group, the Glenshaw Formation, the Casselman Formation, and the Monongahela Group. Almost all the coals mined are in the Allegheny Group and the Monongahela Group. Ground water in Indiana County flows through fractures in the rock. The size and extent of the fractures, which are controlled by lithology, topography, and structure, determine the sustained yield of wells. Topography has a significant control over the yields of wells sited in the Allegheny Group. Properly sited wells in the Glenshaw Formation may have yields adequate for municipal, commercial, or industrial uses. The Casselman Formation yields adequate amounts of water for domestic use. Yield of the Monongahela Group is small, and the water may not be of suitable quality for most uses. Yields of hilltop wells may be marginal, but valley wells may yield sufficient amounts for large-volume users. Data on the other rock units are sparse to nonexistent. Few wells in the county yield more than 40 gallons per minute. Most of the wells that do are in valleys where alluvial deposits are extensive enough to be mapable. Short-term water-level fluctuations are variable from well to well. Seasonal water-level fluctuations are controlled by time of year and amount of precipitation. The quality of water from the Casselman

  8. Estimation of baseline daily mean streamflows for ungaged locations on Pennsylvania streams, water years 1960-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Marla H.; Koerkle, Edward H.; Ulrich, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Water-resource managers use daily mean streamflows to generate streamflow statistics and analyze streamflow conditions. An in-depth evaluation of flow regimes to promote instream ecological health often requires streamflow information obtainable only from a time series hydrograph. Historically, it has been difficult to estimate daily mean streamflow for an ungaged location. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, Susquehanna River Basin Commission, and The Nature Conservancy, has developed the Baseline Streamflow Estimator (BaSE) to estimate baseline streamflow at a daily time scale for ungaged streams in Pennsylvania using data collected during water years 1960–2008. Baseline streamflow is minimally altered by regulation, diversion, or mining, and other anthropogenic activities. Daily mean streamflow is estimated in BaSE using a methodology that equates streamflow as a percentile from a flow duration curve for a particular day at an ungaged location with streamflow as a percentile from the flow duration curve for the same day at a reference streamgage that is considered to be hydrologically similar to the ungaged location. An appropriate reference streamgage is selected using map correlation, in which variogram models are developed that correlate streamflow at one streamgage with streamflows at all other streamgages. The percentiles from a flow duration curve for the ungaged location are converted to streamflow through the use of regression equations. Regression equations used to predict 17 flow-duration exceedance probabilities were developed for Pennsylvania using geographic information system-derived basin characteristics. The standard error of prediction for the regression equations ranged from 11 percent to 92 percent with the mean of 31 percent.

  9. River engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.

    1993-01-01

    One dimension models - basic eauations, analytical models, numberical models. One dimensional models -suspended load, roughness and resistance of river beds. Solving river problems - tools, flood mitigation, bank protection.

  10. A Study of Arbitrations in Pennsylvania's Writing Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, James R.

    In 1991 Pennsylvania began implementation of a direct writing assessment at the sixth-grade and ninth-grade levels. A total of 18,758 sixth graders and 16,575 ninth graders wrote a response to 1 of 9 prompts reflecting 3 modes of writing. A six-point holistic scale was used to score the papers, with two readers scoring each paper. A third reader,…

  11. Evaluation of Methane Sources in Groundwater in Northeastern Pennsylvania

    OpenAIRE

    Molofsky, Lisa J; Connor, John A.; Wylie, Albert S; Wagner, Tom; Farhat, Shahla K

    2013-01-01

    Testing of 1701 water wells in northeastern Pennsylvania shows that methane is ubiquitous in groundwater, with higher concentrations observed in valleys vs. upland areas and in association with calcium-sodium-bicarbonate, sodium-bicarbonate, and sodium-chloride rich waters—indicating that, on a regional scale, methane concentrations are best correlated to topographic and hydrogeologic features, rather than shale-gas extraction. In addition, our assessment of isotopic and molecular analyses of...

  12. Perceptions of emergency department crowding in the commonwealth of pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pines, Jesse M; Isserman, Joshua A; Kelly, John J

    2013-02-01

    The state of emergency department (ED) crowding in Pennsylvania has not previously been reported. We assessed perceptions of ED crowding by surveying medical directors/chairs from Pennsylvania EDs in the spring of 2008. A total of 106 completed the questionnaire (68% response rate). A total of 83% (86/104) agreed that ED crowding was a problem; 26% (27/105) reported that at least half of admitted patients boarded for more than 4 hours. Ninety-eight percent (102/104) agreed that patient satisfaction suffers during crowding and 79% (84/106) stated that quality suffers. Sixty-five percent (68/105) reported that crowding had worsened during the past 2 years. Several hospital interventions were used to alleviate crowding: expediting discharges, 81% (86/106); prioritizing ED patients for inpatient beds, 79% (84/106); and ambulance diversion, 55% (57/105). Almost all respondents who had improved ED operations reported that it had reduced crowding. ED crowding is a common problem in Pennsylvania and is worsening in the majority of hospitals, despite the implementation of a variety of interventions.

  13. Pennsylvania State Core Competencies for Education on Opioids and Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashburn, Michael A; Levine, Rachel L

    2017-03-02

     The objective of this project was to develop core competencies for education on opioids and addiction to be used in all Pennsylvania medical schools.  The Pennsylvania Physician General created a task force that was responsible for the creation of the core competencies. A literature review was completed, and a survey of graduating medical students was conducted. The task force then developed, reviewed, and approved the core competencies.  The competencies were grouped into nine domains: understanding core aspects of addiction; patient screening for substance use disorder; proper referral for specialty evaluation and treatment of substance use disorder; proper patient assessment when treating pain; proper use of multimodal treatment options when treating acute pain; proper use of opioids for the treatment of acute pain (after consideration of alternatives); the role of opioids in the treatment of chronic noncancer pain; patient risk assessment related to the use of opioids to treat chronic noncancer pain, including the assessment for substance use disorder or increased risk for aberrant drug-related behavior; and the process for patient education, initiation of treatment, careful patient monitoring, and discontinuation of therapy when using opioids to treat chronic noncancer pain. Specific competencies were developed for each domain.  These competencies will be incorporated into the educational process at all Pennsylvania medical schools. It is hoped that these curriculum changes will improve student knowledge and attitudes in these areas, thus improving patient outcomes.

  14. Prevalence and duration of asymptomatic Clostridium difficile carriage among healthy subjects in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Galdys, Alison L; Nelson, Jemma S; Shutt, Kathleen A; Schlackman, Jessica L; Pakstis, Diana L; Pasculle, A William; Marsh, Jane W; Harrison, Lee H; Curry, Scott R

    2014-01-01

    .... To investigate the epidemiology, genetic diversity, and duration of C. difficile colonization in asymptomatic persons, we recruited healthy adults from the general population in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania...

  15. Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bann, Darrin V; Goyal, Neerav; Camacho, Fabian; Goldenberg, David

    2014-12-01

    The incidence of thyroid cancer in the United States has increased rapidly and Pennsylvania is the state with the highest rate of thyroid cancer in the country, although the factors driving this increase are unknown. Moreover, it remains unclear whether the increase in thyroid cancer represents a true increase in disease or is the result of overdiagnosis. To compare the increase in thyroid cancer incidence and tumor characteristics in Pennsylvania with the rest of the United States and gain insight into the factors influencing the increased incidence of thyroid cancer. In a population-based study, data on thyroid cancer from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results 9 (SEER-9) registry and the Pennsylvania Cancer Registry (PCR) from 1985 through 2009 were collected and reviewed for information regarding sex, race, histologic type of thyroid cancer, staging, and tumor size at diagnosis. International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, Third Edition code C739 (thyroid carcinoma) was used to identify 110,615 records in the SEER-9 registry and 29,030 records in the PCR. Average annual percent change (AAPC) in thyroid cancer incidence across various demographic groups in Pennsylvania. The AAPC for thyroid cancer in Pennsylvania was 7.1% per year (95% CI, 6.3%-7.9%) vs 4.2% (95% CI, 3.7%-4.7%) per year in the remainder of the United States, and trends in incidence were significantly different (P < .001). Females experienced a higher AAPC (7.6% per year; 95% CI, 6.9%-8.3%) compared with males (6.1% per year; 95% CI, 4.9%-7.2%) (P < .01), and trend analysis revealed that thyroid cancer may be increasing more rapidly among black females (8.6% per year; 95% CI, 5.4%-11.9%) than among white females (7.6% per year; 95% CI, 6.8%-8.4) (P = .60; but despite the similarity in AAPC between the 2 groups, the joinpoint models fit to the data were not parallel [P < .005]). The rate of tumors with regional (7.0% per year; 95% CI, 5.8%-8.1%) or distant (1

  16. Drought-sensitive aquifer settings in southeastern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Tammy M.; Risser, Dennis W.

    2005-01-01

    This report describes the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey, to determine drought-sensitive aquifer settings in southeastern Pennsylvania. Because all or parts of southeastern Pennsylvania have been in drought-warning or drought-emergency status during 6 of the past 10 years from 1994 through 2004, this information should aid well owners, drillers, and water-resource managers in guiding appropriate well construction and sustainable use of Pennsylvania's water resources. 'Drought-sensitive' aquifer settings are defined for this study as areas unable to supply adequate quantities of water to wells during drought. Using information from previous investigations and a knowledge of the hydrogeology and topography of the study area, drought-sensitive aquifer settings in southeastern Pennsylvania were hypothesized as being associated with two factors - a water-table decline (WTD) index and topographic setting. The WTD index is an estimate of the theoretical water-table decline at the ground-water divide for a hypothetical aquifer with idealized geometry. The index shows the magnitude of ground-water decline after cessation of recharge is a function of (1) distance from stream to divide, (2) ground-water recharge rate, (3) transmissivity, (4) specific yield, and (5) duration of the drought. WTD indices were developed for 39 aquifers that were subsequently grouped into categories of high, moderate, and low WTD index. Drought-sensitive settings determined from the hypothesized factors were compared to locations of wells known to have been affected (gone dry, replaced, or deepened) during recent droughts. Information collected from well owners, drillers, and public agencies identified 2,016 wells affected by drought during 1998-2002. Most of the available data on the location of drought-affected wells in the study area were

  17. Baseline assessment of groundwater quality in Wayne County, Pennsylvania, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Cravotta, III, Charles A.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    2016-06-30

    The Devonian-age Marcellus Shale and the Ordovician-age Utica Shale, geologic formations which have potential for natural gas development, underlie Wayne County and neighboring counties in northeastern Pennsylvania. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wayne Conservation District, conducted a study to assess baseline shallow groundwater quality in bedrock aquifers in Wayne County prior to potential extensive shale-gas development. The 2014 study expanded on previous, more limited studies that included sampling of groundwater from 2 wells in 2011 and 32 wells in 2013 in Wayne County. Eighty-nine water wells were sampled in summer 2014 to provide data on the presence of methane and other aspects of existing groundwater quality throughout the county, including concentrations of inorganic constituents commonly present at low levels in shallow, fresh groundwater but elevated in brines associated with fluids extracted from geologic formations during shale-gas development. Depths of sampled wells ranged from 85 to 1,300 feet (ft) with a median of 291 ft. All of the groundwater samples collected in 2014 were analyzed for bacteria, major ions, nutrients, selected inorganic trace constituents (including metals and other elements), radon-222, gross alpha- and gross beta-particle activity, selected man-made organic compounds (including volatile organic compounds and glycols), dissolved gases (methane, ethane, and propane), and, if sufficient methane was present, the isotopic composition of methane.Results of the 2014 study show that groundwater quality generally met most drinking-water standards, but some well-water samples had one or more constituents or properties, including arsenic, iron, pH, bacteria, and radon-222, that exceeded primary or secondary maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Arsenic concentrations were higher than the MCL of 10 micrograms per liter (µg/L) in 4 of 89 samples (4.5 percent) with concentrations as high as 20 µg/L; arsenic

  18. Reproductive health indicators of fishes from Pennsylvania watersheds: association with chemicals of emerging concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, V S; Iwanowicz, D D; Walsh, H L; Sperry, A J; Iwanowicz, L R; Alvarez, D A; Brightbill, R A; Smith, G; Foreman, W T; Manning, R

    2014-10-01

    Fishes were collected at 16 sites within the three major river drainages (Delaware, Susquehanna, and Ohio) of Pennsylvania. Three species were evaluated for biomarkers of estrogenic/antiandrogenic exposure, including plasma vitellogenin and testicular oocytes in male fishes. Smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, white sucker Catostomus commersonii, and redhorse sucker Moxostoma species were collected in the summer, a period of low flow and low reproductive activity. Smallmouth bass were the only species in which testicular oocytes were observed; however, measurable concentrations of plasma vitellogenin were found in male bass and white sucker. The percentage of male bass with testicular oocytes ranged from 10 to 100%, with the highest prevalence and severity in bass collected in the Susquehanna drainage. The percentage of males with plasma vitellogenin ranged from 0 to 100% in both bass and sucker. Biological findings were compared with chemical analyses of discrete water samples collected at the time of fish collections. Estrone concentrations correlated with testicular oocytes prevalence and severity and with the percentage of male bass with vitellogenin. No correlations were noted with the percentage of male sucker with vitellogenin and water chemical concentrations. The prevalence and severity of testicular oocytes in bass also correlated with the percent of agricultural land use in the watershed above a site. Two sites within the Susquehanna drainage and one in the Delaware were immediately downstream of wastewater treatment plants to compare results with upstream fish. The percentage of male bass with testicular oocytes was not consistently higher downstream; however, severity did tend to increase downstream.

  19. Reproductive health indicators of fishes from Pennsylvania watersheds: association with chemicals of emerging concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazer, V.S.; Iwanowicz, D.D.; Walsh, H.L.; Sperry, A.J.; Iwanowicz, L.R.; Alvarez, D.A.; Brightbill, R.A.; Smith, G.; Foreman, W.T.; Manning, R.

    2014-01-01

    Fishes were collected at 16 sites within the three major river drainages (Delaware, Susquehanna, and Ohio) of Pennsylvania. Three species were evaluated for biomarkers of estrogenic/antiandrogenic exposure, including plasma vitellogenin and testicular oocytes in male fishes. Smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, white sucker Catostomus commersonii, and redhorse sucker Moxostoma species were collected in the summer, a period of low flow and low reproductive activity. Smallmouth bass were the only species in which testicular oocytes were observed; however, measurable concentrations of plasma vitellogenin were found in male bass and white sucker. The percentage of male bass with testicular oocytes ranged from 10 to 100 %, with the highest prevalence and severity in bass collected in the Susquehanna drainage. The percentage of males with plasma vitellogenin ranged from 0 to 100 % in both bass and sucker. Biological findings were compared with chemical analyses of discrete water samples collected at the time of fish collections. Estrone concentrations correlated with testicular oocytes prevalence and severity and with the percentage of male bass with vitellogenin. No correlations were noted with the percentage of male sucker with vitellogenin and water chemical concentrations. The prevalence and severity of testicular oocytes in bass also correlated with the percent of agricultural land use in the watershed above a site. Two sites within the Susquehanna drainage and one in the Delaware were immediately downstream of wastewater treatment plants to compare results with upstream fish. The percentage of male bass with testicular oocytes was not consistently higher downstream; however, severity did tend to increase downstream.

  20. New Energy Landscapes of Pennsylvania: Forests to Farms to Fracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Deborah A.

    This dissertation adds to the literature on energy needed by industry, government, and citizens for decision-making. The pursuit to access or create new energy resources spawns new landscapes of energy in the early 21st century. The combination of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technologies---popularly called "fracking"---enables entry into previously inaccessible natural gas reserves such as the Marcellus shale much of which lies beneath Pennsylvania. Although this unconventional method offers a promising source of domestic energy and job growth, the potential for negative impacts raises concerns and questions. The questions include: What is the controversy about fracking in Pennsylvania? What are the impacts of fracking? What costs is Pennsylvania paying as it shifts to shale gas extraction? Are there activities taking place or material signs that point to the emerging new landscapes? Are the individuals and organizations that resist shale gas extraction---the so-called "Green Forces"---and others who live within the region of development more or less attuned to these costs? A mixed methods approach consists of landscape and stakeholder analyses including visual examination of GIS-generated maps, satellite images, and photos taken in the field specifically from four counties: Washington, Warren, McKean, and Bradford. Research captures stakeholders' voices across the public, government, and private sectors at different scales. A stakeholder matrix facilitates data organization and analysis. Data include 114 individual statements from an EPA Public Meeting, texts from 40 online-newspaper articles or blogs, and face-to-face interviews or focus group participation of 36 individuals. Further data come from a public health conference, industry convention, and public protest. The new energy landscape covers spaces in Pennsylvania where oil and gas development previously had not been present. It obscures as well as exposes the legacy of past energy

  1. The Pennsylvania Nonpublic Elementary and Secondary Education Act - Pioneer and Precedent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtzman, David H.

    The Pennsylvania Nonpublic Elementary and Secondary Education Act, signed into law in June 1968, made Pennsylvania the first State legally powered to give direct public aid to nonpublic schools. Such schools contain about one-fourth of the State's elementary and secondary school enrollment. Aid is restricted to teachers' salaries and to textbooks…

  2. Digital Citizenship Instruction in Pennsylvania Public Schools: School Leaders Expressed Beliefs and Current Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppo, Chris A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate digital citizenship in Pennsylvania public schools based on the responses of school leaders including superintendents, curriculum coordinators, and technology coordinators. This study examined the relationship between Pennsylvania school leader's beliefs and the implementation of digital citizenship…

  3. 75 FR 11228 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Pennsylvania Manufacturers Indemnity Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ..., at 74 FR 31536. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Surety Bond Branch at (202) 874-6850. SUPPLEMENTARY... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Pennsylvania Manufacturers Indemnity Company....C. 9305 to the following company: Pennsylvania Manufacturers Indemnity Company (NAIC...

  4. Pennsylvania's Transition to Enterprise Computing as a Study in Strategic Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Steve; Hinnant, Charles C.; Rizzuto, Tracey

    2008-01-01

    We theorize about the strategic alignment of computing with organizational mission, using the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's efforts to pursue digital government initiatives as evidence. To do this we draw on a decade (1995-2004) of changes in Pennsylvania to characterize how a state government shifts from an organizational to an enterprise…

  5. Educational Equity, Adequacy, and Equal Opportunity in the Commonwealth: An Evaluation of Pennsylvania's School Finance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Bruce; Levin, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    Pennsylvania has historically operated one of the nation's least equitable state school finance systems, and within that system exist some of the nation's most fiscally disadvantaged public school districts. The persistent inequalities of Pennsylvania's school finance system are not entirely a result of simple lack of effort, as policies intended…

  6. 76 FR 45741 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Diesel-Powered Motor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... Commonwealth of Pennsylvania for the purpose of incorporating the Commonwealth's Diesel-Powered Motor Vehicle... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Diesel-Powered Motor Vehicle Idling Act AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed...

  7. 77 FR 58955 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Commonwealth of Pennsylvania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Commonwealth of... (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is approving submittals from the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania... FR 54410), EPA published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPR) for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania...

  8. 40 CFR 81.23 - Southwest Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.23 Section 81.23 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.23 Southwest Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Southwest Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region is redesignated to consist of the...

  9. 40 CFR 81.104 - Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.104 Section 81.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.104 Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  10. Net Migration Turnaround in Pennsylvania Nonmetropolitan Minor Civil Divisions, 1960-70

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Craig R.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    The research examines the structural and spatial features of Pennsylvania nonmetropolitan places with net outmigration, 1940-60, and net inmigration, 1960-70, in comparison with Pennsylvania nonmetropolitan places with net outmigration, 1940-70. A one-way analysis of variance and step-wise discriminant function analysis were used. (Author/NQ)

  11. Annual inventory report for Pennsylvania's forests: results from the first two years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. McWilliams; Carol A. Alerich; Daniel A. Devlin; Tonya W. Lister; Stephen L. Sterner; James A. Westfall

    2002-01-01

    In 2000, the USDA Forest Service's Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program implemented a new system for inventory and monitoring Pennsylvania?s forest resources. The most salient benefit of the new inventory process will be a nearly threefold improvement in timeliness. This report summarizes the results of the first 2 years of annual inventory measurements...

  12. 78 FR 19301 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology has completed an inventory of human remains... Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. Repatriation of the human remains to the Indian...

  13. Pennsylvania's Transition to Enterprise Computing as a Study in Strategic Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Steve; Hinnant, Charles C.; Rizzuto, Tracey

    2008-01-01

    We theorize about the strategic alignment of computing with organizational mission, using the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's efforts to pursue digital government initiatives as evidence. To do this we draw on a decade (1995-2004) of changes in Pennsylvania to characterize how a state government shifts from an organizational to an enterprise…

  14. The Economic Impact of Achievement Gaps in Pennsylvania's Public Schools. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoly, Lynn A.

    2015-01-01

    This study documents the magnitude of the gaps in student performance for public school students in Pennsylvania and estimates the economic consequences of those education performance gaps. Although Pennsylvania is one of the top-scoring states on the 2013 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) on average, the achievement gaps between…

  15. Understanding the Knowledge and Use of Experiential Learning within Pennsylvania 4-H Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, Robyn; Ewing, John C.; Threeton, Mark; Mincemoyer, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Experiential learning is incorporated into the National 4-H curriculum. However, the state 4-H staff in Pennsylvania is unsure of the current knowledge and use of experiential learning within the local 4-H clubs. An online survey was distributed to Extension educators and volunteer leaders within Pennsylvania to assess the current knowledge and…

  16. How Pennsylvania School Libraries Pay Off: Investments in Student Achievement and Academic Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, Keith Curry; Schwarz, Bill

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of Pennsylvania school library programs on student learning--specifically, the infrastructure (staffing, budgets, collections, technology, and access hours) that contributes most to student achievement, the costs and benefits associated with them, and the gap between current Pennsylvania school…

  17. 75 FR 43563 - Dow Jones & Company, Sharon Pennsylvania Print Plant a Subsidiary of News Corporation, West...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... Employment and Training Administration Dow Jones & Company, Sharon Pennsylvania Print Plant a Subsidiary of... the TAA petition filed on behalf of workers at Dow Jones & Company, Sharon Pennsylvania Print Plant, a... (Konica). Neither of those relationships exists between Dow Jones & Company, West Middlesex,...

  18. 75 FR 74711 - Planet Energy (Pennsylvania) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Planet Energy (Pennsylvania) Corp.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Planet Energy (Pennsylvania) Corp.'s application for...

  19. 76 FR 65740 - Pennsylvania; Amendment No. 4 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Services; 97.034, Disaster Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Pennsylvania; Amendment No. 4 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (FEMA-4030-DR),...

  20. 76 FR 65740 - Pennsylvania; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Unemployment Assistance (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Pennsylvania; Amendment No. 3 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (FEMA-4030-DR),...

  1. 78 FR 5475 - Pennsylvania; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-25

    ... (DUA); 97.046, Fire Management Assistance Grant; 97.048, Disaster Housing Assistance to Individuals and... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Pennsylvania; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster... notice of a major disaster declaration for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (FEMA-4099-DR), dated...

  2. EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF MANAGERS AND SUPERVISORS IN CITIES, BOROUGHS, AND TOWNSHIPS IN PENNSYLVANIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DUBIN, SAMUEL S.; AND OTHERS

    THIS STUDY WAS UNDERTAKEN BY THE DEPARTMENT OF PLANNING STUDIES, CONTINUING EDUCATION, THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITY, (A) TO DETERMINE THE PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION NEEDS OF MANAGERS IN MUNICIPALITIES AND SUPERVISORS IN CITIES IN PENNSYLVANIA, (B) TO SUGGEST METHODS OF MEETING THESE NEEDS, AND (C) TO INDICATE THE ROLE OF COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES…

  3. 76 FR 69673 - Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New... tart cherries grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin. These... handling of tart cherries grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington,...

  4. The Economic Impact of Achievement Gaps in Pennsylvania's Public Schools. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karoly, Lynn A.

    2015-01-01

    This study documents the magnitude of the gaps in student performance for public school students in Pennsylvania and estimates the economic consequences of those education performance gaps. Although Pennsylvania is one of the top-scoring states on the 2013 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) on average, the achievement gaps between…

  5. Is Opportunity Knocking or Slipping Away? Racial Diversity and Segregation in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotok, Stephen; Reed, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Historically, Pennsylvania has struggled to integrate its public schools, especially with much of the racial diversity concentrated in urban regions. Starting in the 1960s, the Pennsylvania Human Relations Commission (PHRC) was the state's enforcing body to combat school desegregation, but since the early 1980s, when it comes to education, the…

  6. Understanding the Knowledge and Use of Experiential Learning within Pennsylvania 4-H Clubs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, Robyn; Ewing, John C.; Threeton, Mark; Mincemoyer, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Experiential learning is incorporated into the National 4-H curriculum. However, the state 4-H staff in Pennsylvania is unsure of the current knowledge and use of experiential learning within the local 4-H clubs. An online survey was distributed to Extension educators and volunteer leaders within Pennsylvania to assess the current knowledge and…

  7. Water Resource Impacts During Unconventional Shale Gas Development: The Pennsylvania Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, S. L.; Yoxtheimer, D.; Arjmand, S.; Grieve, P.; Vidic, R.; Abad, J. D.; Simon, C. A.; Pollak, J.

    2013-12-01

    The number of unconventional Marcellus shale wells in PA has increased from 8 in 2005 to more than 6000 today. This rapid development has been accompanied by environmental issues. We analyze publicly available data describing this Pennsylvania experience (data from www.shalenetwork.org and PA Department of Environmental Protection, i.e., PA DEP). After removing permitting and reporting violations, the average percent of wells/year with at least one notice of violation (NOV) from PA DEP is 35 %. Most violations are minor. An analysis of NOVs reported for wells drilled before 2013 revealed a rate of casing, cement, or well construction issues of 3.4%. Sixteen wells were given notices specifically related to migration of methane. A similarly low percent of wells were contaminated by brine components. Such contamination could derive from spills, subsurface migration of flowback water or shallow natural brines, or contamination by drill cuttings. Most cases of contamination of drinking water supplies with methane or brine components were reported in the previously glaciated part of the state. Before 2011, flowback and production water was often discharged legally into streams after minimal treatment, possibly increasing dissolved Br concentrations in some rivers. The rate of large spills or releases of gas-related industrial wastes in the state peaked in 2009 but little evidence of spills has been found in publicly available surface water chemistry data. The most likely indicators of spillage or subsurface release of flowback or production waters are the dissolved ions Na, Ca, and Cl. However, the data coverage for any given analyte is generally spatially and temporally sparse. Publicly available water quality data for before and after spills into Larrys Creek and Bobs Creek document the difficulties of detecting such events. An observation from the Pennsylvania experience is that the large number of people who have complained about their water supply (~1000 letters

  8. Remote sensing to monitor cover crop adoption in southeastern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hively, Wells; Sjoerd Duiker,; Greg McCarty,; Prabhakara, Kusuma

    2015-01-01

    In the Chesapeake Bay Watershed, winter cereal cover crops are often planted in rotation with summer crops to reduce the loss of nutrients and sediment from agricultural systems. Cover crops can also improve soil health, control weeds and pests, supplement forage needs, and support resilient cropping systems. In southeastern Pennsylvania, cover crops can be successfully established following corn (Zea mays L.) silage harvest and are strongly promoted for use in this niche. They are also planted following corn grain, soybean (Glycine max L.), and vegetable harvest. In Pennsylvania, the use of winter cover crops for agricultural conservation has been supported through a combination of outreach, regulation, and incentives. On-farm implementation is thought to be increasing, but the actual extent of cover crops is not well quantified. Satellite imagery can be used to map green winter cover crop vegetation on agricultural fields and, when integrated with additional remote sensing data products, can be used to evaluate wintertime vegetative groundcover following specific summer crops. This study used Landsat and SPOT (System Probatoire d’ Observation de la Terre) satellite imagery, in combination with the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service Cropland Data Layer, to evaluate the extent and amount of green wintertime vegetation on agricultural fields in four Pennsylvania counties (Berks, Lebanon, Lancaster, and York) from 2010 to 2013. In December of 2010, a windshield survey was conducted to collect baseline data on winter cover crop implementation, with particular focus on identifying corn harvested for silage (expected earlier harvest date and lower levels of crop residue), versus for grain (expected later harvest date and higher levels of crop residue). Satellite spectral indices were successfully used to detect both the amount of green vegetative groundcover and the amount of crop residue on the surveyed fields. Analysis of wintertime satellite imagery

  9. In Franklin's Path: Establishing Physics at the University of Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, Paul

    2008-04-01

    In 1751 Benjamin Franklin established the Academy of Philadelphia, the precursor of the University of Pennsylvania. Among its curricular mandates he envisioned included ``Natural and Mechanic History,'' using a popular text he suggested by No"el Antoine Pluche that encompassed optics and celestial dynamics among its subjects. This talk will trace the history of physics research and education at Penn from its establishment, to the appointment of the first designated physics professor, George Frederic Barker, in 1873, to the opening of the Randall Morgan Laboratory in 1901 under the directorship of Arthur Goodspeed, and finally to the inauguration of the David Rittenhouse Laboratory in 1954 under the university leadership of Gaylord Harnwell.

  10. Contested Rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorm Hansen, Louise Lyngfeldt

    explores translocal connections through ethnographic fieldwork at a global water conference and preliminary fieldwork at chosen locations on China's Nu River. The Nu River is one of the last undammed rivers in Asia and runs through China close to the Chinese-Burmese border, then flows into the Andaman Sea...

  11. In Memoriam John Updike (1932-2009: That ‘Pennsylvania thing’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Mathé

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available When all is said and done, Updike’s most memorable legacy appears to be his homage to Pennsylvania, the “Pennsylvania thing” that was the formative ground of his artistic career and that, like Proust’s Illiers, which became the immortal Combray of fiction, remained throughout his lifetime the alpha and omega of his universe. Born, as he wrote, blessed among the blessed at the center of “the best, the least eccentric” state of the union, nurtured by “that misted too-rich Pennsylvania air” (“Do...

  12. River nomads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    River nomads is a movie about people on the move. The documentary film explores the lifestyle of a group of nomadic fishermen whose mobility has been the recipe of success and troubles. Engaged in trade and travel, twice a year the river nomads form impressive convoys of majestic pirogues and set...... and liberated lifestyle and the breath-taking landscapes and vistas offered by the Niger River. River Nomads is also a personal account of the Kebbawa’s way of life and their current struggles as nomadic folk living in a world divided by borders and ruled by bureaucrats....

  13. Lehigh River Basin, Trexler Lake, Jordan Creek, Pennsylvania. Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    adjacent to thi Trexler Lake area are musk thistle , heard tongue, butterfly weed, and arrmowood. Some of t4xe area’s other wildflowers such as trailing...septic tank contents removed, disenfected and filled. Nutrient source control and identification in the upstream feeder streams of the lake are

  14. Preimpoundment Water Quality in the Tioga River Basin, Pennsylvania and New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    ACHNANTHAC:AE : ACHNANTHE - 32 7 43 5 ---- 434 .COCCONI -- - -- - -- - 434 *:CS MBELLA AC FA .CYMHELLA --- 1100 25 4300 90 73 9 180a 47 1908 16 ::DIA TOM...CHRYSOPHYTA .AACILLARIOPHYCEAE .. CENTRALES .. COSCINOOISCACEAE .... CYCLOTELLA 3? 3 -- - 69 1 59 11 .. PENNALES ... ACHNANTHACEAE *... ACHNANTHES - - 16 2

  15. H12151: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware River, Pennsylvania and New Jersey, 2009-12-09

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  16. F00594: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware River, New Jersey and Pennsylvania, 2010-07-26

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  17. H12152: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Delaware River, Pennsylvania and New Jersey, 2009-12-08

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  18. Agenda instability in Pennsylvania politics: Lessons for future replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Mallinson

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on agenda-setting dynamics in American politics has a rich and deep history. Recent efforts to extend this work into other countries provides a comparative perspective on how differing institutional designs shape attention allocation and punctuated equilibrium. This comparison is not only possible cross-nationally, but also between the American states. Using an untapped resource—the Pennsylvania Policy Agendas Project—the author replicates three components of punctuated equilibrium and agenda-setting theory (leptokurtic budget distributions, agenda-opinion correspondence, and media effects that provide a benchmark for future comparative analysis as additional states join the project. This work argues that these efforts are beneficial not only for understanding agenda dynamics within the states, but also broader issues of representation, responsiveness, and their relationship with institutional design.

  19. Pennsylvania state information handbook: formerly utilized sites remedial action program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-31

    This volume is one of a series produced under contract with the DOE, by Politech Corporation to develop a legislative and regulatory data base to assist the FUSRAP management in addressing the institutional and socioeconomic issues involved in carrying out the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. This Information Handbook series contains information about all relevant government agencies at the Federal and State levels, the pertinent programs they administer, each affected state legislature, and current Federal and state legislative and regulatory initiatives. This volume is a compilation of information about the State of Pennsylvania. It contains a description of the state executive branch structure; a summary of relevant state statutes and regulations; a description of the structure of the state legislature, identification of the officers and committee chairmen, and a summary of recent relevant legislative action; and the full text of relevant statutes and regulations.

  20. Evaluation of methane sources in groundwater in northeastern Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molofsky, Lisa J; Connor, John A; Wylie, Albert S; Wagner, Tom; Farhat, Shahla K

    2013-01-01

    Testing of 1701 water wells in northeastern Pennsylvania shows that methane is ubiquitous in groundwater, with higher concentrations observed in valleys vs. upland areas and in association with calcium-sodium-bicarbonate, sodium-bicarbonate, and sodium-chloride rich waters--indicating that, on a regional scale, methane concentrations are best correlated to topographic and hydrogeologic features, rather than shale-gas extraction. In addition, our assessment of isotopic and molecular analyses of hydrocarbon gases in the Dimock Township suggest that gases present in local water wells are most consistent with Middle and Upper Devonian gases sampled in the annular spaces of local gas wells, as opposed to Marcellus Production gas. Combined, these findings suggest that the methane concentrations in Susquehanna County water wells can be explained without the migration of Marcellus shale gas through fractures, an observation that has important implications for understanding the nature of risks associated with shale-gas extraction.

  1. Early trends in landcover change and forest fragmentation due to shale-gas development in Pennsylvania: a potential outcome for the Northcentral Appalachians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drohan, P J; Brittingham, M; Bishop, J; Yoder, K

    2012-05-01

    Worldwide shale-gas development has the potential to cause substantial landscape disturbance. The northeastern U.S., specifically the Allegheny Plateau in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, and Kentucky, is experiencing rapid exploration. Using Pennsylvania as a proxy for regional development across the Plateau, we examine land cover change due to shale-gas exploration, with emphasis on forest fragmentation. Pennsylvania's shale-gas development is greatest on private land, and is dominated by pads with 1-2 wells; less than 10 % of pads have five wells or more. Approximately 45-62 % of pads occur on agricultural land and 38-54 % in forest land (many in core forest on private land). Development of permits granted as of June 3, 2011, would convert at least 644-1072 ha of agricultural land and 536-894 ha of forest land. Agricultural land conversion suggests that drilling is somewhat competing with food production. Accounting for existing pads and development of all permits would result in at least 649 km of new road, which, along with pipelines, would fragment forest cover. The Susquehanna River basin (feeding the Chesapeake Bay), is most developed, with 885 pads (26 % in core forest); permit data suggests the basin will experience continued heavy development. The intensity of core forest disturbance, where many headwater streams occur, suggests that such streams should become a focus of aquatic monitoring. Given the intense development on private lands, we believe a regional strategy is needed to help guide infrastructure development, so that habitat loss, farmland conversion, and the risk to waterways are better managed.

  2. Mid-Winter Bald Eagle Survey Results for the 1990 Pennsylvania Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines the results of the 1990 Mid-winter Bald Eagle Count throughout Pennsylvania. It includes data from Erie National Wildlife Refuge in Crawford...

  3. Baseline groundwater quality from 34 wells in Wayne County, Pennsylvania, 2011 and 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2014-01-01

    Wayne County, Pennsylvania, is underlain by the Marcellus Shale, which currently (2014) is being developed elsewhere in Pennsylvania for natural gas. All residents of largely rural Wayne County rely on groundwater for water supply, primarily from bedrock aquifers (shales and sandstones). This study, conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey (Pennsylvania Geological Survey), provides a groundwater-quality baseline for Wayne County prior to development of the natural gas resource in the Marcellus Shale. Selected wells completed in the Devonian-age Catskill Formation, undifferentiated; the Poplar Gap and Packerton Members of the Catskill Formation, undivided; and the Long Run and Walcksville Members of the Catskill Formation, undivided, were sampled.

  4. AN INVENTORY OF THE SMALL MAMMALS OF PRESQUE ISLE STATE PARK ERIE COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    HARRY N. CUNNINGHAM

    1995-01-01

    In May-June and September-October 1993, I conducted a live trapping census of small mammals on Presque Isle State Park, Erie County, Pennsylvania which yielded 98 specimens in 1,745 trap nights. The species were...

  5. RECENT DECISIONS AFFECTING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE MARCELLUS SHALE IN PENNSYLVANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin C Abbott

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pennsylvania has a long history of natural gas exploration and development beginning in the 1800's. Despite having some of the country's oldest jurisprudence dealing with oil and gas disputes, Pennsylvania case law regarding oil and gas operations is relatively undeveloped in comparison to states like Texas and Oklahoma. With the boom in leasing and developing in the region in the last few years, there has also been an increase in oil and gas litigation in Pennsylvania state and federal courts. This paper will discuss the recent decisions that have impacted the development of Marcellus law in Pennsylvania, as well as identify some of the significant pending issues that are worth watching.

  6. Social Vulnerability Index (SoVI) for Pennsylvania based on 2000 Census Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data depicts the social vulnerability of Pennsylvania census block groups to environmental hazards. Data were culled primarily from the 2000 Decennial Census.

  7. 76 FR 52283 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Control of Nitrogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ...; Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions From Glass Melting Furnaces AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... submitted by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The SIP revisions pertain to the control of nitrogen oxide..., Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone, Particulate matter, Reporting and recordkeeping requirements. Dated: August...

  8. 76 FR 34021 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Control of Nitrogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ...; Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions From Glass Melting Furnaces AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...) revision submitted by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. This revision pertains to the control of nitrogen... in 40 CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Nitrogen dioxide,...

  9. 76 FR 42558 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Control of Nitrogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ...; Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions from Portland Cement Kilns AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... submitted by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. The SIP revisions pertain to the control of nitrogen oxides..., Incorporation by reference, Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone, Particulate matter, Reporting and...

  10. 78 FR 17634 - Foreign-Trade Zone 35-Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Application for Subzone; Teva Pharmaceuticals...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc.; North Wales, Chalfont, Kutztown and Sellersville, Pennsylvania An application has been... of FTZ 35, requesting special-purpose subzone status for the facilities of Teva Pharmaceuticals...

  11. Nationwide forestry applications program: Ten-Ecosystem Study (TES) site 2, Warren County, Pennsylvania, site evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. It was determined that hardwood in Warren County, Pennsylvania could best be inventoried in May. The acreage estimate was less than 3% different from Forest Service estimates.

  12. Pennsylvania State Briefing Book for low-level radioactive waste management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-04-01

    The Pennsylvania State Briefing Book is one of a series of state briefing books on low-level radioactive waste management practices. It has been prepared to assist state and federal agency officials in planning for safe low-level radioactive waste disposal. The report contains a profile of low-level radioactive waste generators in Pennsylvania. The profile is the result of a survey of NRC licensees in Pennsylvania. The briefing book also contains a comprehensive assessment of low-level radioactive waste management issues and concerns as defined by all major interested parties including industry, government, the media, and interest groups. The assessment was developed through personal communications with representatives of interested parties, and through a review of media sources. Lastly, the briefing book provides demographic and socioeconomic data and a discussion of relevant government agencies and activities, all of which may impact waste management practices in Pennsylvania.

  13. MACROSCOPIC RIVERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDENBERG, IP

    1991-01-01

    We present a mathematical model for the ''river-phenomenon'': striking concentrations of trajectories of ordinary differential equations. This model of ''macroscopic rivers'' is formulated within nonstandard analysis, and stated in terms of macroscopes and singular perturbations. For a subclass, the

  14. Interdisciplinary applications and interpretations of ERTS data within the Susquehanna River Basin (resource inventory, land use, and pollution)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcmurtry, G. J.; Petersen, G. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An interdisciplinary group at Penn State University is analyzing ERTS-1 data. The geographical area of interest is that of the Susquehanna River Basin in Pennsylvania. The objectives of the work have been to ascertain the usefulness of ERTS-1 data in the areas of natural resources and land use inventory, geology and hydrology, and environmental quality. Specific results include a study of land use in the Harrisburg area, discrimination between types of forest resources and vegetation, detection of previously unknown geologic faults and correlation of these with known mineral deposits and ground water, mapping of mine spoils in the anthracite region of eastern Pennsylvania, and mapping of strip mines and acid mine drainage in central Pennsylvania. Both photointerpretive techniques and automatic computer processing methods have been developed and used, separately and in a combined approach.

  15. An Assessment of Ammonia Emissions from Dairy Facilities in Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D. Ferguson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey of 715 Holstein dairy farms in Pennsylvania was used to construct demographics for the average Holstein dairy farm. The average Holstein dairy farm was composed of 69 lactating cows; 11 nonlactating, pregnant cows; 44 heifers; and 18 calves. Milk production averaged 27.3 kg (60.0 lb. Crop area averaged 73.6 ha. Milk production, crop area and type, average county yields, and herd animal groups were used to construct a typical feeding program for these farms. Typical rations were constructed for six feeding groups (three milk production groups, one nonlactating group, two heifer groups to meet milk production, pregnancy, and growth requirements. Rations were constructed based on three forage qualities (excellent, average, and poor typically observed on Pennsylvania dairy farms. Data for animal description (milk production, body weight, growth, and pregnancy status and ration components and amounts consumed for each animal group were input into the excretion model of the Dairy Nutrient Planner computer program (DNP. Excretion of fecal N and dry matter (DM, urinary N, and total P and K were produced for each animal group and used to assess potential volatile losses of N. Work at the Marshak Dairy, New Bolton Center, indicates the majority of urinary N is rapidly lost as ammonia from dairy facilities. Based on this observation, the losses of N as ammonia were estimated to be 4.63, 4.62, and 4.28�tonne/year for the farm with excellent, average, and poor quality forages, respectively. Volatile losses of N may be reduced most by controlling levels of urea in urine. Urinary N may be reduced through dietary manipulation of protein and carbohydrate sources. Conversion of urea to ammonia may be reduced by altering the pH of barn floors and gutters. Entrapment of ammonia may be accomplished by acidification of manure slurry. Atmospheric ammonia contributes to acid rain, eutrophication of estuaries and lakes, and particulate air pollution

  16. Nuclear Security Education Program at the Pennsylvania State University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uenlue, Kenan [The Pennsylvania State University, Radiation Science and Engineering Center, University Park, PA 16802-2304 (United States); The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, University Park, PA 16802-2304 (United States); Jovanovic, Igor [The Pennsylvania State University, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, University Park, PA 16802-2304 (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The availability of trained and qualified nuclear and radiation security experts worldwide has decreased as those with hands-on experience have retired while the demand for these experts and skills have increased. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) has responded to the continued loss of technical and policy expertise amongst personnel and students in the security field by initiating the establishment of a Nuclear Security Education Initiative, in partnership with Pennsylvania State University (PSU), Texas A and M (TAMU), and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). This collaborative, multi-year initiative forms the basis of specific education programs designed to educate the next generation of personnel who plan on careers in the nonproliferation and security fields with both domestic and international focus. The three universities worked collaboratively to develop five core courses consistent with the GTRI mission, policies, and practices. These courses are the following: Global Nuclear Security Policies, Detectors and Source Technologies, Applications of Detectors/Sensors/Sources for Radiation Detection and Measurements Nuclear Security Laboratory, Threat Analysis and Assessment, and Design and Analysis of Security Systems for Nuclear and Radiological Facilities. The Pennsylvania State University (PSU) Nuclear Engineering Program is a leader in undergraduate and graduate-level nuclear engineering education in the USA. The PSU offers undergraduate and graduate programs in nuclear engineering. The PSU undergraduate program in nuclear engineering is the largest nuclear engineering programs in the USA. The PSU Radiation Science and Engineering Center (RSEC) facilities are being used for most of the nuclear security education program activities. Laboratory space and equipment was made available for this purpose. The RSEC facilities include the Penn State Breazeale

  17. Guia para Padres Educacion Especial para Ninos en Pre-Escolar en Pennsylvania. (A Parent Guide to Special Education for Preschool Children in Pennsylvania).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent Education Network, York, PA.

    This guide, in Spanish, is intended to help Pennsylvania parents of preschool children with special needs to understand their rights and assist in the design of an appropriate early intervention preschool educational program. An overview of special education laws focuses on the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Part B. The main sections…

  18. MANAGERIAL AND SUPERVISORY EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY IN PENNSYLVANIA (AND) SURVEY REPORT OF MANAGERIAL AND SUPERVISORY EDUCATIONAL NEEDS OF BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY IN PENNSYLVANIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DUBIN, SAMUEL S.; AND OTHERS

    TO DETERMINE TRAINING NEEDS OF MANAGERIAL AND SUPERVISORY PERSONNEL IN PENNSYLVANIA BUSINESS AND INDUSTRY AND TO RECOMMEND METHODS OF MEETING THESE NEEDS, 3,620 TOP AND MIDDLE MANAGERS AND FIRST-LINE SUPERVISORS FROM 250 COMPANIES COMPLETED QUESTIONNAIRES. DATA ON COURSES NEEDED, EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND AND PLANS, KIND OF UPDATING USED, EDUCATIONAL…

  19. Guia para Padres Intervencion Temprana en Pennsylvania para Bebes desde el Nacimiento a los Tres Anos (A Parent Guide to Early Intervention in Pennsylvania for Infants and Toddlers).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent Education Network, York, PA.

    This guide, in Spanish, is intended to help Pennsylvania parents of infants and toddlers with disabilities to understand their rights and assist in the design of an appropriate early intervention preschool educational program. An overview of special education laws focus on the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Parts B and C. The main…

  20. Non-equilibrium plasma experiments at The Pennsylvania State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Sean; Bilen, Sven; Micci, Michael

    2013-10-01

    The authors have recently established the capability at The Pennsylvania State University to generate non-equilibrium plasma in atmospheric-pressure air and liquids such as water and saline. The plasma is generated using a high-voltage pulser (Pacific-Electronics PT-55), which is capable of voltage pulses of 75-ns width, peak voltage >50 kV, with rise-times on the order of nanoseconds. The electrodes are tungsten wires of various diameters (50 μm, 175 μm, 254 μm) insulated with nylon tubing. The spacing of the electrodes is controlled with translating mounts with resolution of tens of microns. Spectroscopy (Ocean Optics Model HR2000) is presently used for line identification only. Current and voltage vs. time will be measured with a 500-MHz bandwidth oscilloscope, a high-voltage probe and a shunt resistor connected to the ground side of the circuit. Research directions presently being pursued include the effects of solution electrical conductivity on plasma production and propellant ignition studies. Data from several types of experiments will be presented.

  1. Lessons from Benjamin Franklin's civic leadership: the Pennsylvania Hospital story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, I

    1988-01-01

    John Gardner has recently suggested that in a pluralistic society like ours there are many competing groups, each with its own purpose. This leads to fragmentation and conflict as various social systems and institutions interact and collide. We have seen this in health care where competition has eroded traditional provider-insurer-purchaser alliances and, for example, the access problem has grown rapidly. Leaders in such an environment, Gardner (1988) argues, must become involve with building more "mutually workable arrangements with systems external to their own... Leaders unwilling to do so are not serving the long-germ interest of their own constituents... Under the circumstances, all our leader must spend part of their time building community, dealing with polarization, and creating loyalty to the larger venture." Methods for building community in turbulent times are offered by our first health care social entrepreneur, Benjamin Franklin. The following case study presents Franklin's leadership style and the three-phase process of seeking the civic unity that created Franklin's leadership style and the three-phase process of seeking the civic unity that created Pennsylvania Hospital, the nation;s first community hospital. The discussion concludes with a consideration of Franklin's civic leadership in light of five leadership roles suggested by Gardner.

  2. Economic amenity values of wildlife: Six case studies in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Elwood L.; Carline, Robert; Guldin, Richard W.; Cordell, H. Ken

    1993-09-01

    The travel clost method (TCM) and contingent valuation method (CVM) were used to evaluate the economic value of six different ecotourism activities involving observation of wildlife in Pennsylvania. The six activities were: catch-and-release trout fishing; catch-and-release trout fishing with fly-fishing equipment; viewing waterfowl; watching elk; observing migration flights of raptors; and seeing live wildlife in an environmental education setting. TCM results provided significant statistical relationships between level of use and travel costs for the two types of trout fishing activities. CVM provided estimates of consumer surplus for the other four sites. The consumers' surplus value (1988 dollars) of all six activities to participants amounted to a total of more than 1.28 million annually—twice the total out-of-pocket expenditures of approximately 640,000 spent to visit the sites. The economic amenity values of the six activities compare favorably with similarly derived values in other studies for hunting, fishing, hiking, and backpacking in dispersed recreation environments and wilderness areas in western states.

  3. Perinatal outcomes and unconventional natural gas operations in Southwest Pennsylvania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaina L Stacy

    Full Text Available Unconventional gas drilling (UGD has enabled extraordinarily rapid growth in the extraction of natural gas. Despite frequently expressed public concern, human health studies have not kept pace. We investigated the association of proximity to UGD in the Marcellus Shale formation and perinatal outcomes in a retrospective cohort study of 15,451 live births in Southwest Pennsylvania from 2007-2010. Mothers were categorized into exposure quartiles based on inverse distance weighted (IDW well count; least exposed mothers (first quartile had an IDW well count less than 0.87 wells per mile, while the most exposed (fourth quartile had 6.00 wells or greater per mile. Multivariate linear (birth weight or logistical (small for gestational age (SGA and prematurity regression analyses, accounting for differences in maternal and child risk factors, were performed. There was no significant association of proximity and density of UGD with prematurity. Comparison of the most to least exposed, however, revealed lower birth weight (3323 ± 558 vs 3344 ± 544 g and a higher incidence of SGA (6.5 vs 4.8%, respectively; odds ratio: 1.34; 95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.63. While the clinical significance of the differences in birth weight among the exposure groups is unclear, the present findings further emphasize the need for larger studies, in regio-specific fashion, with more precise characterization of exposure over an extended period of time to evaluate the potential public health significance of UGD.

  4. Perinatal outcomes and unconventional natural gas operations in Southwest Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Shaina L; Brink, LuAnn L; Larkin, Jacob C; Sadovsky, Yoel; Goldstein, Bernard D; Pitt, Bruce R; Talbott, Evelyn O

    2015-01-01

    Unconventional gas drilling (UGD) has enabled extraordinarily rapid growth in the extraction of natural gas. Despite frequently expressed public concern, human health studies have not kept pace. We investigated the association of proximity to UGD in the Marcellus Shale formation and perinatal outcomes in a retrospective cohort study of 15,451 live births in Southwest Pennsylvania from 2007-2010. Mothers were categorized into exposure quartiles based on inverse distance weighted (IDW) well count; least exposed mothers (first quartile) had an IDW well count less than 0.87 wells per mile, while the most exposed (fourth quartile) had 6.00 wells or greater per mile. Multivariate linear (birth weight) or logistical (small for gestational age (SGA) and prematurity) regression analyses, accounting for differences in maternal and child risk factors, were performed. There was no significant association of proximity and density of UGD with prematurity. Comparison of the most to least exposed, however, revealed lower birth weight (3323 ± 558 vs 3344 ± 544 g) and a higher incidence of SGA (6.5 vs 4.8%, respectively; odds ratio: 1.34; 95% confidence interval: 1.10-1.63). While the clinical significance of the differences in birth weight among the exposure groups is unclear, the present findings further emphasize the need for larger studies, in regio-specific fashion, with more precise characterization of exposure over an extended period of time to evaluate the potential public health significance of UGD.

  5. Spatial analysis of environment and population at risk of natural gas fracking in the state of Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingmin

    2015-05-15

    Hydraulic fracturing, also known as fracking, has been increasing exponentially across the United States, which holds the largest known shale gas reserves in the world. Studies have found that the high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing process (HVHFP) threatens water resources, harms air quality, changes landscapes, and damages ecosystems. However, there is minimal research focusing on the spatial study of environmental and human risks of HVHFP, which is necessary for state and federal governments to administer, regulate, and assess fracking. Integrating GIS and spatial kernel functions, we study the presently operating fracking wells across the state of Pennsylvania (PA), which is the main part of the current hottest Marcellus Shale in US. We geographically process the location data of hydraulic fracturing wells, 2010 census block data, urbanized region data, railway data, local road data, open water data, river data, and wetland data for the state of PA. From this we develop a distance based risk assessment in order to understand the environmental and urban risks. We generate the surface data of fracking well intensity and population intensity by integrating spatial dependence, semivariogram modeling, and a quadratic kernel function. The surface data of population risk generated by the division of fracking well intensity and population intensity provide a novel insight into the local and regional regulation of hydraulic fracturing activities in terms of environmental and health related risks due to the proximity of fracking wells.

  6. Prevalence and Spatial Distribution of Salmonella Infections in the Pennsylvania Raccoon (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Very, K J; Kirchner, M K; Shariat, N; Cottrell, W; Sandt, C H; Dudley, E G; Kariyawasam, S; Jayarao, B M

    2016-05-01

    A study was conducted to determine the prevalence and spatial distribution of Salmonella infection in Pennsylvania raccoons (Procyon lotor), common wildlife mammals known to occupy overlapping habitats with humans and domestic food animals. The Pennsylvania Game Commission provided a total of 371 raccoon intestinal samples from trapped and road-killed raccoons collected between May and November 2011. Salmonella was isolated from the faeces of 56 (15.1%) of 371 raccoons in 35 (54%) of 65 counties across Pennsylvania. The five most frequently isolated serotypes were Newport (28.6%), Enteritidis (19.6%), Typhimurium (10.7%), Braenderup (8.9%) and Bareilly (7.1%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of the Salmonella isolates and subsequent comparison to the Pennsylvania Department of Health human Salmonella PFGE database revealed 16 different pulsetypes in Salmonella isolates recovered from raccoons that were indistinguishable from pulsetypes of Salmonella collected from clinically ill humans during the study period. The pulsetypes of seven raccoon Salmonella isolates matched those of 56 human Salmonella isolates by month and geographical region of sample collection. Results from Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats and Multi-Virulence Locus Sequence Typing (CRISPR-MVLST) analysis corroborated the PFGE and serotyping data. The findings of this study show that several PFGE pulsetypes of Salmonella were shared between humans and raccoons in Pennsylvania, indicating that raccoons and humans might share the same source of Salmonella.

  7. Duck viral enteritis in domestic muscovy ducks in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, S.; Converse, K.A.; Hamir, A.N.; Eckroade, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Duck viral enteritis (DVE) outbreaks occurred at two different locations in Pennsylvania in 1991 and 1992. In the first outbreak, four ducks died out of a group of 30 domestic ducks; in the second outbreak, 65 ducks died out of a group of 114 domestic ducks, and 15 domestic geese died as well. A variety of species of ducks were present on both premises, but only muscovy ducks (Cairina moschata) died from the disease. On necropsy, gross lesions included hepatomegaly with petechial hemorrhages, petechial hemorrhages in the abdominal fat, petechial hemorrhages on the epicardial surface of the heart, and multifocal to coalescing areas of fibrinonecrotic material over the mucosal surface of the trachea, esophagus, intestine, and cloaca. Histologically, the liver had random multifocal areas of necrosis and eosinophilic intranuclear inclusion bodies in hepatocytes. DVE virus was isolated and identified using muscovy duck embryo fibroblast inoculation and virus neutralization. /// En dos sitios diferentes se presentaron brotes de enteritis viral de los patos en el estados de Pensilvania en los a??os 1991 y 1992. En el primer brote, cuatro de un lote de 30 patos murieron mientras que en el segundo brote murieron 65 patos de un lote de 114 patos y 15 gansos. En ambas localidades exist?-a una variedad de especies de patos, sin embargo, s??lamente los patos almizcleros (Cairina moschata) murieron. A la necropsia, las lesiones macrosc??picas incluyeron hepatomegalia con hemorragias petequiales, hemorragias petequiales en la grasa abdominal y en la superficie del epicardio, y ?!reas multifocales o coalescentes de material fibrinonecr??tico sobre la superficie de la mucosa de la tr?!quea, es??fago, intestino y cloaca. Histol??gicamente, el h?-gado mostraba ?!reas multifocales de necrosis y cuerpos de inclusi??n intranucleares eosinof?-licos en los hepatocitos. El virus de la enteritis viral de los patos fue aislado e identificado usando fibroblasto de embriones de pato almizclero

  8. Seed storage and testing at Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources Penn Nursery and Wood Shop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey J. Kozar

    2008-01-01

    Planting tree seeds at the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources Penn Nursery, Spring Mills, Pennsylvania occurs in spring and fall. Seeds acquired for these plantings come from 3 sources. The first source is our own orchards, which were developed to provide “improved” seeds. Improved seeds are produced from scion material collected from trees...

  9. 77 FR 30588 - R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Pennsylvania Lines Inc.-Construction and Operation Exemption-In...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Pennsylvania Lines Inc.-- Construction and... prior approval requirements of 49 U.S.C. 10901 for R.J. Corman Railroad Company/Pennsylvania Lines Inc...

  10. A Case Study of the Effects of the Gaskin Case on Seven School Districts in Southeastern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Suzanne H.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study investigated the impact of the Gaskin v. Pennsylvania Department of Education Court Settlement Agreement on school districts in Southeast Pennsylvania. This class action suit was brought on behalf of students with physical, behavioral and developmental delays, their parents and eleven national organizations. The lawsuit…

  11. Perceptions of Pennsylvania School Librarians Regarding Their Role in Providing Copyright Advice to Students, Teacher, and Administrators in Their School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the perceptions of Pennsylvania school librarians about the role they play in providing copyright guidance to the students, teachers, and administrators in their school during the 2011-2012 school year. Using two electronic mailing lists for Pennsylvania school librarians, the researcher posted an email asking…

  12. Prevalence of antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona in cats from Virginia and Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Vasha; Grant, David C; Dubey, J P; Zajac, Anne M; Lindsay, David S

    2010-08-01

    Sarcocystis neurona is best known as the causative agent of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis of horses in the Americas. Domestic cats ( Felis domesticus ) were the first animals described as an intermediate host for S. neurona . However, S. neurona -associated encephalitis has also been reported in naturally infected cats in the United States. Thus, cats can be implicated in the life cycle of S. neurona as natural intermediate hosts. The present study examined the seroprevalence of IgG antibodies to merozoites of S. neurona in populations of domestic cats from Virginia and Pennsylvania. Overall, sera or plasma from 441 cats (Virginia = 232, Pennsylvania = 209) were tested by an indirect immunofluorescent assay at a 1ratio50 dilution. Antibodies to S. neurona were found in 32 (7%) of 441 cats. Of these, 22 (9%) of the 232 cats from Virginia and 10 (5%) of the 209 cats from Pennsylvania were seropositive for S. neurona .

  13. Water quality and management of private drinking water wells in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swistock, Bryan R; Clemens, Stephanie; Sharpe, William E; Rummel, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    Pennsylvania has over three million rural residents using private water wells for drinking water supplies but is one of the few states that lack statewide water well construction or management standards. The study described in this article aimed to determine the prevalence and causes of common health-based pollutants in water wells and evaluate the need for regulatory management along with voluntary educational programs. Water samples were collected throughout Pennsylvania by Master Well Owner Network volunteers trained by Penn State Extension. Approximately 40% of the 701 water wells sampled failed at least one health-based drinking water standard. The prevalence of most water quality problems was similar to past studies although both lead and nitrate-N were reduced over the last 20 years. The authors' study suggests that statewide water well construction standards along with routine water testing and educational programs to assist water well owners would result in improved drinking water quality for private well owners in Pennsylvania.

  14. Baseline groundwater quality from 20 domestic wells in Sullivan County, Pennsylvania, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.

    2013-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 20 domestic wells during August and September 2012 and analyzed for 47 constituents and properties, including nutrients, major ions, metals and trace elements, radioactivity, and dissolved gases, including methane and radon-222. This study, done in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey (Pennsylvania Geological Survey), provides a groundwater-quality baseline for central and southern Sullivan County prior to drilling for natural gas in the Marcellus Shale.

  15. Radar research at The Pennsylvania State University Radar and Communications Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Ram M.

    2017-05-01

    The Radar and Communications Laboratory (RCL) at The Pennsylvania State University is at the forefront of radar technology and is engaged in cutting edge research in all aspects of radar, including modeling and simulation studies of novel radar paradigms, design and development of new types of radar architectures, and extensive field measurements in realistic scenarios. This paper summarizes the research at The Pennsylvania State University's Radar and Communications Laboratory and relevant collaborative research with several groups over the past 15 years in the field of radar and related technologies, including communications, radio frequency identification (RFID), and spectrum sensing.

  16. Distributed usability evaluation of the Pennsylvania Cancer Atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacEachren Alan M

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Pennsylvania Cancer Atlas (PA-CA is an interactive online atlas to help policy-makers, program managers, and epidemiologists with tasks related to cancer prevention and control. The PA-CA includes maps, graphs, tables, that are dynamically linked to support data exploration and decision-making with spatio-temporal cancer data. Our Atlas development process follows a user-centered design approach. To assess the usability of the initial versions of the PA-CA, we developed and applied a novel strategy for soliciting user feedback through multiple distributed focus groups and surveys. Our process of acquiring user feedback leverages an online web application (e-Delphi. In this paper we describe the PA-CA, detail how we have adapted e-Delphi web application to support usability and utility evaluation of the PA-CA, and present the results of our evaluation. Results We report results from four sets of users. Each group provided structured individual and group assessments of the PA-CA as well as input on the kinds of users and applications for which it is best suited. Overall reactions to the PA-CA are quite positive. Participants did, however, provide a range of useful suggestions. Key suggestions focused on improving interaction functions, enhancing methods of temporal analysis, addressing data issues, and providing additional data displays and help functions. These suggestions were incorporated in each design and implementation iteration for the PA-CA and used to inform a set of web-atlas design principles. Conclusion For the Atlas, we find that a design that utilizes linked map, graph, and table views is understandable to and perceived to be useful by the target audience of cancer prevention and control professionals. However, it is clear that considerable variation in experience using maps and graphics exists and for those with less experience, integrated tutorials and help features are needed. In relation to our usability

  17. A Customized Approach to Talent Management at the University of Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Beverly

    2008-01-01

    The University of Pennsylvania places great emphasis on talent management, specifically on attracting and retaining top-notch people. One way it accomplishes this is by offering several avenues by which its employees can further their careers. Penn's large, decentralized structure provides significant opportunities for career growth; however,…

  18. 40 Questions and Answers Regarding Act 109, the Pennsylvania Nonpublic Elementary and Secondary Education Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Public Instruction, Harrisburg. Office for Aid to Nonpublic Education.

    This document was prepared to answer questions regarding the Pennsylvania Nonpublic Elementary and Secondary Education Act which became effective after June 19, 1968. Questions pertain to (1) the secular educational services that can be purchased under this law; (2) the specific areas of compensation such as salaries, textbooks, and instructional…

  19. Developing an Ethical Framework in Decision Making of Rural Elementary School Principals in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozien, Wafa Ismail

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore and describe individual Pennsylvania rural elementary principals' experiences of ethical decision-making in a complex era. Ethical dilemma, in this case, is the term used to depict an incident which calls for a decision to be made when moral values or ethical principles were in conflict. Also, to learn how…

  20. The Caring Business: Lynch Community Homes, Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Robert

    This paper, one of a series of reports describing innovative practices in integrating people with disabilities into community life, describes the Lynch Community Homes in Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Lynch Homes is a for-profit organization that provides homes and supportive services for approximately 75 people with severe and profound…

  1. The Pennsylvania State University Child Sexual Abuse Scandal: An Analysis of Institutional Factors Affecting Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Alice R.

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) child sexual abuse scandal have left many scholars and individuals questioning the university's collective identity. The goal of this research was to uncover the dominant themes that describe a problematic institutional response to the child sexual abuse incidents in order to provide…

  2. Hymenopteran Parasitoids Attacking the Invasive Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in Western and Central Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    We conducted field surveys of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, and associated larval parasitoids in western and central Pennsylvania (Cranberry and Granville Townships) in the spring and fall of 2009. The survey procedure involved destructively debarking sections of the m...

  3. A Place for Materials Science: Laboratory Buildings and Interdisciplinary Research at the University of Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyungsub; Shields, Brit

    2015-01-01

    The Laboratory for Research on the Structure of Matter (LRSM), University of Pennsylvania, was built in 1965 as part of the Advanced Research Projects Agency's (ARPA) Interdisciplinary Laboratories (IDL) program intended to foster interdisciplinary research and training in materials science. The process that led to the construction of the…

  4. An Articulation Model in Dental Assisting for the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. A Continuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylves, Jane M.; Boody, Sandra

    A curriculum development project was conducted to generate additional competency-based modules to be used within the articulation model for Pennsylvania dental assisting programs, established in 1988. Project activities included reviewing, modifying, and providing parallel competency-based structure for the courses at the A.W. Beattie Technical…

  5. Ways of Talking (and Acting) about Language Reclamation: An Ethnographic Perspective on Learning Lenape in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H.; De Korne, Haley; Weinberg, Miranda

    2016-01-01

    The experiences of a community of people learning and teaching Lenape in Pennsylvania provide insights into the complexities of current ways of talking and acting about language reclamation. We illustrate how Native and non-Native participants in a university-based Indigenous language class constructed language, identity, and place in nuanced ways…

  6. An Interim Report on Pennsylvania's Framework for Leadership: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing-ru, Teh; Chiang, Hanley; Lipscomb, Stephen; Gill, Brian

    2014-01-01

    A new study analyzed data from the 2012/13 pilot of the Framework for Leadership (FFL), Pennsylvania's tool for evaluating the leadership practices of principals and assistant principals. Based on the FFL scores of 336 principals and 69 assistant principals evaluated by their supervisors in the 2012/13 school year, this interim report found that…

  7. Advance reproduction and other stand characteristics in Pennsylvania and French stands of northern red oak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim C. Steiner; Marc D. Abrams; Todd W. Bowersox

    1993-01-01

    The frequent scarcity of northern red oak (NRO) advance reproduction raises questions about its regeneration potential under prevailing stand conditions in eastern North America. In contrast, NRO plantations in France typically contain abundant advance reproduction. The purpose of this study was to document stand conditions in Pennsylvania (PA) and southwestern France...

  8. 76 FR 54410 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Commonwealth of Pennsylvania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Commonwealth of... (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: EPA is proposing to approve submittals from the Commonwealth of... Pennsylvania, the Commonwealth has a SIP approved PSD program in place and EPA has found that the 110(a)(2...

  9. The Pennsylvania State University Child Sexual Abuse Scandal: An Analysis of Institutional Factors Affecting Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Alice R.

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) child sexual abuse scandal have left many scholars and individuals questioning the university's collective identity. The goal of this research was to uncover the dominant themes that describe a problematic institutional response to the child sexual abuse incidents in order to provide…

  10. 76 FR 9049 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... the determinations in this notice. In this notice there are eight Tlingit objects that were purchased by Louis Shotridge, a Tlingit curator employed by the University of Pennsylvania Museum to conduct research and make museum collections. Tlingit objects affiliated with the Tlingit Kaagwaantaan Clan...

  11. Ask Here PA: Large-Scale Synchronous Virtual Reference for Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariner, Vince

    2008-01-01

    Ask Here PA is Pennsylvania's new statewide live chat reference and information service. This article discusses the key strategies utilized by Ask Here PA administrators to recruit participating libraries to contribute staff time to the service, the importance of centralized staff training, the main aspects of staff training, and activating the…

  12. Mathematics for the Class of 2000. Pennsylvania Council of Teachers of Mathematics 1988 Yearbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicely, Robert F., Jr., Ed.; Sigmund, Thomas F., Ed.

    One of the strengths of the Pennsylvania Council of Teachers of Mathematics (PCTM) is that it gives mathematicians and mathematics educators the opportunity to exchange and contribute to each other's professional growth. The topic for each yearbook is chosen to coincide with the annual PCTM meeting. This 1988 yearbook contains 27 articles which…

  13. The Mathematics Curriculum: Issues and Perspectives. Pennsylvania Council of Teachers of Mathematics 1987 Yearbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicely, Robert F., Jr., Ed.; Sigmund, Thomas F., Ed.

    One of the strengths of the Pennsylvania Council of Teachers of Mathematics (PCTM) is that it gives mathematicians and mathematics educators the opportunity to exchange and contribute to each other's professional growth. The topic for each yearbook is chosen to coincide with the annual PCTM meeting. This 1987 yearbook contains 14 articles which…

  14. School Choice, Racial Segregation, and Poverty Concentration: Evidence from Pennsylvania Charter School Transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotok, Stephen; Frankenberg, Erica; Schafft, Kai A.; Mann, Bryan A.; Fuller, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    This article examines how student movements between traditional public schools (TPSs) and charters--both brick and mortar and cyber--may be associated with both racial isolation and poverty concentration. Using student-level data from the universe of Pennsylvania public schools, this study builds upon previous research by specifically examining…

  15. An Analysis of a Rural Pennsylvania School District's Transient Population and NCLB Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesisko, Lee J.; Wright, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) data from one rural school system covering four groups of children for a consecutive three year period was used to study the impact of transient students entering the school system. The analysis compared native children (those on roll since the first year) with transient children added to or deleted…

  16. The Effects of Training Community Leaders in Prevention Science: Communities that Care in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Mark E.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Osgood, D. Wayne; Anderson, Amy; Babinski, Leslie

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of training community leaders in prevention science in the context of the Communities That Care (CTC) model fo community empowerment. Data from an evaluation of CTC in 21 Pennsylvania communities and interviews with 203 community leaders show that training is positively, although modestly, associated with participant attitudes…

  17. Pennsylvania Keystone STARS: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Pennsylvania's Keystone STARS prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for…

  18. Performance Measurement and Accommodation: Students with Visual Impairments on Pennsylvania's Alternate Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebehazy, Kim T.; Zigmond, Naomi; Zimmerman, George J.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: This study investigated the use of accommodations and the performance of students with visual impairments and severe cognitive disabilities on the Pennsylvania Alternate System of Assessment (PASA)yCoan alternate performance-based assessment. Methods: Differences in test scores on the most basic level (level A) of the PASA of 286…

  19. Food Safety Knowledge, Behavior, and Attitudes of Vendors of Poultry Products Sold at Pennsylvania Farmers' Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinberg, Joshua; Radhakrishna, Rama; Cutter, Catherine N.

    2013-01-01

    A needs assessment survey was developed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of poultry vendors at farmers' markets in Pennsylvania, on food safety, regulation, and poultry production. Vendors were administered a 32-question paper survey, in person, during market hours. The results revealed critical vendor practices and identified important…

  20. Regional Changes in the Timber Resources of and Lumber Production in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2005-01-01

    In this study we examine regional differences in the hardwood timber resources of Pennsylvania and explain how the combined changes in this resource and in lumber prices have influenced regional lumber production. Isolation of these relationships is important because shifts in lumber production affect harvesting levels and harvesting activity influences long-term...

  1. 76 FR 28072 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here given in... Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA. The human remains were removed from St. Mary Parish (formerly... assessment of the human remains was made by University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and...

  2. An Educational Needs Assessment of Long Term Care Administrative Personnel in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleppick, Annabelle L.; Costanzo, Nancy L.

    The Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, directed its efforts towards providing continuing education courses to enable long term care administrators to qualify for relicensure in accordance with Pennsylvania's requirements. Because of the diversity of administrators' educational background, more data were needed to establish…

  3. 77 FR 2128 - Southwest Pennsylvania Railroad Company-Acquisition Exemption-Laurel Hill Development Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-13

    ... between specified points in Fayette and Westmoreland Counties, Pa. under the agency's offer of financial assistance procedures. In Southwest Pennsylvania Railroad Company--Lease and Operation Exemption--Lines of..., 1995), SPRC was authorized to lease and operate that rail line. SPRC states that on August 25,...

  4. 78 FR 22843 - Foreign-Trade Zone 33-Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Authorization of Export Production Activity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-17

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 33--Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, Authorization of Export... December 4, 2012, Tsudis Chocolate Company, submitted a notification of proposed export production activity... liquid chocolate admitted to FTZ 33 must be re-exported. Dated: April 11, 2013. Andrew...

  5. Pennsylvania SBIRT Medical and Residency Training: Developing, Implementing, and Evaluating an Evidenced-Based Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Janice L.; Melczak, Michael; Johnjulio, William; Campopiano, Melinda; Gordon, Adam J.; Costlow, Monica

    2012-01-01

    Medical residents do not receive adequate training in screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) for alcohol and other drug use disorders. The federally funded Pennsylvania SBIRT Medical and Residency Training program (SMaRT) is an evidence-based curriculum with goals of training residents in SBIRT knowledge and skills and…

  6. Building Franklin's Truly Democratic, Engaged University: Twenty Years of Practice at the University of Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Matthew; Harkavy, Ira; Benson, Lee

    2006-01-01

    Benjamin Franklin founded the University of Pennsylvania as a secular institution with the pragmatic aim of instilling in its students the inclination and ability to serve humankind in both the civic and mercantile realms. On this, the three hundredth anniversary of his birth (1706-2006), Franklin's ideal of a democratic, engaged university has…

  7. Patterns and Trends in Accidental Poisoning Deaths: Pennsylvania's Experience 1979-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren C Balmert

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine county and state-level accidental poisoning mortality trends in Pennsylvania from 1979 to 2014.Crude and age-adjusted death rates were formed for age group, race, sex, and county for accidental poisonings (ICD 10 codes X40-X49 from 1979 to 2014 for ages 15+ using the Mortality and Population Data System housed at the University of Pittsburgh. Rate ratios were calculated comparing rates from 1979 to 2014, overall and by sex, age group, and race. Joinpoint regression was used to detect statistically significant changes in trends of age-adjusted mortality rates.Rate ratios for accidental poisoning mortality in Pennsylvania increased more than 14-fold from 1979 to 2014. The largest rate ratios were among 35-44 year olds, females, and White adults. The highest accidental poisoning mortality rates were found in the counties of Southwestern Pennsylvania, those surrounding Philadelphia, and those in Northeast Pennsylvania near Scranton.The patterns and locations of accidental poisoning mortality by race, sex, and age group provide direction for interventions and policy makers. In particular, this study found the highest rate ratios in PA among females, whites, and the age group 35-44.

  8. Fire history reflects human history in the Pine Creek Gorge of north-central Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick H. Brose; Richard P. Guyette; Joseph M. Marschall; Michael C. Stambaugh

    2015-01-01

    Fire history studies are important tools for understanding past fire regimes and the roles humans played in those regimes. Beginning in 2010, we conducted a fire history study in the Pine Creek Gorge area of north-central Pennsylvania to ascertain the number of fires and fire-free intervals, their variability through time, and the role of human influences. We collected...

  9. A Statewide System To Track Medical Students' Careers: The Pennsylvania Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Howard K.; Veloski, J. Jon; Aber, Robert C.; Adler, Sheldon; Ferretti, Sylvia M.; Kelliher, Gerald J.; Mochen, Eugene; Morrison, Gail; Rattner, Susan L.; Sterling, Gerald; Robeson, Mary R.; Hojat, Mohammadreza; Xu, Gang

    1999-01-01

    Pennsylvania developed a generalist physician initiative, inspired by that of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, initiating a longitudinal tracking system at six allopathic and two osteopathic medical schools to follow students from matriculation into professional careers. The statewide database includes information on over 18,000 students,…

  10. New species of long-legged flies (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) from central Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justin B. Runyon

    2008-01-01

    Four new species of Dolichopodidae are described from central Pennsylvania: Campsicnemus wilderae Runyon, Dolichopus dracula Runyon, Dolichopus hurleyi Runyon, and Dolichopus frosti Runyon. Keys to males of Campsicnemus Haliday and Dolichopus Latreille with lamellate aristae are provided for species from eastern North America.

  11. Annotated checklist of the mosquitoes of Pennsylvania including new state records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Michael L; Darsie, Richard F; Spichiger, Sven-Erik; Jones, Gary E; Naguski, Eric A

    2008-03-01

    A checklist of 62 species of mosquitoes found in Pennsylvania is presented. In addition, new state records for 9 species are as follows: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles earlei, Culiseta minnesotae, Ochlerotatus atlanticus/Oc. tormentor, Oc. dupreei, Oc. infirmatus, Oc. thibaulti, Psorophora howardii.

  12. Receptivity toward Immigrants in Rural Pennsylvania: Perceptions of Adult English as Second Language Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Esther; Toso, Blaire Willson

    2012-01-01

    This article uses interview and questionnaire data to examine how adult English as a second language (ESL) providers in rural Pennsylvania perceive community receptivity toward immigrants and the factors they believe foster or hinder receptivity and immigrants' integration. ESL providers' depictions of local responses to immigrants ranged from…

  13. 76 FR 29180 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Control of Nitrogen...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ...; Control of Nitrogen Oxides Emissions From Portland Cement Kilns AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...) revision submitted by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. This revision pertains to the control of nitrogen... emissions are generated during fuel combustion by oxidation of chemically-bound nitrogen in the fuel and...

  14. 30 CFR 938.15 - Approval of Pennsylvania regulatory program amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dates amendments were submitted to OSM, the dates when the Director's decision approving all, or portions of these amendments, were published in the Federal Register and the State citations or a brief...), (d), .146(e), .147(a). January 17, 1984 March 20, 1984 Pennsylvania policy statement: Citizen...

  15. Influence of markets and forest composition on lumber production in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we examine regional differences in the hardwood timber resources of Pennsylvania and how the combined changes in inventory volume, forest composition, and lumber prices have influenced regional lumber production. Isolation of these relationships is important because shifts in lumber production reflect changes in harvesting activity. In turn, harvesting...

  16. Food Safety Knowledge, Behavior, and Attitudes of Vendors of Poultry Products Sold at Pennsylvania Farmers' Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinberg, Joshua; Radhakrishna, Rama; Cutter, Catherine N.

    2013-01-01

    A needs assessment survey was developed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of poultry vendors at farmers' markets in Pennsylvania, on food safety, regulation, and poultry production. Vendors were administered a 32-question paper survey, in person, during market hours. The results revealed critical vendor practices and identified important…

  17. Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella and E. coli from Pennsylvania dairy herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial resistance in bacterial pathogens is an increasing public health concern. The objective of this study was to examine antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella and E. coli isolates from Pennsylvania dairy herds. Manure composite samples were collected from 76 farms: on each farm one sample...

  18. Public Library Use in Pennsylvania: Identifying Uses, Benefits, and Impacts. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Charles R.; Bertot, John Carlo

    The purpose of this study is to identify users of Pennsylvania public libraries and determine their reasons for using the library. In addition, the study provides information describing the impacts and benefits to those users as a result of their contact with the public library. The objectives were to: (1) describe users in terms of their…

  19. Impacts of Public Access to the Internet through Pennsylvania Public Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertot, John Carlo; McClure, Charles R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents an evaluation of the OnLine at PA Libraries (1996-97) Internet-based information services and resources project for Pennsylvania residents. The project provided a statewide demonstration to improve public library services; connect public libraries to the Internet; provide a range of new services and resources to their communities; and…

  20. Structural, Nursing, and Physician Characteristics and 30-Day Mortality for Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane-Fall, Meghan B; Ramaswamy, Tara S; Brown, Sydney E S; He, Xu; Gutsche, Jacob T; Fleisher, Lee A; Neuman, Mark D

    2017-09-01

    Cardiac surgery ICU characteristics and clinician staffing patterns have not been well characterized. We sought to describe Pennsylvania cardiac ICUs and to determine whether ICU characteristics are associated with mortality in the 30 days after cardiac surgery. From 2012 to 2013, we conducted a survey of cardiac surgery ICUs in Pennsylvania to assess ICU structure, care practices, and clinician staffing patterns. ICU data were linked to an administrative database of cardiac surgery patient discharges. We used logistic regression to measure the association between ICU variables and death in 30 days. Cardiac surgery ICUs in Pennsylvania. Patients having coronary artery bypass grafting and/or cardiac valve repair or replacement from 2009 to 2011. None. Of the 57 cardiac surgical ICUs in Pennsylvania, 43 (75.4%) responded to the facility survey. Rounds included respiratory therapists in 26 of 43 (60.5%) and pharmacists in 23 of 43 (53.5%). Eleven of 41 (26.8%) reported that at least 2/3 of their nurses had a bachelor's degree in nursing. Advanced practice providers were present in most of the ICUs (37/43; 86.0%) but residents (8/42; 18.6%) and fellows (7/43; 16.3%) were not. Daytime intensivists were present in 21 of 43 (48.8%) responding ICUs; eight of 43 (18.6%) had nighttime intensivists. Among 29,449 patients, there was no relationship between mortality and nurse ICU experience, presence of any intensivist, or absence of residents after risk adjustment. To exclude patients who may have undergone transcatheter aortic valve replacement, we conducted a subgroup analysis of patients undergoing only coronary artery bypass grafting, and results were similar. Pennsylvania cardiac surgery ICUs have variable structures, care practices, and clinician staffing, although none of these are statistically significantly associated with mortality in the 30 days following surgery after adjustment.

  1. Chester County ground-water atlas, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludlow, Russell A.; Loper, Connie A.

    2004-01-01

    Chester County encompasses 760 square miles in southeastern Pennsylvania. Groundwater- quality studies have been conducted in the county over several decades to address specific hydrologic issues. This report compiles and describes water-quality data collected during studies conducted mostly after 1990 and summarizes the data in a county-wide perspective. In this report, water-quality constituents are described in regard to what they are, why the constituents are important, and where constituent concentrations vary relative to geology or land use. Water-quality constituents are grouped into logical units to aid presentation: water-quality constituents measured in the field (pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen), common ions, metals, radionuclides, bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds.Waterquality constituents measured in the field, common ions (except chloride), metals, and radionuclides are discussed relative to geology. Bacteria, nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds are discussed relative to land use. If the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) or Chester County Health Department has drinkingwater standards for a constituent, the standards are included. Tables and maps are included to assist Chester County residents in understanding the water-quality constituents and their distribution in the county. Ground water in Chester County generally is of good quality and is mostly acidic except in the carbonate rocks and serpentinite, where it is neutral to strongly basic. Calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate are major constituents of these rocks. Both compounds have high solubility, and, as such, both are major contributors to elevated pH, alkalinity, specific conductance, and the common ions. Elevated pH and alkalinity in carbonate rocks and serpentinite can indicate a potential for scaling in water heaters and household plumbing. Low pH and low alkalinity in the schist, quartzite, and

  2. Groundwater-Quality Assessment, Pike County, Pennsylvania, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Pike County, a 545 square-mile area in northeastern Pennsylvania, has experienced the largest relative population growth of any county in the state from 1990 to 2000 and its population is projected to grow substantially through 2025. This growing population may result in added dependence and stresses on water resources, including the potential to reduce the quantity and degrade the quality of groundwater and associated stream base flow with changing land use. Groundwater is the main source of drinking water in the county and is derived primarily from fractured-rock aquifers (shales, siltstones, and sandstones) and some unconsolidated glacial deposits that are recharged locally from precipitation. The principal land uses in the county as of 2005 were public, residential, agricultural, hunt club/private recreational, roads, and commercial. The public lands cover a third of the county and include national park, state park, and other state lands, much of which are forested. Individual on-site wells and wastewater disposal are common in many residential areas. In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pike County Conservation District, began a study to provide current information on groundwater quality throughout the county that will be helpful for water-resource planning. The countywide reconnaissance assessment of groundwater quality documents current conditions with existing land uses and may serve as a baseline of groundwater quality for future comparison. Twenty wells were sampled in 2007 throughout Pike County to represent groundwater quality in the principal land uses (commercial, high-density and moderate-density residential with on-site wastewater disposal, residential in a sewered area, pre-development, and undeveloped) and geologic units (five fractured-rock aquifers and one glacial unconsolidated aquifer). Analyses selected for the groundwater samples were intended to identify naturally occurring constituents from the aquifer or

  3. Synthane Pilot Plant, South Park Township, Pennsylvania. Run report No. 2-DB: operating period September 1977--September 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This report covers the operation of the Synthane Coal Gasification Pilot Plant, South Park Township, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania from September 1977 through September 1978. The facility is owned by the United States Government and operated by C-E Lummus. Test Directive No. 2-DB directed the plant be operated with Illinois No. 6 coal from the River King Mine of the Peabody Coal Company at a pressure of 600 psig. Concurrent pretreater/gasifier operation was to take place at coal feed rates from 1.5 to 2.5 tons/hour. Gas was produced for 182 hours and 1,100 tons of coal were fed to the pretreater and gasifier. Continuous operation of up to 56 hours and carbon conversions based on char of up to 72% were achieved. This successful operation demonstrates that coal gasification via the Synthane Process is viable. Additional data are required for the design of a commercial facility; however, the data obtained to date are adequate to recommend improvements and modifications to the Synthane Process Pilot Plant to increase on stream time efficiency. The successful operation of the pilot plant with Illinois No. 6 coal demonstrates the feasibility of the Synthane Pilot Plant to process a caking type of coal. The ability to successfully pretreat a caking coal at high pressure in a plant of this size is a first and a direct result of the successful operation of the Synthane Process. Other similar type processes operated to date require pretreatment of a caking coal at atmospheric pressure with little or no recovery of the gases or heat produced during pretreatment.

  4. Evaluation of methods for delineating areas that contribute water to wells completed in valley-fill aquifers in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Dennis W.; Madden, Thomas M.

    1994-01-01

    Valley-fill aquifers in Pennsylvania are the source of drinking water for many wells in the glaciated parts of the State and along major river valleys. These aquifers area subject to contamination because of their shallow water-table depth and highly transmissive sediments. The possibility for contamination of water-supply wells in valley-fill aquifers can be minimized by excluding activities that could contaminate areas that contribute water to supply wells. An area that contributes water to a well is identified in this report as either an area of diversion, time-of-travel area, or contributing area. The area of diversion is a projection to land surface of the valley-fill aquifer volume through which water is diverted to a well and the time-of travel area is that fraction of the area of diversion through which water moves to the well in a specified time. The contributing area, the largest of three areas, includes the area of diversion but also incorporates bedrock uplands and other area that contribute water. Methods for delineating areas of diversion and contributing areas in valley-fill aquifers, described and compared in order of increasing complexity, include fixed radius, uniform flow, analytical, semianalytical, and numerical modeling. Delineated areas are considered approximations because the hydraulic properties and boundary conditions of the real ground-water system are simplified even in the most complex numerical methods. Successful application of any of these methods depends on the investigator's understanding of the hydrologic system in and near the well field, and the limitations of the method. The hydrologic system includes not only the valley-fill aquifer but also the regional surface-water and ground-water flow systems within which the valley is situated. As shown by numerical flow simulations of a well field in the valley-fill aquifer along Marsh Creek Valley near Asaph, Pa., water from upland bedrock sources can provide nearly all the water

  5. Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) Atlas: Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, maps and geographic information systems data (NODC Accession 0014793)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set comprises the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) data for Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania from 1969 to 2000(May 2002 v.3). ESI data...

  6. Technology Demonstration Summary. DuPont/Oberlin Microfiltration System. Palmerton, Pennsylvania (EPA/540/S5-90/007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In April and May 1990, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, demonstrated DuPont/Oberlin's microfiltration system at the Palmerton Zinc Superfund (PZS) site In Palmerton, Pennsylvania. The microfiltr...

  7. Baseline assessment of groundwater quality in Wayne County, Pennsylvania, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.; Cravotta, III, Charles A.; Sloto, Ronald A.

    2016-06-30

    The Devonian-age Marcellus Shale and the Ordovician-age Utica Shale, geologic formations which have potential for natural gas development, underlie Wayne County and neighboring counties in northeastern Pennsylvania. In 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wayne Conservation District, conducted a study to assess baseline shallow groundwater quality in bedrock aquifers in Wayne County prior to potential extensive shale-gas development. The 2014 study expanded on previous, more limited studies that included sampling of groundwater from 2 wells in 2011 and 32 wells in 2013 in Wayne County. Eighty-nine water wells were sampled in summer 2014 to provide data on the presence of methane and other aspects of existing groundwater quality throughout the county, including concentrations of inorganic constituents commonly present at low levels in shallow, fresh groundwater but elevated in brines associated with fluids extracted from geologic formations during shale-gas development. Depths of sampled wells ranged from 85 to 1,300 feet (ft) with a median of 291 ft. All of the groundwater samples collected in 2014 were analyzed for bacteria, major ions, nutrients, selected inorganic trace constituents (including metals and other elements), radon-222, gross alpha- and gross beta-particle activity, selected man-made organic compounds (including volatile organic compounds and glycols), dissolved gases (methane, ethane, and propane), and, if sufficient methane was present, the isotopic composition of methane.Results of the 2014 study show that groundwater quality generally met most drinking-water standards, but some well-water samples had one or more constituents or properties, including arsenic, iron, pH, bacteria, and radon-222, that exceeded primary or secondary maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). Arsenic concentrations were higher than the MCL of 10 micrograms per liter (µg/L) in 4 of 89 samples (4.5 percent) with concentrations as high as 20 µg/L; arsenic

  8. Water resources and the hydrologic effects of coal mining in Washington County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Donald R.; Felbinger, John K.; Squillace, Paul J.

    1993-01-01

    Washington County occupies an area of 864 square miles in southwestern Pennsylvania and lies within the Pittsburgh Plateaus Section of the Appalachian Plateaus physiographic province. About 69 percent of the county population is served by public water-supply systems, and the Monongahela River is the source for 78 percent of the public-supply systems. The remaining 31 percent of the population depends on wells, springs, and cisterns for its domestic water supply. The sedimentary rocks of Pennsylvanian and Permian age that underlie the county include sandstone, siltstone, limestone, shale, and coal. The mean reported yield of bedrock wells ranges from 8.8 gallons per minute in the Pittsburgh .Formation to 46 gallons per minute in the Casselman Formation. Annual water-level fluctuations usually range from less than 3 ft (feet) beneath a valley to about 16 ft beneath a hilltop. Average hydraulic conductivity ranges from 0.01 to 18 ft per day. Water-level fluctuations and aquifer-test results suggest that most ground water circulates within 150 ft of land surface. A three-dimensional computer flow-model analysis indicates 96 percent of the total ground-water recharge remains in the upper 80 to 110 ft of bedrock (shallow aquifer system). The regional flow system (more than 250ft deep in the main valley) receives less than 0.1 percent of the total ground-water recharge from the Brush Run basin. The predominance of the shallow aquifer system is substantiated by driller's reports, which show almost all water bearing zones are less than 150ft below land surface. The modeling of an unmined basin showed that the hydrologic factors that govern regional groundwater flow can differ widely spatially but have little effect on the shallow aquifers that supply water to most domestic wells. However, the shallow aquifers are sensitive to hydrologic factors within this shallow aquifer system (such as ground-water recharge, hydraulic conductivity of the streamaquifer interface, and

  9. Pennsylvania Public Libraries and the Great Flood of 1936: Dark Clouds and Silver Linings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette A. Lear

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Great Flood of 1936 damaged thousands of buildings, ruined millions of dollars’ worth of infrastructure and personal property, and left thousands of citizens homeless in Pennsylvania. Among affected institutions were 14 public libraries that lost books and records and/or sustained structural damage during the flood. This article recounts the experiences of the four libraries with the largest claims: the Cambria Library (Johnstown, the Annie Halenbake Ross Library (Lock Haven, Milton Public Library, and the James V. Brown Library (Williamsport. Lessons learned, unexpected opportunities to reshape collections and services, and advancement of professional knowledge about conservation of water-soaked materials are discussed. In addition, the article provides details about the Pennsylvania Library Association’s successful pursuit of state rehabilitation funds for affected libraries. Although the Great Flood of 1936 was an experience that no one would wish to repeat, it represents some silver linings in terms of public library history.

  10. Arsenic concentrations, related environmental factors, and the predicted probability of elevated arsenic in groundwater in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Eliza L.; Low, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    Analytical results for arsenic in water samples from 5,023 wells obtained during 1969–2007 across Pennsylvania were compiled and related to other associated groundwater-quality and environmental factors and used to predict the probability of elevated arsenic concentrations, defined as greater than or equal to 4.0 micrograms per liter (µg/L), in groundwater. Arsenic concentrations of 4.0 µg/L or greater (elevated concentrations) were detected in 18 percent of samples across Pennsylvania; 8 percent of samples had concentrations that equaled or exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s drinking-water maximum contaminant level of 10.0 µg/L. The highest arsenic concentration was 490.0 µg/L.

  11. First Report of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Commercial Fruits and Vegetables in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Neelendra K.; Biddinger, David J.; Demchak, Kathleen; Deppen, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an invasive vinegar fly, was found for the first time in Adams County, Pennsylvania, in 2011. It was found in a commercial tart cherry orchard using apple cider vinegar (ACV) traps that were monitoring another invasive vinegar fly, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Coincidentally, the first record of D. suzukii found in Pennsylvania was also found in this same cherry orchard only 3 months earlier as part of a spotted wing drosophila survey effort in raspberry, blackberry, grape, and tart cherry in Adams County. These same crops plus blueberry and tomato were monitored again in 2012. In this article, adult Z. indianus captures in ACV traps and other traps deployed in the aforementioned crops during 2012 season are presented and the economic importance of Z. indianus is discussed. PMID:25434039

  12. First report of Zaprionus indianus (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in commercial fruits and vegetables in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Neelendra K; Biddinger, David J; Demchak, Kathleen; Deppen, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Zaprionus indianus (Gupta) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), an invasive vinegar fly, was found for the first time in Adams County, Pennsylvania, in 2011. It was found in a commercial tart cherry orchard using apple cider vinegar (ACV) traps that were monitoring another invasive vinegar fly, the spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae). Coincidentally, the first record of D. suzukii found in Pennsylvania was also found in this same cherry orchard only 3 months earlier as part of a spotted wing drosophila survey effort in raspberry, blackberry, grape, and tart cherry in Adams County. These same crops plus blueberry and tomato were monitored again in 2012. In this article, adult Z. indianus captures in ACV traps and other traps deployed in the aforementioned crops during 2012 season are presented and the economic importance of Z. indianus is discussed.

  13. Solar energy heating system design package for a single-family residence at New Castle, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-08-01

    The design of a solar heating and hot water system for the New Castle Redevelopment Authority's single-family dwelling located at New Castle, Pennsylvania is described. Documentation submitted by the contractor for Government review of plans, specifications, cost trade studies and verification status for approval to commit the system to fabrication is presented. Also included are system integration drawings, major subsystems drawings, and architect's specifications and plans.

  14. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer Fans, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-10-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS performed field testing in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to evaluate heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The team evaluated a market-available through-wall air transfer fan system that provides air to the bedrooms.The relative ability of this system was considered with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability.

  15. Swatara Creek basin of southeastern Pennsylvania--An evaluation of its hydrologic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Wilbur Tennant; Schneider, William J.; Crooks, James W.

    1967-01-01

    Local concentrations of population in the Swatara Creek basin of Pennsylvania find it necessary to store, transport, and treat water because local supplies are either deficient or have been contaminated by disposal of wastes in upstream areas. Water in the basin is available for the deficient areas and for dilution of the coal-mine drainage in the northern parts and the sewage wastes in the southern parts.

  16. The life style of the amish community in lancaster county " pennsylvania " 19 th century

    OpenAIRE

    BERRAHOUI, Nardjess

    2016-01-01

    Our research is about the Amish community in Lancaster Pennsylvania in the nineteenth century. This group of people believe that the community is at the heart of their life and faith and that the way to salvation is to live as a loving society apart from the world ,they help each other and the whole community members work together to help a member in trouble. The Amish stress simplicity and humility. They avoid anything associated with selfexaltation, pride of position or enjoy...

  17. Requirements Engineering and Analysis Workshop Proceedings Held in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on 12-14 March 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-01

    urally. 6.5 Summary of Current or Potential Approaches Many approaches to context analysis were discussed by the group, including: * Causal Trees * SWOT ...This could come in the form of a purchase at a shopping mall , buying lunch, or delivering a pizza. The estimated economic loss due to congestion has...Requirements Engineering and Analysis Work- shop in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, on March 12-14, 1991. The intention of the workshop was to focus (please turn

  18. Local spatial and temporal processes of influenza in Pennsylvania, USA: 2003-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H Stark

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Influenza is a contagious respiratory disease responsible for annual seasonal epidemics in temperate climates. An understanding of how influenza spreads geographically and temporally within regions could result in improved public health prevention programs. The purpose of this study was to summarize the spatial and temporal spread of influenza using data obtained from the Pennsylvania Department of Health's influenza surveillance system. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We evaluated the spatial and temporal patterns of laboratory-confirmed influenza cases in Pennsylvania, United States from six influenza seasons (2003-2009. Using a test of spatial autocorrelation, local clusters of elevated risk were identified in the South Central region of the state. Multivariable logistic regression indicated that lower monthly precipitation levels during the influenza season (OR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.28, 0.94, fewer residents over age 64 (OR = 0.27, 95% CI: 0.10, 0.73 and fewer residents with more than a high school education (OR = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.95 were significantly associated with membership in this cluster. In addition, time series analysis revealed a temporal lag in the peak timing of the influenza B epidemic compared to the influenza A epidemic. CONCLUSIONS: These findings illustrate a distinct spatial cluster of cases in the South Central region of Pennsylvania. Further examination of the regional transmission dynamics within these clusters may be useful in planning public health influenza prevention programs.

  19. Seasonal Population Fluctuation of Xiphinema americanum and X. rivesi in New York and Pennsylvania Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, B A; Harrison, M B; Shaffer, R L; Strang, M B

    1987-07-01

    The population fluctuation and composition of Xiphinema americanum (sensu stricto) and X. rivesi were studied in a New York apple orchard (only X. americanum present), a Pennsylvania apple orchard (both X. americanum and X. rivesi present), and a Pennsylvania peach orchard (X. americanum, X. rivesi, and X. californicum present). Few clear trends in population fluctuation or composition were observed. The adult female was the predominant stage in most sample periods, and the reproductive period was limited to late spring and early summer. Only a few of the females at any sample period were gravid. All stages were present throughout the year, and all stages overwintered. Eggs in soil were not monitored. In the Pennsylvania apple orchard, X. americanum and X. rivesi were easily separated by morphological characteristics; however, the two species did not display differences in population structure or composition. The predominance of adults, the relatively low reproductive rates, and the association of these species with stable habitats suggest that the life strategies of X. americanum and X. rivesi are K-selected as opposed to r-selected.

  20. Association of wintering raptors with Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program grasslands in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, A.; Brittingham, M.; Grove, G.

    2010-01-01

    Conservation grasslands can provide valuable habitat resource for breeding songbirds, but their value for wintering raptors has received little attention. We hypothesized that increased availability of grassland habitat through the Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) has resulted in an increase or redistribution in numbers of four species of raptors in Pennsylvania since 2001. We tested this by analyzing winter raptor counts from volunteer surveys, conducted from 2001 to 2008, for Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus), Northern Harriers (Circus cyaneus), and American Kestrels (Falco sparverius). During that period, numbers of wintering Northern Harriers increased by more than 20% per year. Log-linear Poisson regression models show that all four species increased in the region of Pennsylvania that had the most and longest-established conservation grasslands. At the county scale (N= 67), Bayesian spatial models showed that spatial and temporal population trends of all four species were positively correlated with the amount of conservation grassland. This relationship was particularly strong for Northern Harriers, with numbers predicted to increase by 35.7% per year for each additional 1% of farmland enrolled in CREP. Our results suggest that conservation grasslands are likely the primary cause of the increase in numbers of wintering Northern Harriers in Pennsylvania since 2001. ?? 2010 The Authors. Journal of Field Ornithology ?? 2010 Association of Field Ornithologists.

  1. Selecting target populations for ROPS retrofit programs in Pennsylvania and Vermont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, A M; Sorensen, J A; Foster, F; Myers, M; Murphy, D; Cook, G; May, J; Jenkins, P

    2013-07-01

    Agriculture has the highest injury and fatality rates when compared with other U.S. industries, and tractor overturns remain the leading cause of agricultural fatalities. Rollover protection structures (ROPS) are the only proven devices to protect a tractor operator in the event of an overturn. These devices are 99% effective when used with a seatbelt. Nearly 49% of tractors in the U.S. are not equipped with a ROPS. Interventions such as social marketing, community awareness campaigns, and financial incentives have been directed at encouraging farmers to install ROPS on their unprotected tractors. The purpose of this study was to conduct similar comparisons of ROPS protection and readiness to retrofit in different segments of the Vermont and Pennsylvania farm communities. A telephone survey was used to collect data on ROPS prevalence, farm demographic characteristics, and farmer's stage of change relative to installing ROPS on farm tractors. Our data provide new and unique information on the prevalence of ROPS-equipped tractors relative to commodity, farm size, and a variety of other demographic variables. Extrapolating from these data, the commodities studied account for roughly 162,072 tractors across the two states. Of these, 85,927 (53%) do not have ROPS. Of these unprotected tractors, 77,203 are in Pennsylvania and 8,724 are in Vermont. Our other two research questions dealt with the farmer's stage of change and possible ways to segment this population. The stage of change portion of our work demonstrates that most Pennsylvania and Vermont farmers are not contemplating ROPS retrofitting in the near future. Since no major differences were found in the stage of change, the number of unprotected tractors was examined for each of the commodity groups. In Pennsylvania, 29% of all unprotected tractors were found on cash crop farms. This trend was even more apparent on smaller farms than large farms. This led to the selection of smaller cash crop farms as the target

  2. Checklist of Ephemeroptera (Insecta from São Mateus River Basin, Espírito Santo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Batista Angeli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTIn order to expand the knowledge on the composition of Ephemeroptera from large rivers, we present, herein, the first survey of mayflies from the São Mateus River Basin, Espírito Santo State. Adults were collected biannually in 2012 and 2013 with the aid of Pennsylvania light trap in eleven points distributed in the main river of the river basin, São Mateus River and its two main tributaries, Cotaxé River (Braço Norte and Cricaré River (Braço Sul. Thirty-three species were identified (22 nominal and 11 morphospecies in 24 genera and five families. One genus and one species are reported for the first time from Brazil, three species from Southeastern Region of Brazil, and two species from the state. Five species and one genus not previously described were also found. Moreover, around 20% of the known species of mayfly registered from the state were found. This work reinforces the need to give more attention to research on large rivers due to the high potential for diversity, not only for Ephemeroptera, but also for other aquatic insects.

  3. River Morphology and River Channel Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Howard H

    2008-01-01

    River morphology has been a subject of great challenge to scientists and engineers who recognize that any effort with regard to river engineering must be based on a proper understanding of the morphological features involved and the responses to the imposed changes. In this paper,an overview of river morphology is presented from the geomorphic viewpoint. Included in the scope are the regime concept, river channel classification, thresholds in river morphology, and geomor-phic analysis of river responses. Analytical approach to river morphology based on the physical principles for the hydraulics of flow and sediment transport processes is also presented. The appli-cation of analytical river morphology is demonstrated by an example. Modeling is the modern tech-nique to determine both short-term and long-term river channel responses to any change in the en-vironment. The physical foundation of fluvial process-response must be applied in formatting a mathematical model. A brief introduction of the mathematical model FLUVIAL-12 is described.

  4. The Use of Numerical Modeling to Address Surface and Subsurface Water Contamination due to Fracwater Spills in Larry's Creek, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, C. A.; Arjmand, S.; Abad, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Because of its relatively low carbon dioxide emissions, natural gas is considered to be more efficient and environmentally friendly than other non-renewable fuels. As a result of this, among other factors, in recent years natural gas has become one of the world's primary energy sources. In the United States, drilling to extract natural gas has substantially increased over the past few years. In the Marcellus Shale, unconventional gas is currently extracted by using two new techniques: horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. Today, fracking fluids which have been applied as part of the hydraulic fracturing process to fracture the shale rock and release the gas, pose a major environmental concern. These fluids are highly contaminated with radionuclides and toxic metals and any exposure of this highly polluted water to surface water or soil could heavily contaminate the media. The area selected for the current study is the Larry's Creek, located in Lycoming County in Pennsylvania. Larry's Creek Watershed was adversely affected by coal and iron mines activities in the 19th century. Though, the water quality in this creek was considered to be good as of 2006. Recently, oil and gas drilling activities have raised concerns about the creek's water quality again. A major environmental hazard is the freshwater contamination by frac/flowback water. Drilling companies are using impoundments on site to keep fracwater, and to store and evaporate flowback water. However, these ponds may fail or leak due to construction problems and/or accidents. Close to Saladasburg, Larry's Creek's stream was observed running rich with clay in October 19, 2011. Historical measurements show very high turbidity during this period which has raised questions about water contamination by the gas industry activities in the upper stream of the watershed. An interstate watershed agency has reported spills in Wolf Run in different drilling sites in the Larry's Creek basin. The focus of this study

  5. Dissolved metals and associated constituents in abandoned coal-mine discharges, Pennsylvania, USA. Part 1: Constituent quantities and correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    Complete hydrochemical data are rarely reported for coal-mine discharges (CMD). This report summarizes major and trace-element concentrations and loadings for CMD at 140 abandoned mines in the Anthracite and Bituminous Coalfields of Pennsylvania. Clean-sampling and low-level analytical methods were used in 1999 to collect data that could be useful to determine potential environmental effects, remediation strategies, and quantities of valuable constituents. A subset of 10 sites was resampled in 2003 to analyze both the CMD and associated ochreous precipitates; the hydrochemical data were similar in 2003 and 1999. In 1999, the flow at the 140 CMD sites ranged from 0.028 to 2210 L s-1, with a median of 18.4 L s-1. The pH ranged from 2.7 to 7.3; concentrations (range in mg/L) of dissolved (0.45-??m pore-size filter) SO4 (34-2000), Fe (0.046-512), Mn (0.019-74), and Al (0.007-108) varied widely. Predominant metalloid elements were Si (2.7-31.3 mg L-1), B ( C > P = N = Se) were not elevated in the CMD samples compared to average river water or seawater. Compared to seawater, the CMD samples also were poor in halogens (Cl > Br > I > F), alkalies (Na > K > Li > Rb > Cs), most alkaline earths (Ca > Mg > Sr), and most metalloids but were enriched by two to four orders of magnitude with Fe, Al, Mn, Co, Be, Sc, Y and the lanthanide rare-earth elements, and one order of magnitude with Ni and Zn. The ochre samples collected at a subset of 10 sites in 2003 were dominantly goethite with minor ferrihydrite or lepidocrocite. None of the samples for this subset contained schwertmannite or was Al rich, but most contained minor aluminosilicate detritus. Compared to concentrations in global average shale, the ochres were rich in Fe, Ag, As and Au, but were poor in most other metals and rare earths. The ochres were not enriched compared to commercial ore deposits mined for Au or other valuable metals. Although similar to commercial Fe ores in composition, the ochres are dispersed and

  6. Qingjiang River Developer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    THE 400-kilometer Qingjiang River, second tributary of the Yangtze River in Hubei Province, has a drainage area of 17,000 square kilometers. Its advantageous natural conditions have made it a key water power development project.

  7. Illinois River NWFR HMP

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Illinois River National Wildlife and Fish Refuges Complex stretches along 124 miles of the Illinois River in west central Illinois. The Complex includes three...

  8. Allegheny County Major Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains locations of major rivers that flow through Allegheny County. These shapes have been taken from the Hydrology dataset. The Ohio River,...

  9. Iowa's Sovereign Meandered Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This data set depicts Iowa's Meandered Rivers. These rivers are deemed sovereign land & therefore require any person wishing to conduct construction activities...

  10. Efficacy of two canine distemper vaccines in wild Nearctic river otters (Lontra canadensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peper, Steven T; Peper, Randall L; Kollias, George V; Brooks, Robert P; Stevens, Sadie S; Serfass, Thomas L

    2014-09-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV), a contagious morbillivirus, infects families in the order Carnivora, including Nearctic river otters (Lontra canadensis). As a preventative measure, vaccinations against CDV are frequently given to mustelids in captive environments. The Pennsylvania River Otter Reintroduction Project (PRORP) used wild-caught river otters to evaluate the efficacy and need for vaccinations against CDV as part of any reintroduction project. The objectives of this study were to: 1) evaluate the prevalence of exposure to CDV in wild river otters, 2) determine the immunologic response of river otters (i.e., seroconversion) after vaccination with a single (primary) vaccine dose compared to a second (booster) dose of Galaxy-D, a modified live-virus canine distemper (CD) vaccine (MLV CDV), and 3) determine the immunologic response after being vaccinated with a primary vaccination compared to a booster dose of Fervac-D, an MLV CDV. River otters were injected subcutaneously in the nape of the neck with their designated vaccine. Timeframes for collection of blood samples and/or injection of booster vaccines varied depending on the parameters of PRORP. Ten of the 22 river otters had positive prevaccination titer levels to CD. Both vaccines, Galaxy-D and Fervac-D, produced sufficient seroconversion or rise of titer levels (86% and 57%, respectively) to recommend the use of vaccines in wild river otters. Future studies are recommended to evaluate currently produced CD vaccines. Future research should also focus on the number of days required between administration of primary and booster vaccines to achieve sufficient immune response. If only a primary dose is required, then hard-release reintroduction projects for river otters could be recommended. If primary and booster vaccines are required then soft-release reintroduction projects should be recommended. Soft-release projects should include captive management periods that allow for appropriate vaccination intervals

  11. A new cultural adaptation of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornazieri, Marco Aurélio; Doty, Richard L; Santos, Clayson Alan dos; Pinna, Fábio de Rezende; Bezerra, Thiago Freire Pinto; Voegels, Richard Louis

    2013-01-01

    The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test, a test of olfactory function that is widely used by otolaryngologists, geriatricians, and neurologists, has been translated into more than a dozen languages. In some instances, cultural and socioeconomic factors have necessitated changes in the odorant items or the response alternatives to make the test scores congruent with North American norms. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of Brazilian subjects on a new Portuguese language version of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test with their performance on an earlier Portuguese language version of the test, as well as to assess the influences of gender, age, ethnicity, and economic status on the test scores. Based on pilot data, several response alternatives of the earlier Portuguese language version of the test were altered in an effort to improve test performance. Forty-nine healthy Brazilian volunteers, who represented several economic classes, were tested. The test scores of the study cohort who received the newer version of the test were compared with those of a group of 25 subjects who received the earlier version of the test. The mean score for the new version [35 (2.1)] was significantly (p = 0.002) higher than that for the earlier version [32.5 (3.5)]. Although no apparent influence of socioeconomic status was observed, the female participants outperformed the male participants in the current subject cohort. The changes made in the new cultural adaptation of the Portuguese version of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test were effective in increasing the average test scores of the participants. Overall, the female subjects outperformed the male subjects on the test.

  12. Unionid bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) of Presque Isle Bay, Erie, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masteller, E.C.; Maleski, K.R.; Schloesser, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine species composition and relative abundance of unionid bivalves (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionidae) in Presque Isle Bay, Erie, Pennsylvania 1990-1992. This information was compared with data from the only other extensive survey of unionids in the bay conducted in 1909-1911 (Ortmann 1919) to assess changes over the 80 years preceding the present study. A total of 1,540 individuals representing 18 species were collected in 1990-1992. Five relatively common species (between 7 and 42% of total individuals), six uncommon species (2 and 6%), and seven rare species (<1%) were found. The rare species were Anodontoides ferussacianus, Lasmigona costata, Ligumia recta, Ptychobranchus fasciolaris, Quadrula pustulosa pustulosa, Strophitus undaulatus, and Truncilla donaciformis. Five of the species found in Presque Isle Bay (Leptodea fragilis, Ligumia nasuta, Potamilus alatus, Quadrula quadrula, and Truncilla donaciformis) are listed as critically imperiled and one species (Truncilla truncata) as extirpated in the State of Pennsylvania by the Western Pennsylvania Conservancy. Comparisons between unionid populations in 1909-1911 and 1990-1992 indicate few substantial changes occurred during the past 80 years. A total of 22 species were found; 21 in 1909-1911 and 18 in 1990-1992. Seventeen species were found in both studies, an additional four in 1909-1911 and one in 1990-1992. The relative abundance of 11 of the 17 species found in both studies remained stable (i.e., common or uncommon) over the past 80 years. Only four species listed as uncommon in 1909-1911 were listed as rare in 1990-1992. However, the invasion of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) is considered a threat to the continued existence of the entire Unionidae fauna in Presque Isle Bay, a unique habitat of the Great Lakes.

  13. Building America Case Study: Evaluating Through-Wall Air Transfer Fans, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-10-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS performed field testing in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania to evaluate heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) distribution systems during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. Four air-based HVAC distribution systems were assessed:-a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms. The relative ability of each system was considered with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  14. Production of 211At using the JSW BC3015 at the University of Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freifelder, R.; Kachur, A.; LeGeyt, B. C.; Schmitz, A.; Toto, L. C.

    2012-12-01

    Using 211At for targeted radiotherapy has long been discussed. We describe using 30 MeV α-particle beams accelerated with the Japan Steel Works, BC3015 cyclotron at the University of Pennsylvania with the goal of 211At-MABG production. Target manufacturing and cooling is discussed. Active beam monitoring using a beam-profile monitor ensures a uniform particle profile across the target. A head-on irradiation geometry is used. Cross calibrations and thick target yields will be presented. Extracted amounts of 211At from the target, and limits to the production of 210At and our MABG labeling results and yields will be discussed.

  15. Pennsylvania StreamStats--A web-based application for obtaining water-resource-related information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckey, Marla H.; Hoffman, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    StreamStats is a national web-based Geographic Information System (GIS) application, developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc., to provide a variety of water-resource-related information. Users can easily obtain descriptive information, basin characteristics, and streamflow statistics for USGS streamgages and ungaged stream locations throughout Pennsylvania. StreamStats also allows users to search upstream and (or) downstream from user-selected points to identify locations of and obtain information for water-resource-related activities, such as dams and streamgages.

  16. Legal obstacles and incentives to the development of small scale hydroelectric power in Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None,

    1980-05-01

    The legal and institutional obstacles to the development of small-scale hydroelectric energy at the state level are discussed. The Federal government also exercises extensive regulatory authority in the area, and the dual regulatory system from the standpoint of the appropriate legal doctrine, the law of pre-emption, application of the law to the case of hydroelectric development, and an inquiry into the practical use of the doctrine by the FERC is examined. In Pennsylvania, there are 3 methods by which rights in water may be acquired: riparian ownership, prescription, and condemnation. These are discussed.

  17. Technology Solutions Case Study: Capillary Break Beneath a Slab: Polyethylene Sheeting over Aggregate, Southwestern Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-07-01

    In this project, Building America team IBACOS worked with a builder of single- and multifamily homes in southwestern Pennsylvania (climate zone 5) to understand its methods of successfully using polyethylene sheeting over aggregate as a capillary break beneath the slab in new construction. This builder’s homes vary in terms of whether they have crawlspaces or basements. However, in both cases, the strategy protects the home from water intrusion via capillary action (e.g., water wicking into cracks and spaces in the slab), thereby helping to preserve the durability of the home.

  18. Impacts of natural gas mining on regional methane levels in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lembeck-Edens, A. M.; Fuentes, J. D.; Martins, D. K.; Grannas, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Increased natural gas exploration has been hypothesized to be a strong source of atmospheric methane, leading to enhanced regional methane levels. Fugitive methane emissions can result from leaky natural gas wells and pipelines. Pennsylvania is experiencing rapid natural gas well development and operation. In the Pennsylvania Marcellus Shale region, the density of natural gas wells is increasing. Therefore, a field study took place during 8 June to 6 August 2013 to investigate the magnitude of fugitive methane emissions near well sites and along established pipelines, as well as the spatial distribution of methane throughout Pennsylvania. The necessary instruments were mounted on a mobile platform (six-passenger van) to make transects running from southwestern to northeastern Pennsylvania where the highest density of wells is already established. Methane and carbon dioxide mixing ratios and their respective 13C isotopes were detected using a cavity ring-down spectrometer while the van was moving along pipelines or near natural gas well sites. Air sampling was done in areas away from natural well sites to establish the baseline of methane levels in the rural atmosphere. Also, air sampling took place around barns to distinguish the contribution of cattle to the atmospheric loading of methane. In the rural atmosphere, away from natural gas wells, methane levels remained around (baseline) 1.75 parts per millions (ppm). Methane levels in areas impacted by natural gas wells were higher than the baseline. Along pipelines, methane levels ranged from baseline levels of 1.75 ppm to 5.00 ppm. Near wells, plumes of methane-enriched air reached as high as 15.30 ppm. Although leaks from wells have been noted in previous studies, this investigation suggested that wells intermittently leaked methane. The main conclusion from the present study is that fugitive emissions from natural gas wells and pipelines contribute to enhancing the regional methane levels during daytime

  19. Heavy metals in white-tailed deer living near a zinc smelter in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, Louis; Beyer, W. Nelson

    1985-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus (Zimmermann)) shot within 20 km of the zinc smelters in the Palmerton, Pennsylvania area contained extremely high renal concentrations of cadmium (372 ppm dry weight (dw)) and zinc (600 ppm dw). The deer with the highest renal zinc concentration was shot 4 km from the smelters and had joint lesions similar to those seen in zinc-poisoned horses from the same area. The highest concentrations of lead in both hard and soft tissues were relatively low, 10.9 ppm dw in a sample of teeth, 17.4 ppm dw in a metacarpus, and 4.9 ppm dw in a kidney.

  20. In situ quantification of spatial and temporal variability of hyporheic exchange in static and mobile gravel-bed rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberry, Donald O.; Klos, P. Zion; Neal, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Seepage meters modified for use in flowing water were used to directly measure rates of exchange between surface and subsurface water in a gravel- and cobble bed river in western Pennsylvania, USA (Allegheny River, Q mean = 190 m 3/s) and a sand- and gravel-bed river in Colorado, USA (South Platte River, Q mean = 9??7 m 3/s). Study reaches at the Allegheny River were located downstream from a dam. The bed was stable with moss, algae, and river grass present in many locations. Median seepage was + 0??28 m/d and seepage was highly variable among measurement locations. Upward and downward seepage greatly exceeded the median seepage rate, ranging from + 2??26 (upward) to - 3??76 (downward) m/d. At the South Platte River site, substantial local-scale bed topography as well as mobile bedforms resulted in spatial and temporal variability in seepage greatly in exceedence of the median groundwater discharge rate of 0??24 m/d. Both upward and downward seepage were recorded along every transect across the river with rates ranging from + 2??37 to - 3??40 m/d. Despite a stable bed, which commonly facilitates clogging by fine-grained or organic sediments, seepage rates at the Allegheny River were not reduced relative to those at the South Platte River. Seepage rate and direction depended primarily on measurement position relative to local- and meso-scale bed topography at both rivers. Hydraulic gradients were small at nearly all seepage-measurement locations and commonly were not a good indicator of seepage rate or direction. Therefore, measuring hydraulic gradient and hydraulic conductivity at in-stream piezometers may be misleading if used to determine seepage flux across the sediment-water interface. Such a method assumes that flow between the well screen and sediment-water interface is vertical, which appears to be a poor assumption in coarse-grained hyporheic settings.

  1. Linking landscapes and habitat suitability scores for diadromous fish restoration in the susquehanna river basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocovsky, P.M.; Ross, R.M.; Dropkin, D.S.; Campbell, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Dams within the Susquehanna River drainage, Pennsylvania, are potential barriers to migration of diadromous fishes, and many are under consideration for removal to facilitate fish passage. To provide useful input for prioritizing dam removal, we examined relations between landscape-scale factors and habitat suitability indices (HSIs) for native diadromous species of the Susquehanna River. We used two different methods (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service method: Stier and Crance [1985], Ross et al. [1993a, 1993b, 1997], and Pardue [1983]; Pennsylvania State University method: Carline et al. [1994]) to calculate HSIs for several life stages of American shad Alosa sapidissima, alewives Alosa pseudoharengus, and blueback herring Alosa aestivalis and a single HSI for American eels Anguilla rostrata based on habitat variables measured at transects spaced every 5 km on six major Susquehanna River tributaries. Using geographical information systems, we calculated land use and geologic variables upstream from each transect and associated those data with HSIs calculated at each transect. We then performed canonical correlation analysis to determine how HSIs were linked to geologic and land use factors. Canonical correlation analysis identified the proportion of watershed underlain by carbonate rock as a positive correlate of HSIs for all species and life stages except American eels and juvenile blueback herring. We hypothesize that potential mechanisms linking carbonate rock to habitat suitability include increased productivity and buffering capacity. No other consistent patterns of positive or negative correlation between landscape-scale factors and HSIs were evident. This analysis will be useful for prioritizing removal of dams in the Susquehanna River drainage, because it provides a broad perspective on relationships between habitat suitability for diadromous fishes and easily measured landscape factors. This approach can be applied elsewhere to elucidate relationships

  2. Increased traffic accident rates associated with shale gas drilling in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jove; Irving, Jennifer; Tang, Xiaoqin; Sellers, Stephen; Crisp, Joshua; Horwitz, Daniel; Muehlenbachs, Lucija; Krupnick, Alan; Carey, David

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between shale gas drilling and motor vehicle accident rates in Pennsylvania. Using publicly available data on all reported vehicle crashes in Pennsylvania, we compared accident rates in counties with and without shale gas drilling, in periods with and without intermittent drilling (using data from 2005 to 2012). Counties with drilling were matched to non-drilling counties with similar population and traffic in the pre-drilling period. Heavily drilled counties in the north experienced 15-23% higher vehicle crash rates in 2010-2012 and 61-65% higher heavy truck crash rates in 2011-2012 than control counties. We estimated 5-23% increases in crash rates when comparing months with drilling and months without, but did not find significant effects on fatalities and major injury crashes. Heavily drilled counties in the southwest showed 45-47% higher rates of fatal and major injury crashes in 2012 than control counties, but monthly comparisons of drilling activity showed no significant differences associated with drilling. Vehicle accidents have measurably increased in conjunction with shale gas drilling. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Public perceptions of low-level waste risks -- Lessons learned in Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dornsife, W.; Serie, P.

    1989-11-01

    People in Pennsylvania are no different than citizens of other eastern states, other states, or any place in the world--they care most deeply about their health, the safety and security of their families, their investments, and their autonomy. How a particular risk is perceived depends on how it is believed to affect those valued possessions. The perception of risk from exposure to the radioactivity contained in low-level radioactive low-level waste disposal facility. The Commonwealth`s program, administered by the Department of Environmental Resources, places high priority on public dialogue on this issue. This paper discusses the Department`s program to develop and promulgate low-level waste regulations, provide a framework for selection of a qualified disposal facility operator, contract with the selected firm, and oversee its activities in siting, licensing, constructing, and operating the facility. This facility will meet the needs of the states of the Appalachian States Compact, including, in addition to Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Maryland, and Delaware. The focus of the paper is on the public information and outreach program accomplished to date, and the lessons learned regarding public perceptions of risk.

  4. Microbial Survey of Pennsylvania Surface Water Used for Irrigating Produce Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, Audrey D; Doores, Stephanie; Gourama, Hassan; LaBorde, Luke F

    2016-06-01

    Recent produce-associated foodborne illness outbreaks have been attributed to contaminated irrigation water. This study examined microbial levels in Pennsylvania surface waters used for irrigation, relationships between microbial indicator organisms and water physicochemical characteristics, and the potential use of indicators for predicting the presence of human pathogens. A total of 153 samples taken from surface water sources used for irrigation in southeastern Pennsylvania were collected from 39 farms over a 2-year period. Samples were analyzed for six microbial indicator organisms (aerobic plate count, Enterobacteriaceae, coliform, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and enterococci), two human pathogens (Salmonella and E. coli O157), and seven physical and environmental characteristics (pH, conductivity, turbidity, air and water temperature, and sampling day and 3-day-accumulated precipitation levels). Indicator populations were highly variable and not predicted by water and environmental characteristics. Only five samples were confirmed positive for Salmonella, and no E. coli O157 was detected in any samples. Predictive relationships between microbial indicators and the occurrence of pathogens could therefore not be determined.

  5. Long-term surveillance plan for the Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This document establishes elements of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, disposal site. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will use this plan in support of license issuance for the long-term surveillance of the Canonsburg site. The Canonsburg (CAN) site is located within the borough of Canonsburg, Washington County, in southwestern Pennsylvania. The Canonsburg site covers approximately 30 acres (74 hectares). The disposal cell contains approximately 226,000 tons (241,000 tons) of residual radioactive material (RRM). Area C is southeast of the Canonsburg site, between Strabane Avenue and Chartiers Creek. Contaminated soils were removed from Area C during the remedial action, and the area was restored with uncontaminated fill material.After this cleanup, residual quantities of thorium-230 were detected at several Area C locations. The remedial action plan did not consider the ingrowth of radium-226 from thorium-230 as part of the Area C cleanup, and only two locations contained sufficient thorium-230 concentrations to result in radium-226 concentrations slightly above the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards.

  6. Utilization of AMD sludges from the anthracite region of Pennsylvania for removal of phosphorus from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibrell, P.L.; Cravotta, C.A.; Lehman, W.G.; Reichert, W.

    2010-01-01

    Excess phosphorus (P) inputs from human sewage, animal feeding operations, and nonpoint source discharges to the environment have resulted in the eutrophication of sensitive receiving bodies of water such as the Great Lakes and Chesapeake Bay. Phosphorus loads in wastewater discharged from such sources can be decreased by conventional treatment with iron and aluminum salts but these chemical reagents are expensive or impractical for many applications. Acid mine drainage (AMD) sludges are an inexpensive source of iron and aluminum hydrous oxides that could offer an attractive alternative to chemical reagent dosing for the removal of P from local wastewater. Previous investigations have focused on AMD sludges generated in the bituminous coal region of western Pennsylvania, and confirmed that some of those sludges are good sorbents for P over a wide range of operating conditions. In this study, we sampled sludges produced by AMD treatment at six different sites in the anthracite region of Pennsylvania for potential use as P sequestration sorbents. Sludge samples were dried, characterized, and then tested for P removal from water. In addition, the concentrations of acid-extractable metals and other impurities were investigated. Test results revealed that sludges from four of the sites showed good P sorption and were unlikely to add contaminants to treated water. These results indicate that AMD sludges could be beneficially used to sequester P from the environment, while at the same time decreasing the expense of sludge disposal.

  7. Implementation of targeted medication adherence interventions within a community chain pharmacy practice: The Pennsylvania Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Jennifer L; McGrath, Stephanie Harriman; Pringle, Janice L; Maguire, Michelle A; McGivney, Melissa Somma

    2014-01-01

    To identify facilitators and barriers to implementing targeted medication adherence interventions in community chain pharmacies, and describe adaptations of the targeted intervention and organizational structure within each individual pharmacy practice. Qualitative study. Central and western Pennsylvania from February to April 2012. Rite Aid pharmacists staffed at the 118 Pennsylvania Project intervention sites. Qualitative analysis of pharmacists' perceptions of facilitators and barriers experienced, targeted intervention and organizational structure adaptations implemented, and training and preparation prior to implementation. A total of 15 key informant interviews were conducted from February to April 2012. Ten pharmacists from "early adopter" practices and five pharmacists from "traditionalist" practices were interviewed. Five themes emerged regarding the implementation of targeted interventions, including all pharmacists' need to understand the relationship of patient care programs to their corporation's vision; providing individualized, continual support and mentoring to pharmacists; anticipating barriers before implementation of patient care programs; encouraging active patient engagement; and establishing best practices regarding implementation of patient care services. This qualitative analysis revealed that there are a series of key steps that can be taken before the execution of targeted interventions that may promote successful implementation of medication therapy management in community chain pharmacies.

  8. Use of bioindicators and passive sampling devices to evaluate ambient ozone concentrations in north central Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuska, D.E.; Skelly, J.M.; Ferdinand, J.A.; Stevenson, R.E.; Savage, J.E.; Mulik, J.D.; Hines, A

    2003-09-01

    Passive samplers and bioindicator plants detect ozone air pollution in north central Pennsylvania. - Ambient concentrations of tropospheric ozone and ozone-induced injury to black cherry (Prunus serotina) and common milkweed (Asclepias syriaca) were determined in north central Pennsylvania from 29 May to 5 September 2000 and from 28 May to 18 September 2001. Ogawa passive ozone samplers were utilized within openings at 15 forested sites of which six were co-located with TECO model 49 continuous ozone monitors. A significant positive correlation was observed between the Ogawa passive samplers and the TECO model 49 continuous ozone monitors for the 2000 (r=0.959) and 2001 (r=0.979) seasons. In addition, a significant positive correlation existed in 2000 and 2001 between ozone concentration and elevation (r=0.720) and (r=0.802), respectively. Classic ozone-induced symptoms were observed on black cherry and common milkweed. In 2000, initial injury was observed in early June, whereas for the 2001 season, initial injury was initially observed in late June. During both seasons, injury was noted at most sites by mid- to late-July. Soil moisture potential was measured for the 2001 season and a significant positive relationship (P<0.001) showed that injury to black cherry was a function of cumulative ozone concentrations and available soil moisture.

  9. HPV vaccine attitudes and practices among primary care providers in Appalachian Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Nicole L; Clark, Allison D; Kluhsman, Brenda C; Lengerich, Eugene J

    2009-04-01

    The incidence of cervical cancer in Appalachia exceeds the national rate; rural Appalachian women are at especially high risk. We assessed the attitudes and practices related to human papillomavirus vaccination among providers in primary care practices in a contiguous 5-county area of Appalachian Pennsylvania. In December 2006 and May 2007, all family medicine, pediatric, and gynecology practices (n = 65) in the study area were surveyed by 2 faxed survey instruments. Of the 65 practices, 55 completed the first survey instrument. Of these 55, 44 offered the vaccine to their patients. Forty of the 44 practices offered it to girls and women aged 9 to 26 years, and 11 were willing to accept referrals from other practices for vaccination. The average reported charge for each of the 3 required injections was $150. Of the 55 practices that responded to the first survey instrument, 49 responded to the second survey instrument, 46 of which recommended the vaccine to their patients. The prevalence of offering the vaccine against human papillomavirus was high in this area of Appalachian Pennsylvania. Future interventions may focus on community education because the vaccine is available from most providers.

  10. Downflow limestone beds for treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden drainage from a flooded Anthracite Mine, Pennsylvania, USA: 1. Field evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.; Ward, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Passive-treatment systems that route acidic mine drainage (AMD) through crushed limestone and/or organic-rich substrates have been used to remove the acidity and metals from various AMD sources, with a wide range of effects. This study evaluates treatment of net-acidic, oxic, iron-laden AMD with limestone alone, and with organic-rich compost layered with the limestone. In the fall of 2003, a treatment system consisting of two parallel, 500-m2 downflow cells followed by a 400-m2 aerobic settling pond and wetland was installed to neutralize the AMD from the Bell Mine, a large source of AMD and baseflow to the Schuylkill River in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield, in east-central Pennsylvania. Each downflow cell consisted of a lower substrate layer of 1,090 metric tons (t) of dolomitic limestone (60 wt% CaCO3) and an upper layer of 300 t of calcitic limestone (95 wt% CaCO3); one of the downflow cells also included a 0.3 m thick layer of mushroom compost over the limestone. AMD with pH of 3.5-4.3, dissolved oxygen of 6.6-9.9 mg/L, iron of 1.9-5.4 mg/L, and aluminum of 0.8-1.9 mg/L flooded each cell to a depth 0.65 m above the treatment substrates, percolated through the substrates to underlying, perforated outflow pipes, and then flowed through the aerobic pond and wetland before discharging to the Schuylkill River. Data on the flow rates and chemistry of the effluent for the treatment system indicated substantial neutralization by the calcitic limestone but only marginal effects from the dolomitic limestone or compost. Because of its higher transmissivity, the treatment cell containing only limestone neutralized greater quantities of acidity than the cell containing compost and limestone. On average, the treatment system removed 62% of the influent acidity, 47% of the dissolved iron, 34% of the dissolved aluminum, and 8% of the dissolved manganese. Prior to treatment of the Bell Discharge, the Schuylkill River immediately below its confluence with the discharge had p

  11. Establishing a Social Media Presence and Network for the Pennsylvania Earth Science Teachers Association (PAESTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertin, L. A.; Merkel, C.

    2011-12-01

    In Spring 2011, the Pennsylvania Earth Science Teachers Association (PAESTA) became an official state chapter of the National Earth Science Teachers Association (NESTA). Established with funds from the National Science Foundation, PAESTA is focused on advancing, extending, improving, and coordinating all levels of Earth Science education in Pennsylvania. Our goal is to reach earth science educators across Pennsylvania and beyond who are not physically co-located. An early priority of this new organization was to establish a web presence (http://www.paesta.psu.edu/) and to build an online community to support PAESTA activities and members. PAESTA exists as a distributed group made up of educators across Pennsylvania. Many initial members were participants in summer Earth and space science workshops held at Penn State University, which has allowed for face-to-face connections and network building. PAESTA will hold sessions and a reception at the Pennsylvania Science Teachers Association annual conference. The work of the group also takes place virtually via the PAESTA organizational website, providing professional development opportunities and Earth Science related teaching resources and links. As PAESTA is still in the very early days of its formation, we are utilizing a variety of social media tools to disseminate information and to promote asynchronous discussions around Earth and space science topics and pedagogy. The site features discussion boards for members and non-members to post comments along a specific topic or theme. For example, each month the PAESTA site features an article from one of the National Science Teacher's Association (NSTA)'s journals and encourages teachers to discuss and apply the pedagogical approach or strategy from the article to their classroom situation. We send email blasts so that members learn about organizational news and professional development opportunities. We also leverage in-person training sessions and conference sessions

  12. A Guide to the University Museum Archives. University of Pennsylvania, prepared by Mary Elizabeth Ruwell and the staff of the University Museum Archives., The University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, 1984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas R. Givens

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available This book will be quite useful to researchers in the history of archaeology who find that The University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania a repository for materials that they need or wish to consult. The holdings of the University Museum Archives listed in this publication are organized according to a signed record group/geographic location.

  13. Wild and scenic river reports: Alagnak River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Alagnak and its major tributary the Novianuk River and their immediate surroundings possess the qualities necessary for inclusion in the National Wild and Scenic...

  14. The Imposition and Effects of Restitution in Four Pennsylvania Counties: Effects of Size of County and Specialized Collection Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruback, R. Barry; Shaffer, Jennifer N.; Logue, Melissa A.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined court records, probation records, and collection office records in four counties in Pennsylvania, which were chosen because they varied along two dimensions: (a) population size and (b) the use of specialized units for the collection of monetary sanctions. From each county, restitution-eligible cases were sampled from both 1994…

  15. Adult Learners in Higher Education: A Rural-Urban Analysis of Pennsylvania FAFSA Applicants' Educational, Demographic, and Financial Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Esther; Kassab, Cathy; Campbell, Kimeka

    2015-01-01

    This article paints a comprehensive portrait of the demographic, financial, and educational characteristics of Pennsylvania postsecondary students who are adult learners, and identifies rural-urban differences within this group. The study analyzed data from the 2010-11 Free Application for Federal Student Aid (n = 610,925), supplemented by…

  16. GED Recipients in Postsecondary Education: A Rural-Urban Analysis of Pennsylvania FAFSA Applicants' Educational, Demographic, and Financial Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prins, Esther; Kassab, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Transitions to postsecondary education for GED graduates are a growing concern for educators and policy makers. This article analyzes the educational, demographic, and financial characteristics of Pennsylvania postsecondary students with a GED credential compared with traditional high school graduates, and identifies rural-urban differences within…

  17. Historische Technikakzeptanz – als kontextualisierende Technikzukunftsforschung am Fallbeispiel der T1-Duplexklasse der Pennsylvania Railroad, 1942–1951

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunze, Rolf-Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essay presents the brief history of the last technological development of the steam age on US railroad tracks: the T1 duplex class of the Pennsylvania Railroad, 1942–1951. Referring to the methods of today’s technological assessment, the article is questioning a teleological interpretation of the last US passenger tratin steam locomotive as a failing innovation.

  18. Developing a Contemporary Dairy Foods Extension Program: A Training and Technical Resource Needs Assessment of Pennsylvania Dairy Foods Processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrko, Joseph; Kaylegian, Kerry E.

    2015-01-01

    Growth in the dairy industry and the passage of the Food Safety Modernization Act have renewed interest in dairy foods processing extension positions. A needs assessment survey was sent to Pennsylvania dairy processors and raw milk providers to guide priorities for a dairy foods extension program. The successful development and delivery of…

  19. After 25 years, what does the Pennsylvania Regeneration Study tell us about oak/hickory forests under stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. McWilliams; James A. Westfall; Patrick H. Brose; Shawn L. Lehman; Randall S. Morin; Todd E. Ristau; Alejandro A. Royo; Susan L. Stout

    2017-01-01

    The Pennsylvania Regeneration Study was initiated in 1989 because of concerns about a long history of stress on oak/hickory (Quercus/Carya) forests from herbivory and other factors. The study, which addresses the need for landscape-level information about regeneration quality and abundance, comprises a suite of regeneration indicator measurements...

  20. Food Safety Knowledge, Behavior, and Attitudes of Vendors of Poultry Products Sold at Pennsylvania Farmers' Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinberg, Joshua; Radhakrishna, Rama; Cutter, Catherine N.

    2013-01-01

    A needs assessment survey was developed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of poultry vendors at farmers' markets in Pennsylvania, on food safety, regulation, and poultry production. Vendors were administered a 32-question paper survey, in person, during market hours. The results revealed critical vendor practices and identified important…

  1. 77 FR 33303 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York.... 930 (order), which regulates the handling of tart cherries grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania... (77 FR 13015). This document directed that a referendum among tart cherry growers and processors...

  2. 75 FR 31719 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of... handling of tart cherries grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and... with respect to the proposed amendments to Marketing Order 930 regulating the handling of tart...

  3. 75 FR 33736 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York... regulates the handling of tart cherries grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington... amend Marketing Agreement and Order No. 930 (order) regulating the handling of tart cherries grown...

  4. Uniting Rural, Urban and Suburban America! Live Internet-Based Paraeducator and Teacher Training in Idaho, Utah, Delaware, and Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbush, David E.; Morgan, Robert L.

    This paper describes Project Impact*Net, a model project for delivering training to paraeducators and teachers in light of requirements of the No Child Left Behind Act. The project delivered four semester-length courses to instructional sites serving 69 participants in Delaware, Idaho, Pennsylvania, and Utah. The Project Impact*Net delivery system…

  5. Special Education "Preparation Gap": Perceptions of the Western Region Special Education Advisers Concerning Pennsylvania's Special Education Competencies for School Leaders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conner, Matthew Richard

    2012-01-01

    This study determines the strengths and weaknesses of the Special Education Competencies for School Leaders framework as adopted by the Pennsylvania Department of Education. The perspectives of Special Education Advisers (individuals with significant experience in serving students with disabilities) are gathered through semi-structured interviews.…

  6. Yellow River, Cradle of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    THE Yellow River is the Mother River of China. In the hearts of the Chinese people, it is not just an ancient river measuring 4,845 kilometers long that passes through nine provinces and regions, but also a symbol. The poets say that the waterway is the image of ancient China. Thephilosophers say the river is the shadow of a dragon. The river

  7. "Ghost river": The Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Gayton, D.

    2001-01-01

    Metadata only record This perspective piece examines the history and geography of the Columbia River and some current ecosystem management issues related to hydroelectric development on the river. Once the greatest salmon producer in the word, the Columbia has, according to the author, become a "ghost river," with its salmon runs reduced to remnants, and its ecological integrity hanging in the balance. The author suggests that British Columbians have much to lose, both biologically and cul...

  8. Down to the River

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wessels, Josepha Ivanka

    2015-01-01

    Currently there is no coherent or sustainable water cooperation among the five states—Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Palestinian territories and Syria—that share the Jordan River. Why do people not cooperate on sustainable river basin management, even if it seems the most rational course from...... to illustrate hydropolitics in praxis, because the political future of this particular area in many respects affects the sustainable future of the Jordan River Basin and the entire Levant....

  9. Investing in river health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J

    2002-01-01

    Rivers provide society with numerous returns. These relate to both the passive and extractive uses of the resources embodied in river environments. Some returns are manifest in the form of financial gains whilst others are non-monetary. For instance, rivers are a source of monetary income for those who harvest their fish. The water flowing in rivers is extracted for drinking and to water crops and livestock that in turn yield monetary profits. However, rivers are also the source of non-monetary values arising from biological diversity. People who use them for recreation (picnicking, swimming, boating) also receive non-monetary returns. The use of rivers to yield these returns has had negative consequences. With extraction for financial return has come diminished water quantity and quality. The result has been a diminished capacity of rivers to yield (non-extractive) environmental returns and to continue to provide extractive values. A river is like any other asset. With use, the value of an asset depreciates because its productivity declines. In order to maintain the productive capacity of their assets, managers put aside from their profits depreciation reserves that can be invested in the repair or replacement of those assets. Society now faces a situation in which its river assets have depreciated in terms of their capacity to provide monetary and non-monetary returns. An investment in river "repair" is required. But, investment means that society gives up something now in order to achieve some benefit in the future. Society thus has to grapple wih the choice between investing in river health and other investments--such as in hospitals, schools, defence etc. - as well as between investing in river health and current consumption--such as on clothes, food, cars etc. A commonly used aid for investment decision making in the public sector is benefit cost analysis. However, its usefulness in tackling the river investment problem is restricted because it requires all

  10. Near real time water resources data for river basin management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, R. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Twenty Data Collection Platforms (DCP) are being field installed on USGS water resources stations in the Delaware River Basin. DCP's have been successfully installed and are operating well on five stream gaging stations, three observation wells, and one water quality monitor in the basin. DCP's have been installed at nine additional water quality monitors, and work is progressing on interfacing the platforms to the monitors. ERTS-related water resources data from the platforms are being provided in near real time, by the Goddard Space Flight Center to the Pennsylvania district, Water Resources Division, U.S. Geological Survey. On a daily basis, the data are computer processed by the Survey and provided to the Delaware River Basin Commission. Each daily summary contains data that were relayed during 4 or 5 of the 15 orbits made by ERTS-1 during the previous day. Water resources parameters relays by the platforms include dissolved oxygen concentrations, temperature, pH, specific conductance, well level, and stream gage height, which is used to compute stream flow for the daily summary.

  11. River Corridors (Jan 2, 2015)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — River corridors are delineated to provide for the least erosive meandering and floodplain geometry toward which a river will evolve over time. River corridor maps...

  12. Geomorphic controls on mineral weathering, elemental transport, and production of mineral surface area in a schist bedrock weathering profile, Piedmont Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenell, B.; Yoo, K.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.; Mahoney, J. B.; Lepak, L.

    2013-12-01

    We assess a deep chemical weathering profile in the context of geomorphic evolution in the Laurels Schist, a late proterozoic greenschist formation in the Christina River Basin Critical Zone Observatory located in the Piedmont region in southeastern Pennsylvania. Two 21-meter deep rotosonic drill cores were sampled at the ridge top and footslope positions in a first-order, forested watershed. The top meter was sampled at high-resolution in a soil pit adjacent to each drill core and along a hillslope transect to assess geomorphic controls on the weathering profile. Weathering processes in soil and saprolite were examined by observing changes in mineralogy, including the emergence of secondary phyllosilicate and oxide minerals; measuring specific surface area of bulk soil and saprolite; and by quantifying elemental mass changes of major and minor rock-forming elements. Mineral profiles were assessed using clay and bulk XRD, and reveal that kaolinite, a common secondary phyllosilicate, is present above 1.5 meters in the weathering profile. Specific surface area (SSA) values decrease with increasing depth to a critical depth around 2 meters, where the values of untreated (carbon-loaded) and muffled (carbon removed by heating) mineral grains converge to baseline SSA values below 10 m2g-1, indicating that carbon is sorbed with mineral surface area in the upper 2 meters. Immobile element concentrations decrease with increasing depth up to 3 meters, indicating that the preferential removal of mobile elements extends beyond the depth of C-mineral adsorption. Variability of immobile elements in the deep weathering profile reveal variations that could be the result of weathering in fractures but are more likely inherited by the rock composition and particle size of pre-metamorphosed parent rock.

  13. Traits and Training: Attributes and Skills of Pennsylvania Academic Library Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russell A. Hall

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available What makes a good library manager? Is a good library manager born or bred?  To find out, Pennsylvania academic library managers were surveyed to determine their education and training backgrounds. The survey also illuminates the skills and personal traits these managers find most important in managing an academic library. Interpersonal skills and integrity were found to be the most important traits for an academic library manager to possess. Human resources and personnel issues were found to be the most difficult issues faced by academic library managers. In addition to presenting a snapshot of what today’s academic library leadership qualifications look like, the study will also provide future managers with an idea of what sort of training they should be seeking.

  14. The history of dermatology at the Woman’s Medical College of Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika E. Reid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is little written about the history of women in dermatology. In this paper, we summarize the information obtained from archival records from the Woman’s Medical College of Pennsylvania, one of the first medical schools for women, where several of the early prominent women in dermatology obtained their medical degrees and practiced. Among others, graduates include Rose Hirschler, MD, and Margaret Gray Wood, MD. The school and its graduates made important contributions to dermatology and to the advancement of women in the field. The history of women in dermatology is not well documented, and this historical research provides background in the biographies of pioneering women in an effort to preserve and honor their important work.

  15. Geographic and temporal prevalence of Baylisascaris procyonis in raccoons (Procyon lotor) in Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Walter O; Heagy, Robin L; Johnson, Joshua B; Marcantuno, Richard; Nolan, Thomas J

    2014-10-01

    In autumn of 2010 we collected fecal samples from the rectums of 89 trapped or road-killed Pennsylvania raccoons (Procyon lotor). Similar samples were collected in the summer and autumn of 2011 from 383 raccoons. Fecal samples were stored in 10% formalin until examined. Using saturated sugar flotation and a direct smear, we found Baylisascaris procyonis eggs in 38% of 2010 samples and 32.9% of 2011 samples. Prevalence in raccoons was greater in autumn than in summer and greater in juveniles than in adults; there was not a statistically significant difference between sexes. Infected raccoons were found in 54 of the 65 counties from which samples were recovered (a mean of 5.9 [range 1-12] raccoons were examined per county). The prevalences were similar in all regions of the state.

  16. Small Wind Electric Systems: A Pennsylvania Consumer's Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-08-01

    Small Wind Electric Systems: A Pennsylvania Consumer's Guide provides consumers with information to help them determine whether a small wind electric system can provide all or a portion of the energy they need for their home or business based on their wind resource, energy needs, and their economics. Topics discussed in the guide include how to make a home more energy efficient, how to choose the correct turbine size, the parts of a wind electric system, how to determine whether enough wind resource exists, how to choose the best site for a turbine, how to connect a system to the utility grid, and whether it's possible to become independent of the utility grid using wind energy. In addition, the cover of the guide contains a list of contacts for more information.

  17. Capital Sentencing: The Effect of Adding Aggravators to Death Penalty Statutes in Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Schultz Newman

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The birthplace of the American republic—the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania—has historically been at the forefront of the capital punishment legislation in the United States. It was the first colony in the Union to abolish the death penalty for all crimes with the exception of murder. It was the first to set forth a statutory distinction between different degrees of criminal homicide, confining imposition of capital punishment to the most chilling form of this crime—“willful, deliberate, and premeditated killing.” With this storied history in mind, we have undertaken the task of examining the current state of the death penalty in the Commonwealth. Hence, in Part II of this Article, we set forth a detailed history of the capital sentencing scheme in Pennsylvania. Part III undertakes a statistical study of the imposition of the death penalty in the Commonwealth from 1978 until 1997. In Part IV, we conclude by summing up our general observations.

  18. System manual for the University of Pennsylvania retrofitted solar heated Philadelphia row home (SolaRow)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinnes, I.; Lior, N.

    1980-05-01

    The University of Pennsylvania SolaRow house, an urban row home retrofitted for comfort and domestic hot water heating, was extensively instrumented for performance monitoring and acquisition of weather and solar radiation data. This report describes the heating and instrumentation systems, provides the details for instrumentation, piping and valve identification, and specifies the operation and maintenance of the heating and data acquisition systems. The following are included: (1) system flow diagrams; (2) valve and cable identification tables; (3) wiring diagrams; and (4) start-up, normal operation, shut-down, maintenance and trouble-shooting procedures. It thus provides the necessary technical information to permit system operation and monitoring, overall system performance analysis and optimization, and acquisition of climatological data.

  19. Concentrations of Selected Pharmaceuticals and Antibiotics in South-Central Pennsylvania Waters, March through September 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loper, Connie A.; Crawford, J. Kent; Otto, Kim L.; Manning, Rhonda L.; Meyer, Michael T.; Furlong, Edward T.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents environmental and quality-control data from analyses of 15 pharmaceutical and 31 antibiotic compounds in water samples from streams and wells in south-central Pennsylvania. The analyses are part of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) to define concentrations of selected emerging contaminants in streams and well water in Pennsylvania. Sampling was conducted at 11 stream sites and at 6 wells in 9 counties of south-central Pennsylvania. Five of the streams received municipal wastewater and 6 of the streams received runoff from agricultural areas dominated by animal-feeding operations. For all 11 streams, samples were collected at locations upstream and downstream of the municipal effluents or animal-feeding operations. All six wells were in agricultural settings. A total of 120 environmental samples and 21 quality-control samples were analyzed for the study. Samples were collected at each site in March/April, May, July, and September 2006 to obtain information on changes in concentration that could be related to seasonal use of compounds. For streams, 13 pharmaceuticals and 11 antibiotics were detected at least 1 time. Detections included analytical results that were estimated or above the minimum reporting limits. Seventy-eight percent of all detections were analyzed in samples collected downstream from municipal-wastewater effluents. For streams receiving wastewater effluents, the pharmaceuticals caffeine and para-xanthine (a degradation product of caffeine) had the greatest concentrations, 4.75 ug/L (micrograms per liter) and 0.853 ug/L, respectively. Other pharmaceuticals and their respective maximum concentrations were carbamazepine (0.516 ug/L) and ibuprofen (0.277 ug/L). For streams receiving wastewater effluents, the antibiotic azithromycin had the greatest concentration (1.65 ug/L), followed by sulfamethoxazole (1.34 ug/L), ofloxacin (0.329 ug

  20. Yersinia enterocolitica infections associated with improperly pasteurized milk products: southwest Pennsylvania, March-August, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longenberger, A H; Gronostaj, M P; Yee, G Y; Johnson, L M; Lando, J F; Voorhees, R E; Waller, K; Weltman, A C; Moll, M; Lyss, S B; Cadwell, B L; Gladney, L M; Ostroff, S M

    2014-08-01

    In July 2011, a cluster of Yersinia enterocolitica infections was detected in southwestern Pennsylvania, USA. We investigated the outbreak's source and scope in order to prevent further transmission. Twenty-two persons were diagnosed with yersiniosis; 16 of whom reported consuming pasteurized dairy products from dairy A. Pasteurized milk and food samples were collected from this dairy. Y. enterocolitica was isolated from two products. Isolates from both food samples and available clinical isolates from nine dairy A consumers were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Environmental and microbiological investigations were performed at dairy A and pasteurization deficiencies were noted. Because consumption of pasteurized milk is common and outbreaks have the potential to become large, public health interventions such as consumer advisories or closure of the dairy must be implemented quickly to prevent additional cases if epidemiological or laboratory evidence implicates pasteurized milk as the outbreak source.

  1. Characterization of methane plumes downwind of natural gas compressor stations in Pennsylvania and New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Bryce F; Ackley, Robert; Paige Wicker, A; Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Carlton, Doug D; Schug, Kevin A

    2017-02-15

    The extraction of unconventional oil and natural gas from shale energy reservoirs has raised concerns regarding upstream and midstream activities and their potential impacts on air quality. Here we present in situ measurements of ambient methane concentrations near multiple natural gas compressor stations in New York and Pennsylvania using cavity ring-down laser spectrometry coupled with global positioning system technology. These data reveal discernible methane plumes located proximally to compressor stations, which exhibit high variability in their methane emissions depending on the weather conditions and on-site activities. During atmospheric temperature inversions, when near-ground mixing of the atmosphere is limited or does not occur, residents and properties located within 1 mile of a compressor station can be exposed to rogue methane from these point sources. These data provide important insight into the characterization and potential for optimization of natural gas compressor station operations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Trend Analyses of Users of a Syringe Exchange Program in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: 1999-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Laurie A; Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Ye, Du; Benitez, José; Mazzella, Silvana; Krafty, Robert

    2016-12-01

    This study examines trends of injection drug users' (IDUs) use of a Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, syringe exchange program (SEP) from 1999 to 2014, including changes in demographics, drug use, substance abuse treatment, geographic indicators, and SEP use. Prevention Point Philadelphia's SEP registration data were analyzed using linear regression, Pearson's Chi square, and t-tests. Over time new SEP registrants have become younger, more racially diverse, and geographically more concentrated in specific areas of the city, corresponding to urban demographic shifts. The number of new registrants per year has decreased, however syringes exchanged have increased. Gentrification, cultural norms, and changes in risk perception are believed to have contributed to the changes in SEP registration. Demographic changes indicate outreach strategies for IDUs may need adjusting to address unique barriers for younger, more racially diverse users. Implications for SEPs are discussed, including policy and continued ability to address current public health threats.

  3. Effects of spray-irrigated municipal wastewater on a small watershed in Chester County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreffler, Curtis L.; Galeone, Daniel G.

    2005-01-01

    Spray irrigation is a method for disposing of secondary treated municipal wastewater by spraying it on the land surface (fig. 1). The sprayed wastewater either evaporates into the air, soaks into the soil, or percolates through the soil and recharges the ground water. Land application of wastewater has advantages over conventional means of disposal by direct discharge to streams because the wastewater recharges the ground-water system and increases base flow in streams. Additional benefits are derived from the "natural" treatment of the wastewater that takes place in the soil when plants and other biota remove some nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from the wastewater (Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, 2003). The removal of nutrients is one advantage spray irrigation has to conventional disposal methods like instream discharge.

  4. Reflections on the public interpretation of regional environmental history in western Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoc, Chris J

    2014-08-01

    This essay attempts to counter the scarcity of efforts to address issues of natural resource extraction and environmental exploitation in public history forums. Focused on western Pennsylvania, it argues that the history of industrial development and its deleterious environmental impacts demands a regional vision that not only frames these stories within the ideological and economic context of the past, but also challenges residents and visitors to consider this history in light of the related environmental concerns of our own time. The essay explores some of the difficult issues faced by public historians and practitioners as they seek to produce public environmental histories that do not elude opportunities to link past and present in meaningful ways.

  5. Meltwater channel scars and the extent of Mid-Pleistocene glaciation in central Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Ben

    2017-10-01

    High-resolution digital topographic data permit morphological analyses of glacial processes in detail that was previously infeasible. High-level glaciofluvial erosional scars in central Pennsylvania, identified and delimited using LiDAR data, define the approximate ice depth during a pre-Wisconsin advance, > 770,000 BP, on a landscape unaffected by Wisconsin glaciation. Distinctive scars on the prows of anticlinal ridges at 175-350 m above the valley floor locate the levels of subice meltwater channels. A two-component planar GIS model of the ice surface is derived using these features and intersected with a digital model of contemporary topography to create a glacial limit map. The map is compared to published maps, demonstrating the limits of conventional sediment-based mapping. Additional distinctive meltwater features that were cut during deglaciation are modeled in a similar fashion.

  6. Principals' attitudes regarding inclusion of children with autism in Pennsylvania public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrocks, Judy L; White, George; Roberts, Laura

    2008-09-01

    This study sought to identify the attitudes that principals held regarding the inclusion of students with disabilities, and the relationship between their attitudes and their placement recommendations for children with autism and to identify the relationship between specific demographic factors and attitudes toward inclusion and placement. A stratified random sample was drawn from the active list of 3,070 principals in the Pennsylvania public schools. From 1,500 surveys, 571 principal responses were received. The most significant factor in predicting both a positive attitude toward inclusion of children with disabilities and higher recommendations of placements for children with autism was the principal's belief that children with autism could be included in a regular education classroom.

  7. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Lackawanna and Wayne Counties, Pennsylvania, 2004-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milheim, L.E.; Slonecker, E.T.; Roig-Silva, C.M.; Malizia, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing unconventional hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, have led to an intense effort to find and extract natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is currently undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus Shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in this area of Pennsylvania. Conventional natural gas wells, which sometimes use the same technique, are commonly located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and are frequently developed in clusters across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Lackawanna County and Wayne County in Pennsylvania between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics is also used to quantify these changes and is included in this publication.

  8. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Sullivan and Wyoming Counties, Pennsylvania, 2004–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, Terry E.; Milheim, Lesley E.; Roig-Silva, Coral M.; Malizia, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing unconventional hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, have led to an intense effort to find and extract natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is currently undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus Shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in this area of Pennsylvania. Conventional natural gas wells, which sometimes use the same technique, are commonly located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and are frequently developed in clusters across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Sullivan County and Wyoming County in Pennsylvania between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics is also used to quantify these changes and is included in this publication.

  9. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Beaver and Butler Counties, Pennsylvania, 2004-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig-Silva, Coral M.; Slonecker, E. Terry; Milheim, Lesley E.; Malizia, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing unconventional hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, have led to an intense effort to find and extract natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is currently undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus Shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in this area of Pennsylvania. Conventional natural gas wells, which sometimes use the same technique, are commonly located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and are frequently developed in clusters across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Beaver County and Butler County in Pennsylvania between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics is also used to quantify these changes and is included in this publication.

  10. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Fayette and Lycoming Counties, Pennsylvania, 2004–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E.T.; Milheim, L.E.; Roig-Silva, C.M.; Malizia, A.R.; Gillenwater, B.H.

    2013-01-01

    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing unconventional hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, have led to an intense effort to find and extract natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is currently undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus Shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in this area of Pennsylvania. Conventional natural gas wells, which sometimes use the same technique, are commonly located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and are frequently developed in clusters across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Fayette County and Lycoming County in Pennsylvania between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics is also used to quantify these changes and is included in this publication.

  11. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Greene and Tioga Counties, Pennsylvania, 2004-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E.T.; Milheim, L.E.; Roig-Silva, C.M.; Fisher, G.B.

    2012-01-01

    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing unconventional hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, have led to an intense effort to find and extract natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is currently undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in the area of Pennsylvania. Coalbed methane, which is sometimes extracted using the same technique, is commonly located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and is frequently developed in clusters across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Greene County and Tioga County in Pennsylvania between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics are also used to quantify these changes and are included in this publication.

  12. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Bradford and Washington Counties, Pennsylvania, 2004-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E.T.; Milheim, L.E.; Roig-Silva, C.M.; Malizia, A.R.; Marr, D.A.; Fisher, G.B.

    2012-01-01

    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing unconventional hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, led to an intense effort to find and extract natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus Shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in the area of Pennsylvania. Coalbed methane, which is sometimes extracted using the same technique, is often located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and is frequently developed in clusters across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Bradford County and Washington County, Pennsylvania, between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics is used to quantify these changes and are included in this publication.

  13. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Allegheny and Susquehanna Counties, Pennsylvania, 2004--2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, E.T.; Milheim, L.E.; Roig-Silva, C.M.; Malizia, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing unconventional hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, have led to an intense effort to find and extract natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is currently undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus Shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in this area of Pennsylvania. Coalbed methane, which is sometimes extracted using the same technique, is commonly located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and is frequently developed in clusters of wells across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Allegheny County and Susquehanna County in Pennsylvania between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics is also used to quantify these changes and is included in this publication.

  14. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Armstrong and Indiana Counties, Pennsylvania, 2004–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slonecker, Terry E.; Milheim, Lesley E.; Roig-Silva, Coral M.; Malizia, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing unconventional hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, have led to an intense effort to find and extract natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is currently undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus Shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in this area of Pennsylvania. Conventional natural gas wells are commonly located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and are frequently developed in clusters across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Armstrong County and Indiana County in Pennsylvania between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics is also used to quantify these changes and is included in this publication.

  15. Statewide assessment of local wellness policies in Pennsylvania public school districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probart, Claudia; McDonnell, Elaine; Weirich, J Elaine; Schilling, Lisa; Fekete, Vonda

    2008-09-01

    With the passage of the Child Nutrition and Women, Infants, and Children Reauthorization Act of 2004, schools that sponsor school meals programs are required to establish local wellness policies to address childhood obesity. Little is known about how school districts will respond to this mandate, the nature of local wellness policies, and their compliance with this mandate. The objectives of this cross-sectional descriptive study, conducted in early 2007, were to assess local wellness policies established by Pennsylvania public school districts, compare these policies to local wellness policy mandate requirements, and provide information about local wellness policy development and implementation. Local wellness policies were collected from all Pennsylvania public school districts that sponsor school meals programs (N=499). School district representatives also completed and submitted a local wellness policy checklist, providing information about local wellness policy development and implementation. Policy goal data were abstracted and entered into a Microsoft Access database along with local wellness policy data. Frequencies were calculated. All required public school districts (N=499) submitted local wellness policies. Most school district local wellness policies (85.6%-100%) met each mandate requirement (eg, included goals for nutrition education, physical activity, etc.). The most common policy goals were general and may be difficult to measure, suggesting school staff may need assistance developing action plans and measuring policy implementation. Most respondents identified the superintendent (n=377; 75.6%) and school foodservice director (n=301; 60.3%) as responsible for ensuring local wellness policy implementation. Questions remain about feasibility of these district-level personnel to ensure policy implementation at the school level. The ability of local wellness policies to impact childhood obesity will depend on efforts at both the school and district

  16. Landscape consequences of natural gas extraction in Somerset and Westmoreland Counties, Pennsylvania,2004--2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milheim, L.E.; Slonecker, E.T.; Roig-Silva, C.M.; Malizia, A.R.

    2013-01-01

    Increased demands for cleaner burning energy, coupled with the relatively recent technological advances in accessing unconventional hydrocarbon-rich geologic formations, have led to an intense effort to find and extract natural gas from various underground sources around the country. One of these sources, the Marcellus Shale, located in the Allegheny Plateau, is currently undergoing extensive drilling and production. The technology used to extract gas in the Marcellus Shale is known as hydraulic fracturing and has garnered much attention because of its use of large amounts of fresh water, its use of proprietary fluids for the hydraulic-fracturing process, its potential to release contaminants into the environment, and its potential effect on water resources. Nonetheless, development of natural gas extraction wells in the Marcellus Shale is only part of the overall natural gas story in this area of Pennsylvania. Conventional natural gas wells, which sometimes use the same technique, are commonly located in the same general area as the Marcellus Shale and are frequently developed in clusters across the landscape. The combined effects of these two natural gas extraction methods create potentially serious patterns of disturbance on the landscape. This document quantifies the landscape changes and consequences of natural gas extraction for Somerset County and Westmoreland County in Pennsylvania between 2004 and 2010. Patterns of landscape disturbance related to natural gas extraction activities were collected and digitized using National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery for 2004, 2005/2006, 2008, and 2010. The disturbance patterns were then used to measure changes in land cover and land use using the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) of 2001. A series of landscape metrics is also used to quantify these changes and is included in this publication.

  17. Just fracking: a distributive environmental justice analysis of unconventional gas development in Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clough, Emily; Bell, Derek

    2016-02-01

    This letter presents a distributive environmental justice analysis of unconventional gas development in the area of Pennsylvania lying over the Marcellus Shale, the largest shale gas formation in play in the United States. The extraction of shale gas using unconventional wells, which are hydraulically fractured (fracking), has increased dramatically since 2005. As the number of wells has grown, so have concerns about the potential public health effects on nearby communities. These concerns make shale gas development an environmental justice issue. This letter examines whether the hazards associated with proximity to wells and the economic benefits of shale gas production are fairly distributed. We distinguish two types of distributive environmental justice: traditional and benefit sharing. We ask the traditional question: are there a disproportionate number of minority or low-income residents in areas near to unconventional wells in Pennsylvania? However, we extend this analysis in two ways: we examine income distribution and level of education; and we compare before and after shale gas development. This contributes to discussions of benefit sharing by showing how the income distribution of the population has changed. We use a binary dasymetric technique to remap the data from the 2000 US Census and the 2009-2013 American Communities Survey and combine that data with a buffer containment analysis of unconventional wells to compare the characteristics of the population living nearer to unconventional wells with those further away before and after shale gas development. Our analysis indicates that there is no evidence of traditional distributive environmental injustice: there is not a disproportionate number of minority or low-income residents in areas near to unconventional wells. However, our analysis is consistent with the claim that there is benefit sharing distributive environmental injustice: the income distribution of the population nearer to shale gas wells

  18. Organic and inorganic composition and microbiology of produced waters from Pennsylvania shale gas wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akob, Denise M.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.; Dunlap, Darren S.; Rowan, Elisabeth L.; Lorah, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulically fractured shales are becoming an increasingly important source of natural gas production in the United States. This process has been known to create up to 420 gallons of produced water (PW) per day, but the volume varies depending on the formation, and the characteristics of individual hydraulic fracture. PW from hydraulic fracturing of shales are comprised of injected fracturing fluids and natural formation waters in proportions that change over time. Across the state of Pennsylvania, shale gas production is booming; therefore, it is important to assess the variability in PW chemistry and microbiology across this geographical span. We quantified the inorganic and organic chemical composition and microbial communities in PW samples from 13 shale gas wells in north central Pennsylvania. Microbial abundance was generally low (66–9400 cells/mL). Non-volatile dissolved organic carbon (NVDOC) was high (7–31 mg/L) relative to typical shallow groundwater, and the presence of organic acid anions (e.g., acetate, formate, and pyruvate) indicated microbial activity. Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were detected in four samples (∼1 to 11.7 μg/L): benzene and toluene in the Burket sample, toluene in two Marcellus samples, and tetrachloroethylene (PCE) in one Marcellus sample. VOCs can be either naturally occurring or from industrial activity, making the source of VOCs unclear. Despite the addition of biocides during hydraulic fracturing, H2S-producing, fermenting, and methanogenic bacteria were cultured from PW samples. The presence of culturable bacteria was not associated with salinity or location; although organic compound concentrations and time in production were correlated with microbial activity. Interestingly, we found that unlike the inorganic chemistry, PW organic chemistry and microbial viability were highly variable across the 13 wells sampled, which can have important implications for the reuse and handling of these fluids

  19. Evaluation of selected wells in Pennsylvania's observation-well program as of 1993

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    In 1993, the U.S. Geological Survey operated 62 observation wells in 60 of Pennsylvania's 67 counties in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources. These wells attempt to monitor an aerial extent of 45,000 square miles and penetrate 39 geologic formations or water-bearing units of 14 physiographic provinces. Some wells were drilled specifically for the observation-well program, some were drilled for other U.S. Geological Survey projects, and some were drilled for other purposes and were no longer used. Approximately 3 percent of the network wells have less than 5 years of record, 5 percent have 5 to 15 years of record, and 92 percent have greater than 15 years of record. The older the observation well, the greater the possibility of water levels being affected by physical deterioration of the borehole. Therefore, it is necessary to periodically conduct a series of physical, chemical, and hydraulic tests to determine changes in the physical condition of the well and local land-use practices that may affect water-level response. Nineteen wells were selected for evaluation on the basis of past questionable water-level responses. These wells were evaluated for functionality by analyzing historical water-level fluctuations, geophysical logs, single-well aquifer tests, and water-quality analyses. These parameters indicated that well Je-23 (Jefferson County) is affected by coal-mine pumpage, well Bt-311 (Butler County) is periodically affected by strip mine activities, well Gr-118 (Greene County) and Mc-110 (McKean County exhibit unexplained fluctuations not desirable for an observation well, and 15 wells show no obvious problems or degradation that would affect their functionality to monitor natural water-level fluctuations.

  20. Survival after acute hemodialysis in Pennsylvania, 2005-2007: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Ramer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about acute hemodialysis in the US. Here we describe predictors of receipt of acute hemodialysis in one state and estimate the marginal impact of acute hemodialysis on survival after accounting for confounding due to illness severity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of acute-care hospitalizations in Pennsylvania from October 2005 to December 2007 using data from the Pennsylvania Health Care Cost Containment Council. Exposure variable is acute hemodialysis; dependent variable is survival following acute hemodialysis. We used multivariable logistic regression to determine propensity to receive acute hemodialysis and then, for a Cox proportional hazards model, matched acute hemodialysis and non-acute hemodialysis patients 1∶5 on this propensity. RESULTS: In 2,131,248 admissions of adults without end-stage renal disease, there were 6,657 instances of acute hemodialysis. In analyses adjusted for predicted probability of death upon admission plus other covariates and stratified on age, being male, black, and insured were independent predictors of receipt of acute hemodialysis. One-year post-admission mortality was 43% for those receiving acute hemodialysis, compared to 13% among those not receiving acute hemodialysis. After matching on propensity to receive acute hemodialysis and adjusting for predicted probability of death upon admission, patients who received acute hemodialysis had a higher risk of death than patients who did not over at least 1 year of follow-up (hazard ratio 1·82, 95% confidence interval 1·68-1·97. CONCLUSIONS: In a populous US state, receipt of acute hemodialysis varied by age, sex, race, and insurance status even after adjustment for illness severity. In a comparison of patients with similar propensity to receive acute hemodialysis, those who did receive it were less likely to survive than those who did not. These findings raise questions about reasons for lack of

  1. Characterization of Waste Tar Associated with Abandoned Wood Chemical Plant Sites in Northwest Pennsylvania, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edendorn, H.M.; Severson, D. (Allegheny Institute of Natural History, Bradford, PA)

    2007-07-01

    Over 70 wood chemical plants operated in northern Pennsylvania between ca. 1890 and 1950, all located within 72 km of the New York state border. Their original purpose was to salvage the small unwanted hardwood trees left behind by the lumber mills, and to make charcoal, calcium acetate and methanol for a number of industrial uses via destructive distillation. At many old wood chemical plant sites, unknown quantities of wood tar remain as a residual contaminant and pose a pollution threat to aquatic life in nearby streams. Research on the composition and properties of residual wood tars from five abandoned industrial sites in Pennsylvania are described. Weathered wood tars were more viscous and contained fewer volatile and semivolatile organic compounds than did soil-buried tars. Phenol, 2-methylphenol (o-cresol), 4-methylphenol (p-cresol), and 2, 4-dimethylphenol were found in all sampled tars. These water-soluble phenolic compounds were released quasi-instantaneously in aqueous solution, followed by a slower rate of release, consistent with the behavior of similar compounds in other dense non-aqueous liquids. Air-exposed wood tar deposits developed a hard crust, which contained fewer volatiles and semivolatiles and had a higher softening point than other samples. These tars eroded to form a powdered soil colonized by lichens and mosses. Residual wood tar material found at one site was shown to be thermally altered, likely during the historical destruction of the chemical plant by fire. Recovered wood tar wastes have a relatively high heating value and may have use as a potential, but limited, alternate energy source.

  2. Adult volunteerism in Pennsylvania 4-H natural resources programs for youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sanford Sherrick

    2001-07-01

    Pennsylvania's 4-H Youth Development Program relies on adult volunteers to reach youth with educational information and opportunities. Finding adults willing to do this volunteer work is challenging. This study looks at the current status of adult volunteerism with natural resources 4-H projects, and seeks to understand potential volunteers. The literature has much to offer in regards to general volunteer trends, management, motivations, and task preferences; however, few studies focus on volunteers in natural resources or environmental education. A telephone survey conducted with county 4-H agents revealed that only 3.2% of Pennsylvania's 4-H volunteers work with natural resources projects in 56 out of 67 counties, and that very few volunteers have any formal background in natural resources. Semi-structured interviews with 41 adult volunteers currently working with natural resources projects explored volunteer demographics, history, program design preferences, and ideas for seeking more volunteers. Findings from the telephone survey and the semi-structured interviews were used to generate a mail survey with large, random samples from three population groups: (1) 4-H Volunteers, (2) 4-H Parents, and (3) Natural Resources Professionals. Confidence with youth and subject matter, and adult willingness to volunteer was explored for each of the groups in relation to background, demographic characteristics, motivational needs, past and present volunteer activity, personal interests, and program design importance. Natural resources subject matter confidence was shown to be the most significant variable determining willingness to volunteer for all three groups. The variables that contributed to subject matter and youth confidence varied for each population. Key variables effecting willingness to volunteer included outdoor activity level, personal interest in natural resources, the need to fulfill feelings of social responsibility, and confidence with youth. Program design

  3. Modelling river dune development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paarlberg, Andries; Weerts, H.J.T.; Dohmen-Janssen, Catarine M.; Ritsema, I.L; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; van Os, A.G.; Termes, A.P.P.

    2005-01-01

    Since river dunes influence flow resistance, predictions of dune dimensions are required to make accurate water level predictions. A model approach to simulate developing river dunes is presented. The model is set-up to be appropriate, i.e. as simple as possible, but with sufficient accuracy for

  4. Tidal river dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoitink, A.J.F.; Jay, D.A.

    2016-01-01

    Tidal rivers are a vital and little studied nexus between physical oceanography and hydrology. It is only in the last few decades that substantial research efforts have been focused on the interactions of river discharge with tidal waves and storm surges into regions beyond the limit of salinity

  5. Reining the River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Concerned about the effects of increasing water scarcity on economic development, China hopes a new law will save the Yellow River The first day of August marked what could be a new page in the history of China's long-suffering "mother river." That day, a regulation took effect that for the first time in histo-

  6. What Drives Local Wine Expenditure in Kentucky, Ohio, Tennessee and Pennsylvania? A Consumer Behavior and Wine Market Segmentation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xueting; Woods, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    This study explores wine expenditure driven factors for consumers in the United States by employing a four-state consumer behaviors study. A market segmentation method is applied to investigate spending patterns of wine consumers in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Determinants including market segmentation measurements, lifestyle factors and demographic variables are investigated and compared for their significance in driving local wine expenditure, local wine purchase probabilit...

  7. Chocolate Pilgrims Find Paradise in Pennsylvania%巧克力迷的天堂--宾夕法尼亚

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kim Clark

    2003-01-01

    @@ I pull up to the dowdy1 brick factory in a blink-and-you'll-miss-it Pennsylvania town. It doesn't look promising. But I open the door,and the sweet dark smell of chocolate draws my nose first into the Wilbur Chocolate Co. factory store in Lititz. Although the town seems almost deserted2, the tiny store is packed with shoppers loading baskets with"Buds", drops of silky choco

  8. What Drives Local Wine Expenditure in Kentucky, Ohio, Tennessee and Pennsylvania? A Consumer Behavior and Wine Market Segmentation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xueting; Woods, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    This study explores wine expenditure driven factors for consumers in the United States by employing a four-state consumer behaviors study. A market segmentation method is applied to investigate spending patterns of wine consumers in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky, and Tennessee. Determinants including market segmentation measurements, lifestyle factors and demographic variables are investigated and compared for their significance in driving local wine expenditure, local wine purchase probabilit...

  9. Pennsylvania Otolaryngologists as a Model for the Implications of Practice Location of Osteopathic vs Allopathic Surgical Subspecialists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Shane; Power, Anton; Strand, Mark

    2017-09-01

    Evidenced-based models should be used to predict future implications of the single accreditation system for graduate medical education. Compared with other states, Pennsylvania has a relatively high number of osteopathic physicians (ie, DOs) and may be used as a model for a health care system with an increased DO presence. To compare the geographic distribution of otolaryngologist DOs with otolaryngologist allopathic physicians (ie, MDs) in Pennsylvania and identify differences in community size (urban, urbanized, and rural) in which these physicians practice. A list of otolaryngologist practice locations in Pennsylvania was developed using Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services data, the American Osteopathic Colleges of Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Masterfile, and the American Medical Association Physician Masterfile. The United States Census data were used to document the general population of those locations. The samples of individual otolaryngologist DOs and MDs were then analyzed by determining where each otolaryngologist practiced, identifying the type of community in which they practiced, and then comparing the percentage of otolaryngologist DOs and MDs who practiced in each community type (urbanized area, urban cluster, and rural). A χ2 analysis was used to determine whether a difference existed in practice location between otolaryngologist DOs and MDs. Of the 47 otolaryngologist DOs, 32 (70%) practiced in cities with a population of 49,999 or less. More than half (120 of 238) of the otolaryngologist MDs practiced in cities larger than 50,000, and 96 of 238 (40%) practiced in cities with a population of at least 200,000. χ2 analysis showed a significant difference in the geographic distribution of otolaryngologist DOs and MDs (P=.012). A correlation exists between the practice location of otolaryngologists in Pennsylvania and the medical degree they hold.

  10. Factors related to occurrence and distribution of selected bacterial and protozoan pathogens in Pennsylvania streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duris, Joseph W.; Reif, Andrew G.; Donna A. Crouse,; Isaacs, Natasha M.

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and bacterial and protozoan pathogens are controlled by diverse factors. To investigate these factors in Pennsylvania streams, 217 samples were collected quarterly from a 27-station water-quality monitoring network from July 2007 through August 2009. Samples were analyzed for concentrations of Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT) indicator bacteria, concentrations of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts, and the presence of four genes related to pathogenic types of EC (eaeA, stx2, stx1, rfbO157) plus three microbial source tracking (MST) gene markers that are also associated with pathogenic ENT and EC (esp, LTIIa, STII). Water samples were concurrently analyzed for basic water chemistry, physical measures of water quality, nutrients, metals, and a suite of 79 organic compounds that included hormones, pharmaceuticals, and antibiotics. For each sample location, stream discharge was measured by using standardized methods at the time of sample collection, and ancillary sample site information, such as land use and geological characteristics, was compiled. Samples exceeding recreational water quality criteria were more likely to contain all measured pathogen genes but notCryptosporidium or Giardia (oo)cysts. FIB and Giardia density and frequency of eaeA gene occurrence were significantly related to season. When discharge at a sampling location was high (>75th percentile of daily mean discharge), there were greater densities of FIB and Giardia, and the stx2, rfbO157, STII, and esp genes were found more frequently than at other discharge conditions. Giardia occurrence was likely related to nonpoint sources, which are highly influential during seasonal overland transport resulting from snowmelt and elevated precipitation in late winter and spring in Pennsylvania. When MST markers of human, swine, or bovine origin were present, samples more frequently carried the eaeA, stx2

  11. Factors related to occurrence and distribution of selected bacterial and protozoan pathogens in Pennsylvania streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duris, Joseph W; Reif, Andrew G; Krouse, Donna A; Isaacs, Natasha M

    2013-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) and bacterial and protozoan pathogens are controlled by diverse factors. To investigate these factors in Pennsylvania streams, 217 samples were collected quarterly from a 27-station water-quality monitoring network from July 2007 through August 2009. Samples were analyzed for concentrations of Escherichia coli (EC) and enterococci (ENT) indicator bacteria, concentrations of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts, and the presence of four genes related to pathogenic types of EC (eaeA, stx2, stx1, rfb(O157)) plus three microbial source tracking (MST) gene markers that are also associated with pathogenic ENT and EC (esp, LTIIa, STII). Water samples were concurrently analyzed for basic water chemistry, physical measures of water quality, nutrients, metals, and a suite of 79 organic compounds that included hormones, pharmaceuticals, and antibiotics. For each sample location, stream discharge was measured by using standardized methods at the time of sample collection, and ancillary sample site information, such as land use and geological characteristics, was compiled. Samples exceeding recreational water quality criteria were more likely to contain all measured pathogen genes but not Cryptosporidium or Giardia (oo)cysts. FIB and Giardia density and frequency of eaeA gene occurrence were significantly related to season. When discharge at a sampling location was high (>75th percentile of daily mean discharge), there were greater densities of FIB and Giardia, and the stx2, rfb(O157), STII, and esp genes were found more frequently than at other discharge conditions. Giardia occurrence was likely related to nonpoint sources, which are highly influential during seasonal overland transport resulting from snowmelt and elevated precipitation in late winter and spring in Pennsylvania. When MST markers of human, swine, or bovine origin were present, samples more frequently carried the eaeA, stx2, stx1, and rfb

  12. Landscape genetics of raccoons (Procyon lotor) associated with ridges and valleys of Pennsylvania: implications for oral rabies vaccination programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, J Jeffrey; Puskas, Robert B; Fischer, Justin W; Swope, Craig B; Neubaum, Melissa A; Reeder, Serena A; Piaggio, Antoinette J

    2009-12-01

    Raccoons are the reservoir for the raccoon rabies virus variant in the United States. To combat this threat, oral rabies vaccination (ORV) programs are conducted in many eastern states. To aid in these efforts, the genetic structure of raccoons (Procyon lotor) was assessed in southwestern Pennsylvania to determine if select geographic features (i.e., ridges and valleys) serve as corridors or hindrances to raccoon gene flow (e.g., movement) and, therefore, rabies virus trafficking in this physiographic region. Raccoon DNA samples (n = 185) were collected from one ridge site and two adjacent valleys in southwestern Pennsylvania (Westmoreland, Cambria, Fayette, and Somerset counties). Raccoon genetic structure within and among these study sites was characterized at nine microsatellite loci. Results indicated that there was little population subdivision among any sites sampled. Furthermore, analyses using a model-based clustering approach indicated one essentially panmictic population was present among all the raccoons sampled over a reasonably broad geographic area (e.g., sites up to 36 km apart). However, a signature of isolation by distance was detected, suggesting that widths of ORV zones are critical for success. Combined, these data indicate that geographic features within this landscape influence raccoon gene flow only to a limited extent, suggesting that ridges of this physiographic system will not provide substantial long-term natural barriers to rabies virus trafficking. These results may be of value for future ORV efforts in Pennsylvania and other eastern states with similar landscapes.

  13. Efficient and Scalable Synthesis of 4-Carboxy-Pennsylvania Green Methyl Ester: A Hydrophobic Building Block for Fluorescent Molecular Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woydziak, Zachary R; Fu, Liqiang; Peterson, Blake R

    2014-01-01

    Fluorinated fluorophores are valuable tools for studies of biological systems. However, amine-reactive single-isomer derivatives of these compounds are often very expensive. To provide an inexpensive alternative, we report a practical synthesis of 4-carboxy-Pennsylvania Green methyl ester. Derivatives of this hydrophobic fluorinated fluorophore, a hybrid of the dyes Oregon Green and Tokyo Green, are often cell permeable, enabling labeling of intracellular targets and components. Moreover, the low pKa of Pennsylvania Green (4.8) confers bright fluorescence in acidic cellular compartments such as endosomes, enhancing its utility for chemical biology investigations. To improve access to the key intermediate 2,7-difluoro-3,6-dihydroxyxanthen-9-one, we subjected bis-(2,4,5-trifluorophenyl)methanone to iterative nucleophilic aromatic substitution by hydroxide on scales of > 40 g. This intermediate was used to prepare over 15 grams of pure 4-carboxy-Pennsylvania Green methyl ester in 28% overall yield without requiring chromatography. This compound can be converted into the amine reactive N-hydroxysuccinimidyl ester in essentially quantitative yield for the synthesis of a wide variety of fluorescent molecular probes.

  14. Academic detailing to increase colorectal cancer screening by primary care practices in Appalachian Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graybill Marie A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of cancer death. Screening is a primary method to prevent CRC, yet screening remains low in the U.S. and particularly in Appalachian Pennsylvania, a largely rural area with high rates of poverty, limited health care access, and increased CRC incidence and mortality rates. Receiving a physician recommendation for CRC screening is a primary predictor for patient adherence with screening guidelines. One strategy to disseminate practice-oriented interventions is academic detailing (AD, a method that transfers knowledge or methods to physicians, nurses or office staff through the visit(s of a trained educator. The objective of this study was to determine acceptability and feasibility of AD among primary care practices in rural Appalachian Pennsylvania to increase CRC screening. Methods A multi-site, practice-based, intervention study with pre- and 6-month post-intervention review of randomly selected medical records, pre- and post-intervention surveys, as well as a post-intervention key informant interview was conducted. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients current with CRC screening recommendations and having received a CRC screening within the past year. Four practices received three separate AD visits to review four different learning modules. Results We reviewed 323 records pre-intervention and 301 post-intervention. The prevalence of being current with screening recommendation was 56% in the pre-intervention, and 60% in the post-intervention (p = 0. 29, while the prevalence of having been screened in the past year increased from 17% to 35% (p Conclusions AD appears to be acceptable and feasible for primary care providers in rural Appalachia. A ceiling effect for CRC screening may have been a factor in no change in overall screening rates. While the study was not designed to test the efficacy of AD

  15. Current and desired competency levels of secondary agricultural teachers in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbert, Chanda Dehron

    The purpose of this study was to identify the competencies needed by secondary agricultural teachers in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Specifically, this study identified competencies needed to help make teachers more effective while working with special needs students. The objectives of the study were to: (1) determine, verify, and evaluate competencies needed by secondary teachers of agriculture to work with handicapped students enrolled in agricultural and vocational education programs; (2) determine, verify, and evaluate competencies needed by secondary teachers of agriculture to work with economically disadvantaged students enrolled in agricultural and vocational education programs; (3) determine, verify, and evaluate competencies needed by secondary teachers of agriculture to work with academically challenged students enrolled in agricultural and vocational programs; and (4) evaluate the self-perceived competency levels of secondary agricultural education teachers and their desired competency levels. A 50% simple random sample of secondary agricultural teachers from the Directory for Agricultural Education in Pennsylvania, 1999--2000 was used. The design for the study was a descriptive study. The data collection instrument used was divided into five different areas: personal characteristics, professional role and development, instructional role, knowledge statements, and student leadership and organization. Subjects were asked to rate their present and desired levels of competency in the categories using a Likert-type scale. The competency scale was as follows: 1 = not competent; 2 = slightly competent, 3 = competent; 4 = very competent; 5 = extremely competent. There were 153 questionnaires mailed to the secondary agricultural education teachers. A total of 96 teachers responded to the questionnaire. Frequencies and distributions were used to describe demographic variables. T-test and analysis of variance were used to determine relationships between

  16. Fractured-aquifer hydrogeology from geophysical logs: Brunswick group and Lockatong Formation, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Roger H.; Senior, Lisa A.; Decker, Edward R.

    2000-01-01

    The Brunswick Group and the underlying Lockatong Formation are composed of lithified Mesozoic sediments that constitute part of the Newark Basin in southeastern Pennsylvania. These fractured rocks form an important regional aquifer that consists of gradational sequences of shale, siltstone, and sandstone, with fluid transport occurring primarily in fractures. An extensive suite of geophysical logs was obtained in seven wells located at the borough of Lansdale, Pennsylvania, in order to better characterize the areal hydrogeologic system and provide guidelines for the refinement of numerical ground water models. Six of the seven wells are approximately 120 m deep and the seventh extends to a depth of 335 m. Temperature, fluid conductivity, and flowmeter logs are used to locate zones of fluid exchange and to quantify transmissivities. Electrical resistivity and natural gamma logs together yield detailed stratigraphic information, and digital acoustic televiewer data provide magnetically oriented images of the borehole wall from which almost 900 fractures are identified.Analyses of the geophysical data indicate that the aquifer penetrated by the deep well can be separated into two distinct structural domains, which may, in turn, reflect different mechanical responses to basin extension by different sedimentary units:1. In the shallow zone (above 125 m), the dominant fracture population consists of gently dipping bedding plane partings that strike N46°E and dip to the northwest at about 11 degrees. Fluid flow is concentrated in the upper 80 m along these subhorizontal fractures, with transmissivities rapidly diminishing in magnitude with depth.2. The zone below 125 m marks the appearance of numerous high-angle fractures that are orthogonal to the bedding planes, striking parallel but dipping steeply southeast at 77 degrees.This secondary set of fractures is associated with a fairly thick (approximately 60 m) high-resistivity, low-transmissivity sandstone unit that is

  17. Mackenzie River Delta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    The Mackenzie River in the Northwest Territories, Canada, with its headstreams the Peace and Finley, is the longest river in North America at 4241 km, and drains an area of 1,805,000 square km. The large marshy delta provides habitat for migrating Snow Geese, Tundra Swans, Brant, and other waterfowl. The estuary is a calving area for Beluga whales. The Mackenzie (previously the Disappointment River) was named after Alexander Mackenzie who travelled the river while trying to reach the Pacific in 1789. The image was acquired on August 4, 2005, covers an area of 55.8 x 55.8 km, and is located at 68.6 degrees north latitude, 134.7 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  18. Wild and Scenic Rivers

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This map layer portrays the linear federally-owned land features (i.e., national parkways, wild and scenic rivers, etc.) of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the...

  19. Laminar laboratory rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seizilles, Grégoire; Devauchelle, Olivier; Lajeunesse, Éric; Métivier, François

    2014-05-01

    A viscous fluid flowing over fine plastic grains spontaneously channelizes into a few centimeters-wide river. After reaching its equilibrium shape, this stable laboratory flume is able to carry a steady load of sediments, like many alluvial rivers. When the sediment discharge vanishes, the river size, shape and slope fit the threshold theory proposed by Glover and Florey (1951), which assumes that the Shields parameter is critical on the channel bed. As the sediment discharge is increased, the river widens and flattens. Surprisingly, the aspect ratio of its cross section depends on the sediment discharge only, regardless of the water discharge. We propose a theoretical interpretation of these findings based on the balance between gravity, which pulls particles towards the center of the channel, and the diffusion of bedload particles, which pushes them away from areas of intense bedload.

  20. Dulbi River goose survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A survey of white-fronted goose (Anser albifrons) and Canada goose (Branta canadensis) broods was conducted on 58 3/8 miles of the Dulbi River in Alaska. Four...

  1. Skjern River Restoration Counterfactual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel

    2014-01-01

    In 2003 the Skjern River Restoration Project in Denmark was awarded the prestigious Europa Nostra Prize for ‘conserving the European cultural heritage’ (Danish Nature Agency 2005). In this case, however, it seems that the conservation of one cultural heritage came at the expense of another cultural...... of Dissonance in Nature Restoration’, Journal of Landscape Architecture 2/2014: 58-67. Danish Nature Agency (2005), Skjern Å: Ådalens historie. De store projekter. Det nye landskab og naturen. På tur i ådalen [The Skjern River: The History of the River Delta. The Big Projects. The New Landscape and Nature...... heritage. While the meanders of the Skjern River were reconstructed according to its assumed course in 1870s, the embanked canal, which was the main feature and symbol of a comprehensive cultivation project from the 1960s, was deconstructed and reduced to incomprehensible traces of the past. Not only did...

  2. The Carmans River Story

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In this study, undertaken as an independent project at Bellport High School, the authors have attempted to provide a historical description of the Carmans River area...

  3. Russian River Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is an analysis and summary of progress toward achieving the interim management objectives for the Russian River during the 1979 season. Additionally,...

  4. Synthetic River Valleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2011-12-01

    The description of fluvial form has evolved from anecdotal descriptions to artistic renderings to 2D plots of cross section or longitudinal profiles and more recently 3D digital models. Synthetic river valleys, artificial 3D topographic models of river topography, have a plethora of potential applications in fluvial geomorphology, and the earth sciences in general, as well as in computer science and ecology. Synthetic river channels have existed implicitly since approximately the 1970s and can be simulated from a variety of approaches spanning the artistic and numerical. An objective method of synthesizing 3D stream topography based on reach scale attributes would be valuable for sizing 3D flumes in the physical and numerical realms, as initial input topography for morphodynamic models, stream restoration design, historical reconstruction, and mechanistic testing of interactions of channel geometric elements. Quite simply - simulation of synthetic channel geometry of prescribed conditions can allow systematic evaluation of the dominant relationships between river flow and geometry. A new model, the control curve method, is presented that uses hierarchically scaled parametric curves in over-lapping 2D planes to create synthetic river valleys. The approach is able to simulate 3D stream geometry from paired 2D descriptions and can allow experimental insight into form-process relationships in addition to visualizing past measurements of channel form that are limited to two dimension descriptions. Results are presented that illustrate the models ability to simulate fluvial topography representative of real world rivers as well as how channel geometric elements can be adjusted. The testing of synthetic river valleys would open up a wealth of knowledge as to why some 3D attributes of river channels are more prevalent than others as well as bridging the gap between the 2D descriptions that have dominated fluvial geomorphology the past century and modern, more complete, 3D

  5. Effects of Abandoned Coal-Mine Drainage on Streamflow and Water Quality in the Mahanoy Creek Basin, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania, 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    This report assesses the contaminant loading, effects to receiving streams, and possible remedial alternatives for abandoned mine drainage (AMD) within the Mahanoy Creek Basin in east-central Pennsylvania. The Mahanoy Creek Basin encompasses an area of 157 square miles (407 square kilometers) including approximately 42 square miles (109 square kilometers) underlain by the Western Middle Anthracite Field. As a result of more than 150 years of anthracite mining in the basin, ground water, surface water, and streambed sediments have been adversely affected. Leakage from streams to underground mines and elevated concentrations (above background levels) of acidity, metals, and sulfate in the AMD from flooded underground mines and (or) unreclaimed culm (waste rock) degrade the aquatic ecosystem and impair uses of the main stem of Mahanoy Creek from its headwaters to its mouth on the Susquehanna River. Various tributaries also are affected, including North Mahanoy Creek, Waste House Run, Shenandoah Creek, Zerbe Run, and two unnamed tributaries locally called Big Mine Run and Big Run. The Little Mahanoy Creek and Schwaben Creek are the only major tributaries not affected by mining. To assess the current hydrological and chemical characteristics of the AMD and its effect on receiving streams, and to identify possible remedial alternatives, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a study in 2001, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection and the Schuylkill Conservation District. Aquatic ecological surveys were conducted by the USGS at five stream sites during low base-flow conditions in October 2001. Twenty species of fish were identified in Schwaben Creek near Red Cross, which drains an unmined area of 22.7 square miles (58.8 square kilometers) in the lower part of the Mahanoy Creek Basin. In contrast, 14 species of fish were identified in Mahanoy Creek near its mouth at Kneass, below Schwaben Creek. The diversity and abundance of fish

  6. Response of a warm temperate peatland to Holocene climate change in northeastern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shanshan; Yu, Zicheng

    2011-05-01

    Studying boreal-type peatlands near the edge of their southern limit can provide insight into responses of boreal and sub-arctic peatlands to warmer climates. In this study, we investigated peatland history using multi-proxy records of sediment composition, plant macrofossil, pollen, and diatom analysis from a 14C-dated sediment core at Tannersville Bog in northeastern Pennsylvania, USA. Our results indicate that peat accumulation began with lake infilling of a glacial lake at ~ 9 ka as a rich fen dominated by brown mosses. It changed to a poor fen dominated by Cyperaceae (sedges) and Sphagnum (peat mosses) at ~ 1.4 ka and to a Sphagnum-dominated poor fen at ~ 200 cal yr BP (~ AD 1750). Apparent carbon accumulation rates increased from 13.4 to 101.2 g C m - 2 yr - 1 during the last 8000 yr, with a time-averaged mean of 27.3 g C m - 2 yr - 1 . This relatively high accumulation rate, compared to many northern peatlands, was likely caused by high primary production associated with a warmer and wetter temperate climate. This study implies that some northern peatlands can continue to serve as carbon sinks under a warmer and wetter climate, providing a negative feedback to climate warming.

  7. Explaining Spatial Variability in Wellbore Impairment Risk for Pennsylvania Oil and Gas Wells, 2000-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, R.; Ingraffea, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    Previous modeling (ingraffea et al. PNAS, 2014) indicated roughly two-times higher cumulative risk for wellbore impairment in unconventional wells, relative to conventional wells, and large spatial variation in risk for oil and gas wells drilled in the state of Pennsylvania. Impairment risk for wells in the northeast portion of the state were found to be 8.5-times greater than that of wells drilled in the rest of the state. Here, we set out to explain this apparent regional variability through Boosted Regression Tree (BRT) analysis of geographic, developmental, and general well attributes. We find that regional variability is largely driven by the nature of the development, i.e. whether conventional or unconventional development is dominant. Oil and natural gas market prices and total well depths present as major influences in wellbore impairment, with moderate influences from well densities and geologic factors. The figure depicts influence paths for predictors of impairments for the state (top left), SW region (top right), unconventional/NE region (bottom left) and conventional/NW region (bottom right) models. Influences are scaled to reflect percent contributions in explaining variability in the model.

  8. Temporal changes in sulfate, chloride, and sodium concentrations in four eastern Pennsylvania streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Trend analyses of 20 years or more of chemical quality and streamflow data for four streams in eastern Pennsylvania indicate that sulfate has decreased significantly in three of the four basins studied, while sodium and chloride have generally increased. The majority of chemical quality changes occurred in the late 1950 's and early 1960 's coincident with significant cultural changes. It is believed that these chemical quality changes are presently of little or no environmental consequence, as the concentrations are well within the range of those found in natural waters. Decreases in sulfate follow a regional trend concurrent with the conversion of home and industrial heating units from high to low sulfur coal, gas, and oil. The most significant decreases were observed in those basins severely affected by mine-drainage where pumpage has decreased significantly in the past 25 years, thereby further reducing the sulfur content of the streams. The observed increases in chloride and sodium are attributed to population increases and shifts from rural to suburban communities with concurrent increase in the percentage of the population using municipal waste treatment facilities and the increased use of salt on roadways. The concentrations of dissolved chloride, which are from two to three times higher in recent years, reach a peak in January, coincident with the application of salt to melt ice on the roadways. (USGS)

  9. Development of normative data for the Brazilian adaptation of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornazieri, Marco Aurélio; dos Santos, Clayson Alan; Bezerra, Thiago Freire Pinto; Pinna, Fábio de Rezende; Voegels, Richard Louis; Doty, Richard L

    2015-02-01

    It is well established that olfactory dysfunction has significant implications for safety, nutrition, and quality of life. The more reliable standardized tests of olfactory function, such as the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), assess odor identification ability. Unfortunately, cultural factors can influence such tests, as a number of odors are not universally recognized. In this study, a Portuguese language version of the UPSIT was administered to an age- and sex-stratified prospective sample of 1820 Brazilian subjects. Normative data were developed for a subset of 1578 subjects who reported having no difficulties smelling or tasting. Individuals with a history of head trauma or, in the case of those over the age of 64 years, Mini-Mental State Examination Scores <24, were excluded from analysis. As in other populations, the test scores were significantly influenced by age and sex. The median overall difference between the North American and Brazilian UPSIT scores was 2.2 points for men and 0.8 points for women, although subtle age-related differences were also apparent. This research represents that largest clinical study of olfaction ever performed in South America. Correction factors based upon age and sex are provided to allow for direct comparisons of Brazilian test scores to those based upon North American norms. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Bathymetric Surveys of Lake Arthur and Raccoon Lake, Pennsylvania, June 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittle, Clinton D.; Ruby, A. Thomas

    2008-01-01

    In spring of 2007, bathymetric surveys of two Pennsylvania State Park lakes were performed to collect accurate data sets of lake-bed elevations and to develop methods and techniques to conduct similar surveys across the state. The lake-bed elevations and associated geographical position data can be merged with land-surface elevations acquired through Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) techniques. Lake Arthur in Butler County and Raccoon Lake in Beaver County were selected for this initial data-collection activity. In order to establish accurate water-surface elevations during the surveys, benchmarks referenced to NAVD 88 were established on land at each lake by use of differential global positioning system (DGPS) surveys. Bathymetric data were collected using a single beam, 210 kilohertz (kHz) echo sounder and were coupled with the DGPS position data utilizing a computer software package. Transects of depth data were acquired at predetermined intervals on each lake, and the shoreline was delineated using a laser range finder and compass module. Final X, Y, Z coordinates of the geographic positions and lake-bed elevations were referenced to NAD 83 and NAVD 88 and are available to create bathymetric maps of the lakes.

  11. Pediatric medicine and the genetic disorders of the Amish and Mennonite people of Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D Holmes; Morton, Caroline S; Strauss, Kevin A; Robinson, Donna L; Puffenberger, Erik G; Hendrickson, Christine; Kelley, Richard I

    2003-08-15

    The Clinic for Special Children in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, is a community-supported, nonprofit pediatric medical practice for Amish and Mennonite children who have genetic disorders. Over a 14-year period, 1988-2002, we have encountered 39 heritable disorders among the Amish and 23 among the Mennonites. We emphasize early recognition and long-term medical care of children with genetic conditions. In the clinic laboratory we perform amino acid analyses by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), organic acid analyses by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and molecular diagnoses and carrier tests by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and sequencing or restriction digestion. Regional hospitals and midwives routinely send whole-blood filter paper neonatal screens for tandem mass spectrometry and other modern analytical methods to detect 14 of the metabolic disorders found in these populations as part of the NeoGen Inc. Supplemental Newborn Screening Program (Pittsburgh, PA). Medical care based on disease pathophysiology reduces morbidity, mortality, and costs for the majority of disorders. Among our patients who are homozygous for the same mutation, differences in disease severity are not unusual. Clinical problems typically arise from the interaction of the underlying genetic disorder with common infections, malnutrition, injuries, and immune dysfunction that act through classical pathophysiological disease mechanisms to influence the natural history of disease. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Field verification of reconstructed dam-break flood, Laurel Run, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng-lung; Armbruster, Jeffrey T.

    1979-01-01

    A one-dimensional dam-break flood routing model is verified by using observed data on the flash flood resulting from the failure of Laurel Run Reservoir Dam near Johnstown, Pennsylvania. The model has been developed on the basis of an explicit scheme of the characteristics method with specified time intervals. The model combines one of the characteristic equations with the Rankine-Hugoniot shock equations to trace the corresponding characteristic backward to the known state for solving the depth and velocity of flow at the wave front. The previous version of the model has called for a modification of the method of solution to overcome the computational difficulty at the narrow breach and at any geomorphological constraints where channel geometry changes rapidly. The large reduction in the computational inaccuracies and oscillations was achieved by introducing the actual "storage width" in the equation of continuity and the imaginary "conveyance width" in the equation of motion. Close agreement between observed and computed peak stages at several stations downstream of the dam strongly suggests the validity and applicability of the model. However, small numerical noise appearing in the computed stage and discharge hydrographs at the dam site as well as discrepancy of attenuated peaks in the discharge hydrographs indicate the need for further model improvement.

  13. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Forty. Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Pennsylvania governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  14. Prominent barriers and motivators to installing ROPS: an analysis of survey responses from Pennsylvania and Vermont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, P L; Sorensen, J A; Yoder, A; Myers, M; Murphy, D; Cook, G; Wright, F; Bayes, B; May, J J

    2012-04-01

    Tractor overturns contribute significantly to the number of work-related deaths that occur every year on U.S. farms. Although the agriculture, forestry, and fishing industries have the highest fatality rates of any industries, researchers predict that the elimination of tractor overturn fatalities could result in a noticeable reduction in the farm fatality rate. Rollover protection structures (ROPS) are 99% effective in preventing overturn fatalities. However, roughly 50% of U.S. tractors do not have a ROPS. In order to identify prominent barriers and motivators to installing ROPS, a phone survey was conducted with a random sample of farmers (n = 327) in Vermont and Pennsylvania, two states interested in developing ROPS installation programs. Results indicated that cost and perceived need were the most frequently highly rated barriers to ROPS installation in both states, while working near hills or ditches and concerns regarding liability were the most frequently highly rated motivators for installing ROPS. Additionally, older farmers identified limited use of a tractor as a highly rated barrier.

  15. Origin and implications of fluid inclusions from filled fractures, Oriskany Sandstone, Allegheny Plateau, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basilone, T.; Anderson, T.; Burruss, R.C.

    1984-12-01

    Two cores from the Lower Devonian Oriskany Sandstone underlying the Allegheny Plateau in south-central Somerset County, Pennsylvania, contain fractures that may either be filled with epigenetic minerals or unfilled. The 1 Sipe core, taken from an unproductive well drilled on the crest of an anticlinal structure, is characterized by numerous discontinuous vertical fractures. The 1 Romesburg core, taken from a productive well drilled on the flank of an anticlinal structure, contains numerous fractures that lie parallel with bedding planes. The walls of these fractures consist of smooth slickensided surfaces. Quartz and ferroan-calcite crystals filling fractures contain numerous hydrocarbon-bearing fluid inclusions. The distribution of these fluid inclusions within most minerals allowed a determination to be made regarding the relative times of migration of fluid hydrocarbon phases in the subsurface with respect to the paragenetic sequence of mineralization events. Analysis of fluid inclusions indicates that fractures were opened at 22,000 ft (6700 m) and remained open throughout an extended period of uplift. Furthermore, inclusions contain hydrocarbon-rich fluids that are comparable to reservoir hydrocarbons in the nearby Shamrock field. This relationship implies that hydrocarbons that currently exist in reservoirs were conducted along fractures that were once open. Fractures crosscut diagenetic features, indicating that diagenesis, for the most part, preceded fracture events. Although they differ in origin and orientation, fractures characterizing Oriskany strata were healed by a consistent sequence of epigenetic minerals.

  16. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the uranium mill tailings site near Canonsburg, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This baseline risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health and the environment resulting from ground water contamination from past activities at the former uranium processing site in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. The US Department of Energy Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project has placed contaminated material from this site in an on-site disposal cell. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the UMTRA Ground Water Project. Currently, no domestic or drinking water well tap into contaminated ground water of the two distinct ground water units: the unconsolidated materials and the bedrock. Because there is no access, no current health or environmental risks are associated with the direct use of the contaminated ground water. However, humans and ecological organisms could be exposed to contaminated ground water if a domestic well were to be installed in the unconsolidated materials in that part of the site being considered for public use (Area C). The first step is evaluating ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. For the Canonsburg site, this evaluation showed the contaminants in ground water exceeding background in the unconsolidated materials in Area C are ammonia, boron, calcium, manganese, molybdenum, potassium, strontium, and uranium.

  17. Lake-Level Responses to Abrupt Climate Changes in North-Central Pennsylvania since >16 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halstead, T. M.; Shuman, B. N.

    2016-12-01

    Water levels in small lakes and ponds have widely responded to late-Quaternary climate changes, and we use a combination of geophysical surveys and sediment cores to reconstruct the hydrologic history of Sunfish Pond near Leroy, Pennsylvania (41°38'N 76°41'W). The small lake sits atop Barclay Mountain, a narrow ridge of the Appalachian Mountains near the southern limit of the Wisconsin glaciation. Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) profiles and a transect of three sediment cores indicate that the shoreline position of the lake has shifted over time with sandy littoral sediments extending outward into the lake stratigraphy, which is primarily composed of organic-rich muds. Calibrated radiocarbon ages from a sediment core collected in 2.25 m of water indicate that the lake formed by ca. 16.1 ka. Deposition of organic-rich muds in the near-shore core indicates moderately high water levels during the period of Heinrich Event 1, the Younger Dryas, and portions of the early Holocene. Sand layers and exceptionally low sediment accumulation rates indicate low water, however, from <16-12.5 ka and again from 5.5-2.8 ka. The water level has been near its modern high level since 2.8 ka based on extensive deposition of rapidly accumulating, organic-rich muds across the basin. The changes coincide with major changes in regional pollen records, and confirm the hydrologic significance of late-Pleistocene abrupt events in the Mid-Atlantic region.

  18. Prevalence and duration of asymptomatic Clostridium difficile carriage among healthy subjects in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdys, Alison L; Nelson, Jemma S; Shutt, Kathleen A; Schlackman, Jessica L; Pakstis, Diana L; Pasculle, A William; Marsh, Jane W; Harrison, Lee H; Curry, Scott R

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies suggested that 7 to 15% of healthy adults are colonized with toxigenic Clostridium difficile. To investigate the epidemiology, genetic diversity, and duration of C. difficile colonization in asymptomatic persons, we recruited healthy adults from the general population in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. Participants provided epidemiological and dietary intake data and submitted stool specimens. The presence of C. difficile in stool specimens was determined by anaerobic culture. Stool specimens yielding C. difficile underwent nucleic acid testing of the tcdA gene segment with a commercial assay; tcdC genotyping was performed on C. difficile isolates. Subjects positive for C. difficile by toxigenic anaerobic culture were asked to submit additional specimens. One hundred six (81%) of 130 subjects submitted specimens, and 7 (6.6%) of those subjects were colonized with C. difficile. Seven distinct tcdC genotypes were observed among the 7 C. difficile-colonized individuals, including tcdC genotype 20, which has been found in uncooked ground pork in this region. Two (33%) out of 6 C. difficile-colonized subjects who submitted additional specimens tested positive for identical C. difficile strains on successive occasions, 1 month apart. The prevalence of C. difficile carriage in this healthy cohort is concordant with prior estimates. C. difficile-colonized individuals may be important reservoirs for C. difficile and may falsely test positive for infections due to C. difficile when evaluated for community-acquired diarrhea caused by other enteric pathogens. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Bunyaviruses are common in male and female Ixodes scapularis ticks in central Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce M. Sakamoto

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The blacklegged tick Ixodes scapularis is widely distributed in the United States and transmits multiple pathogens to humans, wildlife and domestic animals. Recently, several novel viruses in the family Bunyaviridae (South Bay virus (SBV and Blacklegged tick phlebovirus (BTPV were identified infecting female I. scapularis ticks collected in New York State. We used metagenomic sequencing to investigate the distribution of viruses infecting male and female I. scapularis ticks collected in Centre County, Pennsylvania. We identified both SBV and BTPV in both male and female ticks from all collection locations. The role of male I. scapularis in pathogen epidemiology has been overlooked because they rarely bite and are not considered important pathogen vectors. However, males may act as reservoirs for pathogens that can then be transmitted to females during mating. Our data highlight the importance of examining all potential avenues of pathogen maintenance and transmission throughout the vector-pathogen life cycle in order to understand the epidemiology of tick-borne pathogens.

  20. Labor induction and cesarean delivery: A prospective cohort study of first births in Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjerulff, Kristen H; Attanasio, Laura B; Edmonds, Joyce K; Kozhimannil, Katy B; Repke, John T

    2017-09-01

    Mode of delivery at first childbirth largely determines mode of delivery at subsequent births, so it is particularly important to understand risk factors for cesarean delivery at first childbirth. In this study, we investigated risk factors for cesarean delivery among nulliparous women, with focus on the association between labor induction and cesarean delivery. A prospective cohort study of 2851 nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies who attempted vaginal delivery at hospitals in Pennsylvania, 2009-2011, was conducted. We used nested logistic regression models and multiple mediational analyses to investigate the role of three groups of variables in explaining the association between labor induction and unplanned cesarean delivery-the confounders of maternal characteristics and indications for induction, and the mediating (intrapartum) factors-including cervical dilatation, labor augmentation, epidural analgesia, dysfunctional labor, dystocia, fetal intolerance of labor, and maternal request of cesarean during labor. More than a third of the women were induced (34.3%) and 24.8% underwent cesarean delivery. Induced women were more likely to deliver by cesarean (35.9%) than women in spontaneous labor (18.9%), unadjusted OR 2.35 (95% CI 1.97-2.79). The intrapartum factors significantly mediated the association between labor induction and cesarean delivery (explaining 76.7% of this association), particularly cervical dilatation cesarean delivery after labor induction among nulliparous women is attributable mainly to lower cervical dilatation at hospital admission and higher rates of labor complications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Local Plant Diversity Across Multiple Habitats Supports a Diverse Wild Bee Community in Pennsylvania Apple Orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Melanie A; Biddinger, David J; Rajotte, Edwin G; Mortensen, David A

    2016-02-01

    Wild pollinators supply essential, historically undervalued pollination services to crops and other flowering plant communities with great potential to ensure agricultural production against the loss of heavily relied upon managed pollinators. Local plant communities provision wild bees with crucial floral and nesting resources, but the distribution of floristic diversity among habitat types in North American agricultural landscapes and its effect on pollinators are diverse and poorly understood, especially in orchard systems. We documented floristic diversity in typical mid-Atlantic commercial apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards including the forest and orchard-forest edge ("edge") habitats surrounding orchards in a heterogeneous landscape in south-central Pennsylvania, USA. We also assessed the correlation between plant richness and orchard pollinator communities. In this apple production region, edge habitats are the most species rich, supporting 146 out of 202 plant species recorded in our survey. Plant species richness in the orchard and edge habitats were significant predictors of bee species richness and abundance in the orchard, as well as landscape area of the forest and edge habitats. Both the quantity and quality of forest and edges close to orchards play a significant role in provisioning a diverse wild bee community in this agroecosystem.

  2. Health-hazard-evaluation determination report No. HHE-77-13-414, Tee Printing, Lancaster, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burroughs, G.E.

    1977-08-01

    An evaluation was made of possible hazardous working conditions at the Tee Printing Company, Lancaster, Pennsylvania, following a request from an authorized representative of management. Particular attention was given to the presence of vinyl chloride monomer in rubber based inks containing polyvinyl chloride. At the facility, silk screening was done on shirts in a three-step operation. The inks used were all approximately equal mixtures of a plasticizer, often diotylphthalate, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and pigments. It was thought that the black ink also contained small amounts of lead. Personal breathing-zone air samples for the three workers employed in silk screening showed total dust concentrations of 1.7 to 2.5 mg/cu m with area samples ranging from 1.9 to 5.3 mg/cu m. The six lead and seven vinyl chloride samples were below the limits of detection. The author concludes that all exposures are below recommended limits. Since there were complaints of occasional irritation, particularly during cold weather, the author recommends that the ventilation system be upgraded to remove smoke from the oven area.

  3. Tradition meets innovation: transforming academic medical culture at the University of Pennsylvania's Perelman School of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Susmita; Reum, Josef; Conant, Emily; Tuton, Lucy Wolf; Scott, Patricia; Abbuhl, Stephanie; Grisso, Jeane Ann

    2013-04-01

    Traditional performance expectations and career advancement paths for academic physicians persist despite dramatic transformations in the academic workflow, workload, and workforce over the past 20 years. Although the academic physician's triple role as clinician, researcher, and educator has been lauded as the ideal by academic health centers, current standards of excellence for promotion and tenure are based on outdated models. These models fail to reward collaboration and center around rigid career advancement plans that do little to accommodate the changing needs of individuals and organizations. The authors describe an innovative, comprehensive, multipronged initiative at the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania to initiate change in the culture of academic medicine and improve academic productivity, job satisfaction, and overall quality of life for junior faculty. As a key part of this intervention, task forces from each of the 13 participating departments/divisions met five times between September 2010 and January 2011 to produce recommendations for institutional change. The authors discuss how this initiative, using principles adopted from business transformation, generated themes and techniques that can potentially guide workforce environment innovation in academic health centers across the United States. Recommendations include embracing a promotion/tenure/evaluation system that supports and rewards tailored individual academic career plans; ensuring leadership, decision-making roles, and recognition for junior faculty; deepening administrative and team supports for junior faculty; and solidifying and rewarding mentorship for junior faculty. By doing so, academic health centers can ensure the retention and commitment of faculty throughout all stages of their careers.

  4. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Pennsylvania. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  5. Effective permeabilities of abandoned oil and gas wells: analysis of data from Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Mary; Baik, Ejeong; Miller, Alana R; Bandilla, Karl W; Celia, Michael A

    2015-04-07

    Abandoned oil and gas (AOG) wells can provide pathways for subsurface fluid migration, which can lead to groundwater contamination and gas emissions to the atmosphere. Little is known about the millions of AOG wells in the U.S. and abroad. Recently, we acquired data on methane emissions from 42 plugged and unplugged AOG wells in five different counties across western Pennsylvania. We used historical documents to estimate well depths and used these depths with the emissions data to estimate the wells' effective permeabilities, which capture the combined effects of all leakage pathways within and around the wellbores. We find effective permeabilities to range from 10(-6) to 10(2) millidarcies, which are within the range of previous estimates. The effective permeability data presented here provide perspective on older AOG wells and are valuable when considering the leakage potential of AOG wells in a wide range of applications, including geologic storage of carbon dioxide, natural gas storage, and oil and gas development.

  6. Seasonal food use by white-tailed deer at Valley Forge National Historical Park, Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cypher, Brian L.; Yahner, Richard H.; Cypher, Ellen A.

    1988-03-01

    Food habits of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) were examined from January to November 1984 via fecal-pellet analysis at Valley Forge National Historical Park (VFNHP), which represents an “island” habitat for deer surrounded by extensive urbanization, in southeastern Pennsylvania. In addition, use of fields by deer was compared to food habits. Herbaceous vegetation (forbs, leaves of woody plants, and conifer needles) was the predominant food type in all seasons except fall. Acorns and graminoids (grasses and sedges) were important food resources in fall and spring, respectively. Use of woody browse (twigs) was similar among seasons. Field use was relatively high during fall, winter without snow cover (food resources in fields were readily available. In contrast, use of fields was lowest in summer when preferred woodland foods were available and in winter with snow cover when food in fields was not readily accessible. Patterns of food-type use by deer at VFNHP indicate the year-round importance of nonwoody foods and field habitats to deer populations on public lands such as national parks in the northeastern United States.

  7. Comparison of recharge estimates at a small watershed in east-central Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, D.W.; Gburek, W.J.; Folmar, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    The common recommendation that recharge should be estimated from multiple methods is sound, but the inherent differences of the methods make it difficult to assess the accuracy of differing results. In this study, four methods for estimating groundwater recharge and two methods for estimating base flow (as a proxy for recharge) are compared at two hydrologic research sites in east-central Pennsylvania, USA. Results from the multiple methods all provided reasonable estimates of groundwater recharge that differed considerably. The estimates of mean annual recharge for the period 1994-2001 ranged from 22.9 to 35.7 cm - about 45% of the mean of all estimates. For individual years, recharge estimates from the multiple methods ranged from 30 to 42% of the mean value during the dry years and 64 to 76% of the mean value during wet years. Comparison of multiple methods was found to be useful for determining the range of plausible recharge rates and highlighting the uncertainty of the estimates. ?? US Government 2008.

  8. Hydrologic effects of the Pymatuning earthquake on September 25, 1998, in northwestern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleeger, Gary M.; Goode, D.J.; Buckwalter, T.F.; Risser, D.W.

    1999-01-01

    Within hours after the Pymatuning earthquake of September 25, 1998, in northwestern Pennsylvania, local residents reported wells becoming dry, wells beginning to flow, and the formation of new springs. About 120 household-supply wells reportedly went dry within 3 months after the earthquake. About 80 of these wells were on a ridge between Jamestown and Greenville, where water-level declines of as much as 100 feet were documented. Accompanying the decline in water levels beneath the ridge was an increase in water levels in valley wells of as much as 62 feet. One possible explanation of the observed hydrologic effects is that the earthquake increased the vertical hydraulic conductivity of shales beneath the ridge, which allowed ground water to drain from the hilltops. Computer simulations of ground-water flow beneath the ridge between Jamestown and Greenville indicate that increasing the vertical hydraulic conductivity of shale confining beds about 10 to 60 times from their pre-quake values could cause the general pattern of decreased water levels on hilltops and increased levels in valleys.

  9. Multiple-methods investigation of recharge at a humid-region fractured rock site, Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppner, C.S.; Nimmo, J.R.; Folmar, G.J.; Gburek, W.J.; Risser, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    Lysimeter-percolate and well-hydrograph analyses were combined to evaluate recharge for the Masser Recharge Site (central Pennsylvania, USA). In humid regions, aquifer recharge through an unconfined low-porosity fractured-rock aquifer can cause large magnitude water-table fluctuations over short time scales. The unsaturated hydraulic characteristics of the subsurface porous media control the magnitude and timing of these fluctuations. Data from multiple sets of lysimeters at the site show a highly seasonal pattern of percolate and exhibit variability due to both installation factors and hydraulic property heterogeneity. Individual event analysis of well hydrograph data reveals the primary influences on water-table response, namely rainfall depth, rainfall intensity, and initial water-table depth. Spatial and seasonal variability in well response is also evident. A new approach for calculating recharge from continuous water-table elevation records using a master recession curve (MRC) is demonstrated. The recharge estimated by the MRC approach when assuming a constant specific yield is seasonal to a lesser degree than the recharge estimate resulting from the lysimeter analysis. Partial reconciliation of the two recharge estimates is achieved by considering a conceptual model of flow processes in the highly-heterogeneous underlying fractured porous medium. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  10. Acceptability of mobile health interventions to reduce inactivity-related health risk in central Pennsylvania adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsiang Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Insufficient physical activity and excessive sedentary behavior elevate health risk. Mobile applications (apps provide one mode for delivering interventions to modify these behaviors and reduce health risk. The purpose of this study was to characterize the need for and acceptability of health behavior interventions among rural adults and evaluate the interest in and the value of app-based interventions in this population. Central Pennsylvania adults with smartphones (N = 258 completed a brief web survey in October–November 2012. Most adults report one or both inactivity-related behavioral risk factors, would use a free app to modify those risk behaviors, and would pay a small amount for that app. Low-cost, efficacious apps to increase physical activity or reduce sedentary behavior should be promoted in public health practice. User experience should be at the forefront of this process to increase value and minimize burden in the service of long-term engagement, behavior change, and health risk reduction.

  11. Racial/ethnic diversity management and cultural competency: the case of Pennsylvania hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Dreachslin, Janice L; Dansky, Kathryn H; De Souza, Gita; Gatto, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Major demographic trends are changing the face of America's labor pool, and healthcare managers increasingly face a scarcer and more diverse workforce. As a result, healthcare organizations (HCOs) must develop policies and practices aimed at recruiting, retaining, and managing a diverse workforce and must meet the demands of a more diverse patient population by providing culturally appropriate care and improving access to care for racial/ethnic minorities. Ultimately, the goal of managing diversity is to enhance workforce and customer satisfaction, to improve communication among members of the workforce, and to further improve organizational performance. Research on diversity management practices in HCOs is scarce, providing few guidelines for practitioners. This study attempted to close that gap. Results show that hospitals in Pennsylvania have been relatively inactive with employing diversity management practices, and equal employment requirements are the main driver of diversity management policy. The number and scope of diversity management practices used were not influenced by organizational or market characteristics. The results suggest that hospitals need to adopt diversity management practices for their workforces and need to pay particular attention to marketing and service planning activities that meet the needs of a diverse patient population.

  12. Water quality of large discharges from mines in the anthracite region of eastern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C.R.

    1996-01-01

    In 1991, 99 of the 102 coal mines in the anthracite coal fields of Pennsylvania that discharged 1.0 cubic foot per second or more when water-quality samples were collected in 1975 were revisited. Water was not discharging from 15 of these 99 mines in 1991. Discharge, water temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, sulfate, iron, manganese, alkalinity, and acidity were measured in water samples collected at 84 mines to assess changes in water quality from 1975 to 1991. The pH increased in water samples of 64 of the 81 mines. However, acidity was essentially unchanged. Concentrations of iron decreased in water discharge samples from 57 of 82 mines, manganese concentrations decreased in samples from 23 of 26 mines, and sulfate concentrations decreased in samples from 62 of 77 mines. The median change in sulfate was a decrease of 139 milligrams per liter. Alkalinity increased in water discharge samples from 43 mines, remained the same at 22 mines, and decreased at 14 mines. In 1975, the samples were collected during high base flow in the spring; in 1991, samples were collected during lower-than-normal base flow in the fall. This may have affected the comparison. Many mine discharges have elevated concentrations of aluminum, calcium, cobalt, iron, lithium, magnesium, manganese, nickel, strontium, zinc, and sulfate.

  13. Wind River: A Wild and Scenic River Analysis: Preliminary draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Wind River meets the criteria for inclusion in the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System. Subject to valid existing rights, the minerals in Federal lands which...

  14. Kisaralik River: A wild and scenic river analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Kisaralik River from and including Kisaralik Lake to the west boundary of TSN, R65W meets the criteria established by the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act for...

  15. Study on the Reutilization of River Sediment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gui-yun; JIANG Pei-hua; XI Dan-li

    2002-01-01

    Main components and properties of river sediment are introduced. Secondary pollution of river sediments to the water quality of the river is clarified. The methods of the reutilization of river sediment are elucidated.

  16. 76 FR 1338 - Emerald Ash Borer; Quarantined Areas; Maryland, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Pennsylvania...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 301 Emerald Ash Borer; Quarantined Areas; Maryland... to the list of areas quarantined because of emerald ash borer (EAB). The interim rule was necessary... Coordinator, Emerald Ash Borer Program, Emergency and Domestic Programs, PPQ, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit...

  17. 77 FR 49379 - Final Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-16

    ... Creek. Juniata River Approximately 1.72 miles +638 Township of Porter. upstream of Bridge Street... Maps are available for inspection at the Logan Township Building, 7228 Diamond Valley, Alexandria, PA... Road, Huntingdon, PA 16652. Township of Porter Maps are available for inspection at the Porter...

  18. 75 FR 81957 - Proposed Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... the confluence with Shaver Creek. Juniata River Approximately 1.72 miles None +638 Township of Porter... are available for inspection at the Logan Township Building, 7228 Diamond Valley, Alexandria, PA 16611..., Huntingdon, PA 16652. Township of Porter Maps are available for inspection at the Porter Township...

  19. 50 CFR 226.205 - Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Critical habitat for Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon. 226.205 Section... Snake River sockeye salmon, Snake River fall chinook salmon, and Snake River spring/summer...

  20. 33 CFR 207.380 - Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls. 207.380 Section 207.380 Navigation and Navigable... Red Lake River, Minn.; logging regulations for portion of river above Thief River Falls. (a)...

  1. 33 CFR 117.734 - Navesink River (Swimming River).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Navesink River (Swimming River). 117.734 Section 117.734 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... (Swimming River). The Oceanic Bridge, mile 4.5, shall open on signal; except that, from December 1 through...

  2. The Nile River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image of the northern portion of the Nile River was captured by MISR's nadir camera on January 30, 2001 (Terra orbit 5956). The Nile is the longest river in the world, extending for about 6700 kilometers from its headwaters in the highlands of eastern Africa. At the apex of the fertile Nile River Delta is the Egyptian capital city of Cairo. To the west are the Great Pyramids of Giza. North of here the Nile branches into two distributaries, the Rosetta to the west and the Damietta to the east. Also visible in this image is the Suez Canal, a shipping waterway connecting Port Said on the Mediterranean Sea with the Gulf of Suez. The Gulf is an arm of the Red Sea, and is located on the righthand side of the picture. Image credit: NASA/GSFC/LaRC/JPL, MISR Team.

  3. Haw River PFCs Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PFAS concentrations in river and drinking water in and around the Haw River in North Carolina. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Sun, M., E....

  4. Sprague River Oregon Bars 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  5. Sprague River Oregon Floodplain Boundary

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  6. Missouri River 1943 Compact Line

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Flood Control, Bank Stabilization and development of a navigational channel on the Missouri River had a great impact on the river and adjacent lands. The new...

  7. Sprague River Oregon Floodplain 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  8. The River Lune fact file

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    This document provides a brief introduction to the River Lune catchment and the role that the National Rivers Authority plays in catchment management. Included are a map of the catchment and short introductions to fisheries and characteristics of the catchment.

  9. Sprague River Oregon Centerline 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  10. Sprague River Oregon Centerline 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  11. Sprague River Oregon Water 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  12. Sprague River Oregon Water 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  13. Sprague River Oregon Floodplain 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  14. Sprague River Oregon Bars 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the...

  15. Sprague River Oregon Bars 1940

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  16. Sprague River Oregon Centerline 1975

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  17. Sprague River Oregon Centerline 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  18. Sprague River Oregon Floodplain Centerline

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Sprague River drains 4090 square kilometers in south-central Oregon before flowing into the Williamson River and upper Klamath Lake. In cooperation with the U.S....

  19. Abandoned mine drainage in the Swatara Creek Basin, southern anthracite coalfield, Pennsylvania, USA: 1. stream quality trends coinciding with the return of fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles A.; Brightbill, Robin A.; Langland, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Acidic mine drainage (AMD) from legacy anthracite mines has contaminated Swatara Creek in eastern Pennsylvania. Intermittently collected base-flow data for 1959–1986 indicate that fish were absent immediately downstream from the mined area where pH ranged from 3.5 to 7.2 and concentrations of sulfate, dissolved iron, and dissolved aluminum were as high as 250, 2.0, and 4.7 mg/L, respectively. However, in the 1990s, fish returned to upper Swatara Creek, coinciding with the implementation of AMD treatment (limestone drains, limestone diversion wells, limestone sand, constructed wetlands) in the watershed. During 1996–2006, as many as 25 species of fish were identified in the reach downstream from the mined area, with base-flow pH from 5.8 to 7.6 and concentrations of sulfate, dissolved iron, and dissolved aluminum as high as 120, 1.2, and 0.43 mg/L, respectively. Several of the fish taxa are intolerant of pollution and low pH, such as river chub (Nocomis icropogon) and longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae). Cold-water species such as brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and warm-water species such as rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris) varied in predominance depending on stream flow and stream temperature. Storm flow data for 1996–2007 indicated pH, alkalinity, and sulfate concentrations decreased as the stream flow and associated storm-runoff component increased, whereas iron and other metal concentrations were poorly correlated with stream flow because of hysteresis effects (greater metal concentrations during rising stage than falling stage). Prior to 1999, pH\\5.0 was recorded during several storm events; however, since the implementation of AMD treatments, pH has been maintained near neutral. Flow-adjusted trends for1997–2006 indicated significant increases in calcium; decreases in hydrogen ion, dissolved aluminum, dissolved and total manganese, and total iron; and no change in sulfate or dissolved iron in Swatara Creek immediately downstream from the

  20. Local Impacts of Mercury Emissions from the Three Pennsylvania Coal Fired Power Plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan,T.; Adams,J.; Bender, M.; Bu, C.; Piccolo, N.; Campbell, C.

    2008-02-01

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury 'hot spots'. Soil and oak leaf samples from around three large U.S. coal-fired power plants in Western Pennsylvania were collected and analyzed for evidence of 'hot spots'. These three plants (Conemaugh, Homer City, and Keystone) are separated by a total distance of approximately 30 miles. Each emits over 500 pounds of mercury per year which is well above average for mercury emissions from coal plants in the U.S. Soil and oak leaf sampling programs were performed around each power plant. Sampling rings one-mile apart were used with eight or nine locations on each ring. The prevailing winds in the region are from the west. For this reason, sampling was conducted out to 10 miles from the Conemaugh plant which is southeast of the others. The other plants were sampled to a distance of five miles. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with wind patterns. The study

  1. An application of artificial intelligence for rainfall–runoff modeling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ali Aytek; M Asce; Murat Alp

    2008-04-01

    This study proposes an application of two techniques of artificial intelligence (AI) for rainfall–runoff modeling: the artificial neural networks (ANN) and the evolutionary computation (EC). Two different ANN techniques, the feed forward back propagation (FFBP) and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) methods are compared with one EC method, Gene Expression Programming (GEP) which is a new evolutionary algorithm that evolves computer programs. The daily hydrometeorological data of three rainfall stations and one streamflow station for Juniata River Basin in Pennsylvania state of USA are taken into consideration in the model development. Statistical parameters such as average, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, skewness, minimum and maximum values, as well as criteria such as mean square error (MSE) and determination coefficient (2) are used to measure the performance of the models. The results indicate that the proposed genetic programming (GP) formulation performs quite well compared to results obtained by ANNs and is quite practical for use. It is concluded from the results that GEP can be proposed as an alternative to ANN models.

  2. Two Pontic rivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Nielsen, Tønnes; Jensen, Marit

    2015-01-01

    The accounts of the landscape around the Iris (Yeşilirmak) and the Thermodon (Terme) given by ancient authors are diverse and often contradictory. The Periegesis of the World by Dionysius of Alexandria, a didactic poem written in the early IInd c. A.D., established an image of the two rivers...... that does not correspond to their actual characteristics. A closer study reveals that Dionysius, or possibly his source, has confused the two: the river which he describes as the Thermodon is in fact the Iris, and vice versa. This mistake was not realized by later translators (Avienus, late IVth c. A...

  3. Late Devonian spermatophyte diversity and paleoecology at Red Hill, north-central Pennsylvania, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cressler, Walter L. III. [Francis Harvey Green Library, 29 West Rosedale Avenue, West Chester University, West Chester, PA, 19383 (United States); Prestianni, Cyrille [Universite de Liege, Boulevard du Rectorat B18, Liege 4000 (Belgium); LePage, Ben A. [The Academy of Natural Sciences, 1900 Benjamin Franklin Parkway, Philadelphia, PA, 19103 and PECO Energy Company, 2301 Market Avenue, S9-1, Philadelphia, PA 19103 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Early spermatophytes have been discovered at Red Hill, a Late Devonian (Famennian) fossil locality in north-central Pennsylvania, USA. The Red Hill locality contains an Archaeopteris-dominated flora within an outcrop of the Duncannon Member of the Catskill Formation. Palynological analyses of the plant fossil-bearing horizons within the Red Hill outcrop indicate deposition within the VCo palynozone. This is the earliest time horizon known to contain evidence for spermatophytes, and is contemporaneous with well-known spermatophyte-bearing deposits in West Virginia and Belgium. Some of the spermatophyte material from Red Hill compares well with Aglosperma sp., previously known as isolated ovules from the latest Devonian of South Wales and England, thus extending its geographic and stratigraphic range. Red Hill specimens of Aglosperma sp. occur both as isolated ovules and attached to dichotomously forking axes. Additional spermatophyte cupules discovered at Red Hill are morphologically similar to those of the previously described Late Devonian spermatophytes Elkinsia Rothwell, Scheckler, et Gillespie, Moresnetia Stockmans, and Xenotheca Arber et Goode. Some of the Red Hill cupule complexes are distinct from the aforementioned taxa in consisting of slender dichotomously forking axes terminating in paired cupules with highly fused and symmetric cupule quadrant lobes. The distinctive nature of these Red Hill specimens warrants the creation of Duodimidia pfefferkornii Cressler, Prestianni, et LePage gen. et sp. nov. Plant fossil remains with sphenopteroid foliage are also present at Red Hill, possibly attributable to the spermatophytes. Previous systematic sampling of the rich plant-fossil bearing layer at Red Hill and analysis of its floristic diversity and abundance as well as the presence and absence of charcoal suggests a pattern of floral turnover from a local-scale Rhacophyton-dominated community to spermatophyte colonization following disturbance by wildfires

  4. Reorientation mechanisms of phyllosilicates in the mudstone-to-slate transition at Lehigh Gap, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Nei-Che; Peacor, Donald R.; van der Pluijm, Ben A.

    1995-03-01

    The mudstone-to-slate transition of the Martinsburg Formation at Lehigh Gap, Pennsylvania, was re-examined using a new transmission-mode X-ray texture goniometer, supplemented by SEM, XRD, and optical studies. Three mesoscopic zones are recognized in the outcrop: (I) mudstone, (II) transition, and (III) slate zone. In the mudstone zone, the mica basal planes are parallel to bedding whereas the preferred orientation of the chlorite basal planes is up to 30° shallower than bedding. The angular difference between chlorite and mica decreases towards the transition zone, becoming subparallel at ca. 50 m from the contact with the overlying Shawangunk Formation. In the transition zone, the preferred orientations of both mica and chlorite are intermediate to bedding and cleavage orientations, which is consistent with mechanical reorientation of phyllosilicates. This is supported by a decrease in March strain with a minimum at ca. 95 m from the contact for both mica and chlorite. SEM observations similarly show the importance of grain rotation in large detrital grains. In the slate zone, both chlorite and mica orientations are parallel to cleavage. Chlorite and mica in the cleavage orientation of the slate zone have high Fe contents, whereas low-Fe mica and Mg > Fe chlorite dominate in the mudstone and transition zone, which indicates that dissolution-neocrystallization is the dominant mechanism in the slate zone. Thus, mechanical rotation of large detrital grains is important in the early stages of cleavage development, with dissolution—neocrystallization occurring at all stages and becoming dominant in the more evolved stages.

  5. Water-quality trends for a stream draining the Southern Anthracite Field, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.; Bilger, M.D.

    2001-01-01

    Stream flow, chemical and biological data for the northern part of Swatara Creek, which drains a 112 km2 area in the Southern Anthracite Field of eastern Pennsylvania, indicate progressive improvement in water quality since 1959, after which most mines in the watershed had been flooded. Drainage from the flooded mines contributes substantially to base flow in Swatara Creek. Beginning in 1995, a variety of treatment systems and surface reclamation were implemented at some of the abandoned mines. At Ravine, Pa., immediately downstream of the mined area, median SO4 concentration declined from about 150 mg l-1 in 1959 to 75 mg l-1 in 1999 while pH increased from acidic to near-neutral values (medians: c. pH 4 before 1975; c. pH 6 after 1975). Fish populations rebounded from non-existent during 1959-1990 to 21 species identified in 1999. Nevertheless, recent monitoring indicates (1) episodic acidification and elevated concentrations and transport of Fe, Al, Mn, and trace metals during storm flow; (2) elevated concentrations of Fe, Mn, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn in streambed sediments relative to unmined areas and to toxicity guidelines for aquatic invertebrates and fish; and (3) elevated concentrations of metals in fish tissue, notably Zn. The metals are ubiquitous in the fine fraction (acidic storm runoff derived mainly from low-pH rainfall. Declines in pH to values approaching 5.0 during storm flow events or declines in redox potential during burial of sediment could result in the remobilization of metals associated with suspended solids and streambed deposits.

  6. Summary of the engineering assessment of inactive uranium-mill tailings: Canonsburg Site, Canonsburg, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-04-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has evaluated the Canonsburg site in order to assess the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive residues at Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. This engineering assessment has included the preparation of topographic maps, radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigations of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative remedial actions. Radon gas released from the approximately 300,000 tons of tailings and contaminated soil at the Canonsburg site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation also are factors. The four alternative actions presented in this engineering assessment range from millsite and off-site decontamination with the addition of 3 m of stabilization cover material (Option I), to removal of the tailings and contaminated materials to a remote disposal site and decontamination of the Canonsburg site (Options II through IV). Cost estimates for the four options range from $23,244,000 for stabilization in-place, to $27,052,000 for disposal at a distance of about 17 mi. Three principal alternatives for the reprocessing of the Canonsburg tailings were examined: heap leaching; treatment at an existing mill; and reprocessing at a new conventional mill constructed for tailings reprocessing. As required by Public Law 95-604, under whose auspices this project is conducted, the US Department of Energy has solicited expressions of interest in reprocessing the tailings and residues at the Canonsburg site for uranium recovery. Since no such interest was demonstrated, no effort has been made to estimate the value of the residual uranium resource at the Canonsburg site.

  7. Causes of acidification of four streams on Laurel Hilld in southwestern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, William E.; DeWalle, David R.; Leibfried, Robert T.; Dinicola, Richard S.; Kimmel, William G.; Sherwin, Lysle S.

    1984-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition, soils developed from bedrock, a natural bog, gas wells, and a ski area were all investigated as possible sources of water quality degradation for four streams on Laurel Hill in southwestern Pennsylvania where fish kills have been reported since 1960. An intensive study of the chemistry of atmospheric deposition, soil leachate, and stream water and fish populations was conducted on these basins during 1980–1981 with emphasis on dormant season periods with runoff from snowmelt and rain. Although bedrock geology was found to control the natural buffering capacity of these streams, only acid precipitation could be linked to sharp drops in pH and increases in total Al concentrations observed during stormflows in the poorly buffered streams. Three poorly buffered streams exhibited drops to pH 4.4 to 4.5 and increases in total Al concentrations up to 1.5 mg/L during observed peak flows. Mineral soil leachate from the three major soil series on the basins during this time exhibited a low pH of 4.3 and mean total Al concentrations of 3.6 mg/L, indicating stream response during storms was closely linked to chemistry of soil leachate. Poorly buffered streams did not support reproducing populations of trout (Salmonidae sp.) or other fishes. In contrast, one well-buffered stream (20 mg/L CaCO3) exhibited drops to pH 5.5 during peak flow and supported reproducing trout and sculpin (Cottus bairdi) populations. The acidification of the four streams studied was attributed to atmospheric deposition.

  8. Cross-culturally modified University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test for a Turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altundag, Aytug; Tekeli, Hakan; Salihoglu, Murat; Cayonu, Melih; Yasar, Halit; Kendirli, Mustafa T; Saglam, Omer

    2015-01-01

    The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) is a well-developed and popular olfactory test, which has been validated in various populations. However, there was only one study in a Turkish population, and this study indicated that the North American version of the UPSIT was not enough to evaluate the olfactory functions of Turkish population. So, we developed a cross-cultural adaptation of the UPSIT, the UPSIT-Turkish (UPSIT-T). Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate the applicability of the UPSIT-T in healthy Turkish subjects. The study included 51 healthy individuals who reported having normal olfactory function. The participants were administered the North American version of the UPSIT firstly, and then, after a day UPSIT-T was applied to the participants. The results of two smell tests were compared, and the applicability of UPSIT-T was evaluated. The mean (standard deviation) value for correctly identified odors was 27.2 ± 5.7 (range, 14-38) with the UPSIT application, whereas the mean (standard deviation) value for correctly identified odors was 35.9 ± 3.1 for UPSIT-T. There was a statistically significant increase in the scores of the participants when UPSIT-T was performed (p < 0.001). The identification rates of 10 test odorants were <80% for our study group, and 2 of 10 were <70% for the UPSIT-T. The UPSIT-T modification is an adequate olfactory test for clinical use in a Turkish population.

  9. Erosion control on a steeply sloped pipeline right-of-way in southwestern Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zellmer, S.D.; Edgar, D.E. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Isaacson, H.R. (Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (USA))

    1991-01-01

    The results of precipitation on steeply sloped pipeline rights-of-way (ROWs) during the time between ROW rehabilitation and the establishment of a dense, self-sustaining vegetative ground cover can cause locally severe soil erosion. This erosion results in elevated sediment loads in receiving streams and increases the difficulty and costs of ROW maintenance. A field study was completed that compared the environmental effectiveness of nine treatments on a 28% ROW slope in southwestern Pennsylvania. The six erosion-control methods investigated in the study, selected to represent a wide range in material type and installation cost, were (1) heavy application of straw mulch, (2) light application of straw mulch, (3) processed wood fiber, (4) chemical soil binder, (5) paper strips in netting, and (6) light straw mulch with a tacking agent. Each of the test plots also received the basic treatment of limestone, fertilizer, and a seed mixture commonly used to rehabilitate ROWs in the region. Precipitation, runoff volumes, and sediment yields were measured on each of 51 plots for 45 precipitation events during the 18-month study. Vegetation data were collected by the point-intercept method four times during the study to determine the amount of plant cover and species composition. Differences in sediment yield were observed among methods and between ROW location, but plant cover development was not influenced by erosion-control method or location. The relationship between environmental and cost data indicated that, of the six erosion-control methods tested, a light application of straw mulch was the most effective erosion-control treatment. 19 refs., 2 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Thermal-hydraulic modeling of the Pennsylvania State University Breazeale Nuclear Reactor (PSBR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jong E.

    2005-11-01

    Earlier experiments determined that the Pennsylvania State University Breazeale Nuclear Reactor (PSBR) core is cooled, not by an axial flow, but rather by a strong cross flow due to the thermal expansion of the coolant. To further complicate the flow field, a nitrogen-16 (N-16) pump was installed above the PSBR core to mix the exiting core buoyant thermal plume in order to delay the rapid release of radioactive N-16 to the PSBR pool surface. Thus, the interaction between the N-16 jet flow and the buoyancy driven flow complicates the analysis of the flow distribution in the PSBR pool. The main objectives of this study is to model the thermal-hydraulic behavior of the PSBR core and pool. During this study four major things were performed including the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model for the PSBR pool, the stand-alone fuel rod model for a PSBR fuel rod, the velocity measurements in and around the PSBR core, and the temperature measurements in the PSBR pool. Once the flow field was predicted by the CFD model, the measurement devices were manufactured and calibrated based on the CFD results. The major contribution of this study is to understand and to explain the flow behavior in the PSBR subchannels and pool using the FLOW3D model. The stand-alone dynamic fuel rod model was developed to determine the temperature distribution inside a PSBR fuel rod. The stand-alone fuel rod model was coupled to the FLOW3D model and used to predict the temperature behavior during steady-state and pulsing. The heat transfer models in the stand-alone fuel rod code are used in order to overcome the disadvantage of the CFD code, which does not calculate the mechanical stress, the gap conductance, and the two phase heat transfer. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  11. Lead poisoning in dogs at the University of Pennsylvania Veterinary Hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowalczyk, D.F.

    1976-03-01

    Twenty-seven dogs with lead poisoning were admitted to the University of Pennsylvania Veterinary Hospital from July, 1963, to April, 1975. The major source of the lead was paint. A common history was ingestion of plaster or paint scrapings during room renovation. Most of the dogs were less than 1 year old and had clinical signs referable to the gastrointestinal or the nervous system, or both. The gastrointestinal signs, in order of frequency, were vomiting, anorexia, tender abdomen, diarrhea, and constipation. The neurologic signs, in order of frequency, were hysteria, convulsions, ataxia, blindness, and mydriasis. The finding of many nucleated erythrocytes without severe anemia was nearly pathognomonic for lead poisoning. Of 14 affected dogs subjected to abdominal radiography, 9 had evidence of ingested radiopaque material. A mean blood lead concentration of 18.8 ..mu..g/100 ml, with a range of 0 to 50 ..mu..g/100 ml, was found for 26 dogs that were hospitalized for problems unrelated to lead poisoning. Of the 27 dogs with lead poisoning, 22 had their blood analyzed for lead. This group had blood lead values ranging from 40 to 530 ..mu..g/100 ml. Seven of the affected dogs were monitored throughout their period of treatment with calcium ethylene-diaminetetraacetate. The concentration of lead in the blood decreased quickly after the initiation and treatment but leveled off after 2 or 3 days. The initial rapid phase probably corresponded to the removal of weakly bound or extracellular lead, whereas the slow phase probably corresponded to strongly bound or intracellular lead. 22 references.

  12. Building America Case Study: High-Velocity Small-Diameter Duct System, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-01

    This study tests the performance of a variable airflow small-diameter duct heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system in a new construction unoccupied low-load test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The duct system was installed entirely in conditioned space and was operated from the winter through summer seasons. Measurements were collected on the in-room temperatures and energy consumed by the air handler and heat pump unit. Operation modes with three different volumes of airflow were compared to determine the ideal airflow scenario that maximizes room-to-room thermal uniformity while minimizing fan energy consumption. Black felt infrared imagery was used as a measure of diffuser throw and in-room air mixing. Measured results indicate the small-diameter, high velocity airflow system can provide comfort under some conditions. Solar heat gains resulted in southern rooms drifting beyond acceptable temperature limits. Insufficient airflow to some bedrooms also resulted in periods of potential discomfort. Homebuilders or HVAC contractors can use these results to assess whether this space conditioning strategy is an attractive alternative to a traditional duct system. The team performed a cost analysis of two duct system configurations: (1) a conventional diameter and velocity duct system, and (2) the small-diameter duct system. This work applies to both new and retrofit homes that have achieved a low heating and cooling density either by energy conservation or by operation in a mild climate with few heating or cooling degree days. Guidance is provided on cost trade-offs between the conventional duct system and the small-diameter duct system.

  13. Variable Transport of Fluorescent Tracers to Springs of Mantled Karst in the Great Valley of Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, T. M.; Brookhart, A.; Otz, M. H.; Otz, I.; Feeney, T. P.

    2006-05-01

    Karst springs of south-central Pennsylvania support productive wild fisheries, trout hatcheries, and water supplies, and typically exhibit characteristics of diffuse flow systems. Dye traces are not documented for the region, resulting in uncertainty in both groundwater flow and in potential for runoff contamination. Surface drainages in this part of the Great Valley include the Yellow Breeches and Conodoguinet creeks, each flowing east and north to the Susquehanna. Big Spring, the focus of this study, flows at an average of 868 l/s and northward across the Great Valley to the Conodoguinet. Temperature is relatively constant at 10-11 degrees C, with turbidity typically released fluorescein (FL) into a losing reach of the Yellow Breeches, 5.2 km to the south, and sulphorhodamine-B (SRB) to a sinkhole in a failing detention basin 8.9 km to the west of Big Spring. SRB traveled to Big Spring within 3.5 days, parallel with geologic strike. West and East source springs of Big Spring responded differently, with a clear SRB peak in the west spring (316 ppt), and less distinct SRB peak occurring in the smaller east spring. Fl did not cross the valley from the Yellow Breeches watershed, but rather was weakly detected one month later 9.5 km to the east at springs of Huntsdale state fish hatchery. Neither dye was detected in springs bracketing Big Spring to the west and east, including a second contributing east spring that serves as water supply. Major springs are fed by separate, regional flow systems along strike, and may receive rapid, regional transport of surface runoff from sinkholes where the colluvial mantle thins. Background fluorescence of spring and well waters is also being analyzed, with particular focus on organic acids from forested source waters and human or animal waste from valley sources.

  14. Reported health conditions in animals residing near natural gas wells in southwestern Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slizovskiy, I B; Conti, L A; Trufan, S J; Reif, J S; Lamers, V T; Stowe, M H; Dziura, J; Rabinowitz, P M

    2015-01-01

    Natural gas extraction activities, including the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, may pose potential health risks to both human and animal populations in close proximity to sites of extraction activity. Because animals may have increased exposure to contaminated water and air as well as increased susceptibility to contaminant exposures compared to nearby humans, animal disease events in communities living near natural gas extraction may provide "sentinel" information useful for human health risk assessment. Community health evaluations as well as health impact assessments (HIAs) of natural gas exploration should therefore consider the inclusion of animal health metrics in their assessment process. We report on a community environmental health survey conducted in an area of active natural gas drilling, which included the collection of health data on 2452 companion and backyard animals residing in 157 randomly-selected households of Washington County, Pennsylvania (USA). There were a total of 127 reported health conditions, most commonly among dogs. When reports from all animals were considered, there were no significant associations between reported health condition and household proximity to natural gas wells. When dogs were analyzed separately, we found an elevated risk of 'any' reported health condition in households less than 1km from the nearest gas well (OR = 3.2, 95% CI 1.07-9.7), with dermal conditions being the most common of canine disorders. While these results should be considered hypothesis generating and preliminary, they suggest value in ongoing assessments of pet dogs as well as other animals to better elucidate the health impacts of natural gas extraction on nearby communities.

  15. Long-term climate impacts on breeding bird phenology in Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Molly E; DeGroote, Lucas W

    2016-10-01

    Climate change is influencing bird phenology worldwide, but we still lack information on how many species are responding over long temporal periods. We assessed how climate affected passerine reproductive timing and productivity at a constant effort mist-netting station in western Pennsylvania using a model comparison approach. Several lines of evidence point to the sensitivity of 21 breeding passerines to climate change over five decades. The trends for temperature and precipitation over 53 years were slightly positive due to intraseasonal variation, with the greatest temperature increases and precipitation declines in early spring. Regardless of broodedness, migration distance, or breeding season, 13 species hatched young earlier over time with most advancing >3 days per decade. Warm springs were associated with earlier captures of juveniles for 14 species, ranging from 1- to 3-day advancement for every 1 °C increase. This timing was less likely to be influenced by spring precipitation; nevertheless, higher rainfall was usually associated with later appearance of juveniles and breeding condition in females. Temperature and precipitation were positively related to productivity for seven and eleven species, respectively, with negative relations evident for six and eight species. We found that birds fledged young earlier with increasing spring temperatures, potentially benefiting some multibrooded species. Indeed, some extended the duration of breeding in these warm years. Yet, a few species fledged fewer juveniles in warmer and wetter seasons, indicating that expected future increases could be detrimental to locally breeding populations. Although there were no clear relationships between life history traits and breeding phenology, species-specific responses to climate found in our study provide novel insights into phenological flexibility in songbirds. Our research underscores the value of long-term monitoring studies and the importance of continuing constant

  16. The relationship between methane migration and shale-gas well operations near Dimock, Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Patrick A.

    2016-03-01

    Migration of stray methane gas near the town of Dimock, Pennsylvania, has been at the center of the debate on the safety of shale gas drilling and hydraulic fracturing in the United States. The presented study relates temporal variations in molecular concentrations and stable isotope compositions of methane and ethane to shale-gas well activity (i.e., vertical/horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing and remedial actions). This was accomplished by analyzing data collected, between 2008 and 2012, by state and federal agencies and the gas well operator. In some cases, methane migration started prior to hydraulic fracturing. Methane levels of contaminated water wells sampled were one to several orders of magnitude greater than the concentrations due to natural variation in water wells of the local area. Isotope analyses indicate that all samples had a thermogenic origin at varying maturity levels, but from formations above the hydraulically fractured Marcellus Shale. The results from the initial water well samples were similar to annular gas values, but not those of production gases. This indicates that leakage by casing cement seals most likely caused the impacts, not breaks in the production casing walls. Remediation by squeeze cementing was partially effective in mitigating impacts of gas migration. In several cases where remediation caused a substantial reduction in methane levels, there were also substantial changes in the isotope values, providing evidence of two sources, one natural and the other man-induced. Sampling water wells while venting gas wells appears to be a cost-effective method for determining if methane migration has occurred.

  17. The early evolution of southwestern Pennsylvania's regional math/science collaborative from the leadership perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunt, Nancy R.

    Designed as a regional approach to the coordination of efforts and focusing of resources in fragmented southwestern Pennsylvania, the Collaborative's story is narrated by its founding director. Drawing from office archives, including letters of invitation, meeting notes, and participant evaluations of each event, the study describes the genesis of the Collaborative. It begins with identification of the problem and the resulting charge by a founding congress. It details the building of an organizational framework, the creation of a shared vision, the development of a blueprint for action, and the decision-making involved in determining how to strengthen mathematics and science education in the region. The study notes several influences on the Collaborative's leadership. Considering the role of other collaboratives, the study notes that knowledge of the Los Angeles Educational Partnership's LA SMART jump-started the Collaborative's initial planning process. Knowledge of San Francisco's SEABA influenced the size and naming of the Collaborative's Journal. Fred Newmann's definition of authentic instruction, learning and assessment are reflected in the shared vision and belief statements of the Collaborative. The five disciplines of Peter Senge influenced the nature of the organizational framework as well as the day-to-day operations of the Collaborative. The study also notes that the five organizational tensions identified in Ann Lieberman's work on "intentional learning communities" were present in every aspect of the evolution of the Collaborative. The study suggests that leaders of evolving collaboratives: (1) engage all relevant stakeholders in assessing the current situation and defining a desired future state, (2) take advantage of the lessons learned by others and the resources available at the state and national levels to design strategies and build action plans, (3) model the practices to be inspired in the learning community, (4) constantly gather feedback on

  18. Effects of agricultural nutrient management on nitrogen fate and transport in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, D.W.; Risser, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    Nitrogen inputs to, and outputs from, a 55-acre site in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, were estimated to determine the pathways and relative magnitude of loads of nitrogen entering and leaving the site, and to compare the loads of nitrogen before and after the implementation of nutrient management. Inputs of nitrogen to the site were manure fertilizer, commercial fertilizer, nitrogen in precipitation, and nitrogen in ground-water inflow; and these sources averaged 93, 4, 2, and 1 percent of average annual nitrogen additions, respectively. Outputs of nitrogen from the site were nitrogen in harvested crops, loads of nitrogen in surface runoff, volatilization of nitrogen, and loads of nitrogen in ground-water discharge, which averaged 37, less than 1,25, and 38 percent of average annual nitrogen removals from the site, respectively. Virtually all of the nitrogen leaving the site that was not removed in harvested crops or by volatilization was discharged in the ground water. Applications of manure and fertilizer nitrogen to 47.5 acres of cropped fields decreased about 33 percent, from an average of 22,700 pounds per year (480 pounds per acre per year) before nutrient management to 15,175 pounds of nitrogen per year (320 pounds per acre per year) after the implementation of nutrient management practices. Nitrogen loads in ground-water discharged from the site decreased about 30 percent, from an average of 292 pounds of nitrogen per million gallons of ground water before nutrient management to an average of 203 pounds of nitrogen per million gallons as a result of the decreased manure and commercial fertilizer applications. Reductions in manure and commercial fertilizer applications caused a reduction of approximately 11,000 pounds (3,760 pounds per year, 70 pounds per acre per year) in the load of nitrogen discharged in ground water from the 55-acre site during the three-year period 1987-1990.

  19. Effects on forest birds of DDT used for gypsy moth control in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotchkiss, N.; Pough, R.H.

    1946-01-01

    1. Systematic censuses of the birds on three 40-acre tracts of forest near Scranton, Lackawanna County, Pennsylvania, were made between May 1 and June 27, 1945, to determine the breeding populations....2. Between May 24 and June 1 a 600-acre area enclosing the first (Mile Square) was sprayed by airplane with DDT in oil solution at 5 pounds per acre. On June 9 a 350-acre area enclosing the second tract (Maple Lake) was sprayed with 1pound of DDT per acre. The third tract (Check) was not treated....3. Within 48 hours after treatment of the Mile Square tract, five sick birds were found with symptoms of DDT poisoning, and all died. Two other dead birds were found, and two nests apparently were abandoned. Species involved were red-eyed vireo (3), black-and-white warbler, black-throated blue warbler (nest abandoned), ovenbird (bird died, nest abandoned), redstart, and scarlet tanager....Within 48 hours after application of DDT to the final portion of the tract (on June 1) the population of living birds appeared to have been much reduced, and this condition continued. Before spraying the population total for all species was 1.6 pairs (3.2 birds) per acre. Three days after spraying had been completed there were only two singing males in the entire area; but on June 13 the estimated population was 0.5 bird per acre.....4. After DDT was applied to the Maple Lake tract, careful watch was kept for changes in the bird population and as to nest conditions there and on the Check tract. The apparent total reduction for all species in the Maple Lake tract was from 2.7 pairs to 2.6 pairs per acre; and in the Check tract from 2.7 pairs to 2.4 pairs per acre. Neither these changes nor the observed abandonment of nests and nestling mortality could be attributed to use of DDT.

  20. Generational diversity in associate degree nursing students: Teaching styles and preferences in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitko, Jennifer V.

    2011-12-01

    Nursing educators face the challenge of meeting the needs of a multi-generational classroom. The reality of having members from the Veteran and Baby Boomer generations in a classroom with Generation X and Y students provides an immediate need for faculty to examine students' teaching method preferences as well as their own use of teaching methods. Most importantly, faculty must facilitate an effective multi-generational learning environment. Research has shown that the generation to which a person belongs is likely to affect the ways in which he/she learns (Hammill, 2005). Characterized by its own attitudes, behaviors, beliefs, and motivational needs, each generation also has distinct educational expectations. It is imperative, therefore, that nurse educators be aware of these differences and develop skills through which to communicate with the different generations, thereby reducing teaching/learning problems in the classroom. This is a quantitative, descriptive study that compared the teaching methods preferred by different generations of associate degree nursing students with the teaching methods that the instructors actually use. The research study included 289 participants; 244 nursing student participants and 45 nursing faculty participants from four nursing departments in colleges in Pennsylvania. Overall, the results of the study found many statistically significant findings. The results of the ANOVA test revealed eight statistically significant findings among Generation Y, Generation X and Baby boomers. The preferred teaching methods included: lecture, self-directed learning, web-based course with no class meetings, important for faculty to know my name, classroom structure, know why I am learning what I am learning, learning for the sake of learning and grade is all that matters. Lecture was found to be the most frequently used teaching method by faculty as well as the most preferred teaching methods by students. Overall, the support for a variety of

  1. Nowitna River goose survey, 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — An aerial goose survey of the upper Nowitna River and a river-floating goose brood survey of the upper Nowitna River were conducted May 27th through July 5th of...

  2. The Gediz River fluvial archive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddy, D.; Veldkamp, A.; Demir, T.; Gorp, van W.; Wijbrans, J.R.; Hinsbergen, van D.J.J.; Dekkers, M.J.; Schreve, D.; Schoorl, J.M.; Scaife, R.

    2016-01-01

    The Gediz River, one of the principal rivers of Western Anatolia, has an extensive Pleistocene fluvial archive that potentially offers a unique window into fluvial system behaviour on the western margins of Asia during the Quaternary. In this paper we review our work on the Quaternary Gediz River

  3. Remedial actions at the former Vitro Rare Metals plant site, Canonsburg, Washington County, Pennsylvania. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-07-01

    The environmental impacts associated with remedial actions in connection with residual radioactive materials remaining at the inactive uranium processing site located in Canonsburg, Washington County, Pennsylvania are evaluated. The Canonsburg site is an 18.5-acre property that was formerly owned by the Vitro Rare Metals Company. The expanded Canonsburg site would be 30-acre property that would include the Canonsburg site (the former Vitro Rare Metals plant), seven adjacent private houses, and the former Georges Pottery property. During the period 1942 through 1957 the Vitro Manufacturing Company and its successor, the Vitro Corporation of America, processed onsite residues and ores, and government-owned ores, concentrates, and scraps to extract uranium and other rare metals. The Canonsburg site is now the Canon Industrial Park. In addition to storing the residual radioactive materials of this process at the Canonsburg site, about 12,000 tons of radioactively contaminated materials were transferred to a railroad landfill in Burrell Township, Indiana County, Pennsylvania. This Canonsburg FEIS evaluates five alternatives for removing the potential public health hazard associated with the radioactively contaminated materials. In addition to no action, these alternatives involve various combinations of stabilization of the radioactively contaminated materials in place or decontamination of the Canonsburg and Burrell sites by removing the radioactively contaminated materials to another location. In addition to the two sites mentioned, a third site located in Hanover Township, Washington County, Pennsylvania has been considered as a disposal site to which the radioactively contaminated materials presently located at either of the other two sites might be moved.

  4. Using Stream Chemistry Measurements by Scientists and Nonscientists to Assess Leakage from Oil and Gas Wells in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, S. L.; Wendt, A.; Sowers, T. A.

    2016-12-01

    The recent controversies concerning the role of hydraulic fracturing in impacting water quality in the United States document that decision-making must include both scientists and nonscientists. The most common water quality problem documented in Pennsylvania with respect to shale gas well development is the occasional migration of methane into private groundwater wells. Assessing the rate of migration is difficult and has led to controversial estimates. We explore the use of nonscientists in helping to collect data from streams for comparison to groundwater data collected by government and academic scientists. Stream waters in upland landscapes generally act as collectors for upwelling groundwater, including both natural and anthropogenic methane. Collection of stream water for methane analysis is simple and robust and can be completed by nonscientists throughout the state. We have discovered several locations in the state where new or legacy gas or oil wells are leaking methane into aquifers and into streams. Methane also seeps out of landfills and from natural sources. We present stream methane data from across the oil and gas development region in Pennsylvania, including sites of release of biogenic gas, natural thermogenic gas, legacy oil/gas well leakage, shale gas well leakage, and landfill leakage, and we assess the natural background of methane in stream water in the state. In some locations we compare methane in streams to methane in groundwater. As the state with the oldest oil wells in the U.S.A., Pennsylvania is a natural laboratory to understand not only the science of methane migration but also how to incorporate citizens into strategies to understand water quality impacts related to hydrocarbon development.

  5. Simplified Space Conditioning in Low-Load Homes: Results from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, New Construction Unoccupied Test House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poerschke, A.; Stecher, D.

    2014-06-01

    Field testing was performed in a new construction unoccupied test house in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Four air-based heating, ventilation, and air conditioning distribution systems--a typical airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a low airflow ducted system to the bedrooms, a system with transfer fans to the bedrooms, and a system with no ductwork to the bedrooms--were evaluated during heating, cooling, and midseason conditions. The relative ability of each system was assessed with respect to relevant Air Conditioning Contractors of America and ASHRAE standards for house temperature uniformity and stability, respectively.

  6. Walk-through survey report: control technology for fermentation processes at Wyeth Laboratories, Inc. , West Chester, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, K.F.

    1985-10-01

    A walk-through survey was conducted at Wyeth Laboratories, Incorporated, West Chester, Pennsylvania in November, 1983. The purpose of the survey was to evaluate the control technology for the fermentation processes. The facility produced penicillin-V and penicillin-G using the microbial strain Penicillium-chrysogenum. Medical examinations were available for fermentation and extraction process workers. Safety shoes and glasses and disposable dust respirators were provided. The author concludes that Wyeth has in operation an apparently effective system of control measures.

  7. Ecological River Basin Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Anthony Wayne

    Addressing the Seventh American Water Resources Conference, Washington, D. C., October, 1971, Anthony Wayne Smith, President, National Parks and Conservation Association, presents an expose on how rivers should be managed by methods which restores and preserve the natural life balances of the localities and regions through which they flow. The…

  8. Stepping in the river

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Kearney

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available 'Stepping in the River' is about the cultural misunderstandings and small betrayals that arise when First World tourists visit Third World countries. It is also about the enduring love that people in these countries can inspire, imperfect though that love may be.

  9. Hydrogeology and ground-water quality at a land reclamation site, Neshaminy State Park, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blickwedel, Ray S.; Linn, Jeff H.

    1987-01-01

    At Neshaminy State park, the most important aquifer is the informally named 'Trenton gravel' of Pleistocene age, which consists of poorly sorted sand and gravel. This is underlain by less permeable crystalline rock that limits the downward movement of water. Up to 5 feet of Holocene (or perhaps Pleistocene) alluvium consisting of clay and silt was deposited above the Trenton gravel, but much of the surficial material is dredge spoil, mostly sand and silt from the Delaware River.

  10. Hood River Production Master Plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Toole, Patty

    1991-07-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council's 1987 Columbia River Fish and Wildlife Program authorizes the development of artificial production facilities to raise chinook salmon and steelhead for enhancement in the Hood, Umatilla, Walla Walla, Grande Ronde and Imnaha rivers and elsewhere. On February 26, 1991 the Council agreed to disaggregate Hood River from the Northeast Oregon Hatchery Project, and instead, link the Hood River Master Plan (now the Hood River Production Plan) to the Pelton Ladder Project (Pelton Ladder Master Plan 1991).

  11. Assessing Impacts of Unconventional Natural Gas Extraction on Microbial Communities in Headwater Stream Ecosystems in Northwestern Pennsylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan eTrexler

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling have increased dramatically in Pennsylvania Marcellus shale formations, however the potential for major environmental impacts are still incompletely understood. High-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was performed to characterize the microbial community structure of water, sediment, bryophyte, and biofilm samples from 26 headwater stream sites in northwestern Pennsylvania with different histories of fracking activity within Marcellus shale play. Further, we describe the relationship between microbial community structure and environmental parameters measured. Approximately 3.2 million 16S rRNA gene sequences were retrieved from a total of 58 samples. Microbial community analyses showed significant reductions in species richness as well as evenness in sites with Marcellus shale activity (MSA+. Beta diversity analyses revealed distinct microbial community structure between sites with and without Marcellus shale activity (MSA-. For example, OTUs within the Acetobacteracea, Methylocystaceae, Acidobacteriaceae, and Phenylobacterium were greater than three log-fold more abundant in MSA+ sites as compared to MSA- sites. Further, several of these OTUs were strongly negatively correlated with pH and positively correlated with the number of wellpads in a watershed. It should be noted that many of the OTUs enriched in MSA+ sites are putative acidophilic and/or methanotrophic populations. This study revealed apparent shifts in the autochthonous microbial communities and highlighted potential members that could be responding to changing stream conditions as a result of nascent industrial activity in these aquatic ecosystems.

  12. Drilling and geophysical logs of the tophole at an oil-and-gas well site, Central Venango County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John H.; Bird, Philip H.; Conger, Randall W.; Anderson, J. Alton

    2014-01-01

    In a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Conservation and Natural Resources, Bureau of Topographic and Geologic Survey, drilling and geophysical logs were used to characterize the geohydrologic framework and the freshwater and saline-water zones penetrated by the tophole at an oil-and-gas well site in central Venango County, Pennsylvania. The geohydrologic setting of the well site is typical of the dissected Appalachian Plateau underlain by Pennsylvanian and Mississippian sandstone and shale. The drilling, gamma, and acoustic-televiewer logs collected from the 575-foot deep tophole define the penetrated Pennsylvanian and Mississippian stratigraphic units and their lithology. The caliper, video, and acoustic-televiewer logs delineate multiple bedding-related and high-angle fractures in the lower Pottsville Group and Shenango Formation from 22 to 249 feet below land surface. The caliper and acoustic-televiewer logs indicate a sparsity of fractures below 249 feet below land surface in the lowermost Shenango Formation, Cuyahoga Group, Corry Sandstone, “Drake Well” formation, and upper Riceville Formation.

  13. Age of the Bedford Shale, Berea Sandstone, and Sunbury Shale in the Appalachian and Michigan basins, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Witt, Wallace

    1970-01-01

    The suggestion by Sanford (1967, p. 994) that the Bedford Shale, Berea Sandstone, and Sunbury Shale of the Michigan basin are of Late Devonian age because these strata contain Hymenozonotriletes lepidophytus Kedo is invalid for these formations in the Appalachian basin, the area of their type localities. Endosporites lacunosus Winslow, a synonym of Hymenozonotriletes lepidophytus Kedo, occurs in upper Chautauqua (Upper Devonian) rocks through much of the Kinderhook (Lower Mississippian) strata in Ohio. The Sunbury Shale, the Sunbury Member of the Orangeville Shale in part of northern Ohio, contains a Siplionodella fauna which clearly demonstrates the Kinderhook age of the unit. The basal strata of the Bedford Shale contain Spathoffnathodus anteposlcornis which suggests a very Late Devonian or very Early Mississippian age for this part of the Bedford. Except for the basal fossil zone, most of the Bedford Shale and the younger Berea Sandstone overlie the Murrysville sand, which along the Allegheny Front in central Pennsylvania contains an Adiantites flora of Early Mississippian (Kinderhook) age. The presence of Adiantites in the Murrysville sand indicates that most of the Bedford Shale and all the Berea Sandstone are of Early Mississippian age. Lithostratigraphic evidence suggests that the Berea Sandstone of Ohio may be a temporal equivalent of the basal Beckville Member of the Pocono Formation of the Anthracite region of Pennsylvania. The clearly demonstrable Kinderhook age of the Sunbury, Berea, and most of the Bedford in the Appalachian basin strongly indicates a similar age for the same units in the Michigan basin.

  14. Risk factors for roadway single- and multi-vehicle all-terrain vehicle crashes in Pennsylvania: 2010-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorucu, Serap; Murphy, Dennis; Kassab, Cathy

    2017-01-01

    All Terrain Vehicles on public roadways become major risk factors for the motorists. To compare characteristics of crashes and injury severity related to single vehicle (SV) and multi-vehicle (MV) All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) roadway crashes in Pennsylvania, USA. Data on ATV crashes occurring on public roads during the years 2010-2013 was obtained from the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) and analyzed. Almost two-thirds of the incidents were single-vehicle incidents. Single-ATV incidents have a greater risk for incapacitating injury to drivers than do multi-vehicle ATV incidents. Other factors that increase risk for incapacitating injury in SV crashes include being male, being a driver, alcohol/drug involvement, hitting a fixed object, and the incidents in non-daylight hours. For MV ATV incidents, head on and rear-end crashes and drivers who had alcohol/drug involvement were the two major incapacitating injury risk factors. This study has enabled us to better understand roadway ATV incidents, characteristics of SV and MV ATV crashes, and the incapacitating injury risks in both SV and MV crash incidents. Our study suggests that road safety and public health programs should focus on the users' knowledge on laws regarding ATV usage on public roadways.

  15. Radon emissions from natural gas power plants at The Pennsylvania State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stidworthy, Alison G; Davis, Kenneth J; Leavey, Jeff

    2016-11-01

    Burning natural gas in power plants may emit radon ((222)Rn) into the atmosphere. On the University Park campus of The Pennsylvania State University, atmospheric radon enhancements were measured and modeled in the vicinity of their two power plants. The three-part study first involved measuring ambient outdoor radon concentrations from August 2014 through January 2015 at four sites upwind and downwind of the power plants at distances ranging from 80 m to 310 m. For each plant, one site served as a background site, while three other sites measured radon concentration enhancements downwind. Second, the radon content of natural gas flowing into the power plant was measured, and third, a plume dispersion model was used to predict the radon concentrations downwind of the power plants. These predictions are compared to the measured downwind enhancements in radon to determine whether the observed radon concentration enhancements could be attributed to the power plants' emissions. Atmospheric radon concentrations were consistently low as compared to the EPA action level of 148 Bq m(-3), averaging 34.5 ± 2.7 Bq m(-3) around the East Campus Steam Plant (ECSP) and 31.6 ± 2.7 Bq m(-3) around the West Campus Steam Plant (WCSP). Significant concentrations of radon, ranging from 516 to 1,240 Bq m(-3), were detected in the natural gas. The measured enhancements downwind of the ECSP averaged 6.2 Bq m(-3) compared to modeled enhancements of 0.08 Bq m(-3). Measured enhancements around the WCSP averaged -0.2 Bq m(-3) compared to the modeled enhancements of 0.05 Bq m(-3), which were not significant compared to observational error. The comparison of the measured to modeled downwind radon enhancements shows no correlation over time. The measurements of radon levels in the vicinity of the power plants appear to be unaffected by the emissions from the power plants. Radon measurements at sites surrounding power plants that utilize natural gas did not indicate that the radon concentrations

  16. Molecular analysis of benthic biofilms from acidic coal mine drainage, Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, D. B.; Jones, D. S.; Burgos, W. D.; Macalady, J. L.

    2010-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a common environmental problem in Pennsylvania that results from the oxidation of sulfide minerals exposed at abandoned coal mines. In these systems, acidophilic microorganisms catalyze the oxidation of ferrous (Fe2+) to ferric iron (Fe3+), which precipitates as iron-hydroxide minerals. To develop and improve low-pH bioremediation strategies, characterization of the microbiology of AMD systems is essential. An acidic (pH 2-4) AMD spring known as ‘Lower Red Eyes’ in Gallitzan State Forest, PA, is fed by anoxic groundwater with ferrous iron concentrations above 550 mg/L. More than half of the total iron is removed after the springwater flows downstream over 80 m of stagnant pools and iron-oxide terraces. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and 16S rDNA cloning to characterize the microbial communities from orange sediments and green benthic biofilms. 16S rDNA sequences were extracted from a green biofilm found in a pH 3.5 pool 10 m downstream of the emergence. Based on chloroplast 16S rDNA sequences and morphological characteristics, we found that Euglena mutabilis was the dominant eukaryotic organism from this location. Euglena mutabilis is a photosynthetic protozoan common in acidic and heavy metal affected environments, and likely contributes to the precipitation of iron oxides through the production of molecular oxygen. Bacterial 16S rDNA sequences were cloned from iron-oxide sediments with orange cauliflower morphology 27 m downstream from the spring emergence. More than 60% of bacterial sequences retrieved from the orange sediment sample are related to the iron-oxidizing Betaproteobacterium Ferrovum myxofaciens. Other bacterial sequences include relatives of iron-oxidizing genera in the Gammaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. FISH analyses show that Betaproteobacteria-dominated communities are associated with Euglena in multiple upstream locations where pH is above 3.0. Using light microscopy

  17. Biology of the caddisfly oligostomis ocelligera (Trichoptera: Phryganeidae) inhabiting acidic mine drainage in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redell, L.A.; Gall, W.K.; Ross, R.M.; Dropkin, D.S.

    2009-01-01

    Oligostomis ocelligera (a phryganeid caddisfly) is reported for the first time from a degraded lotic systema first-order stream in north-central Pennsylvania that was severely impacted by acid mine drainage. Although uncommonly collected and poorly known, O. ocelligera maintained a substantial population in the mine discharge, free of competition from Plecoptera, Ephemeroptera, and other species of Trichoptera. It thrived under conditions of very low pH (2.583.13), high concentrations of sulfate (542 mg/L) and heavy metals (Fe 12 mg/L, Mn 14 mg/L, Al 16 mg/L), and a nearly uniform springbrook-like temperature regime. More than 350 larvae were collected from deposits of leaves and woody detritus in a pool 0.32 km downstream from the mine entrance over a two-year period. Measurement of head-capsule widths yielded a multimodal distribution with five peaks, corresponding to five instars, in conformity with Dyar's Law. Eighty-three egg masses were observed along the stream channel from 3 June to 12 November at a mean distance of 6.1 cm above the water surface in moist, protected locations such as under moss mats or in crevices of logs. Eggs began hatching by mid-summer, first-instar larvae were present in samples from AugustOctober, all five instars were represented in October, instars IIV were still present in December, but only instars IV and V were represented in samples collected from March to July. The extended periods of oviposition and larval recruitment, together with a remarkably protracted flight period of six months (29 April30 October), led to the conclusion that the population of O. ocelligera at the mine site exhibited an asynchronous univoltine life cycle. Measurement of the width of the anterior border of the frontoclypeal apotome confirmed Wiggins' proposal that this metric is useful for distinguishing final instar larvae of O. ocelligera from its only Nearctic congener, O. pardalis. Occupied pupal cases were found embedded in sodden logs from 8 April

  18. The impacts of weather and pollution on human mortality in Birmingham, Alabama and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoyer, Karen E.; Kalkstein, Laurence S.; Greene, J. Scott; Ye, Hengchun

    2000-06-01

    Past studies have examined how both extreme weather and atmospheric pollutants influence human mortality. However, the differential and/or synergistic impacts of weather and pollution on mortality are poorly understood. This relationship is particularly notable in summer, when both extreme weather and high pollution episodes are frequent. The goal of this study is to describe the relationship between atmospheric conditions (as characterized by weather and air pollution) and mortality in the summer season for Birmingham, Alabama and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. To assess the health impacts of both weather and pollution (ozone and total suspended particulates, or TSP), we used a synoptic, or air mass-based, approach to take into account the entire weather situation, rather than individual weather elements. This method was used to identify offensive air masses, which are associated with elevated mortality, and then to investigate which individual or combination of atmospheric conditions poses the greatest threat to human health in terms of acute (daily) mortality.In both cities, offensive weather events have a greater impact on acute mortality than high concentrations of TSP or ozone. The highest mortality levels occur when the hottest, but not the most polluted, air mass is present in each city. In Philadelphia, neither TSP nor ozone appear to contribute an add on effect to weather-related mortality. Under non-offensive weather situations, pollution concentrations are associated with increased mortality in Philadelphia. Yet, regardless of pollution concentration, mortality levels are much lower for these air masses than for offensive events. Pollution appears to be more important for mortality in Birmingham. Although Birmingham's high-mortality (offensive) air mass is not the most polluted, offensive air mass days with high pollution concentrations nonetheless exhibit higher mean mortality than offensive air mass days with low pollution concentrations. Also different

  19. Modeling to Predict Escherichia coli at Presque Isle Beach 2, City of Erie, Erie County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Tammy M.

    2008-01-01

    The Lake Erie beaches in Pennsylvania are a valuable recreational resource for Erie County. Concentrations of Escherichia coli (E. coli) at monitored beaches in Presque Isle State Park in Erie, Pa., occasionally exceed the single-sample bathing-water standard of 235 colonies per 100 milliliters resulting in potentially unsafe swimming conditions and prompting beach managers to post public advisories or to close beaches to recreation. To supplement the current method for assessing recreational water quality (E. coli concentrations from the previous day), a predictive regression model for E. coli concentrations at Presque Isle Beach 2 was developed from data collected during the 2004 and 2005 recreational seasons. Model output included predicted E. coli concentrations and exceedance probabilities--the probability that E. coli concentrations would exceed the standard. For this study, E. coli concentrations and other water-quality and environmental data were collected during the 2006 recreational season at Presque Isle Beach 2. The data from 2006, an independent year, were used to test (validate) the 2004-2005 predictive regression model and compare the model performance to the current method. Using 2006 data, the 2004-2005 model yielded more correct responses and better predicted exceedances of the standard than the use of E. coli concentrations from the previous day. The differences were not pronounced, however, and more data are needed. For example, the model correctly predicted exceedances of the standard 11 percent of the time (1 out of 9 exceedances that occurred in 2006) whereas using the E. coli concentrations from the previous day did not result in any correctly predicted exceedances. After validation, new models were developed by adding the 2006 data to the 2004-2005 dataset and by analyzing the data in 2- and 3-year combinations. Results showed that excluding the 2004 data (using 2005 and 2006 data only) yielded the best model. Explanatory variables in the

  20. The tree water isoscape of a central Pennsylvania catchment: ecohydrologic patterns and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, K. M.; Gaines, K.

    2015-12-01

    The connections between vegetation and catchment hydrology are important for tree physiology, plant geography, stream flow, and transport of solutes within a watershed. While water isotopes from tree stems have been studied extensively to examine source-water differences at a small scale, there has been little emphasis on modeling of plant stem water isotopes at larger scales, due to the expensive and laborious extraction and analysis processes. We characterized the tree stem water for stable isotopes over a landscape (isoscape) at a first-order catchment in central Pennsylvania in order to address the following questions: 1) How does tree water isotopic composition relate to catchment topography and tree characteristics? 2) What are the underlying hydrologic processes that are revealed by tree water isotopes? We used 267 observations of tree xylem water δ18O from 121 trees to build a statistical model with candidate variables related to topography and tree characteristics. We then applied the final model to predict the tree xylem water δ18O composition during the growing season of the remaining trees defined as > 18-cm diameter (at breast height; DBH) in the catchment. The final model included tree canopy height and slope magnitude as predictors, and explained about 56% of variance in tree water δ18O composition in the catchment. Tree canopy height and degree of slope were both negatively related to tree water δ18O suggesting the tallest trees and trees on the steepest slopes had tree water isotopic compositions most depleted in heavy isotopes. Each of these suggested the influence of cool-season isotopic inputs. On the valley floor, where tree canopy heights were tallest, the tree water δ18O composition was likely due to early growing season soil saturation from a shallow ground water table. Conversely, the steep hill slope δ18O composition may be a result of tree water use of tightly-bound soil water originating from cool season precipitation. The model

  1. Estimation of methane concentrations and loads in groundwater discharge to Sugar Run, Lycoming County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Risser, Dennis W.; Conger, Randall W.; Grieve, Paul L.; Hynek, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    A stream-sampling study was conducted to estimate methane concentrations and loads in groundwater discharge to a small stream in an active shale-gas development area of northeastern Pennsylvania. Grab samples collected from 15 streams in Bradford, Lycoming, Susquehanna, and Tioga Counties, Pa., during a reconnaissance survey in May and June 2013 contained dissolved methane concentrations ranging from less than the minimum reporting limit (1.0) to 68.5 micrograms per liter (µg/L). The stream-reach mass-balance method of estimating concentrations and loads of methane in groundwater discharge was applied to a 4-kilometer (km) reach of Sugar Run in Lycoming County, one of the four streams with methane concentrations greater than or equal to 5 µg/L. Three synoptic surveys of stream discharge and methane concentrations were conducted during base-flow periods in May, June, and November 2013. Stream discharge at the lower end of the reach was about 0.10, 0.04, and 0.02 cubic meters per second, respectively, and peak stream methane concentrations were about 20, 67, and 29 µg/L. In order to refine estimated amounts of groundwater discharge and locations where groundwater with methane discharges to the stream, the lower part of the study reach was targeted more precisely during the successive studies, with approximate spacing between stream sampling sites of 800 meters (m), 400 m, and 200 m, in May, June, and November, respectively. Samples collected from shallow piezometers and a seep near the location of the peak methane concentration measured in streamwater had groundwater methane concentrations of 2,300 to 4,600 µg/L. These field data, combined with one-dimensional stream-methane transport modeling, indicate groundwater methane loads of 1.8 ±0.8, 0.7 ±0.3, and 0.7 ±0.2 kilograms per day, respectively, discharging to Sugar Run. Estimated groundwater methane concentrations, based on the transport modeling, ranged from 100 to 3,200 µg/L. Although total methane load

  2. Genesis of soils and landscapes in the Ridge and Valley province of central Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolkosz, Edward J.; Carter, Brian J.; Hoover, Michael T.; Cronce, Richard C.; Waltman, William J.; Dobos, Robert R.

    1990-09-01

    The characteristics and properties of the soils on the ridge tops, footslopes, and adjacent limestone valley areas in the Ridge and Valley of central Pennsylvania have been strongly influenced by their parent material and geomorphic history. The ridge top soils have developed in sandstone colluvium which mantles sandstone residuum. The upper part of the original residual ridge top soil was truncated during late Wisconsinan time and then covered with local colluvium or it was cyroturbated. These sandstone parent materials have been stable since the late Wisconsinan and have sandy skeletal Dystrochrepts and Haplorthods developed in them. The Haplorthods are minor soils and are associated with local concentrations of coniferous vegetation. During the late Wisconsinan, the sandstone colluvium also moved downslope and was mixed with bedrock and residual material from shale and limestone and deposited on the footslope over a pre-Wisconsinan soil developed in older colluvium or limestone residuum. The footslope surface colluvial soils vary in texture and drainage because of their parent material, their location in discharge areas, and fragipan development. The age of the brown surface colluvium is considered late Wisconsinan and the age of the pre-Wisconsinan buried soils is not known. The buried soil's bright red (rubified) color and argillic horizon indicate a much greater degree of soil development than noted in the brown surface colluvium, and its age may be correlated with isotope stage 6. The soils developed at the surface in the colluvium are mainly Ultisols although some poorly drained soils, particularly in limestone material, are Alfisols. The Ultisols are parent material Ultisols and the poorly drained Alfisols have a high base status in their parent material or were recharged with bases from the groundwater. The soils of the limestone valleys are developed in residuum. The residuum accumulated from the insoluble residues after the CaCO 3 was leached from the

  3. A stream of consciousness: the anti-dam movement' impact on rivers in the 20th century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCully, P.

    2000-07-01

    It is argued that the 20th century devastated the world's rivers like no other period in history. In the past one hundred years some 40,000 large dams were built on the world's rivers; there are few rivers of any consequence left that remain dam-free. Dam reservoirs have flooded perhaps a million square kilometres of land and displaced up to 60 million people. The environmental toll has been equally shocking: estuaries were degraded, fisheries decimated, forest destroyed. This report describes a strong and growing people's counter-movement to save rivers and riverine communities. These actions by people and the poor economics of dam building, are making it increasingly difficult to build dams in most of the world. Construction of large dams is declining fast, from a peak of about 540 in the 1970s to 200 in the 1990s. In addition to the decline in the construction of new dams, the people's movement has been successful in forcing the decommissioning and removal of several major dams in recent years. Examples of the movement's success in bringing about the removal of some existing dams or halt the construction of new ones are cited from Hungary, India, and particularly the United States where nearly 500 dams were removed during the past 100 years. Specific examples of dam removal efforts are described, taken from Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and from the Colombia/Snake River basin. The most exciting decommissioning effort involves taking on the dams that submerged Hetch Hetchy Valley in the Yosemite National Park and the Glen Canyon Dam on the Colorado River. A chronological table of the 'Boom Years of Dam Building' and 'The Rise of the People's Movement Against Dams' is attached.

  4. Comparative Study of Flood Risk Management and Land Use in the Deltas of Rhine River, Yellow River and Mississippi River

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang B; Guangzhou, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Rhine River in the Netherlands, the Yellow River in China and the Mississippi River in the U.S. are three great rivers in the world. Each of them is performing a significant role in the country. The delta area for each river, in particular, is served as the centre in importance and commonly the

  5. Comparative Study of Flood Risk Management and Land Use in the Deltas of Rhine River, Yellow River and Mississippi River

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang B; Guangzhou, M.

    2007-01-01

    The Rhine River in the Netherlands, the Yellow River in China and the Mississippi River in the U.S. are three great rivers in the world. Each of them is performing a significant role in the country. The delta area for each river, in particular, is served as the centre in importance and commonly the

  6. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, D.

    2013-03-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

  7. Geomorphology and River Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GARY BRIERLEY

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Engineering-dominated practices, visible in a "command and control" outlook on natural systems, have induced enormous damage to the environment. Biodiversity losses and declining provision of ecosystem services are testimony to the non-sustainable outcomes brought about by such practices. More environmentally friendly approaches that promote a harmonious relationship between human activities and nature are required. Moves towards an "ecosystem approach" to environmental management require coherent (integrative scientific guidance. Geomorphology, the study of the form of the earth, provides a landscape template with which to ground this process. This way of thinking respects the inherent diversity and complexity of natural systems. Examples of the transition toward such views in environmental practice are demonstrated by the use of science to guide river management, emphasising applications of the River Styles framework.

  8. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals, hormones, and organic wastewater compounds in Pennsylvania waters, 2006-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Andrew G.; Crawford, J. Kent; Loper, Connie A.; Proctor, Arianne; Manning, Rhonda; Titler, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Concern over the presence of contaminants of emerging concern, such as pharmaceutical compounds, hormones, and organic wastewater compounds (OWCs), in waters of the United States and elsewhere is growing. Laboratory techniques developed within the last decade or new techniques currently under development within the U.S. Geological Survey now allow these compounds to be measured at concentrations in nanograms per liter. These new laboratory techniques were used in a reconnaissance study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, to determine the occurrence of contaminants of emerging concern in streams, streambed sediment, and groundwater of Pennsylvania. Compounds analyzed for in the study are pharmaceuticals (human and veterinary drugs), hormones (natural and synthetic), and OWCs (detergents, fragrances, pesticides, industrial compounds, disinfectants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fire retardants and plasticizers). Reconnaissance sampling was conducted from 2006 to 2009 to identify contaminants of emerging concern in (1) groundwater from wells used to supply livestock, (2) streamwater upstream and downstream from animal feeding operations, (3) streamwater upstream from and streamwater and streambed sediment downstream from municipal wastewater effluent discharges, (4) streamwater from sites within 5 miles of drinking-water intakes, and (5) streamwater and streambed sediment where fish health assessments were conducted. Of the 44 pharmaceutical compounds analyzed in groundwater samples collected in 2006 from six wells used to supply livestock, only cotinine (a nicotine metabolite) and the antibiotics tylosin and sulfamethoxazole were detected. The maximum concentration of any contaminant of emerging concern was 24 nanograms per liter (ng/L) for cotinine, and was detected in a groundwater sample from a Lebanon County, Pa., well. Seven pharmaceutical compounds including acetaminophen

  9. River Mileages and Drainage Areas for Illinois Streams. Volume 2. Illinois River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-12-01

    FOREST 50.2 MADISON STREET RIVER FOREST 50.5 IL PT 56 RIVER FOREST 51.0 C & NW RR RIVER FOREST 51.1 LAKE STREET RIVER FOREST 51.6 CHICAGO AVENUE RIVER ... FOREST 51.9 SILVER CREEK R RIVER FOREST 53.9 DAM S35v40NoRI2E RIVER FOREST 54.2 NORTH PUEBLO AVENUE RIVER FOREST 55.1 GRAND AVENUE RIVER FOREST 55.1...USGS GAGE 05530600 AT RIVER GROVE 451 415546 O75040 RIVER

  10. River and Human Rights

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE WUGANG; MENG JIA

    2011-01-01

    @@ Nothing is like a river.It seems coming from nowhere, far back into antiquity.It is originated from drops of water and converged into a long stream that flows ceaselessly.It benefits the vast expanse of land and nourishes all the living on it.It stretches and undulates,forming ponds and lakes of different depths.It is moving or motionless,overflowing with vigor and vitality.

  11. Flooding on Elbe River

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Heavy rains in Central Europe over the past few weeks have led to some of the worst flooding the region has witnessed in more than a century. The floods have killed more than 100 people in Germany, Russia, Austria, Hungary, and the Czech Republic and have led to as much as $20 billion in damage. This false-color image of the Elbe River and its tributaries was taken on August 20, 2002, by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. The floodwaters that inundated Dresden, Germany, earlier this week have moved north. As can be seen, the river resembles a fairly large lake in the center of the image just south of the town of Wittenberg. Flooding was also bad further downriver in the towns of Maqgdeburge and Hitzacker. Roughly 20,000 people were evacuated from their homes in northern Germany. Fifty thousand troops, border police, and technical assistance workers were called in to combat the floods along with 100,000 volunteers. The floodwaters are not expected to badly affect Hamburg, which sits on the mouth of the river on the North Sea. Credit:Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  12. Investigation on Water Pollution of Four Rivers in Coastal Wetland of Yellow River Estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed at analysing water pollution of four rivers in coastal wetland of Yellow River estuary. [Method] Taking four seriously polluted rivers (Guangli River, Shenxian Ditch, Tiao River and Chao River) in coastal wetland of Yellow River estuary as study objects, water samples were collected from the four rivers in May (dry period), August (wet period) and November (normal period) in 2009 and 2010 respectively, then pollution indices like nutritive salts, COD, chlorophyll-a, petroleum, et...

  13. Tsunami Impacts in River Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkova, E.; Tanaka, H.; Roh, M.

    2014-12-01

    The 2010 Chilean and the 2011 Tohoku tsunami events demonstrated the tsunami's ability to penetrate much farther along rivers than the ground inundation. At the same time, while tsunami impacts to the coastal areas have been subject to countless studies, little is known about tsunami propagation in rivers. Here we examine the field data and conduct numerical simulations to gain better understanding of the tsunami impacts in rivers.The evidence which motivated our study is comprised of water level measurements of the aforementioned tsunamis in multiple rivers in Japan, and the 2011 Tohoku and some other tsunamis in the Columbia River in the US. When the available tsunami observations in these very different rivers are brought together, they display remarkably similar patterns not observed on the open coast. Two phenomena were discovered in the field data. First, the phase of the river tide determines the tsunami penetration distance in a very specific way common to all rivers. Tsunami wave progressively disappears on receding tide, whereas high tide greatly facilitates the tsunami intrusion, as seen in the Figure. Second, a strong near-field tsunami causes substantial and prolonged water accumulation in lower river reaches. As the 2011 tsunami intruded rivers in Japan, the water level along rivers rose 1-2 m and stayed high for many hours, with the maximum rise occurring several km from the river mouth. The rise in the water level at some upstream gaging stations even exceeded the tsunami amplitude there.Using the numerical experiments, we attempt to identify the physics behind these effects. We will demonstrate that the nonlinear interactions among the flow components (tsunami, tide, and riverine flow) are an essential condition governing wave dynamics in tidal rivers. Understanding these interactions might explain some previous surprising observations of waves in river environments. Figure: Measurements of the 2010/02/27 tsunami along Naruse and Yoshida rivers

  14. White ash (Fraxinus americana) health in the Allegheny plateau region, Pennsylvania: Evaluating the relationship between FIA phase 3 crown variables and a categorical rating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandro A. Royo; Kathleen S. Knight; Jamie M. Himes; Ashley N. Will

    2012-01-01

    Following the detection of white ash (Fraxinus americana) decline in the Allegheny National Forest (ANF) of Pennsylvania, we established an intensified white ash monitoring network throughout the ANF. We rated crowns using both a categorical system as well as Forest Inventory and Analyses (FIA) Phase 3 measures of uncompacted live crown ratio,...

  15. The Impact of Birth Month, within Grade Levels, on Student Performance on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) Mathematics Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speziale, Kerry Maureen

    2011-01-01

    This study determined whether chronological age differences among students in the same grade level affected their respective levels of academic performance on the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) mathematics assessment. The study analyzed the additional independent variables of gender, socioeconomic status, and special education…

  16. An Analysis of Training Effects on School Personnel's Knowledge, Attitudes, Comfort, and Confidence Levels toward Educating Students about HIV/AIDS in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschlander, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the training effects on school personnel's knowledge, attitudes, comfort, and confidence levels toward educating students about HIV/AIDS in Pennsylvania. The following four research questions were explored: (a) What is the knowledge, attitudes, confidence, and comfort levels of school personnel regarding…

  17. Professional Development Needs Assessment Survey of Inservice Clients of the Center for Vocational Professional Personnel Development at the Pennsylvania State University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, Mary J.; Elliott, Franklin E.; Foster, Pamela M.; Covington, Myrna A.; King, Marsha G.; Liou, Kun-I Tony

    The Center for Vocational Professional Personnel Development conducted a needs assessment in order to plan and deliver staff development workshops in the 34 vocational schools served in Pennsylvania's central region. Respondents from the 30 participating schools were 30 administrators and 600 teachers (371 vocational and 144 academic teachers and…

  18. An Analysis of Training Effects on School Personnel's Knowledge, Attitudes, Comfort, and Confidence Levels toward Educating Students about HIV/AIDS in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschlander, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the training effects on school personnel's knowledge, attitudes, comfort, and confidence levels toward educating students about HIV/AIDS in Pennsylvania. The following four research questions were explored: (a) What is the knowledge, attitudes, confidence, and comfort levels of school personnel regarding…

  19. Staff Development of Direct Care Workers in Pennsylvania: The Relationship between Organizational Structure and Culture and Best-Practices in Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemeny, M. Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Using the conceptual model of social structure and personality framework (House, 1981) as a theoretical guide, this cross sectional mixed-method design examined how organizational structure and culture relate to practices for training direct care workers in 328 aging and disability network service provider organizations in Pennsylvania. To…

  20. Wild, scenic, and transcendental rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    “A more lovely stream than this has never flowed on Earth,” 19th century American author Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote about the confluence of the Assabet and Concord Rivers, streams that meander about 40 km west of Boston, Massachusetts.Segments of these streams as well as the Assabet River became the newest additions to the U.S. National Wild and Scenic Rivers System, when President Bill Clinton signed into law the “Sudbury, Assabet, and Concord Wild and Scenic River Act” on April 9.

  1. Regression Method for Estimating Long-Term Mean Annual Ground-Water Recharge Rates from Base Flow in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Dennis W.; Thompson, Ronald E.; Stuckey, Marla H.

    2008-01-01

    A method was developed for making estimates of long-term, mean annual ground-water recharge from streamflow data at 80 streamflow-gaging stations in Pennsylvania. The method relates mean annual base-flow yield derived from the streamflow data (as a proxy for recharge) to the climatic, geologic, hydrologic, and physiographic characteristics of the basins (basin characteristics) by use of a regression equation. Base-flow yield is the base flow of a stream divided by the drainage area of the basin, expressed in inches of water basinwide. Mean annual base-flow yield was computed for the period of available streamflow record at continuous streamflow-gaging stations by use of the computer program PART, which separates base flow from direct runoff on the streamflow hydrograph. Base flow provides a reasonable estimate of recharge for basins where streamflow is mostly unaffected by upstream regulation, diversion, or mining. Twenty-eight basin characteristics were included in the exploratory regression analysis as possible predictors of base-flow yield. Basin characteristics found to be statistically significant predictors of mean annual base-flow yield during 1971-2000 at the 95-percent confidence level were (1) mean annual precipitation, (2) average maximum daily temperature, (3) percentage of sand in the soil, (4) percentage of carbonate bedrock in the basin, and (5) stream channel slope. The equation for predicting recharge was developed using ordinary least-squares regression. The standard error of prediction for the equation on log-transformed data was 9.7 percent, and the coefficient of determination was 0.80. The equation can be used to predict long-term, mean annual recharge rates for ungaged basins, providing that the explanatory basin characteristics can be determined and that the underlying assumption is accepted that base-flow yield derived from PART is a reasonable estimate of ground-water recharge rates. For example, application of the equation for 370

  2. Distribution of trace metals at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Berks and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Reif, Andrew G.

    2011-01-01

    Hopewell Furnace, located approximately 50 miles northwest of Philadelphia, was a cold-blast, charcoal iron furnace that operated for 113 years (1771 to 1883). The purpose of this study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, was to determine the distribution of trace metals released to the environment from an historical iron smelter at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (NHS). Hopewell Furnace used iron ore from local mines that contained abundant magnetite and accessory sulfide minerals enriched in arsenic, cobalt, copper, and other metals. Ore, slag, cast iron furnace products, soil, groundwater, stream base flow, streambed sediment, and benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled for this study. Soil samples analyzed in the laboratory had concentrations of trace metals low enough to meet Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection standards for non-residential use. Groundwater samples from the supply well met U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water regulations. Concentrations of metals in surface-water base flow at the five stream sampling sites were below continuous concentration criteria for protection of aquatic organisms. Concentrations of metals in sediment at the five stream sites were below probable effects level guidelines for protection of aquatic organisms except for copper at site HF-3. Arsenic, copper, lead, zinc, and possibly cobalt were incorporated into the cast iron produced by Hopewell Furnace. Manganese was concentrated in slag along with iron, nickel, and zinc. The soil near the furnace has elevated concentrations of chromium, copper, iron, lead, and zinc compared to background soil concentrations. Concentrations of toxic elements were not present at concentrations of concern in water, soil, or stream sediments, despite being elevated in ore, slag, and cast iron furnace products. The base-flow surface-water samples indicated good overall quality. The five sampled sites generally had

  3. New Paleomagnetic Results and Inclination Correction for the Carboniferous Conemaugh Group rocks, Southwestern Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodama, K. P.

    2004-05-01

    In order to check the inclination correction of the Carboniferous Mauch Chunk Formation red beds made by Tan and Kodama [2002], the Carboniferous Buffalo Siltstone and Brush Creek Limestone (Conemaugh Group) from southwestern Pennsylvania were sampled so that an inclination correction could be applied to these magnetite-bearing rocks. Paleopoles from the Buffalo Siltstone (BS) and Brush Creek Limestone (BCL) were previously reported by Payne et al. [1981]. Twenty-eight oriented hand samples were collected from 5 of Payne et al.'s 6 sites, predominately from clastic lithologies. A combination of low temperature thermal demagnetization (up to 200° C) followed by alternating field demagnetization (up to 50 mT) allowed characteristic remanences to be isolated in a majority of the samples. A mean direction for 21 samples from 5 sites of D=170.9° , I=23.4° , K=14.0 yielded an uncorrected paleopole at 36.6° N, 111.1° E, closer to the BCL paleopole (36.1° N, 124.3° E) than the BS paleopole (27.4° N, 123.0° E) of Payne et al. In order to make the inclination correction using the anisotropy of anhysteretic remanence (AAR) of the samples, we estimated the individual particle anisotropy (a), by fitting corrected directions to theoretical correction curves as a function of individual particle anisotropy. The best fit suggests an individual particle anisotropy (a value) of about 1.5 should be used; however, the corrected directions have a strongly elliptical distribution. Assuming that a circular distribution of directions would be closer to that caused by random errors in measurement and orientation, a correction using a=2 was made because it gives both an acceptable fit to the theoretical correction curves and a circular directional distribution. The mean corrected direction of D=173.5° , I=42.0° yields a corrected paleopole at 25° N, 106.5° E which agrees remarkably well with a corrected Mauch Chunk Formation paleopole at 26.3° N, 111.2° E. This corrected Mauch

  4. Environmental geology, Allegheny County and vicinity, Pennsylvania; description of a program and its results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Reginald Peter

    1977-01-01

    in Allegheny County--MF-641A through MF-641E. Map products are directly applicable to general classification of land for susceptibility to landsliding and mine subsidence and, to a lesser extent, flooding and engineering characteristics. The hydrogeologic charts enable greater understanding of environmental effects of ground water. All products are guides to expected conditions, but none are substitutes for detailed investigations of specific sites by competent technical personnel on the ground. Specific results and findings are: 1. Knowledge of .susceptibility to landsliding in Allegheny County now is adequate for application to countywide land-use planning. 2. About 110 mi2 (285. km2), or 15 percent, of the county has some significant degree of susceptibility to landsliding. 3. Although a general classification of land in Allegheny, Washington, and Westmoreland Counties relative to mine-subsidence incidents was prepared, data are wholly inadequate for even moderately precise prediction of subsidence events over previously mined-out areas; the accumulation of adequate data might not repay the effort in terms of damage prevention. 4. Commonwealth-of-Pennsylvania regulations, have been very successful in limiting mine-subsidence damage over areas mined after 1966. 5. Undermining and consequent subsidence may have affected the ground-water regime more widely than heretofore believed. Except for the earth-disturbance inventory that resulted in the maps of susceptibility to landsliding and man-modified land, methods used in the studies .largely were conventional. The inventory and ensuing analysis combined aerial photographic interpretation with field work and incorporation of existing data. The. method worked very well for the purposes of defining distribution of landslides and areas having different susceptibilities to landsliding. However, if susceptibility to landsliding alone had been the goal, this could

  5. Geology of the Stroudsburg quadrangle and Adjacent areas, Pennsylvania--New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Jack Burton

    1971-01-01

    The Stroudsburg area is within the Valley and Ridge and Great Valley physiographic provinces, Northampton and Monroe Counties, Pennsylvania, and Warren County, New Jersey. The northeast-trending subparallel valleys and ridges resulted from erosion of folded heterogeneous sedimentary rocks. These are Middle Ordovician to Middle Devonian in age and are more than 17,000 feet thick. Deposition of a thick flysch sequence (Martinsburg Formation of Ordovician age) accompanied onset of Taconic orogenesis. It was followed by deposition of a thick molasse sequence of Silurian and Early Devonian age (continental and marginal-marine clastics--Shawangunk Formation and Bloomsburg Red Beds--overlain by predominantly marginal-marine and subtidal limestone, dolomite, shale, and sandstone--Poxono Island Formation through Oriskany Group). Basin deepening and gradual shallowing occurred during Esopus through Mahantango deposition, heralding the Acadian clastic wedge exposed north of the Stroudsburg area. Interpretation of sedimentary structures and regional stratigraphic relations suggest that the Silurian and Devonian rocks were deposited in the following environments: A1luviated coastal plain (meandering and braided streams), tidal flats (supratidal and intertidal), barrier zone, and neritic zone (upper and lower). The rock stratigraphic units have been grouped into four lithotectonic units, each having a different style of deformation. Folds produced in these rocks are disharmonic, and it is believed that each rock sequence is set off from units above and below by decollements, or zones of detachment. Movement was northwest into the Appalachian basin, primarily by gravitational sliding. The contact between the Shawangunk Formation of Silurian age and Martinsburg Formation of Ordovician age, is one zone of detachment as well as an angular unconformity. Deformational effects of the Middle to Late Ordovician Taconic orogeny are elusive, but it appears that the folds and most minor

  6. Mineralogy and environmental geochemistry of historical iron slag, Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatak, N.M.; Seal, R.R.

    2012-01-01

    The Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site in southeastern Pennsylvania, which features an Fe smelter that was operational in the 18th and 19th centuries, is dominated by three slag piles. Pile 1 slag, from the Hopewell Furnace, and pile 2 slag, likely from the nearby Cornwall Furnace, were both produced in cold-blast charcoal-fired smelters. In contrast, pile 3 slag was produced in an anthracite furnace. Ore samples from the nearby Jones and Hopewell mines that fed the smelter are mainly magnetite-rich with some sulfides (pyrite, chalcopyrite, sphalerite) and accessory silicates (quartz, garnet, feldspar, and clay minerals). Slag piles 1 and 2 are similar mineralogically containing predominantly skeletal and dendritic aluminian diopside and augite, skeletal forsteritic olivine, glass, rounded blebs of metallic Fe, and exotic quartz. Olivine is a major phase in all samples from pile 2, whereas it occurs in only a few samples from pile 1. Samples of the samples. Piles 1 and 2 are chemically similar; pile 1 slag overall contains the highest Fe 2O 3, K 2O and MnO, and the lowest MgO concentrations. Pile 3 slag is high in Al 2O 3, CaO and S, and low in Fe 2O 3, K 2O and SiO 2 compared to the other piles. In general, piles 1 and 2 are chemically similar to each other, whereas pile 3 is distinct - a conclusion that reflects their mineralogy. The similarities and differences among piles in terms of mineralogy and major element chemistry result from the different smelting conditions under which the slag formed and include the fuel source, the composition of the ore and flux, the type of blast (cold versus hot), which affects the furnace temperature, and other beneficiation methods.The three distinct slag piles at Hopewell are enriched in numerous trace elements, such as As (up to 12. mg/kg), Cd (up to 0.4. mg/kg), Co (up to 31.8. mg/kg), Cu (up to 647. mg/kg), Mn (up to 0.69. wt.%), Pb (up to 172. mg/kg) and Zn (up to 393. mg/kg), together with Fe (13.9. wt.%), when

  7. National Dam Inspection Program. Milltown Dam (NDI Number PA-00218, DER Number 15-146), Delaware River Basin, Chester County, Pennsylvania. Phase I inspection Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    ISTAO ICOMP IECON ITAPE JFLT JPRT INAHE ISTAGE IAUTO 2 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0ROUTING DATA OLCSS gLOSS AVG IRES ISAME ICPT IPMP LSTR 0.0 0.000 0.00 1 1 0 0 0...8217.- HYDROGRAPH ROUTING ROUTING THRU REACH 2 - 3 SISTAD ICOMP IECON ITAFE JPLT JPRT INAHE ISTACE IAUTO 3 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 ROUTING DATA OLOSS CLOSS AVG IRES ISAME

  8. A detailed risk assessment of shale gas development on headwater streams in the Pennsylvania portion of the Upper Susquehanna River Basin, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Kelly O.; Young, John A.; Faulkner, Stephen; Hailegiorgis, Atesmachew; Slonecker, E. Terrence; Milheim, Lesley

    2018-01-01

    The development of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) involves infrastructure development (well pads, roads and pipelines), well drilling and stimulation (hydraulic fracturing), and production; all of which have the potential to affect stream ecosystems. Here, we developed a fine-scaled (1:24,000) catchment-level disturbance intensity index (DII) that included 17 measures of UOG capturing all steps in the development process (infrastructure, water withdrawals, probabilistic spills) that could affect headwater streams (.8% of all catchments and 2.7% of EV stream length, 1.9% of Class A streams and 1.2% of patches were classified as having medium to high level DII scores (> 50). Well density, often used as a proxy for development, only correlated strongly with well pad coverage and produced materials, and therefore may miss potential effects associated with roads and pipelines, water withdrawals and spills. When analyzed with a future development scenario, 91.1% of EV stream length, 68.7% of Class A streams and 80.0% of patches were in catchments with a moderate to high probability of development. Our method incorporated the cumulative effects of UOG on streams and can be used to identify catchments and reaches at risk to existing stressors or future development.

  9. Red River of the North Reconnaissance Report: Park River Subbasin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    experienced a natural increase, and their inmigration rates were less than one percent. Cavalier County’s increase in population was the result of a...natural increase j and an inmigration rate of 5.4 percent. The two largest towns are Grafton and Park River, and they are both located on the Park River

  10. Priority pollutants and associated constituents in untreated and treated discharges from coal mining or processing facilities in Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, III, Charles A.; Keith B.C. Brady,

    2015-01-01

    Clean sampling and analysis procedures were used to quantify more than 70 inorganic constituents, including 35 potentially toxic or hazardous constituents, organic carbon, and other characteristics of untreated (influent) and treated (effluent) coal-mine discharges (CMD) at 38 permitted coal-mining or coal-processing facilities in the bituminous coalfield and 4 facilities in the anthracite coalfield of Pennsylvania. Of the 42 facilities sampled during 2011, 26 were surface mines, 11 were underground mines, and 5 were coal refuse disposal operations. Treatment of CMD with caustic soda (NaOH), lime (CaO or Ca(OH)2), flocculent, or limestone was ongoing at 21%, 40%, 6%, and 4% of the facilities, respectively; no chemicals were added at the remaining facilities. All facilities with CMD treatment incorporated structures for active or passive aeration and settling of metal-rich precipitate.

  11. Accelerating Best Care in Pennsylvania: adapting a large academic system's quality improvement process to rural community hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydar, Ziad; Gunderson, Julie; Ballard, David J; Skoufalos, Alexis; Berman, Bettina; Nash, David B

    2008-01-01

    Industrial quality improvement (QI) methods such as continuous quality improvement (CQI) may help bridge the gap between evidence-based "best care" and the quality of care provided. In 2006, Baylor Health Care System collaborated with Jefferson Medical College of Thomas Jefferson University to conduct a QI demonstration project in select Pennsylvania hospitals using CQI techniques developed by Baylor. The training was provided over a 6-month period and focused on methods for rapid-cycle improvement; data system design; data management; tools to improve patient outcomes, processes of care, and cost-effectiveness; use of clinical guidelines and protocols; leadership skills; and customer service skills. Participants successfully implemented a variety of QI projects. QI education programs developed and pioneered within large health care systems can be adapted and applied successfully to other settings, providing needed tools to smaller rural and community hospitals that lack the necessary resources to establish such programs independently.

  12. Taizhou Yangtze River Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Taizhou Bridge lies between Taizhou, Zhenjiang and Changzhou City in Jiangsu Province. The total length of Taizhou Bridge is 62.088 kin. The whole line is designed by freeway codes with six lanes in two directions. The wholeinvestment is 9.37 billion RMB and the planned construction duration is 5.5 years. The main bridge crossing the Yangtze River is a continuous three-pylon two-span suspension bridge with the main span of 1 080 m. The bridge system is realized for the first time and ranks first in the world until now.

  13. Surface geophysics and porewater evaluation at the Lower Darby Creek Area Superfund Site, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Charles W.; Degnan, James R.; Brayton, Michael J.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Lorah, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    In cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Region 3, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is participating in an ongoing study to aid in the identification of subsurface heterogeneities that may act as preferential pathways for contaminant transport in and around the Lower Darby Creek Area (LDCA) Superfund Site, Philadelphia Pa. Lower Darby Creek, which flows into the Delaware River, borders the western part of the former landfill site. In 2013, the USGS conducted surface geophysics measurements and stream porewater sampling to provide additional data for EPA’s site characterization. This report contains data collected from field measurements of direct current (DC) resistivity, frequency-domain electromagnetic (FDEM) surveys, and stream porewater specific conductance (SC).

  14. Top-down Estimate of Methane Emissions from Natural Gas Production in Northeastern Pennsylvania Using Aircraft and Tower Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Z.; Lauvaux, T.; Davis, K. J.; Deng, A.; Miles, N. L.; Richardson, S.; Martins, D. K.; Cao, Y.; Sweeney, C.; McKain, K.; Schwietzke, S.; Smith, M. L.; Kort, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    Leaks in natural gas infrastructure release CH4, a potent greenhouse gas, into the atmosphere. The estimated emission rate associated with the production and transportation of natural gas is uncertain, hindering our understanding of the energy's greenhouse footprint. This study presents two applications of inverse methodology for estimating regional emission rates from natural gas production and gathering facilities in northeastern Pennsylvania. First, we used the WRF-Chem mesoscale model at 3km resolution to simulate CH4 enhancements and compared them to observations obtained from a three-week flight campaign in May 2015 over the Marcellus shale region. Methane emission rates were adjusted to minimize the errors between aircraft observations and the model-simulated concentrations for each flight. Second, we present the first tower-based high resolution atmospheric inversion of CH4 emission rates from unconventional natural gas production activities. A year of continuous CH4 and calibrated δ13C isotope measurements were collected at four tower locations in northeastern Pennsylvania. The adjoint model used here combines a backward-in-time Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model coupled with the WRF-Chem model at the same resolution. The prior for both optimization systems was compiled for major sources of CH4 within the Mid-Atlantic states, accounting for emissions from natural gas sources as well as emissions related to farming, waste management, coal, and other sources. Optimized natural gas emission rates are found to be 0.36% of total gas production, with a 2σ confidence interval between 0.27-0.45% of production. We present the results from the tower inversion over one year at 3km resolution providing additional information on spatial and temporal variability of emission rates from production and gathering facilities within the natural gas industry in comparison to flux estimates from the aircraft campaign.

  15. Associations between Unconventional Natural Gas Development and Nasal and Sinus, Migraine Headache, and Fatigue Symptoms in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tustin, Aaron W; Hirsch, Annemarie G; Rasmussen, Sara G; Casey, Joan A; Bandeen-Roche, Karen; Schwartz, Brian S

    2017-02-01

    Unconventional natural gas development (UNGD) produces environmental contaminants and psychosocial stressors. Despite these concerns, few studies have evaluated the health effects of UNGD. We investigated associations between UNGD activity and symptoms in a cross-sectional study in Pennsylvania. We mailed a self-administered questionnaire to 23,700 adult patients of the Geisinger Clinic. Using standardized and validated questionnaire items, we identified respondents with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), migraine headache, and fatigue symptoms. We created a summary UNGD activity metric that incorporated well phase, location, total depth, daily gas production and inverse distance-squared to patient residences. We used logistic regression, weighted for sampling and response rates, to assess associations between quartiles of UNGD activity and outcomes, both alone and in combination. The response rate was 33%. Of 7,785 study participants, 1,850 (24%) had current CRS symptoms, 1,765 (23%) had migraine headache, and 1,930 (25%) had higher levels of fatigue. Among individuals who met criteria for two or more outcomes, adjusted odds ratios for the highest quartile of UNGD activity compared with the lowest were [OR (95% CI)] 1.49 (0.78, 2.85) for CRS plus migraine, 1.88 (1.08, 3.25) for CRS plus fatigue, 1.95 (1.18, 3.21) for migraine plus fatigue, and 1.84 (1.08, 3.14) for all three outcomes together. Significant associations were also present in some models of single outcomes. This study provides evidence that UNGD is associated with nasal and sinus, migraine headache, and fatigue symptoms in a general population representative sample. Citation: Tustin AW, Hirsch AG, Rasmussen SG, Casey JA, Bandeen-Roche K, Schwartz BS. 2017. Associations between unconventional natural gas development and nasal and sinus, migraine headache, and fatigue symptoms in Pennsylvania. Environ Health Perspect 125:189-197; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP281.

  16. Assessment and risk analysis of casing and cement impairment in oil and gas wells in Pennsylvania, 2000-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingraffea, Anthony R; Wells, Martin T; Santoro, Renee L; Shonkoff, Seth B C

    2014-07-29

    Casing and cement impairment in oil and gas wells can lead to methane migration into the atmosphere and/or into underground sources of drinking water. An analysis of 75,505 compliance reports for 41,381 conventional and unconventional oil and gas wells in Pennsylvania drilled from January 1, 2000-December 31, 2012, was performed with the objective of determining complete and accurate statistics of casing and cement impairment. Statewide data show a sixfold higher incidence of cement and/or casing issues for shale gas wells relative to conventional wells. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate risk of impairment based on existing data. The model identified both temporal and geographic differences in risk. For post-2009 drilled wells, risk of a cement/casing impairment is 1.57-fold [95% confidence interval (CI) (1.45, 1.67); P well relative to a conventional well drilled within the same time period. Temporal differences between well types were also observed and may reflect more thorough inspections and greater emphasis on finding well leaks, more detailed note taking in the available inspection reports, or real changes in rates of structural integrity loss due to rushed development or other unknown factors. Unconventional gas wells in northeastern (NE) Pennsylvania are at a 2.7-fold higher risk relative to the conventional wells in the same area. The predicted cumulative risk for all wells (unconventional and conventional) in the NE region is 8.5-fold [95% CI (7.16, 10.18); P wells drilled in the rest of the state.

  17. The Pennsylvania Experience with Hydraulic Fracturing for Shale Gas Development: Relatively Infrequent Water Quality Incidents with Lots of Public Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantley, S. L.; Li, Z.; Yoxtheimer, D.; Vidic, R.

    2015-12-01

    New techniques of hydraulic fracturing - "fracking" - have changed the United States over the last 10 years into a leading producer of natural gas extraction from shale. The first such gas well in Pennsylvania was drilled and completed using high-volume hydraulic fracturing in 2004. By late 2014, more than 8500 of these gas wells had been drilled in the Marcellus Shale gas field in Pennsylvania alone. Almost 1000 public complaints about groundwater quality were logged by the PA Department of Environmental Protection (PA DEP) between 2008 and 2012. Only a fraction of these were attributed to unconventional gas development. The most common problem was gas migration into drinking water, but contamination incidents also included spills, seepage, or leaks of fracking fluids, brine salts, or very occasionally, radioactive species. Many problems of gas migration were from a few counties in the northeastern part of the state. However, sometimes one gas well contaminated multiple water wells. For example, one gas well was reported by the state regulator to have contaminated 18 water wells with methane near Dimock PA. It can be argued that such problems at a relatively small fraction of gas wells initiated pockets of pushback against fracking worldwide. This resistance to fracking has grown even though fracking has been in use in the U.S.A. since the 1940s. We have worked as part of an NSF-funded project (the Shale Network) to share water quality data and publish it online using the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System. Sharing data has led to collaborative investigation of specific contamination incidents to understand how problems can occur, and to efforts to quantify the frequency of impacts. The Shale Network efforts have also highlighted the need for more transparency with water quality data in the arena related to the energy-water nexus. As more data are released, new techniques of data analysis will allow better understanding of how to tune best practices to be

  18. Stochastic Modelling of River Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Schaarup-Jensen, K.

    1996-01-01

    Numerical hydrodynamic river models are used in a large number of applications to estimate critical events for rivers. These estimates are subject to a number of uncertainties. In this paper, the problem to evaluate these estimates using probabilistic methods is considered. Stochastic models...

  19. Treasure Along the Parker River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Ann-Marie; And Others

    Designed so that 100 to 125 heterogeneously grouped 7th and 8th grade students and a team of 5 core teachers might experience and discover the natural and historical "treasure" in the Parker River area of Massachusetts, this interdisciplinary unit centers on a hike to Parker River (6.7 miles) and visits to a cemetery, a monument, and Old Town…

  20. Geomorphology and River Dynamics of the Lower Copper River, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabets, Timothy P.; Conaway, Jeffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Located in south-central Alaska, the Copper River drains an area of more than 24,000 square miles. The average annual flow of the river near its mouth is 63,600 cubic feet per second, but is highly variable between winter and summer. In the winter, flow averages approximately 11,700 cubic feet per second, and in the summer, due to snowmelt, rainfall, and glacial melt, flow averages approximately 113,000 cubic feet per second, an order of magnitude higher. About 15 miles upstream of its mouth, the Copper River flows past the face of Childs Glacier and enters a large, broad, delta. The Copper River Highway traverses this flood plain, and in 2008, 11 bridges were located along this section of the highway. The bridges cross several parts of the Copper River and in recent years, the changing course of the river has seriously damaged some of the bridges. Analysis of aerial photography from 1991, 1996, 2002, 2006, and 2007 indicates the eastward migration of a channel of the Copper River that has resulted in damage to the Copper River Highway near Mile 43.5. Migration of another channel in the flood plain has resulted in damage to the approach of Bridge 339. As a verification of channel change, flow measurements were made at bridges along the Copper River Highway in 2005-07. Analysis of the flow measurements indicate that the total flow of the Copper River has shifted from approximately 50 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 27, near the western edge of the flood plain, and 50 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 36-37 to approximately 5 percent passing through the bridges at Mile 27 and 95 percent through the bridges at Mile 36-37 during average flow periods. The U.S. Geological Survey's Multi-Dimensional Surface-Water Modeling System was used to simulate water-surface elevation and velocity, and to compute bed shear stress at two areas where the Copper River is affecting the Copper River Highway. After calibration, the model was used to examine the