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Sample records for jungian personality type

  1. Alternative Measures of Jungian Personality Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnau, Randolph C.; Thompson, Bruce; Rosen, David H.

    1999-01-01

    Evaluates the psychometric properties of two alternative Jungian personality measures, the Singer-Loomis Type Deployment Inventory and the Personal Preferences Self-Description Questionnaire. Evidence suggests that both the measures of Jungian constructs yielded reasonably reliable and valid scores. Asserts that both measures have potential…

  2. Performance in College Chemistry: a Statistical Comparison Using Gender and Jungian Personality Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Susan V.; Wheeler, Henry R.; Riley, Wayne D.

    This study sorted college introductory chemistry students by gender and Jungian personality type. It recognized differences from the general population distribution and statistically compared the students' grades with their Jungian personality types. Data from 577 female students indicated that ESFP (extroverted, sensory, feeling, perceiving) and ENFP (extroverted, intuitive, feeling, perceiving) profiles performed poorly at statistically significant levels when compared with the distribution of females enrolled in introductory chemistry. The comparable analysis using data from 422 male students indicated that the poorly performing male profiles were ISTP (introverted, sensory, thinking, perceiving) and ESTP (extroverted, sensory, thinking, perceiving). ESTJ (extroverted, sensory, thinking, judging) female students withdrew from the course at a statistically significant level. For both genders, INTJ (introverted, intuitive, thinking, judging) students were the best performers. By examining the documented characteristics of Jungian profiles that correspond with poorly performing students in chemistry, one may more effectively assist the learning process and the retention of these individuals in the fields of natural science, engineering, and technology.

  3. The Connection between Success in a Freshman Chemistry Class and a Student's Jungian Personality Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Gale J.; Riley, Wayne D.

    2001-10-01

    This paper explores the connection between a student's performance in a freshman chemistry class and his or her personality type. Performance was gauged by the final percentage grade earned in class and personality type was based on Carl G. Jung's personality typology as assessed by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Performance and personality type were correlated using ANOVA statistics. The results show that only one of the 16 personality types had a class average that was significantly higher than 14 of the other 15 types. The lowest-scoring type was also significantly lower than 3 other personality types. This research shows that characteristics of personality types may be a basis for assisting or deterring success in a general chemistry class. Data on the personality types of 23 chemistry professors suggest that a success bias may be amplified by similar personality traits in the instructors.

  4. Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and Jungian Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Correlation of Extraversion-Introversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Robert S.; Kelly, Thomas J.

    1976-01-01

    C. G. Jung and H. J. Eysenck developed concepts of extraversion-introversion from radically different theoretical orientations. It is hypothesized that given the methods and content similarity of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Extraversion-Introversion scales of the inventories will be significantly…

  5. Applications of Jungian Type Theory to Counselor Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilley, Josiah S.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Carl Jung's theory of psychological type and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), an instrument to assess Jungian type. Cites sources of information on the research and application of the theory and the MBTI. Explores how knowledge of type theory can be useful to counselor educators. (Author)

  6. Dental students' personality: a Jungian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silberman, S L; Cain, M J; Mahan, J M

    1982-11-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was employed to measure the nature and strength of dental students' various basic preference in perceiving and making judgments. The MBTI yields four sets of scores--extrovert-introvert (E-l), sensing-intuitive (S-N), thinking-feeling (T-F), and judging-perceptive (J-P)--and represents 16 personality types that define these preferences. The sample consisted of five classes at the University of Mississippi School of Dentistry (n = 217). The data indicated that the largest group (32 students) was ESFJ, while the next largest (30) was ESTJ. The least frequently represented groups were the INTP (3), the INFP (7), the INTP (7), and the ENTP (7). Dental students exhibited characteristics different from those of students in business, engineering, social work, medicine, and other fields. These findings have implications for admissions committee decisions as well as for the organization and curriculum of the dental school.

  7. Jungian personality typology and the recall of everyday and archetypal dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, D R; Donderi, D C

    1986-05-01

    Hypotheses concerning the relations among personality types, neuroticism, and the recall of archetypal dreams were derived from Jungian theory. Dream records were obtained from a nonclinical population in two stages: first, recall of the most recent, most vivid, and earliest remembered dreams (N = 146), and then dream recall on awakening, over an average of 23 nights, from 30 of the first-sample subjects. A total of 697 dreams was recorded. Subjects also completed the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) the Myers-Briggs Personality Inventory, and a Dreaming Questionnaire. Dream archetypality was rated in accordance with procedures of H. Y. Kluger. The distribution of archetypal dreams across earliest (n = 106), most vivid (n = 105), and most recent (n = 102) dream types matched Kluger's earlier results. The dream diary recall data showed that Jungian intuitives, as measured via Myers-Briggs continuous scores, recalled more archetypal dreams; introverts, as measured via Myers-Briggs continuous scores, recalled more everyday dreams; high EPI neuroticism scorers recalled fewer archetypal dreams. The results support several propositions of Jungian personality theory.

  8. Alternative Ways of Measuring Counselees' Jungian Psychological-Type Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacha-Haase, Tammi; Thompson, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Instruments measuring Carl Jung's (1921/1971) theory of psychological types have been widely used in various counseling contexts, including career counseling, marital and family therapy, and team building. The most popular measure of types, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), was developed by Katherine C. Briggs and her daughter, Isabel Briggs…

  9. Alternative Ways of Measuring Counselees' Jungian Psychological-Type Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacha-Haase, Tammi; Thompson, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Instruments measuring Carl Jung's (1921/1971) theory of psychological types have been widely used in various counseling contexts, including career counseling, marital and family therapy, and team building. The most popular measure of types, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), was developed by Katherine C. Briggs and her daughter, Isabel Briggs…

  10. Bipolarity in Jungian type theory and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girelli, S A; Stake, J E

    1993-04-01

    The standard form of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI; Myers & McCaulley, 1985) was constructed to measure introversion/extroversion, sensing/intuiting, and thinking/feeling as single, bipolar dimensions. We tested this assumption of bipolarity with a Likert form of the MBTI that allowed for the independent assessment of each attitude and function. A total of 106 female and 59 male undergraduate and graduate students completed the standard and Likert MBTI forms approximately 3 weeks apart. Evidence for the bipolarity of the introversion/extroversion dimension was weak, and findings did not support the bipolarity of the sensing/intuiting or thinking/feeling dimensions. Results provide evidence that high negative correlations within MBTI dimensions are an artifact of its forced-choice format. Implications of the findings for typology measurement are discussed.

  11. The Singer-Loomis Inventory of Personality: A Review and Critique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shou, Priscilla

    The Singer-Loomis Inventory of Personality (SLIP) was developed by two Jungian analysts to allow examination of personality from the perspective of Jung's typology and to solve problems perceived with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, based on Jungian dichotomies. The SLIP is designed to clarify and describe the user's personality based on the…

  12. Myers-Briggs typology and Jungian individuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Steve

    2016-06-01

    Myers-Briggs typology is widely seen as equivalent to and representative of Jungian theory by the users of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and similar questionnaires. However, the omission of the transcendent function from the theory, and the use of typological functions as its foundation, has resulted in an inadvertent reframing of the process of individuation. This is despite some attempts to integrate individuation and typology, and reintroduce the transcendent function into Myers-Briggs theory. This paper examines the differing views of individuation in Myers-Briggs and Jungian theory, and some of the challenges of reconciling those differences, particularly in the context of normality. It proposes eight principles, drawn mainly from Jungian and classical post-Jungian work, that show how individuation as a process can be integrated with contemporary Myers-Briggs typology. These principles show individuation as being a natural process that can be encouraged outside of the analytic process. They make use of a wide range of opposites as well as typological functions, whilst being centred on the transcendent function. Central to the process is the alchemical image of the caduceus and a practical interpretation of the axiom of Maria, both of which Jung used to illustrate the process of individuation.

  13. Personality and personal network type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeven-Eggens, Lilian; De Fruyt, Filip; Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn; Bosker, Roel J.; Van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.

    2008-01-01

    The association between personality and personal relationships is mostly studied within dyadic relationships. We examined these variables within the context of personal network types. We used Latent Class Analysis to identify groups Of Students with similar role relationships with three focal figure

  14. Personality and personal network type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeven-Eggens, Lilian; De Fruyt, Filip; Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn; Bosker, Roel J.; Van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.

    2008-01-01

    The association between personality and personal relationships is mostly studied within dyadic relationships. We examined these variables within the context of personal network types. We used Latent Class Analysis to identify groups Of Students with similar role relationships with three focal

  15. Unlocking Personality Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieger, Paul D.

    2002-01-01

    This article examines some of the intricacies of personality types and their effect on career choices. Proposes that knowing students' Myers-Briggs personality types can help school counselors guide them down the right career path. (GCP)

  16. Unlocking Personality Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tieger, Paul D.

    2002-01-01

    This article examines some of the intricacies of personality types and their effect on career choices. Proposes that knowing students' Myers-Briggs personality types can help school counselors guide them down the right career path. (GCP)

  17. Seeking a Utopia in the Past to Endure the Present: A Jungian Reading of The Realms of Gold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram R. Sistani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts a Jungian approach to Margaret Drabble’s novel The Realms of Gold. Jungian reading has been taken up to unravel the distinctive characteristics which make this novel so unique and popular. The focus of the paper is to classify the main characters of the novel in terms of their psychological types.  In this novel from the beginning the reader is introduced to an atmosphere which is related to the personality of the main character Frances Wingate. Her thoughts are introduced to the readers in form of monologues. By the usage of these monologues and the narrator’s judgments on the characters their psychological types can be implied. The protagonist is compared with the other major characters to illuminate to what extent different types can get along with each other. In Jungian psychology knowing about our psychological type is a crucial issue in the process of individuation. It gets more significance when it comes to opposite sex relationships or generally any kinds of interaction.

  18. Beyond Type D personality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelle, Aline J; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Szabó, Balázs M

    2009-01-01

    Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important.......Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important....

  19. Beyond Type D personality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelle, Aline J; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Szabó, Balázs M

    2009-01-01

    Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important.......Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important....

  20. Personality characteristics of hospice volunteers as measured by Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C W; Shuff, I M

    1995-12-01

    A sample of hospice volunteers (n = 99) was administered the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Myers & McCaulley, 1985). Frequencies of types observed were compared to population sample (n = 1,105) frequencies. Results indicated that, as a whole, hospice volunteers preferred extraversion over introversion, intuition over sensing, and feeling over thinking. Analysis of four-and two-letter preference combinations also yielded statistically significant differences. Most notably, the sensing-intuitive function appeared pivotal in determining of hospice volunteering. Suggestions are offered as to why the sensing-intuition function appeared central to hospice volunteering. Results appeared consistent with Jungian personality theory.

  1. Personality types of dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerman, G H; Grandy, T G; Erskine, C G

    1991-12-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) was used to determine the personality types of dental graduates, 1964-1984, from Creighton University, School of Dentistry. The MBTI reveals the strength and nature of preferences along four dimensions: extraversion-introversion, sensing-intuition, thinking-feeling, and judging-perceptive. In sample (N = 472), four personality types: ISTJ (108), ESTJ (66), ISFJ (48), and ENTJ (37), accounted for 54.9% (N = 259) of the dentists. The remaining 45.1% (N = 213) were divided among 12 personality types without any type accounting for more than 6.1% (N = 29). Comparisons with a general population (N = 9,320) revealed that the dental sample included more introverts (58.9%), thinkers (65.9%) and judgers (75.0%). The implications of personality characteristics, as applied to dentistry through communication patterns, relationships with co-workers and management styles were discussed.

  2. The spirit of Jungian group psychotherapy: from taboo to totem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettin, M F

    1995-10-01

    Practitioners of analytical psychology were late in coming to the practice of group psychotherapy because Carl Jung effectively forbade the treatment of individuals in stranger groups. This article explores Jung's objections to group therapy and, by way of a conceptual review of the literature, expands on the practice that grew up proximate to his death. It is argued that Jungian theory is especially conducive to collective treatment because it is concerned with the relationship between oppositions (whether in persons or between people) and uses synthetic and symbolic processes to bring about an integration of the one with the many. For Jungians who espouse a theory of symbolic transformation, archetype, and myth, the group is embodied in individuals and can be accessed by working with individuals in groups.

  3. Sociological theory and Jungian psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    [[disenchantmentCarl JungpsychoanalysissociologyMax Weber ] In this article I seek to relate the psychology of Carl Jung to sociological theory, specifically Weber. I first present an outline of Jungian psychology. I then seek to relate this as psychology to Weber’s interpretivism. I point to basic methodological compatibilities within a Kantian frame, from which emerge central concerns with the factors limiting rationality. These generate the conceptual frameworks for parallel enquiries into the development and fate of rationality in cultural history. Religion is a major theme here: contrasts of eastern and western religion; the rise of prophetic religion and the disenchantment of modernity. Weber’s categories ‘ascetic’ and ‘mystic’ seem applicable to his own and Jung’s approaches and indeed temperaments, while a shared ironic view of rationality leads to similar visions of the disenchanted modern world. I conclude that Jung is sociologically coherent, but in an entirely different sense from Freud: rather than a constellation of family, socialization, ideology, social continuity, there is an analysis of cultural history against a background of adult normal psychology. I conclude that sociology should acknowledge Jung, but not in terms of over-arching theory. Rather Jungian insights might be used to orient new enquiries, and for reflexive analysis of sociology’s methodological debates.

  4. Jungian Feminine Psychology and Adolescent Prostitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton-Ruddy, Lara; Handelsman, Mitchell M.

    1986-01-01

    Explores Jungian feminine psychology and its application in the treatment of adolescent prostitutes. Discusses Wolff's (1956) work on feminine functions and Leonard's (1982) work with father-daughter wounds. Explores techniques for applying these concepts with adolescent prostitutes. (Author)

  5. Jungian Feminine Psychology and Adolescent Prostitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton-Ruddy, Lara; Handelsman, Mitchell M.

    1986-01-01

    Explores Jungian feminine psychology and its application in the treatment of adolescent prostitutes. Discusses Wolff's (1956) work on feminine functions and Leonard's (1982) work with father-daughter wounds. Explores techniques for applying these concepts with adolescent prostitutes. (Author)

  6. A Technical Review of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator(tm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Thomas J.

    This paper describes the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), developed by I. Myers and K. Briggs (1940s) to assess personality type. Based on Jungian theory, the MBTI has become a tool for identifying the 16 different patterns of action into which every person fits. The 16 personality types are based on patterns of: (1) extraversion-introversion;…

  7. Jungian metapsychology and neurobiological theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresan, D I

    1996-07-01

    This paper deals with brain research and depth psychology. Because brain research is becoming significantly more sophisticated and increasingly able to assay the neurobiology of subjective (i.e., mental) events in vivo, it is suggested that any school of depth psychology will probably not survive as a mainstream treatment modality if its theory and practice is found to be in frank variance with the findings of the modern neurosciences. Jung's psychology is compared to Freud's and shown to be reasonably consonant with such findings. Historical highlights of Jung's non-reductive way of conceptualizing and working are presented and put in the context of more recent scientifically defensible concepts (emergence, supervenience, complexity theory) from the fields of both philosophy of science and philosophy of mind. These concepts postulate a hierarchical model of reality which permits an exploration of the mind/brain relationship without resorting to reductionism or dualism. A sense of the present struggle is conveyed between the proponents of these and more traditional scientific concepts. Finally, the nature of mind/brain confluence is elucidated by examples from the areas of learning, memory and the capacity to symbolize in order to illustrate how clinical practices and observations familiar to experience depth therapists and also in agreement with Jungian theory are compatible with neuroscientific findings. A research suggestion is offered.

  8. Personality types of oncology nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, C A; Holcombe, J K

    1993-12-01

    Personality type influences the choice of occupation. The breadth of specialty areas within oncology nursing allows for divergent activities and relationships and, thus, the accommodation of different personality characteristics. This exploratory study examined personality types for a convenience sample of oncology nurses predominantly employed in hospitals. According to the personality typology defined by Carl Jung, a person demonstrates a preference among four dimensions, i.e., extraversion/introversion, sensory/intuition, thinking/feeling, and judging/perceiving. The type with the strongest self-selection for these oncology nurses was ISFJ, where feeling is introverted and perception is practical, so that helping others is both a responsibility and a pleasure. The discussion relates the personality types to Jung's theory and their impact in clinical practice. Strengths and weaknesses of each personality type are described.

  9. On integrating Jungian and other theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, David

    2015-09-01

    This paper consists of reflections on some of the processes, subtleties, and 'eros' involved in attempting to integrate Jungian and other analytic perspectives. Assimilation of other theoretical viewpoints has a long history in analytical psychology, beginning when Jung met Freud. Since its inception, the Journal of Analytical Psychology has provided a forum for theoretical syntheses and comparative psychoanalysis. Such attempts at synthesizing other theories represent analytical psychology itself trying to individuate. © 2015, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  10. Florence Nightingale: her personality type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossey, Barbara M

    2010-03-01

    This article casts new and refreshing light on Florence Nightingale's life and work by examining her personality type. Using the theory-based Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the author examines Nightingale's personality type and reveals that she was an introverted-intuitive-thinking-judging type. The merit of using the MBTI is that it allows us to more clearly understand three major areas of Nightingale's life that have been partially unacknowledged or misunderstood: her spiritual development as a practicing mystic, her management of her chronic illness to maintain her prodigious work output, and her chosen strategies to transform her visionary ideas into new health care and social realities.

  11. Topological approach of Jungian psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viret, Jacques

    2010-09-01

    In this work, we compare two global approaches which are usually considered as completely unconnected one with the other. The former is Thom's topology and the latter is Jung's psychology. More precisely, it seemed to us interesting to adapt some morphologies of Thom's catastrophe theory to some Jung's notions. Thus, we showed that the swallowtail, which is one of these morphologies, was able to describe geometrically the structural organisation of the psyche according to Jung, with its collective unconscious, personal unconscious and conscious. Moreover, we have correlated this morphology with Jung's evolutive processes like individualization and individuation. These comparisons incited us to think that some morphologies of Thom's catastrophe theory are the geometrical dealing of Jung's archetypes.

  12. Expert witness and Jungian archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallave, Juan Antonio; Gutheil, Thomas Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Jung's theories of archetype, shadow, and the personal and collective unconscious provide a postmodern framework in which to consider the role of the expert witness in judicial proceedings. Archetypal themes, motifs, and influences help to illuminate the shadow of the judicial system and projections and behaviors among the cast of the court in pursuing justice. This article speaks to archetypal influences and dialectical tensions encountered by the expert witness in this judicial drama. The archetype of Justice is born from the human need for order and relational fairness in a world of chaos. The persona of justice is the promise of truth in the drama. The shadow of justice is untruth, the need to win by any means. The dynamics of the trickster archetype serve and promote injustice. These influences are examined by means of a case example. This approach will deepen understanding of court proceedings and the role of the expert witness in the heroic quest for justice.

  13. The Life Cycle of a British Islamist: A Jungian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Alschuler

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Edward Edinger, in 'Ego and archetype: Individuation and the religious function of the psyche,' designates as "unconscious religion" the psychological role played by political movements when religious institutions cease to provide containers for the spiritual strivings of individuals. I include Islamism as a political movement. Edinger's description of unconscious religion closely resembles the experience of a young British-born Muslim, Ed Husain, in 'The Islamist: Why I joined radical Islam in Britain, what I saw inside and why I left.' Husain follows a path from being a traditional Muslim to a fanatical Islamist to a spiritual Muslim. Edinger applies Jungian psychology to describe four alternative consequences for persons whose religious institutions respond inadequately to their "religious instinct." These alternatives are: Adherence to an unconscious religion, psychological inflation, alienation, and individuation. In the case study, surprisingly, Ed Husain experiences all four of these alternatives in sequence, constituting a life cycle. The article concludes, optimistically, that this may be a natural sequence for those who embrace fanatical Islamism.

  14. Bridging worlds: participatory thinking in Jungian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robin S

    2017-04-01

    Introducing the 'participatory' paradigm associated with the work of transpersonalists Richard Tarnas and Jorge Ferrer, the author outlines an approach to Jung's archetypal thinking that might offer a more adequate basis in which to ground a non-reductive approach to practice. In order to demonstrate the relevance of this outlook at the present time, the author begins by examining recent debates concerning the nature of 'truth' in the clinical setting. Reflecting on the difficulties analysts face in attempting to maintain professional authority without falling into an implicit authoritarianism, it is argued that any approach to therapy seeking to orient itself towards 'the unconscious' must posit the challenges of pluralism as a central concern for practice. With reference to the relationship between analytical psychology and the psychoanalytic mainstream, attention is drawn to the theoretical problems raised by the relational commitment to constructivist epistemologies, and a consequent tendency towards biological reductionism. Turning to the Jungian literature, similar tensions are observed at play in the present state of analytical psychology. Drawing attention to the process-oriented qualities of Jung's work, it is suggested that the speculative nature of Jung's psychology offers a more adequate basis for contemporary practice than might be assumed. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  15. Personality disorder types proposed for DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skodol, A.E.; Bender, D.S.; Morey, L.C.; Clark, L.A.; Oldham, J.M.; Alarcon, R.D.; Krueger, R.F.; Verheul, R.; Bell, C.C.; Siever, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group has proposed five specific personality disorder (PD) types for DSM-5, to be rated on a dimension of fit: antisocial/psychopathic, avoidant, borderline, obsessive-compulsive, and schizotypal. Each type is identified by core impairments in personali

  16. Personality disorder types proposed for DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skodol, A.E.; Bender, D.S.; Morey, L.C.; Clark, L.A.; Oldham, J.M.; Alarcon, R.D.; Krueger, R.F.; Verheul, R.; Bell, C.C.; Siever, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group has proposed five specific personality disorder (PD) types for DSM-5, to be rated on a dimension of fit: antisocial/psychopathic, avoidant, borderline, obsessive-compulsive, and schizotypal. Each type is identified by core impairments in

  17. Personality disorder types proposed for DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skodol, A.E.; Bender, D.S.; Morey, L.C.; Clark, L.A.; Oldham, J.M.; Alarcon, R.D.; Krueger, R.F.; Verheul, R.; Bell, C.C.; Siever, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group has proposed five specific personality disorder (PD) types for DSM-5, to be rated on a dimension of fit: antisocial/psychopathic, avoidant, borderline, obsessive-compulsive, and schizotypal. Each type is identified by core impairments in personali

  18. Are Thinking Styles and Personality Types Related?

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, LF

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between thinking styles and personality types is investigated within the contexts of Sternberg's theory of mental self-government and Holland's theory of personality types. A total of 600 university students from Hong Kong responded to the Thinking Styles Inventory (TSI) and the Short-version Self-directed Search (SVSDS) that was specially designed for the present study. A major finding of this study is that thinking styles and personality types overlap to a degree. A seconda...

  19. Personality types of Chinese dental school applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shengjun; Miao, Danmin; Zhu, Xia; Luo, Zhengxue; Liu, Xufeng

    2007-12-01

    This his article reports the findings of a study conducted to investigate the personality types of Chinese dental school applicants. The Chinese version of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) (Form G) was used to assess the personality styles of 332 dental school applicants from the mainland of China. The results of the MBTI for Chinese dental school applicants were compared with a previous study of applicants from the U.K. A higher percentage of this group of Chinese applicants scored higher for Introversion (I) than Extroversion (E); both Chinese and English applicants preferred Judging (J) to Perceiving (P). The dominant personality types in Chinese applicants were ISTJ, ESTJ, and ISFP. The findings suggest that the personality types of Chinese dental students may be somewhat different from the personality profiles exhibited by dental students from other nations. The findings may be of value to individuals who desire to investigate personality type differences among dental students with different cultural backgrounds.

  20. The Myth and Magic of "Star Wars": A Jungian Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Maurice

    The "Star Wars" trilogy is a fairy tale projected into the future which exemplifies in a clear-cut manner many of the archetypes of Jungian psychology. These films are modern retellings of ancient myths. Carl Jung has described myths as "fundamental expressions of human nature." In the films, fairy tale motifs such as typical…

  1. [Artistic creativity in the light of Jungian analytical psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trixler, Mátyás; Gáti, Agnes; Tényi, Tamás

    2010-01-01

    C.G. Jung's analytical psychology points at important issues in the psychological understanding of creativity. The theories of the Collective Unconscious and the Archetypes contributed to important discoveries in the interpretation of artistic creativity. Jung was concerned to show the relevance of Analytical Psychology to the understanding of European Modernism. Our paper deals with a short Jungian interpretation of Csontvary's art, too.

  2. A Complementary Approach to Freudian and Jungian Dream Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollub, Dan

    1986-01-01

    Presents the original theory that dreams are consecutive emotions of love, desire, nondesire, and hatred showing Freudian and Jungian concepts about dream interpretation to be partly compatible with this pattern. Wish fulfillment (love, desire), "anti-wishes" (nondesire), symbolism, compensation in dreams (hatred), and the individuation…

  3. A Complementary Approach to Freudian and Jungian Dream Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollub, Dan

    1986-01-01

    Presents the original theory that dreams are consecutive emotions of love, desire, nondesire, and hatred showing Freudian and Jungian concepts about dream interpretation to be partly compatible with this pattern. Wish fulfillment (love, desire), "anti-wishes" (nondesire), symbolism, compensation in dreams (hatred), and the individuation…

  4. MBTI Personality Types and SII Personal Style Scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buboltz, Walter C., Jr.; Johnson, Patrick; Nichols, Cassandra; Miller, Matthew A.; Thomas, Adrian

    2000-01-01

    Scores of 426 undergraduates on the Myers Briggs Type Inventory (MBTI) and Strong Interest Inventory (SII) revealed that personal style scales of the SII are related to MBTI polar dimensions in various combinations. Results support the idea that personality traits are related to career interests. (SK)

  5. For Personal Typing--How Much "Production"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, George S.

    1976-01-01

    Guidelines are provided for reducing superfluous production techniques and for concentrating instead on the principal objectives of personal use typing: (1) Development of student keyboard typing skill and (2) student comprehension of essential copy placement rules. (TA)

  6. Personality Type and Clinical Supervision Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Janine M.; Clingerman, Tamara L.; Gilbride, Dennis D.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated personality type of supervisors and supervisees and interventions chosen by supervisors for 78 supervisory dyads from 9 different counselor education programs. Gender effects were also investigated. Results indicated that interventions were not influenced by supervisor personality type as measured by the…

  7. Accounting Students' Performance and Personality Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourayi, Mahmoud M.; Cherry, Alan A.

    1993-01-01

    Completion of the Myers Briggs Type Inventory by 103 accounting majors revealed no significant differences among personality types in achievement, except that sensing types perform better in accounting in general. Results seem to belie the suggestion that accounting attracts introverts and that the intuitive type is best suited to accounting in…

  8. Validity of Type D personality in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svansdottir, Erla; Karlsson, Hrobjartur D; Gudnason, Thorarinn

    2012-01-01

    Type D personality has been associated with poor prognosis in cardiac patients. This study investigated the validity of the Type D construct in Iceland and its association with disease severity and health-related risk markers in cardiac patients. A sample of 1,452 cardiac patients completed...... the Type D scale (DS14), and a subgroup of 161 patients completed measurements for the five-factor model of personality, emotional control, anxiety, depression, stress and lifestyle factors. The Icelandic DS14 had good psychometric properties and its construct validity was confirmed. Prevalence of Type D...... was 26-29%, and assessment of Type D personality was not confounded by severity of underlying coronary artery disease. Regarding risk markers, Type D patients reported more psychopharmacological medication use and smoking, but frequency of previous mental problems was similar across groups. Type D...

  9. Evaluation of Type A personality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, F.; Kornitzer, M.; Dramaix, M.

    1986-01-01

    When we look for the criteria for causation of Type A behaviour for coronary heart disease, we lack the reproducibility, the predictability to a certain extent, a pathogenic mechanism and an animal model, all four of the eight recognized criteria for causal inference. The debate therefore is still wide open. PMID:3774714

  10. The future of Jungian analysis: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats ('SWOT').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Using a methodology derived from management and organizational studies, the author reviews the future of Jungian analysis. The methodology is termed SWOT - strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats. A selected list in each of these categories is presented. The author is transparent in allowing for the fact that the paper not only derives from a public lecture on the topic, but also retains the immediacy and the contrarian and opinionated style of such a lecture. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  11. A Jungian approach to dreams reported by soldiers in a modern combat zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Rob; Goodwyn, Erik; Ignatowski, Michael

    2011-04-01

    Treating combat deployed soldiers is becoming more prevalent and needed in psychiatry. Modern combat produces unique psychological challenges, including those without criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This article will attempt to share the primary author's experience with psychotherapy in a combat zone, along with understanding the general themes of dreams the author encountered while being deployed. Toward that end, the primary author [RW] discusses his personal experiences in Iraq working with soldiers whom he saw and treated while in theatre, with a particular focus on the dreams they reported. The co-authors [EG and MI] afterward collaborated with the primary author to formulate and provide insight into the dreams from a Jungian perspective.

  12. On the "Art and Science" of Personal Transformation: Some Critical Reflections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Raya A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes a critical look at the applicability of the Jungian view on individuation and imagination. While Jungian ideas can bring something fresh and necessary into educational practice, personal enthusiasm might blind us to a dissonance between educational goals and the therapeutic goal of analytical psychology. The case is made with…

  13. Os tipos psicológicos na psicologia analítica de Carl Gustav Jung e o inventário de personalidade “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI”: contribuições para a psicologia educacional, organizacional e clínica/The psychological types in analytical psychology of Carl Gustav Jung and the inventory of personality “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI”: contributions for the educational, organizational and clinical psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Marcelo Alves Ramos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto apresenta os princípios da Teoria dos Tipos Psicológicos, a mais conhecida face da Psicologia Analítica do psicólogo e psiquiatra suíço Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961, bem como os fundamentos do Inventário de Personalidade “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI”, constituído a partir da tipologia junguiana, e que vem sendo cada vez mais utilizado nos campos da Psicologia Educacional, Organizacional e Clínica. The text presents the principles of the Theory of Psychological Types, the most known face of the Analytical Psychology of the Swiss psychologist and psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961, as well as the fundamentals of the Inventory of Personality “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI”, constituted from the Jungian typology, and which has been more used nowadays by Educational, Organizational and Clinical Psychology.

  14. Beatrice Hinkle and the Early History of Jungian Psychology in New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Sherry

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As the leading proponent of psychoanalysis, Jung made trips to New York in 1912 and 1913. The first was to give his Fordham lectures, the second has escaped notice but was crucial in the early dissemination of Jungian psychology in the U.S. This paper will elaborate on this development by highlighting the career and influence of Beatrice Hinkle, the country’s first Jungian psychoanalyst. She was an M.D. and ardent feminist who introduced Jung to her Greenwich Village circle, translated his magnum opus Transformations and Symbols of the Libido, and helped establish the institutional basis of Jungian psychology in America.

  15. Personality types and teat order in piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Malin

    2011-01-01

    To investigate whether piglets show different personality types due to teat position, a number ofexperiments were performed on 21 different litters, 9 to 31 days old. The tests included threefocal piglets in each litter with different teat position, anterior, middle and posterior, inobservations on suckling behaviour, undisturbed behaviours, a novel object test and a straw-testwhere thirteen behaviours were observed. The tests found an effect on teat position on frequencyof disputes between p...

  16. Differentiation of personality types among opiate addicts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, S J; Berman, W H

    1990-01-01

    A wide range of studies indicate that although sociopathic characteristics are predominant in opiate addiction, depressive and psychotic features are also frequently observed. To test the hypothesis that there are really three types of individuals who become addicted to opiates (rather than a single, predominant personality style), fifty-three opiate addicts were given the Loevinger Sentence Completion Test, the Bellak Ego Functions Interview, and the Rorschach. Variables derived from these three procedures were submitted to cluster and discriminant function analyses. Three groups of addicts were identified--those primarily with impaired interpersonal relationships and affective lability (42%), those primarily characterized by thought disorder and impaired ego functioning (30%), and a group with diminished ideational and verbal activity (28%). Comparison of the assessment of these three groups with independently defined normal, neurotic, and schizophrenic samples provided support for three opiate-addicted personality types, each respectively characterized as character disordered, borderline psychotic, and depressed. Although there seems to be a predominance of character-disordered individuals who become addicted to opiates, the data indicate several additional types of opiate addicts with different types of psychopathology who may require different approaches to management and treatment.

  17. Personality dimensions and type D personality in female patients with ulcerative colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Marzieh Sadat Sajadinejad; Hossein Molavi; Karim Asgari; Mehrdad Kalantari; Peyman Adibi

    2012-01-01

    Aim : Psychological factors such as personality traits may affect the adjustment capacity and Quality of Life (QOL) in Ulcerative Colitis (UC) patients. Type D personality has some similarities with general personality traits of UC patients. The aims of this study were to compare NEO personality profile and type D personality between healthy normal group and UC patients; and to determine the possible relationship between type D personality and QOL in UC patients. Materials and Methods : The s...

  18. A Systems Approach to Creativity Based on Jungian Typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krippner, Stanley

    1983-01-01

    Two dimensions of Carl Jung's psychological system (preference for information and choice of decision making processes) are applied to creativity research. Examples of four personality types (sensing- thinking, sensing-feeling, intuition-feeling, and intuition-thinking) are represented by prominent social scientists. A systems model of science is…

  19. Personality types, aggression and antisocial behavior in adolescents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Consuelo Morán; José A. Carmona; José Fínez

    2016-01-01

    Based on the Junior Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-J), the types of personality and its relationship with aggressiveness and the antisocial behavior is analyzed in a student’s sample (N = 1416...

  20. Networks of Life: A Jungian reading about aging and death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilzete Passos Magalhães

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at proposing an approach of the stages of aging and dying within the individuation process, starting from the symbolic amplification of images of these phases of life in light of Analytical Psychology.  For the purpose of correlating these images with the stages of human development, particularly with the phases of the end of maturity and closing of the life cycle, a study on imagery and bibliography of aging and dying was conducted based on the theoretical framework of Analytical Psychology and of Post-Jungian authors. To that effect, the symbolic amplification of images taken from the plastic arts, literature, religion and mythology was made. The results of the study indicated that the death-related images bear a relationship with the individuation process, which points out to the need to explore this topic – which is a taboo in contemporary society – in a creative and significant manner; something that was synthesized by Jung himself in the expression “to die with life”.  

  1. Accessing Creativity: Jungian Night Sea Journeys, Wandering Minds, and Chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Diane

    2016-01-01

    NDS theory has been meaningfully applied to the dynamics of creativity and psychology. These complex systems have much in common, including a broad definition of "product" as new order emerging from disorder, a new whole (etymologically, 'health') out of disintegration or destabilization. From a nonlinear dynamical systems perspective, this paper explores the far-from-equilibrium zone of creative incubation: first in the Jungian night sea journey, a primordial myth of psychological and creative transformation; then in the neuroscience of mind wandering, the well-spring of creative ideation within the larger neural matrix. Finally, chaos theory grounds the elusive subject of creativity, modeling chaotic generation of idea elements that tend toward strange attractors, combine unpredictably, and produce change by means of tension between opposites, particularly notes consciousness (light) and the poetic unconscious (darkness). Examples from my own artwork illustrate this dialectical process. Considered together, the unconscious mythic sea journey, the unknowing wandering mind, and the generative paradigm of deterministic chaos suggest conditions that facilitate creativity across disciplines, providing fresh indications that the darkness of the unknown or irrational is, paradoxically, the illuminative source and strength of creativity.

  2. Personality Type and Participation in Networked Learning Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Ainslie E.

    2003-01-01

    Discussion of networked learning environments and learner characteristics focuses on personality type as determined using the Myers Briggs Type Indicator. Investigates the relationship between personality type and student participation within a networked learning environment using asynchronous threaded discussion for a university course run both…

  3. Learning Strategy Preference and Personality Type: Are They Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Gary J.; McNeil, Rita C.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of learning strategy preference to personality type. Learning strategy preference was identified with the "A"ssessing "T"he "L"earning Strategies of "A"dult"S" (ATLAS), and personality type was measured with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). The…

  4. How Reading Strategy Use and Personality Types Are Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdarian, Zahra; Ghyasi, Majid; Farsani, Mohammad Amini

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to uncover the reading strategies utilized by Iranian undergraduate English Foreign Language (EFL) learners and their relationship with personality types. To this end, 194 university EFL learners were asked to fill out the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) to identify their personality types and answer a reading strategy…

  5. Teaching Techniques, Types of Personality, and English Listening Skill

    OpenAIRE

    Ni Made Ratminingsih

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Teaching Techniques, Types of Personality, and English Listening Skill. This study inves­tigated the effect of teaching techniques and types of personality on English listening skill. This experi­mental study involved 88 students under investigation, which were determined randomly through multi-stage random sampling technique. The results of the research indicate that there is an interaction effect between the teaching techniques and types of personality on the English listening ski...

  6. The Relationship Between Personality Type And Leadership Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Sieff

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Optimising focus is a key success driver for many organisation leaders. The relationship between personality type and leadership focus is examined. Personality type is assessed with Form M of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator instrument, and leadership focus is explored through the development and application of a Leadership Focus Questionnaire. South African executives form the target population for this study. Both functionalist and interpretive approaches are applied. Three primary theoretical hypotheses about leadership focus, concerning (1 optimising the balance of focus between external and internal priorities, (2 the fit between the leadership personality type and the organisation type, and (3 the capacity to manage a multiple focus, are considered. Results show that Extraverted personality types are more comfortable with the challenges of focus in the leadership role than are Introverted types, and Extraverted, Sensing, Thinking and Judging types experience a greater degree of fit with their organisations than do Introverted, Intuitive, Feeling and Perceiving types.

  7. Personality at Work: A Study of Type A-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Raza

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to measure the impact of stressors on personality types in Call Centers. Based on literature survey five potential workplace stressors were identified, namely (1 Task Demands, (2 Role Demands, (3 Interpersonal Demands, (4 Organizational Structure and (5 Organizational Leadership. Based on the literature survey, a relationship model was developed that was inclusive of the above stressors, and three personality types, which were Type A, Type AB and Type B.The sample size for the study was 100. The subjects were supervisors and agents drawn non-randomly from various Call Centers of Karachi. All the subjects completed a questionnaire comprised of 27 questions based on occupational stress index (Srivasta and Singh 1981 and AB Personality Continuum (National Institute of Safety and Health 1975. The three personality types A, B & AB all go through stress, however it is the Type A, which thrives on stress. The sources of stress measured in the study were Task Demand, Role Demand, Interpersonal Demands, Organizational Structure and Organizational Leadership.The stressor that most contributed to the Personality type A’s stress in the study was Interpersonal Demand (0.38, which is justified by the literature review as Personality type A are not team players and prefer to work alone.Whereas Personality type B was stressed because of Role Demand (0.38 which is also proved by the literature review as personality type B are laid back and do not take there roles seriously. Hence it can be concluded that it type A tends to cope well with stress as compared to type AB and type B. The performance of the respondents can be made better if the supervisors are aware of the personality types and thereby motivate them according.

  8. Association of Type D personality with increased vulnerability to depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dooren, Fleur E P; Verhey, Frans R J; Pouwer, Frans

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type D personality - the combination of negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI) - has been associated with depression but little is known about underlying mechanisms. We examined whether (1) Type D is a vulnerability factor for depression in general, (2) Type D...... is associated with inflammation or endothelial dysfunction, and (3) these biomarkers alter the possible association between Type D and depression. METHODS: In the Maastricht Study, 712 subjects underwent assessment of NA, SI and Type D personality (DS14), depressive disorder (Mini-International Neuropsychiatric......: Regarding personality, 49% of the study population was low in NA and SI, 22% had SI only, 12% NA only and 17% had Type D. Depressive disorder and depressive symptoms were significantly more prevalent in Type D versus the other three personality subgroups. Multivariable regression analyses showed that Type D...

  9. Personality types and nicotine Dependency among medical sciences students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bakshi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking has recently become a major public health threat among the youth of today in Iran. Many clinicians and researchers hypothesized that tobacco-related disorders are maintained by the ability of nicotine to regulate positive and negative mood states. Moreover, some research indicates that there is no correlation between personality type, cigarette smoking, and heart disease, while some others mention that people with personality type A are more inclined towards smoking and related diseases. Thus, to test this hypothesis, we have studied possible correlations between psychological personality and tobacco-dependency among university students in the central part of Iran. In the current study, the most prevalent personality type was B (56.8%, with A (43.2%. Regarding smoking status, 17.5% (70 of the students were smokers and 82.5% (330 non-smokers; moreover, our results showed 66.7% (47 of smokers had low dependency and 33.3% (23 were physically dependent on nicotine. Concerning the difference between smokers and non-smokers based on their personality type, the results showed that 51.4% smokers had type A personality and 59.9% non-smokers were type B. There were also statistical differences between personality type and tobacco usage in students (p<0.05. We also found statistical differences between physical dependency and personality type; that is, 67.3% of smoking students who were physically dependent on nicotine had A type personality (p<0.05. The results suggest that there are several psychological types having higher association with tobacco use than other types. It poses some additional challenges for students’ support services to address mental health problems. The personality type in our study turned out to be an important factor influencing the nicotine dependency of the students.

  10. Myers-Briggs personality types of art collectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gridley, Mark C

    2004-04-01

    27 art collectors (13 men, 14 women) completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Their age range was 37 to 86 years and the mean 59.5 yr. Seventy percent were classified as Intuition types instead of Sensation types (versus its 25% incidence in the general population). This corresponds to personality profiles of artists and the disproportionately high incidence of high scores on the related Openness to Experience factor in studies of creative personalities, thereby supporting the contention that persons creating art and appreciating art have personality traits in common.

  11. Dominant Personality Types in Public Accounting: Selection Bias or Indoctrinated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Hughlene; Daugherty, Brian; Dickins, Denise; Schisler, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies concerning the personality type and preferences of accountants generally draw conclusions based upon the reports of either practicing accountants, or accounting students, at a single point in time. So while much is known about the personality type of accountants in general, left unexplored is the question of whether public…

  12. EVALUATION OF PERSONALITY TYPE OF FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha S

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Even though research in health professional education has confirmed that non - cognitive factors like personality has importance in selection , training and academic performance of the students. To prepare competent medical doctors , medical schools need to monitor and assess the students at regular intervals. Personality typing is a useful tool for counsell ing , motivation and guidance of the students and if considered while developing of course will enhance learning and improve the performance of the medical students. So it is necessary a blend of personality characteristics with the cognitive ability of learner during medical education to become a successful medical student. Aim of the present study was to assess the personality type using Myers - Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI among the first year medical students of J . N . Medical College Belgaum. METHODOLOG Y : One hundred and fifty students gave consent and enrolled in this study. Consented students were subjected to MBTI questionnaire to identify their personality type. RESULTS : MBTI questionnaire was used to identified personality type of the students , out of 150 students were 80 Extroverts (E , 70 Introverts (I , 90 Perceivers (P , 60 Judgers (J , 76 Filling , 57 sensing , 93 intuitive , 74 thinking type i e E>I , P>J , F>S and N>T. The most common personality type was ENFP (14% remaining types showed INFP (12% , INTP (9.3%. INFJ , ENFJ , ESFJ , ESFP were of equal percentage (6.7%. CONCLUSION : It has been seen that different type of personalities are found in different medical schools and health professionals and poor performance and drop out of the student occur from the course when the course structure , teaching format and personality type do not match. Hence there is a need to assess every individual’s personality type which helps in counseling and guidance to learners as a part of remedial measures especially for the low achievers to maximize the learning and students who are

  13. The Dream World of Film: A Jungian Perspective on Cinematic Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Robert A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Explains the relevance to film criticism of Jung's theory of the collective unconscious and its archetypal manifestations. Analyzes "The Shining," a film representative of the presently dominant occult-horror genre, in terms of the Jungian approach. Discusses the role of film in relation to the world's psychic balance. (PD)

  14. The Dream World of Film: A Jungian Perspective on Cinematic Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Robert A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Explains the relevance to film criticism of Jung's theory of the collective unconscious and its archetypal manifestations. Analyzes "The Shining," a film representative of the presently dominant occult-horror genre, in terms of the Jungian approach. Discusses the role of film in relation to the world's psychic balance. (PD)

  15. Depression and type D personality among undergraduate medical students

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Context: Academic pressure, though established, is an unavoidable cause of depression in medical students. Role of Type D personality as determinant of depression is a new approach to the problem. Aim: Determination of relationship between Type D personality and Depression among medical students. Setting and Design: Undergraduate students (both male and female, total 150) of Midnapore Medical College. Materials and Methods: Beck Depression Inventory for depression and DS 14 for type D persona...

  16. Personality profiles of children and adolescents with neurofibromatosis type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinzie, P.; Descheemaeker, M.J.; Vogels, A.; Cleymans, T.; Haselager, G.J.T.; Curfs, L.M.G; Hellinckx, W.; Onghena, P.; Legius, E.; Lieshout, C.F.M. van; Fryns, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    The personality profile of 44 youngsters (24 males, 20 females; mean age 11 years, 3 months) with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) was compared with a group of 220 non-NF1 control youngsters (matched on age and gender). Personality characteristics of each youngster were rated by both parents, using th

  17. Personality Type and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Arul A. S.; Lawrence, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Personality is the man. The successful living of an individual, as a man, depends to a large extent on the academic achievement of that individual, as a student. This article attempts to find out personality type, academic achievement of secondary school students and relationship between them by selecting a sample of 300 secondary school students…

  18. The Association of Childhood Personality Type with Volunteering during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Robert; Hart, Daniel; Donnelly, Thomas M.

    2005-01-01

    Using a longitudinal design, we investigated the relation of childhood personality type to volunteering during adolescence. We hypothesized that participants with more adaptive personality functioning during childhood would be more likely to volunteer during adolescence and that membership in social organizations would mediate the relation of…

  19. Relationships between suicidal behavior and personality types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, S; Kromrey, J D

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the hypotheses that introversion in general and the introverted-intuitive-feeling-perceiving (INFP) type as measured by the Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator are related to suicidal ideation and behaviors. Analyses of data from 330 university students found four interactive suicidal behavior risk models: introverted-perceiving (IP) (females); introverted-sensing-feeling (ISF) (males); introverted-intuitive-perceiving (INP) (males); extraverted-intuitive-judging (ENJ) (males). Study findings were interpreted in terms of implications for risk assessment and intervention.

  20. Characteristics of Type D personality in Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon-Soo; Lim, Hong Euy; Ko, Young-Hoon; Han, Changsu; Kim, Yong-Ku; Yang, Jaewon; Kim, Jeong Jin; Lee, Jae Eun; Cha, Jae Yeon; Lee, Hongjae

    2012-12-01

    To examine the prevalence of the Type D construct using the Korean version of the Type D Personality-14 (DS14) on the Korean youth population and to identify relationships between the Type D construct and other mental health measures. Adolescent participants aged 13-18 years were recruited from 12 schools (7 middle schools and 5 high schools) in Ansan city, located in the southwest area of Gyeonggi-do province, Korea. A total of 4,899 students were assessed with the Korean version of the DS14, Beck depression inventory (BDI), Korean Eppendorf Schizophrenia Inventory (K-ESI), Adolescent Mental health Problem behavior Questionnaire (AMPQ), and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Korean version (AUDIT-K). We found significant differences in all the measured scales and subscale scores between two groups, those with Type D personality and those without (BDI: p Type D or non-Type D personality, a significantly higher proportion of high risk participants were in the Type D personality group according to all measures (BDI: p Type D adolescents experience various and more severe mental health problems. Type D personality was more related with internalizing symptoms in Korean adolescents. DS14 can be useful in a community mental health program designed for adolescents.

  1. Matching student personality types and learning preferences to teaching methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessee, Stephen A; O'Neill, Paula N; Dosch, Robert O

    2006-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify teaching styles that complement the learning preferences of undergraduate dental students while enhancing the quality of patient care. A formidable challenge to reform in dental education has been overcoming the resistance by faculty and administration to recommended changes. The organizational structure of dental institutions, with their independent departments, makes obtaining consensus on educational issues difficult. For beneficial change to occur, clear evidence of the benefits to all within the organization must be presented. The objectives of the study were to 1) identify the most common personality types among first- and second-year undergraduate dental students at the University of Texas Dental Branch at Houston using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI); 2) identify the learning preferences of these personality types; and 3) determine a more effective approach to teaching clinical dentistry based upon student personality types and learning preferences. Four common personality types were identified among respondents: ISTJ, ESFJ, ESTJ, and ISFJ, with a predisposition for Sensing (S) (desire for facts, use of senses) over Intuition (N) (look for possibilities, relationships) and Judging (J) (prefers decisiveness, closure) over Perceiving (P) (desire flexibility, spontaneity). The most common occurring personality type, ISTJ, represents an Introverted, Sensing, Thinking, Judging individual. Specific clinical curricular techniques that would appeal to these common personality types are identified, and an explanation of their benefit is provided. Results of this study demonstrate the importance of faculty understanding and acknowledging different student personality types and related learning preferences as a way to initiate improvement of undergraduate dental education, promote student motivation, and allow for an expression of learning style preference.

  2. Working Effectively with Different Personality Types: A Look at the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanagov, Diana

    2007-01-01

    In 1921, Carl Jung wrote about four different types of personality, identified 24 centuries ago by Hippocrates. He theorized that these differences were not abnormalities in personality. Instead, he maintained that human behavior is predictable and classifiable that everyone has and acts upon personal preferences, established in early childhood.…

  3. Personality Types and Language Learning in an EFL Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrell, Patricia L.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Studied the relationships between the personality types of a group of English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) students in Indonesia and various measures of their academic performance in a course with EFL language measures. Students were almost evenly divided between extroverts and introverts with a distribution of types similar to those of…

  4. Type D personality and health status in cardiovascular disease populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, Henneke; Spek, Viola; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2012-01-01

    in patient-reported physical and mental health status among cardiovascular patients. Methods: A computerized search of the literature through PUBMED and PsychINFO (from 1995 to May 2011) was performed and prospective studies were selected that analysed the association between Type D personality and health...... status in cardiovascular patients. Two separate meta-analyses were performed for the association of Type D personality with physical and mental health status, respectively. Results: Of all identified studies, ten studies met the selection criteria. The meta-analyses showed that Type D was associated......: Type D personality was shown to be an independent correlate of impaired patient-reported physical and mental health status in various cardiovascular patient groups. Clinicians should be aware of the association between chronic psychological distress and poor patient-reported outcomes....

  5. Genetic correlations among facets of type A behavior and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew M; Schermer, Julie Aitken; Vernon, Philip A; Jang, Kerry L

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the phenotypic, genetic, and environmental relationships between multiple dimensions of Type A behavior and personality. Adult twins (N=247 pairs) completed a self-report personality measure and a work style questionnaire that measured six facets of Type A behavior: impatience, anger, work involvement, time urgency, job dissatisfaction, and competitiveness. Univariate results suggest that only the job dissatisfaction facet of Type A behavior was explained by non-genetic (environmental) factors. Multivariate results suggest that all of the genetically determined facets of Type A behavior show some correspondence with at least one of the personality factors found in the study, suggesting that some of the phenotypic (observed) relationships could be due to common genetic factors.

  6. Mental Self-Exploration in Samuel Beckett’s Molloy: A Jungian Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jamalinesari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Samuel Beckett is categorized as an absurdist dramatist. Martin Esslin in his book The Theatre of Absurd, states that absurdist writers dealt with the theme of man’s sense of anguish and torture caused by living without any purpose. All characters of Beckett’s dramas are deformed just like Molloy who deteriorates as the novel comes to an end. Actually, Beckett’s characters are wanderers who try to establish a sense of meaning for their existence; they are in search of self. As his works represent, Beckett uses Jungian archetypes in order to show the aspect of self. This article tries to demonstrate the lack of identity in Molloy’s Characters in the light of Jungian archetypes throughout the story. Keywords: Molloy, Identity, Archetype, Jung, Self, Deterioration

  7. 'To Paint the Portrait of a Bird': analytic work from the perspective of a 'developmental' Jungian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Helen

    2012-02-01

    Jungians who are trained in the so-called 'Developmental School' straddle the two worlds of psychoanalysis and classical Jungian thinking. This is not always an easy position in which to be, but if the tensions can be held it is potentially a rich and creative way of working. In this paper I attempt to explore this position using the poem, 'To Paint the Portrait of a Bird' by Jacques Prévert as a metaphor for the analytic endeavour. From this perspective I hope to illustrate the importance of being able on the one hand to hold and maintain a clear frame for the careful and detailed exploration of the transference within which the more malign aspects of the psyche might be expressed, and, on the other, to allow the alchemical process of mutual transformation that lies outside the conscious understanding of the analytic couple.

  8. The Fall of Emily Grierson: A Jungian Analysis of A Rose for Emily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenghsun Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the tragic life of Faulkner’s Emily Grierson, a life dominated by patriarchy and traditional Southern social values, which concludes with her living as a lonely recluse in her family’s decaying aristocratic house for more than forty years until her death. The key of the tragedy is her father, who isolates Emily from the outside world and tortures her with traditional patriarchal rules and Southern family duty. Emily is expected to lead a life like other girls; however, under the burden of old-fashioned, patriarchal responsibilities, her inner world collapses. This study uses the Jungian concepts of archetypes, persona and shadow, anima and animus to interpret Emily’s transitions and her fall. By examining the process through the lens of Jungian theories, the aspects that affect her fall in the patriarchal, aristocratic society, as well as the inherited social values, can be revealed and specified

  9. Prediction of elders′ general health based on positive and negative perfectionism and type-D personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Karaminia

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Positive perfectionism decreases mental disorder of the elders by creating optimistic attitudes and enhancing social functions. On the other hand, type-D personality, unlike positive perfectionism, makes elders susceptible to physical illness and mental disorder.

  10. Type-D personality is a stable taxonomy in post-MI patients over an 18-month period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Elisabeth J; Kupper, Nina; Pedersen, Susanne S.;

    2007-01-01

    type-D personality comprises a risk factor for adverse prognosis in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, concerns that type-D personality may not be a stable personality taxonomy and that progression of CVD may contribute to the manifestation of type-D personality have been voiced....... The present study examined the stability of type-D personality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (MI) and evaluated the influence of demographic and clinical risk factors and mood status on the stability of type-D personality during the course of 18 months....

  11. Hostility, Type A Personality and Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Heidari Pahlavian

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: In modern medicine, researches in behavioural sciences have described link between psychosocial characteristic, specific personality traits, and development of coronary artery disease. The aim of present study was to investigate the relationship between " hostility" and "type A" personality with acute myocardial infarction. Materials & Methods: In this case-control study 102 patients suffering from acute myocardial infarction and 162 no patents individuals after matching by age, gender, education level, marital status and occupation were studied and compared with regard psychological conditions by type A Najarian questionnaire and SCL – 90 – R. Results: Our study found evidence in support of the hypothesis that hostility may predict heart disease more than type A personality.Conclusion: Our study has some practical meaning for prediction and prevention of CHD. This finding suggests that mental health providers should continue to look at the effectiveness of providing psychological intervention for those individuals with high hostility levels.

  12. Type testing of the Siemens Plessey electronic personal dosemeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirning, C.R. [Ontario Hydro, Health Physics Dept., Whitby, Ontario (Canada); Yuen, P.S

    1994-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory assessment of the performance of a new type of personal dosimeter, the Electronic Personal Dosemeter made by Siemens Plessey Controls Limited. Twenty pre-production dosimeters and a reader were purchased by Ontario Hydro for the assessment. Tests were performed on radiological performance, including reproducibility, accuracy, linearity, detection threshold, energy response, angular response, neutron response, and response time. There were also tests on the effects of a variety of environmental factors, such as temperature, humidity, pulsed magnetic and electric fields, low- and high-frequency electromagnetic fields, light exposure, drop impact, vibration, and splashing. Other characteristics that were tested were alarm volume, clip force, and battery life. The test results were compared with the relevant requirements of three standards: an Ontario Hydro standard for personal alarming dosimeters, an International Electrotechnical Commission draft standard for direct reading personal dose monitors, and an International Electrotechnical Commission standard for thermoluminescence dosimetry systems for personal monitoring. In general, the performance of the Electronic Personal Dosemeter was found to be quite acceptable: it met most of the relevant requirements of the three standards. However, the following deficiencies were found: slow response time; sensitivity to high-frequency electromagnetic fields; poor resistance to dropping and an alarm that was not loud enough. In addition, the response of the electronic personal dosimeter to low-energy beta rays may be too low for some applications. Problems were experienced with the reliability of operation of the pre-production dosimeters used in these tests. (author)

  13. Type testing of the Siemens Plessey electronic personal dosemeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirning, C R; Yuen, P S

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory assessment of the performance of a new type of personal dosimeter, the Electronic Personal Dosemeter made by Siemens Plessey Controls Limited. Twenty pre-production dosimeters and a reader were purchased by Ontario Hydro for the assessment. Tests were performed on radiological performance, including reproducibility, accuracy, linearity, detection threshold, energy response, angular response, neutron response, and response time. There were also tests on the effects of a variety of environmental factors, such as temperature, humidity, pulsed magnetic and electric fields, low- and high-frequency electromagnetic fields, light exposure, drop impact, vibration, and splashing. Other characteristics that were tested were alarm volume, clip force, and battery life. The test results were compared with the relevant requirements of three standards: an Ontario Hydro standard for personal alarming dosimeters, an International Electrotechnical Commission draft standard for direct reading personal dose monitors, and an International Electrotechnical Commission standard for thermoluminescence dosimetry systems for personal monitoring. In general, the performance of the Electronic Personal Dosemeter was found to be quite acceptable: it met most of the relevant requirements of the three standards. However, the following deficiencies were found: slow response time; sensitivity to high-frequency electromagnetic fields; poor resistance to dropping; and an alarm that was not loud enough. In addition, the response of the electronic personal dosimeter to low-energy beta rays may be too low for some applications. Problems were experienced with the reliability of operation of the pre-production dosimeters used in these tests.

  14. Type A and Type B personality among Undergraduate Medical Students: Need for psychosocial rehabilitation

    OpenAIRE

    Hisam, Aliya; Rahman, Mahmood Ur; Mashhadi, Syed Fawad; Raza, Ghulam

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To find out the frequency of Type A and Type B personality among the students of Undergraduate Medical College. To find association between student year and personality type. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted at Undergraduate Medical College, Rawalpindi from Sept. 2012 till Feb. 2013. Among 500 sample size, 100 students from each MBBS year were inducted by probability systematic sampling technique. After taking consent from the institute and students, data...

  15. Teaching Techniques, Types of Personality, and English Listening Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Ratminingsih

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Teaching Techniques, Types of Personality, and English Listening Skill. This study inves­tigated the effect of teaching techniques and types of personality on English listening skill. This experi­mental study involved 88 students under investigation, which were determined randomly through multi-stage random sampling technique. The results of the research indicate that there is an interaction effect between the teaching techniques and types of personality on the English listening skill; there is no significant difference in the listening skill between the group of students who learn using the game technique and those who learn using the song technique; the listening skill of students having extrovert personality is better than those having introvert personality; the listening skill of students having extrovert personality who learn using the game technique is lower than those who learn using the song technique; and the listen­ing skill of students having introvert personality who learn using the game technique is higher than those who learn using the song technique. Abstrak: Teknik Pembelajaran, Tipe Kepribadian, dan Keterampilan Mendengarkan Bahasa Inggris. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh teknik pembelajaran dan tipe kepribadian terhadap keterampilan mendengarkan bahasa Inggris. Penelitian ini melibatkan 88 orang siswa, yang ditentukan secara acak melalui multi stage random sampling technique. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh interaksi antara teknik pembelajaran dan tipe kepribadian terhadap keterampilan mendengarkan bahasa Inggris; tidak terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan pada keterampilan mendengarkan antara siswa yang belajar dengan teknik pembelajaran permainan dan lagu; keterampilan mendengarkan siswa yang berkepribadian ekstroversi lebih baik daripada yang berkepribadian introversi; keterampilan mendengarkan siswa yang berkepribadian ekstroversi, yang belajar dengan teknik pembelajaran

  16. The characteristics of medical students' personality types and interpersonal needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Yera; Cho, A-Ra; Kim, Sun

    2013-12-01

    Medical students' personality types and interpersonal needs must be considered. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of personality types and interpersonal needs. A total of 171 students in Konyang University College of Medicine were examined using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior (FIRO-B). The data were analyzed by frequency analysis, t-test, and one-sample proportion test. The proportion of the 4 pairs of MBTI dimensions were Extroversion (E)-Introversion (I) (53.2% vs. 46.8%), Sensing (S)-Intuition (N) (63.2% vs. 36.8%), Thinking (T)-Feeling (F) (59.7% vs. 40.4%), and Judging (J)-Perceiving (P) (56.1% vs. 43.9%). The predominant personality types were ISTJ (16.4%), ESTJ (14.0%), and ESFJ (10.5%). The level of interpersonal needs were medium rage that was inclusion (mean=8.1), control (mean=8.8), affection (mean=8.1), expressed behavior (mean=12.1), wanted behavior (mean=12.9), and overall interpersonal needs (mean=25.0). Of the basic social needs, males and females differed significantly with regard to control needs (p=0.028). Educational programs that take into account personality types and characteristics of interpersonal needs are crucial in providing effective medical education. Our results suggest that the characteristics of personality types and interpersonal needs should be considered in developing an interpersonal relations improvement program for medical students.

  17. Type D personality, cardiac events, and impaired quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Denollet, Johan

    2003-01-01

    Psychological distress has been associated with the pathogenesis and progression of coronary heart disease (CHD) but little is known about the determinants of distress as a coronary risk factor. Although it has become unfashionable to focus on personality factors since research on Type A behaviou...

  18. Preference for Instructional Methods and MBTI Personality Types in Nurses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Carol Fowler

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between personality type and preference for instructional methodologies (lecture, online and simulation). The sample consisted of 94 practicing gerontology nurses (RNs and LPNs) who attended a continuing education workshop on the care of the acutely ill elder at a public university in the…

  19. Personality Type and Learning Style: The Tie That Binds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threeton, Mark D.; Walter, Richard A.; Evanoski, Daniel C.

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to provide further insight into the individual education needs of learners within the trade and industry sector of Career and Technical Education (CTE), the authors (a) sought to identify the predominant personality type and learning style distribution of postsecondary automotive technology students, as well as (b) evaluate whether…

  20. Interactions between Personality Type and the Experimental Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Tisha L. N.; Taylor, Beck A.

    2007-01-01

    The authors bring together two research streams in the literature that examine separately the effectiveness of using experiments in the principles classroom and the relationship between different personality types and student achievement. Using a sample of 255 principles of microeconomics students, 48 of whom were enrolled in sections that relied…

  1. Relationships between Personality Type and Teaching Efficacy of Student Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, T. Grady; Mowen, Diana L.; Edgar, Don W.; Harlin, Julie F.; Briers, Gary E.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if relationships exist between teaching efficacy and personality type of student teachers. The population of interest was all agricultural science student teachers at Texas A&M University. The sampling frame included all student teachers during the spring and fall semesters of 2005 (n= 72). Teaching…

  2. Musical Distracters, Personality Type and Cognitive Performance in School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Stephenson, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the nature of the interaction between the affective value of musical distraction, personality type and performance on the cognitive tasks of reading comprehension, free recall, mental arithmetic and verbal reasoning in children aged 11-12 years. It was hypothesized that the cognitive performance of extraverts…

  3. Siblings' personality traits and types of sibling relationship in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kavčič

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution presents a follow-up study of sibling relationship and personality in 87 sibling dyads in early/middle childhood from parental perspective. At Time 1 all siblings attended pre-school and one year later approximately half of the older siblings entered compulsory school. At both times of measurement siblings' mothers and fathers independently reported on their children's personality characteristics using the Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003; Slovene adaptation, Zupančič & Kavčič, 2009 and on the observed sibling warmth, agonism, and rivalry using the Parental Expectations and Perceptions of Children's Sibling Relationships Questionnaire (Kramer, 2001. The predictive relationship obtained by two sets of cross-rater analyses (between maternal ratings of child personality and paternal reports on sibling relationship, and vice versa suggested that (a personality traits of both siblings and (b the match between siblings' personalities are associated with sibling type (affectionate, involved or average membership. Among personality traits, disagreeableness seems to be an especially significant contributor to sibling relationship quality.

  4. Personality profiles of children and adolescents with neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzie, P; Descheemaeker, M J; Vogels, A; Cleymans, T; Haselager, G J T; Curfs, L M G; Hellinckx, W; Onghena, P; Legius, E; van Lieshout, C F M; Fryns, J-P

    2003-04-01

    The personality profile of 44 youngsters (24 males, 20 females; mean age 11 years, 3 months) with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) was compared with a group of 220 non-NF1 control youngsters (matched on age and gender). Personality characteristics of each youngster were rated by both parents, using the California Child Q-set (CCQ); [Block and Block, 1980]. The scores on eight personality dimensions were compared, i.e., Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, Openness, Motor Activity, Irritability, and Dependency. Moreover, personality of NF1 youngsters was related to IQ level, severity of medical problems, the presence or absence of visible cosmetic disfiguring, and de novo versus familial origin of NF1. The personality profile of NF1 youngsters was markedly different from the non-NF1 youngsters. Compared to the 220 control children, they were equally agreeable, but less conscientious, less emotionally stable, less open for new experience, with less motor activity, and more extravert, more dependent, and more irritable. Personality characteristics were similar for children with maternally or paternally inherited NF1, or for children with a new mutation. There was no association with gender, the severity of medical and cosmetic problems, and IQ. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Personality types, aggression and antisocial behavior in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Consuelo Morán

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Junior Eysenck’s Personality Questionnaire (EPQ-J, the types of personality and its relationship with aggressiveness and the antisocial behavior is analyzed in a student’s sample (N = 1416 with ages between 11 y 15 years old (average age = 13,32; SD= 1,22. Cluster analysis using the reduced version (Bryant y Smith (2001 of the Aggression Questionnaire(AQ(Buss y Perry, 1992 revealed three personality types that were related to Eysenck’s hypothesis of antisocial behavior and the level of aggressiveness. The under controlled profile confirmed the Eysenck’s hypothesis of antisocial behavior in early adolescence, and was also found to be the most aggressive prototype. The under controlled and over controlled types were implicated in bullying, but in different ways. Furthermore, the resilient people were found to have an adaptive profile combined with the best academic achievement. Gender differences were also found in personality dimensions and aggression. The importance of aggression among young adolescents and the necessity of further research on this topic are emphasized.

  6. Reflections on the Jungian nature of psychology as the discipline of interiority: a response to Saban's 'Misunderstandings'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoedl, John

    2015-11-01

    Psychology as the discipline of interiority is the name of the psychology that has developed from Wolfgang Giegerich's work in the field of analytical psychology. This article offers a counterview to that of Mark Saban's claim that Giegerich's psychology is 'irrelevant' to Jungians today and is based on a fundamental misunderstanding of the nature of Jungian psychology. It will be shown that, in fact, it is a fundamental misunderstanding of Giegerich's work that has led Saban to form erroneous conclusions. Links between Jung's and Giegerich's conceptions of the 'objective psyche' will be highlighted, along with other examples of how, contrary to Saban's conclusions, psychology as the discipline of interiority has obvious connections to, and grounding in, Jungian psychology. © 2015, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  7. Type testing of the SDM2000 personal dosimeter

    CERN Document Server

    LiuZhengShan; Deng Chang Ming; Guo Zhan Jie; Zhang Zhi Yong

    2001-01-01

    The results of the performance of a new type of personal dosimeter, the SDM2000 Personal Dosimeter made by China Institute for Radiation Protection is presented. Tests were performed on radiological performance including radiation energy, incidence angular, beta radiation, neutron radiation, accuracy of alarm levels, relative intrinsic error, overload, response time, linearity, retention of reading. There are also tests on the effects of a variety of environmental factors, such as temperature, humidity, external magnetic fields, electrostatic discharge, external electromagnetic fields. Other characteristics tested were dropping test, vibration test and battery life. The test results were compared with the relevant requirements of three standards: CIRP standard: Q/DSC1-92, National standard: GB/T 13161-91, IEC standard: IEC1283. In general, the performance of the SDM2000 personal dosimeter was found to be quite acceptable; it meets most of the relevant requirements of the three standards

  8. Connla's well: An exploration of similar elements of ancient Celtic perspectives and David Bohm's theories in quantum physics from a Jungian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Duan

    This dissertation addresses the common elements between ancient Celtic mystical doctrines and philosophy and David Bohm's unique theories in quantum physics through a Jungian lens, using research based in dialogical hermeneutics. The premise of this dissertation is that psi, or the probability wave function of quantum physics, and its world of potentia are the same entities as Jung's objective psyche (or collective unconscious) and its domain, the unus mundus. In addition, the study explores the remarkable similarity between the ancient Celts' Otherworld, quantum physics' world of potentia, and Jung's unus mundus. These similarities argue for an in-depth Jungian analysis of this important but largely neglected mythology. The study explores the supposition, based partially on physicist David Bohm's theories of the implicate and explicate orders, that the above world of potentia intertwines with our three-dimensional world in a reciprocal creativity, designed to enhance both worlds. The study further advocates a greater emphasis on the creative arts therapies in the therapeutic situation, based on the above reciprocity. It is argued that this emphasis on creativity in the temenos may activate a profound "quantum leap" of insight in the analysand, most likely due to the reciprocity in which the objective psyche responds uniquely to the particular and individual creativity offered in order to heal the personal psyche. As we creatively access the objective psyche, that entity responds in kind, giving us new understanding and allowing us to change our attitudes and to further individuation, which in turn enhances the objective psyche. In addition, a psyche of reality is postulated in which Jung's concept of the objective psyche is expanded from the collective unconscious of humankind to a collective unconscious of All That Is, reflecting the findings in quantum physics that our universe is self-aware, organic, and holistic rather than mechanical and fragmented.

  9. The relationship between personality types and reward preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nienaber

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Research has shown that total rewards models structured according to individual preferences, positively influence efforts to attract, retain and motivate key employees. Yet, this is seldom done. Structuring total rewards models according to the preferences of employee segments is a viable alternative to accommodate individual preferences. Research purpose: The primary aim of the study was to determine the relationship between personality types and reward preferences. The secondary aim was to determine the reward preferences for different demographic groups. Motivation for the study: An enhanced understanding of reward preferences for different employee segments will enable employers to offer more competitive reward options to their employees. This may, in turn, have a positive impact on retention. Research design, approach and method: Two measuring instruments, the MBTI® Form GRV and the Rewards Preferences Questionnaire, were distributed electronically to 5 000 potential respondents. The results from 589 sets of questionnaires were used in the data analyses. Primary and secondary factor analyses were done on the items in the Rewards Preferences Questionnaire. Main findings/results: The study confirmed that individuals with certain personality types and personality preferences, have different preferences for certain reward categories. There was a stronger relationship between reward preferences and personality preferences than for reward preferences and personality types. Preferences for reward categories by different demographic groups were confirmed. The significant difference in reward preferences between Black and White respondents in particular was noteworthy, with Black respondents indicating significantly higher mean scores for all reward categories than White respondents. Finally, a total rewards framework influenced by the most prominent preferences for reward categories, was designed. Practical/Managerial implications

  10. Personality types and specialist choices in medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Syed Imran; Khan, Muhammad Abid; Walsh, Kieran M; Borleffs, Jan C C

    2013-01-01

    Research on the correlation between personality and students' specialty choice is helpful in their career counselling process and in predicting the future distribution of the specialties in a country. This study is the first of its kind in the Arab world. The research questions were: (1) What is the influence of gender on the personality profiles of medical students? (2) What are the personality profiles of students categorized according to their preferred specialist choices? (3) What are the preferred career choices of students categorized according to the stage of their medical education? A cross-sectional study was performed at King Khalid University Medical School including 590 students during the academic year 2010-2011. A long version of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman personality questionnaire measuring five personality factors was used. Students were also asked for their specialty interests. Students were asked by means of a written questionnaire. Study response was 92.5%. Surgery was the single most popular specialty amongst both male and female students. Males had significantly higher scores on the 'impulsive sensation seeking' scale and students preferring a surgery specialty had the highest score on the 'impulsive sensation seeking', 'neuroticism-anxiety', 'aggression-hostility' and 'sociability' scales. Hospital-based, surgical and primary care specialties became more popular as students progressed through their undergraduate years. Different personality types have distinct preferences in medical students' choice of careers. Personality and specialty choice research can enhance career counselling of medical students and fresh graduates. This also has implications for predicting the specialty distribution of the future health careers.

  11. Personality types of family practice residents as measured by the Myers-Briggs type indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, D L; Ebbert, P

    1985-01-01

    This study was initiated to test the hypothesis that individuals currently choosing family practice as a career are likely to have different personality types than those who previously pursued general practice. Incoming residents to the University of Utah Family Practice Residency Program were compared to a group of private primary care physicians serving rural areas. Personality types were determined by administering the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to both groups. Results showed that the current resident group differed significantly from the primary care physician group and that the residents' personality types were similar to personality types of faculty in other studies. This raises the concern that many family practice residents may not choose to practice in underserved areas. Further studies need to follow personality types through medical school and residency training and into practice to help determine which prospective physicians are likely to choose a primary care career and a rural practice. This information may be useful in health manpower planning and in examining admissions policies of medical schools and residencies.

  12. Personal Identification by Keystroke Dynamics in Japanese Free Text Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samura, Toshiharu; Nishimura, Haruhiko

    Biometrics is classified into verification and identification. Many researchers on the keystroke dynamics have treated the verification of a fixed short password which is used for the user login. In this research, we pay attention to the identification and investigate several characteristics of the keystroke dynamics in Japanese free text typing. We developed Web-based typing software in order to collect the keystroke data on the Local Area Network and performed experiments on a total of 112 subjects, from which three groups of typing level, the beginner's level and above, the normal level and above and the middle level and above were constructed. Based on the identification methods by the weighted Euclid distance and the neural network for the extracted feature indexes in Japanese texts, we evaluated identification performances for the three groups. As a result, high accuracy of personal identification was confirmed in both methods, in proportion to the typing level of the group.

  13. Type-D personality and body image in men: the role of exercise status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkoles, Erika; Polman, Remco; Levy, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The 'Distressed' or Type-D personality is described by the interaction between high levels of negative affectivity and social inhibition. This study investigated the prevalence of Type-D personality in men of different exercise status, the association between Type-D and body image perceptions, and the moderating effect of exercise status. Participants were 564 British males aged between 18 and 55 years. Of these 200 were classified as sedentary, 148 as active and 216 as weight trainers. Participants completed the DS14 and Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. Results showed that more individuals were classified as Type-D in the sedentary group (45%) than the two active groups, and in the weight training (24.5%) than the active (14.2%) group. Both Type-D and a sedentary lifestyle were associated with a significantly poorer body image. However, exercise mode was not associated with body image differences. Sedentary Type-D men scored significantly lower in Body Areas Satisfaction and higher in Self-Classified Weight than both active groups. Regular exercise might provide a pathway for Type-D men to develop a more positive body image.

  14. DOING BUSINESS IN ROMANIA - PART I: PERSPECTIVES ON THE TYPES OF DOING BUSINESS. TYPES OF INDIVIDUAL AND COMPANY ENTITIES WITHOUT LEGAL PERSONALITY. TYPES OF ENTITIES WITH LEGAL PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Diana APAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis in the present study integrates the types of trading entities in order to clearly determine them. A first reference theme when setting-up a business is that of the legal personality it would take. The new Civil Code, acting as common law in the field of trading entities, determines the realignment and balancing of the regulations on types of business. Company Law 31 of 1990 preserves the types of trading entities with legal personality regulated here: general partnership, limited partnership, limited partnership by shares, limited liability company, joint-stock company. The simple partnership which can gain legal personality is widely regulated, and for the partnership are mainly preserved the landmarks drawn by the Commercial Code of 1886 that is presently repealed. In conclusion, the present study analyses and answers the question – who are the legal trading entities and what are the regulated types of business.

  15. Pathological personality traits can capture DSM-IV personality disorder types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joshua D; Few, Lauren R; Lynam, Donald R; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) includes an alternative diagnostic approach to the assessment of personality disorders (PDs) in Section III with the aim of stimulating further research. Diagnosis of a PD using this approach is predicated on the presence of personality impairment and pathological personality traits. The types of traits present (e.g., callousness vs. emotional lability) are used to derive DSM-IV PD scores. Concerns have been raised, however, that such a trait-based approach will yield PD constructs that differ substantially from those generated using the approaches articulated in previous iterations of the DSM. We empirically examined this issue in a sample of 109 adults who were currently receiving mental health treatment. More specifically, we examined the correlations between interview-based PD scores derived from DSM-IV to DSM-5 PD trait counts, and tested them in relation to the 30 specific facets of the five-factor model, as well as internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Overall, the DSM-IV PD scores and DSM-5 PD trait counts correlated significantly with one another (Mr = .63), demonstrated similar patterns of interrelations among the PDs, and manifested highly similar patterns of correlations with general personality traits and symptoms of psychopathology. These results indicate that the DSM-5 PD trait counts specified in the alternative DSM-5 PD diagnostic approach capture the same constructs as those measured using the more traditional DSM-IV diagnostic system.

  16. Influences on my clinical practice and identity. Jungian analysis on the couch-what and where is the truth of it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Martin

    2014-11-01

    The author considers the various influences that have shaped his clinical practice and particular identity as a Jungian analyst. It is hoped that the sharing of these observations will, like a shard of a hologram, reflect aspects of the Jungian community as a whole. The author also attempts to put Jungian analysis 'on the couch' by looking at the current debate in the Journal between traditional and relational psychoanalysis. This is compared to the discourse that philosophy has been struggling with for centuries concerning the nature of truth. © 2014, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  17. Occurrence of Myocardial Ischemia in Patients Undergoing Pharmacologic Stress Echocardiography: The Impact of Type-D Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Borsoi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type-D personality has been identified as a risk factor for general and cardiac mortality in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. Dobutamine-atropine stress echocardiography (DASE is an established method for non-invasive evaluation of myocardial ischemia in patients with CAD. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of type-D personality and its association with the occurrence of myocardial ischemia as assessed by DASE. Methods: This case-control study enrolled 306 patients (61 ± 9.6 years, 57.8% female who were referred by physicians to assessment of myocardial ischemia. Before undergoing DASE, the patients answered the type-D scale, which identifies type-D personality. Results: Type-D personality was identified in 106 patients (34.6%. DASE was positive for myocardial ischemia in 32.4% (99 of 306 participants there was no significant association between type-D personality and ischemic changes on DASE (P = 0.941; odds ratio: 0.98; confidence interval 95%: 0.57-1.69. Chest pain was the only clinical variable with statistically significant prevalence in type-D personality patients (77.4% vs. 57.0%; P < 0.001. Conclusions: Type-D personality was not a significant risk factor for the presence of ischemic changes on DASE. Patients with type-D personality tended to complain more frequently of chest pain than non-type-D patients.

  18. Consumers in Slovenia: values, personality types and consumerist attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Kolar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our paper is to investigate the links between terminal and instrumental values, personality types, consumer attitudes and behavior that are relevant to marketing decision-making. The understanding of the personality and values of individual consumers should enable us to predict their preferences and behavior. Our set of consumer attitudes and behavior includes reported peer influence on shopping behavior, consumer ethnocentrism, value shopping and hedonism in shopping. Two multidimensional statistical approaches are considered: a cluster analysis of the individual’s personality and values and a factor analysis of consumer attitudes and behavior. An analysis of data from a representative sample of 1,094 Slovenian consumers (PGM, Valicon, 2007 reveals five clusters: conscientious-non-agreeable consumers differ in their consumer attitudes from extroversive consumers, neurotic-with-low-values, open-with-high-values and agreeable-conscious-non-open consumers. Implications for marketing decision-making and strategy development are considered, together with a possible extension of the study to multiple national groups of consumers from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE.

  19. Learning preference and personality type: their association in paediatric residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, L W; Goldberg, R M; Foley, R P

    1996-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between the learning preferences and personality types of residents in paediatrics. As part of a study to teach residents in paediatrics how to teach, the authors administered the Learning Preference Inventory (LPI) and Fundamental Interpersonal Relationship Orientation (FIRO-B) instruments to 55 residents in paediatrics at all three levels of training. The instruments provided data that were used to provide feedback to residents on their learning preferences and interaction styles, as well as how these factors might affect teaching and learning in the clinical setting. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine relationships between the LPI and the FIRO-B. Fifty-two of the 55 residents (95%) completed the instruments. The results revealed that residents' learning preferences were significantly related to their personality types. For example, residents with high inclusion and affection scores on the FIRO-B preferred learning with others, which was significantly related to their high interpersonal scores on the LPI. Residents with low inclusion and affection scores were more likely to prefer independent learning (high individual and student-structured scores on the LPI) and abstract learning at statistically significant levels. The scores obtained by residents in paediatrics on the LPI were strongly correlated with those obtained on the FIRO-B. These data may have important implications for the way in which staff recruit, counsel and teach residents. The fact that the LPI is easy to administer and does not purport to measure personality styles makes it an acceptable educational tool that can be used in many areas of training.

  20. ABO Blood Type and Personality Traits in Healthy Japanese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchimine, Shoko; Saruwatari, Junji; Kaneda, Ayako; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2015-01-01

    There is no scientific consensus that a relationship exists between the ABO blood group and personality traits. However, a recent study hypothesized that the dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene is in linkage with the ABO gene. The sample population consisted of 1,427 healthy Japanese subjects who completed the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Each subject's ABO blood type was determined by genotyping the rs8176719 and rs8176746 ABO gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using a TaqMan genotyping assay. The relationships between the six ABO genotypes or four ABO phenotypes and personality traits were examined using a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), controlling for age and sex. The MANCOVA data showed a significant difference in TCI scores among the ABO genotype groups (F [7, 1393] = 3.354, p = 0.001). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference in the mean scores for Persistence among the genotype groups (F = 2.680, partial η2 = 0.010, p = 0.020). Similarly, dividing the ABO blood type into four phenotypes revealed a significant difference among the phenotype groups (F [7, 1397] = 2.529, p = 0.014). A subsequent univariate analysis showed a significant difference among the phenotype groups in the mean scores for Persistence (F = 2.952, partial η2= 0.006, p = 0.032). We observed a significant association between ABO blood group genotypes and personality traits in a large number of healthy Japanese subjects. However, these results should be regarded as preliminary and should be interpreted with caution because it is possible that the association between ABO blood group genotype and the Persistence trait is relatively weak.

  1. Type D personality, suboptimal health behaviors and emotional distress in adults with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nefs, Giesje; Speight, Jane; Pouwer, F

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Type D personality - defined as high negative affectivity (NA) and high social inhibition (SI) - has been associated with adverse cardiovascular prognosis. We explored the differential associations of Type D personality and its constituent components with health behaviors, emotional distres...

  2. Prediction of elders′ general health based on positive and negative perfectionism and type-D personality

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background : Multiple factors such as retirement, work disability, social rejection, physical illness and etc., have an impact on general health of the elders. One factor among others is the role of psychological variables. The study is intended to assess the effect of positive and negative perfectionism and type-D personality (distressed) on general health of the elders. Methods : In this descriptive-correlation study, 80 people (47 male and 33 female) were selected from residents of Nur...

  3. Developing Educational Computer Animation Based on Human Personality Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid Musa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Computer animation in the past decade has become one of the most noticeable features of technology-based learning environments. By its definition, it refers to simulated motion pictures showing movement of drawn objects, and is often defined as the art in movement. Its educational application known as educational computer animation is considered to be one of the most elegant ways for preparing materials for teaching, and its importance in assisting learners to process, understand and remember information efficiently has vastly grown since the advent of powerful graphics-oriented computers era. Based on theories and facts of psychology, colour science, computer animation, geometric modelling and technical aesthetics, this study intends to establish an inter-disciplinary area of research towards a greater educational effectiveness. With today’s high educational demands as well as the lack of time provided for certain courses, classical educational methods have shown deficiencies in keeping up with the drastic changes observed in the digital era. Generally speaking, without taking into account various significant factors as, for instance, gender, age, level of interest and memory level, educational animations may turn out to be insufficient for learners or fail to meet their needs. Though, we have noticed that the applications of animation for education have been given only inadequate attention, and students’ personality types of temperaments (sanguine, choleric, melancholic, phlegmatic, etc. have never been taken into account. We suggest there is an interesting relationship here, and propose essential factors in creating educational animations based on students’ personality types. Particularly, we study how information in computer animation may be presented in a more preferable way based on font types and their families, colours and colour schemes, emphasizing texts, shapes of characters designed by planar quadratic Bernstein-Bézier curves

  4. The relation between type D personality and the clinical condition of patients suffering from psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Basińska, Małgorzata A.; Woźniewicz, Agnieszka

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Type D personality is the last distinguished specific type of personality that is characterised by two dimensions: a tendency for feeling negative emotions – depression, anxiety, anger or hostility, and a tendency for withdrawal from the society. The latest research shows the significant role played by type D personality in the aetiology and course of a variety of diseases. Aim The article discusses the problem of the occurrence of type D personality in the group of patients suff...

  5. Inverted Pendulum-type Personal Mobility Considering Human Vibration Sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misaki Masuda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An inverted pendulum-type PM (personal mobility has been attracting attention as a low-carbon vehicle. For many people who like to use the PM, ride comfort is important. However, ride comfort of PM has not been focused on in previous studies. The vibration is one of causes that make riders feel uncomfortable. The PM is unstable system and horizontal vibration may be caused by a stabilizing control. Additionally, vertical vibration may also be caused by road disturbances. This study analyzes the vibration of the rider’s head in these two directions when the PM runs on a road with disturbances in numerical simulations, and evaluates ride comfort with the frequency characteristics of the vibration. To consider human vibration sensitivity, the frequency weighting proposed in ISO 2631-1 is used as an evaluation standard. The improvement methods are proposed from both software and hardware, and it is confirmed that the proposed method can improve ride comfort.

  6. The internal career of the type A personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Rosslee

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The principal aim of the study was to examine the relationship between the Type A personality, optimal experience (Flow and career success orientation. Three questionnaires measuring the above-mentioned constructs were administered to 200 managers from a variety of South African organisations representing all organisational functions, genders and cultural groups. Using Flow and Type A as input variables, the sample was divided into four homogeneous clusters with the aid of a clustering technique. By means of a factor analysis, four career success orientations were identified and four scales were constructed accordingly. The four clusters were compared with one another in terms of career success orientation. From the analysis it transpired that Type As did not experience their work in an optimal way. However, in terms of career success orientation, type As obtained the highest mean Opsomming Die hoofdoel van die studie was om die verband te bepaal tussen Tipe A persoonlikheid, optimale belewenis van werk (Vioei en loopbaansuksesorientasie. Die drie vraelyste wat die bovermelde konstrukte meet, is afgeneem op 200 bestuurders uit 'n verskeidenheid Suid Afrikaanse organisasies verteenwoordigend van alle organisatoriese funksies. geslagte en kultuurgroepe. Met Vloei en Tipe A persoonlikheid as insetveranderlikes is die steekproef in vier homogene bondels verdeel aan die hand van 'n bondelingstegniek. Met behulp van n faktoranalise is vier loopbaansuksesoriëntasies geïdentifiseer en is vier skale dienooreenkomstig gekonstrueer. Die vier bondels is met mekaar vergelyk in terme van loopbaansuksesoriëntasies. Daar is met behulp van die analise bevind dat Tipe A's hulle werk nie optimaal beleef nie, maar wat loopbaansuksesoriëntasie betref, het hulle die hoogste gemiddelde tellings behaal.

  7. The relationship between burnout symptoms and Type D personality among health care professionals in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekin, Atilla; Karadağ, Hekim; Yayla, Sinan

    2016-04-27

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between burnout and Type D personality in health care professionals. The study randomly included 120 health care professionals (73 nurses, 47 doctors). Sociodemographic data form, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and Type D Personality Scale were applied to each participant; 38.3% of the health care professionals (n = 46) had the Type D personality. Emotional exhaustion and depersonalization of health care professionals with Type D personality were higher than of those without Type D personality (p = .006 and p = .005). Stepwise regression analysis indicated that Type D personality was a predictor of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization (p = .005 and p = .001, respectively). Our results suggest that Type D personality is associated with higher burnout levels.

  8. The association of type D personality with quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubayova, Tatiana; Nagyova, Iveta; Havlikova, Eva; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Middel, Berrie; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Personality traits appear as determinants of quality of life (QoL) in most chronic diseases. Type D personality is characterized by ineffective coping strategies that reduce QoL in patients with coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether Type D personality also

  9. Personality Types of Hong Kong Kindergarten Teachers: Implications for Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yau-ho Paul; Li-fang, Zhang

    2013-01-01

    While an individual's personality is related to his or her well-being, little research has examined kindergarten teachers' personality. This research was the first to investigate Hong Kong kindergarten teachers' personality types using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Three hundred and seventy-one kindergarten teachers voluntarily responded…

  10. The association of type D personality with quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubayova, Tatiana; Nagyova, Iveta; Havlikova, Eva; Rosenberger, Jaroslav; Gdovinova, Zuzana; Middel, Berrie; van Dijk, Jitse P.; Groothoff, Johan W.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Personality traits appear as determinants of quality of life (QoL) in most chronic diseases. Type D personality is characterized by ineffective coping strategies that reduce QoL in patients with coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether Type D personality also

  11. Type D personality, depressive symptoms and work-related health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Denollet, Johan; Martens, Elisabeth J

    2012-02-01

    Personality may play a decisive role in perceiving work-related characteristics as stressful, leading to adverse health outcomes. Persons with a Distressed personality (Type D) experience increased negative emotions while inhibiting these emotions in social situations. We investigated the role of Type D personality on adverse health outcomes, sick leave, burnout and disability pension. The mediating role of depressive symptoms on this relation was assessed because Type D represents a vulnerability factor for depression. In a cross-sectional community sample of the Dutch population (n = 1,172) Type D personality was related to sick-leave (five categories of days per year), burnout, and disability pension, controlling for confounders. Individuals with Type D personality reported more burnout (27% vs 8%), disability pension (32% vs 11%), and had an increased incidence of short-term sick leave (χ(2 )= 13.1, p = 0.011) as compared to non-Type D's. Type D was significantly related to burnout (odds ratio (OR) = 4.16) and disability pension (OR = 2.62) independent of confounders. The Sobel test indicated significant mediation of depression on the relation between Type D personality and the work-related health outcomes. After mediation Type D personality remained significantly related to burnout, indicating a unique unshared effect. Type D personality is related to adverse health outcomes in the working population, mediated by depression, which warrants further research for this personality type.

  12. Type D (distressed) personality in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nefs, Giesje; Pouwer, Francois; Pop, Victor J M

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In cardiovascular research, Type D personality (high negative affectivity and social inhibition) has been associated with a more than 3-fold increased risk of adverse health outcomes. This study examined the validity and clinical correlates of the Type D construct as assessed by the Type...... D Scale-14 (DS14) in type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS: 1553 primary care patients with type 2 diabetes were assessed for demographic, clinical, lifestyle and psychological characteristics in 2007. A subgroup (n=1012) completed the DS14 again 1 year later. RESULTS: The two-factor model of the Type D.......84), corrected item-total correlations (NA 0.47-0.77, SI 0.34-0.72) and mean inter-item correlations (NA=0.50/0.51, SI=0.42). One year test-retest reliability using intraclass correlation coefficients was 0.64/0.63 for NA and 0.73/0.65 for SI. Type D and non-Type D patients did not differ in vascular history...

  13. An empirical study on measuring the impact of personality type on employee capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sha’bani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Personality is a stable set of characteristics and tendencies, which specifies similarities, and differences of people' psychological behavior. Personality is normally a permanent behavior through time and may not be comprehended easily or recognized as immediate or direct situations due to some environmental and social stresses. In this paper, we study the relationship between employees' personality and ability types. The paper identifies that there are some relationships between employees' personality type and their ability. There is also a relationship between introvert, extrovert, sensitive, emotive, thoughtful, considerate and judging personality type and employees' ability.

  14. Type D personality is associated with maladaptive health-related behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Julie; Williams, Lynn

    2012-05-01

    Type D personality (the combination of negative affect and social inhibition) is associated with poor prognosis in cardiac patients. The current study aims to investigate the relationship between Type D and health-related behaviours. In a cross-sectional study, 200 healthy participants completed measures of Type D personality, and health-related behaviours. The results showed that Type D individuals engaged in more unhealthy behaviours including smoking, poor diet and lack of physical activity than non-Type D individuals. The association between Type D personality and maladaptive health behaviours may represent one mechanism to explain the link between Type D and ill-health.

  15. Assessment of the type D personality construct in the Korean population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Hong Euy; Lee, Moon-Soo; Ko, Young-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    for identifying Type D personality. The general population and cardiovascular patients with Type D personality showed higher rate of depression, anxiety and psychological distress regarding their health. Therefore, identifying Type D personality is important in clinical research and practice in chronic medical......This study aimed to develop a Korean version of the Type D Personality Scale-14 (DS14) and evaluate the psychiatric symptomatology of Korean cardiac patients with Type D personality. Healthy control (n = 954), patients with a coronary heart disease (n = 111) and patients with hypertension...... (GHQ). The Korean DS14 was internally consistent and stable over time. 27% of the subjects were classified as Type D. Type D individuals had significantly higher mean scores on the STAI-S, CESD, and GHQ compared to non-Type D subjects in each group. The Korean DS14 was a valid and reliable tool...

  16. Learning Styles, Personality Types and Reading Comprehension Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Nabiollah; Kasim, Zalina Mohd; Tan, Bee Hoon; Abdullah, Faiz Sathi

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at reviewing the relationship between learning styles, personality and reading comprehension performance. In the last two decades, ample studies have been done to examine the relationship between learning styles, learner's personality and performance in academic settings. The reviewed studies substantiate that there is a…

  17. Childhood Personality Types: Vulnerability and Adaptation over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Barbara; Rettew, David; Althoff, Robert R.; De Bolle, Marleen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Substantial evidence suggests that a Five-Factor Model personality assessment generates a valid description of childhood individual differences and relates to a range of psychological outcomes. Less is known, however, about naturally occurring profiles of personality and their links to psychopathology. The current study explores…

  18. Gender Differences in Holland Vocational Personality Types: Implications for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sherri L.; Conkel, Julia L.; Starkey, Michael; Landgraf, Rachel; Lapan, Richard T.; Siewert, Jason J.; Reich, Allison; Trotter, Michelle J.; Neumaier, Eric R.; Huang, Ju-Ping

    2008-01-01

    The study in this article examined gender and ethnic differences in the development of Holland (1997) personality types among inner-city adolescents. Results showed gender but not ethnic differences in vocational personality types and their predictors, and suggest different pathways to the development of these types for boys and girls. Suggestions…

  19. Exploring the Image Types of Secondary School Students' Perception about the Talented Person in Convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun-Ki; Chung, Duk Ho

    2014-05-01

    This study aims to identify the image types of secondary school students' perception about the talented person in convergence and to find the differences in drawing images of the talented person in convergence among the students who have taken STEAM class and the ones who haven't. One hundred and eighty seven students in middle and high schools located in the southern part of South Korea participated in this study and they were asked to draw a picture of the talented person in convergence with a brief explanation. Based on students' pictures, researchers categorized their perception about convergence and talented person in convergence by using an inductive method. The result indicated that secondary school students' perceptions were categorized into convergence as individual cognitive processing and collective cognitive processing and convergence as outcomes. The image of the convergence in a talented person leaning toward individual cognitive processing was divided into the following seven types: idea banker type, various talented celebrity type, multi-tasking master type, multi-talented career type, active problem-solver type, creative developer type, and unrealistic ideal man type. Another image of collective cognitive processing was split into expert group type and interactive-mates group type. The other image was transformer type which is the subcategory of convergence as outcomes. From this study, it can be suggested that secondary school students express the various images of the talented person in convergence depending on experiencing STEAM or not. Keywords: talented person in convergence, secondary school students, STEAM, image types

  20. Negative affectivity and social inhibition in cardiovascular disease: evaluating type-D personality and its assessment using item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, Wilco H.M.; Meijer, Rob R.; Denollet, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Individuals with increased levels of both negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI)—referred to as type-D personality—are at increased risk of adverse cardiac events. We used item response theory (IRT) to evaluate NA, SI, and type-D personality as measured by the DS14. The obje

  1. Personality types and nicotine Dependency among medical sciences students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    H. Bakshi; A. Khodadadizadeh

    2014-01-01

    ... inclined towards smoking and related diseases. Thus, to test this hypothesis, we have studied possible correlations between psychological personality and tobacco-dependency among university students in the central part of Iran...

  2. Stability and Change in Personality Type Membership and Anxiety in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, Joyce; Hale, William W., III; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2007-01-01

    Although the stability and changeability of personality has long been debated, many studies now agree that personality changes over the life course. Although the changes in rank-order and mean-level stability are well established, the stability in personality type membership during adolescence is not yet clear. Little research has been conducted…

  3. On early starters and late bloomers: the development of sexual behavior in adolescence across personality types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baams, L.; Overbeek, G.; Dubas, J.S.; van Aken, M.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between personality and sexual development among mid-adolescents. In the current study, we used a person-centered approach to investigate the relation between personality types and the development of sexual behavior. We hypothesized that undercontrolling adoles

  4. On early starters and late bloomers : The development of sexual behavior in adolescence across personality types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; Van Aken, Marcel A G

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between personality and sexual development among mid-adolescents. In the current study, we used a person-centered approach to investigate the relation between personality types and the development of sexual behavior. We hypothesized that undercontrolling adoles

  5. Early Environmental Conditions Shape Personality Types in a Jumping Spider

    OpenAIRE

    Liedtke, Jannis; Redekop, Daniel; Jutta M Schneider; Schuett, Wiebke

    2015-01-01

    Individuals of many species across the animal kingdom are found to be less plastic than expected, even in behavioral traits. The existence of consistent behavioral differences between individuals, termed “personality differences”, is puzzling, since plastic behavior is considered ideal to enable animals to adaptively respond to changes in environmental conditions. In order to elucidate which mechanisms are important for the evolution of personality differences, it is crucial to understand whi...

  6. Competition and Personality in a Restaurant Entry Game: Is there an Entrepreneurial Personality Type?

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstrom, Ted C; Sonstelie, Jon C; Parendo, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Students in a large principles class participated in a market experiment in which they had opportunities to take entrepreneurial action. These students had also taken the Meyers-Briggs personality test. We explore the relation between personality characteristics and participation decisions.

  7. Are there differential relationships between different types of childhood maltreatment and different types of adult personality pathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa Janet; Tanis, Thachell; Bhattacharjee, Reetuparna; Nesci, Christina; Halmi, Winter; Galynker, Igor

    2014-01-30

    While considerable data support the relationship between childhood trauma and adult personality pathology in general, there is little research investigating the specific relationships between different types of childhood maltreatment and adult personality disorders. The present study tested a model incorporating five a priori hypotheses regarding the association between distinct forms of childhood maltreatment and personality pathology in 231 psychiatric patients using multiple self-report measures (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4th Edition, Child Trauma Questionnaire, Conflict in Tactics Scale Parent-Child Child-Adult, and Multidimensional Neglectful Behavior Scale). Step-wise linear regressions supported three out of five hypotheses, suggesting independent relationships between: physical abuse and antisocial personality disorder traits; emotional abuse and Cluster C personality disorder traits; and maternal neglect and Cluster A personality disorder traits after controlling for co-occurring maltreatment types and personality disorder traits. Results did not support an independent relationship between sexual abuse and borderline personality traits nor between emotional abuse and narcissistic personality disorder traits. Additionally, there were three unexpected findings: physical abuse was independently and positively associated with narcissistic and paranoid traits and negatively associated with Cluster C traits. These findings can help refine our understanding of adult personality pathology and support the future development of clinical tools for survivors of childhood maltreatment. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  8. Innovate for Built-In Relevancy in Personal Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delman, Douglas J.

    1974-01-01

    More typing related activities should be used by the classroom teacher. These include such varied activities as typing applicant blanks, proofreading, typing reports, and the purchase and servicing of typewriters. (BP)

  9. Validating the Type D personality construct in Chinese patients with coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Doris S F; Thompson, David R; Yu, Cheuk Man

    2010-01-01

    Type D personality predicts poor prognosis in coronary heart disease (CHD) but little is known about Type D in non-Western cultures. We examined the (a) validity of the Type D construct and its assessment with the DS14 scale in the Chinese culture, (b) prevalence of Type D, and (c) gender vs. Type...

  10. THE APPLICATION OF GRAPHOLOGY AND ENNEAGRAM TECHNIQUES IN DETERMINING PERSONALITY TYPE BASED ON HANDWRITING FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Pratiwi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted with the aim of developing previous studies that have successfully applied the science of graphology to analyze digital handwriting and characteristics of his personality through shape based feature extraction, which in the present study will be applied one method of psychological tests commonly used by psychologists to recognize human’s personality that is Enneagram. The Enneagram method in principle will classify the personality traits of a person into nine types through a series of questions, which then calculated the amount of the overall weight of the answer. Thickness is what will provide direction personality type, which will then be matched with the personality type of the result of the graphology analysis of the handwriting. Personality type of handwritten analysis results is processed based on the personality traits that are the result of the identification of a combination of four dominant form of handwriting through the software output of previous studies, that Slant (tilt writing, Size (font size, Baseline, and Breaks (respite each word. From the results of this research can be found there is a correlation between personality analysis based on the psychology science to the graphology science, which results matching personality types by 81.6% of 49  respondents data who successfully tested.

  11. Effect (Comparison between Elderly Person and Youth) of the Break in the Touch Typing Learning Comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Yamaguchi Yumi

    2016-01-01

    The technical education using the information appliance of the old worker is required. However, an elderly person is negative about the utilization of the information appliance. I experimented on, this study about an appropriate break to suppress fatigue of the elderly person, and to learn a touch typing technology effectively and made it clear. The experiment performed two kinds of touch typing learning by the Computer Based Training software. I performed an experiment of elderly person and ...

  12. Learning and personality types are related in cavies (Cavia aperea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Anja; Brust, Vera; Dersen, Mona; Trillmich, Fritz

    2014-02-01

    The evolution and maintenance of consistent individual differences, so called animal personalities, have attracted much research interest over the past decades. Variation along common personality traits, such as boldness or exploration, is often associated with risk-reward trade-offs. Individuals that are bolder and hence take more risks may be more successful in acquiring resources over the short term. Cautious individuals taking fewer risks may, on the other hand, live longer, but may also gather fewer resources over the short term. According to recent theory, individual differences in personality may be functionally related to individual differences in cognitive performance (i.e., the way in which individuals acquire or use information). Individual differences in the acquisition speed of cognitively challenging tasks are often associated with a speed-accuracy trade-off. Accuracy can be improved by investing more time in the decision-making process or, conversely, decisions can be made more quickly at the cost of making more mistakes. Hence, the speed-accuracy trade-off often involves a risk-reward trade-off. We tested whether 3 personality traits, boldness, activity, and aggressiveness, are correlated with individual learning, associative learning speed, and behavioral flexibility as assessed by reversal learning in wild cavies (Cavia aperea). We found strong positive relationships between all personality traits and learning speed, whereas flexibility was negatively associated with aggressiveness. Our results support the hypothesis that performance reflects individual differences in personality in a predictable way. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Early environmental conditions shape personality types in a jumping spider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannis eLiedtke

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals of many species across the animal kingdom are found to be less plastic than expected, even in behavioral traits. The existence of consistent behavioral differences between individuals, termed personality differences, is puzzling, since plastic behavior is considered ideal to enable animals to adaptively respond to changes in environmental conditions. In order to elucidate which mechanisms are important for the evolution of personality differences, it is crucial to understand which aspects of the environment are important for the development of personality differences. Here, we tested whether physical or social aspects of the environment during development influence individual differentiation (mean level of behavior using the jumping spider Marpissa muscosa. Furthermore, we assessed whether those behaviors were repeatable, i.e. whether personalities existed. We applied a split-brood design and raised spider siblings in three different environments: a deprived environment with no enrichment, a socially and a physically enriched environment. We focused on exploratory behavior and repeatedly assessed individual behavior in a novel environment and a novel object test. Results show that the environment during development influenced spiders’ exploratory tendencies: spiders raised in enriched environments tended to be more exploratory. Most investigated behaviors were repeatable (i.e. personalities existed across all individuals tested, whereas only few behaviors were also repeatable across individuals that had experienced the same environmental condition. Taken together, our results indicate that external stimuli can influence the development of one aspect of personality, the inter-individual variation (mean level of behavior, in a jumping spider. We also found family by environment interactions on behavioral traits potentially suggesting genetic variation in developmental plasticity.

  14. The Relationship between Subjective Well-Being and Vocational Personality Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Elizabeth W.; Fouad, Nadya A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between subjective well-being (SWB) and Holland's Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional (RIASEC) model. It was hypothesized that individuals resembling Social and Enterprising vocational personality types would report higher SWB than those resembling other personality types.…

  15. The distressed (Type D) personality. A risk marker for poor health outcomes in ICD patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Schiffer, A A

    2011-01-01

    The distressed (Type D) personality is an emerging risk marker for poor health outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. Patients with this personality disposition are typified by a general propensity to experience psychological distress. The contribution focuses on the impact of Type D p...

  16. Type D personality and the development of PTSD symptoms: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Arthur R; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Vermetten, Eric; Geuze, Elbert

    2011-05-01

    Psychological trauma and prolonged stress may cause mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Pretrauma personality is an important determinant of posttraumatic adjustment. Specifically, trait neuroticism has been identified as a risk factor for PTSD. Additionally, the combination of high negative affectivity or neuroticism with marked social inhibition or introversion, also called Type D personality (Denollet, 2000), may compose a risk factor for PTSD. There is no research available that examined pretrauma Type D personality in relation to PTSD. The present study examined the predictive validity of the Type D personality construct in a sample of Dutch soldiers. Data were collected prior to and 6 months after military deployment to Afghanistan. Separate multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the predictive validity of Type D personality. First, Type D personality was defined as the interaction between negative affect and social inhibition (Na × Si). In a second analysis, Type D was defined following cutoff criteria recommended by Denollet (2000). Results showed that negative affectivity was a significant predictor of PTSD symptoms. Social inhibition and the interaction Na × Si did not add to the amount of explained variance in postdeployment PTSD scores over the effects of childhood abuse, negative affectivity, and prior psychological symptoms. A second analysis showed that Type D personality (dichotomous) did not add to the amount of explained variance in postdeployment PTSD scores over the effects of childhood abuse, and prior psychological symptoms. Therefore, Type D personality appears to be of limited value to explain development of combat-related PTSD symptoms.

  17. The Relationship between Subjective Well-Being and Vocational Personality Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Elizabeth W.; Fouad, Nadya A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between subjective well-being (SWB) and Holland's Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional (RIASEC) model. It was hypothesized that individuals resembling Social and Enterprising vocational personality types would report higher SWB than those resembling other personality types.…

  18. Type D personality : Application of DS14 French version in general and clinical populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Batselé, Elise; Denollet, J.; Lussier, Axele; Loas, Gwenolé; Vanden Eynde, Sophie; Van de Borne, Philippe; Fantini-Hauwel, Carole

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the French-language version of the Type D personality scale-14 among general and clinical populations (acute coronary syndrome and breast cancer patients). The two-factor structure of the Type D personality scale-14 was confirmed by factorial and confirmatory an

  19. Personality Characteristics of South Korean Students with Visual Impairments Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Sunhi

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study presented here was designed to determine whether there were significant differences in the frequency and preference scores of personality functions and the frequency of personality types, as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), by gender, school level, and level of visual function, of students with visual…

  20. Predicting criminals' personality characteristics by using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI in committing type of crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Mohebbi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding criminals' personality characteristics could engender appropriate solutions for preventing crimes and treating criminals and the aim of the current work is to predict criminals' (robbers, swindlers and smugglers personality characteristics by using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI in committing type of crime. The research falls under the applied category in terms of goal while in terms of nature it is among surveydescriptive researches. The sample under investigation includes 480 people who were selected by way of classified random sampling method in a systematic form from among the population of criminals in the Central Prison, province of Kermanshah. The tool used in this paper is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI (short form of 71 questions. The results obtained from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI indicated that prevalence of anti-social personalitycharacteristics and mental weakness among robbers; depression, anti-social personality and schizophrenia among swindlers as well as anti-social traits, mental weakness and schizophrenia among smugglers are seen significantly. Also, the results of the variance analysis demonstrated that there is a significant difference between the (MMPI clinical scales among three groups of criminals (robbers, swindlers and smugglers on D scales (depression, Pd (Psychopathy deviation, Pt (Anxiety and psychosis, Sc (Schizophrenia and Ma (Hypomania (p<%5. Research findings revealed that criminals enjoy lower level of normal and positive personality dimensions. To sum up, we can infer that all personality characteristics exist in the population of criminals and therapy experts need to pay attention to all sorts of personalities for treating criminals affected with personality disorder.

  1. Personality types and specialist choices in medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehmood, Syed Imran; Khan, Muhammad Abid; Walsh, Kieran M.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research on the correlation between personality and students' specialty choice is helpful in their career counselling process and in predicting the future distribution of the specialties in a country. Aims: This study is the first of its kind in the Arab world. The research questions

  2. A Comparison of Personality Types Among Female Student Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezler, Agnes G.; Buckley, Joanne Marengo

    1977-01-01

    Personality traits of women students in medicine, pharmacy, medical technology, physical therapy, dietetics, and occupational therapy were examined. Medical students were found to be guided more by thinking than feelings; pharmacy students prefer well-planned, routine work; occupational therapy students, changing situations and flexibility.…

  3. Personality types and specialist choices in medical students

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehmood, Syed Imran; Khan, Muhammad Abid; Walsh, Kieran M.; Borleffs, Jan C. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research on the correlation between personality and students' specialty choice is helpful in their career counselling process and in predicting the future distribution of the specialties in a country. Aims: This study is the first of its kind in the Arab world. The research questions wer

  4. Listeners' Response to Music as a Function of Personality Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Barbara E.; Schmidt, Charles P.

    1991-01-01

    Presents findings of research concerning the relationship between listener response to music and personality variables. Reports that correlations were found among undergraduate music appreciation students between the Music Listener Response Scale and sensing intuition for the entire group and between judgment perception and the scale among…

  5. An exploration of links between early parenting experiences and personality disorder type and disordered personality functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G; Roy, K; Wilhelm, K; Mitchell, P; Austin, M P; Hadzi-Pavlovic, D

    1999-01-01

    Reports of early parenting were assessed using two measures, the Parental Bonding Index (PBI) and the Measure of Parenting Style (MOPS), in a sample of 265 patients with DSM-defined major depressive disorder. Psychiatrists then rated the extent to which sample members evidenced the personality "styles" underpinning 15 separate personality disorders, returning personality vignette scores. The extent of disordered functioning was also assessed across "parameters" and "domains" by psychiatrists, referrers, and family members, using a range of measures. Those with higher scores on vignettes measuring borderline, anxious, depressive, and self-defeating personality style rated parents as uncaring, overcontrolling, and abusive. When vignettes were consolidated into scores akin to the DSM clusters, the most consistent links between perceived dysfunctional parenting were with the Cluster C (anxious), and Cluster B (dramatic) styles and were nonsignificant for Cluster A (eccentric) style. Meeting criteria for an increasing number of personality disorder clusters was associated with increasing levels of adverse parenting. Multiple regression analyses indicated that disordered functioning (as assessed by the three independent rater groups) was most distinctly associated with paternal indifference and maternal overcontrol.

  6. Type A Behavior/Stress and the Person-Environment Fit Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slem, Charles M.

    Although the Type A behavior pattern has been linked to serious health disorders, recent evidence suggests that the Type A style only produces negative health consequences when its fit with the environment is poor. A study was undertaken to determine whether there was a difference between Type A and Type B persons in general lifestyle pace…

  7. What makes men and women identify with Judith? A Jungian mythological perspective on the feminist value of Judith today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Efthimiadis-Keith

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by her student’s overwhelmingly positive interpretation of Judith as a model for women’s liberation in diverse African contexts – despite the debate around the feminist value of Judith-Judith – the author deals with what could possibly allow men and women, particularly the latter, to interpret Judith positively today. Given her interest in Jungian individuation theory and Ancient Near Eastern (ANE mythology, the author investigates the subject matter by exploring Judith’s relation to male and female individuation patterns, the myths of the hero’s quest and Demeter-Kore, and ANE warrior-goddess myths.

  8. Personality correlates of type 1 diabetes in a national representative sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Čukić

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We examined cross-sectional relationships between personality traits and type 1 diabetes. The sample (n=8490 was taken from the 1982-84 wave of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiological Follow-up Study. We fit three logistic regression models to test whether neuroticism, extraversion, openness, or the Type A behavior pattern were associated with type 1 diabetes. Model 1 included sex, age, race/ethnicity and all four personality traits. Model 2 added depressive symptoms. Model 3 added body mass index, hypertension, and cigarette smoking status. Results regarding personality traits were consistent across all three models: higher neuroticism was associated with 39% higher chance of having type 1 diabetes per standard deviation increase and openness was associated with 26% decrease in that chance per standard deviation increase. Extraversion, and Type A personality were not associated with type 1 diabetes in our models.

  9. A Galois-Connection between Myers-Briggs' Type Indicators and Szondi's Personality Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We propose a computable Galois-connection between Myers-Briggs' Type Indicators (MBTIs), the most widely-used personality measure for non-psychiatric populations (based on C.G. Jung's personality types), and Szondi's personality profiles (SPPs), a less well-known but, as we show, finer personality measure for psychiatric as well as non-psychiatric populations (conceived as a unification of the depth psychology of S. Freud, C.G. Jung, and A. Adler). The practical significance of our result is ...

  10. The Role of Personality Type on Minority Attrition at the US Naval Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-06-01

    MBTI ISTP ISTJ ISFP ISFJ INTP INTJ INFP INFJ ESTP ESTJ ESFP ESFJ ENTP ENTJ ENFP ENFJ C ou nt 400 300 200 100 0 33 Table 12: Minority Attrition...16 personality types, were predictive of attrition/persistence (see Table 13). Two personality types ENFP and INFP , were significantly more likely to...attrite. Specifically, ENFP had an attrition rate of 31.7%, in comparison with all those of other types (18.1%). Similarly, INFP had an attrition

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Myers-Briggs Personality Types in Air Traffic Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    designed to look at the role of personality types as defined by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator ( MBTI ). The instrument assesses personality on four...investigated the relationship between MBTI types and initial success in the Air Traffic Control Academy Screen Program, subsequent field training...outcomes, and transition to a supervisory or managerial position about 20 years later. METHOD. The 300-item MBTI was administered to 5,588 males (87

  12. The Connection between Personality Type and Achievement in College Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharp, Gerald D.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses a study where the Myers Briggs Type Indicator was given to 146 students in a general biology course at a large state university. Results indicate that the introverts were the highest achievers and the perceiving types were the lowest achievers. (PR)

  13. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TYPE D PERSONALITY AND ANHEDONIA: A DIMENSIONAL STUDY OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lussier, Axelle; Loas, Gwenolé

    2015-06-01

    Type D personality-characterized by negative affectivity and social inhibition-and anhedonia have independently been found to be significantly associated with depression or suicidal ideation in the general population or in psychiatric subjects. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between Type D personality and anhedonia in a population of 204 university students (102 men, 102 women) after controlling for depression as a confounding variable. Type D personality was evaluated using the Type D scale, anhedonia with the Snaith-Hamilton Pleasure Scale, and depression with the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Significant correlations were found between social inhibition and anhedonia before and after adjustment for depression. In women, a Sobel test indicated significant mediation by social inhibition of the relationship between anhedonia and depression. Results suggested that the social inhibition component of Type D personality could constitute a poor prognosis factor.

  14. Is type-D personality trait(s or state? An examination of type-D temporal stability in older Israeli adults in the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada H. Zohar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Type D personality was suggested as a marker of poorer prognosis for patients of cardiovascular disease. It is defined by having a score of 10 or more on both sub-scales of the DS14 questionnaire, Social Inhibition (SI and Negative Affectivity (NA. As Type D was designed to predict risk, its temporal stability is of prime importance. Methods. Participants in the current study were 285 community volunteers, who completed the DS14, and other personality scales, at a mean interval of six years. Results. The prevalence of Type D did not change. The component traits of Type D showed rank order stability. Type D caseness temporal stability was improved by using the sub-scales product as a criterion. Logistic hierarchical regression predicting Type D classification from Time1 demonstrated that the best predictors were Time1 scores on NA and SI, with the character trait of Cooperation, and the alexithymia score adding some predictive power. Conclusions. The temporal stability of the component traits, and of the prevalence of Type D were excellent. Temporal stability of Type D caseness may be improved by using a product threshold, rather than the current rule. Research is required in order to formulate the optimal timing for Type D measurement for predictive purposes.

  15. The association between type D personality, and depression and anxiety ten years after PCI

    OpenAIRE

    AL-Qezweny, M.N.A.; Utens, E.M.W.J.; Dulfer, K.; Hazemeijer, B.A.F.; van Geuns, R-J.; Daemen, J.; van Domburg, R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective There are indications that type D personality and depression are associated in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, at present it is unclear whether this relationship holds in the long term. This study’s aim was to investigate the association between type D personality at 6 months post-PCI (baseline), and depression at 10-year follow-up. A secondary aim was to test the association between type D personality at baseline and anxiety at 10-year follo...

  16. Assessment of Personality Types and Locus of Control in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Mazaheri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune disease with unknown cause. MS is one of the disabling neurologic diseases in adult especially young range that myelin part of central nervous system (CNS is destructed. The aim of this study was assessment of types A and B personality and internal and external locus of control in multiple sclerosis (MS patients and comparison of the results with control group.Materials & Methods: In a case-control study, 30 patients with MS and 30 normal persons as control group evaluated with neurological examination, Rotter locus of control test and Friedman-Rosenman questionnaire for detection of types A and B personality. We employed to analyze the results.Results: 43 percent and 57 percent of MS patients had internal and external locus of control respectively. 63 percent and 37 percent of MS patients had type A and B personality respectively. 60 percent and 40 percent of control group had internal and external locus of control respectively. 20 percent and 80 percent of control group had type A and B personality respectively. Difference between personality type in two groups was significant (P<0.01.Conclusions: In this study, MS patients had more type A personality in comparison to control group.

  17. Perfectionism, Type D personality, and illness-related coping styles in cardiac rehabilitation patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasegaram, Shamila; Flett, Gordon L; Madan, Mina; Oh, Paul; Marzolini, Susan; Reitav, Jaan; Hewitt, Paul L; Sturman, Edward D

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the associations among trait perfectionism, perfectionistic self-presentation, Type D personality, and illness-specific coping styles in 100 cardiac rehabilitation patients. Participants completed the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, the Perfectionistic Self-Presentation Scale, the Type D Scale-14, and the Coping with Health Injuries and Problems Scale. Correlational analyses established that emotional preoccupation coping was associated with trait perfectionism, perfectionistic self-presentation, and Type D personality. Perfectionism was linked with both facets of the Type D construct (negative emotionality and social inhibition). Our results suggest that perfectionistic Type D patients have maladaptive coping with potential negative implications for their cardiac rehabilitation outcomes.

  18. The Relationship between Personality Type and Acceptable Noise Levels: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Cliff; Johnson, Laura V; White, Letitia; Franklin, Clay; Smith-Olinde, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the relationship between acceptable noise level (ANL) and personality. ANL is the difference between a person's most comfortable level for speech and the loudest level of background noise they are willing to accept while listening to speech. Design. Forty young adults with normal hearing participated. ANLs were measured and two personality tests (Big Five Inventory, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) were administered. Results. The analysis revealed a correlation between ANL and the openness and conscientious personality dimensions from the Big Five Inventory; no correlation emerged between ANL and the Myers-Briggs personality types. Conclusions. Lower ANLs are correlated with full-time hearing aid use and the openness personality dimension; higher ANLs are correlated with part-time or hearing aid nonuse and the conscientious personality dimension. Current data suggest that those more open to new experiences may accept more noise and possibly be good hearing aid candidates, while those more conscientious may accept less noise and reject hearing aids, based on their unwillingness to accept background noise. Knowing something about a person's personality type may help audiologists determine if their patients will likely be good candidates for hearing aids.

  19. THE ASSIGNMENT OF SUBJECTS TO DISEASE PRONE PERSONALITY-TYPES - A COMMENT ON SCHMITZ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RANCHOR, AV; SANDERMAN, R; BOUMA, J

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the assignment procedure is discussed which has been used in the study of Schmitz (1992; Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 683-691) investigating the relation between the personality types of Grossarth Maticek and Eysenck and various physical complaints. One of the fundamenta

  20. Physical and Psychological Health in Persons with Deafblindness that Is due to Usher Syndrome Type II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Moa; Moller, Claes; Moller, Kerstin; Danermark, Berth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The objectives of the study reported here were to describe the physical and psychological health of persons with Usher syndrome Type II (USH2) and to explore any differences in terms of gender. Methods: The participants were recruited from the Swedish Usher database. In the first step, 122 persons received the questionnaire by mail,…

  1. Opposition from Christians to Myers-Briggs Personality Typing: An Analysis and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, John B.

    2007-01-01

    Myers-Briggs personality typing is widely used in the Christian church as an aid to individual self-understanding and spiritual formation. However, some Christian leaders have expressed doubt about its validity in understanding human personality and also opposition to its use in nurturing spiritual growth. The aim of the work reported was to…

  2. Dreams In Jungian Psychology: The use of Dreams as an Instrument For Research, Diagnosis and Treatment of Social Phobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodarahimi, Siamak

    2009-01-01

    Background: The significance of dreams has been explained in psychoanalysis, depth psychology and gestalt therapy. There are many guidelines in analytic psychology for dream interpretation and integration in clinical practice. The present study, based on the Jungian analytic model, incorporated dreams as an instrument for assessment of aetiology, the psychotherapy process and the outcome of treatment for social phobia within a clinical case study. Method: This case study describes the use of dream analysis in treating a female youth with social phobia. Results: The present findings supported the three stage paradigm efficiency in the Jungian model for dream working within a clinical setting, i.e. written details, reassembly with amplification and assimilation. It was indicated that childhood and infantile traumatic events, psychosexual development malfunctions, and inefficient coping skills for solving current life events were expressed in the patient’s dreams. Conclusion: Dreams can reflect a patient’s aetiology, needs, illness prognosis and psychotherapy outcome. Dreams are an instrument for the diagnosis, research and treatment of mental disturbances in a clinical setting. PMID:22135511

  3. Dreams In Jungian Psychology: The use of Dreams as an Instrument For Research, Diagnosis and Treatment of Social Phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodarahimi, Siamak

    2009-10-01

    The significance of dreams has been explained in psychoanalysis, depth psychology and gestalt therapy. There are many guidelines in analytic psychology for dream interpretation and integration in clinical practice. The present study, based on the Jungian analytic model, incorporated dreams as an instrument for assessment of aetiology, the psychotherapy process and the outcome of treatment for social phobia within a clinical case study. This case study describes the use of dream analysis in treating a female youth with social phobia. The present findings supported the three stage paradigm efficiency in the Jungian model for dream working within a clinical setting, i.e. written details, reassembly with amplification and assimilation. It was indicated that childhood and infantile traumatic events, psychosexual development malfunctions, and inefficient coping skills for solving current life events were expressed in the patient's dreams. Dreams can reflect a patient's aetiology, needs, illness prognosis and psychotherapy outcome. Dreams are an instrument for the diagnosis, research and treatment of mental disturbances in a clinical setting.

  4. The Study of Personality Types Influence on the Susceptibility to Rumors Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergeev Anatoliy Anatolyevich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Rumors are now considered to be not only the natural communicative phenomenon, but also the effective means of informative and psychological impact. The effectiveness of psychological impact through rumors is determined by the proximity of incoming information to the structure of psychological spatial values of a person. The susceptibility is understood as a trend of convergence of the psychological space of a person and incoming information. It depends on many factors, including the dominant personality type. In our survey, the type of a person means a set of sustainable human personal manifestations (Myers – Briggs typology. The cognitive, emotional and behavioral components of impact can be distinguished on the assumption of personality traits. The survey found that most recipients of extraverted type are susceptible to the effects of cognitive and behavioral components of hearing while people of introverted type are susceptible to the influence through emotional component; recipients of dominant sensory type are susceptible to the effects of cognitive and emotional components of hearing while people of intuitive type are susceptible to the effects of cognitive and behavioral components; recipients of feeling type are susceptible to the influence of the emotional component of spreadable rumors.

  5. Cross-cultural analysis of Type D (distressed) personality in 6222 patients with ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupper, Nina; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Höfer, Stefan;

    2013-01-01

    Type D (distressed) personality, the conjoint effect of negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI), predicts adverse cardiovascular outcomes, and is assessed with the 14-item Type D Scale (DS14). However, potential cross-cultural differences in Type D have not been examined yet...

  6. User Interface Design, Standards & Guidelines for Web Applications Based on Human Personality Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasthuri Subaramaniam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the standards and guidelines of user interface features in web-based applications for the different personality types of people. An overview of human computer interaction and human  personality types is described. LEONARD, Let’s Explore our personality type based on Openness (O, Neutral (N, Analytical (A, Relational (R and Decisive (D is the model used to determine the different personality types for this study. The purpose is to define user personality profiles and to establish guidelines for the graphical user interface. The personality inventory and a user interface questionnaire were administered to university students. Interview sessions were also conducted and parts of the interviews with the university students were used to validate the results obtained from the questionnaires. The analysis of the students' personality types identified five main groups. The results suggest that users do have definable expectations concerning the features of web applications. This profile served as basis for the guidelines of web features for the graphical user interface design for the particular user groups.

  7. Are we witnessing the decline effect in the Type D personality literature? What can be learned?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coyne, James C.; de Voogd, Jacob N.

    2012-01-01

    After an unbroken series of positive, but underpowered studies seemed to demonstrate Type D personality predicting mortality in cardiovascular disease patients, initial claims now appear at least exaggerated and probably false. Larger studies with consistently null findings are accumulating.

  8. 259 “Team Pair Solo” Cooperative Learning and Personality Type ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    learning strategy and students' personality type on achievement and attitude to Chemistry. 175 SS2 .... business and political groups (Jung, 1971). Introversion is the focus on the ..... WETA's Educational website, or WETA, Washington D.C..

  9. Differences in social relations between persons with type 2 diabetes and the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempler, Nana Folmann; Ekholm, Ola; Willaing, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Poor social support and lack of social network are well-established risk factors for morbidity and mortality in general populations. Good social relations, such as social support and network contacts, are associated with better self-management and fewer psychosocial problems in persons...... with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three settings: a specialist diabetes clinic (SDC) (n = 1084), a web panel (WP) consisting...... of persons with type 2 diabetes (n = 1491) and a sample from the 2010 Danish Health and Morbidity Survey, representative of the general population (n = 15,165). We compared social relations using multivariate logistic regression. Results: Compared to the general population, persons with type 2 diabetes more...

  10. Physician personality types in physical medicine and rehabilitation as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, J A; Shade-Zeldow, Y

    1994-01-01

    Personality is one variable that correlates with specialty selection and practice type. To test our hypothesis that there has been a change in the personality type of those entering Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation (PM&R) and to identify the academic potential of those in rehabilitation, we invited all residents and graduates of our training program to participate in a study of personality types within PM&R by completing a Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Thirty residents and 48 graduates completed the questionnaire. A wide range of personality types were represented in our sample. The most common types are shared by a number of other people-oriented, primary care specialties. There was a statistically significant difference between residents and graduates on two of the four MBTI indexes, with graduates more introverted (P < 0.05) and judging (P < 0.001) than the present residents. Intuition, previously correlated with research and academic practice, was the dominant process for the majority of graduates and residents. This would confirm, according to type theory, the academic potential of both graduates and residents in our training program.

  11. Personality Type and Success in an Online Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellish, Linda L.

    2012-01-01

    Online learning continues to be a growing frontier in higher education with increased demand and enrollments reported annually (Allen & Seaman, 2010, 2011). Discovering best practices and methods of instruction as well as assisting students in determining their highest possible level of success in this type of learning environment has been the…

  12. Can Personality-Type Instruments Profile Majors in Management Programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Fred A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Results of completion of 4 instruments (Myers-Briggs Type Inventory, Strong Interest Inventory, Hermann Brain Dominance Inventory, and Learning Styles Inventory) by 75 accounting, business administration, and public administration graduate students suggest that the Hermann (and to some extent the Strong) inventory has potential value for…

  13. Marriage Counseling Using Differing Personality Types as a Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Joseph; Bernhardt, Greg

    Carl Jung's theory of type states that much seemingly chance variation in human behavior results, not from chance, but from basic differences in human functioning. This theory is divided into two major components: fundamental human attitudes (extroversion, introversion) and basic mental processes (sensation, intuition, thinking, feeling).…

  14. Sex-typed personality traits and gender identity as predictors of young adults' career interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinella, Lisa M; Fulcher, Megan; Weisgram, Erica S

    2014-04-01

    Gender segregation of careers is still prominent in the U.S. workforce. The current study was designed to investigate the role of sex-typed personality traits and gender identity in predicting emerging adults' interests in sex-typed careers. Participants included 586 university students (185 males, 401 females). Participants reported their sex-typed personality traits (masculine and feminine traits), gender identities (gender typicality, contentment, felt pressure to conform, and intergroup bias), and interests in sex-typed careers. Results indicated both sex-typed personality traits and gender identity were important predictors of young adults' career interests, but in varying degrees and differentially for men and women. Men's sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality were predictive of their masculine career interests even more so when the interaction of their masculine traits and gender typicality were considered. When gender typicality and sex-typed personality traits were considered simultaneously, gender typicality was negatively related to men's feminine career interests and gender typicality was the only significant predictor of men's feminine career interests. For women, sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality were predictive of their sex-typed career interests. The level of pressure they felt to conform to their gender also positively predicted interest in feminine careers. The interaction of sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality did not predict women's career interests more than when these variables were considered as main effects. Results of the multidimensional assessment of gender identity confirmed that various dimensions of gender identity played different roles in predicting career interests and gender typicality was the strongest predictor of career interests.

  15. Association between Cognitive Distortion, Type D Personality, Family Environment, and Depression in Chinese Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Zhang; Hengfen Li; Shaohong Zou

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Depression prevalence and risk increase among adolescents are related to biological, psychosocial, and cultural factors. Little is known about the association between cognitive distortion, type D personality, family environment, and depression. The aim of this paper was to examine the relationships of cognitive distortion, type D personality, family environment, and depression in a sample of Chinese adolescents. Methods. A sample of Chinese adolescents with depression and the con...

  16. Type D personality mediates the relationship between remembered parenting and perceived health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Broek, Krista C; Smolderen, Kim G; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2014-01-01

    Type D personality (a joint tendency to experience negative emotions and inhibit self-expression) has been associated with adverse outcomes across cardiovascular diseases, but little is known about its association with remembered parenting.......Type D personality (a joint tendency to experience negative emotions and inhibit self-expression) has been associated with adverse outcomes across cardiovascular diseases, but little is known about its association with remembered parenting....

  17. Type D personality and hemodynamic reactivity to laboratory stress in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Siobhán; Hughes, Brian M; James, Jack E

    2011-05-01

    The Type D personality (identified by high levels of both negative affectivity and social inhibition) has been associated with negative health consequences in cardiac patients. However, few studies have explored whether the Type D personality is associated with particular patterns of cardiovascular responses to stress. In the present study, cardiovascular reactivity to psychological stress (CVR) was examined as a possible mediating mechanism by which Type D personality may affect cardiovascular health, with specific focus on hemodynamic profile. Eighty-nine female university students completed a mental arithmetic stressor while undergoing hemodynamic monitoring. Blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance in response to the stressor were examined. Type D personality was assessed using the 16-item Type D scale. Results indicated that there were no between-group differences in magnitude of blood pressure increase, with both Type D and non-Type D individuals demonstrating myocardial response profiles. However, Type D individuals were less "myocardial" than non-Type D individuals. This indicates that a weak myocardial response to an active stressor in Type D individuals may be indicative of hemodynamic maladaptation to stress, implicating CVR as a possible mechanism involved in Type D-cardiovascular health associations.

  18. A critical assessment of two types of personal UV dosimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckmeyer, Gunther; Klingebiel, Marcus; Riechelmann, Stefan; Lohse, Insa; McKenzie, Richard L; Liley, J Ben; Allen, Martin W; Siani, Anna-Maria; Casale, Giuseppe R

    2012-01-01

    Doses of erythemally weighted irradiances derived from polysulphone (PS) and electronic ultraviolet (EUV) dosimeters have been compared with measurements obtained using a reference spectroradiometer. PS dosimeters showed mean absolute deviations of 26% with a maximum deviation of 44%, the calibrated EUV dosimeters showed mean absolute deviations of 15% (maximum 33%) around noon during several test days in the northern hemisphere autumn. In the case of EUV dosimeters, measurements with various cut-off filters showed that part of the deviation from the CIE erythema action spectrum was due to a small, but significant sensitivity to visible radiation that varies between devices and which may be avoided by careful preselection. Usually the method of calibrating UV sensors by direct comparison to a reference instrument leads to reliable results. However, in some circumstances the quality of measurements made with simple sensors may be over-estimated. In the extreme case, a simple pyranometer can be used as a UV instrument, providing acceptable results for cloudless skies, but very poor results under cloudy conditions. It is concluded that while UV dosimeters are useful for their design purpose, namely to estimate personal UV exposures, they should not be regarded as an inexpensive replacement for meteorological grade instruments. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2011 The American Society of Photobiology.

  19. Effect (Comparison between Elderly Person and Youth of the Break in the Touch Typing Learning Comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi Yumi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The technical education using the information appliance of the old worker is required. However, an elderly person is negative about the utilization of the information appliance. I experimented on, this study about an appropriate break to suppress fatigue of the elderly person, and to learn a touch typing technology effectively and made it clear. The experiment performed two kinds of touch typing learning by the Computer Based Training software. I performed an experiment of elderly person and “Consecutive learning short break models” “Massed practice long break models” which changed the interval of learning and the break by the touch typing software for youths. I performed a questionnaire to a subject to collect the subjective data of fatigue and the learning burden at the same time. As a result, I knew the thing that “the elderly person controlled fatigue by a learning method to put a break in diligently for a short time in this experiment, and could learn a touch typing skill” “having a long it than a youth as for the time to be concerned with the touch typing of the elderly person.” that “the elderly person can learn a touch typing skill early by enjoying CBT learning.”

  20. Burnout Syndrome Among Health Care Students: The Role of Type D Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodova, Zuzana; Lajciakova, Petra; Banovcinova, Lubica

    2016-07-18

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Type D personality, along with other personality traits (resilience and sense of coherence), on burnout syndrome and its counterpart, engagement, among students of nursing, midwifery, and psychology. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 97 university students (91.9% females; M age = 20.2 ± 1.49 years). A Type D personality subscale, School Burnout Inventory, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Sense of Coherence Questionnaire, and Baruth Protective Factor Inventory were used. Linear regression models, Student's t test, and Pearson's correlation analysis were employed. Negative affectivity, a dimension of Type D personality, was a significant personality predictor for burnout syndrome (β = .54; 95% CI = [0.33, 1.01]). The only significant personality predictor of engagement was a sense of coherence. Students who were identified as having Type D personality characteristics scored significantly higher on the burnout syndrome questionnaire (t = -2.58, p burnout. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. On early starters and late bloomers: the development of sexual behavior in adolescence across personality types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between personality and sexual development among mid-adolescents. In the current study, we used a person-centered approach to investigate the relation between personality types and the development of sexual behavior. We hypothesized that undercontrolling adolescents would engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior compared to their resilient and overcontrolling peers. Data were used from 407 mid-adolescents (Mage = 14.5) followed across four measurement waves spanning 18 months. Results from latent class analyses (LCA) identified the three classical personality types: resilients, undercontrollers, and overcontrollers. Controlling for perceived pubertal timing and biological sex, latent growth curve analyses in Mplus showed that, at baseline, undercontrollers were more sexually experienced and engaged in more casual and risky sexual behavior than resilients and overcontrollers. Although initial levels of sexual behavior differed by personality types, over time increases in sexual behavior occurred at a similar rate across the types. Overall, the current study showed that undercontrolling adolescents are early sexual developers who engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior than other adolescents. The implications of these findings for longer-term differences in sexual behavior between personality types in later adolescence are discussed.

  2. The unfolding and healing of analytic boundary violations: personal, clinical and cultural considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Jungian analysts are not exempt from an unconscious engagement in a group complex. The author hypothesizes that there is a silent, dark legacy of belief in the superiority of men's judgment and the inferiority of women's, left by Jung, that has had a wounding impact on some Jungian analysands. Conscious and public mourning may be needed to heal our cultural complex. The author, a woman, traces the origins of her own patriarchal complexes and reveals how in her first analysis these mingled with the patriarchal complex shared by Jungian institute, her two male analysts and their former analyst, a pillar of the institute's community. Her first analyst aborted her analysis to begin a personal partnership with her. Her second analyst unconsciously colluded with the first analyst in not exploring this outcome as a violation. This resulted in a second compromised treatment. The senior analyst who had been these two analysts' own analyst was consulted, and he too failed to address the transgression. After experiencing severe symptomatology, the patient entered a third analysis with a woman where transference and regression were the focus. Eventually, meaning was found in the confrontations with the particular Jungian organization and its ethics committee, who acknowledged the first analyst's behaviour to be unethical. The author sees this process as a paradigm for the enactment and healing of a group complex.

  3. Predictive Validity of Personality Types versus Personality Dimensions from Early Childhood to Adulthood: Implications for the Distinction between Core and Surface Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asendorpf, Jens B.; Denissen, Jaap J. A.

    2006-01-01

    This study compared the long-term predictive validity of person-centered personality types and variable-centered personality dimensions assessed between ages 4-6 years in a population sample of 154 children. Results indicated that the predictive power of both approaches was remarkably robust between age 17 and 22, and even increased in the case of…

  4. Type D personality, self-efficacy, and medication adherence following an acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Gerard J; Randall, Gemma; Wikman, Anna; Perkins-Porras, Linda; Messerli-Bürgy, Nadine; Steptoe, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    To assess the relationship among Type D personality, self-efficacy, and medication adherence in patients with coronary heart disease. The study design was prospective and observational. Type D personality, self-efficacy for illness management behaviors, and medication adherence were measured 3 weeks after hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome in 165 patients (mean [standard deviation] age = 61.62 [10.61] years, 16% women). Self-reported medication adherence was measured 6 months later in 118 of these patients. Multiple linear regression and mediation analyses were used to address the study research questions. Using the original categorical classification, 30% of patients with acute coronary syndrome were classified as having Type D personality. Categorically defined patients with Type D personality had significantly poorer medication adherence at 6 months (r = -0.29, p social inhibition (r = -0.19, p = .04), the components of Type D personality, were associated with medication adherence 6 months after discharge in bivariate analyses. There was no evidence for the interaction of NA and social inhibition, that is, Type D personality, in the prediction of medication adherence 6 months after discharge in multivariate analysis. The observed association between NA and medication adherence 6 months after discharge could be partly explained by indirect effects through self-efficacy in mediation analysis (coefficient = -0.012; 95% bias-corrected and accelerated confidence interval = -0.036 to -0.001). The present data suggest the primacy of NA over the Type D personality construct in predicting medication adherence. Lower levels of self-efficacy may be a mediator between higher levels of NA and poor adherence to medication in patients with coronary heart disease.

  5. Evidence for a cognitive bias of interpretation toward threat in individuals with a Type D personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grynberg, Delphine; Gidron, Yori; Denollet, J.; Luminet, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Biological and behavioral mediators link Type D personality with a poor prognosis in heart disease. However, the mediator role of cognitive biases is still unknown. This study tested whether Type D individuals exhibit an interpretative bias for ambiguous social situations. For this aim we examined

  6. Personality Types and Learners' Interaction in Web-Based Threaded Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JeongMin; Lee, Youngmin

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effects of group composition based on the learners' personality types as measured by the Myers-Briggs type indicator as they interacted in threaded discussions. Three groups comprised introverts, extroverts, and mixed introvert-extrovert classifications. Ninety-six participants were divided into 24 groups of 4 participants…

  7. An Examination of Preferences for Social Presence in Online Courses with Regard to Personality Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Daniel Merritt

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the connections between personality types as illustrated by the Myers Briggs Type Indicator and the desire for social presence components within a technology based learning environment. Participants in the study were undergraduate and graduate students enrolled in an educational technology program at a…

  8. Is type D personality here to stay? Emerging evidence across cardiovascular disease patient groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.S. Pedersen (Susanne); J. Denollet (Johan)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe distressed personality (Type D) is an emerging risk factor in cardiovascular disease (CVD) that incurs a risk on par with left ventricular dysfunction in patients with ischemic heart disease. Type D is defined as the co-occurring tendencies to experience increased negative emotions a

  9. Evidence for a cognitive bias of interpretation toward threat in individuals with a Type D personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grynberg, Delphine; Gidron, Yori; Denollet, J.; Luminet, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Biological and behavioral mediators link Type D personality with a poor prognosis in heart disease. However, the mediator role of cognitive biases is still unknown. This study tested whether Type D individuals exhibit an interpretative bias for ambiguous social situations. For this aim we examined T

  10. Developmental Personality Types from Childhood to Adolescence: Associations with Parenting and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Amaranta D.; Dekovic, Maja; van den Akker, Alithe L.; Stoltz, Sabine E. M. J.; Prinzie, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether changes in children's self-reported Big Five dimensions are represented by (developmental) personality types, using a cohort-sequential design with three measurement occasions across 5 years (four cohorts, 9-12 years at T1; N = 523). Correlates of, and gender differences in, type membership were examined. Latent…

  11. Developmental Personality Types from Childhood to Adolescence: Associations with Parenting and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Amaranta D.; Dekovic, Maja; van den Akker, Alithe L.; Stoltz, Sabine E. M. J.; Prinzie, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether changes in children's self-reported Big Five dimensions are represented by (developmental) personality types, using a cohort-sequential design with three measurement occasions across 5 years (four cohorts, 9-12 years at T1; N = 523). Correlates of, and gender differences in, type membership were examined. Latent…

  12. Self-Monitoring and Private Self-Consciousness: Relations to Holland's Vocational Personality Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Andrew D.; Mowsesian, Richard

    1993-01-01

    A sample of 139 (of 557) college graduates completed the Revised Self-Monitoring Scale and the Private Self-Consciousness Scale. For men, self-presentation correlated positively with Holland's social and enterprising personality types. Private self-consciousness correlated with artistic (both sexes) and investigative (men only) types. (SK)

  13. Validity of the Type D personality construct in Danish post-MI patients and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Denollet, Johan

    2004-01-01

    Type D personality has been associated with increased risk of depression, vital exhaustion, social alienation, a higher number of reinfarctions, and higher mortality rates in patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD) independent of traditional biomedical risk factors. The construct ...... controls, and to investigate whether Type D is associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)....

  14. Do Dental Students' Personality Types and Group Dynamics Affect Their Performance in Problem-Based Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihm, Jung-Joon; An, So-Youn; Seo, Deog-Gyu

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the personality types of dental students and their group dynamics were linked to their problem-based learning (PBL) performance. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) instrument was used with 263 dental students enrolled in Seoul National University School of Dentistry from 2011 to 2013; the students had participated in PBL in their first year. A four-session PBL setting was designed to analyze how individual personality types and the diversity of their small groups were associated with PBL performance. Overall, the results showed that the personality type of PBL performance that was the most prominent was Judging. As a group became more diverse with its different constituent personality characteristics, there was a tendency for the group to be higher ranked in terms of PBL performance. In particular, the overperforming group was clustered around three major profiles: Extraverted Intuitive Thinking Judging (ENTJ), Introverted Sensing Thinking Judging (ISTJ), and Extraverted Sensing Thinking Judging (ESTJ). Personality analysis would be beneficial for dental faculty members in order for them to understand the extent to which cooperative learning would work smoothly, especially when considering group personalities.

  15. Scholar-Craftsmanship: Question-Type, Epistemology, Culture of Inquiry, and Personality-Type in Dissertation Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Thomas P.; Rogers, Katrina S.

    2013-01-01

    "Scholar-Craftsmanship" (SC) is a quadrant methodological framework created to help social science doctoral students construct first-time dissertation research. The framework brackets and predicts how epistemological domains, cultures of inquiries, personality indicators, and research question--types can be correlated in dissertation…

  16. Scholar-Craftsmanship: Question-Type, Epistemology, Culture of Inquiry, and Personality-Type in Dissertation Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Thomas P.; Rogers, Katrina S.

    2013-01-01

    "Scholar-Craftsmanship" (SC) is a quadrant methodological framework created to help social science doctoral students construct first-time dissertation research. The framework brackets and predicts how epistemological domains, cultures of inquiries, personality indicators, and research question--types can be correlated in dissertation…

  17. EFL Teachers’ Emotional Intelligence and Their Personality Types: Exploring Possible Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Razavi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to examine the relationship between teachers’ emotional intelligence and their personality traits in an Iranian context. To this end, 85 Iranian EFL teachers were asked to fill out The Big Five Inventory Personality Test (John & Srivastava, 1999 and The Bar-On Emotional Intelligences test (1997. The results showed both negative and positive correlations among different subscales of the variables under study. It was found that among the 15 components of EI, problem solving has the highest positive correlation with personality types (i.e., agreeableness. Also, problem solving was found to have the highest negative significant correlation with personality types (i.e., neuroticism. Pedagogical implications are discussed.

  18. Relationship of Myers Briggs type indicator personality characteristics to suicidality in affective disorder patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowsky, David S; Morter, Shirley; Hong, Liyi

    2002-01-01

    The current study characterized the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality profiles of 64 suicidal and 30 non-suicidal psychiatric inpatients with affective disorder diagnoses. The MBTI divides individuals categorically into eight personality preferences (Extroverted and Introverted, Sensing and Intuitive, Thinking and Feeling, and Judging and Perceiving). Compared to the group of non-suicidal affective disorder patients, suicidal affective disorder patients were significantly more Introverted and Perceiving using ANCOVA analyses, and significantly more Introverted alone using Chi Square analyses.

  19. Forgiveness and Personality Type among Men and Women Suffering from Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Foroozandeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Role of personality and some components of behaviors, traits and emotions as effective factors on coronary heart diseases (CHD were presented nearly 50 years ago with the concept of “type A” behavior, a compound of hostility, impatience, competitiveness and dominance. Later studies showed crucial role of other traits and behaviors like anger, introversion, depression and forgiveness. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare personality type and forgiveness in the patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases based on gender. Materials and method: The cross sectional study was designed and sample was collected from men and women referred to cardiologists (within the age range of 23-75 years old from the patients of Shahid Rajaee Heart Hospital of Tehran, Iran from December 2010 to March 2011. Total 87 subjects were selected using random method. The study subjects were given two questionnaires: personality type A (with two factors: TA1, pathologic behaviors of type A personality and TA2, non pathologic behaviors of type A personality and Interpersonal Forgiveness Inventory (IFI, with three subscales namely reestablishment of relationship, control of revenge and realistic perception. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Mean(±SD age of men was 50.5±11.6 years (n=33 and 55.7±14.4 years in women (n=54. Mean duration of suffering from cardiovascular diseases in men was 7.8 years and in women was 9.10 years. The study found high mean scores of type A pathologic but not non pathologic type A among women compared to men (p<0.038 and no statistically significant differences in forgiveness subscales. Conclusion: The study revealed significant difference between women and men suffering from cardiovascular disease in pathologic type A (TA1 and negative relationship between pathologic type A and forgiveness.

  20. Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funder, D C

    2001-01-01

    Personality psychology is as active today as at any point in its history. The classic psychoanalytic and trait paradigms are active areas of research, the behaviorist paradigm has evolved into a new social-cognitive paradigm, and the humanistic paradigm is a basis of current work on cross-cultural psychology. Biology and evolutionary theory have also attained the status of new paradigms for personality. Three challenges for the next generation of research are to integrate these disparate approaches to personality (particularly the trait and social-cognitive paradigms), to remedy the imbalance in the person-situation-behavior triad by conceptualizing the basic properties of situations and behaviors, and to add to personality psychology's thin inventory of basic facts concerning the relations between personality and behavior.

  1. Potential for Drug Abuse: the Predictive Role of Parenting Styles, Stress and Type D Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahin soheili

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was an attempt to predict potential for drug abuse on the basis of three predictors of parenting style, stress and type D personality. Method: In this descriptive-correlational study, 200 students (100 males and 100 females of Islamic Azad University of Karaj were selected by convenience sampling. For data collection, perceived parenting styles questionnaire, perceived stress scale, type D personality scale, and addiction potential scale were used. Results: The results showed that rejecting/neglecting parenting style and emotional warmth were positively and negatively correlated with addiction potential, respectively. Conclusion: The child-parent relationship and also the relationship between stress and type D personality can be considered as predictive factors in addiction potential.

  2. The relationship between Type D personality, affective symptoms and hemoglobin levels in chronic heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kupper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anemia is associated with poor prognosis in heart failure (HF patients. Contributors to the risk of anemia in HF include hemodilution, renal dysfunction and inflammation. Hemoglobin levels may also be negatively affected by alterations in stress regulatory systems. Therefore, psychological distress characterized by such alterations may adversely affect hemoglobin in HF. The association between hemoglobin and Type D personality and affective symptomatology in the context of HF is poorly understood. AIM: To examine the relationship between Type D personality and affective symptomatology with hemoglobin levels at inclusion and 12-month follow-up, controlling for relevant clinical factors. METHODS: Plasma levels of hemoglobin and creatinine were assessed in 264 HF patients at inclusion and at 12-month follow-up. Type D personality and affective symptomatology were assessed at inclusion. RESULTS: At inclusion, hemoglobin levels were similar for Type D and non-Type D HF patients (p = .23, and were moderately associated with affective symptomatology (r = -.14, p = .02. Multivariable regression showed that Type D personality (β = -.15; p = .02, was independently associated with future hemoglobin levels, while controlling for renal dysfunction, gender, NYHA class, time since diagnosis, BMI, the use of angiotensin-related medication, and levels of affective symptomatology. Change in renal function was associated with Type D personality (β = .20 and hemoglobin at 12 months (β = -.25. Sobel mediation analysis showed significant partial mediation of the Type D - hemoglobin association by renal function deterioration (p = .01. Anemia prevalence increased over time, especially in Type D patients. Female gender, poorer baseline renal function, deterioration of renal function and a longer HF history predicted the observed increase in anemia prevalence over time, while higher baseline hemoglobin was protective

  3. Type D Personality in infarcted patients a study with the Rorschach projective technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Pagano Dritto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Type D personality is a vulnerability factor associated with the psychological suffering that affects the physical and mental health state. Literature shows that the Type D personality is defined by a combination of two independent constructs: the negative affectivity (NA which refers to the tendency to experience negative emotions over time and in several situations; and the social inhibition (SI or the tendency to inhibit emotions and behaviors in social interactions. Objective: The present study aims to explore the emotions of a group of patients with heart disease, through the use of the Rorschach projective tecnique. Method: Fourty subjects with an history of heart attack, aged between 32 and 76 years, were evaluated in order to find some possible indicators of Type D personality such as the quality of contents, movements response, popular responses and Erlebnistypus. Results: Findings shows that the majority of patients present a prevalence of responses belonging to Animal and Anatomy contents and the Erlebnistypus is mostly introversive. Conclusions: The study points out some scientific element useful both in research and in clinical practice, confirming the Rorschach potential in the assessment and identification of specific personality traits, involved in the Type D personality, that characterizes the majority of cardiac impared patients.

  4. Effect of Type D personality on medication adherence in early adolescents with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Monique O M; Witteman, Cilia L M; Tiggelman, Dana

    2013-12-01

    Medication adherence for daily preventive asthma medication is especially low during adolescence. In the present study, we aimed to test whether Type D personality (both as a category and with its constituent components (negative affectivity: NA and social inhibition: SI) separately and in interaction) predicts medication adherence of early adolescents with asthma. In a prospective study, 188 early adolescents with asthma who were prescribed daily preventive asthma medication completed questionnaires on Type D personality, medication adherence, socio-demographic and clinical information, and depressive symptoms in the Spring/Summer of 2011 (T1) and again 12months later (T2). Multiple regression analyses, controlling for demographic and clinical information and for depressive symptoms, were conducted to test whether Type D personality (either as a categorical or dimensional construct) predicted changes in medication adherence over time. Adherence was significantly lower at T2 than at T1 and this decrease was predicted by the categorical construct of Type D personality. Analyses of the two separate dimensions NA and SI and their interaction showed that higher scores on NA at T1 predicted more decrease in adherence over time. Neither SI nor the interaction between NA and SI predicted changes in adherence. This is the first study to test the relationship between Type D personality and medication adherence in adolescents. Although categorical Type D personality predicts mediation adherence of adolescent with asthma over time, dimensional analyses suggest that this is due to negative affectivity only, and not to the combination of negative affectivity and social inhibition. © 2013.

  5. Personality type and leadership focus: Relationship between self and line- manager perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Sieff

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between personality type and leadership focus is examined in this article. Personality type is assessed by means of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI, and leadership focus is explored both with participants and their line-managers using a Leadership Focus Questionnaire. Petroleum company mid-level managers form the target population of 220. Three leadership focus hypotheses are tested with 53 respondents, addressing (1 optimising external and internal focus, (2 fit with organisation type, and (3 managing a multiple focus. The Pearson Correlation Coefficient, ANOVA and paired T-tests are applied. Results show that in circumstances associated with change, Feeling and Perceiving types are favoured for managing the stress of competing leadership demands. Line-managers of participants rely more on Intuition while participants prefer Sensing in dealing with external stakeholders.

  6. The lack of theoretical support for using person trade-offs in QALY-type models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    Considerable support for the use of person trade-off methods to assess the quality-adjustment factor in quality-adjusted life years (QALY) models has been expressed in the literature. The WHO has occasionally used similar methods to assess the disability weights for calculation of disability......-adjusted life years (DALYs). This paper discusses the theoretical support for the use of person trade-offs in QALY-type measurement of (changes in) population health. It argues that measures of this type based on such quality-adjustment factors almost always violate the Pareto principle, and so lack normative...

  7. A Research into the Relationship Between Type a Personality and Emotional Intelligence in Leadership Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan İncebacak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study, which is conducted on male and femaleparticipants and managers from different departments and sectors, is to inves-tigate the relationship between Type A personality traits and emotional intelligence dimensions.In addition, for male and female managers, the emotional intelligence dimensions that are effective on type A personality traits are tried to be determined according to each department. In the results of the analysis conducted on 205 participant managers and the survey used as the data collection tool, different findings were obtained for different departments in male and female managers, and the hypotheses proposed for inter-variable effects and relationships were partially accepted.

  8. Personality types in childhood: relations to latent trajectory classes of problem behavior and overreactive parenting across the transition into adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, A.L.; Deković, M.; Asscher, J.J.; Shiner, R.L.; Prinzie, P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated relations among children's personality types, trajectories of internalizing and externalizing problems, and overreactive parenting across 6 years. Latent Class Analysis of the Big 5 personality dimensions (modeled as latent factors, based on mother, father and teacher reports

  9. [Personality types in patients with atherosclerosis of different localization: prevalence and clinical features].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumin, A N; Raĭkh, O I; Karpovich, A V; Korok, E V; Bezdenezhnykh, A V; Bokhan, I E; Barbarash, O L

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the work was to study the influence of D-type personality on clinical characteristics and extent of the pathological process in patients with atherosclerosis (AS) of different localization. A total of 943 patients (774 men and 169 women, mean age 58.6+-3 yr) were examined prior to arterial surgery. D-type personality was identified using a DS-14 questionnaire. The patients were divided into those with D-type personality (n=182) and without it (n=761). The following parameters were recorded: risk factors of AS, severity of clinical symptoms, history of myocardial infarction, acute cerebrovascular accidents, transitory ischemic attacks, concomitant pathology, and echocardiographic measuremnents. AS of non-coronary basins was diagnosed by color duplex scanning or angiograpgy. The number of affected vascular basins with stenosis of 30% or more arteries was detected. D-type personality was revealed in 19.3% of the patients with AS of different localization. It did not correlate with the social status, risk factors, and clinical symptoms. However D-type was associated with AS of extracranial arteries and combined lesions in several vascular basins as well as with the enhanced level of anxiety and depression and impaired quality of life.

  10. Ankylosing Spondylitis patients with Type D personality have worse clinical status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkol İnal, Esra; Demirci, Kadir; Doğru, Atalay; Şahin, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Type D personality was identified as an important factor that can explain the differences in clinical outcomes in various diseases. The aim of this study is to clarify the relationships between Type D personality and clinical status of patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS). The scores of the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS)-C-reactive protein (CRP), and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), the 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), and 14-item Type D Scale (DS-14) were noted. We found significantly higher levels of the BASDAI, the BASFI, and the SF-36 mental subscale scores in patients with Type D personalities compared to those who were Non-Type D (p < 0.05). The total DS-14 scores were found to be correlated with the scores of physical and mental subscales of SF-36, the BASDAI, the BASFI, ASDAS-CRP, and ESR (p < 0.05). In logistic regression analysis, the occurrence of Type D personality was found to be an independent predictor for disease activity of AS due to BASDAI and ASDAS-ESR (p = 0.016, OR, 95% CI = 2.98,1.23-7.22; p = 0.022, OR, 95% CI = 2.78,1.16-6.63 respectively). Patients may over-rate self-reported measurements such as the BASDAI, BASFI, and SF-36 related to their interpersonal characteristics. Therefore, including the Type D personality, which is a stable construct in evaluating AS patients with brief and valid DS-14, may be noteworthy.

  11. Interaction of parent- child schemas in different types of personality disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Ali Beigi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In addition to Personality traits, cognitive theories emphasize on the role of cognitive errors in incidence of personality disorders. Schemas are one of the specific cognitive errors. The aim of present research was determining the role of parents' schemas in etiology of Childs' schemas in different types of personality disorders. Methods: It was an expo-facto research in individuals with personality disorder. From a private clinic in Tehran we selected 50 ones with personality disorder which were welcome to enter to the project. In addition to diagnosis of the therapist, we used MCMI-III for diagnosis of personality disorder. We asked for completing questionnaires by clients and also their parents. YSQ-75 used for assessing schemas in children and parents which presents 15 schemas in 5 categories. Results: Abandonment and unbalanced standards in cluster A, Unbalanced standards and entitlement in Cluster B and C were dominant. There were significant relations between child-parent schemas. Discussion: Unbalanced Standards was not a specific schema for a specified personality disorder and it was the dominant schema in all cases. It shows a difficult parenting style in Iranian populations and Tehran dominant child rearing. The implicit message is idealized and high expectations of parents. It indicate the necessity of educating child rearing for modifying rearing styles of parents.

  12. Family and Friends: Which Types of Personal Relationships Go Together in a Network?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rözer, Jesper; Mollenhorst, Gerald; Poortman, Anne-Rigt

    We examine the link between family and personal networks. Using arguments about meeting opportunities, competition and social influence, we hypothesise how the presence of specific types of family members (i.e., a partner, children, parents and siblings) and non-family members (i.e., friends, neighbours and colleagues) in the network mutually affect one another. In addition, we propose that-beyond their mere presence-the active role of family members in the network strongly affects the presence of non-family members in the network. Data from the third wave of the Survey on the Social Networks of the Dutch, collected in 2012 and 2013, show that active involvement is of key importance; more than merely having family members present in one's personal network, the active involvement of specific types of family members in the personal network is associated with having disproportionally more other family members and having somewhat fewer non-family members in the network.

  13. SELF-ESTEEM AND PERSONALITY TYPE IN POLITICALLY ENGAGED PEOPLE: A PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina MACSINGA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian political institution is destined to survive in the face of the individual‘s ideological abandonment, passivity and reserve, as well as in the face of a society denouncing the mediocrity of the political class. Based on these considerations, this pilot study sets out to explore and reveal specific personality traits of the Romanian politicians, including the level of selfesteem. A total of 80 participants (divided into two groups, with or without political engagement completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI and the Rosenberg‘s Self-Esteem Scale (RSES. The results have shown that politically engaged people have a predominant Extrovert Intuitive Feeling Judicative personality type; however, regarding self-esteem, no significant differences were identified in comparison to the group of persons having no political engagement. The results of this pilot study are of interest allowing a better understanding of a politician‘s mindset and behavior

  14. Relationship Between Personality Types Conceptualized by C. G. Jung and Emotional Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Natasha Virmozelova; Mariana Dimitrova

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study is to present the results from a study of the relationship between personality types described by C. G. Jung and emotional intelligence. The investigated subjects were 150 at the age of 18 – 50. The methods of research were MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) - Bulgarian adaptation (Rusinova, 1992) and one psychological questionnaire measuring emotional intelligence -Bulgarian adaptation (Stoyanova, 2008). The received data indicated that the functions of thinking an...

  15. STARTING A NEW COMPANY — WHICH TYPES OF PERSONAL EXPERIENCE HELP?

    OpenAIRE

    CHRISTIN MERZ; ANDREAS SCHROETER; PETER WITT

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between different types of personal experience and start-up success. We propose four extensions to earlier studies on the subject. First, we distinguish between management, technical, industry, and entrepreneurial experience of founders. Second, we consider decreasing marginal effects of different types of experience on start-up success. Third, our measures for start-up success correspond to the different stages of the entrepreneurial process. Fourth, ...

  16. The Importance of Soft Skills and it Project Managers’ Personality Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Araújo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Information technology (IT is a strategic element in business as it is fundamental to create value to organizations. To be efficient, project managers need to develop other competencies besides their technical skills (“hard skills”. This paper aims to show the importance of soft skills in the development of IT project managers’ competencies by answering the following questions (1 “which is the impact of “soft skills” on IT projects management?” and (2 “the personality type of the project manager can influence the development of his/her soft skills?”. To answer these questions, we conducted an exploratory and qualitative research. To collect data, we interviewed IT project managers and applied the MBTI test to identify their personality type. As we crossed the results of MBTI tests and content of the interviews, we noticed that some professionals have a personality type that might hinder them from developing some soft skills. Another important finding is that leadership and communication are the most important soft skills in project management according to IT project managers.  This research contributes to the academia as it indicates opportunities for further studies on the relationship of personality type and competence development. A managerial implication of research results is that managers and leaders can use personality tests such as MBTI to prevent relationship conflicts in teams as well as to design training programs that best suit their subordinates’ personality traits.

  17. LIFE STYLE, OBESITY, TYPE A PERSONALITY PATTERN AND TYPE-2 DIABETES MELLITUS – IS THERE A CORELATION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available : IMPORTANCE: Diabetes mellitus has shown a rising trajectory to an epidemic level in the last century due to changes in human behavior and lifestyle. Personality assessment might further clarify the relationships between psychological characteristics and glucose regulation. OBJECTIVE: To find out difference with regard to socio demographic factors, lifestyle pattern and type A personality patterns between the experimental group and the normal controls. DESIGN: A case-control study was used. Period of collection of data extended from 15th Dec 2012 till 10th Jan 2013. SETTINGS: This study was conducted at the Medicine outpatient departments of Mahatma Gandhi Hospital in Jaipur. PARTICIPANTS: A consecutive sample of 50 adults with type 2 diabetes aged 20-80 years and 50 normal subjects matched on age, sex, education and marital status. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus diagnosed in Medicine Outpatient setting, their socio demographic variables, lifestyle patterns and premorbid personality traits. RESULTS: Analysis of data revealed that 84% of the subjects in the experimental group were from urban background and 70% lived in a nuclear family set up with 50% having less than 5 members in the family. A positive family history of Diabetes in first degree relatives was present in 48% and just 8% of the control group.70% were not following healthy eating habits as opposed to just 38% of the control group.40%,34% and 26% of the subjects in the experimental group used to consume a high sugar, fat and salt diet, respectively. Nearly 76% as opposed to 26% of the control group led a sedentary life. 80% of the experimental group had no hobbies with 19% enjoyed watching T.V. 78% as compared to just 30% in the control group were either overweight or obese.82% had type A personality traits being high on all its components as compared to just 20% in the control group. CONCLUSION: Type II Diabetes Mellitus is more prevalent in urban

  18. Personality Types and Megabytes: Student Attitudes toward Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) in the Language Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvois, Margaret Healy; Eledge, Jean

    1996-01-01

    Describes the results of a pilot study to examine the attitudes of university students toward the use of computer-mediated communication in their French conversation and composition course. Results indicate that both introvert and extrovert personality types generally perceive the use of a local area network as a beneficial experience. (15…

  19. The Role of Personality in Stress Perception across Different Vocational Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksvik, Ingvild Berg; Hetland, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between personality (measured by the subscales of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory [NEO-FFI]; Costa & McCrae, 1992) and stress (measured by the Overall Job Satisfaction scale [Warr, Cook, & Wall, 1979], and Cooper's Job Stress Scale [Cooper, 1981]) across different vocational types as…

  20. Family and Friends : Which Types of Personal Relationships Go Together in a Network?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rözer, Jesper; Mollenhorst, Gerald; Poortman, Anne Rigt

    2015-01-01

    We examine the link between family and personal networks. Using arguments about meeting opportunities, competition and social influence, we hypothesise how the presence of specific types of family members (i.e., a partner, children, parents and siblings) and non-family members (i.e., friends, neighb

  1. Relationship between Personality Types and Career Choices of Undergraduate Students: A Case of Moi University, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemboi, Rebecca J. Kimongo; Kindiki, Nyaga; Misigo, Benard

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between personality types and career choices of undergraduate students of Moi University. In Kenya, students are allowed to revise their career choices at various levels of education before they settle on one course of study in the University. The process of choosing careers begins in form three where…

  2. Personality Type and Workforce Diversity as Predictors of Ethical Behaviour and Job Satisfaction among Nigerian Policemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Afolabi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the influence of personality type (A and B and work force diversity on ethical behaviour and job satisfaction of a sample of Nigerian police. The sample consisted of one hundred and twenty two policemen and women whose ranks are from Constable to Assistant Superintendent of police in the Irrua Area Command, Edo State, Nigeria. To achieve the objective of the study, four hypotheses were formulated and tested. The data were analysed using the student t-test and multiple regression analysis. The findings of the study revealed that type B persons have higher job satisfaction and are more ethical in behaviour compared to the type A persons. Also, there was a significant joint prediction of age, gender, educational attainment and work experience on job satisfaction and ethical behaviour of the sample. Here, age, gender and work experience have a significant independent contributions to job satisfaction and ethical behaviour. However, the independent contribution of education on job satisfaction and ethical behaviour was non-significant.Based on these findings, it was recommended, among other things that more of type B persons be recruited into the force and efforts should be made to encourage professional ethics in the force. Suggestions were also made and conclusion drawn based on the findings that were discussed.

  3. Type D personality and cardiac mortality in patients with chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Angélique A; Smith, Otto R F; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical predictors of cardiac mortality in chronic heart failure (CHF) are established, but less is known about chronic psychological predictors. Therefore, we examined the prognostic value of Type D personality (tendency to experience negative feelings and inhibit self-expression) in CHF patients....

  4. Association between Cognitive Distortion, Type D Personality, Family Environment, and Depression in Chinese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Hengfen; Zou, Shaohong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Depression prevalence and risk increase among adolescents are related to biological, psychosocial, and cultural factors. Little is known about the association between cognitive distortion, type D personality, family environment, and depression. The aim of this paper was to examine the relationships of cognitive distortion, type D personality, family environment, and depression in a sample of Chinese adolescents. Methods. A sample of Chinese adolescents with depression and the controls were investigated cross-sectionally with life orientation test-revised (LOT-R), type D personality Scale-14 (DS14), family environment scale (FES), and Zung self-depression scale (SDS); respectively, all scales were administered in Chinese. Results. Chinese-depressed adolescents showed more cognitive distortion, type D personality, and adverse family environment than control groups. Furthermore, lower level of Optimism, negative affectivity, and poor family cohesion may increase the risk of depression in Chinese adolescents. Conclusions. Our study indicates that lower level of Optimism, Negative Affectivity, and poor Family Cohesion factors were implicated to contribute to depression in Chinese adolescents. Lower level of optimism and negative affectivity may be crucial associated factors of depression among these samples. our findings pointed to the importance of broad screening and intervention of vulnerable population.

  5. Personality, birth order and attachment styles as related to various types of jealousy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    1997-01-01

    The relationships between jealousy, personality, attachment styles and birth order were examined in a sample of 100 Dutch men and 100 Dutch women. Three types of jealousy were examined: reactive jealousy (a negative response to the emotional or sexual involvement of the partner with someone else), p

  6. Coping personality type and environment enrichment affect aggression at weaning in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melotti, L.; Oostindjer, M.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Held, S.; Mendl, M.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of different environmental treatments and personality types on aggression at mixing of newly weaned domestic piglets. From birth to weaning, 16 litters were housed with their dams in either barren (B) or larger, substrate-enriched (E) environments. At 15 days old,

  7. The Relationship between Personality Type and Learning Style: A Study of Automotive Technology Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threeton, Mark D.; Walter, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    In an effort to provide career and technical education (CTE) professionals with additional insight on how to better meet the individual education needs of the learner, this study (a) sought to identify the predominant personality type of postsecondary automotive technology students and (b) examined whether there was a relationship between the…

  8. The Relationship between Personality Types A and B and Academic Dishonesty of Undergraduate and Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne-Figueroa, Jacqueline Marie

    2010-01-01

    Since 1941, academic dishonesty has been recognized in the professional literature as a serious problem. Personality Types A and B have been suspected as contributors to cheating. In this quasi-experimental study, undergraduate and graduate students (N = 112) at one academic institution were surveyed about their attitudes and cheating behavior.…

  9. Adults Living with Type 2 Diabetes: Kept Personal Health Information Items as Expressions of Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetstone, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated personal information behavior and information needs that 21 adults managing life with Type 2 diabetes identify explicitly and implicitly during discussions of item acquisition and use of health information items that are kept in their homes. Research drew upon a naturalistic lens, in that semi-structured interviews were…

  10. 38 CFR 74.25 - What types of personally identifiable information will VA collect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... identifiable information will VA collect? 74.25 Section 74.25 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief... What types of personally identifiable information will VA collect? In order to establish owner eligibility, the Department will collect individual names and Social Security numbers for veterans,...

  11. The Role of Personality in Stress Perception across Different Vocational Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksvik, Ingvild Berg; Hetland, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between personality (measured by the subscales of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory [NEO-FFI]; Costa & McCrae, 1992) and stress (measured by the Overall Job Satisfaction scale [Warr, Cook, & Wall, 1979], and Cooper's Job Stress Scale [Cooper, 1981]) across different vocational types as…

  12. Developmental personality types from childhood to adolescence: Associations with parenting and adjustment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, A.D. de; Dekoviç, M.; Akker, A.J. van den; Stoltz, S.E.M.J.; Prinzie, P.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether changes in children's self-reported Big Five dimensions are represented by (developmental) personality types, using a cohort-sequential design with three measurement occasions across 5 years (four cohorts, 9-12 years at T1; N = 523). Correlates of, and gender differences

  13. Validity Evidence for the Use of Holland's Vocational Personality Types in College Student Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Nancy D.

    2012-01-01

    Higher education in the United States is replete with inventories and instruments designed to help administrators to identify students who are more likely to succeed in college and to tailor the higher education experience to foster this success. One area of research involves the Holland vocational personality type (Holland 1973, 1985, 1997)…

  14. Psychosocial Differences by CTE Discipline and Personality Type in Student Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchel, Tracy

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to describe differences in career and technical education (CTE) student teachers' perceptions of psychosocial support provided by student teachers, as separated by CTE discipline(Agricultural Education and Family and Consumer Sciences Education) and personality type, at a southern state university. The group was more…

  15. Student Satisfaction with Blended and Online Courses Based on Personality Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolliger, Doris U.; Erichsen, Elizabeth Anne

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate differences in perceived student satisfaction in blended and online learning environments based on personality type. A total of 72 graduate students enrolled in blended and online courses at two research universities in the United States completed an abbreviated online version of the Myers-Briggs Type…

  16. Personality, birth order and attachment styles as related to various types of jealousy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    1997-01-01

    The relationships between jealousy, personality, attachment styles and birth order were examined in a sample of 100 Dutch men and 100 Dutch women. Three types of jealousy were examined: reactive jealousy (a negative response to the emotional or sexual involvement of the partner with someone else),

  17. Correlations between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Neo Personality Inventory facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, D A; Anderson, P E; Tsagarakis, C I; Holland, C J

    1995-04-01

    Using data obtained from 48 male and 161 female undergraduate students in psychology, correlations between scores on the scales of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the facets of the Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Openness domains of the NEO Personality Inventory were low to moderate.

  18. Differences in Myers-Briggs Personality Types among High School Band, Orchestra, and Choir Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLellan, Christin Reardon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore personality type differences among high school band, string orchestra, and choir students according to ensemble membership. Participants (N = 355) were high school students who had participated in their school's band, orchestra, or choir for 1 year or more. The author administered the Myers-Briggs Type…

  19. Type D personality, physical symptoms and subjective stress: the mediating effects of coping and social support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lynn; Wingate, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Coping style and social support may represent mechanisms to explain the relationship between Type D personality and ill-health. This study investigated whether Type D is associated with physical symptoms and perceived stress in a non-cardiac population, and if these relationships are mediated by coping and social support. In a cross-sectional study, 304 participants (110 males, mean age 22.1 years) completed measures of Type D, physical symptoms, coping, perceived stress and social support. Results showed that Type D, the interaction of negative affectivity and social inhibition (NA × SI), was positively correlated with physical symptoms, perceived stress, and avoidant coping, and negatively correlated with social support, problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping. A series of bootstrapped multiple mediator tests showed that social support and avoidant coping fully mediated the relationship between Type D and physical symptoms. Furthermore, social support and emotion-focused coping partially mediated the relationship between Type D and perceived stress. These findings demonstrate for the first time that Type D personality is associated with physical symptoms in a non-cardiac population. Social support and coping style represent mechanisms that can, in part, explain the relationship between Type D and physical symptoms, and Type D and perceived stress.

  20. Thumbnail Sketches: EDTA-Type Chelating Agents in Everyday Consumer Products: Some Medicinal and Personal Care Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, J. Roger

    1984-01-01

    Discusses various ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA)-type chelating agents found in ophthalmic products, personal care products, and disinfectants. Also discusses the properties and action of these EDTA agents. (JN)

  1. Personality traits and types predict medical school stress: a six-year longitudinal and nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyssen, Reidar; Dolatowski, Filip C; Røvik, Jan Ole; Thorkildsen, Ruth F; Ekeberg, Oivind; Hem, Erlend; Gude, Tore; Grønvold, Nina T; Vaglum, Per

    2007-08-01

    Personality types (combinations of traits) that take into account the interplay between traits give a more detailed picture of an individual's character than do single traits. This study examines whether both personality types and traits predict stress during medical school training. We surveyed Norwegian medical students (n = 421) 1 month after they began medical school (T1), at the mid-point of undergraduate Year 3 (T2), and at the end of undergraduate Year 6 (T3). A total of 236 medical students (56%) responded at all time-points. They were categorised according to Torgersen's personality typology by their combination of high and low scores on the 'Big Three' personality traits of extroversion, neuroticism and conscientiousness. We studied the effects of both personality types (spectator, insecure, sceptic, brooder, hedonist, impulsive, entrepreneur and complicated) and traits on stress during medical school. There was a higher level of stress among female students. The traits of neuroticism (P = 0.002) and conscientiousness (P = 0.03) were independent predictors of stress, whereas female gender was absorbed by neuroticism in the multivariate model. When controlled for age and gender, 'brooders' (low extroversion, high neuroticism, high conscientiousness) were at risk of experiencing more stress (P = 0.02), whereas 'hedonists' (high extroversion, low neuroticism, low conscientiousness) were more protected against stress (P = 0.001). This is the first study to show that a specific combination of personality traits can predict medical school stress. The combination of high neuroticism and high conscientiousness is considered to be particularly high risk.

  2. Analysis of medical students' enneagram personality types, stress, and developmental level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Yera; Lee, Keum-Ho

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the medical students' personality with stress and developmental level. The study explored three overarching topics: How are medical students' personality types reflected in an enneagram? Are there any differences between subtypes of stress points? How are the students' developmental levels by gender, academic level, and enneatypes? The subjects were 414 medical students in three Korean medical schools. Enneagram Personality Types Inventory (Korean version) was used. These enneatypes were divided into four subtypes: centers of intelligence, hornevian triads, self-consciousness, and harmonic group. Enneatypes and stress points were analyzed statistically by frequency and percentage of enneatypes, chi-square test, and ANOVA. Distribution of enneatypes; type 9 was the most frequent class (n=136, 32.9%). Types 1, 3, 4, and 9 had more disintegrated students than other types (chi2=59.2, p=0.000). Subtype analysis; in body-centered type more students were disintegrated than integrated or mediocre (chi2=25.8, p=0.000). In behavior patterns, aggressive and passive types showed more disintegration (chi2=25.2, p=0.000), and in self-consciousness groups only inner order types showed integration (chi2=19.3, p=0.001). In harmonic group, positive outlook types contained the most disintegrated students (chi2=20.5, p=0.000). Majority of medical students were in disintegrated developmental status. A program should be developed for students to know their ego-identity plainly and overcome their disintegration, based on their enneatypes. Such a program will help students improve their ways of thinking or their behavior and become more secure.

  3. The link between personality type and the risk of occupational electrical injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, Gavan

    2011-09-15

    Personality type has a very important impact on many occupations and on day-to-day life. A 2006 survey found that over 80% of all electricians have an extrovert profile which is related to risk-bearing (agreeableness) and risk-taking. Non-critical, occupational electrical and powerline accidents doubled from 1998 to 2006. Other trade workers (not electricians) suffer 80% of all occupational deaths due to electrical contact. And young, single, male, extroverted, electrical apprentices are the most vulnerable workers when around electricity. Electricians are vulnerable to electrical accidents. They lack in-depth, day-to-day, supervised training around electricity. By researching the link between personality type and the risk of occupational electrical injury, we can determine which types of workers' profile we need on the job site. Training, education, communications and rehabilitation plans can be modified to safeguard workers' safety.

  4. Type D Personality Predicts Poor Medication Adherence in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Six-Month Follow-Up Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Li

    Full Text Available Type D personality and medication nonadherence have been shown to be associated with poor health outcomes. Type D personality is associated with poor medication adherence in patients with coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. However, the relationship between type D personality and medication adherence in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM remains unknown. This study aims to examine whether type D personality was associated with medication adherence in patients with T2DM.A follow-up study was conducted in general hospital of the People's Liberation Army in Beijing.412 T2DM patients (205 females, who were recruited by circular systematic random sampling, provided demographic and baseline data about medical information and completed measures of Type D personality. Then, 330 patients went on to complete a self-report measure of medication adherence at the sixth month after baseline data collection. Chi-square test, t tests, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted, as needed.Patients with type D personality were significantly more likely to have poor medication adherence (p<0.001. Type D personality predicts poor medication adherence before and after controlling for covariates when it was analyzed as a categorical variable. However, the dimensional construct of type D personality was not associated with medication adherence when analyzed as a continuous variable.Although, as a dimensional construct, type D personality may not reflect the components of the personality associated with poor medication adherence in patients with T2DM, screening for type D personality may help to identify those who are at higher risk of poor medication adherence. Interventions, aiming to improve medication adherence, should be launched for these high-risk patients.

  5. Analysis of anger expression style--continuous anger and personality types of professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Mustafa; Sahan, Hasan; Tekin, Murat; Ulukan, Mehmet; Mehtap, Bekir

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the anger expression styles, the continuous anger and personality types of players who play football in the professional league. The research group consisted of 133 soccer players who are playing in sports teams in the Turkish Super League: Ankara Sport Club, Gençlerbirliği Sports Club and Hacettepe Sports Club in the first league, Turk Telekom sports in the second league, and Keçiören Gücü Sports and Ankarademir Sports playing in the third league in the 2008-2009 football season. The Eysenck personality inventory was modified to Turkish by Bayar in 1983, having been developed by Eysenck and Eysenck in 1975 and the continuous anger-anger style scale (SOTO) was modified to Turkish by Ozer in 1994. The state trait anger scale (STAS) was originally developed by Spielberger in 1983. All these were used on soccer players participating in the study to determine the continuous anger and anger styles in this study. In the interpretation of data, a meaningfulness of p anger sub-dimension and anger control sub-dimension than continuous anger-anger expression styles, no significant difference was found among personality type sub-dimensions (psychoticism, extrovert, neurotic, false). In addition, a significant relationship was found between psychoticism, extrovert, neurotic, and lie sub-dimensions and the personality type sub-dimensions of professional players' constant anger-anger expression styles.

  6. The distressed (Type D) personality mediates the relationship between remembered parenting and psychological distress in cardiac patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damen, Nikki L; Versteeg, Henneke; van Helmondt, Sanne J

    2013-01-01

    levels and Type D personality. In multivariable linear regression analyses, Type D personality accounted for 25-29% of the variance in anxiety and 23-46% of the variance in depression, while remembered parenting was no longer significantly associated with these domains. Sobel tests and bootstrapping......Objective: Both the distressed (Type D) personality (i.e. the combination of negative affectivity and social inhibition traits) and dysfunctional parenting styles are associated with anxiety and depression. As parenting styles have been related to personality development, dysfunctional parenting...... styles may also be associated with Type D personality. We examined whether remembered parenting was associated with anxiety and depression in cardiac patients and whether Type D personality mediated this relationship. Methods: Our sample comprised 435 patients treated with percutaneous coronary...

  7. Person Perception of Type As and Type Bs: A Round Robin Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pilato, Marina; And Others

    Previous research suggesting that there may be some interpersonal characteristics of Type A individuals, such as dominance and forcefulness, that may be less facilitative of meaningful relationships has used subjects who were previously unacquainted with each other. This study investigated the perceptions others have of the interpersonal style and…

  8. Type D personality is associated with social anxiety in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Nina; Denollet, Johan

    2014-06-01

    Research on the emotional processes associated with Type D personality is important for its further conceptualization. We examined the associations of Type D personality with social and general anxiety symptoms in a large community sample. The aim of the current study was to disentangle the associations of Type D personality and its components with social anxiety and general anxiety in a large sample from the general population. A random sample of 2,475 adults from the general population filled out questionnaires to assess Type D personality (DS-14), social anxiety (SIAS(10), SPS(11), BFNE-II), and general anxiety (HADS-A, GAD-7). Type D individuals were characterized by increased levels of both social and general anxiety. The social inhibition (SI) component of Type D personality was most strongly associated with social interaction anxiety (r = .63), while negative affectivity (NA) was strongly associated with general anxiety (GAD-7: r = .70; HADS-A: r = .66). Within social anxiety, SI was more strongly associated with facets of social interaction anxiety than with social phobia. Multiple regression analysis showed that the synergistic interaction of NA and SI was a predictor of social anxiety (SIAS(10): β = .32, p interaction was not a significant predictor of general anxiety. Logistic regression using the dichotomous Type D classification demonstrated a 9.1-fold (95%CI, 7.0-11.8) increased odds of a score in the highest quartile of social interaction anxiety and a 7.6-fold (95%CI, 5.8-9.8) increased odds of high social phobia. Odds ratios for clinically relevant levels of general anxiety were 8.3 (95%CI, 5.5-12.5) for GAD-7 and 6.5 (95%CI, 3.4-12.6) for HADS-A. In the general population, Type D individuals were characterized by both social and general anxiety. The SI component of Type D is strongly associated with social interaction anxiety and the synergistic interaction of NA and SI was associated with high social anxiety, above and beyond the main NA and

  9. THE WAY TO THE SELF: THE NOVEL «STEPPENWOLF» THROUGH THE LENS OF JUNGIAN PROCESS OF INDIVIDUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana V. Danylova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This paper aims to analyze the life journey of Harry Haller, protagonist of H. Hesse’s novel «Steppenwolf», in the context of Jungian process of individuation. Methodology. The author has used C.G. Jung’s theory of archetypes, along with hermeneutical methodology. Theoretical basis and results. «Steppenwolf» is the story of a man who is dogged by controversy: he feels himself to be a human and a wolf at the same time. Harry Haller learns from the «Treatise on the Steppenwolf» that he has more than two natures. Actually, he consists of hundreds and thousands of them. This idea is based on Jung’s concept of the collective unconscious. And the very novel «Steppenwolf» brightly illustrates Jung’s individuation process. Harry Haller’s mission is to overcome opposition between his social cultural «I» and Shadow (Steppenwolf, to recognize and accept his Anima (Hermine, to understand the mystery of the identity of Pablo, who embodies chthonic depths, and Mozart, who represents sublime spirituality, that is, to comprehend his own Self. Scientific novelty. In the novel, the human nature is depicted as the eternal struggle and eternal unity of two polarities. Individuals have to realize this unity on their way to the Self. Recognizing, confronting and assimilating the Ego, Anima/Animus, Shadow into the larger realm of the Self, one achieves a new level of consciousness. However, this is a never-ending process, unattainable ideal. At the end of the novel, Harry Haller failed to cope with this challenge. It seems that he has remained at the same point, where we had met him. However, nothing was impossible − everything was just beginning. Conclusions. The questions raised by Jungian analysis push us beyond our limits to the great alchemical mystery − the wholeness of our own souls. For the salvation of humankind as a whole and every single human in our world full of conflicts and violence, we all need to

  10. The relationship between personality types and leisure time activities amongst Casino employees’ workplace expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Naude

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Associations between a person’s character strengths, happiness and well-being can be explained with the overlap that they have with personality. Casino employees’ working hours were and are increasing, which means that their leisure time is decreasing concomitantly, with only 20 hours per week being used in pursuit of leisure activities.Research purpose: The primary purpose of this research was to investigate 1502 casino employees’ personality types and the relationship it has on their leisure life and overall happiness.Motivation for the study: The importance of leisure participation and time to take part in leisure activities, and the effect it has on casino employees’ happiness in the workplace, warrants further investigation. If human resources managers and general management want happier casino employees in the workplace, they should focus on their personality types and make more leisure activities available to them; which will result in a happier workforce.Research design, approach and method: The target population consisted of 3032 casino employees, who received the questionnaires and were given the opportunity to complete the questionnaires anonymously. An availability sampling technique was used, based on the number of casino employees who were willing and available to complete the questionnaires.Main findings and practical/managerial implications: In terms of the structural equation modelling, it was found that the positive personalities such as extraversion and openness to experience correlated well with leisure life and happiness. In this study, the standardised regression weights showed that if an individual has a negative personality, he or she will not necessarily be unhappy. A positive relationship was found between positive personality traits such as cooperativeness and agreeableness and leisure life and happiness. Considering mediation effects, leisure preference was the greatest partial mediator between

  11. Personality, personal model beliefs, and self-care in adolescents and young adults with type 1 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Skinner, TC; Hampson, SE; Fife-Schaw, CR

    2002-01-01

    This study compared 3 models of association between personality, personal model beliefs, and self-care in a cross-sectional design. These models were as follows: (a) Emotional stability determines self-care indirectly through personal model beliefs, and conscientiousness is a direct predictor of self-care; (b) emotional stability determines self-care indirectly through personal model beliefs, and conscientiousness moderates the association between beliefs and self-care; (c) both emotional sta...

  12. Segmenting consumers according to experiential preferences based on personality type vs. personality traits – a latent class analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jeanne

    Differences in consumers’ preferences for experiences have been suggested to be based on personality among other things. Personality in consumer research has primarily been operationalized as personality traits using the Five Factor theory. An old, re-emerged discussion in psychology is pointing...... attributes of people, therefore the line of thinking is found intriguing and will be explored further in a consumer experience setting....

  13. Informing cancer patient based on his type of personality:The self-sacrificing patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallergis, George

    2015-01-01

    Imparting the bad news has become a hard task for the doctor, and is usually perceived as unpleasant by the patient to whom the bad news is revealed. It is vital that the physician's approach be tailored to the cancer patient's personality. Gathering by the informing process protocols already suggested the hardest step for the doctors to take is empathic understanding which, presupposes tailoring to the individual's needs. The aim of this article was to describe the self-sacrificing type of personality thoroughly, so that any physician can make a diagnosis and tailor the information strategy to their needs. As method of research was used the qualitative method through groups with doctors and nurses, while research within groups lasted for 5 years. Assessing the denial mechanism is hard for a person that regards disease as punishment and propitiation. The physician must mobilize his countertransference, the sense he gets from the discussions with the patient and their overall communication. If he finds that the patient has self-control, then the approach of imparting the news resembles that of the controlling-orderly personality. If he ascertains that the patient has a lasting embarrassment, he should be more careful and impart the news gradually, his approach resembling that of the dependent person.

  14. The Relationship between Personality Types and Self-Regulated Learning Strategies of Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Ghyasi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between personality traits, as measured by the NEO Five Factor Inventory, and different learning strategies, measured by the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ, that foreign language student may employ to help them learn the language.  A sample of 231 undergraduate students of English in Iran was administered the Inventory and the MSLQ.  This study is the first to connect learners’ personality traits with general learning strategies, which can be specifically applied to foreign language learning.  Analyzing the data using multiple regressions, the authors found that personality type was able to predict the tendency to use different learning strategies.  Specifically, students who scored high on “conscientiousness” were more likely to use all strategies, particularly managing time and study environment.  Students high on extraversion were more likely to use peer learning and help seeking strategies.  The authors conclude that language teachers could benefit from assessing their students’ personalities and matching strategies to their students’ tendencies. Keywords: Self-regulation; Personality; Five-Factor Inventory; Second language learning

  15. The similarity of attitudes towards personal and impersonal types of authority among adolescent schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, K; Schofield, P; Slee, P T

    1987-09-01

    This paper examines the extent to which the attitudes of young adolescents towards personal and impersonal types of authority are differentiated. Reliable measures of attitudes towards personal authorities (parents and teachers) and impersonal authorities (the police and the law) were developed with a preliminary sample of 155 secondary school students. These measures were employed with further samples of (a) third year High School students (n = 77) who also completed the Keeves (1974) Attitudes to School and School Learning Scale, and (b) first year High School students (n = 250) who also completed the Ray and Jones (1983) self-report measures of authority-salient behaviours in relation to their parents and teachers. The attitudes of the students were relatively pro-authority and did not differ according to gender. In general, the younger group of students were the more pro-authority, significantly so on the measures of attitude towards personal authorities. For each sample the pro-authority attitude measures loaded substantially (greater than 0.6) on the first factor of a principal components analysis. Correlations between these measures and (a) attitudes to school and school learning and (b) reported authority-salient behaviours were positive and, in general, significant for each sex. Overall, the results provided little support for the view that attitudes towards personal and impersonal type of authority are dissimilar.

  16. From Nutty Professor to Buddy Love--Personality types in modern science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    People often suggest that scientists should have a specific personality type, usually conscientious and self-critical. But this is a mistake. Science as a social system needs to be conscientious and self-critical, but scientists as people do not necessarily have to conform to that stereotype. Since science works by a process of selection, it makes sense to have a wide range of personalities in science. It takes all types. However, the selection pressures within science have changed over recent decades. In the past, a successful scientist often resembled the white-coated, bespectacled and introverted Nutty Professor in Jerry Lewis's movie of that name. But the modern science superstar is more like the Nutty Professor's alter ego, nightclub singer 'Buddy Love': a sharp-suited, good-looking and charismatic charmer. While Nutty was dull but impartial, Buddy is compelling but self-seeking. Our attitude towards public scientific pronouncements should be adjusted accordingly.

  17. Preliminary evidence for the cross-cultural utility of the type D personality construct in the Ukraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Yagensky, Andriy; Smith, Otto R F

    2009-01-01

    Type D personality is a risk indicator in cardiac patients. The validity and reliability of the Type D Scale (DS14) have been confirmed in Western Europe but not outside this context.......Type D personality is a risk indicator in cardiac patients. The validity and reliability of the Type D Scale (DS14) have been confirmed in Western Europe but not outside this context....

  18. Personality Type and Student Performance in Upper-Level Economics Courses: The Importance of Race and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Mary O.; Stranahan, Harriet A.

    2002-01-01

    Demonstrates that personality type is an important explanatory variable in student performance in upper level economics courses. Finds that certain personality types, combined with race and gender effects, produce students who outperform other students. Introverts and those with the Keirsey-Bates temperament combination of sensing/judging…

  19. Lack of Prognostic Value of Type D Personality for Mortality in a Large Sample of Heart Failure Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coyne, James C.; Jaarsma, Tiny; Luttik, Marie-Louise; van Sonderen, Eric; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Sanderman, Robbert

    2011-01-01

    Background: Type D personality has been proposed as a prognostic indicator for mortality in cardiovascular disease. Most research examining this construct originates from one research group, and it is critical that the predictive value of Type D personality for adverse outcomes is independently cros

  20. Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on distressed (Type D) personality traits: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyklicek, I.; Beugen, S. van; Denollet, J.

    2013-01-01

    Distressed ('Type D') personality, the combination of negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI), has been associated with adverse health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine if an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program could reduce Type D personality charac

  1. Type D personality and depressive symptoms are independent predictors of impaired health status in chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Angélique A; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Widdershoven, Jos W;

    2008-01-01

    To examine whether Type D personality exerts a stable, independent effect on health status in CHF over time, adjusted for depressive symptoms.......To examine whether Type D personality exerts a stable, independent effect on health status in CHF over time, adjusted for depressive symptoms....

  2. Language Learning Strategies Employed by Chinese English-Major Pre-Service Teachers in Relation to Gender and Personality Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chaoying; Intaraprasert, Channarong

    2015-01-01

    This study was intended to investigate the use of language learning strategy employed by English-major pre-service teachers in Midwest China in relation to their gender and personality types. The modified Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL) and adopted personality type inventory were used to collect the data. ANOVA and Chi-square tests…

  3. Algorithms for personalized therapy of type 2 diabetes: results of a web-based international survey

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo, Marco; Mannucci, Edoardo; De Cosmo, Salvatore; Gentile, Sandro; Candido, Riccardo; De Micheli, Alberto; Di Benedetto, Antonino; Esposito, Katherine; Genovese, Stefano; Medea, Gerardo; Ceriello, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Objective In recent years increasing interest in the issue of treatment personalization for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) has emerged. This international web-based survey aimed to evaluate opinions of physicians about tailored therapeutic algorithms developed by the Italian Association of Diabetologists (AMD) and available online, and to get suggestions for future developments. Another aim of this initiative was to assess whether the online advertising and the survey would have increased the global ...

  4. The effect of personality type and musical task on self-perceived arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hayoung A

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to measure the level of arousal influenced by 4 different musical experiences classified by task difficulty and to examine the relationship between music-induced arousal level and personality type. Participants included 32 university students who were neither musicians nor music majors. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975) was used to identify participants as either extravert or introvert. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 types of musical tasks: listening, singing, rhythm tapping, or keyboard playing. Arousal level was measured using the Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List (ADACL) (Thayer, 1978) before and after the musical task. The ADACL is a self-report scale consisting of a list of 20 adjectives which describe various transitory arousal states, including energy, tiredness, tension, and calmness. Results showed no significant difference between personality types and the changes in arousal level. Result indicated a significant effect of listening on decreased tension arousal. Singing and rhythm tapping, which are regarded as having a relatively moderate task difficulty, increased energy arousal significantly and decreased tiredness arousal significantly. Participants' tiredness arousal levels also decreased significantly after keyboard playing. These findings suggest that engaging in musical experience that has a moderate level of task difficulty makes individuals more energetic and less tired.

  5. Comparing Teaching Styles and Personality Types of EFL Instructors in the Public and Private Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz Larenas Claudio H.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    This is an exploratory non-experimental research study whose main objective is to compare the teaching styles of a group of thirty teachers of English working in either public or private secondary education in Chile. In order to collect the required data, two instruments were administered to the participants: a teaching style inventory and a personality type index proposed by Grasha. Results indicate that public sector participants show a facilitator teaching style and an extrovert personality type, whereas private sector participants reveal a more authoritative teaching style and an introverted type of personality.

    Este estudio exploratorio de naturaleza no-experimental tiene como objetivo principal comparar los estilos de enseñanza de un grupo de treinta profesores de inglés que trabajan en el nivel de enseñanza secundario del sistema educativo estatal o privado, en Chile. Para la recolección de datos se utilizaron el inventario de estilos de enseñanza y el índice de tipo de personalidad de Grasha. Los resultados indican que los participantes del nivel de enseñanza estatal presentan un estilo de enseñanza de naturaleza facilitadora y un tipo de personalidad extrovertido, mientras que los participantes del nivel de enseñanza privado revelan un estilo de enseñanza más autoritario y una personalidad más introvertida.

  6. Relationship between Personality Types Conceptualized by C. G. Jung and Latvian IT Specialist Preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maris Dargis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available General people’s personality types, as well as idiosyncrasies and cognition and perception characteristics specific to each type, are a common research item, especially in such areas as pedagogics, human resource management, etc. Personality traits characteristic for individuals and teams of certain specific avocations (i.e., project teams, however, are a much less explored subject. In this area, the amount of conducted research is congruent with the geopolitical location and directly correlates with the possibility of finding practical applications for the findings of said research. This study presents the initial findings of such research, within the scope of which the idiosyncrasies common for IT specialists were explored using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI model. These initial findings can be used as the foundation for further study on the subject, helping to create a general Latvian IT specialist’s personality profile, and, possibly, identifying the areas that need development, while taking into consideration the tendencies and requirements of the Latvian IT market, as well as those of  the labour market worldwide.

  7. A Type A and Type D Combined Personality Typology in Essential Hypertension and Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: Associations with Demographic, Psychological, Clinical, and Lifestyle Indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steca, Patrizia; D'Addario, Marco; Magrin, Maria Elena; Miglioretti, Massimo; Monzani, Dario; Pancani, Luca; Sarini, Marcello; Scrignaro, Marta; Vecchio, Luca; Fattirolli, Francesco; Giannattasio, Cristina; Cesana, Francesca; Riccobono, Salvatore Pio; Greco, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have focused on Type A and Type D personality types in the context of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but nothing is known about how these personality types combine to create new profiles. The present study aimed to develop a typology of Type A and Type D personality in two groups of patients affected by and at risk for coronary disease. The study involved 711 patients: 51.6% with acute coronary syndrome, 48.4% with essential hypertension (mean age = 56.4 years; SD = 9.7 years; 70.7% men). Cluster analysis was applied. External variables, such as socio-demographic, psychological, lifestyle, and clinical parameters, were assessed. Six groups, each with its own unique combined personality profile scores, were identified: Type D, Type A-Negatively Affected, Not Type A-Negatively Affected, Socially Inhibited-Positively Affected, Not Socially Inhibited, and Not Type A-Not Type D. The Type A-Negatively Affected cluster and, to a lesser extent, the Type D cluster, displayed the worst profile: namely higher total cardiovascular risk index, physical inactivity, higher anxiety and depression, and lower self-esteem, optimism, and health status. Identifying combined personality profiles is important in clinical research and practice in cardiovascular diseases. Practical implications are discussed.

  8. Advances in functional brain imaging technology and developmental neuro-psychology: their applications in the Jungian analytic domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchkovsky, Leon

    2017-06-01

    Analytical psychology shares with many other psychotherapies the important task of repairing the consequences of developmental trauma. The majority of analytic patients come from compromised early developmental backgrounds: they may have experienced neglect, abuse, or failures of empathic resonance from their carers. Functional brain imagery techniques including Quantitative Electroencephalogram (QEEG), and functional Magnetic Resonance Imagery (fMRI), allow us to track mental processes in ways beyond verbal reportage and introspection. This independent perspective is useful for developing new psychodynamic hypotheses, testing current ones, providing diagnostic markers, and monitoring treatment progress. Jung, with the Word Association Test, grasped these principles 100 years ago. Brain imaging techniques have contributed to powerful recent advances in our understanding of neurodevelopmental processes in the first three years of life. If adequate nurturance is compromised, a range of difficulties may emerge. This has important implications for how we understand and treat our psychotherapy clients. The paper provides an overview of functional brain imaging and advances in developmental neuropsychology, and looks at applications of some of these findings (including neurofeedback) in the Jungian psychotherapy domain. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  9. The effectiveness of structured personal care of type 2 diabetes on recurrent outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundström, Hanna; Siersma, Volkert; Nielsen, Anni B Sternhagen;

    2014-01-01

    controlled trial, 1,381 patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were randomised to 6 years of structured personal care or routine care (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01074762). The trial had 19 years of registry-based follow-up and was analysed with Cox regression models. Repeated occurrences in the same......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The estimation of effect size in clinical trials commonly disregards recurrent outcomes. We investigated the effectiveness of a complex intervention on recurrent outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In the Diabetes Care in General Practice (DCGP) randomised...

  10. Validity of Type D personality in Iceland: association with disease severity and risk markers in cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svansdottir, Erla; Karlsson, Hrobjartur D; Gudnason, Thorarinn; Olason, Daniel T; Thorgilsson, Hordur; Sigtryggsdottir, Unnur; Sijbrands, Eric J; Pedersen, Susanne S; Denollet, Johan

    2012-04-01

    Type D personality has been associated with poor prognosis in cardiac patients. This study investigated the validity of the Type D construct in Iceland and its association with disease severity and health-related risk markers in cardiac patients. A sample of 1,452 cardiac patients completed the Type D scale (DS14), and a subgroup of 161 patients completed measurements for the five-factor model of personality, emotional control, anxiety, depression, stress and lifestyle factors. The Icelandic DS14 had good psychometric properties and its construct validity was confirmed. Prevalence of Type D was 26-29%, and assessment of Type D personality was not confounded by severity of underlying coronary artery disease. Regarding risk markers, Type D patients reported more psychopharmacological medication use and smoking, but frequency of previous mental problems was similar across groups. Type D is a valid personality construct in Iceland, and is associated with health-related risk markers, but not cardiac disease severity.

  11. Effect of disease duration on personality type in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Vesal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis may have profound emotional consequences. The relation between psychological and physical factors could lead patients toward unforeseen disease. This study focuses on multiple sclerosis (MS disease duration on personality type A and B in relation to individuals' behaviors. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted in Isfahan Alzahra hospital in 2013. Three hundred MS patients and 100 healthy individuals were determined. The distributed questionnaires related to MS patients and considering the descriptive statistics such as demographic variables. Data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 18 based on Chi-square test and independent T-test. Results: Disease duration varied between 1 to 38 years: 30% (1-4 years, 38% (5-10 years, 20% (10-20 years, and 12% (more than 20 years. Significant relationship was observed between disease duration and tendency to type A (higher stress. This relation was positive and significant in Relapsing Remitting MS patients; but negative correlation was seen in Secondary Progressive MS patients. These patients tended to type B (lower stress when disease duration increased. Conclusions: Individuals with disease duration of one year and less than one year tend to type A personality, while patients with increment of disease duration have tendency to type B.

  12. Personalized therapy algorithms for type 2 diabetes: a phenotype-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceriello, Antonio; Gallo, Marco; Candido, Riccardo; De Micheli, Alberto; Esposito, Katherine; Gentile, Sandro; Medea, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is a progressive disease with a complex and multifactorial pathophysiology. Patients with type 2 diabetes show a variety of clinical features, including different "phenotypes" of hyperglycemia (eg, fasting/preprandial or postprandial). Thus, the best treatment choice is sometimes difficult to make, and treatment initiation or optimization is postponed. This situation may explain why, despite the existing complex therapeutic armamentarium and guidelines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, a significant proportion of patients do not have good metabolic control and at risk of developing the late complications of diabetes. The Italian Association of Medical Diabetologists has developed an innovative personalized algorithm for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, which is available online. According to the main features shown by the patient, six algorithms are proposed, according to glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, ≥9% or ≤9%), body mass index (≤30 kg/m(2) or ≥30 kg/m(2)), occupational risk potentially related to hypoglycemia, chronic renal failure, and frail elderly status. Through self-monitoring of blood glucose, patients are phenotyped according to the occurrence of fasting/preprandial or postprandial hyperglycemia. In each of these six algorithms, the gradual choice of treatment is related to the identified phenotype. With one exception, these algorithms contain a stepwise approach for patients with type 2 diabetes who are metformin-intolerant. The glycemic targets (HbA1c, fasting/preprandial and postprandial glycemia) are also personalized. This accessible and easy to use algorithm may help physicians to choose a personalized treatment plan for each patient and to optimize it in a timely manner, thereby lessening clinical inertia.

  13. Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on distressed (type D) personality traits: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyklíček, Ivan; van Beugen, Sylvia; Denollet, Johan

    2013-08-01

    Distressed ('Type D') personality, the combination of negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI), has been associated with adverse health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine if an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program could reduce Type D personality characteristics. Distressed individuals from the Dutch general population (N = 146; mean age = 46.07; 69 % female) participated in a randomized trial comparing the mindfulness intervention with waitlist control. Although change in Type D caseness did not differ between groups, the intervention group showed stronger reductions for both NA (p personality type, likely through the mechanism of increased mindfulness.

  14. Characterizing the successful student in general chemistry and physical science classes in terms of Jung's personality types as identified by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Wayne David

    1998-11-01

    A student's success in a science class can depend upon previous experiences, motivation, and the level of interest in the subject. Since psychological type is intrinsic to a person's whole being, it can be influential upon the student's motivation and interests. Thus, a study of student psychological types versus the level of success in a class, as measured by a percentage, has potential to uncover certain personality characteristics which may be helpful to or which may hinder a student's learning environment. This study was initiated, using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, to evaluate any correlation between a student's personality type and his/her performance in a science class. A total of 1041 students from three classes: Chemistry 121/122, Chemistry 112, Physical Science 100, volunteered for the study. An analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the levels of significance among sixteen personality types' averages. The results reveal that for the Chemistry 1121/122 course, the average score of the INTJ personality type was 5.1 to 12.6 points higher than every other personality type. The ANOVA identifies 3 personality types with averages significantly below the INTJ at the p < 0.05 significance level. The ANOVA analysis for the Chemistry 112 course identified significances between student scores at p = 0.08. The significance level for the differences among scores for the Physical Science 100 course was determined at a level of p = 0.02. Significance levels for p < 0.05 and <0.01 were identified between several groups in this course. The data suggest, that although personality type may not predict a particular student's success in a science class, students with certain personality traits may be favored in a chemistry class due the structure of the instruction and the presentation of the subject matter.

  15. Development of advanced-type multi-functional electronic personal dosemeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunomiya, T; Abe, S; Aoyama, K; Nakamura, T

    2007-01-01

    An advanced-type small, light, multi-functional electronic personal dosemeter has been developed using silicon semiconductor radiation detectors for dose management of workers at nuclear power plants and accelerator facilities. This dosemeter is 62 x 82 x 27 mm(3) in size and approximately 130 g in weight, which is capable of measuring personal gamma ray and neutron dose equivalents, Hp(10), simultaneously. The neutron dose equivalent can be obtained using two types of silicon semiconductors: a slow-neutron sensor (1 MeV). The slow neutron sensor is a 10 x 10 mm(2) p-type silicon on which a natural boron layer is deposited around an aluminium electrode. The fast neutron sensor is also a 10 x 10 mm(2) p-type silicon crystal on which an amorphous silicon hydride is deposited. The neutron energy response corresponding to the fluence-to-dose-equivalent conversion coefficient given by ICRP Publication 74 has been evaluated using a monoenergetic neutron source from 250 keV to 15 MeV at the Fast Neutron Laboratory of Tohoku University. As the result, the Hp(10) response to neutrons in the energy range of 250 keV and 4.4 MeV within +/-50% difference has been obtained.

  16. Personalized therapy algorithms for type 2 diabetes: a phenotype-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceriello A

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Ceriello,1,2 Marco Gallo,3 Riccardo Candido,4 Alberto De Micheli,5 Katherine Esposito,6 Sandro Gentile,6 Gerardo Medea71Department of Endocrinology, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi iSunyer, 2Centro de Investigacion Biomèdica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabolicas Asociadas, Barcelona, Spain; 3Oncological Endocrinology, AOU Città della Salute e della Scienza-Molinette, Turin, 4Diabetes Center, ASS 1 Triestina, Trieste, 5Ligurian Health Agency, Genoa, 6Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, 7Italian College of General Practitioners, Florence, ItalyAbstract: Type 2 diabetes is a progressive disease with a complex and multifactorial pathophysiology. Patients with type 2 diabetes show a variety of clinical features, including different "phenotypes" of hyperglycemia (eg, fasting/preprandial or postprandial. Thus, the best treatment choice is sometimes difficult to make, and treatment initiation or optimization is postponed. This situation may explain why, despite the existing complex therapeutic armamentarium and guidelines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, a significant proportion of patients do not have good metabolic control and at risk of developing the late complications of diabetes. The Italian Association of Medical Diabetologists has developed an innovative personalized algorithm for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, which is available online. According to the main features shown by the patient, six algorithms are proposed, according to glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, ≥9% or ≤9%, body mass index (≤30 kg/m2 or ≥30 kg/m2, occupational risk potentially related to hypoglycemia, chronic renal failure, and frail elderly status. Through self-monitoring of blood glucose, patients are phenotyped according to the occurrence of fasting/preprandial or postprandial hyperglycemia. In each of these six algorithms, the gradual choice of

  17. Personal characteristics of effective managers in organizational cultures of different types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharova L.N.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s Russian enterprises have been experiencing difficulties in transitioning to the market-innovative model of development. In the context of the current variability of management paradigms, we had an opportunity to study the internal and external regulators of organizational changes that are typical for a transitioning economy. Organizational culture (ОС was studied as an external factor, while the personal traits of middle managers were viewed as internal factors because these managers are the agents for values and for behavior models, from corporate directives to “front-desk’ personnel. The goal of this theoretical and empirical study was to determine the personality traits of middle managers who were deemed effective by top management in companies transitioning to the market-innovative model of development in the context of different types of OCs. During the preliminary stage, we conducted a comparative analysis of the requirements for the personal traits of middle managers who are working in stable conditions as well as in conditions of transfer to the market-innovative model of development, and we selected the relevant methods of empirical research. During the first stage of the empirical part of our research we defined a group of four enterprises with OCs of different types, identified their effective mid-level managers based on expert evaluations by the top leadership, and formed test groups. During the second stage we studied the personal characteristics of these managers. We determined that the personality traits of managers deemed effective by their leaders form integral complexes, which in turn correlate in a certain way with the type of ОС of an enterprise. We identified four models of an effective manager: Mentor, Dictator, Innovator, and Businessman; these managers have varying degrees of work productivity, value priorities in the development of ОС, personal self-concepts, organizational leadership skills

  18. Identification during imposed change: the roles of personal values, type of change, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdlik, Noga; Oreg, Shaul

    2015-06-01

    Using a person-situation perspective, we explain what happens to individuals' identification with a collective in the context of a change. We propose that given the anxiety that often emerges during change, individuals' personal values (conservation and openness to change) interact with type of change (imposed vs. voluntary) in predicting identification following change. In a pilot, longitudinal field study (N = 61, 67% female) of an imposed university campus relocation, we measured employees' values and identification with the university before and several months after the relocation. In two lab experiments (Study 1: N = 104, 91.3% female; Study 2: N = 113, 75.2% female), we manipulated a change to be either imposed or voluntary and compared the relationships between values and identification across types of change. In Study 2, we also measured anxiety from the change. When change was imposed (all three studies), but not when voluntary (Studies 1 and 2), individuals' conservation was positively, and openness negatively, related to individuals' post-change identification. The effects emerged only for individuals who experienced change-related anxiety (Study 2). Our findings demonstrate that individuals' identification with a changing collective depends on the amount of anxiety change elicits and on the particular combination of their values and type of change.

  19. Larviculture of a carnivorous freshwater catfish, Lophiosilurus alexandri, screened by personality type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Isabela F Araújo; da C Júlio, Gustavo S; Figueiredo, Luis Gustavo; de Lima, Natália L C; Soares, Ana Paula N; Luz, Ronald K

    2017-09-04

    Considering that each personality type in animals presents distinct physiological and behavioural responses, this study evaluated the efficiency of the Novel Environment test to classify larvae of Lophiosilurus alexandri into bold and shy individuals, which were then investigated for growth, cannibalism and mortality in larviculture of pure and mixed groups. Larvae with an average weight of 24.0±1.7mg and length of 14.1±0.4mm, were subjected to a Novel Environment test to classify their personality type (bold and shy larvae). After the larvae were classified according to personality type, they were subjected to larviculture for 15 days. Three treatments were tested: only bold larvae, only shy larvae, and a mixed treatment (bold larvae+shy larvae) at a density for 16 larvae/L, which were fed 3 times a day with Artemia nauplii. After larviculture, there were no differences in the final lengths of larvae of the bold, shy, and mixed treatments (26.9±0.76mm, 26.7±1.00mm, and 26.8±1.24mm, respectively); however, shy larvae possessed weighed less (0.22±0.01g) than the bold and mixed treatments, which did not differ significantly (0.25±0.02g and 0.27±0.02g, respectively). The bold and mixed treatments had the highest cannibalism rate (11.2±5.1% and 23.1±12.3%, respectively). Overall survival was lowest in the mixed treatment (62.5±13.0%), while that of the bold and shy treatments were similar (82.5±9.2% and 86.2±9.2%, respectively). The separation of L. alexandri larvae by traits can ensure a decrease in cannibalism and hence, more productive larviculture. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Is Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus More Prevalent Than Expected in Transgender Persons? A Local Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defreyne, Justine; De Bacquer, Dirk; Shadid, Samyah; Lapauw, Bruno; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2017-09-01

    The International Diabetes Federation estimates that approximately 0.4% of the Belgian population is diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus, which is similar to other industrialized countries. The prevalence of transgenderism is estimated at 0.6% to 0.7% of all adults in Western populations. In this study, we evaluated whether there was an increased prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in transgender people in the local cohort. Medical records of transgender patients were analyzed retrospectively. From January 1, 2007 until October 10, 2016, 1,081 transgender patients presented at a tertiary reference center to start hormonal treatment. Nine of these 1,081 patients were previously diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 1 was diagnosed with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults. A 2.3-fold higher prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus was observed in transgender patients. We concluded that type 1 diabetes mellitus was more prevalent in transgender patients than one would expect from population prevalences. This could be a spurious result in a local cohort, because a causal relation seems unlikely, but our finding might encourage other centers to investigate this putative association. Defreyne J, De Bacquer D, Shadid S, et al. Is Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus More Prevalent Than Expected in Transgender Persons? A Local Observation. Sex Med 2017;5:e215-e218. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Assessment of the type D personality construct in the Korean population: a validation study of the Korean DS14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hong Euy; Lee, Moon-Soo; Ko, Young-Hoon; Park, Young-Min; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Kim, Yong-Ku; Han, Changsu; Lee, Hwa-Young; Pedersen, Susanne S; Denollet, Johan

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a Korean version of the Type D Personality Scale-14 (DS14) and evaluate the psychiatric symptomatology of Korean cardiac patients with Type D personality. Healthy control (n = 954), patients with a coronary heart disease (n = 111) and patients with hypertension and no heart disease (n = 292) were recruited. All three groups completed DS14, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), the state subscale of Spielberger State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD), and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). The Korean DS14 was internally consistent and stable over time. 27% of the subjects were classified as Type D. Type D individuals had significantly higher mean scores on the STAI-S, CESD, and GHQ compared to non-Type D subjects in each group. The Korean DS14 was a valid and reliable tool for identifying Type D personality. The general population and cardiovascular patients with Type D personality showed higher rate of depression, anxiety and psychological distress regarding their health. Therefore, identifying Type D personality is important in clinical research and practice in chronic medical disorders, especially cardiovascular disease, in Korea.

  2. Analysis of Anger Expression Style – Continuous Anger and Personality Types of Professional Soccer Players

    OpenAIRE

    YILDIZ, Mustafa; Şahan, Hasan; Tekin, Murat; Ulukan, Mehmet; Mehtap, Bekir

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the anger expression styles, the continuous anger and personality types of players who play football in the professional league. The research group consisted of 133 soccer players who are playing in sports teams in the Turkish Super League: Ankara Sport Club, Gençlerbirliði Sports Club and Hacettepe Sports Club in the first league, Turk Telekom sports in the second league, and Keçiören Gücü Sports and Ankarademir Sports playing in the third...

  3. The association of personal resilience with stress, coping, and diabetes outcomes in adolescents with type 1 diabetes: variable- and person-focused approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi-Frazier, Joyce P; Yaptangco, Mona; Semana, Sharla; Buscaino, Emil; Thompson, Valeria; Cochrane, Katie; Tabile, Marissa; Alving, Erin; Rosenberg, Abby R

    2015-09-01

    This study explored the association between personal resilience and distress, coping, and diabetes outcomes in 50 adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Resilience was defined by a factor score derived from validated instruments measuring self-efficacy, optimism, and self-esteem. Variable- and person-focused methodologies were used to explore these associations. Low resilience was associated with higher distress, poor quality of life, and poor glycemic control. Participants with low resilience used more maladaptive coping strategies and were at greatest risk of poor outcomes. Findings suggest that resilience is a promising candidate for interventions designed to reduce distress and improve outcomes for adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

  4. P A Jungian Approach to Self-fragmentation of Twentieth Century in Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty Four

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhdeh Alizadeh Shirazi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The problematic life of modern human has always been a significant issue for many areas of study. In reaction to the absence of romantic values and the unity of the pre-modern world, Human being was afflicted with a sense of inner crises which is referred to as self-fragmentation. Fragmentation is one of the significant features of twentieth century when a mode of anxiety subjugated both art and society. In such an atmosphere many writers of the modern century attempted to reflect in their works of literature, what they had experienced in the real world. Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty Four is one of the popular novels of Modern Era that describes a modern but fragmented society wherein the modern human’s lack of self-integration is perceptible. By representing how the protagonists respond to the voices of their psyches through characterization and dreams, which is also of crucial significance in Jung’s Analytical Psychology, Orwell explores the roots of modern human’s urge for achieving a cohesive sense of self. Accordingly, this study, attempts to illustrate how modern human steps in the path of individuation and to what extent these efforts meet with success, if any. To achieve this goal, some terms and notions of Jungian Criticism such as archetypes and the process of individuation will be borrowed, and a particular focus will be held on dreams occurring in the course of the story. In addition, this paper would like to argue that the dystopian society portrayed in these novels is the offspring of a mere rationalism which prevents human from knowing the opposing forces working within as well as the forces functioning from without.

  5. Path to Personalized Medicine for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Reality and Hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaei Meybodi, Hamid Reza; Hasanzad, Mandana; Larijani, Bagher

    2017-03-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is recognized as a public health problem and increasingly prevalent illness. Key elements of the guideline for diabetes care are based on evidence-based medicine approach and apply for population, not individuals. However, individualized care can improve diabetes management. Personalized medicine is otherwise called precision medicine tries to find better prediction, prevention, and intervention for T2DM individuals. Precision medicine in diabetes refers to the utility of genomics data of a patient with diabetes to provide the most effective diagnosis strategies and treatment plans. Over 100 genetic loci influence susceptibility to T2DM. Genomics data together with the potential of other "Omics" and clinical evidence-based data will lead to diabetes care improvement in the context of personalized medicine in the near future. Breakthrough of technologies enables much greater improvements in the understanding of individual variations that may alter the T2DM outcome. This article represents a comprehensive review of current knowledge on the impact of personalized medicine in T2DM.

  6. Algorithms for personalized therapy of type 2 diabetes: results of a web-based international survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Marco; Mannucci, Edoardo; De Cosmo, Salvatore; Gentile, Sandro; Candido, Riccardo; De Micheli, Alberto; Di Benedetto, Antonino; Esposito, Katherine; Genovese, Stefano; Medea, Gerardo; Ceriello, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    In recent years increasing interest in the issue of treatment personalization for type 2 diabetes (T2DM) has emerged. This international web-based survey aimed to evaluate opinions of physicians about tailored therapeutic algorithms developed by the Italian Association of Diabetologists (AMD) and available online, and to get suggestions for future developments. Another aim of this initiative was to assess whether the online advertising and the survey would have increased the global visibility of the AMD algorithms. The web-based survey, which comprised five questions, has been available from the homepage of the web-version of the journal Diabetes Care throughout the month of December 2013, and on the AMD website between December 2013 and September 2014. Participation was totally free and responders were anonymous. Overall, 452 physicians (M=58.4%) participated in the survey. Diabetologists accounted for 76.8% of responders. The results of the survey show wide agreement (>90%) by participants on the utility of the algorithms proposed, even if they do not cover all possible needs of patients with T2DM for a personalized therapeutic approach. In the online survey period and in the months after its conclusion, a relevant and durable increase in the number of unique users who visited the websites was registered, compared to the period preceding the survey. Patients with T2DM are heterogeneous, and there is interest toward accessible and easy to use personalized therapeutic algorithms. Responders opinions probably reflect the peculiar organization of diabetes care in each country.

  7. Notes and shorter communications; the assignment of subjects to disease prone personality types : a comment on Schmitz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranchor, A.V.; Sanderman, R.; Bouma, J

    1993-01-01

    In this paper the assignment procedure is discussed which has been used in the study of Schmitz (1992; Personality and Individual Differences, 13, 683-691) investigating the relation between the personality types of Grossarth-Maticek and Eysenck and various physical complaints. One of the fundamenta

  8. Personality Types in Adolescence: Change and Stability and Links with Adjustment and Relationships--A Five-Wave Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeus, Wim; Van de Schoot, Rens; Klimstra, Theo; Branje, Susan

    2011-01-01

    We examined change and stability of the 3 personality types identified by Block and Block (1980) and studied their links with adjustment and relationships. We used data from a 5-wave study of 923 early-to-middle and 390 middle-to-late adolescents, thereby covering the ages of 12-20 years. In Study 1, systematic evidence for personality change was…

  9. The distressed (Type D) personality mediates the relationship between remembered parenting and psychological distress in cardiac patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, N.L.; Versteeg, H.; Helmondt, S.J. van; Jaegere, P.P. de; Geuns, R.J.M. van; Meine, M.M.; Domburg, R.T. van; Pedersen, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Both the distressed (Type D) personality (i.e. the combination of negative affectivity and social inhibition traits) and dysfunctional parenting styles are associated with anxiety and depression. As parenting styles have been related to personality development, dysfunctional parenting sty

  10. Type D personality is associated with impaired health-related quality of life 7 years following heart transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.S. Pedersen (Susanne); P.G. Holkamp (Pieter); K. Caliskan (Kadir); R.T. van Domburg (Ron); R.A.M. Erdman (Ruud); A.H.M.M. Balk (Aggie)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) following transplantation is gaining importance as an endpoint, but little is known about the role of normal personality traits as a determinant of HRQoL in this patient group. We investigated whether Type D personality (tendency to exper

  11. The distressed (Type D) personality mediates the relationship between remembered parenting and psychological distress in cardiac patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, N.L.; Versteeg, H.; Helmondt, S.J. van; Jaegere, P.P. de; Geuns, R.J.M. van; Meine, M.M.; Domburg, R.T. van; Pedersen, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Both the distressed (Type D) personality (i.e. the combination of negative affectivity and social inhibition traits) and dysfunctional parenting styles are associated with anxiety and depression. As parenting styles have been related to personality development, dysfunctional parenting sty

  12. The relationship between parenting types and older adolescents' personality, academic achievement, adjustment, and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, L H; Schwarz, J C

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine Baumrind's T3 conceptual framework using a multiple informant design and an older adolescent population. With 178 college students and their families as participants, the present study found many of the predicted relations between parents' child-rearing style (Authoritative, Democratic, Nondirective, Nonauthoritarian-Directive, Authoritarian-Directive, and Unengaged) and their adolescent children's behavior in the 4 domains assessed: personality, adjustment, academic achievement, and substance use. The differences between parenting types on the criterion measures were not as large as reported in Baumrind's study, and significant effects were predominantly due to the poor scores from children with Unengaged and Authoritarian-Directive parents. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the Authoritative parenting type, the utility of using a typology, and areas for future research.

  13. Relationship Between Personality Types Conceptualized by C. G. Jung and Emotional Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Virmozelova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to present the results from a study of the relationship between personality types described by C. G. Jung and emotional intelligence. The investigated subjects were 150 at the age of 18 – 50. The methods of research were MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator - Bulgarian adaptation (Rusinova, 1992 and one psychological questionnaire measuring emotional intelligence -Bulgarian adaptation (Stoyanova, 2008. The received data indicated that the functions of thinking and sensing, and introversion correlated inversely with the factors of emotional intelligence “Sharing emotions and empathy”, “Motivation to overcome difficulties and optimisms” and extroversion correlated proportionally with them. The function feeling correlated proportionally with the factor “Sharing emotions and empathy” and it correlated inversely with the factor “Recognition of nonverbal expression of emotion of the other people”.

  14. Are we witnessing the decline effect in the Type D personality literature? What can be learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, James C; de Voogd, Jacob N

    2012-12-01

    After an unbroken series of positive, but underpowered studies seemed to demonstrate Type D personality predicting mortality in cardiovascular disease patients, initial claims now appear at least exaggerated and probably false. Larger studies with consistently null findings are accumulating. Conceptual, methodological, and statistical issues can be raised concerning the construction of Type D personality as a categorical variable, whether Type D is sufficiently distinct from other negative affect variables, and if it could be plausibly assumed to predict mortality independent of depressive symptoms and known biomedical factors, including disease severity. The existing literature concerning negative affect and health suggests a low likelihood of discovering a new negative affect variable that independently predicts mortality better than its many rivals. The apparent decline effect in the Type D literature is discussed in terms of the need to reduce the persistence of false positive findings in the psychosomatic medicine literature, even while preserving a context allowing risk-taking and discovery. Recommendations include greater transparency concerning research design and analytic strategy; insistence on replication with larger samples before accepting "discoveries" from small samples; reduced confirmatory bias; and availability of all relevant data. Such changes would take time to implement, face practical difficulties, and run counter to established practices. An interim solution is for readers to maintain a sense of pre-discovery probabilities, to be sensitized to the pervasiveness of the decline effect, and to be skeptical of claims based on findings reaching significance in small-scale studies that have not been independently replicated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Effect of Mortality Salience and Type of Life on Personality Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gordillo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mortality salience, or awareness of the inevitability of one’s own death, generates a state of anxiety that triggers a defense mechanism for the control of thinking that affects different human activities and psychological processes. This study aims to analyze the effect of mortality salience on the formation of impressions. The sample comprised 135 women who made inferences about a woman’s personality from information about her life (type of life, LT: positive, negative, provided through five words, all positive or negative, that appeared surrounding a photograph, together with a sixth word that indicated whether she was “dead” or “alive” at the time (mortality manipulation, MM: dead, alive. The results pointed to a more negative assessment of life (Dead M - Alive M = -1.16, SE = .236, p < .001, emotional stability (Dead M - Alive M = -1.13, SE = .431, p = .010, and responsibility (Dead M - Alive M = -1.14, SE = .423, p = .008 only when the participants had access to negative information about the person assessed, and she was known to be dead. We discuss the results within the framework of Terror Management Theory, and analyze the different effects that the manipulation of mortality has on the formation of impressions depending on the type of information available.

  16. Systemic approach in an Organization with a personalized production of Job Shop type.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sérgio Ceretta

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The relations of the man with his organizations had always been something complex and that already result in many debates and discussions. There are some attempts of researchers and thinkers to understand some aspects that involve these institutions, mainly, through some type of analogy with other areas of the knowledge. The organizational analysis is a technique used to create new ways to think an organization, for example, to allow a systemic view of the companies. This article has the goal to approach a personalized production case in the job shop model through the systemic theory. It was used for that: (i primary data extracted from the company X; and, (ii secondary data extracted from the internet, bibliography and documentary research. All the data refers to the year of 2004. In this study was evident that the systemic approach contributed for a new form of the company’s understanding. The peculiar production aspects of the job shop type, flexible and personalized becomes simpler or not so complex as it seems, when they are approached by the theory of the systems. The understanding of this management model through the analogy with the systems allow us to identify the interactions and facilitates the decision making, in the coordination and in the formularization of strategies.

  17. Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on distressed (Type D) personality traits: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Distressed (‘Type D’) personality, the combination of negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI), has been associated with adverse health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine if an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program could reduce Type D personality characteristics. Distressed individuals from the Dutch general population (N = 146; mean age = 46.07; 69 % female) participated in a randomized trial comparing the mindfulness intervention with waitlist ...

  18. Influence of Type D personality on health-related quality of life among Korean patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Youn-Jung; You, Mi-Ae; Song, Eun Kyeung

    2012-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to explore the prevalence of Type D personality and the impact of Type D personality (the combination of negative affectivity and social inhibition) on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients and to determine whether this link of Type D personality to HRQOL is mediated by depressive symptoms. Patients (n = 144) from an outpatient nephrology clinic of a university hospital participated in this cross-sectional study. The prevalence of Type D personality using Type D Personality Scale-14 was 26%. After adjustment for patients' characteristics and depressive symptoms in multivariate analysis, Type D personality was an independent predictor of HRQOL. This relation of Type D personality to HRQOL was mediated by depressive symptoms. Our findings underline that intervention should be directed towards reducing depressive symptoms in patients with Type D personality in order to improve HRQOL of ESRD patients.

  19. Evaluation of intima media thickness of carotid arteries in 40-60 years old persons with type d personality and its comparison with normal ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Khorvash

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: We conclude that type D personality increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases specially the stroke and myocardial infarction due to the higher prevalence of hormonal imbalances leading to arterial vasospasm and atherosclerotic disease. As a result, it is necessary to evaluate and treat these patients due to increased risk of atherosclerotic diseases, stoke, and myocardial infarction.

  20. Personality and illness adaptation in adults with type 1 diabetes: the intervening role of illness coping and perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassart, Jessica; Luyckx, Koen; Klimstra, Theo A; Moons, Philip; Groven, Chris; Weets, Ilse

    2014-03-01

    Inspired by the common sense model, the present cross-sectional study examined illness perceptions and coping as intervening mechanisms in the relationship between Big Five personality traits and illness adaptation in adults with Type 1 diabetes. A total of 368 individuals with Type 1 diabetes (18-35 years old) completed questionnaires on personality, diabetes-related problems, illness perceptions, and illness coping. First, Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness predicted patients' illness adaptation, above and beyond the effects of sex, age, and illness duration. Second, illness coping was found to be an important mediating mechanism in the relationship between the Big Five and illness adaptation. Finally, perceived consequences and perceived personal control partially mediated the relationship between the Big Five and illness coping. These findings underscore the importance of examining patients' personality to shed light on their daily functioning and, hence, call for tailored intervention programs which take into account the personality of the individual patient.

  1. Childhood maltreatment, maladaptive personality types and level and course of psychological distress: A six-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M; Van Hemert, Albert M; de Rooij, Mark; Penninx, Brenda W

    2016-02-01

    Childhood maltreatment and maladaptive personality are both cross-sectionally associated with psychological distress. It is unknown whether childhood maltreatment affects the level and longitudinal course of psychological distress in adults and to what extent this effect is mediated by maladaptive personality. A sample of 2947 adults aged 18-65, consisting of healthy controls, persons with a prior history or current episode of depressive and/or anxiety disorders according to the Composite Interview Diagnostic Instrument were assessed in six waves at baseline (T0) and 1 (T1), 2 (T2), 4 (T4) and 6 years (T6) later. At each wave psychological distress was measured with the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Fear Questionnaire. At T0 childhood maltreatment types were measured with a semi-structured interview (Childhood Trauma Interview) and personality traits with the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Using latent variable analyses, we found that severity of childhood maltreatment (emotional neglect and abuse in particular) predicted higher initial levels of psychological distress and that this effect was mediated by maladaptive personality types. Differences in trajectories of distress between persons with varying levels of childhood maltreatment remained significant and stable over time. Childhood maltreatment was assessed retrospectively and maladaptive personality types and level of psychological distress at study entry were assessed concurrently. Routine assessment of maladaptive personality types and possible childhood emotional maltreatment in persons with severe and prolonged psychological distress seems warranted to identify persons who may need a different or more intensive treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Does Personality Have a Different Impact on Self-Rated Distraction, Job Satisfaction, and Job Performance in Different Office Types?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddigh, Aram; Berntson, Erik; Platts, Loretta G; Westerlund, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the joint effect of office type (cell, shared room, open-plan, and flex) and personality, measured by the Big Five personality traits, on self-rated measures of distraction, job satisfaction, and job performance (measured by professional efficacy). Regression analyses with interactions between personality and office type were conducted on 1205 participants working in 5 organizations from both the private and public sectors. While few interactions were observed in the cases of professional efficacy and job satisfaction, several were observed between personality traits and office type on the level of distraction reported. Specifically, more emotionally stable participants reported lower distraction, particularly those working in flex offices. Both agreeableness and openness to experience were associated with higher levels of distraction among participants in open-plan compared to cell offices.

  3. Type D personality and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms among intensive care unit nurses: The mediating effect of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Geum-Jin; Kang, Jiyeon

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Type D personality and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms of intensive care unit (ICU) nurses and to determine the mediating effect of resilience on this relationship. A cross-sectional survey was performed with 179 ICU nurses from 7 hospitals in Gyeong-Nam province, South Korea. The Type D personality, resilience, and PTSD symptoms of subjects were measured using a self-report questionnaire. The mediating effect was analyzed by a series of hierarchical multiple regressions. A total of 38.6% of the study participants turned out to have Type D personality. The Type D personality was positively correlated with PTSD symptoms, and negatively correlated with resilience. There was a negative correlation between resilience and PTSD symptoms. The indirect effect of Type D personality on PTSD symptoms via resilience (β = .51, p personality and PTSD symptoms of ICU nurses. Further studies need to be done to develop interventions for enhancing resilience in ICU nurses.

  4. The Relationship between Personality Type and Software Usability Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, William H.

    2011-01-01

    The study attempted to determine if there is a relationship between user's psychological personality types, measured by the Myers Briggs Type Indicator[R] (MBTI[R]) and distinct measures of usability measured by the Software Usability Measurement Inventory (SUMI). The study was expected to provide an answer to the following basic research…

  5. Type-D personality but not depression predicts severity of anxiety in heart failure patients at 1-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Angélique A; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Broers, Herman

    2008-01-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a debilitating condition associated with poor outcome, including increased anxiety. However, anxiety and its determinants have not yet been studied systematically in CHF. We examined whether type-D personality and depressive symptoms would predict clinically...... significant anxiety at 1-year follow-up....

  6. Personal Control and the Ecology of Community Living Settings: Beyond Living-Unit Size and Type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancliffe, Roger J.; Abery, Brian H.; Smith, John

    2000-01-01

    Personal control exercised by 74 adults from community living settings in Minnesota were evaluated. Individuals living semi-independently exercised more personal control than did residents of HCBS Waiver-funded supported living services, who had more personal control than did those living in community ICFs/MR. Personal characteristics and…

  7. Personality and self-esteem in emerging adults with Type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassart, Jessica; Luyckx, Koen; Moons, Philip; Weets, Ilse

    2014-02-01

    The present study examined (1) mean-level differences in self-esteem and Big Five personality traits between individuals with and without diabetes; and (2) demographic, clinical, and psychological correlates of patients' self-esteem and Big Five. A total of 478 emerging adults with Type 1 diabetes (18-35 years old) were selected from the Belgian Diabetes Registry and completed questionnaires on personality, self-esteem, and diabetes-related distress. The control group consisted of 341 healthy participants who were matched (1:1) on sex and age with the patient group. First, mean-level differences between patients and controls differed according to patients' sex and illness duration. Women with diabetes reported lower self-esteem and were less extraverted and emotionally stable as compared to female controls. In contrast, men with diabetes reported higher self-esteem and were more agreeable but less emotionally stable as compared to male controls. Furthermore, whereas both patients with shorter and longer illness duration were less extraverted and emotionally stable as compared to controls, only patients with longer illness duration reported heightened agreeableness. Second, self-esteem and Big Five were found to relate to patients' sex and (to a lesser extent) age and illness duration. Finally, patients reporting elevated diabetes-related distress reported lower self-esteem, and were less agreeable and emotionally stable as compared to patients not reporting such distress. Patients' personality and self-esteem might be important targets for future prevention and intervention efforts. The present findings can assist healthcare professionals in identifying those patients who might benefit the most from such programs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Informing cancer patient based on his type of personality: the suspicious (paranoid) patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallergis, G

    2013-01-01

    Imparting bad news had always been an unpleasant task for the physician, as shown from ancient years to our days. In the healthcare sector and as far as the cancer patient is concerned, the imparting of bad news is performed by the patient's doctor within a therapeutic relationship of course. The fundamental question is how a therapist could tailor the information to any patient and if "Is it possible to determine who should be told what, when and how ?". The aim of this paper was to describe the suspicious character or type of personality thoroughly so that any physician can make a diagnosis and tailor the information strategy to the patient's needs. As method of research was used the qualitative method through groups with doctors and nurses, while research within groups lasted for 5 years. The degree of informing of the suspicious personality in the range "minimal - small - medium - large - very large" is : the degree of denial varies between large and very large. The degree of informing varies between medium and small and sometimes minimal. Informing the Family: The hardest family to deal with. Pay attention to litigious mania. Avoid confrontation or be drawn into agreeing with the family views.

  9. Developing the Innovative Personality Type as the Priority Direction of Political Modernization in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernykh Natalya Sergeevna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to explain the necessity to modernize the Russian political system and to implement the national innovative strategy. The need to strengthen and to develop the fundamentals of innovative-typed society – human potential and social capital – is analyzed on the basis of national empirical research. Today, humanity has entered the innovative information stage of development, where creative and active potential of a nation signifies one of the primary resources for achieving the status of a competitive state. The following characteristics become of the utmost value in such a society: independent and critical thinking, responsibility for the decisions, leadership and mobility. Unfortunately, the conditions for transitioning to the innovative type of society are not so favorable in Russia. Low birth rate, high mortality rate, underdeveloped state institutions, bureaucratization of goverment apparatus, brain drain from the periphery to the centre and abroad, weak legal culture and other social problems hinder the development of the innovative characteristics among Russian citizens. Russia needs to strengthen the fundamentals of the innovative-typed society, as there are positive impulses for its development (energy and raw material resources, high scientific potential, recognition by the most active part of society that the systemic transformations are necessary. The article presents the statistical data, which points to the need to invest in the development of the innovative personality characteristics, and the necessity to implement structural modernization of the specific areas of human capital.

  10. A case of stiff-person syndrome, type 1 diabetes, celiac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Eoin P

    2009-05-01

    Antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) are involved in the pathophysiology of stiff-person syndrome (SPS) and type 1 diabetes. GAD catalyses the conversion of glutamate to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). GABA acts as a neurotransmitter between neurones, while in pancreatic beta cells it plays an integral role in normal insulin secretion, hence the clinical presentation of muscular spasms in SPS and insulin deficiency in diabetes. Despite this apparent major overlap in pathophysiology, SPS only rarely occurs in individuals with type 1 diabetes. We report the case of a 41-year-old man presenting with a simultaneous diagnosis of both these conditions. His case is unusual in that it is the first reported case in the literature of these conditions occurring in someone with celiac disease (CD) and dermatitis herpetiformis. We discuss why SPS and type 1 diabetes co-exist in only a minority of cases and speculate on the underlying mechanism of the association with CD and dermatitis herpetiformis in our patient.

  11. The role of Emotional Intelligence in mental health and Type D personality among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branscum, Paul; Bhochhibhoya, Amir; Sharma, Manoj

    2013-01-01

    The concept of Emotional Intelligence (EI) was developed as a way to evaluate and highlight the importance of emotional health as it relates to overall quality of life. This study examines the predictive nature of EI with standardized measures of mental health to create a model that can be utilized to create more effective health promotion interventions. Step-wise multiple regression was used to predict mental health (Kessler K-6 scale) and Type D personality (Denollett's Scale of Negative Affectivity and Social Inhibition) with five dimensions of EI. The results revealed that while not all of the dimensions of EI regressed significantly in each model, mood management was highly predictive of all mental health measures under investigation. Cut-off points for each scale were also helpful in interpreting the relatedness of EI to mental health.

  12. Assessing the effect of weight and weight loss in obese persons with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Curtis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Bradley Curtis1, Risa P Hayes1, Sheri Fehnel2, Laurie Zografos21Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Co, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, USAAbstract: The objective of this study was to assess specific areas of life in which obesity affects individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and changes that obese persons with T2DM experience with weight loss of varying degrees. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted in persons identified as: age ≥40 years, diagnosed with T2DM for ≥2 years, on oral antihyperglycemic medications >3 months, BMI 30–35 kg/m2, having attempted to lose weight in the last 2 years. Participants (60% female, mean age 53 years, 53% Caucasian, mean BMI 32.2 kg/m2 agreed that 5% weight loss, while not reflective of an ultimate goal, would be meaningful and important; benefits were expected to accrue in physical functioning, self-confidence, blood glucose levels, and motivation to keep losing weight. Participants reported the greatest effect of weight loss on energy, physical activity, mobility, pain, and clothes/appearance. Participants reported weight affecting mood, with feelings of depression and frustration most commonly described. This research indicates that weight loss is likely to affect health-related quality of life in obese individuals with T2DM. Given the purported weight loss benefits of many emerging diabetic medications, it will be important to include measures of weight-related quality of life in future clinical trials of these agents.Keywords: health-related quality of life, obesity, type 2 diabetes, weight loss, patient-reported outcomes

  13. Personality Type Influences Attentional Bias in Individuals with Chronic Back Pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoë C Franklin

    Full Text Available Attentional biases reflect an individual's selective attention to salient stimuli within their environment, for example an experience of back pain. Eysenck suggests that different personality types show different attentional biases to threatening information. This study is the first to test Eysenck's theory within a chronic back pain population by investigating the attentional biases of four different personality types using a back pain specific dot-probe paradigm. Participants were 70 volunteers (45 female recruited from a back rehabilitation program at an NHS Trust. The four groups were selected on their trait anxiety and defensiveness scores: defensive high-anxious; high-anxious; repressor and non-extreme. Participants completed a dot probe task comprising 20 practice trials and 250 experimental trials. The experimental trials contained 100 threat-neutral pairs, 100 positive-neutral pairs and 50 neutral-neutral image pairings. The threat images were taken from the Photograph Series of Daily Activities (PHODA and the neutral and positive images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS image bank. The results provided partial support for Eysenck's theory; defensive high-anxious individuals showed an attentional bias for threatening information compared to high-anxious individuals who demonstrated no bias. Repressors showed an avoidant bias to threatening images and an attentional bias to positive stimuli relative to neutral images. The clear difference in responses demonstrated by high-anxious individuals who vary in defensiveness highlight the need for separate investigation of these heterogeneous groups and help to explain the cognitive processes of defensive high-anxious individuals within a pain population. The demonstration of an attentional bias in this group to threatening information could explain why defensive high-anxious individuals are more likely to re-present for treatment.

  14. Personality Type Influences Attentional Bias in Individuals with Chronic Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Zoë C; Holmes, Paul S; Smith, Nickolas C; Fowler, Neil E

    2016-01-01

    Attentional biases reflect an individual's selective attention to salient stimuli within their environment, for example an experience of back pain. Eysenck suggests that different personality types show different attentional biases to threatening information. This study is the first to test Eysenck's theory within a chronic back pain population by investigating the attentional biases of four different personality types using a back pain specific dot-probe paradigm. Participants were 70 volunteers (45 female) recruited from a back rehabilitation program at an NHS Trust. The four groups were selected on their trait anxiety and defensiveness scores: defensive high-anxious; high-anxious; repressor and non-extreme. Participants completed a dot probe task comprising 20 practice trials and 250 experimental trials. The experimental trials contained 100 threat-neutral pairs, 100 positive-neutral pairs and 50 neutral-neutral image pairings. The threat images were taken from the Photograph Series of Daily Activities (PHODA) and the neutral and positive images from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) image bank. The results provided partial support for Eysenck's theory; defensive high-anxious individuals showed an attentional bias for threatening information compared to high-anxious individuals who demonstrated no bias. Repressors showed an avoidant bias to threatening images and an attentional bias to positive stimuli relative to neutral images. The clear difference in responses demonstrated by high-anxious individuals who vary in defensiveness highlight the need for separate investigation of these heterogeneous groups and help to explain the cognitive processes of defensive high-anxious individuals within a pain population. The demonstration of an attentional bias in this group to threatening information could explain why defensive high-anxious individuals are more likely to re-present for treatment.

  15. Type D personality predicts death or myocardial infarction after bare metal stent or sirolimus-eluting stent implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Lemos, Pedro A; van Vooren, Priya R;

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Type D personality on the occurrence of adverse events at nine months in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with sirolimus-eluting stents (SESs) or bare stents. Type D patients experience increased negative emoti...

  16. Personality and illness adaptation in adults with Type 1 diabetes : The intervening role of illness coping and perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rassart, J.; Luyckx, K.; Klimstra, T.A.; Moons, P.; Weets, I.

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by the common sense model, the present cross-sectional study examined illness perceptions and coping as intervening mechanisms in the relationship between Big Five personality traits and illness adaptation in adults with Type 1 diabetes. A total of 368 individuals with Type 1 diabetes (18–3

  17. Association of Emotional Labor, Self-efficacy, and Type A Personality with Burnout in Korean Dental Hygienists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeung, Da Yee; Lee, Hyun Ok; Chung, Won Gyun; Yoon, Jin Ha; Koh, Sang Baek; Back, Chi Yun; Hyun, Dae Sung; Chang, Sei Jin

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between emotional labor and burnout, and whether the levels of self-efficacy and type A personality characteristics increase the risk of burnout in a sample of Korean female dental hygienists. Participants were 807 female dental hygienists with experience in performing customer service for one year or more in dental clinics, dental hospitals, or general hospitals in Korea. Data were collected using a structured self-administered questionnaire. A hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine the effects of emotional labor on burnout, and to elucidate the additive effects of self-efficacy and type A personality on burnout. The results showed that "overload and conflict in customer service," "emotional disharmony and hurt," and "lack of a supportive and protective system in the organization" were positively associated with burnout. With reference to the relationship between personality traits and burnout, we found that personal traits such as self-efficacy and type A personality were significantly related to burnout, which confirmed the additive effects of self-efficacy and type A personality on burnout. These results indicate that engaging in excessive and prolonged emotional work in customer service roles is more likely to increase burnout. Additionally, an insufficient organizational supportive and protective system toward the negative consequences of emotional labor was found to accelerate burnout. The present findings also revealed that personality traits such as self-efficacy and type A personality are also important in understanding the relationship between emotional labor and burnout. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  18. An operationalized procedure for the recognition of premorbid personality types in biographical case notes on psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Zerssen, D; Pössl, J; Gruben, S; Tauscher, R; Barthelmes, H

    1994-01-01

    A method for the assessment of six premorbid personality types from biographical data in psychiatric case histories is described. Trained raters have to fill in a list comprising 106 items as descriptors of a patient's premorbid behavioural development. The assignment to the types in question (the "manic type" and its rare variant, the "happy-go-lucky type", the "melancholic type", the "anxious insecure type" and its rare variant, the "unrealistic dreamy type", and finally, the "nervous tense type") is computed on the basis of the item scores by forming type scores and comparing their height intraindividually. The subject under study is assigned to the type reaching the comparatively highest value. Two raters independently analyzed 261 records from which all information on mental disorders in family members and the patient himself/herself as well as all biographical data from the first manifestation of a symptom disorder onwards had been erased by technical assistants. In 106 of the records, a global assignment to the types of premorbid personality had already been performed by one of the authors of the typology. The scores for the same type assessed by the two ratings correlated highly with each other (0.77 to 0.80), the concordance of types reached a kappa-value of 0.55 (P < 0.001), and the results of the operationalized typing agreed in the same order with the result of global typing in the subsample of n = 106.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) personality profile and sub-typing in alcoholic patients: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiaux, P; le Bon, O; Dramaix, M; Massat, I; Souery, D; Mendlewicz, J; Pelc, I; Verbanck, P

    2001-01-01

    Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) personality profile was used to compare alcohol-dependent patients with non-psychiatric control subjects, and a search made for sub-types of alcoholics with different TCI profiles, using the criteria age of onset of alcohol-related problems, paternal dependence on alcohol and familial antecedents of alcohol dependence. Alcohol-dependent patients (n = 38) were characterized by higher Novelty-Seeking [corresponding to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition) group B personality type] and lower Self-Directedness than non-psychiatric control subjects (n = 47). Lower Self-Directedness indicates a higher probability of personality disorder in the alcohol-dependent population. Only age of onset of alcohol-related problems delineated the two sub-populations with different TCI profiles: early-onset alcoholics (TCI data add to evidence concerning a higher probability of personality disorder in alcohol-dependent patients, particularly those with early-onset.

  20. Psychometric Properties of the Modified Personal Diabetes Questionnaire Among Chinese Patients With Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Li; Leung, Doris Y P; Wu, Yu-Ning; Sit, Janet W H; Yang, Miao-Yan; Li, Xiao-Mei

    2016-09-20

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Personal Diabetes Questionnaire (C-PDQ). The PDQ was translated into Chinese using a forward and backward translation approach. After being reviewed by an expert panel, the C-PDQ was administered to a convenience sample of 346 adults with Type 2 diabetes. The Chinese version of the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (C-SDSCA) was also administered. The results of the exploratory factor analysis revealed a one-factor structure for the Diet Knowledge, Decision-Making, and Eating Problems subscales and a two-factor structure for the barriers-related subscales. The criterion and convergent validity were supported by significant correlations of the subscales of the C-PDQ with the glycated hemoglobin values and the parallel subscales in the C-SDSCA, respectively. The C-PDQ subscales also showed acceptable internal consistency (α = .61-.89) and excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients: .73-.96). The results provide preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the C-PDQ. This comprehensive, patient-centered instrument could be useful to identify the needs, concerns, and priorities of Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Comparing methods for scoring personality disorder types using maladaptive traits in DSM-5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel, Douglas B; Hopwood, Christopher J; Krueger, Robert F; Thomas, Katherine M; Ruggero, Camilo J

    2013-06-01

    The DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th ed.) Section III will include an alternative hybrid system for the diagnosis of personality disorder (PD). This alternative system defines PD types partly through specific combinations of maladaptive traits, rather than by using a set of polythetic diagnostic criteria. The current report utilizes a large sample of undergraduates (n = 1,159) to examine three dimensional methods for comparing an individual's trait profile to each PD type. We found that the sum of an individual's scores on the assigned traits obtained large convergent correlations (Mdn r =.61) and best reproduced the patterns of PD discriminant correlations observed within the DSM-IV measure. We also tested the DSM-5 Section III model algorithms and compared them with different thresholds for assigning categorical diagnoses. Frequency rates using the algorithms were greatly reduced, whereas requiring half of the assigned traits produced rates that more closely approximated current prevalence estimates. Our research suggests that DSM-5 Section III trait model can reproduce the DSM-IV-TR PD constructs and identifies effective methods of doing so.

  2. Type D personality, stress coping strategies and self-efficacy as predictors of Facebook intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio, Agata; Przepiorka, Aneta; Czuczwar, Stanisław Jerzy

    2017-03-14

    Recently, Facebook has become one of the most popular social networking sites. People use it more and more often. A number of studies have recently addressed the issue of excessive Facebook use, showing this phenomenon to be a spreading problem. The main aim of the present study was to examine whether Type D personality, self-efficacy and coping strategies are related to Facebook intrusion. The participants were 882 students of Polish universities, all of them Facebook users (72% women, mean age: 22.25 years, SD =2.06). We used the Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire, the Facebook Intensity Scale, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and the Type D Scale. We applied the pen-and-paper procedure. Our results indicate that emotion-oriented and avoidance-oriented strategies of coping in stressful situations are predictors of Facebook intrusion and Facebook intensity. The relations between both Facebook intrusion and intensity and social inhibition are significant only when emotion-oriented coping strategy is controlled. The knowledge of whether coping strategies in stressful situations, such as focus on emotions or avoidance, are related to Facebook intrusion might be useful for clinical purposes.

  3. Personalized mechanistic models for exercise, meal and insulin interventions in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Naviyn Prabhu; Samavedham, Lakshminarayanan; Rangaiah, Gade Pandu

    2014-09-21

    Personalized mechanistic models involving exercise, meal and insulin interventions for type 1 diabetic children and adolescents are not commonly seen in the literature. Patient specific variations in blood glucose homeostasis and adverse effects of exercise-induced hypoglycemia emphasize the need for personalized models. Hence, a modified mechanistic model for exercise, meal and insulin interventions is proposed and tailored as personalized models for 34 type 1 diabetic children and adolescents. This is achieved via a 3-stage methodology comprising of modification, a priori identifiability analysis, and personalized parameter estimation and validation using the clinical data. Rate of perceived exertion is introduced as a marker quantifying exercise intensity. Six out of 16 parameters in the modified model are identified to be estimable and are estimated for each subject as personalized parameters. The R(2) values for both fitness and validation vary between 0.7 and 0.96 in 97% of the patients, indicating the goodness of the proposed model in explaining the glucose dynamics. For most of the estimated parameters, values of personalized point estimates and their confidence intervals are found to be within physiological ranges reported in the modeling literature. Personalized values of appearance rate of exercise effect on glucose uptake in 34 subjects are 54-250% higher than the nominal values of adults. This is expected for children and adolescents as the literature shows that they exhibit higher fat and exogenous carbohydrate oxidation rates during exercise when compared to adults.

  4. Assessment of Personality Types in an Urban Community of District Dehradun, Uttarakhand using Introversion- Extroversion Inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Madhavi Bhargava, Jayanti Semwal, Ruchi Juyal, Shaili Vyas, Deepshikha Varshney

    2015-01-01

    "Introduction: Personality can be defined as a person’s pattern of internal experience and social interaction that arises from his action. The trait of extroversion–introversion is a central dimension of human personality theories. Objectives: To study the difference in personality in adults according to age and sex and the association of education and personality. Methods: The study was conducted in Rishikesh, Dehradun. A judgemental-purposive sampling was done in view of explor...

  5. A comparison of music education and music therapy majors: personality types as described by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and demographic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Anita Louise; Young, Sylvester

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop both personality and demographic profiles for students who are interested in majoring in music education or music therapy. Two primary questions were addressed in the study: (a) Are there similarities and differences in the personality types of music education and music therapy majors as measured by the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI )? (b) Are there similarities and differences in demographic characteristics of music education and music therapy majors in regard to (i) principal instrument studied in college, (ii) grade point average, (iii) scholarship awards, (iv) high school participation in private study and (v) ensembles, (vi) church/community participation, and (vii) volunteerism in high school?

  6. Identifying Student Potential for ICT Entrepreneurship Using Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kevin A.; Andersen, Barry K.; Davidge-Pitts, Jennifer; Ostensen-Saunders, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Literature relating to personality and entrepreneurship has focused primarily on personality characteristics of traditional entrepreneurs. The focus of this study was on personality characteristics and temperaments of potential Information and Communication Technology (ICT) entrepreneurs. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the…

  7. Identifying Student Potential for ICT Entrepreneurship Using Myers-Briggs Personality Type Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kevin A.; Andersen, Barry K.; Davidge-Pitts, Jennifer; Ostensen-Saunders, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Literature relating to personality and entrepreneurship has focused primarily on personality characteristics of traditional entrepreneurs. The focus of this study was on personality characteristics and temperaments of potential Information and Communication Technology (ICT) entrepreneurs. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the…

  8. HIV-infected persons with type 2 diabetes show evidence of endothelial dysfunction and increased inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hove-Skovsgaard, Malene; Gaardbo, Julie Christine; Kolte, Lilian; Winding, Kamilla; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg; Svardal, Asbjørn; Berge, Rolf Kristian; Gerstoft, Jan; Ullum, Henrik; Trøseid, Marius; Nielsen, Susanne Dam

    2017-03-29

    Increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in both HIV infection and type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared to the general population has been described. Little is known about the combined effect of HIV infection and T2D on inflammation and endothelial function, both of which may contribute to elevated risk of CVD. Cross-sectional study including 50 HIV-infected persons on combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART), with HIV RNA inflammation (cut-off 3 mg/L). The marker of endothelial dysfunction asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a microbiota-dependent, pro-atherogenic marker was measured using stable isotope dilution LC/MS/MS. The percentage of HIV + T2D+, HIV + T2D-, HIV-T2D+, and HIV-T2D- with hsCRP above cut-off was 50%, 19%, 47%, and 11%, respectively. HIV + T2D+ had elevated ADMA (0.67 μM (0.63-0.72) compared to HIV + T2D- (0.60 μM (0.57-0.64) p = 0.017), HIV-T2D+ (0.57 μM (0.51-63) p = 0.008), and HIV-T2D- (0.55 μM (0.52-0.58) p inflammation and evidence of endothelial dysfunction was found in HIV-infected persons with T2D. The effect on inflammation was mainly driven by T2D, while both HIV infection and T2D may contribute to endothelial dysfunction. Whether gut microbiota is a contributing factor to this remains to be determined.

  9. Type D Personality and Essential Hypertension in Primary Care: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study Within a Cohort of Patients Visiting General Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Francesco; Versino, Elisabetta; Gammino, Lorenzo; Colombi, Nicoletta; Ostacoli, Luca; Carletto, Sara; Furlan, Pier Maria; Picci, Rocco Luigi

    2016-01-01

    To estimate the relationship between type D personality and essential hypertension among patients visiting their GPs for any health problem, 101 hypertensive and 138 nonhypertensive patients were consecutively recruited and assessed using the Type D Personality Scale (DS14). The predictive value of type D personality was determined using a logistic regression model, taking into account the differences in recognized confounders between groups. Type D personality in the hypertension group was twice as frequent as in the no hypertension group and hypertension was more frequent among type D than non-type D patients. Logistic regression showed a significant predictive value of type D personality for hypertension, adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, family history of hypertension, living condition, education, and employment. Therefore, type D personality was strongly related to hypertension and it was a noteworthy predictor of hypertension in a real-world cohort of primary care patients.

  10. A Study Of The Relation Between IQ And Personality Types Among Male And Female Students Of Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vafaee D

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychologists have been thinking that some personality types may have a higher IQ comparing with the other types, and this could be considered as a general belief. Eysenck, the eminent British psychologist, described the introverted people to have a higher. Intelligence comparing with the extroverted people. Materials and Methods: We maintain two objectives from this study. Firstly if there is a relation between the IQ and personality types or not and secondly the mean IQ of which group is higher and thirdly, what is the relation between sexes. Results: 297 students were selected randomly from Tabriz University and Tabriz Medical Sciences University. Every examination was given both Raven IQ test and Eysenck personality inventory and examination answered the both tests at the same time. Both tests were evaluated by the standard scoring system. The results of both tests were extracted then statistical evaluations ofx and t-test were done. No significant and meaningful relation was found between IQ and personality types pf Eysenck ( introversion- extroversion, neuroticism, emotion stability among male and female students. Also introverted students and extroverted students did not have significant differences in the mean of IQ. Conclusion: Altogether these kinds of findings seem to be interesting, judging about psychological and behavioral characteristic of people needs more studies, and a single IQ or personality test is not sufficient. Therefore reaching an exact conclusion as a scientific fact will be possible by further researches.

  11. Anti glutamate-decarboxylase antibodies: a liaison between localisation related epilepsy, stiff-person syndrome and type-1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szűcs, Anna; Barcs, Gábor; Winkler, Gábor; Soós, Zsuzsanna; Folyovich, András; Kelemen, Anna; Várallyay, Péter; Kamondi, Anita

    2014-07-30

    We present two patients with partial epilepsy, type-1 diabetes and stiff person syndrome associated with high serum auto-antibody levels to glutamate-decarboxylase (anti-GAD). Both patients were or have suffered from additional autoimmune conditions. The presence of stiff person syndrome and elevated anti-GAD levels have to make clinicians look for additional autoimmune conditions including type-1 diabetes. On the other hand, the co-morbidity of partial epilepsy with autoimmune conditions in patients with elevated serum anti-GAD suggests an autoimmune mechanism of partial epilepsy in these cases.

  12. USAGE AREAS OF THE SECOND TYPE PERSON SUFFIXES OF TURKISH CYPRIOT DIALECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürkan GÜMÜŞATAM

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Collecting consistent and standardized features, standard language, person affixes is collected in three separate categories: Person suffixes Origin of Person pronoun, person suffixes origin of possessive suffixes, order affixes. Which mode is standard and the shape of the language system in which receivables as a person affixes, institutionalized, local says are there are groups in the dialects. Mentioned in the institutionalized structure of Turkey Turkish person suffixes should be added to their dialects. Adopted standard language, structure, particularly changes in many areas, including West Group shows Their dialects. Evaluation of all aspects of a language other dialects of that language in conjunction with standard language requires review. From this point, Turkey Turkish person affixes, and the accents of many multilingual feature is discussed as well. Still waiting for the investigation of different aspects of a particular regional dialects. To date, despite the person affixes to take place in Turkey Turkish dialects without affixes of action for the review on the use of one of the Cypriot Turkish dialects. The present review of Turkish Cypriot dialects, acting in their that focuses on the use of possessive suffixes and personal pronoun based person in the affixes to change their origin, in some cases reveals dual use.

  13. Plantar Pressure Distribution among Older Persons with Different Types of Foot and Its Correlation with Functional Reach Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisyah Mohd Said

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Changes in biomechanical structures of human foot are common in the older person, which may lead to alteration of foot type and plantar pressure distribution. We aimed to examine how foot type affects the plantar pressure distribution and to determine the relationship between plantar pressure distribution and functional reach distance in older persons. Methods. Fifty community-dwelling older persons (age: 69.98±5.84 were categorized into three groups based on the Foot Posture Index. The plantar pressure (max⁡P and contact area were analyzed using Footscan® RSScan platform. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the plantar pressure between foot types and Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used to correlate plantar pressure with the functional reach distance. Results. There were significant differences of max⁡P in the forefoot area across all foot types. The post hoc analysis found significantly lower max⁡P in the pronated foot compared to the supinated foot. A high linear rank correlation was found between functional reach distance and max⁡P of the rearfoot region of the supinated foot. Conclusions. These findings suggested that types of the foot affect the plantar maximal pressure in older persons with functional reach distance showing some associations.

  14. The Effect of Positive and Negative Perfectionism and Type D Personality on General Health of the Aged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahamadi Tahoor

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Many factors such as retirement, work disability, being isolated from the society, physical illness… affect the general health of the aged , one factor among many, is the role of psychological variables. The purpose of this study has been the investigation of the effect of positive and negative perfectionism and type D personality on general health of the aged. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 80 subjects (47 males and 33 females were selected through available sampling method among the aged in nursing homes in Hamadan and Malayer. Then the positive and negative perfectionism questionnaire of Terry- Short et al, that of type D personality and Goldberg and Hiller's general health questionnaire were administered to them. Results: Positive perfectionism (r=-0.30 and type D personality (r=0.32 had significant correlations with general health. Multiple regression analysis also revealed that positive perfectionism and type D could explain at least 49 percent of the variance of general health. The females’ mean was higher than that of males concerning the variables of depression-anxiety, speech inhibition and irritability and in positive perfectionism, general health and social function variables the males’ mean was higher than that of females. Conclusion: Creating optimistic attitudes and enhancing social functions, positive perfectionism may cause the mental disorder to be decreased in old age and type D personality; however, positive perfectionism makes the aged apt to physical illness and mental disorder. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2010;17(3: 64-69

  15. USING BAYESIAN NETWORKS TO UNDERSTAND RELATIONSHIPS AMONG MATH ANXIETY, GENDERS, PERSONALITY TYPES, AND STUDY HABITS AT A UNIVERSITY IN JORDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Smail

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics is the foundation of all sciences, but most students have problems learning math. Although students’ success in life related to their success in learning, many would not take a math course unless it is their university’s core requirements. Multiple reasons exist for students’ poor performance in mathematics, but one prevalent variable worth consideration is the personality type. This work seeks to uncover relationships, if any, between students’ math anxiety and the students’ learning type in learning math and preparing for exams and tests. We use Bayesian networks to link those different variables and detect possible relationships among these variables. The data was obtained from population of 468 students during spring in 2009 at a U.S. institution in Jordan. Not many researches have been performed in the area of math study and personality types so we undertook this study to add to this area of knowledge. The study reveals that math anxiety related to gender, personality type, and study habits among this group of university students. Keywords: Mathematics Anxiety, MBTI, Personality Types, Bayesian Networks DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.8.1.3405.17-34

  16. Hispanic College Students' Learning Styles, Personality Types, and Gender Differences: A Collective Case Study of Ten Hispanic College Students Exposed to the Myers Briggs Type Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Rachelle D.

    2014-01-01

    The research body regarding learning styles has been abundant; however, research related to Separate and Connected learning styles has not been as copious. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the association between learning styles, personality types, and gender differences for Hispanic college students between the ages of 18-24…

  17. Type A personality and mortality: Competitiveness but not speed is associated with increased risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Tina; Rohrmann, Sabine; Richard, Aline; Bopp, Matthias; Faeh, David

    2017-07-01

    Type A behavior pattern (TABP) is a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, existing evidence is conflicting, also because studies did not examine underlying traits separately. In this study, we investigated whether all-cause and CVD mortality were associated with the Bortner Scale, a measure of TABP, in particular with its subscales competitiveness and speed. Information on Bortner Scale and covariates of 9921 participants was collected at baseline in two cross-sectional studies that were linked with mortality information, yielding a follow-up of up to 37 years. We analyzed the Bortner Scale and its two subscales competitiveness and speed. Applying Cox regression models, we investigated the association with all-cause, CVD, and specific CVD type mortality. During follow-up, 3469 deaths were observed (1118 CVD deaths). The total Bortner Scale was not associated with mortality, only its subscales. In women, competitiveness was positively associated with all-cause mortality (highest category vs. the lowest, HR 1.25 [95% CI 1.08,1.44]), CVD mortality (1.39 [1.07,1.81]), and ischemic heart disease mortality (intermediate category vs. the lowest, 1.46 [1.02,2.10]). In men, CVD mortality was inversely associated with speed (highest category vs. the lowest, 0.74 [0.59,0.93]). The subscales of the Bortner Scale may be associated with CVD in an opposed manner and may therefore have to be analyzed separately. More studies are needed to further investigate this association, also considering differences by sex. Persons scoring high in the competitiveness subscale ought to be screened and counselled in order to reduce their CVD risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Pharmacogenomics in type II diabetes mellitus management: Steps toward personalized medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Avery

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Peter Avery, Shaymaa S Mousa, Shaker A MousaThe Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, NY, USAAbstract: Advances in genotype technology in the last decade have put the pharmacogenomics revolution at the forefront of future medicine in clinical practice. Discovery of novel gene variations in drug transporters, drug targets, effector proteins and metabolizing enzymes in the form of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs continue to provide insight into the biological phenomena that govern drug efficacy and toxicity. To date, novel gene discoveries extracted from genome-wide association scans and candidate gene studies in at least four antidiabetic drug classes have helped illuminate possible causes of interindividual variability in response. Inadequate protocol guidelines for pharmacogenomics studies often leads to poorly designed studies, making it hard to formulate a definitive conclusion regarding the clinical relevance of the information at hand. These issues, along with the ethical, social, political, legislative, technological, and economic challenges associated with pharmacogenomics have only delayed its entry to mainstream clinical practice. On the other hand, these issues are being actively pursued and rapid progress is being made in each area which assures the possibility of gaining widespread acceptance in clinical practice.Keywords: pharmacogenomics, genetics, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, personalized medicine, type 2 diabetes, pharmacotherapy, antidiabetic drugs, efficacy, and safety

  19. Validation of temperature and humidity thermal model of 23-person tent-type refuge alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, L; Yantek, D; Klein, M; Bissert, P; Matetic, R

    2016-09-01

    U.S. Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) regulations require underground coal mines to use refuge alternatives (RAs) to provide a breathable air environment for 96 hours. One of the main concerns with the use of mobile RAs is heat and humidity buildup inside the RA. The accumulation of heat and humidity can result in miners suffering heat stress or even death. MSHA regulations require that the apparent temperature in an occupied RA not exceed 95 °F. To investigate this, the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted testing on a 23-person tent-type RA in its Experimental Mine in a test area that was isolated from the mine ventilation system. The test results showed that the average measured air temperature within the RA increased by 9.4 °C (17 °F) and the relative humidity approached 94 percent at the end of a 96-hour test. The test results were used to benchmark a thermal simulation model of the tested RA. The validated thermal simulation model predicted the volume-weighted average air temperature inside the RA tent at the end of 96 hours to within 0.06 °C (0.1 °F) of the average measured air temperature.

  20. A novel approach in personal identification from tissue samples undergone different processes through STR typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiti, N; Di Martino, D; Saravo, L

    2004-12-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs) or microsatellites have been recognized worldwide as a powerful tool for human identification. They have become widely used in human identification especially in criminal cases and mass disasters. Police departments are often interested in cases where tissues are already decomposed and only do bones remain to let them perform laboratory analyses. Bone is the most resistant tissue in animal body to time depending degradation and putrefaction, but it is often hard to extract DNA from it because of its highly mineralized structure, which makes DNA extraction and/or amplification hard to carry out. We have performed human nuclear DNA extraction and STR typing in three different cases, on bones and bone fragments from long time dead persons found buried, in the sea, almost completely burnt and whose tissues were already decomposed. We report these caseworks as we would like to show how forensic scientists are improving their skill in identifying people whose corps have undergone several kinds of processes, even independently on the time passed and the level of putrefaction of their tissues.

  1. 3DLC: A Comprehensive Model for Personal Health Records Supporting New Types of Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Helmer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the demographic change, many new medical applications are installed in the user's home environment. These applications make use of ambient sensors, enabling new forms of medical care. Personal Health Records (PHRs are an instrument for the storage, presentation and communication of health related data provided by these applications. But there are still open issues regarding the cooperation between PHRs and the new applications. On the basis of two medical application scenarios, we developed a new model which defines the appropriate level of abstraction of data generated by medical applications to be stored inside the PHR. The model also determines which part of these data is relevant for the clinical decision making process, and how these data should be communicated to physicians. This paper describes the 3DLC model, which uses three dimensions (clinical decision, frequency and context dependence to determine the type of the data. We further introduce a prototype PHR system that is able to fulfil the requirements of our scenarios.

  2. Are fast explorers slow reactors? Linking personality type and anti-predator behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Katherine A; Godin, Jean-Guy J

    2010-02-22

    Response delays to predator attack may be adaptive, suggesting that latency to respond does not always reflect predator detection time, but can be a decision based on starvation-predation risk trade-offs. In birds, some anti-predator behaviours have been shown to be correlated with personality traits such as activity level and exploration. Here, we tested for a correlation between exploration behaviour and response latency time to a simulated fish predator attack in a fish species, juvenile convict cichlids (Amatitlania nigrofasciata). Individual focal fish were subjected to a standardized attack by a robotic fish predator while foraging, and separately given two repeated trials of exploration of a novel environment. We found a strong positive correlation between exploration and time taken to respond to the predator model. Fish that were fast to explore the novel environment were slower to respond to the predator. Our study therefore provides some of the first experimental evidence for a link between exploration behaviour and predator-escape behaviour. We suggest that different behavioural types may differ in how they partition their attention between foraging and anti-predator vigilance.

  3. Type D personality, illness perception, social support and quality of life in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianying; Wu, Xiaofeng; Lin, Jianxiong; Zou, Dongmei; Yang, Xiao; Cheng, Shouzhen; Guo, Qunying

    2017-02-01

    The previous studies reported Type D was associated with poor quality of life (QoL), increased psychological distress, and impaired health status in cardiac patients. The aim of this study is to assess the relationships among Type D personality, illness perception, social support, and investigate the impact of Type D personality on QoL in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. Type D personality was assessed by the Chinese 14-item Type D Personality Scale (DS14). Illness perceptions were assessed using the Chinese version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ). Social support status was assessed by the well-validated social support rating scale (SSRS). Patients' QoL was assessed by using Medical Outcomes Short Form 36 (SF-36), respectively. The Type Ds had significantly lower objective support score (8.18 ± 2.56 vs. 9.67 ± 3.28, p = 0.0001), subjective support score (6.71 ± 2.0 vs. 7.62 ± 1.93, p = 0.0001) and utilization of social support score (6.76 ± 2.0 vs. 7.61 ± 1.94, p = 0.0001) than that of the non-type Ds. Type Ds believed their illness had much more serious consequences (7.67 ± 2.64 vs. 6.27 ± 3.45, p social support (r = -0.24, p perceptions, social support and QoL in CAPD patients. The worse illness perceptions and lower social support level therefore represent possible mechanisms to explain the link between Type D and poor QoL in CAPD patients.

  4. Lack of prognostic value of type D personality for mortality in a large sample of heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, James C; Jaarsma, Tiny; Luttik, Marie-Louise; van Sonderen, Eric; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Sanderman, Robbert

    2011-09-01

    Type D personality has been proposed as a prognostic indicator for mortality in cardiovascular disease. Most research examining this construct originates from one research group, and it is critical that the predictive value of Type D personality for adverse outcomes is independently cross-validated. This study examined its prognostic value in heart failure, relative to B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and depressive symptoms. We studied 706 patients with complete BNP, depressive symptom, and Type D personality and mortality data from 958 patients with heart failure enrolled after hospitalization for a multisite study of a disease management program. Multivariable models were adjusted for BNP and depression. At 18 months, there were 192 deaths (27.2%). No evidence was found for a prognostic value of Type D personality in the unadjusted model (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.893, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.582-1.370). In contrast, BNP was significantly predictive of mortality (HR = 1.588, 95% CI = 1.391-1.812), whereas depression was not (HR = 1.011, 95% CI = 0.998-1.024). Type D was also not predictive in covariate-adjusted models (HR = 0.779, 95% CI = 0.489-1.242). Similar results were obtained when analyzing Type D as the interaction between continuous z scores of its two components, negative affectivity and social inhibition (p = .144). In the largest study to date, Type D does not predict mortality. Future research should construe Type D as the interaction of continuous negative affectivity and social inhibition z scores, rather than as a typology, and consider analyses replacing negative affectivity with depression.

  5. Evening types among german university students score higher on sense of humor after controlling for big five personality factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randler, Christoph

    2008-10-01

    Humor research has focused on relationships between humor and various personality traits. As personality and morningness-eveningness, as well as personality and humor, are related based on genetics and neurobehavioral function, one might also expect a relationship between humor and chronotype. 197 students responded to the Composite Scale of Morningness as a measure of chronotype, the Sense of Humor Questionnaire and a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. Individuals scoring as evening types reported a greater sense of humor than morning individuals, with higher morningness scores. In a stepwise linear regression, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Openness, and Chronotype each accounted for a significant amount of variance in sense of Humor scores. That is, the relationship between scores on Sense of Humor and evening orientation was significant after controlling for personality dimensions. Eveningness was related to sense of Humor scores in women but not in men. Social but not cognitive humor was predicted by eveningness.

  6. Similarity between partners in real and perceived personality traits as measured by the Myers-Briggs type indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordvik, H

    1996-12-01

    From 90 couples, 90 male and 90 female subjects, two sets of scores on the four personality dimensions measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) were obtained by letting each person answer each item twice, first in the ordinary way and then as he or she believed the partner would answer the item. Correlations between partners' self-reported scores were all close to zero, whereas the correlations between the partner-reported scores and the self-reported scores were high for both males and females and for all the four dimensions measured by the MBTI, thus indicating that partners were not similar in personality traits, but they had a realistic perception of each other. The results support the hypothesis that mating is random in terms of personality traits.

  7. The moderating effects of sample type as evidence of the effects of faking on personality scale correlations and factor structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KEVIN M. BRADLEY

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Motivational differences as a function of sample type (applicants versus incumbents have frequently been suspected of causing meaningful differences in the psychometric properties of personality inventories due to the effects of faking. In this quantitative review, correlations among the Big Five personality constructs were estimated and sample type was examined as a potential moderator of the personality construct inter-correlations. The resulting subgroup meta-analytic correlation matrices were factor-analyzed, and the second order factor solutions for job incumbents and job applicants were compared. Results of the meta-analyses indicate frequent, but small moderating effects. The second order factor analyses indicated that the observed moderation had little effect on the congruence of factor loadings. Together, the results are consistent with the position that faking is of little practical consequence in selection settings.

  8. Type D personality and all-cause mortality in cardiac patients--data from a German cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Gesine; Romppel, Matthias; Vesper, Jana-Marie; Schubmann, Rainer; Glaesmer, Heide; Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph

    2011-09-01

    Type D personality has been established as a predictor of adverse clinical events in patients with cardiovascular diseases. To date, all studies except one have been conducted by a single research group. Thus, the aim of our study was to provide an independent replication of the results regarding the prognostic validity of Type D personality in a German sample of cardiac patients. Cardiac patients (n = 1040) were recruited from cardiac rehabilitation centers (n = 484), an outpatient clinic (n = 249), and a university hospital (n = 307). Main analyses were based on the combined data from these three subsamples. Cardiac health status, medical risk factors, sociodemographic characteristics, psychological symptoms, and Type D personality were assessed at baseline. The primary end point was all-cause mortality. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the relative risk of death. Vital status was known for 977 patients (22.5% women; mean [standard deviation] = 63.3 [10.7] years). Within the follow-up time (mean [standard deviation] = 71.5 [3.6] months), 172 patients died. Type D personality was found in 25.2% of survivors and in 22.2% of nonsurvivors (χ²= 0.78, p = .38). Depressive symptoms (p = .13) and anxiety (p = .27) were also not predictive of mortality. In the multivariate analyses, neither Type D (p = .95) nor negative affectivity (p = .71) and social inhibition (p = .59), as well as their interaction (p = .88), were associated with all-cause mortality. In the present study, Type D personality and its constituents are not associated with increased mortality in patients with heart disease. The discrepancies with previous results deserve further investigation.

  9. Design and evaluation of a personal robot playing a self-management education game with children with diabetes type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanson Henkemans, O.A.; Bierman, B.P.B.; Janssen, J.; Looije, R.; Neerincx, M.A.; Dooren, M.M.M. van; Vries, J.L.E. de; Burg, G.J. van der; Huisman, S.D.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of a personal robot, providing diabetes self-management education in a clinical setting on the pleasure, engagement and motivation to play a diabetes quiz of children (7–12) with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and on their acquisition of knowledge about their

  10. The Experience of Contrasting Learning Styles, Learning Preferences, and Personality Types in the Community College English Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, William K.

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the classroom experiences of students who identify themselves as learning best as reflective-observers (Assimilators) in contrast to those who learn best as active- experimenters (Accommodators), with additional consideration for their self-identified personality type (introvert vs. extrovert) as well as one of the VARK…

  11. Type D personality predicts chronic anxiety following percutaneous coronary intervention in the drug-eluting stent era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Helle; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Serruys, Patrick W.

    2007-01-01

    factors. Limitations: All psychological measures are based on self-report, and there is no information on cardiac rehabilitation or use of pharmacotherapy, however our sample represents patients seen in daily clinical practice.  Conclusions: These findings suggest that Type D personality is a risk factor...

  12. [No relationship between blood type and personality: evidence from large-scale surveys in Japan and the US].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawata, Kengo

    2014-06-01

    Despite the widespread popular belief in Japan about a relationship between personality and ABO blood type, this association has not been empirically substantiated. This study provides more robust evidence that there is no relationship between blood type and personality, through a secondary analysis of large-scale survey data. Recent data (after 2000) were collected using large-scale random sampling from over 10,000 people in total from both Japan and the US. Effect sizes were calculated. Japanese datasets from 2004 (N = 2,878-2,938), and 2,005 (N = 3,618-3,692) as well as one dataset from the US in 2004 (N = 3,037-3,092) were used. In all the datasets, 65 of 68 items yielded non-significant differences between blood groups. Effect sizes (eta2) were less than .003. This means that blood type explained less than 0.3% of the total variance in personality. These results show the non-relevance of blood type for personality.

  13. An Investigation of the Problematic Internet Use of Teacher Candidates Based on Personality Types, Shyness and Demographic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Ebru; Kaymak Ozmen, Suna

    2011-01-01

    Researches proved that a new psychological disorder of problematic Internet use was associated with individual characteristics as loneliness, shyness, anxiety, depression, personality type, and self-cognition. But there appears to be little consensus about Problematic Internet Use disorder. Consequently the aim of study was to investigate…

  14. Peer Victimization, Self-esteem, and Ego Resilience Types in Adolescents: A Prospective Analysis of Person-context Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, G.J.; Zeevalkink, H.; Vermulst, A.A.; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined bidirectional, longitudinal associations between peer victimisation and self-esteem in adolescents, and tested for moderator effects of undercontrolling, overcontrolling, and ego-resilient personality types in these associations. Data were used from 774 adolescents ages 11-16

  15. Peer Victimization, Self-Esteem, and Ego Resilience Types in Adolescents: A Prospective Analysis of Person-Context Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeek, Geertjan; Zeevalkink, Herma; Vermulst, Ad; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined bidirectional, longitudinal associations between peer victimisation and self-esteem in adolescents, and tested for moderator effects of undercontrolling, overcontrolling, and ego-resilient personality types in these associations. Data were used from 774 adolescents ages 11-16 years who participated in a three-wave (i.e., 2005,…

  16. The Multifactorial Nature of Extraversion-Introversion in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and Eysenck Personality Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipps, Gary J.; Alexander, Ralph A.

    1987-01-01

    The construct validity of extraversion-introversion was explored, as measured by the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Eysenck Personality Inventory. Findings supported the complexity of extraversion-introversion. Two MBTI scales, Extraversion Introversion and Judging Perceiving, were factorially valid measures of impulsivity…

  17. Peer Victimization, Self-esteem, and Ego Resilience Types in Adolescents: A Prospective Analysis of Person-context Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, G.J.; Zeevalkink, H.; Vermulst, A.A.; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined bidirectional, longitudinal associations between peer victimisation and self-esteem in adolescents, and tested for moderator effects of undercontrolling, overcontrolling, and ego-resilient personality types in these associations. Data were used from 774 adolescents ages 11-16 yea

  18. Peer Victimization, Self-Esteem, and Ego Resilience Types in Adolescents: A Prospective Analysis of Person-Context Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeek, Geertjan; Zeevalkink, Herma; Vermulst, Ad; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined bidirectional, longitudinal associations between peer victimisation and self-esteem in adolescents, and tested for moderator effects of undercontrolling, overcontrolling, and ego-resilient personality types in these associations. Data were used from 774 adolescents ages 11-16 years who participated in a three-wave (i.e., 2005,…

  19. Creative Thinking of University Teachers in the Age of Intellectual Capital: Is It Affected by Personality Types and Traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlFuqaha, Isam Najib; Tobasi, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    This article attempts to probe the level of creative thinking of teachers at Philadelphia University in Jordan, and to define its relation with several independent demographic variables, namely age, gender, duration of experience, specialization, and personality types and traits. To accomplish this purpose, three questionnaires are administered on…

  20. Increased anxiety and depression in Danish cardiac patients with a type D personality: Cross-validation of the Type D Scale (DS14)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Helle; Kruse, Charlotte; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type D personality is an emerging risk factor in cardiovascular disease. We examined the psychometric properties of the Danish version of the Type D Scale (DS14) and the impact of Type D on anxiety and depression in cardiac patients. METHOD: Cardiac patients (n = 707) completed the DS14......, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. A subgroup (n = 318) also completed the DS14 at 3 or 12 weeks. RESULTS: The two-factor structure of the DS14 was confirmed; the subscales negative affectivity and social inhibition were shown to be valid, internally...... consistent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87/0.91; mean inter-item correlations = 0.49/0.59), and stable over 3 and 12 weeks (r = 0.85/0.78; 0.83/0.79; ps anxiety (beta, 0.49; p

  1. Identity Processes and Personality Traits and Types in Adolescence: Directionality of Effects and Developmental Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, Koen; Teppers, Eveline; Klimstra, Theo A.; Rassart, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Personality traits are hypothesized to be among the most important factors contributing to individual differences in identity development. However, longitudinal studies linking Big Five personality traits to contemporary identity models (in which multiple exploration and commitment processes are distinguished) are largely lacking. To gain more…

  2. EFL Teachers' Emotional Intelligence and Their Personality Types: Exploring Possible Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Roya

    2014-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to examine the relationship between teachers' emotional intelligence and their personality traits in an Iranian context. To this end, 85 Iranian EFL teachers were asked to fill out The Big Five Inventory Personality Test (John & Srivastava, 1999) and The Bar-On Emotional Intelligences test (1997). The results…

  3. Child Maltreatment and Mediating Influences of Childhood Personality Types on the Development of Adolescent Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate longitudinal risk processes linking early child maltreatment, childhood personality organizations, and adolescent maladaptation. In a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children ("N" = 400; 62.3% African American, 11.8% Hispanic; 40.8% girls), a tripartite personality typology based on…

  4. Child Maltreatment and Mediating Influences of Childhood Personality Types on the Development of Adolescent Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate longitudinal risk processes linking early child maltreatment, childhood personality organizations, and adolescent maladaptation. In a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children ("N" = 400; 62.3% African American, 11.8% Hispanic; 40.8% girls), a tripartite personality typology based on…

  5. Is type D personality an independent risk factor for recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality in post-acute myocardial infarction patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condén, Emelie; Rosenblad, Andreas; Wagner, Philippe; Leppert, Jerzy; Ekselius, Lisa; Åslund, Cecilia

    2017-03-01

    Background Type D personality refers to a combination of simultaneously high levels of negative affectivity and social inhibition. The present study aimed to examine whether type D personality was independently associated with recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality in post-acute myocardial infarction patients, using any of the previously proposed methods for measuring type D personality. Design This was a prospective cohort study. Methods Utilising data from the Västmanland Myocardial Infarction Study, 946 post-acute myocardial infarction patients having data on the DS14 instrument used to measure type D personality were followed-up for recurrent myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality until 9 December 2015. Data were analysed using Cox regression, adjusted for established risk factors. Results In total, 133 (14.1%) patients suffered from type D personality. During a mean follow-up time for recurrent myocardial infarction of 5.7 (3.2) years, 166 (17.5%) patients were affected by recurrent myocardial infarction, of which 26 (15.7%) had type D personality, while during a mean follow-up time for all-cause mortality of 6.3 (2.9) years, 321 (33.9%) patients died, of which 42 (13.1%) had type D personality. After adjusting for established risk factors, type D personality was not significantly associated with recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality using any of the previously proposed methods for measuring type D personality. A weak association was found between the social inhibition part of type D personality and a decreased risk of all-cause mortality, but this association was not significant after taking missing data into account in a multiple imputation analysis. Conclusions No support was found for type D personality being independently associated with recurrent myocardial infarction or all-cause mortality in post-acute myocardial infarction patients, using any of the previously proposed methods for measuring type D personality.

  6. Heart rate recovery after exercise in chronic heart failure: role of vital exhaustion and type D personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Känel, Roland; Barth, Jürgen; Kohls, Sonja; Saner, Hugo; Znoj, Hansjörg; Saner, Gaby; Schmid, Jean-Paul

    2009-04-01

    Vital exhaustion and type D personality previously predicted mortality and cardiac events in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Reduced heart rate recovery (HRR) also predicts morbidity and mortality in CHF. We hypothesized that elevated levels of vital exhaustion and type D personality are both associated with decreased HRR. Fifty-one patients with CHF (mean age 58+/-12 years, 82% men) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) exercise testing before receiving outpatient cardiac rehabilitation. They completed the 9-item short form of the Maastricht Vital Exhaustion Questionnaire and the 14-item type D questionnaire asking about negative affectivity and social inhibition. HRR was calculated as the difference between heart rate at the end of exercise and 1 min after abrupt cessation of exercise (HRR-1). Regression analyses were adjusted for gender, age, LVEF, and maximum exercise capacity. Vital exhaustion explained 8.4% of the variance in continuous HRR-1 (p=0.045). For each point increase on the vital exhaustion score (range 0-18) there was a mean+/-SEM decrease of 0.54+/-0.26 bpm in HRR-1. Type D personality showed a trend toward statistical significance for being associated with lower levels of HRR-1 explaining 6.5% of the variance (ptype D personality than in those without (odds ratio=7.62, 95% CI 1.50-38.80). Elevated levels of vital exhaustion and type D personality were both independently associated with reduced HRR-1. The findings provide a hitherto not explored psychobiological explanation for poor cardiac outcome in patients with CHF.

  7. The Cloninger Type I/Type II Typology: Configurations and Personality Profiles in Socially Stable Alcohol Dependent Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wennberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Many attempts have been made to derive alcohol use typologies or subtypes of alcohol dependence and this study aimed at validating the type I/type II typology in a treatment sample of socially stable alcohol dependent males and females. A second aim was to compare the two types with respect to their temperament profiles. Data was part of a larger ongoing longitudinal study, the Gothenburg Alcohol Research Project, and included 269 alcohol dependent males and females recruited from three treatment centers. The results showed that type II alcoholism occurred as a more homogenous type than type I alcoholism, and type I alcoholism seemed too heterogeneous to be summarized into one single type. When adapting a strict classification, less than a third of the study population could be classified in accordance with the typology, suggesting that the typology is not applicable, at least in socially stable individuals with alcohol dependence. The results also showed that type II alcoholics showed higher levels of novelty seeking than did the individuals that were classified as type I alcoholics. Quite surprisingly, the individuals classified as type II alcoholics also showed higher levels of harm avoidance than did the individuals that were classified as type I alcoholics.

  8. Does chair type influence outcome in the timed "Up and Go" test in older persons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalula, S Z; Swingler, G H; Sayer, A A; Badri, M; Ferreira, M

    2010-04-01

    To test the effects of the use of a collapsible, portable chair (chair B), as opposed to a 'standard' chair (chair A), on the outcome of the timed "Up and Go" (TUG) test. Cross-sectional. Multipurpose senior centres. Mobile older persons (N=118, mean age 77 years (range 62-99 years)). Time to complete the timed "Up and Go" test using chair A and chair B, and inter-rater agreement in the time scores. Time taken to complete the TUG test did not differ by chair type [median (interquartile range, IQR) = 12.3 (9.53-15.9) and 12.6 (9.7-16.6)] seconds for Chair A and B respectively, p-value=0.87. In multiple regression analyses, factors that impacted on time difference in test performance for the two chairs were use of a walking aid during the test [Odds ratio (OR) = 3.7 95%CI 1.1-11.9, p=0.031], observed difficulty with mobility (OR= 27.7 95%CI 2.6-290, p=0.006), and a history of arthritis in the knees (OR= 2.9 95%CI 1.0-8.7, P=0.05). In an inter-rater agreement analysis, no significant difference was found between time scores recorded by the two raters; median (IQR) = 12.4 (10.9-15.9) and 12.3 (7.2-59.1) seconds for the occupation therapist and for the research assistant, respectively (Wilcoxon matched pairs test, p=0.124, Spearman correlation coefficient = 0.99, p test in field settings where field workers are reliant on public transport.

  9. Assessment of personality type and medical specialty choice among medical students from Karachi; using Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafrani, Sana; Zehra, Nosheen; Zehra, Muneeza; Abuzar Ali, Syed Muhmmad; Abubakar Mohsin, Saiyed Abdullah; Azhar, Rasheed

    2017-04-01

    To assess personality type of medical students and associate it with their choice of medical specialty. This cross-sectional study was conducted in February 2014 at one public and one private medical university of Karachi, and comprised medical students. A self- administered questionnaire based on Myers-Briggs type indicator was used to collect data which was analysed using SPSS 20. Of the 400 participants, there were 200(50%) each from public and private universities. Of all, 201(50.3%) students were found to be extroverted and 199(49.8%) were introverted personality types. Clinical fields were the main preference of students after their medical degree as selected by 317(79.2%) students; of the, Extroverted-Sensing-Feeling-Perceptive was the most common type identified in39(7.2%) students. Extroverted-Sensing-Feeling-Perceptive 11(2.8%), Extroverted-Sensing-Thinking-Judging 12(3%), Extroverted-Sensing-Feeling-Judging 5(1.3%), Introverted-Sensing-Feeling-Judging 6(1.5%), Introverted-Sensing-Thinking-Perceptive 7(1.8%) had preference for surgery, medicine, gynaecology, paediatrics and cardiology, respectively. Personality had significant impact on specialty and career choice.

  10. Personality Type Assessment System by using Enneagram-Graphology Techniques on Digital Handwriting

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dian Pratiwi; Gatot Budi Santoso; Fiqih Hana Saputri

    2016-01-01

    ... through shape based feature extraction, which in the present study will be applied one method of psychological tests commonly used by psychologists to recognize human's personality that is Enneagram...

  11. Type testing of personal dosemeters for photon energy and angular response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julius, H.W.; Marshall, T.O.; Christensen, Poul;

    1994-01-01

    Performance criteria for personal dosemeters have been recently proposed in the CEC document 'Technical Recommendations for Monitoring Individuals Occupationally Exposed to External Radiation' (EUR 5287, Revised). The current experiment was carried out to demonstrate that TLD-based dosimetry...

  12. Relationship between Army Officer Personality Type, Combat Identifier, Leadership Style, and Career Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    introversion and extroversion. Extroverts are outgoing, easily adaptable, and confident about unknown situations. Introverts are hesitant, reflective...to be expressed in either an introverted or extroverted form. From Jung’s original theoretical fundamentals Briggs and Myers developed their own...Capraro and Capraro 2002, 597). Just as a right handed person finds it difficult to write left handed, so too does an introverted person find it

  13. A unique combination of autoimmune limbic encephalitis, type 1 diabetes, and Stiff person syndrome associated with GAD-65 antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chandra Mohan; Pandey, Rajendra Kumar; Kumawat, Banshi Lal; Khandelwal, Dinesh; Gandhi, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies to GAD-65 have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, limbic encephalitis and Stiff person syndrome, however these diseases rarely occur concurrently. We intend to present a rare case of 35 year old female who was recently diagnosed as having type 1 diabetes presented with 1½ month history of recurrent seizures, subacute onset gait ataxia, dysathria, psychiatric disturbance and cognitive decline. No tumor was found on imaging and the classic paraneoplastic panel was negative. Cerebrospinal fluid and blood was positive for GAD-65 antibodies. Patient showed significant improvement with immunomodulatory therapy. Association of GAD-65 antibodies has been found with various disorders including type 1 diabetes, limbic encephalitis, Stiff person syndrome, cerebellar ataxia and palatal myoclonus. This case presents with unique combination of type 1 diabetes, Stiff person syndrome and limbic encephalitis associated with GAD-65 antibodies that is responsive to immunotherapy. It also highlights the emerging concept of autoimmunity in the causation of various disorders and there associations.

  14. Type D personality is associated with low cardiovascular reactivity to acute mental stress in heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Nina; Denollet, Johan; Widdershoven, Jos; Kop, Willem J

    2013-10-01

    The distressed (Type D) personality is associated with adverse coronary heart disease outcomes, but the mechanisms accounting for this association remain to be elucidated. We examined whether myocardial and hemodynamic responses to mental stress are disrupted in Type D patients with chronic heart failure (HF). Ninety-nine HF patients (mean age 65±12years; 75% men) underwent a public speech task, during which heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were recorded. Type D personality and its components negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI) were assessed with the DS14. General linear models with repeated measures and logistic regression were used to assess differences in stress response and recovery. Type D personality was associated with a reduced HR response (F1,93=4.31, ppersonality with respect to the BP response. Examining continuous NA and SI scores and their interaction (NA∗SI), revealed a significant association of NA∗SI with the SBP response (F1,93=4.11, ppersonality may show an inadequate response to acute social stress, characterized by a blunted HR response. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Personality types during transition to young adulthood: how are they related to life situation and well-being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leikas, S; Salmela-Aro, K

    2014-07-01

    The present longitudinal study examined personality types, their change, and their relations with life outcomes and well-being in a sample of young Finns (N=493) that was followed from age 15 to 23. The Big Five traits were measured at ages 20 and 23, and four personality types - Resilients, Overcontrollers, Anti-Resilients, and "Averages" - emerged at both time points. Those with higher initial well-being were more likely to be later classified as Resilients, whereas those with low and decreasing well-being were more likely to be classified as Anti-Resilients. At age 23, Anti-Resilients were less likely to have reached normative educational goals than others, and more likely to be unemployed than others, but Overcontrollers were less likely to be in a romantic relationship than others. The results question the universality of the three-type structure, but support the predictive validity of personality types. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Congregational bonding social capital and psychological type : an empirical enquiry among Australian churchgoers

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins, Mandy; FRANCIS, Leslie J.; Powell, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the variation in levels of bonding social capital experienced by individual churchgoers, drawing on data generated by the Australian National Church Life Survey, and employing a five-item measure of church-related bonding social capital. Data provided by 2065 Australian churchgoers are used to test the thesis that individual differences in bonding social capital are related to a psychological model of psychological types (employing the Jungian distinctions). The data demon...

  17. Does the early social environment affect structure and consistency of personality in wild-type male's rat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracceva, Giulia; Koolhaas, Jaap M; Groothuis, Ton G G

    2011-09-01

    Animal personality has been extensively studied from a functional and evolutionary point of view. Less attention has been paid to the development of personality, its phenotypic plasticity, and the influence of manipulation of early environmental factors. Here we describe the effects of manipulating the sex ratio of the litter, at postnatal day (pnd) 3, in wild-type rats, on personality traits in adulthood. We measured the treatment effects on aggression, defensive burying, and open field behavior at pnd 90 and 120, as well as on their contextual generality, and stability over time (differential and structural consistency). Main effects of litter composition were found on open field behavior at pnd 120 but not on the other behaviors. Since correlations between behaviors changed over time irrespective of the specific treatment, whereas in previous studies on unmanipulated litters this was not the case we suggest that early handling may disrupt adult personality traits. Overall the data indicate that personality is less stable over time that often assumed, having both proximate and ultimate implications.

  18. Personal impact of type 2 diabetes decreased over 5 years: implications for motivating patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenealy, Tim; Kyle, Campbell; Simmons, David

    2008-02-01

    To investigate the change in personal impact of diabetes, in the same patients, over 5 years. Subjects were 144 Europeans and 63 Polynesians. Personal impact was measured by closed questions asking if diabetes affected work, interests, home life, social life and home relationships. After 5 years participants had deteriorated metabolic measures and more frequent and severe complications. Nevertheless, the personal impact from having any problem caused by diabetes reduced by 60%. Knowledge of diabetes and self-blood glucose monitoring had improved. People were more likely to accept their diagnosis and were less concerned if others knew. They wanted to know more about diabetes, they felt more in control of the condition and found food restrictions less onerous, but were more worried by their diabetes. Personal impact of diabetes decreased over 5 years. This and associated attitudinal changes, probably explained by 'response shift', produce both challenges and opportunities for clinicians seeking to educate and motivate patients. We need to ask patients directly rather than presume how diabetes is impacting on their life. Only then can we construct joint knowledge with our patients in ways that are personalized to their current attitudes and concerns.

  19. Performance Testing Of Selected Types of Electronic Personal Dosimeters in X- and Gamma Radiation Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kržanović, Nikola; Živanović, Miloš; Ciraj-Bjelac, Olivera; Lazarević, Đorđe; Ćeklić, Sandra; Stanković, Srboljub

    2017-10-01

    Electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) are increasingly being used alongside conventional thermoluminescent dosimeters to measure the dose of legal record in terms of personal dose equivalent. Therefore, it is of great importance to execute performance tests of these dosimeters in photon fields of various energies and at various angles of incidence. This testing is done in order to simulate the behavior of these dosimeters in realistic multidirectional polyenergetic ionizing radiation fields. Tests of accuracy, linearity, energy response, and angular response have been performed on 10 EPDs from multiple manufacturers. Various radiation qualities have been used in the energy range from 33 keV to 1.33 MeV and for angles of incidence 0° to 80°. This research proves that many of the EPDs tested performed according to the manufacturer's specifications and the requirements of the international standards regarding personal dosimetry.

  20. Teaching Teams To Be Teams: An Exercise Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Five-Factor Personality Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinebell, Sharon; Stecher, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Management students formed teams after completing exercises based on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and the Five-Factor Model of Personality. Team members examined how types and traits might affect performance. Most students indicated that understanding personality increased awareness of behavior. Teams that used extreme division of labor were…

  1. Job type and recruiters' inferences of applicant personality drawn from resume biodata : Their relationships with hiring recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Cole, Michael; Feild, Hubert S.; Giles, William F.; Harris, Stanley G.

    2004-01-01

    Using data collected from 244 recruiters who reviewed resumes and made dispositional inferences and hiring recommendations for 122 entry-level job applicants, we found that type of job opening (Holland's Conventional vs. Enterprising jobs) moderated relationships between recruiter inferences of applicant personality traits and recruiter judgments of applicant employability. Results showed Conscientiousness correlated with employability ratings for Conventional jobs (e.g., accounting) while ex...

  2. The distressed (type D) personality is independently associated with impaired health status and increased depressive symptoms in chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Angélique A; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Widdershoven, Jos W;

    2005-01-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a serious condition that is associated with impaired health status and a high prevalence of depressive symptoms. To date, little is known about the determinants of health status and depressive symptoms in CHF. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess whether T...... Type D personality is associated with impaired health status and increased depressive symptoms in heart failure patients, independent of disease characteristics....

  3. The Effect of Positive and Negative Perfectionism and Type D Personality on General Health of the Aged

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Introduction & Objective: Many factors such as retirement, work disability, being isolated from the society, physical illness… affect the general health of the aged , one factor among many, is the role of psychological variables. The purpose of this study has been the investigation of the effect of positive and negative perfectionism and type D personality on general health of the aged. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 80 subjects (47 males and 33 females) were se...

  4. Postural control in persons with unilateral trans-femoral amputation using center of pressure : effect of socket types

    OpenAIRE

    河野, 一郎; 飛松, 好子; 前島, 洋; 森山, 英樹; 武本,秀徳; 坂, ゆかり; 大谷, 拓哉; 高杉, 紳一郎; 岩本, 幸英

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the characteristics of postural control in persons with amputation and to examine the influence of two socket types. A group of six men with unilateral trans-femoral amputation (amputation group, AG) participated in this study. A group of twenty healthy men (control group, CG), matched for age, were also tested. The subjects performed two tests as follows: (1)quiet upright standing task (single-task, ST) and (2)upright standing and concurrent attention...

  5. Developing Interest in Art Scale and Determining the Relation between Personality Type of Teacher Candidates and Their Interest in Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskesen, Orhan

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study is to develop a scale that measures individuals' interest in art and to test if there is a relation between this scale and personality types. For this aim, in the first stage of the study, a scale that can measure university students' interest in art is developed. Draft scale, which is made of 25 items, is conducted on 171…

  6. Type D personality is associated with increased metabolic syndrome prevalence and an unhealthy lifestyle in a cross-sectional Dutch community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denollet Johan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with Type D-Distressed-personality have a general tendency towards increased negative affectivity (NA, while at the same time inhibiting these emotions in social situations (SI. Type D personality is associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. Whether Type D personality is a cardiovascular risk factor in healthy populations remains to be investigated. In the present study, the relations between Type D personality and classical cardiovascular risk factors, i.e. metabolic syndrome and lifestyle were investigated in a Dutch community sample. Methods In a cross-sectional study 1592 participants were included, aged 20-80 years. Metabolic syndrome was defined by self-report, following the International Diabetes Federation-IDF-guidelines including an increased waist circumference, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes. In addition lifestyle factors smoking, alcohol use, exercise and dietary habits were examined. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was stratified by Type D personality (a high score on both NA and SI, lifestyle and confounders age, gender, having a partner, higher education level, cardiac history, family history of cardiovascular disease. Results Metabolic syndrome was more prevalent in persons with a Type D personality (13% vs. 6%. Persons with Type D personality made poorer lifestyle choices, adhered less to the physical activity norm (OR = 1.5, 95%CI = 1.1-2.0, p = .02, had a less varied diet (OR = 0.50, 95%CI = 0.40-0.70, p p = .01. Type D personality was related to a twofold increased risk of metabolic syndrome (OR = 2.2, 95%CI = 1.2-4.0, p = .011, independent of lifestyle factors and confounders. Conclusions Type D personality is related to an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome and unhealthy lifestyle, which suggests both behavioral and biological vulnerability for development of cardiovascular disorders and diabetes.

  7. Reinterpreting the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator from the perspective of the five-factor model of personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, R R; Costa, P T

    1989-03-01

    The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI; Myers & McCaulley, 1985) was evaluated from the perspectives of Jung's theory of psychological types and the five-factor model of personality as measured by self-reports and peer ratings on the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI; Costa & McCrae, 1985b). Data were provided by 267 men and 201 women ages 19 to 93. Consistent with earlier research and evaluations, there was no support for the view that the MBTI measures truly dichotomous preferences or qualitatively distinct types; instead, the instrument measures four relatively independent dimensions. The interpretation of the Judging-Perceiving index was also called into question. The data suggest that Jung's theory is either incorrect or inadequately operationalized by the MBTI and cannot provide a sound basis for interpreting it. However, correlational analyses showed that the four MBTI indices did measure aspects of four of the five major dimensions of normal personality. The five-factor model provides an alternative basis for interpreting MBTI findings within a broader, more commonly shared conceptual framework.

  8. Personality types in childhood: relations to latent trajectory classes of problem behavior and overreactive parenting across the transition into adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Akker, Alithe L; Deković, Maja; Asscher, Jessica J; Shiner, Rebecca L; Prinzie, Peter

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated relations among children's personality types, trajectories of internalizing and externalizing problems, and overreactive parenting across 6 years. Latent Class Analysis of the Big 5 personality dimensions (modeled as latent factors, based on mother, father and teacher reports) for 429 children (mean age 8 years at Time 1) replicated the Resilient, Under-, and Overcontroller types. Latent Class Growth Analysis of externalizing and internalizing problems (modeled as latent factors, based on mother and father reports), revealed that Undercontrollers were at greater risk of belonging to a high/decreasing externalizing problem class and a high/stable co-occurring problem class than were Resilients. Overcontrollers were more likely to be in a high/stable internalizing class and less likely to be in the externalizing problem class, but only at low levels of parental overreactivity. Undercontrollers appeared at double risk as they were at risk for high overreactive parenting, which was an independent risk-factor for the elevated problem trajectories. Because childhood personality types were a risk factor for adjustment problems that persisted into adolescence, Under- and Overcontrollers might be considered as a target for early intervention, with a focus on overreactive parenting for Undercontrollers specifically.

  9. Different types of out-of-home activities and well-being amongst urban residing old persons with mobility impediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu; Hjorthol, Randi; Levin, Lena

    2015-01-01

    , a complex one. The present study explicates this by focusing on how utilitarian and discretionary activities—representing different types out-of-home activities—contribute to well-being, using data from individual interviews with persons aged 80–95, living in Copenhagen, Denmark. We structured the material...... by the two activity types and found both to contribute to participants׳ well-being by representing different sides of ‘being’. Utilitarian activities were important in maintaining independence and fulfilling basic needs, while discretionary activities were important for the individual existing in relation...

  10. The Distressed (Type D) Personality Is Independently Associated With Tinnitus : A Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Hilke; Middel, Berrie; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Staal, Michiel J.; Albers, Frans W. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Tinnitus is a common and disturbing condition, reported by 10% to 20% of the general population. Objective: The authors sought to determine personality characteristics associated with tinnitus patients versus a control group of ear-nose-throat (ENT) patients without tinnitus. Method: Adu

  11. Different Types of Sensation Seeking: A Person-Oriented Approach in Sensation-Seeking Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suranyi, Zsuzsanna; Hitchcock, David B.; Hittner, James B.; Vargha, Andras; Urban, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on sensation seeking (SS) was dominated by a variable-oriented approach indicating that SS level has a linear relation with a host of problem behaviors. Our aim was to provide a person-oriented methodology--a probabilistic clustering--that enables examination of both inter- and intra-individual differences in not only the level,…

  12. Myers-Briggs Personality Type and Adolescent Coping in the College Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Thomas Courtenay

    2009-01-01

    The college choice requires the adolescent to gather and synthesize vast amounts of information, reconcile sometimes competing personal and familial goals, and manage a range of emotions. This decision process represents a major developmental crisis with which the adolescent must cope. Scholars have noted that psychological strain and heightened…

  13. Child maltreatment and mediating influences of childhood personality types on the development of adolescent psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate longitudinal risk processes linking early child maltreatment, childhood personality organizations, and adolescent maladaptation. In a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children (N = 400; 62.3% African American, 11.8% Hispanic; 40.8% girls), a tripartite personality typology based on California Child Q-Set items representative of ego resiliency and ego control personality dimensions (Block & Block, 1969/1980 ) was derived at Wave 1 (age range = 10-12). The typology, composed of Resilient, Overcontrolled, and Undercontrolled profiles, was evaluated for associations with previous child maltreatment, and for its utility in predicting adolescent psychopathology (age range = 15-18). Maltreated children were significantly more likely than nonmaltreated children to be classified into the overcontrolled (Odds Ratio = 1.847) and undercontrolled profiles (Odds Ratio = 2.101), compared to the Resilient profile. The undercontrolled profile reported higher cannabis symptoms and externalizing problems in adolescence than the other two profiles. The overcontrolled group showed the highest levels of internalizing and lowest levels of alcohol problems compared to the other profiles. Person-centered mediation analyses showed that the overcontrolled and the undercontrolled profiles significantly and differentially mediated the link between number of child maltreatment subtypes and the development of adolescent psychopathology. Child maltreatment is a potent environmental stressor that potentiates compromised personality development, eventuating in heightened psychopathology in adolescence. These findings have important implications for prevention and intervention of psychopathology and substance abuse among low income and maltreated youth.

  14. Considering Personality Type in Adult Learning: Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator in Instructor Preparation at PricewaterhouseCoopers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daisley, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the feasibility of using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) as a framework for instructor development in a professional services training environment. It explores the consistency of MBTI with common adult learning theory, addresses questions on MBTI's reliability and validity, and explores the applicability of MBTI to the…

  15. Type D personality is associated with impaired psychological status and unhealthy lifestyle in Icelandic cardiac patients: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svansdottir Erla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type D (distressed personality has been associated with adverse cardiac prognosis and poor emotional well-being in cardiac patients, but it is still unclear what mechanisms link Type D personality with poor clinical outcomes in cardiac patients. In the present cohort of Icelandic cardiac patients, we examined potential pathways that may explain this relationship. The objectives were to examine 1 the association between Type D personality and impaired psychological status, and to explore whether this association is independent of disease severity; and 2 the association between Type D personality and an unhealthy lifestyle. Methods A sample of 268 Icelandic coronary angiography patients (74% males (N = 199; mean age 62.9 years (SD 10.5, range 28-85 years completed the Type D Scale (DS14, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS at hospitalization. Health-related behaviors were assessed 4 months following angiography. Clinical data were collected from medical files. Results Type D personality was associated with an increased risk of anxiety (OR 2.97, 95% CI:1.55-5.69, depression (OR 4.01, 95% CI:1.42-11.29, and stress (OR 5.99, 95% CI:3.08-11.63, independent of demographic variables and disease severity. Furthermore, fish consumption was lower among Type Ds, as 21% of Type Ds versus 5% of non-Type Ds consumed fish p p = 0.024 and to use antidepressants (17% versus 9%, p = 0.049 and sleeping pills (49% versus 33%, p = 0.019 compared to non-Type Ds. Type D personality was not associated with other health-related behaviors, aside from trends towards less fruit and vegetable consumption, and more weight gain. Conclusion Type D personality was associated with psychological distress and an unhealthy lifestyle in Icelandic cardiac patients. Future studies should further investigate the association between Type D personality and health-related behaviors.

  16. Factors affecting welfare attitudes in different types of welfare states: personal interests and values

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Gryaznova

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effect of personal interests and basic human values on the degree of support for a welfare state. Data from the European Social Survey, round 4 (2008) for 29 European countries (total n = 56,752) was used for the study. Results show that values such as collectivism and altruism promote demand for state intervention in welfare, while values like individualism and egoism negatively affect it. Income has the strongest negative effect on support for a welfare state among a...

  17. Anxiety State and Its Comparison between Two Different Personality Types in Perspective of Unani Tib

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Unani system of medicine or Tib is one of the Indian Systems of Medicine; it is based on the fundamentals given by Hippocrates, Galen and Ibne Sina. It has holistic approach to healing; it gives equal emphasis to patient’s individuality (Temperament) and lifestyle factors. Temperament of the individual is the key concept in total diagnosis, prevention and treatment procedure. Each temperament is defined by peculiar personality traits and associated qualities. The purpose of the present study ...

  18. Influence of type D personality on job stress and job satisfaction in clinical nurses: the mediating effects of compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Hee; Kim, Sung Reul; Kim, Yeo Ok; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Hye Young

    2017-04-01

    To test a hypothetical path model evaluating the influence of type D personality on job stress and job satisfaction and to identify the mediating effects of compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction among clinical nurses in South Korea. Personalities susceptible to stress, compassion fatigue, and burnout in clinical nurses have negative effects on the job stress and job satisfaction. A correlational, cross-sectional design was used. A convenience sample of 875 clinical nurses was recruited between December 2014 - February 2015. The structured questionnaires included the Type D personality scale-14, Professional Quality of Life, job stress, job satisfaction, and general characteristics. To test the hypothetical path model, we performed a path analysis by using the AMOS 18·0 program. Based on the path model, type D personality was significantly associated with compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction in our study subjects. Type D personality was significantly associated with job stress and job satisfaction via the effect of burnout, compassion satisfaction, and job stress. Since type D personality is associated with job stress and job satisfaction, identifying personalities vulnerable to stress would help to address job stress and to enhance job satisfaction when nurses have a high level of compassion fatigue and burnout and a low level of compassion satisfaction. The development of interventions that can reduce negative affect and social inhibition of nurses with type D personality and investigation of methods to decrease their compassion fatigue and burnout and to increase compassion satisfaction should be encouraged. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Psychological and personality factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus, presenting the rationale and exploratory results from The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dooren, Fleur E P; Denollet, Johan; Verhey, Frans R J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strong longitudinal evidence exists that psychological distress is associated with a high morbidity and mortality risk in type 2 diabetes. Little is known about the biological and behavioral mechanisms that may explain this association. Moreover, the role of personality traits...... in these associations is still unclear. In this paper, we first describe the design of the psychological part of The Maastricht Study that aims to elucidate these mechanisms. Next, we present exploratory results on the prevalence of depression, anxiety and personality traits in type 2 diabetes. Finally, we briefly....... Personality traits were measured by the DS14 and Big Five personality questionnaires. Type 2 diabetes was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of depression, anxiety and personality with type 2 diabetes, adjusted for age, sex...

  20. Influence of work values and personality traits on intent to stay among nurses at various types of hospital in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Chiu; Perng, Shoa-Jen; Chang, Fwu-Mei; Lai, Hui-Ling

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the influence of work values and personality traits on the intent to stay at work was examined among nurses in Taiwan. No empirical studies in this area have been conducted in the nursing industry. A cross-sectional predictive study was performed during 2012 with 1246 nurses recruited from three different types of hospital located in northeastern Taiwan. A structured questionnaire based on the 5-factor model was used. Multiple regression analyses were used to investigate the various factors associated with the intent to stay at work among nurses. The overall response rate was 85%. The nurses who had a high level of intent to stay at work were significantly more likely to be in senior roles; exhibited positive work values, conscientiousness, emotional stability; and worked at a non-religious hospital. Age, the role of work values, personality traits and type of hospital were crucial in enhancing the level of intent to stay at work. The study findings provide evidence for managers to develop an optimal strategy for nurses with specific personality traits and highly positive work values, which can guide the recruitment and retention of nurses. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Comparisons among three types of generalist physicians: Personal characteristics, medical school experiences, financial aid, and other factors influencing career choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G; Veloski, J J; Barzansky, B; Hojat, M; Diamond, J; Silenzio, V M

    1996-01-01

    A national survey of family physicians, general internists, and general pediatricians was conducted in the US to examine differences among the three groups of generalists physicians, with particular regard to the factors influencing their choice of generalist career. Family physicians were more likely to have made their career decision before medical school, and were more likely to have come from inner-city or rural areas. Personal values and early role models play a very important role in influencing their career choice. In comparison, a higher proportion of general internists had financial aid service obligations and their choice of the specialty was least influenced by personal values. General pediatricians had more clinical experiences either in primary care or with underserved populations, and they regarded medical school experiences as more important in influencing their specialty choice than did the other two groups. Admission committees may use these specialty-related factors to develop strategies to attract students into each type of generalist career.

  2. An Investigation into the Role of Mobile Technology in Collaborative Disease Management for Persons Living with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sultan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and other chronic non-communicable diseases represent a leading threat to health care and human development. The authors discusses how mobile technology can achieve collaborative disease management (CDM within a population living with Type 2 diabetes. We introduces a framework for CDM using mobile technologies. While it can be applied to the management of any disease, we describe a specific instance for diabetes peer-support. In this paper, we validate the framework through the development and testing of a Mobile Health initiative called Mobile Diabetes Self-Management Support (DSMS. It allows persons living with diabetes to learn from each others’ experiences through a virtual support group. The paper presents two user studies conducted. The first study captured the participants’ initial perceptions of the application in a controlled environment and the second study investigated system usage and collaboration when the application was used in their personal settings.

  3. Type D personality is associated with sleep problems in adolescents. Results from a population-based cohort study of Swedish adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condén, Emelie; Ekselius, Lisa; Aslund, Cecilia

    2013-04-01

    Sleep problems are associated with an increased risk of psychiatric and somatic diseases. Type D personality, or the distressed personality, refers to the joint tendency to experience negative emotions and to inhibit self-expression in social interaction. Type D personality is associated with an increased number of health complaints including cardiovascular diseases. The present study investigated whether type D personality was associated with sleep problems among adolescents. The study was part of the Survey of Adolescent Life in Västmanland 2008 (SALVe 2008). A total of 5012 adolescents (age 15-18 years old) completed a questionnaire including the type D measurement DS14 and questions on sleep disturbances, sleep hours during school nights, and sleep hours during weekend nights. Adolescents with a type D personality had an approximately four times increased risk of having sleep disturbances. Moreover, type D personality was associated with sleeping fewer hours. As adolescence represents a formative period for development it is critical to identify sleep disorders early. The presence of type D personality associated with poor sleep demands attention because sleep problems may be an early stage in the development of later diseases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. PREVALENCE OF TYPE D PERSONALITY AND ITS ASSOCIATION WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES AND THEIR RISK FACTORS ACCORDING TO THE ESSE STUDY CONDUCTED IN KEMEROVO REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Sumin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the prevalence of type D personality and its association with cardiovascular diseases and their risk factors in Russia’s population.Material and methods. The research was conducted within the framework of multicentre epidemiological study ESSE-RF. The total sample size was 1610 patients (men and women aged 25-64 years. The type D personality was assessed using questionnaire DS-14. The patients were divided into two groups: patients with the presence of type D personality (n=231 and patients without type D personality (n=1379. Arterial hypertension, smoking, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and obesity were accepted as major cardiovascular risk factors that are well studied and used in the most of the known cardiovascular risk assessment models.Results. Type D personality was detected in 231 (14.3% patients. Among patients with the type D personality as compared with those without one arterial hypertension (r=0.033, ischemic heart disease (r=0.053, vascular diseases of a brain (r=0.041 were revealed more often. Type D personality was associated with such risk factors as diabetes, smoking duration, low physical activity, overweight and obesity.Conclusion. The study results can be useful in the development and carrying out programs of primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  5. HIV-infected persons with type 2 diabetes show evidence of endothelial dysfunction and increased inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Skovsgaard, Malene; Gaardbo, Julie Christine; Kolte, Lilian

    2017-01-01

    contribute to elevated risk of CVD. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 50 HIV-infected persons on combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART), with HIV RNA ...-N-oxide (TMAO), a microbiota-dependent, pro-atherogenic marker was measured using stable isotope dilution LC/MS/MS. RESULTS: The percentage of HIV + T2D+, HIV + T2D-, HIV-T2D+, and HIV-T2D- with hsCRP above cut-off was 50%, 19%, 47%, and 11%, respectively. HIV + T2D+ had elevated ADMA (0.67 μM (0...

  6. A mixed-binomial model for Likert-type personality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allik, Jüri

    2014-01-01

    Personality measurement is based on the idea that values on an unobservable latent variable determine the distribution of answers on a manifest response scale. Typically, it is assumed in the Item Response Theory (IRT) that latent variables are related to the observed responses through continuous normal or logistic functions, determining the probability with which one of the ordered response alternatives on a Likert-scale item is chosen. Based on an analysis of 1731 self- and other-rated responses on the 240 NEO PI-3 questionnaire items, it was proposed that a viable alternative is a finite number of latent events which are related to manifest responses through a binomial function which has only one parameter-the probability with which a given statement is approved. For the majority of items, the best fit was obtained with a mixed-binomial distribution, which assumes two different subpopulations who endorse items with two different probabilities. It was shown that the fit of the binomial IRT model can be improved by assuming that about 10% of random noise is contained in the answers and by taking into account response biases toward one of the response categories. It was concluded that the binomial response model for the measurement of personality traits may be a workable alternative to the more habitual normal and logistic IRT models.

  7. A BLENDED EDUCATION PROGRAM BASED ON CRITICAL THINKING AND ITS EFFECT ON PERSONALITY TYPE AND ATTRIBUTION STYLE OF THE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leili MOSALANEJAD

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Blended learning is a mixture of the various learning strategies and delivery methods that will optimize the learning experience of the user. This research evaluated psychological effect of blended learning on student.This research is a quasi-experimental study. 41students participated in two groups and they registered in the course of psychological diseases in the first semester of 2008–2009. Then, they were randomly divided into groups of traditional and blended methods. Data were gathered through Attribution Measurement Test and Neo Personality Test (Neo FFI.Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate the patterns of data distribution. Analytic statistics such as paired-t test and student t-test were utilized to compare the differences of between the mean scores in pre and post tests. Then analysis of variance (Manova Test and chi square tests applied to evaluate the effects of research variables on each other. The mean score of academic achievement in the blended education group (Mean=15.67, SD=1.65, T=3.06, p=0,004, was higher than that of the traditional education (Mean=13.88, SD=2.06. In surveying the interaction between attribution style, type of teaching, and scores of academic achievement, it was revealed that there was a significant relationship between global–local favorable condition (P=/04, F=10/52. Evaluating the interaction between type of teaching , student’s final scores and personality type based on MANOVA TEST revealed that, there was a significant relationship between all personality factors(openness, extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness, except neuroticism criterion. The use of this educational method with standard designing strategies is recommended for teaching medical sciences.

  8. Vascular effects of ultrafine particles in persons with type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Diabetes confers an increased risk for cardiovascular effects of airborne particles. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that inhalation of elemental carbon ultrafine particles (UFP) would activate blood platelets and vascular endothelium in people with type 2 diabetes. ...

  9. The Usefulness of Type Ia Supernovae for Cosmology - a Personal Review

    OpenAIRE

    Krisciunas, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    We review some results of the past 12 years derived from optical and infrared photometry of Type Ia supernovae. A combination of optical and infrared photometry allows us to determine accurately the extinction along the line of sight. The resulting distance measurements are much more accurate than can be obtained from optical data alone. Type Ia supernovae are very nearly standard candles in the near-infrared. Accurate supernova distances, coupled with other observational data available at pr...

  10. Nonintellective intelligence and personality: variance shared by the Constructive Thinking Inventory and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirrison, C L; Gordy, C C

    1994-04-01

    The Constructive Thinking Inventory (CTI; Epstein & Meier, 1989), a recently developed scale assessing patterns of habitual everyday thoughts, was compared with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI; Myers & McCaulley, 1985) to ascertain areas of common variance. CTI and MBTI data from 65 men and 109 women were evaluated. A series of standard multiple regression procedures indicated that, in most instances, CTI scales were predictive of MBTI continuous scores, although gender mediated several of the effects. The results suggest that the variance assessed by the CTI is similar to that addressed by traditional measures of personality but that the CTI partitions the variance in an atypical, yet coherent, manner.

  11. Usefulness of type D personality in predicting five-year cardiac events above and beyond concurrent symptoms of stress in patients with coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denollet, Johan; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Vrints, Christiaan J

    2006-01-01

    Psychological stress and type D personality have been associated with adverse cardiac prognosis, but little is known about their relative effect on the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD). "Type D" refers to the tendency to experience negative emotions and to inhibit the expression...... of these emotions in social interactions. We investigated the relative effect of stress and type D personality on prognosis at 5-year follow-up. At baseline, 337 patients with CHD who participated in cardiac rehabilitation filled in the General Health Questionnaire (psychological stress) and the Type D personality...... events at follow-up, including 4 deaths and 8 myocardial infarctions. Type D patients had an increased risk of death/infarction (odds ratio 4.84, 95% confidence interval 1.42 to 16.52, p = 0.01) compared with non-type D patients, independent of disease severity. Stress (p = 0.011) and type D (p = 0...

  12. The distressed (Type D) personality in both patients and partners enhances the risk of emotional distress in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Broek, Krista C; Versteeg, Henneke; Erdman, Ruud A M

    2011-01-01

    A subgroup of patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) experiences emotional distress. This may be related to partner factors. We examined the impact of the personality of the partner (i.e., the distressed (Type D) personality) in combination with that of the patient on anxiety...

  13. Type D personality is not associated with coronary heart disease risk in a North American sample of retirement-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Noel C; Barger, Steven D; Sydeman, Sumner J

    2013-06-01

    Type D personality is associated with recurrent coronary heart disease (CHD) risk but there is limited and inconsistent evidence regarding incident risk among persons free of clinical CHD. We examined the association between Type D personality and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in apparently healthy adults. We also explored the association of these traits with waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), and inhibited physician consultation behavior. Cross-sectional study of North American retirement-aged residents (N = 303). The primary outcome variable was a modified 10-year absolute CHD risk score from the Framingham Heart Study. Secondary outcomes included adiposity and a 5-item measure of patient/provider interaction inhibition. We regressed CHD risk on negative affect (NA), social inhibition (SI), and the NAxSI interaction (i.e., the Type D personality) and repeated these analyses for adiposity and for patient/provider interaction inhibition. We also contrasted CHD risk across Type D and non-Type D categories. None of the personality variables were associated with CHD risk for the whole sample (regression coefficients from −0.11 to .10, Ps > 0.29) or in gender-specific analyses. For adiposity, NA was positively associated and SI was negatively associated with BMI in women (Ps personality associations. Patient/provider interaction inhibition was associated with SI (P interaction (P = 0.42). The contrast between Type D and non-Type D personality revealed no differences in CHD risk (P = 0.93). Neither Type D nor its constituent NA and SI traits were associated with absolute incident CHD risk in retirement-aged adults free of reported CHD. Optimal analytic practices and attention to patient/provider interaction behavior will improve our understanding of the association between Type D personality traits and health.

  14. Mortality reduction among persons with type 2 diabetes: (-)-Epicatechin as add-on therapy to metformin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ulloa, Aldo; Moreno-Ulloa, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes has become a worldwide epidemic, and is growing at a rapid rate with drastic projections for developing countries. Mexico occupies the ninth place worldwide for type 2 diabetes prevalence, and in the foreseeable future, it is expected rise to the seventh place. Myocardial infarction is the most common cause of death in these patients. Although several drugs are approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes that reduce factors associated with myocardial infarction, an excess risk of death is still present. In this regard, the American Diabetes Association recommends metformin (oral glucose lowering drug) as the first-line therapy in type 2 diabetic subjects, based on its amply confirmed positive metabolic effects; however, its capacity to reduce cardiovascular mortality in type 2 diabetic subjects is inconclusive. Thus, mortality reduction in these patients has been an elusive goal, and is therefore, imperative to evaluate new pharmacological interventions that may favorably impact mortality in these individuals. On the other hand, epidemiological studies have suggested that moderate consumption of cacao-derived products (i.e., chocolate and cocoa) may reduce the risk of diabetes, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular disease-associated mortality. Moreover, interventional studies have also suggested that dark chocolate and cocoa consumption is vasculoprotective in normal and type 2 diabetic individuals. (-)-Epicatechin ((-)-EPI) is the main flavanol present in cacao, and suggested to be responsible for the beneficial effects observed after dark chocolate/cocoa consumption. Interestingly, in vivo studies have evidenced the capacity of (-)-EPI to reduce infarct size, and preserve cardiac mechanics in rodent models of ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Nonetheless, long-term studies using (-)-EPI and evaluating its effects on mortality are lacking. Thus, based on their particular properties, it is valid to speculate that (-)-EPI and metformin in conjunction may

  15. Social inhibition and emotional distress in patients with coronary artery disease: The Type D personality construct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, Ivy; Versteeg, Henneke; Duijndam, Stefanie; Graafmans, Corine; Polak, Peter; Denollet, Johan

    2017-05-01

    We examined the validity of the social inhibition component of Type D, its distinctiveness from negative affectivity, and value regarding emotional distress as measured with the DS14 in 173 coronary artery disease patients. In dimensional analysis, social inhibition and negative affectivity emerged as distinct traits. Analysis of continuous negative affectivity and social inhibition measures showed main effects for several emotional and inhibition markers and an interaction effect for social anxiety. Categorical analysis indicated that Type D patients reported more depression, negative mood, social anxiety, and less positive mood. Social inhibition is not a redundant trait, but has additional conceptual value.

  16. Patients with a congenital heart defect and type D personality feel functionally more impaired, report a poorer health status and quality of life, but use less healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoormans, Dounya; Mulder, Barbara Jm; van Melle, Joost P; Pieper, Els G; van Dijk, Arie Pj; Sieswerda, Gert-Jan Tj; Hulsbergen-Zwarts, Mariët S; Plokker, Thijs Hwm; Brunninkhuis, Leo Gh; Vliegen, Hubert W; Sprangers, Mirjam Ag

    2012-09-01

    Type D personality, characterized by high levels of negative affectivity and social inhibition, is related to mortality, morbidity, poor health status, quality of life (QoL) and less healthcare utilization in various cardiovascular patient groups. To date, studies in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) are lacking. (1) To examine the prevalence of type D personality in CHD patients; (2) to compare type D to non-type D patients with regard to disease severity, functional status, health status and QoL; and (3) to examine the extent to which type D personality is independently related to healthcare utilization. A total of 1109 adult CHD patients were included in a questionnaire survey. Due to missing data, 302 patients were excluded. The prevalence of Type D personality was 20.4%. Type D patients reported a poorer functional status, health status and QoL than non-type D patients (p<0.05). Type D patients reported less healthcare use than non-type D patients (primary and cardiac outpatient healthcare: adjusted OR=0.56, 95% CI=0.35-0.90; inpatient healthcare: adjusted OR=0.38, 95% CI=0.17-0.83). Results of a post-hoc analysis showed a high prevalence of type D personality in patients with a poor functional status who did not consult their cardiologist. type D patients report a poorer functional status, health status and QoL, but less healthcare utilization. In clinical practice, patients should be screened for type D personality, since social inhibition may prevent them from contacting a healthcare provider in the event of symptom aggravation.

  17. Effects of acarbose (Glucobay) in persons with type 1 diabetes : a multicentre study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sels, J P; Verdonk, H E; Wolffenbuttel, B H

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this multicentre study was to investigate the effect--in everyday life--of long term administration of acarbose on parameters of glycaemic control, daily insulin requirements, lipid parameters and tolerability in ambulant type 1 diabetic subjects insufficiently controlled with diet and in

  18. [The availability of particular types of medical social care to persons of elderly and senile age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigabutdinov, A F

    2012-01-01

    The article presents the results of sociological survey of respondents of elderly and senile age living with their families or in senior centers. The comparative analysis was applied to availability of particular types of medical social care of contingent of interest depending on place of its residence. The age and ability of self-support of respondents were taken into account.

  19. A person-centered approach to homework behavior: Students’ characteristics predict their homework learning type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flunger, Barbara; Trautwein, Ulrich; Nagengast, Benjamin; Lüdtke, Oliver; Niggli, Alois; Schnyder, Inge

    2017-01-01

    Homework time (i.e., the total amount of time spent on homework) and homework effort (i.e., the extent to which students work seriously on their homework) are defined as two central aspects that characterize students’ homework behavior. Recent research has identified homework learning types by

  20. MBTI Personality Type and the Utility of Error Correction among English Majors in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nathan Brian; Wang, Shun Hwa

    2004-01-01

    The issue of whether or not to correct errors in students' writing is controversial. Some scholars argue that error correction is helpful, while others argue that it is ineffective, perhaps even harmful. What is missing from the literature are studies about how error correction might affect the performance of specific types of students. This…

  1. Mildly elevated serum total bilirubin levels are negatively associated with carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Kasai, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Tomo; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is strongly associated with several mechanisms of tissue damage such as oxidative stress. Serum bilirubin may have a beneficial role in preventing oxidative changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Limited information is available on whether serum bilirubin is an independent confounding factor for carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes. The study subjects were 169 men aged 79 ± 8 (mean ± SD) years and 205 women aged 81 ± 8 years that were enrolled consecutively from patients in the medical department. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque were derived via B-mode ultrasonography. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum total bilirubin (β = -0.160) was significantly associated with carotid IMT. Compared to subjects with a serum total bilirubin of tertile-1 (0.13-0.58 mg/dL), the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of carotid IMT ≥1.0 mm including plaque and carotid plaque was 0.46 (0.23-0.93) and 0.32 (0.17-0.60) in the Tertile-3 group (0.87-1.93 mg/dL), respectively. Next, data were further stratified by gender, age, smoking status, medication and prevalence of CVD. There were no significant differences in serum total bilirubin levels between selected subgroups. Our data demonstrated a negative association between serum total bilirubin and carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes.

  2. DERMATOGLYPHIC STUDY: A COMPARISON IN HANDS OF TYPE II DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENTS AND NORMAL PERSONS OF UDAIPUR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to evaluate dermatoglyphics as an effective and economical screening method for diabetes mellitus type II patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Dermatoglyphic patterns were recorded by Cummins ink method. Dermatoglyphic patterns of both hands of 200 persons, i.e., 100 each of patients and normal persons were recorded. Each group was divided into male and female group to avoid any variations. Controls were carefully selected to be free from any disease as disease could influence the dermatoglyphic pattern. OBSERVATIONS: Observations were tabulated to find out distribution of finger-tip patterns, TFRC (Total finger ridge countand AFRC (Absolute finger ridge count values, Various angles in palm i.e. atd angle, tad angle, tda angle, deviation of t, C-Line patterns, t’ and t” in both the males and females. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Statistical difference in fingertip patterns distribution, TFRC and AFRC values, atd angle, tad angle, tda angle were found. Dermot glyphic patterns observed in study of Type II diabetic patients may prove to be a useful, simple and economical screening method for early diagnosis of individuals in poor socio economic region with dense population like Udaipur region. Such individuals may be subjected later for further specific elaborative investigation to confirm the diagnosis.

  3. Texting for Health: An Evaluation of a Population Approach to Type 2 Diabetes Risk Reduction With a Personalized Message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Anjum; Brown, Lisanne; Mukherjee, Snigdha; Abebe, Nebeyou; Kulick, David

    2015-11-01

    txt4health is an innovative, 14-week, interactive, population-based mobile health program for individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes, developed under the Beacon Community Program in the Greater New Orleans, La., area. A comprehensive social marketing campaign sought to enroll hard-to-reach, at-risk populations using a combination of mass media and face-to-face engagement in faith-based and retail environments. Little is known about the effectiveness of social marketing for mobile technology application in the general population. A systematic evaluation of the campaign identified successes and barriers to implementing a population-based mobile health program. Face-to-face engagement helped increase program enrollment after the initial launch; otherwise, enrollment leveled off over time. Results show positive trends in reaching target populations and in the use of mobile phones to record personal health information and set goals for reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes. The lessons from the txt4health campaign can help inform the development and programmatic strategies to provide a person-level intervention using a population-level approach for individuals at risk for diabetes as well as aid in chronic disease management.

  4. Pre-implantation implantable cardioverter defibrillator concerns and Type D personality increase the risk of mortality in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; van den Broek, Krista C; Erdman, Ruud A M;

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of psychological factors on prognosis in implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) patients. We examined the influence of the distressed personality (Type D) and pre-implantation device concerns on short-term mortality in ICD patients.......Little is known about the influence of psychological factors on prognosis in implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) patients. We examined the influence of the distressed personality (Type D) and pre-implantation device concerns on short-term mortality in ICD patients....

  5. Anxiety State and Its Comparison between Two Different Personality Types in Perspective of Unani Tib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkhunda Jabin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Unani system of medicine or Tib is one of the Indian Systems of Medicine; it is based on the fundamentals given by Hippocrates, Galen and Ibne Sina. It has holistic approach to healing; it gives equal emphasis to patient’s individuality (Temperament and lifestyle factors. Temperament of the individual is the key concept in total diagnosis, prevention and treatment procedure. Each temperament is defined by peculiar personality traits and associated qualities. The purpose of the present study was to compare the anxiety state between Sanguinous/Damvi and Phlegmatic/ Balghami temperaments. The total hundred (50 Damvi and 50 Balghami temperament males were selected for this study. The ages of the subjects were ranged between 25 to 35 years and their temperament was assessed based on Galen 10 parameters. The data on anxiety state of the subjects were obtained by using a questionnaire developed by Neary and Zuckerman (1976. The t test was used to determine the difference between the mean score of anxiety level between Damvi and Balghami temperaments. Results revealed that there was a significant difference between Damvi and Balghami temperaments at 0.05 level of significance with 98 degree of freedom. Study showed that Damvi temperament males have higher level of anxiety state as compared to Balghami temperament males.

  6. [Features of spatial organization of EEG and psychophysiological characteristics of the person with the divergent and convergent types of thinking].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sviderskaia, N E

    2011-01-01

    The psychophysiological indicators of spatial synchronization of biopotential at different types of mental processes in humans: non verbal-divergent, nonverbal-convergent, verbal-divergent and verbal-convergent were analyzed. The unequal relationship between the productivity of the implementation of tests on these types of thinking was revealed. The closest significant correlation exists between the productivity of the verbal-divergent and verbal-convergent thinking, and the lowest--between the productivity of nonverbally-divergent and nonverbally-convergent thinking. The differences in the topographical maps of the spatial synchronization of biopotential at different types of thinking was marked. They are most pronounced in the implementation of two non-verbal tasks, minimal--in two verbal tasks. Differences between different types of thinking are also manifested in the degree of coherence gain biopotential of the performance tests in comparison with the background (open eyes). Some physiological properties of the person that contribute to the divergent (creative) tests have a negative impact on the implementation of converged (tedious) tests. The findings are discussed in terms of differences in the level of general activation and participation of different ways of processing information (simultaneous and successiveness).

  7. The relation between awareness of personal resources and metabolic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blicke, Maren; Körner, Ulrike; Nixon, Patricia; Salgin, Burak; Meissner, Thomas; Pollok, Bettina

    2015-09-01

    The study aims to elucidate whether awareness of personal resources, such as positive attributions and beliefs or social support, affects metabolic control in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes. In addition, it will be determined to what extent metabolic control is influenced by concordance between children and parents regarding awareness of resources and the parents' ability to adopt their children's perspective. Also, the children's wishes particularly in relation to their illness will be investigated, as well as the kind of advice they would offer to fellow patients. Seventy-eight children/adolescents with type 1 diabetes completed the Essen Resource Inventory for Children and Adolescents including personal, social, structural, and migration-specific resources. In addition, children/adolescents and their parents completed a systemic-oriented, diabetes-specific resource questionnaire in order to explore the parents' ability to adopt their children's perspective. Resources such as body awareness and open-minded attitude to the disease were associated with metabolic control. Particularly, resources associated to a migration background were found to be inversely correlated with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) value. Moreover, it was shown that the parents' ability to adopt their children's perspective was associated with improved metabolic control. Children advising fellow patients to accept the disease showed the best HbA1c value. This data identified specific modifiable factors related to metabolic control that can be addressed during counseling of pediatric patients. Also the parents' ability for adopting their child's perspective was identified as a relevant factor which should be considered during clinical counseling of young type 1 diabetes patients. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Jejunal wall triglyceride concentration of morbidly obese persons is lower in those with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriguer, F.; García-Serrano, S.; Garrido-Sánchez, L.; Gutierrez-Repiso, C.; Rojo-Martínez, G.; Garcia-Escobar, E.; García-Arnés, J.; Gallego-Perales, J. L.; Delgado, V.; García-Fuentes, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The overproduction of intestinal lipoproteins may contribute to the dyslipidemia found in diabetes. We studied the influence of diabetes on the fasting jejunal lipid content and its association with plasma lipids and the expression of genes involved in the synthesis and secretion of these lipoproteins. The study was undertaken in 27 morbidly obese persons, 12 of whom had type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The morbidly obese persons with diabetes had higher levels of chylomicron (CM) triglycerides (P diabetes had a lower jejunal triglyceride content (P = 0.012) and angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) mRNA expression (P = 0.043). However, the apoA-IV mRNA expression was significantly greater (P = 0.036). The jejunal triglyceride content correlated negatively with apoA-IV mRNA expression (r = −0.587, P = 0.027). The variables that explained the jejunal triglyceride content in a multiple linear regression model were the insulin resistance state and the apoA-IV mRNA expression. Our results show that the morbidly obese subjects with diabetes had lower jejunal lipid content and that this correlated negatively with apoA-IV mRNA expression. These findings show that the jejunum appears to play an active role in lipid homeostasis in the fasting state. PMID:20855567

  9. Co-occupant's exposure to exhaled pollutants with two types of personalized ventilation strategies under mixing and displacement ventilation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Niu, J; Gao, N

    2013-04-01

    Personalized ventilation (PV) system in conjunction with total ventilation system can provide cleaner inhaled air for the user. Concerns still exist about whether the normally protecting PV device, on the other hand, facilitates the dispersion of infectious agents generated by its user. In this article, two types of PV systems with upward supplied fresh air, namely a chair-based PV and one kind of desk-mounted PV systems, when combined with mixing ventilation (MV) and displacement ventilation (DV) systems, are investigated using simulation method with regard to their impacts on co-occupant's exposure to the exhaled droplet nuclei generated by the infected PV user. Simulation results of tracer gas and particles with aerodynamic diameter of 1, 5, and 10 μm from exhaled air show that, when only the infected person uses a PV, the different PV air supplying directions present very different impacts on the co-occupant's intake under DV, while no apparent differences can be observed under MV. The findings demonstrate that better inhaled air quality can always be achieved under DV when the adopted PV system can deliver conditioned fresh air in the same direction with the mainly upward airflow patterns of DV.

  10. Further Empirical Results on Parametric Versus Non-Parametric IRT Modeling of Likert-Type Personality Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maydeu-Olivares, Albert

    2005-04-01

    Chernyshenko, Stark, Chan, Drasgow, and Williams (2001) investigated the fit of Samejima's logistic graded model and Levine's non-parametric MFS model to the scales of two personality questionnaires and found that the graded model did not fit well. We attribute the poor fit of the graded model to small amounts of multidimensionality present in their data. To verify this conjecture, we compare the fit of these models to the Social Problem Solving Inventory-Revised, whose scales were designed to be unidimensional. A calibration and a cross-validation sample of new observations were used. We also included the following parametric models in the comparison: Bock's nominal model, Masters' partial credit model, and Thissen and Steinberg's extension of the latter. All models were estimated using full information maximum likelihood. We also included in the comparison a normal ogive model version of Samejima's model estimated using limited information estimation. We found that for all scales Samejima's model outperformed all other parametric IRT models in both samples, regardless of the estimation method employed. The non-parametric model outperformed all parametric models in the calibration sample. However, the graded model outperformed MFS in the cross-validation sample in some of the scales. We advocate employing the graded model estimated using limited information methods in modeling Likert-type data, as these methods are more versatile than full information methods to capture the multidimensionality that is generally present in personality data.

  11. Investigating measurement equivalence of visual analogue scales and Likert-type scales in Internet-based personality questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Tim; Dantlgraber, Michael; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

    2017-01-27

    Visual analogue scales (VASs) have shown superior measurement qualities in comparison to traditional Likert-type response scales in previous studies. The present study expands the comparison of response scales to properties of Internet-based personality scales in a within-subjects design. A sample of 879 participants filled out an online questionnaire measuring Conscientiousness, Excitement Seeking, and Narcissism. The questionnaire contained all instruments in both answer scale versions in a counterbalanced design. Results show comparable reliabilities, means, and SDs for the VAS versions of the original scales, in comparison to Likert-type scales. To assess the validity of the measurements, age and gender were used as criteria, because all three constructs have shown non-zero correlations with age and gender in previous research. Both response scales showed a high overlap and the proposed relationships with age and gender. The associations were largely identical, with the exception of an increase in explained variance when predicting age from the VAS version of Excitement Seeking (B10 =1318.95, ΔR (2) =.025). VASs showed similar properties to Likert-type response scales in most cases.

  12. Effect of interface type in the VR-based acquisition of pedestrian skills in persons with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiano, Mario; Garbarino, Eleonora; Lumachi, Simonetta; Solari, Silvano; Sanguineti, Vittorio

    2015-08-01

    Possession of `social' skills is crucial for persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to maintain a certain independence and a better quality of life, and interaction with virtual environments seems an effective learning aid. In a previous study, we reported that in adults with ASD interaction with a virtual environment (a virtual city) is beneficial to the acquisition of pedestrian skills (street crossing and street navigation). Interaction was based on a gesture-based interface (Microsoft Kinect). Here we compare the learning performance when the same virtual environment is operated by a gamepad interface. We used exactly the same training protocol and data analysis than the original study. We found that both interface types are effective in the acquisition of street crossing and city navigation skills. The gamepad interface seems easier to use (thus leading to faster interaction), but gesture-based interfaces are superior in terms of transfer of the learned skills to real road environments (as reported by parents and caregivers).

  13. Electromagnetic malfunction of semiconductor-type electronic personal dosimeters caused by access control systems for radiation facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deji, Shizuhiko; Ito, Shigeki; Ariga, Eiji; Mori, Kazuyuki; Hirota, Masahiro; Saze, Takuya; Nishizawa, Kunihide

    2006-08-01

    High frequency electromagnetic fields in the 120 kHz band emitted from card readers for access control systems in radiation control areas cause abnormally high and erroneous indicated dose readings on semiconductor-type electronic personal dosimeters (SEPDs). All SEPDs malfunctioned but recovered their normal performance by resetting after the exposure ceased. The minimum distances required to prevent electromagnetic interference varied from 5.0 to 38.0 cm. The electric and magnetic immunity levels ranged from 35.1 to 267.6 V m(-1) and from 1.0 to 16.6 A m(-1), respectively. Electromagnetic immunity levels of SEPDs should be strengthened from the standpoint of radiation protection.

  14. What type of person are you? Old-fashioned thinking even in modern science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Kenneth M; Lambert, Brian W

    2014-01-01

    People around the world have folk origin myths, stories that explain where they came from and account for their place in the world and their differences from other peoples. As scientists, however, we claim to be seeking literal historical truth. In Western culture, typological ideas about human variation are at least as ancient as written discussion of the subject, and have dominated both social and scientific thinking about race. From Herodotus to the Biblical lost tribes of Israel, and surprisingly even to today, it has been common to view our species as composed of distinct, or even discrete groups, types, or "races," with other individuals admixed from among those groups. Such rhetoric goes so much against the well-known evolutionary realities that it must reflect something deep about human thought, at least in Western culture. Typological approaches can be convenient for some pragmatic aspects of scientific analysis, but they can be seductively deceiving. We know how to think differently and should do so, given the historical abuses that have occurred as a result of typological thinking that seem always to lurk in the human heart.

  15. Type D personality in the general population: a systematic review of health status, mechanisms of disease, and work-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mols, Floortje; Denollet, Johan

    2010-01-23

    The objective was to review all available literature concerning Type D (distressed) personality among the general population and to discuss its implications for research on health status, disease-promoting mechanisms and work-related problems in non-clinical populations. A computerized search of the literature was performed independently and in duplicate by both investigators on December 21st, 2009. Published research reports were included if they studied Type D personality among the general population. Nineteen articles were selected and they were subjected to an 11-item standardised quality checklist by both investigators. The methodological quality of the selected studies was adequate to high. The studies included in this review showed that the presence of Type D characteristics had a negative impact on mental health status (more symptoms of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, mental distress, passive coping, and less social support) and physical health status (more somatic complaints, lower health status, more influenza-like illness reporting). Other studies reported on behavioral and biological mechanisms of disease in apparently healthy individuals with a Type D personality. Finally, some studies also showed a negative effect of Type D personality on work-related problems (higher absence-leave, higher levels of vital exhaustion and burnout, and more work-related stress). Type D personality is a vulnerability factor for general psychological distress that affects mental and physical health status and is associated with disease-promoting mechanisms and work-related problems in apparently healthy individuals.

  16. Image guided personalization of reaction-diffusion type tumor growth models using modified anisotropic eikonal equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konukoglu, Ender; Clatz, Olivier; Menze, Bjoern H; Stieltjes, Bram; Weber, Marc-André; Mandonnet, Emmanuel; Delingette, Hervé; Ayache, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Reaction-diffusion based tumor growth models have been widely used in the literature for modeling the growth of brain gliomas. Lately, recent models have started integrating medical images in their formulation. Including different tissue types, geometry of the brain and the directions of white matter fiber tracts improved the spatial accuracy of reaction-diffusion models. The adaptation of the general model to the specific patient cases on the other hand has not been studied thoroughly yet. In this paper, we address this adaptation. We propose a parameter estimation method for reaction-diffusion tumor growth models using time series of medical images. This method estimates the patient specific parameters of the model using the images of the patient taken at successive time instances. The proposed method formulates the evolution of the tumor delineation visible in the images based on the reaction-diffusion dynamics; therefore, it remains consistent with the information available. We perform thorough analysis of the method using synthetic tumors and show important couplings between parameters of the reaction-diffusion model. We show that several parameters can be uniquely identified in the case of fixing one parameter, namely the proliferation rate of tumor cells. Moreover, regardless of the value the proliferation rate is fixed to, the speed of growth of the tumor can be estimated in terms of the model parameters with accuracy. We also show that using the model-based speed, we can simulate the evolution of the tumor for the specific patient case. Finally, we apply our method to two real cases and show promising preliminary results.

  17. A qualitative study of the relationship of personality type with career management and career choice preference in a group of bioscience postgraduate students and postdoctoral researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Blackford, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on the career management and career choice preferences of a sample of bioscience postgraduate students and postdoctoral researchers according to their personality type as determined using the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Correlations can be found but other decision-making processes come into play and are more influential regarding career choices

  18. A qualitative study of the relationship of personality type with career management and career choice preference in a group of bioscience postgraduate students and postdoctoral researchers

    OpenAIRE

    Blackford, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on the career management and career choice preferences of a sample of bioscience postgraduate students and postdoctoral researchers according to their personality type as determined using the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). Correlations can be found but other decision-making processes come into play and are more influential regarding career choices

  19. Personality Types and Burnout Syndrome in Primary School Teachers in Chile [Tipos de personalidad y síndrome de burnout en Educadoras de Párvulos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Salvador Ortiz Parada

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to determine differences in burnout’s level as function of personalities types and attendance in public or private school, a non-experimental study was designed. Burnout levels were measured with the MBI teacher’s version and personalities types with the NEO-Five Factors Inventory (n = 133. A set of socio-demographic variables was included. By means of ANOVA ONEWAY, differences were found in emotional exhaustion among kindergarten teachers who work in public and private school (p ≤ 0,05. Differences were also found between spectator and skeptic personality types in burnout levels, and between skeptic and complicated types in emotional exhaustion (p ≤ 0,05. These results emphasize the relevance to give attention to public school’s educator and those who had high neuroticism’s levels because they tend to have more burnout

  20. Medication Adherence Mediates the Association between Type D Personality and High HbA1c Level in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Six-Month Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuemei; Gao, Min; Zhang, Shengfa; Xu, Huiwen; Zhou, Huixuan; Wang, Xiaohua; Qu, Zhiyong; Guo, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Aims. To examine the association between Type D personality and HbA1c level and to explore the mediating role of medication adherence between them in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. 330 patients went on to complete a self-report measure of medication adherence and the HbA1c tests. Chi-square test, T test, Ordinary Least Square Regression (OLS), and Recentered Influence Function Regression (RIF) were employed. Results. Patients with Type D personality had significantly higher HbA1c value (P personality was operationalized as a categorical variable, SI was associated with HbA1c (P 0.1). On the other hand, when Type D personality was operationalized as a continuous variable, only SI trait was associated with HbA1c level (P personality and HbA1c, accounting for 54.43% of the total effect. Conclusion. Type D personality was associated with HbA1c in direct and indirect ways, and medication adherence acted as a mediator role.

  1. Relapse (number of detoxifications) in abstinent male alcohol-dependent patients as related to personality traits and types of tolerance to frustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Melanie Y; Müller, Matthias J; Gallhofer, Bernd; Netter, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Personality traits like depression on the one hand and aggression and impulsivity on the other are assumed to be predisposing factors for different types of alcohol dependence. Both types are associated with sensitivity to frustration, but this may be different for the two types of personality according to whether they are confronted with frustrations caused by withdrawal from positive or infliction of negative events. It has not been shown so far if both types of personality factors and the two different sources of frustration are differently relevant for the propensity of relapse. This was investigated here in a study on 60 abstinent male alcohol-dependent patients. Correlations between the number of previous detoxifications reflecting liability to relapse and questionnaire scores on personality factors and on reactions to frustration were computed. Bonferroni-corrected correlations yielded significant relationships between the number of detoxifications and the personality factor of aggression as well as pronounced depressive reactions to frustrating conditions of non-reward caused by humans. Controlling for impulsivity, aggression and depression revealed that depressive reactions to frustration are genuine predictors for probability of relapse independent of underlying personality factors. Persons particularly sensitive to frustrations from human denial of positive reinforcers are liable to relapse which fits the theory of sensitivity to reward in drug-addicted individuals. Results demonstrate that relapse is clearly more related to aggression than to impulsivity, depression and anxiety and may be facilitated if persons are sensitive to frustrating conditions of non-reward caused by social partners. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. LADA type diabetes, celiac diasease, cerebellar ataxia and stiff person syndrome. A rare association of autoimmune disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soós, Zsuzsanna; Salamon, Mónika; Erdei, Katalin; Kaszás, Nóra; Folyovich, András; Szücs, Anna; Barcs, Gábor; Arányi, Zsuzsanna; Skaliczkis, József; Vadasdi, Károly; Winkler, Gábor

    2014-05-30

    Celiac disease--in its typical form--is a chronic immune-mediated enteropathy with typical clinical symptoms that develops against gliadin content of cereal grains, and is often associated with other autoimmune diseases. In cases of atypical manifestation classic symptoms may be absent or mild, and extra-intestinal symptoms or associated syndromes dominate clinical picture. The authors present a longitudinal follow-up of such a case. A 63-years old woman was diagnosed with epilepsy at the age of 19, and with progressive limb ataxia at the age of 36, which was initially thought to be caused by cerebellar atrophy, later probably by stiff person syndrome. At the age 59, her diabetes mellitus manifested with type 2 diabetic phenotype, but based on GAD positivity later was reclassified as type 1 diabetes. Only the last check-up discovered the celiac disease, retrospectively explaining the entire disease course and neurological symptoms. By presenting this case, the authors would like to draw attention to the fact that one should think of the possibility of celiac disease when cerebellar ataxia, progressive neurological symptoms and diabetes are present at the same time. An early diagnosis may help to delay the progression of disease and help better treatment.

  3. Personality disorders, but not cancer severity or treatment type, are risk factors for later generalised anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder in non metastatic breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Anne-Laure; Brunault, Paul; Huguet, Grégoire; Suzanne, Isabelle; Senon, Jean-Louis; Body, Gilles; Rusch, Emmanuel; Magnin, Guillaume; Voyer, Mélanie; Réveillère, Christian; Camus, Vincent

    2016-02-28

    This study aimed to determine whether personality disorders were associated with later Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) or Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) in breast cancer patients. This longitudinal and multicentric study included 120 French non-metastatic breast cancer patients. After cancer diagnosis (T1) and 7 months after diagnosis (T3), we assessed MDD and GAD (Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview 5.0). We assessed personality disorders 3 months after diagnosis (VKP). We used multiple logistic regression analysis to determine what were the factors associated with GAD and MDD at T3. At T3, prevalence rate was 10.8% for MDD and 19.2% for GAD. GAD at T3 was significantly and independently associated with GAD at T1 and with existence of a personality disorder, no matter the cluster type. MDD at T3 was significantly and independently associated with MDD at T1 and with the existence of a cluster C personality disorder. Initial cancer severity and the type of treatment used were not associated with GAD or MDD at T3. Breast cancer patients with personality disorders are at higher risk for GAD and MDD at the end of treatment. Patients with GAD should be screened for personality disorders. Specific interventions for patients with personality disorders could prevent psychiatric disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Medication Adherence Mediates the Association between Type D Personality and High HbA1c Level in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Six-Month Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To examine the association between Type D personality and HbA1c level and to explore the mediating role of medication adherence between them in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods. 330 patients went on to complete a self-report measure of medication adherence and the HbA1c tests. Chi-square test, T test, Ordinary Least Square Regression (OLS, and Recentered Influence Function Regression (RIF were employed. Results. Patients with Type D personality had significantly higher HbA1c value (P0.1. On the other hand, when Type D personality was operationalized as a continuous variable, only SI trait was associated with HbA1c level (P<0.01. When NA, SI, and NA×SI term together were entered into regression, only SI was not related to HbA1c level. Furthermore, medication adherence had a significant mediation effect between Type D personality and HbA1c, accounting for 54.43% of the total effect. Conclusion. Type D personality was associated with HbA1c in direct and indirect ways, and medication adherence acted as a mediator role.

  5. Non-suicidal Self-injury in Different Eating Disorder Types: Relevance of Personality Traits and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed A; Steiger, Howard; Jimenez-Murcia, Susana; Israel, Mimi; Granero, Roser; Agüera, Zaida; Castro, Rita; Sánchez, Isabel; Riesco, Nadine; Menchón, José M; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-11-01

    The study explored lifetime prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in female and male individuals with eating disorders (ED) and compared ED symptoms, general psychopathology and personality traits across individuals with and without a history of NSSI. The incremental discriminative capacity of gender on the manifestation of lifetime NSSI was also studied. A total sample of 1649 consecutively admitted ED patients (1515 women and 134 men) participated in the current study [339 ED + NSSI (ED with NSSI) and 1310 ED - NSSI (ED without NSSI)]. Specific self-report measures were included and other clinical and psychopathological indices. The observed lifetime prevalence of NSSI was 20.6% (20.9% in women and 17.2% in men). NSSI was not associated with ED type or gender. However, ED + NSSI patients exhibited more impulsive behaviour, substance-abuse disorders and additional impulse-control disorders, were younger and had more previous treatments. Age was shown to affect the presentation of NSSI. Additionally, ED + NSSI patients exhibited more severe ED and general psychopathological symptoms and had more dysfunctional personality traits when compared with ED - NSSI. ED + NSSI was found to be positively associated with harm avoidance and self-transcendence but negatively with reward dependence, self-directedness and cooperativeness. Thus, the variables with stronger capacity to identify the presence of ED + NSSI were younger age, harm avoidance, self-directedness and self-transcendence. A lack of association between sex and ED subtype with the presence of NSSI was observed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  6. Prevalence of type D personality and factorial and temporal stability of the DS14 after myocardial infarction in a Swedish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condén, Emelie; Rosenblad, Andreas; Ekselius, Lisa; Aslund, Cecilia

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the prevalence of Type D personality and the temporal stability, internal consistency, and construct validity of the DS14 at three time points after myocardial infarction. The prevalence was 14.0% during hospitalization, 25.1% at 1 month, and 19.2% at 12 months. A total of 6.1% of the patients were classified as Type D personality at all three assessments, whereas 68.4% were stable non-Type D and 25.6% changed between personality classifications. The DS14 had stable structural validity, but low temporal stability over time, especially from hospitalization to the 1-month and 12-month follow-ups (κ = 0.365 and 0.397, respectively).

  7. The Role of the Myers-Briggs Personality Type and Emotional Intelligence in Marital Satisfaction among Married Female Students at Tehran University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirzad, Galin

    2016-10-01

    The present descriptive correlational study was conducted to predict the role of emotional intelligence and the Myers-Briggs personality type in marital satisfaction in married female students Tehran University in 2015. The study population consisted of all the married female students at Tehran University who visited Iran MBTI center between 22.04.2015 and 21.06.2015. A total of 140 students were selected as the study samples. Data were collected using the Myer-Briggs Type Indicator, the Bar-On Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire and the Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale and were then analyzed in SPSS-20 using the multivariate regression analysis. The results obtained showed that emotional intelligence (interpersonal and intra-personal skills) and personality type (extraverted and structured) can predict marital satisfaction.

  8. A descriptive study of Myers-Briggs personality types of professional music educators and music therapists with comparisons to undergraduate majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Anita Louise; Young, Sylvester

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine personality types and demographic characteristics of professional music educators and music therapists. The researchers also sought to determine if personality types of professionals were consistent with undergraduate majors in those fields and personal characteristics as suggested by The Music Education National Conference (MENC) and the American Music Therapy Association (AMTA). The research of Steele and Young (2008) found strong similarities and some differences between undergraduate music education and music therapy students. The possibility that basic types extend across the life span may strengthen understanding of job satisfaction, stress, burn out and other factors affecting retention. Participants were a voluntary convenience sample of 253 music educators (n=110) and music therapists (n=143). The highest preference for music educators was Extrovert-Intuition-Feeling-Judgment (ENFJ) and the highest preference for music therapists was Introvert-Intuition-Feeling-Judgment (INFJ). The difference in the collective type of each group was their "outlook on life", which was either Extrovert or Introvert. However, both groups were the same in their secondary type functions of "NFJ". A comparison of findings with the Steele and Young (2008) study suggested small changes in personality type over time. Caution must be exercised in generalizing findings; however this descriptive investigation may serve as the basis for future studies, which should help foster a stable work force in these professions.

  9. Prognostic value of type D personality for 10-year mortality and subjective health status in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulfer, K; Hazemeijer, B A F; Van Dijk, M R; Van Geuns, R J M; Daemen, J; Van Domburg, R T; Utens, E M W J

    2015-09-01

    Given the debate around limitations and controversies in type D personality studies, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of 'synergistically' analyzed type D personality (interaction z-scores negative affectivity NA, and social inhibition SI) on 10-year mortality and on 10-year subjective health status in percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) patients. This prospective study comprised a cohort of 1190 consecutive patients who underwent PCI between October 2001 and September 2002 (73% male, mean age: 62years, range [27-90]years). At baseline, type D personality (DS14), and depression/anxiety (HADS) were assessed. Primary endpoint was 10year all-cause mortality; secondary endpoint was 10-year subjective health status (SF-36). After a median follow-up of 10.3years (IQR 9.8-10.8), 293 deaths of any cause (24.6%) were recorded. After adjustment for significant baseline characteristics, personality categories approached and dichotomously approached type D personality were associated with 10-year mortality, ppersonality was not associated with all-cause mortality or subjective health status at 10years. In survivors, higher NA was associated with lower subjective health status. Type D was not associated with mortality after adjusting for continuous depression and anxiety in all approaches. Synergistically analyzed type D was not associated with 10-year all-cause mortality in PCI patients whereas dichotomous type D was. However, after adjustment for depression most of the findings had disappeared. Depression played an important role in this. Type D was not associated with 10-year subjective health status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Personality traits and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, I J; Peter, A; Austin, E; Gibson, G

    1998-11-01

    The structure of personality disorder traits was examined in a sample of 400 undergraduates who completed the personality disorder questionnaire from the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R (SCID-II). The relations between personality disorder and normal personality traits indexed by the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised (EPQ-R) were examined. The three-cluster model of personality traits--as described in the DSM scheme--found equivocal support. Exploratory principal components analysis and confirmatory factor analysis found four broad factors of personality disorder that overlapped with normal personality traits: an asthenic factor related to neuroticism; an antisocial factor associated with psychoticism; an asocial factor linked to introversion-extraversion; and an anankastic (obsessive-compulsive) factor. There is growing agreement about the number and type of broad personality disorder dimensions; similar dimensions may be found in clinical and non-clinical samples, suggesting that those people with personality disorders differ quantitatively rather than qualitatively from others; and there is substantial overlap between normal and abnormal personality dimensions.

  11. Age-Related Differences in the Effect of Psychological Distress on Mortality: Type D Personality in Younger versus Older Patients with Cardiac Arrhythmias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Denollet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mixed findings in biobehavioral research on heart disease may partly be attributed to age-related differences in the prognostic value of psychological distress. This study sought to test the hypothesis that Type D (distressed personality contributes to an increased mortality risk following implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD treatment in younger patients but not in older patients. Methods. The Type D Scale (DS14 was used to assess general psychological distress in 455 younger (≤70 y,. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT, but not Type D personality, was associated with increased mortality in older patients. Among younger patients, however, Type D personality was associated with an adjusted hazard ratio = 1.91 (95% CI 1.09–3.34 and 2.26 (95% CI 1.16–4.41 for all-cause and cardiac mortality; other predictors were increasing age, CRT, appropriate shocks, ACE-inhibitors, and smoking. Conclusion. Type D personality was independently associated with all-cause and cardiac mortality in younger ICD patients but not in older patients. Cardiovascular research needs to further explore age-related differences in psychosocial risk.

  12. Forms of Friendship: A Person-Centered Assessment of the Quality, Stability, and Outcomes of Different Types of Adolescent Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Cody; Laursen, Brett; Mooney, Karen S.; Rubin, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    Friendships differ in terms of their quality and participants may or may not agree as to their perceptions of relationship quality. Two studies (N = 230 and 242) were conducted to identify distinct and replicable categories of friendship among young adolescents (M = 11.6 years old) using self and partner reports of relationship quality. Same-sex friendships were identified from reciprocated friend nominations. Each friend described perceptions of negativity and social support in the relationship. Cluster analyses based on reports from both friends yielded 4 friendship types in each study: a high quality group, a low quality group, and two groups in which friends disagreed about the quality of the relationship. High quality friendships were most apt to be stable from the 6th to the 7th grade. Participants in high quality friendships reported the highest levels of global self-worth and perceived behavioral conduct and the lowest levels of problem behaviors. Dyads reporting discrepant perceptions of quality differed from dyads who agreed that the friendship was high quality in terms of stability and individual adjustment, underscoring the advantages of person-centered strategies that incorporate perceptions of both partners in categorizations of relationships. PMID:25620829

  13. Forms of Friendship: A Person-Centered Assessment of the Quality, Stability, and Outcomes of Different Types of Adolescent Friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Cody; Laursen, Brett; Mooney, Karen S; Rubin, Kenneth H

    2015-04-01

    Friendships differ in terms of their quality and participants may or may not agree as to their perceptions of relationship quality. Two studies (N = 230 and 242) were conducted to identify distinct and replicable categories of friendship among young adolescents (M = 11.6 years old) using self and partner reports of relationship quality. Same-sex friendships were identified from reciprocated friend nominations. Each friend described perceptions of negativity and social support in the relationship. Cluster analyses based on reports from both friends yielded 4 friendship types in each study: a high quality group, a low quality group, and two groups in which friends disagreed about the quality of the relationship. High quality friendships were most apt to be stable from the 6(th) to the 7(th) grade. Participants in high quality friendships reported the highest levels of global self-worth and perceived behavioral conduct and the lowest levels of problem behaviors. Dyads reporting discrepant perceptions of quality differed from dyads who agreed that the friendship was high quality in terms of stability and individual adjustment, underscoring the advantages of person-centered strategies that incorporate perceptions of both partners in categorizations of relationships.

  14. Organisational culture, employee satisfaction, perceived leader emotional competency and personality type: An exploratory study in a South African engineering company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Martins

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate employees’ experiences of their organisation’s culture and general satisfaction levels and to explore whether potential explanations for these could be derived from measures of the perceived emotional competency and dominant personality type of senior management as aspects of their predominant leadership style. The South African Culture Instrument (SACI, an Employee Satisfaction Survey questionnaire and the 360 Degree Emotional Competency Profiler (ECP were administered to a sample of 181 (SACI, 170 (Employee Satisfaction Survey questionnaire and 88 (ECP volunteer employees of a South African engineering company. All nine senior directors voluntary participated in completing the MBTI, Form G. The results indicated significant differences between the various biographical groups regarding the measured dimensions. The ECP and MBTI results showed the affective and social aspects of leadership behaviour to be a development area for senior management. This study makes an important contribution to the expanding body of knowledge that focuses on the evaluation of organisational factors and leader attributes that influence the motivation, commitment and satisfaction of employees in South African organisations.

  15. Peripheral diabetic neuropathy or restless legs syndrome in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus: Differentiating diagnosis in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar, Norma G; Dorn, James Mark

    2015-12-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) affects 8% of the population and is identified in 21% of individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Symptoms of RLS manifest as discomfort in the legs (e.g., numbness, tingling, electrical stimulations), usually occurring at night or at rest (sitting or lying), resulting in the need to move the legs. Peripheral diabetic neuropathy (PDN), which has symptoms similar to RLS, is a common consequence of T2DM. The purpose of this article is to provide nurse practitioners (NPs) with (a) an overview of RLS, (b) the association of RLS with T2DM, (c) the defining characteristics that differentiate PDN from RLS, and (d) implications to improve health outcomes of persons with T2DM. The literature was reviewed for the most current data on RLS and the defining characteristics of PDN. PDN is a common consequence of T2DM and is described as numbness, tingling, or discomfort in the lower extremities, symptoms that are similar to RLS. Differentiating the symptoms of PDN and RLS may be confusing and result in misdiagnoses, lack of treatment, and poor outcomes. It is essential that NPs are knowledgeable about the diagnostic and defining features of RLS as well as the characteristics of other conditions, specifically PDN, which mimics RLS. ©2015 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  16. Modified social learning theory re-examined: correlates of self-management behaviors of persons with Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Linda E; Wallston, Kenneth A

    2016-12-01

    Modified social learning theory (MSLT) applied to health predicts that health behavior is a multiplicative function of health value and perceptions of control over health. The self-management behaviors of persons with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, internal diabetes locus of control (IDLC), diabetes self-efficacy (DSE), and health value (HV) were assessed with an index of diabetes self-care activities in 107 patients receiving insulin. Multiple regression analysis showed DSE as the only MSLT construct that correlated with the index of diabetes self-care behaviors (β = .21, p < .05). While the predicted three-way interaction of IDLC × DSE × HV was significant (∆R(2) = 4.5 %, p < .05) in the final step of the hierarchical model, the pattern of the findings only partially supported MSLT. Instead of finding that patients who were simultaneously high on all three predictors scored highest on the behavioral index, we found that patients who were low on all three constructs reported the least amount of diabetes self-care behavior. Implications for further modification of MSLT and its applications to clinical practice are discussed.

  17. Uptake and Effects of the e-Vita Personal Health Record with Self-Management Support and Coaching, for Type 2 Diabetes Patients Treated in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vugt, M; de Wit, M; Sieverink, F; Roelofsen, Y; Hendriks, S H; Bilo, H J G; Snoek, F J

    2016-01-01

    We studied the use, uptake, and effects of e-Vita, a personal health record, with self-management support and personalized asynchronized coaching, for type 2 diabetes patients treated in primary care. Patients were invited by their practice nurse to join the study aimed at testing use and effects of a personal health record. Patients were followed up for 6 months. Uptake and usage were monitored using log data. Outcomes were self-reported diabetes self-care, diabetes-related distress, and emotional wellbeing. Patients' health status was collected from their medical chart. 132 patients agreed to participate in the study of which less than half (46.1%) did not return to the personal health record after 1st login. Only 5 patients used the self-management support program within the personal health record, 3 of whom asked a coach for feedback. Low use of the personal health record was registered. No statistical significant differences on any of the outcome measures were found between baseline and 6 month follow-up. This study showed minimal impact of implementing a personal health record including self-management support in primary diabetes care. Successful adoption of web-based platforms, as ongoing patient centered care, is hard to achieve without additional strategies aimed at enhancing patient motivation and engaging professionals.

  18. An investigation of five types of personality trait continuity: A two-wave longitudinal study of Spanish adolescents from age 12 to age 15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ignacio Ibáñez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated five types of personality trait continuity using two measurement waves of Spanish adolescents (N = 234. Personality traits were measured with the short form of the Junior Spanish NEO-PI-R (JS NEO-S at ages 12 and 15. The results showed stability in the personality trait structure, as well as decreases in the mean levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness. The results also showed moderate rank-order consistency. Individual-level changes were more pronounced for neuroticism and conscientiousness. Approximately 90% of the participants showed ipsative consistency. The findings showed some personality trait changes occurred from age 12 to age 15, but the changes were less marked than expected during this period of biological and social development. Our results also support the disruption hypothesis, as we found dips in conscientiousness and, to a lesser degree, agreeableness.

  19. An Investigation of Five Types of Personality Trait Continuity: A Two-Wave Longitudinal Study of Spanish Adolescents from Age 12 to Age 15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Manuel I; Viruela, Ana M; Mezquita, Laura; Moya, Jorge; Villa, Helena; Camacho, Laura; Ortet, Generós

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated five types of personality trait continuity using two measurement waves of Spanish adolescents (N = 234). Personality traits were measured with the short form of the Junior Spanish NEO-PI-R (JS NEO-S) at ages 12 and 15. The results showed stability in the personality trait structure, as well as decreases in the mean levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness. The results also showed moderate rank-order consistency. Individual-level changes were more pronounced for neuroticism and conscientiousness. Approximately 90% of the participants showed ipsative consistency. The findings showed some personality trait changes occurred from age 12 to 15, but the changes were less marked than expected during this period of biological and social development. Our results also support the disruption hypothesis, as we found dips in conscientiousness and, to a lesser degree, agreeableness.

  20. Association of psychiatric history and type D personality with symptoms of anxiety, depression, and health status prior to ICD implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrenburg, Annemieke H; Kraaier, Karin; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2013-01-01

    Personality factors and psychiatric history may help explain individual differences in risk of psychological morbidity and poor health outcomes in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)....

  1. Perceived Personality Traits and Types of Teachers and Their Relationship to the Subjective Well-Being and Academic Achievements of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryilmaz, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of the perceived types of teachers (liked, disliked and neutral) with the subjective well-being and academic success of their students, and to determine how students come to categorize their liked, disliked and neutral teachers considering the Big-Five Personality Model. The quantitative…

  2. The impact of Type D personality on health-related quality of life in tinnitus patients is mainly mediated by anxiety and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Hilke; Pedersen, Susanne S.; van der Laan, Bernard F A M

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of Type D personality on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and self-reported tinnitus-related distress in chronic tinnitus patients and whether this relationship is mediated by indicators of psychological distress (i.e., vital exhaustion, anxiety, and depression)....

  3. The Impact of Type D Personality on Health-Related Quality of Life in Tinnitus Patients Is Mainly Mediated by Anxiety and Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, H.; Pedersen, S.S.; van der Laan, B.F.A.M.; Staal, M.J.; Albers, F.W.J.; Middel, B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of Type D personality on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and self-reported tinnitus-related distress in chronic tinnitus patients and whether this relationship is mediated by indicators of psychological distress (i.e., vital exhaustion, anxiety, and depressio

  4. Patients with a congenital heart defect and Type D personality feel functionally more impaired, report a poorer health status and quality of life, but use less healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoormans, Dounya; Mulder, Barbara J. M.; van Melle, Joost P.; Pieper, Els G.; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; Sieswerda, Gert-jan T. J.; Hulsbergen-Zwarts, Mariet S.; Plokker, Thijs H. W. M.; Brunninkhuis, Leo G. H.; Vliegen, Hubert W.; Sprangers, Mirjam A. G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Type D personality, characterized by high levels of negative affectivity and social inhibition, is related to mortality, morbidity, poor health status, quality of life (QoL) and less healthcare utilization in various cardiovascular patient groups. To date, studies in patients with congen

  5. An Identification and Evaluation of the Various Types and Forms of Personal Relationships within a Sino Foreign University Strategic Alliance Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This article identifies a range of personal relationships observable in Sino foreign strategic alliances. Guanxi relationships remained the key to a successful alliance; and encompassed various levels, stages, and dimensions--making them complex and changeable forms of human behavior. Other types of relationships identified included "basic…

  6. Does the Early Social Environment Affect Structure and Consistency of Personality in Wild-Type Male Rats?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gracceva, Giulia; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2011-01-01

    Animal personality has been extensively studied from a functional and evolutionary point of view. Less attention has been paid to the development of personality, its phenotypic plasticity, and the influence of manipulation of early environmental factors. Here we describe the effects of manipulating

  7. Type D personality is a risk factor for psychosomatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain among adolescents: a cross-sectional study of a large population-based cohort of Swedish adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Condén Emelie; Leppert Jerzy; Ekselius Lisa; Åslund Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Type D personality, or the “distressed personality”, is a psychosocial factor associated with negative health outcomes, although its impact in younger populations is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Type D personality and the associations between Type D personality and psychosomatic symptoms and musculoskeletal pain among adolescences. Methods A population-based, self-reported cross-sectional study conducted in Västmanland, Sweden wit...

  8. Effects of lifestyle intervention in persons at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus - results from a randomised, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsen Vegard

    2011-11-01

    the proportion of participants with unhealthy diet (almost 50% absolute reduction. Conclusion It is possible to achieve important lifestyle changes in persons at risk for type 2 diabetes with modest clinical efforts. Group intervention yields no additional effects. The design of the study, with high inclusion and low dropout rates, should make the results applicable to ordinary clinical settings. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00202748

  9. Association of Psychiatric History and Type D Personality with Symptoms of Anxiety, Depression, and Health Status Prior to ICD Implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Starrenburg, Annemieke H.; Kraaier, Karin; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Hout, Moniek; Scholten, Marcoen; Palen, van der Job

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Personality factors and psychiatric history may help explain individual differences in risk of psychological morbidity and poor health outcomes in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). PURPOSE: We examined associations between previous anxiety and depressive diso

  10. Aging among persons with intellectual disability in Israel in relation to type of residence, age, and etiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifshitz, Hefziba; Merrick, Joav

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare aging phenomena of persons with intellectual and developmental disability (ID) aged 40 years and older living in community residence (N = 65) with those living with their families (N = 43) in Jerusalem, Israel. All 108 persons and care givers were interviewed to ascertain health problems, sensory impairment, activity of daily living (ADL), cognitive skills, and leisure activities. Health problem had already developed by age 40 years. The most frequent were visual (33%), hearing impairments (20%) and dental problems (30%). The community residence group displayed more medical problems, whereas individuals living at home had more dental problems. Health problems in persons with Down syndrome were significantly higher. ADL functioning for all participants was high, but persons with Down syndrome and cerebral palsy had more dependence. A decline in functioning in both residential groups was observed concerning leisure time, but scores for social life leisure activities were better for the community residential group. The data provided in this study can serve as information to develop geriatric services for persons with ID and provide a basis for comparison with peers in the general population in Israel. Dental service to persons with ID living at home should be improved.

  11. What works best: objective statistics or a personal testimonial? An assessment of the persuasive effects of different types of message evidence on risk perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, John B F; Das, Enny; Vet, Raymond

    2008-01-01

    In an experimental online study we compared the effects of different types of persuasive evidence in promoting the acceptance of a personal health risk. 118 men who have sex with men (MSM) at-risk for infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) were recruited via a range of websites and randomly assigned to one of 4 conditions (2 experimental and 2 control): narrative evidence (i.e., a personal account), statistical evidence (i.e., abstract prevalence data), mere assertion of increased risk, and no risk information. Narrative evidence was expected to be more effective than statistical evidence in increasing MSM's perceived risk of infection with HBV and intention to obtain vaccination. As predicted, perceptions of personal risk and intention to obtain vaccination against HBV were highest after presentation of narrative evidence, and risk perception mediated the effect of type of message evidence on intention. We propose that narrative evidence effectively promotes a sense of personal risk because it is less affected by defensive message processing resulting from the threat to important self-beliefs that seems inherent in health risk communication.

  12. Effect of the Scattering Radiation in Air and Two Type of Slap Phantom between PMMA and the ISO Water Phantom for Personal Dosimeters Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamwang, N.; Rungseesumran, T.; Saengchantr, D.; Monthonwattana, S.; Pungkun, V.

    2017-06-01

    The calibration of personal dosimeter to determine the quantities of the personal dose equivalent, Hp(d), is required to be placed on a suitable phantom in order to provide a reasonable approximation to the radiation backscattering properties as equivalent as part of body. The dosimeter which is worn on the trunk usually calibrated with slap phantom which recommended in ICRU 47 with dimension of 30 cm (w) x 30 cm (h) x 15 cm (t) PMMA slab phantom to achieve uniformity in calibration procedures, on the other hand the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), ISO 4037-3, proposed the ISO water slap phantom, with PMMA walls, same dimension but different wall thickness (front wall 2.5 mm and other side wall 10 mm thick) and fill with water. However, some laboratories are still calibrating a personal dosimeter in air in term of ambient dose equivalent, H*(d). This research study the effect of the scattering radiation in two type of those slap phantoms and in air, to calibrate two type of OSL (XA and LA) and electronic personal dosimeters. The X-ray and Cs-137 radiation field with the energy range from 33 to 662 keV were used. The results of this study will be discussed.

  13. [Quality of life and perceived general health state related to seizure type and frequency, electroencephalographic findings, cognitive impairment, therapeutic response and secondary effects in persons with epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossinol, Antoni; Molina, Irene; Rossinol, Tomeu; Garcia-Mas, Alexandre

    2013-07-01

    INTRODUCTION. The perceived quality of life (QoL) in persons with epilepsy has demonstrated to be a relevant factor for the continuity of treatment and for the patients' own general health perception. Currently, the positive concept of QoL is used to assess the psychosocial factors of the epilepsy, replacing the concept of stigma. AIM. To analyze the relationship between QoL and general health perception, with several relevant clinical parameters in a sample of persons with epilepsy, in order to draw conclusions that help to suggest a more global approach to the disease. PATIENTS AND METHODS. We applied the Spanish versions of the QOLIE-10, the GHQ-12, and MMSE, and registered the clinical parameters (diagnostic, years of illness, electroencephalographic patterns, seizure type and frequency, response to medication, and side effects) in a sample of 29 persons with epilepsy. RESULTS. QoL and perceived general health are two unrelated factors respect to the clinical features. QoL is closely related to the frequency and type of crisis, whilst the years of illness and the level of neurocognitive impairment are not related with QoL. CONCLUSIONS. From the clinical point of view, it must be taken into account the relationship between the persons with epilepsy perceived QoL with factors such as the seizure frequency, side effects of the medication, and the general health perception, in order to obtain the best response and treatment adherence.

  14. The impact of gender on the long-term morbidity and mortality of patients with type 2 diabetes receiving structured personal care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Marlene Øhrberg; Hasselbalch, Lotte; Siersma, Volkert Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: The aim of this study was to assess gender differences in mortality and morbidity during 13 follow-up years after 6 years of structured personal care in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: In the Diabetes Care in General Practice (DCGP) multicentre, cluster-randomise......Aims/hypothesis: The aim of this study was to assess gender differences in mortality and morbidity during 13 follow-up years after 6 years of structured personal care in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: In the Diabetes Care in General Practice (DCGP) multicentre, cluster...... education of general practitioners participating in the intervention. Patients were re-examined at the end of intervention. This observational analysis followed 970 patients for 13 years thereafter using national registries. Outcomes were all-cause mortality, incidence of diabetes-related death, any...

  15. The INSPIRED study: a randomised controlled trial of the Whole Person Model of disease self-management for people with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David M; Baird, Donita E; Perera, Dinali N; Hagger, Virginia L; Teede, Helena J

    2014-02-08

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has increased dramatically in the last decade, and is continuing to rise. It is a chronic condition, often related to obesity, diet and sedentary lifestyles, and can lead to significant health complications, disability and early death. Diabetes is commonly associated with depression, which can impact significantly on a person's ability to manage their illness and, consequently, on disease outcomes. Disease self-management is fundamental in diabetes and requires support from multiple health professionals and the active participation of the person, including in maintaining a healthy lifestyle. The Whole Person Model was developed in order to integrate emotional and behavioural aspects into a self-management program for people with type 2 diabetes. Here we describe a study designed to test the efficacy of the Whole Person Model of disease self-management in type 2 diabetes. In a parallel-group randomised trial, 180 people with type 2 diabetes of between 2-10 years duration will be recruited via invitation through the Australian National Diabetes Services Scheme. Participants will undergo baseline assessment, followed by randomisation to either intervention or control condition. Control participants will receive fact sheets containing key information about diabetes self-management. The intervention group will receive the INSPIRED (Individual Support & Resources for Diabetes) Manual and be assigned a Health Coach. The INSPIRED Manual consists of six modules that provide key information about diabetes and disease management using the Whole Person Model. Engagement is facilitated by interactive tasks and contact with a Health Coach over seven weeks--an introductory face-to-face session, and six subsequent contacts by phone following each module. Follow-up assessments occur at 13 weeks (post-intervention) and 26 weeks. Primary outcomes include blood glucose management (HbA1c), weight and mood. Secondary outcomes include level of exercise

  16. Childhood maltreatment, maladaptive personality types and level and course of psychological distress : A six-year longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Van Hemert, Albert M.; de Rooij, Mark; Penninx, Brenda W.

    Background: Childhood maltreatment and maladaptive personality are both cross-sectionally associated with psychological distress. It is unknown whether childhood maltreatment affects the level and longitudinal course of psychological distress in adults and to what extent this effect is mediated by

  17. Interactional Features of Repair Negotiation in NS-NNS Interaction on Two Task Types: Information Gap and Personal Information Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Ryu

    2013-01-01

    The studies in task-based approaches in second language acquisition claim that controlled and goal convergent tasks such as information gap tasks surpass open-ended conversations such as personal information exchange tasks for the development of the learner's interlanguage, in that the formers promote more repair negotiation. And yet, few studies…

  18. The Mass Comm Type: Student Personality Traits, Motivations, and the Choice between News and Strategic Communication Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Elizabeth Crisp; Fudge, Julie; Hubbard, Glenn T.; Filak, Vincent F.

    2013-01-01

    A study of news media and strategic communication majors (n = 273) revealed differences in regard to personality indices and impetuses for selecting to pursue degrees. Showing overall agreement in the importance of openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, strategic communication students were significantly higher in their ratings of…

  19. The Mass Comm Type: Student Personality Traits, Motivations, and the Choice between News and Strategic Communication Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Elizabeth Crisp; Fudge, Julie; Hubbard, Glenn T.; Filak, Vincent F.

    2013-01-01

    A study of news media and strategic communication majors (n = 273) revealed differences in regard to personality indices and impetuses for selecting to pursue degrees. Showing overall agreement in the importance of openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, strategic communication students were significantly higher in their ratings of…

  20. Further Empirical Results on Parametric Versus Non-Parametric IRT Modeling of Likert-Type Personality Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maydeu-Olivares, Albert

    2005-01-01

    Chernyshenko, Stark, Chan, Drasgow, and Williams (2001) investigated the fit of Samejima's logistic graded model and Levine's non-parametric MFS model to the scales of two personality questionnaires and found that the graded model did not fit well. We attribute the poor fit of the graded model to small amounts of multidimensionality present in…