WorldWideScience

Sample records for jungian personality type

  1. Performance in College Chemistry: a Statistical Comparison Using Gender and Jungian Personality Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Susan V.; Wheeler, Henry R.; Riley, Wayne D.

    This study sorted college introductory chemistry students by gender and Jungian personality type. It recognized differences from the general population distribution and statistically compared the students' grades with their Jungian personality types. Data from 577 female students indicated that ESFP (extroverted, sensory, feeling, perceiving) and ENFP (extroverted, intuitive, feeling, perceiving) profiles performed poorly at statistically significant levels when compared with the distribution of females enrolled in introductory chemistry. The comparable analysis using data from 422 male students indicated that the poorly performing male profiles were ISTP (introverted, sensory, thinking, perceiving) and ESTP (extroverted, sensory, thinking, perceiving). ESTJ (extroverted, sensory, thinking, judging) female students withdrew from the course at a statistically significant level. For both genders, INTJ (introverted, intuitive, thinking, judging) students were the best performers. By examining the documented characteristics of Jungian profiles that correspond with poorly performing students in chemistry, one may more effectively assist the learning process and the retention of these individuals in the fields of natural science, engineering, and technology.

  2. A Comparison of Jungian, Person-Centered, and Gestalt Approaches to Personal Growth Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Bryon; Matthes, William

    1992-01-01

    Compares Jungian approach to personal growth groups to Person-centered and Gestalt approaches. Notes similarities, though Jungian approach adds dimension of "cognitive map" not found in other two. Notes that cognitive map uses constructs from Jung's theory of individuation process, hypothesizing that integration of these constructs into…

  3. Individual differences construed in terms of Jungian psychological types and Adlerian lifestyles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenon Uchnast

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stern has drawn attention to the possibility of conducting research into the psychology of individual differences in a manner that treats nomothetic and idiographic approaches as being equal and complementary. Nevertheless, many psychologists, such as Strelau, strongly deny the scientific value of the idiographic approach. Jung's conception of psychological types, as presented here, has been created using the nomothetic approach, and its basic assumptions can be verified using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI. Bearing in mind the fact that Adler's conception of lifestyles was formulated and verified using only the idiographic method of psychography, carried out in the context of individual courses of psychotherapy, I draw attention to the possibility of using, for this purpose, my own Action Styles Questionnaire (ASQ, which offers some elements essential to the idiographic approach: e.g. a bipolar structural scale of individual preferences articulated in terms of cooperation with others on the one hand, and security and self-protection on the other (CO-SP - one which may be considered convergent with Adler's description of creative and uncreative lifestyles. Psychometric data obtained from the students (N=388 in respect of MBTI and ASQ were subjected to statistical covariation analysis (textit{r}-Pearson. Additionally, four homogeneous types were demarcated, using statistical cluster analysis. The final results obtained indicate that MBTI attitude scales (extroversion and introversion are significantly covariant with the results for persons belonging to different types along the bipolar CO-SP scale. However, there were almost no differences between the results obtained when using ASQ scales and when using the scales for the three pairs of psychological functions measured by MBTI.

  4. Personality and personal network type

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeven-Eggens, Lilian; De Fruyt, Filip; Hendriks, A. A. Jolijn; Bosker, Roel J.; Van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.

    2008-01-01

    The association between personality and personal relationships is mostly studied within dyadic relationships. We examined these variables within the context of personal network types. We used Latent Class Analysis to identify groups Of Students with similar role relationships with three focal

  5. Evidence for the Effectiveness of Jungian Psychotherapy: A Review of Empirical Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Roesler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s several research projects and empirical studies (process and outcome on Jungian Psychotherapy have been conducted mainly in Germany and Switzerland. Prospective, naturalistic outcome studies and retrospective studies using standardized instruments and health insurance data as well as several qualitative studies of aspects of the psychotherapeutic process will be summarized. The studies are diligently designed and the results are well applicable to the conditions of outpatient practice. All the studies show significant improvements not only on the level of symptoms and interpersonal problems, but also on the level of personality structure and in every day life conduct. These improvements remain stable after completion of therapy over a period of up to six years. Several studies show further improvements after the end of therapy, an effect which psychoanalysis has always claimed. Health insurance data show that, after Jungian therapy, patients reduce health care utilization to a level even below the average of the total population. Results of several studies show that Jungian treatment moves patients from a level of severe symptoms to a level where one can speak of psychological health. These significant changes are reached by Jungian therapy with an average of 90 sessions, which makes Jungian psychotherapy an effective and cost-effective method. Process studies support Jungian theories on psychodynamics and elements of change in the therapeutic process. So finally, Jungian psychotherapy has reached the point where it can be called an empirically proven, effective method.

  6. Seeking a Utopia in the Past to Endure the Present: A Jungian Reading of The Realms of Gold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram R. Sistani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts a Jungian approach to Margaret Drabble’s novel The Realms of Gold. Jungian reading has been taken up to unravel the distinctive characteristics which make this novel so unique and popular. The focus of the paper is to classify the main characters of the novel in terms of their psychological types.  In this novel from the beginning the reader is introduced to an atmosphere which is related to the personality of the main character Frances Wingate. Her thoughts are introduced to the readers in form of monologues. By the usage of these monologues and the narrator’s judgments on the characters their psychological types can be implied. The protagonist is compared with the other major characters to illuminate to what extent different types can get along with each other. In Jungian psychology knowing about our psychological type is a crucial issue in the process of individuation. It gets more significance when it comes to opposite sex relationships or generally any kinds of interaction.

  7. The masculine principle in lesbian families: a Jungian understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Using the concepts of individuation and masculine and feminine principles from Jungian psychology, the author explores the use of the masculine principle in parenting male children in families without an embodied father. The role of lesbian parents' own relationship with the masculine within themselves, features of the initiation process, and the function that team sports can play in a boy child's development are presented and examined. Lesbian parenting of sons is explored from both personal and professional perspectives.

  8. Personality characteristics of hospice volunteers as measured by Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, C W; Shuff, I M

    1995-12-01

    A sample of hospice volunteers (n = 99) was administered the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (Myers & McCaulley, 1985). Frequencies of types observed were compared to population sample (n = 1,105) frequencies. Results indicated that, as a whole, hospice volunteers preferred extraversion over introversion, intuition over sensing, and feeling over thinking. Analysis of four-and two-letter preference combinations also yielded statistically significant differences. Most notably, the sensing-intuitive function appeared pivotal in determining of hospice volunteering. Suggestions are offered as to why the sensing-intuition function appeared central to hospice volunteering. Results appeared consistent with Jungian personality theory.

  9. Beyond Type D personality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelle, Aline J; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Szabó, Balázs M

    2009-01-01

    Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important.......Type D personality has been associated with impaired health status in chronic heart failure (CHF), but other psychological factors may also be important....

  10. Sociological theory and Jungian psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    [[disenchantmentCarl JungpsychoanalysissociologyMax Weber ] In this article I seek to relate the psychology of Carl Jung to sociological theory, specifically Weber. I first present an outline of Jungian psychology. I then seek to relate this as psychology to Weber’s interpretivism. I point to basic methodological compatibilities within a Kantian frame, from which emerge central concerns with the factors limiting rationality. These generate the conceptual frameworks for parallel enquiries into the development and fate of rationality in cultural history. Religion is a major theme here: contrasts of eastern and western religion; the rise of prophetic religion and the disenchantment of modernity. Weber’s categories ‘ascetic’ and ‘mystic’ seem applicable to his own and Jung’s approaches and indeed temperaments, while a shared ironic view of rationality leads to similar visions of the disenchanted modern world. I conclude that Jung is sociologically coherent, but in an entirely different sense from Freud: rather than a constellation of family, socialization, ideology, social continuity, there is an analysis of cultural history against a background of adult normal psychology. I conclude that sociology should acknowledge Jung, but not in terms of over-arching theory. Rather Jungian insights might be used to orient new enquiries, and for reflexive analysis of sociology’s methodological debates.

  11. Personality types of entrepreneurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Günter F; Gappisch, Cathrin

    2005-06-01

    85 German entrepreneurs were psychometrically assessed on 12 primary trait characteristics. The sample consisted of 49 men and 36 women whose mean age was 45.6 yr. (SD= 10.3). Occupational domains were production (40%) and services (60%). The mean duration of entrepreneurship within these domains was 13.1 yr. (SD=9.3). By factor analysis five personality types of entrepreneurs could be identified: Creative Acquisitor, Controlled Perseverator, Distant Achiever, Rational Manager, and Egocentric Agitator. These types correspond with types found in research by Miner and with the Myer-Briggs Indicator. In addition, correlations between general type potential and both job and life satisfaction of entrepreneurs were found. The results are discussed with regard to intercultural stability of personality types and implications for research and application.

  12. Transgenderism and transformation: an attempt at a Jungian understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsman, Michael A

    2017-11-01

    While transgenderism as a cultural phenomenon seems to be based on a collective taste for the sensational, its emergence represents a collective shift towards a new or more differentiated way of experiencing and expressing sex and gender, a movement of world soul. This paper attempts to explore that emergence from a Jungian perspective. The paper utilizes clinical examples which illustrate how dissociated aspects of the personality are seeking assimilation and expression in order to move the personality towards greater wholeness. In that sense, it attempts to understand the teleology of transgenderism on an individual and collective level. The paper is intended as a starting-off point for discussion and explores gender as fantasy, anima/animus dynamics, the psyche/soma relationship, the role of hormones/biochemistry in our experience of ourselves and what transgender people carry and suffer for our culture. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  13. On integrating Jungian and other theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, David

    2015-09-01

    This paper consists of reflections on some of the processes, subtleties, and 'eros' involved in attempting to integrate Jungian and other analytic perspectives. Assimilation of other theoretical viewpoints has a long history in analytical psychology, beginning when Jung met Freud. Since its inception, the Journal of Analytical Psychology has provided a forum for theoretical syntheses and comparative psychoanalysis. Such attempts at synthesizing other theories represent analytical psychology itself trying to individuate. © 2015, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  14. Florence Nightingale: her personality type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossey, Barbara M

    2010-03-01

    This article casts new and refreshing light on Florence Nightingale's life and work by examining her personality type. Using the theory-based Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), the author examines Nightingale's personality type and reveals that she was an introverted-intuitive-thinking-judging type. The merit of using the MBTI is that it allows us to more clearly understand three major areas of Nightingale's life that have been partially unacknowledged or misunderstood: her spiritual development as a practicing mystic, her management of her chronic illness to maintain her prodigious work output, and her chosen strategies to transform her visionary ideas into new health care and social realities.

  15. Expert witness and Jungian archetypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallave, Juan Antonio; Gutheil, Thomas Gordon

    2012-01-01

    Jung's theories of archetype, shadow, and the personal and collective unconscious provide a postmodern framework in which to consider the role of the expert witness in judicial proceedings. Archetypal themes, motifs, and influences help to illuminate the shadow of the judicial system and projections and behaviors among the cast of the court in pursuing justice. This article speaks to archetypal influences and dialectical tensions encountered by the expert witness in this judicial drama. The archetype of Justice is born from the human need for order and relational fairness in a world of chaos. The persona of justice is the promise of truth in the drama. The shadow of justice is untruth, the need to win by any means. The dynamics of the trickster archetype serve and promote injustice. These influences are examined by means of a case example. This approach will deepen understanding of court proceedings and the role of the expert witness in the heroic quest for justice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Life Cycle of a British Islamist: A Jungian Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Alschuler

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Edward Edinger, in 'Ego and archetype: Individuation and the religious function of the psyche,' designates as "unconscious religion" the psychological role played by political movements when religious institutions cease to provide containers for the spiritual strivings of individuals. I include Islamism as a political movement. Edinger's description of unconscious religion closely resembles the experience of a young British-born Muslim, Ed Husain, in 'The Islamist: Why I joined radical Islam in Britain, what I saw inside and why I left.' Husain follows a path from being a traditional Muslim to a fanatical Islamist to a spiritual Muslim. Edinger applies Jungian psychology to describe four alternative consequences for persons whose religious institutions respond inadequately to their "religious instinct." These alternatives are: Adherence to an unconscious religion, psychological inflation, alienation, and individuation. In the case study, surprisingly, Ed Husain experiences all four of these alternatives in sequence, constituting a life cycle. The article concludes, optimistically, that this may be a natural sequence for those who embrace fanatical Islamism.

  17. Bridging worlds: participatory thinking in Jungian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robin S

    2017-04-01

    Introducing the 'participatory' paradigm associated with the work of transpersonalists Richard Tarnas and Jorge Ferrer, the author outlines an approach to Jung's archetypal thinking that might offer a more adequate basis in which to ground a non-reductive approach to practice. In order to demonstrate the relevance of this outlook at the present time, the author begins by examining recent debates concerning the nature of 'truth' in the clinical setting. Reflecting on the difficulties analysts face in attempting to maintain professional authority without falling into an implicit authoritarianism, it is argued that any approach to therapy seeking to orient itself towards 'the unconscious' must posit the challenges of pluralism as a central concern for practice. With reference to the relationship between analytical psychology and the psychoanalytic mainstream, attention is drawn to the theoretical problems raised by the relational commitment to constructivist epistemologies, and a consequent tendency towards biological reductionism. Turning to the Jungian literature, similar tensions are observed at play in the present state of analytical psychology. Drawing attention to the process-oriented qualities of Jung's work, it is suggested that the speculative nature of Jung's psychology offers a more adequate basis for contemporary practice than might be assumed. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  18. Psychoanalytical personality types and agoraphobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffart, A

    1995-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between psychoanalytical personality types and agoraphobia. Thirty-two panic disorder with agoraphobia patients and 18 agoraphobia without panic disorder patients attending an inpatient 11-week behavioral-psychodynamic treatment program were assessed repeatedly from pretreatment to 2 years after the end of treatment. On personality scales measuring oral, obsessive, hysterical, and reality-weak traits, there were no differences between agoraphobic patients with and without panic disorder. The examined traits correlated across the period from pretreatment to 2-year follow-up, although the potential influence of symptoms were controlled for. Higher scores on the oral scale predicted poorer course of symptoms in the year immediately after treatment. Scores on the oral scale decreased with the improvements of agoraphobic and general symptoms, but did not attain a normal level. The results supported a combined predisposition-state model for the relationship between oral traits and agoraphobia.

  19. A post-Jungian perspective on the psychological development of Afrikaner cultural identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kotzé

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance an understanding of different cultures and groups, post-Jungians are currently applying C.G. Jung’s theory of personal ego and complexes to the cultural level of the psyche of groups. In the post-Jungian view, much of what tears groups apart can be understood as the manifestation of autonomous processes in the collective and individual psyche that organise themselves around the cultural identity and cultural complexes of groups. A post-Jungian model of the development of the Self, based on Jung’s early identification of the archetypal patterns of Masculine and Feminine, was used to explore and discuss the development and formation of the Afrikaner cultural identity and its concomitant complexes within South Africa as they were shaped by important historical events. The interplay between the Masculine and Feminine principles led to the argument that, within the premises of the model, Afrikaner identity was forged by traumatic events in the static Feminine, which lead to a gross overemphasis of the Masculine in its dynamic and, more especially, in its static forms, reverberating in the notorious nationalist strategy of Apartheid. It was further argued that that the change and transformation of the Afrikaner cultural identity under the auspices of the dynamic Feminine was inevitable, leaving the Afrikaner in a situation in which the reconstruction of their cultural identity or identities is still emerging. It was concluded that, since all human cultures are seen as having their roots in and being centred around a religious viewpoint, as was evident in the Great Father-God, Calvinistic, patriarchal ethic of the Afrikanerdom, the individuation of the Afrikaner and the evolution of the Afrikaner cultural identity will most probably include a renewal of some of its religious viewpoints.

  20. Using Drawings in Play Therapy: A Jungian Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Jennifer; Carmichael, Karla D.

    2009-01-01

    Counselors working with children employ a variety of therapeutic techniques and tools from various theoretical models. One of these tools, drawing, is increasingly being implemented into play therapy. The purpose of this paper is to briefly review Jungian theoretical approaches as they pertain to drawing techniques within the counseling session.

  1. A Complementary Approach to Freudian and Jungian Dream Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollub, Dan

    1986-01-01

    Presents the original theory that dreams are consecutive emotions of love, desire, nondesire, and hatred showing Freudian and Jungian concepts about dream interpretation to be partly compatible with this pattern. Wish fulfillment (love, desire), "anti-wishes" (nondesire), symbolism, compensation in dreams (hatred), and the individuation…

  2. The Myth and Magic of "Star Wars": A Jungian Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Maurice

    The "Star Wars" trilogy is a fairy tale projected into the future which exemplifies in a clear-cut manner many of the archetypes of Jungian psychology. These films are modern retellings of ancient myths. Carl Jung has described myths as "fundamental expressions of human nature." In the films, fairy tale motifs such as typical…

  3. Personality disorder types proposed for DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skodol, A.E.; Bender, D.S.; Morey, L.C.; Clark, L.A.; Oldham, J.M.; Alarcon, R.D.; Krueger, R.F.; Verheul, R.; Bell, C.C.; Siever, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Personality and Personality Disorders Work Group has proposed five specific personality disorder (PD) types for DSM-5, to be rated on a dimension of fit: antisocial/psychopathic, avoidant, borderline, obsessive-compulsive, and schizotypal. Each type is identified by core impairments in

  4. Panel: What could be Jungian about Human Rights work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Astrid; Salman, Tawfiq; Troudart, Tristan

    2011-06-01

    The question of whether Jungian analysts should move beyond the consulting room to engage with mental health issues that pertain to the collective is the focus of this paper. Two narratives are presented: one from the view point of a psychiatrist in Occupied Palestine, the other from the conflicted situation which faces an Israeli analyst. Despite the strong ambivalence that is experienced on both sides, there is a willingness to meet and to take a standpoint without necessarily coming to a resolution. A third position is offered by describing experiences from the South African perspective. The African notion of Ubuntu is offered as a moral entry point that states that community goes beyond one's own; from this point of view, Jungian analysts can do no other than to act. © 2011, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  5. The future of Jungian analysis: strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats ('SWOT').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Andrew

    2017-11-01

    Using a methodology derived from management and organizational studies, the author reviews the future of Jungian analysis. The methodology is termed SWOT - strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats. A selected list in each of these categories is presented. The author is transparent in allowing for the fact that the paper not only derives from a public lecture on the topic, but also retains the immediacy and the contrarian and opinionated style of such a lecture. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  6. Psychological Type of Person-Centered Counselors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Mandy; Turley, Joanne

    2016-02-01

    There are various models and approaches to counseling and psychotherapy. Important characteristics of therapists include psychological type. This study aimed to investigate the psychological type profile of person-centered counselors. The psychological type of 85 counselors (63 women, 22 men) was measured with the Francis Psychological Type Scales (FPTS). Results indicate that the FPTS can reliably measure psychological type among counselors, and the most common psychological type was introvert, intuitive, feeling, and judging (INFJ). The relation of these psychological types with a person-centered approach is further discussed.

  7. Validity of Type D personality in Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svansdottir, Erla; Karlsson, Hrobjartur D; Gudnason, Thorarinn

    2012-01-01

    was 26-29%, and assessment of Type D personality was not confounded by severity of underlying coronary artery disease. Regarding risk markers, Type D patients reported more psychopharmacological medication use and smoking, but frequency of previous mental problems was similar across groups. Type D......Type D personality has been associated with poor prognosis in cardiac patients. This study investigated the validity of the Type D construct in Iceland and its association with disease severity and health-related risk markers in cardiac patients. A sample of 1,452 cardiac patients completed...... the Type D scale (DS14), and a subgroup of 161 patients completed measurements for the five-factor model of personality, emotional control, anxiety, depression, stress and lifestyle factors. The Icelandic DS14 had good psychometric properties and its construct validity was confirmed. Prevalence of Type D...

  8. Personality type influence the gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franik, Grzegorz; Lipka, Nela; Kopyto, Katarzyna; Kopocińska, Joanna; Owczarek, Aleksander; Sikora, Jerzy; Madej, Paweł; Chudek, Jerzy; Olszanecka-Glinianowicz, Magdalena

    2017-08-01

    Pregnancy is frequently followed by the development of obesity. Aside from psychological factors, hormonal changes influence weight gain in pregnant women. We attempted to assess the potential association between personality type and the extent of gestational weight gain. The study group involved 773 women after term delivery (age 26.3 ± 3.9 years, body mass before pregnancy 61.2 ± 11.1 kg). Weight gain during pregnancy was calculated by using self-reported body mass prior to and during the 38th week of pregnancy. Personality type was assessed using the Polish version of the Framingham Type A Behavior Patterns Questionnaire (adapted by Juczynski). Two hundred forty-six (31.8%) study subjects represented type A personalities, 272 (35.2%) type B and 255 (33.0%) an indirect type. Gestational weight gain was related to the behavior patterns questionnaire score and age. In women gain was higher than in women with type B behavior of the same age. In women >30, the gestational weight gain was larger for type B personalities. Type A personality and increased urgency in younger pregnant women increases the risk of developing obesity during pregnancy in women below 30 years old. A higher level of competitiveness demonstrates a risk factor of excessive weight gain during pregnancy regardless of age.

  9. Beatrice Hinkle and the Early History of Jungian Psychology in New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Sherry

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As the leading proponent of psychoanalysis, Jung made trips to New York in 1912 and 1913. The first was to give his Fordham lectures, the second has escaped notice but was crucial in the early dissemination of Jungian psychology in the U.S. This paper will elaborate on this development by highlighting the career and influence of Beatrice Hinkle, the country’s first Jungian psychoanalyst. She was an M.D. and ardent feminist who introduced Jung to her Greenwich Village circle, translated his magnum opus Transformations and Symbols of the Libido, and helped establish the institutional basis of Jungian psychology in America.

  10. Beatrice Hinkle and the Early History of Jungian Psychology in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Jay

    2013-01-01

    As the leading proponent of psychoanalysis, Jung made trips to New York in 1912 and 1913. The first was to give his Fordham lectures, the second has escaped notice but was crucial in the early dissemination of Jungian psychology in the U.S. This paper will elaborate on this development by highlighting the career and influence of Beatrice Hinkle, the country’s first Jungian psychoanalyst. She was an M.D. and ardent feminist who introduced Jung to her Greenwich Village circle, translated his magnum opus Transformations and Symbols of the Libido, and helped establish the institutional basis of Jungian psychology in America. PMID:25379251

  11. Accused Murderers: Five MMPI Personality Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Wayne P.; Holcomb, William R.

    1983-01-01

    Identified five types of violent criminals (N=110) using cluster analysis of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory scores, and compared them on 24 sociological and behavioral variables. Results showed differences on 16 items including family history, drug and alcohol use, events preceding the crime, and relationship between offender and…

  12. Os tipos psicológicos na psicologia analítica de Carl Gustav Jung e o inventário de personalidade “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI”: contribuições para a psicologia educacional, organizacional e clínica/The psychological types in analytical psychology of Carl Gustav Jung and the inventory of personality “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI”: contributions for the educational, organizational and clinical psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Marcelo Alves Ramos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available O texto apresenta os princípios da Teoria dos Tipos Psicológicos, a mais conhecida face da Psicologia Analítica do psicólogo e psiquiatra suíço Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961, bem como os fundamentos do Inventário de Personalidade “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI”, constituído a partir da tipologia junguiana, e que vem sendo cada vez mais utilizado nos campos da Psicologia Educacional, Organizacional e Clínica. The text presents the principles of the Theory of Psychological Types, the most known face of the Analytical Psychology of the Swiss psychologist and psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961, as well as the fundamentals of the Inventory of Personality “Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI”, constituted from the Jungian typology, and which has been more used nowadays by Educational, Organizational and Clinical Psychology.

  13. Accessing Creativity: Jungian Night Sea Journeys, Wandering Minds, and Chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Diane

    2016-01-01

    NDS theory has been meaningfully applied to the dynamics of creativity and psychology. These complex systems have much in common, including a broad definition of "product" as new order emerging from disorder, a new whole (etymologically, 'health') out of disintegration or destabilization. From a nonlinear dynamical systems perspective, this paper explores the far-from-equilibrium zone of creative incubation: first in the Jungian night sea journey, a primordial myth of psychological and creative transformation; then in the neuroscience of mind wandering, the well-spring of creative ideation within the larger neural matrix. Finally, chaos theory grounds the elusive subject of creativity, modeling chaotic generation of idea elements that tend toward strange attractors, combine unpredictably, and produce change by means of tension between opposites, particularly notes consciousness (light) and the poetic unconscious (darkness). Examples from my own artwork illustrate this dialectical process. Considered together, the unconscious mythic sea journey, the unknowing wandering mind, and the generative paradigm of deterministic chaos suggest conditions that facilitate creativity across disciplines, providing fresh indications that the darkness of the unknown or irrational is, paradoxically, the illuminative source and strength of creativity.

  14. Networks of Life: A Jungian reading about aging and death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilzete Passos Magalhães

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at proposing an approach of the stages of aging and dying within the individuation process, starting from the symbolic amplification of images of these phases of life in light of Analytical Psychology.  For the purpose of correlating these images with the stages of human development, particularly with the phases of the end of maturity and closing of the life cycle, a study on imagery and bibliography of aging and dying was conducted based on the theoretical framework of Analytical Psychology and of Post-Jungian authors. To that effect, the symbolic amplification of images taken from the plastic arts, literature, religion and mythology was made. The results of the study indicated that the death-related images bear a relationship with the individuation process, which points out to the need to explore this topic – which is a taboo in contemporary society – in a creative and significant manner; something that was synthesized by Jung himself in the expression “to die with life”.  

  15. Holland’s personality types versus preferences in accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Cewińska; Lena Grzesiak; Przemysław Kabalski; Ewa Kusidel

    2017-01-01

    Holland’s personality types versus preferences in accounting The article presents the results of research on the relationship between personality according to the typol-ogy of Holland with preferences in accounting. In his theory, Holland distinguished six personality types: Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional. The authors formulated a general hypothesis that these different personality types have different preferences and views on certain issues in ...

  16. JUNGIAN GENDER IN ANIMAL ANIMATION FROM ANTHROPOMORPHISM PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yustin Sartika

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Bear is usually depicted as a strong, brawny and blood-curdling animal. On the contrary, Pooh Bear is the fun-loving and caring main character while Masha Bear can handle all house works. Their characteristics can be related to Jungian gender theory which states that man is bisexual having both feminine and masculine sides. A focus on anima animus is established through qualitative research analysis of bear characters' actions and the characters around within the plots of Winnie-the-Pooh and Masha and the Bear. Masha and the Bear is adapted from the real story in Russia. The use of anthropomorphic storytelling in those animations can bridge the conceptual and moral gulf which separate human from animal. By using anthropomorphism perspective, this research is aimed to find the feminine and masculine stereotype of Pooh and Bear characters. Anthropomorphism is divided into the animation of physical and psychological qualities. The result shows that small bright yellow body on a short red t-shirt makes Pooh look more lovable. Another woman stereotype is portrayed from the name given, Winnie, and his most favorite honey. Masha Bear‘s physical qualities are quite identical to a real bear. Beyond his strong and brawny body, he is a spick-and-span bear. He is a merciful bear who becomes a caregiver for Masha, the parentless girl. Anthropomorphism creates great empathy in humans. This empathy can be combined with a simplified narrative to provoke genuine feeling from audiences. It draws attention to feminine and masculine stereotype of human to identify in animal animation.

  17. Holland’s personality types versus preferences in accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Cewińska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Holland’s personality types versus preferences in accounting The article presents the results of research on the relationship between personality according to the typol-ogy of Holland with preferences in accounting. In his theory, Holland distinguished six personality types: Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional. The authors formulated a general hypothesis that these different personality types have different preferences and views on certain issues in accounting. They also formulated several detailed hypotheses related to two personality types: Conven-tional and Enterprising. In order to verify the hypotheses, the authors carried out quantitative research (a questionnaire survey and focus interviews. Generally speaking, these hypotheses were confirmed.

  18. Personality traits of competitive athletes according to type of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personality traits of competitive athletes according to type of pressure exerted on ... create the psychological profiles of the personality of athletes practising individual and ... There are differences between the sport disciplines where pressure is ...

  19. Art Therapy and Its Shadow: A Jungian Perspective on Professional Identity and Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Rene R.

    1998-01-01

    Through the lens of Jungian theory of the shadow, this article identifies ways in which its dynamics and manifestations occur in the field of art therapy. Introduces experiential exercises for discovering and working with the shadow and concludes with recommendations for transforming negative dynamics into creative solutions. (Author/MKA)

  20. The Dream World of Film: A Jungian Perspective on Cinematic Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Robert A.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Explains the relevance to film criticism of Jung's theory of the collective unconscious and its archetypal manifestations. Analyzes "The Shining," a film representative of the presently dominant occult-horror genre, in terms of the Jungian approach. Discusses the role of film in relation to the world's psychic balance. (PD)

  1. How Reading Strategy Use and Personality Types Are Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdarian, Zahra; Ghyasi, Majid; Farsani, Mohammad Amini

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to uncover the reading strategies utilized by Iranian undergraduate English Foreign Language (EFL) learners and their relationship with personality types. To this end, 194 university EFL learners were asked to fill out the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) to identify their personality types and answer a reading strategy…

  2. Personality types and Facebook advertising::an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Lillian; Calli, Levent

    2014-01-01

    The Five-Factor Model of personality types has been utilized by a number of computer science and psychology academics as a framework to explore aspects of internet adoption and, more recently, social media adoption and behaviours. While the use of personality type models in research has been less popular with marketing academics, the Five-Factor Model has been used to predict the emotional appeal of advertising based on personality types and potentially to provide guidelines for tailoring adv...

  3. The Relationship Between Personality Type And Leadership Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Sieff

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Optimising focus is a key success driver for many organisation leaders. The relationship between personality type and leadership focus is examined. Personality type is assessed with Form M of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator instrument, and leadership focus is explored through the development and application of a Leadership Focus Questionnaire. South African executives form the target population for this study. Both functionalist and interpretive approaches are applied. Three primary theoretical hypotheses about leadership focus, concerning (1 optimising the balance of focus between external and internal priorities, (2 the fit between the leadership personality type and the organisation type, and (3 the capacity to manage a multiple focus, are considered. Results show that Extraverted personality types are more comfortable with the challenges of focus in the leadership role than are Introverted types, and Extraverted, Sensing, Thinking and Judging types experience a greater degree of fit with their organisations than do Introverted, Intuitive, Feeling and Perceiving types.

  4. Personality at Work: A Study of Type A-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Raza

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to measure the impact of stressors on personality types in Call Centers. Based on literature survey five potential workplace stressors were identified, namely (1 Task Demands, (2 Role Demands, (3 Interpersonal Demands, (4 Organizational Structure and (5 Organizational Leadership. Based on the literature survey, a relationship model was developed that was inclusive of the above stressors, and three personality types, which were Type A, Type AB and Type B.The sample size for the study was 100. The subjects were supervisors and agents drawn non-randomly from various Call Centers of Karachi. All the subjects completed a questionnaire comprised of 27 questions based on occupational stress index (Srivasta and Singh 1981 and AB Personality Continuum (National Institute of Safety and Health 1975. The three personality types A, B & AB all go through stress, however it is the Type A, which thrives on stress. The sources of stress measured in the study were Task Demand, Role Demand, Interpersonal Demands, Organizational Structure and Organizational Leadership.The stressor that most contributed to the Personality type A’s stress in the study was Interpersonal Demand (0.38, which is justified by the literature review as Personality type A are not team players and prefer to work alone.Whereas Personality type B was stressed because of Role Demand (0.38 which is also proved by the literature review as personality type B are laid back and do not take there roles seriously. Hence it can be concluded that it type A tends to cope well with stress as compared to type AB and type B. The performance of the respondents can be made better if the supervisors are aware of the personality types and thereby motivate them according.

  5. PERSONALITY TYPE AND TRANSLATION PERFORMANCE OF PERSIAN TRANSLATOR TRAINEES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shaki

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the relationship between the personality typology of a sample of Iranian translation students and their translation quality in terms of expressive, appellative, and informative text types. The study also attempted to identify the personality types that can perform better in English to Persian translation of the three text types. For that purpose, the personality type and the translation quality of the participants was assessed using Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI personality test and translation quality assessment (TQA, respectively. The analysis of the data revealed that the personality type of the participants seemed relevant to the translation quality of all the text types. The translation quality of the participants with intuitive and thinking types was significantly better than the sensing type counterparts in translating expressive texts. The participants with intuitive and feeling types also performed better than their counterparts with sensing type in translation of the informative text. Moreover, the participants with intuitive, feeling, and thinking personality types performed more successfully than the participants with sensing type in translation of the appellative text. The findings of the study are discussed in light of the existing research literature.

  6. Personality Types, Learning Styles, and Educational Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alan

    1991-01-01

    Outlines a new personality typology that provides a coherent system for construing and conducting research on learning styles. Discusses analytic, holistic, objective, and subjective styles as the affect versatility. Presents implications for educational goals, such as determining which students can benefit from stylistic versatility and which…

  7. Dominant Personality Types in Public Accounting: Selection Bias or Indoctrinated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Hughlene; Daugherty, Brian; Dickins, Denise; Schisler, Dan

    2016-01-01

    Prior studies concerning the personality type and preferences of accountants generally draw conclusions based upon the reports of either practicing accountants, or accounting students, at a single point in time. So while much is known about the personality type of accountants in general, left unexplored is the question of whether public…

  8. The effect of counsellors' personality types on interpersonal skills in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result indicated that personality types (introvert and extrovert) do not affect counsellors' interpersonal skill in counselling therapy. It was also concluded that counsellor personality types do not have much implication on the use of interpersonal skills. The researcher, therefore, recommended that mastering interpersonal ...

  9. Mental Self-Exploration in Samuel Beckett’s Molloy: A Jungian Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Jamalinesari

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Samuel Beckett is categorized as an absurdist dramatist. Martin Esslin in his book The Theatre of Absurd, states that absurdist writers dealt with the theme of man’s sense of anguish and torture caused by living without any purpose. All characters of Beckett’s dramas are deformed just like Molloy who deteriorates as the novel comes to an end. Actually, Beckett’s characters are wanderers who try to establish a sense of meaning for their existence; they are in search of self. As his works represent, Beckett uses Jungian archetypes in order to show the aspect of self. This article tries to demonstrate the lack of identity in Molloy’s Characters in the light of Jungian archetypes throughout the story. Keywords: Molloy, Identity, Archetype, Jung, Self, Deterioration

  10. The Fall of Emily Grierson: A Jungian Analysis of A Rose for Emily

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenghsun Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the tragic life of Faulkner’s Emily Grierson, a life dominated by patriarchy and traditional Southern social values, which concludes with her living as a lonely recluse in her family’s decaying aristocratic house for more than forty years until her death. The key of the tragedy is her father, who isolates Emily from the outside world and tortures her with traditional patriarchal rules and Southern family duty. Emily is expected to lead a life like other girls; however, under the burden of old-fashioned, patriarchal responsibilities, her inner world collapses. This study uses the Jungian concepts of archetypes, persona and shadow, anima and animus to interpret Emily’s transitions and her fall. By examining the process through the lens of Jungian theories, the aspects that affect her fall in the patriarchal, aristocratic society, as well as the inherited social values, can be revealed and specified

  11. The Association of Childhood Personality Type with Volunteering during Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Robert; Hart, Daniel; Donnelly, Thomas M.

    2005-01-01

    Using a longitudinal design, we investigated the relation of childhood personality type to volunteering during adolescence. We hypothesized that participants with more adaptive personality functioning during childhood would be more likely to volunteer during adolescence and that membership in social organizations would mediate the relation of…

  12. Personality Type and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Arul A. S.; Lawrence, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Personality is the man. The successful living of an individual, as a man, depends to a large extent on the academic achievement of that individual, as a student. This article attempts to find out personality type, academic achievement of secondary school students and relationship between them by selecting a sample of 300 secondary school students…

  13. Personality profiles of children and adolescents with neurofibromatosis type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinzie, P.; Descheemaeker, M.J.; Vogels, A.; Cleymans, T.; Haselager, G.J.T.; Curfs, L.M.G.; Hellinckx, W.; Onghena, P.; Legius, E.; Lieshout, C.F.M. van; Fryns, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    The personality profile of 44 youngsters (24 males, 20 females; mean age 11 years, 3 months) with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) was compared with a group of 220 non-NF1 control youngsters (matched on age and gender). Personality characteristics of each youngster were rated by both parents, using

  14. Personality Types and Development of Adolescents' Conflict with Friends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Rongqin; Branje, Susan J. T.; Keijsers, Loes; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    This study examined the development of adolescents' conflict frequency and conflict resolution with their best friends, and tested whether adolescents with different personality types differed in these developmental changes from early to middle adolescence. Dutch adolescents (N = 922, 468 boys;

  15. Personality types and student performance in an introductory physics course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Jason J. B.; Harrison, David M.; Justason, Michael; Meyertholen, Andrew; Wilson, Brian

    2017-12-01

    We measured the personality type of the students in a large introductory physics course of mostly life science students using the True Colors instrument. We found large correlations of personality type with performance on the precourse Force Concept Inventory (FCI), both term tests, the postcourse FCI, and the final examination. We also saw correlations with the normalized gain on the FCI. The personality profile of the students in this course is very different from the profile of the physics faculty and graduate students, and also very different from the profile of students taking the introductory physics course intended for physics majors and specialists.

  16. Type-D personality is a stable taxonomy in post-MI patients over an 18-month period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Elisabeth J; Kupper, Nina; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2007-01-01

    type-D personality comprises a risk factor for adverse prognosis in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, concerns that type-D personality may not be a stable personality taxonomy and that progression of CVD may contribute to the manifestation of type-D personality have been voiced...

  17. Working Effectively with Different Personality Types: A Look at the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanagov, Diana

    2007-01-01

    In 1921, Carl Jung wrote about four different types of personality, identified 24 centuries ago by Hippocrates. He theorized that these differences were not abnormalities in personality. Instead, he maintained that human behavior is predictable and classifiable that everyone has and acts upon personal preferences, established in early childhood.…

  18. Type D Personality : a five-factor model perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Fruyt, F.; Denollet, J.K.L.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the position of Type D (high Negative Affectivity and high Social Inhibition) within the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality. A sample of 155 healthy subjects were administered the Type D Scale and the NEO-FFI, assessing the FFM traits. Subjects also filled out the General

  19. Type D personality and health status in cardiovascular disease populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versteeg, Henneke; Spek, Viola; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of the factors associated with individual differences in patient-reported outcomes is essential to identify high-risk patients and improve secondary prevention. Design: In this meta-analysis, we examined the association between Type D personality and the individual differences...... in patient-reported physical and mental health status among cardiovascular patients. Methods: A computerized search of the literature through PUBMED and PsychINFO (from 1995 to May 2011) was performed and prospective studies were selected that analysed the association between Type D personality and health...... status in cardiovascular patients. Two separate meta-analyses were performed for the association of Type D personality with physical and mental health status, respectively. Results: Of all identified studies, ten studies met the selection criteria. The meta-analyses showed that Type D was associated...

  20. Prediction of elders′ general health based on positive and negative perfectionism and type-D personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Karaminia

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: Positive perfectionism decreases mental disorder of the elders by creating optimistic attitudes and enhancing social functions. On the other hand, type-D personality, unlike positive perfectionism, makes elders susceptible to physical illness and mental disorder.

  1. INTRODUCTION to Special Edition of JAP on the 'Who is My Jung?' conference held at the British Library in October 2017 to mark the 40th Anniversary of the foundation of the Association of Jungian Analysts (AJA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ruth

    2018-06-01

    The paper reviews the processes which went into the creation of an exceptionally comprehensive conference on Jungian analysis and psychology. The conference brought together all five of the constituent societies based in London of the International Association for Analytical Psychology (IAAP). The personal nature of the conference contributions is highlighted together with observations about the passage from spoken to written modes. The idea of 'conference space' is reviewed and this leads to a discussion of the often overlooked benign role of conferences in professional life. © 2018, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  2. Personalized Management of Hyperglycemia in Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Raz, Itamar; Riddle, Matthew C.; Rosenstock, Julio; Buse, John B.; Inzucchi, Silvio E.; Home, Philip D.; Del Prato, Stefano; Ferrannini, Ele; Chan, Juliana C.N.; Leiter, Lawrence A.; LeRoith, Derek; DeFronzo, Ralph; Cefalu, William T.

    2013-01-01

    In June 2012, 13 thought leaders convened in a Diabetes Care Editors’ Expert Forum to discuss the concept of personalized medicine in the wake of a recently published American Diabetes Association/European Association for the Study of Diabetes position statement calling for a patient-centered approach to hyperglycemia management in type 2 diabetes. This article, an outgrowth of that forum, offers a clinical translation of the underlying issues that need to be considered for effectively person...

  3. Reflections on the Jungian nature of psychology as the discipline of interiority: a response to Saban's 'Misunderstandings'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoedl, John

    2015-11-01

    Psychology as the discipline of interiority is the name of the psychology that has developed from Wolfgang Giegerich's work in the field of analytical psychology. This article offers a counterview to that of Mark Saban's claim that Giegerich's psychology is 'irrelevant' to Jungians today and is based on a fundamental misunderstanding of the nature of Jungian psychology. It will be shown that, in fact, it is a fundamental misunderstanding of Giegerich's work that has led Saban to form erroneous conclusions. Links between Jung's and Giegerich's conceptions of the 'objective psyche' will be highlighted, along with other examples of how, contrary to Saban's conclusions, psychology as the discipline of interiority has obvious connections to, and grounding in, Jungian psychology. © 2015, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  4. Association of Type D personality with increased vulnerability to depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dooren, Fleur E P; Verhey, Frans R J; Pouwer, Frans

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type D personality - the combination of negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI) - has been associated with depression but little is known about underlying mechanisms. We examined whether (1) Type D is a vulnerability factor for depression in general, (2) Type D is associa......BACKGROUND: Type D personality - the combination of negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI) - has been associated with depression but little is known about underlying mechanisms. We examined whether (1) Type D is a vulnerability factor for depression in general, (2) Type D...... was associated with inflammation (β=0.228, p=0.014) and endothelial dysfunction (β=0.216, p=0.022). After adjustment for these biomarkers, Type D remained independently associated with increased vulnerability to depressive disorder (OR=13.20, p...: The cross-sectional design restrained us to draw any conclusions on causality. The relatively low prevalence of depressive disorder restrained us to adjust for more potential confounders. CONCLUSIONS: Type D personality may be a vulnerability factor for depression, irrespective of levels of inflammation...

  5. Potential biological pathways linking Type-D personality and poor health: A cross-sectional investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera K Jandackova

    Full Text Available Type-D personality, defined as a combination of high negative affect and high social isolation, has been associated with poor health outcomes. However, pathways underlying this association are largely unknown. We investigated the relationship between Type-D personality and several biological and behavioral pathways including the autonomic nervous system, the immune system, glucose regulation and sleep in a large, apparently healthy sample.Data from a total of 646 respondents (age 41.6±11.5, 12,2% women were available for analysis. Persons with Type-D (negative affect and social isolation score ≥10 were contrasted with those without Type-D. Measures of plasma fibrinogen levels, white blood cell count, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, creatinine, triglycerides, and albumin were derived from fasting blood samples. Urine norepinephrine and free cortisol were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Time-domain heart rate variability (HRV measures were calculated for the 24hr recording period and for nighttime separately.Persons with Type-D had higher HbA1c, FPG, and fibrinogen, and lower nighttime HRV than those without Type-D, suggesting worse glycemic control, systemic inflammation and poorer autonomic nervous system modulation in Type-D persons. In addition, those with Type-D reported less social support and greater sleep difficulties while no group differences were observed for alcohol and cigarette consumption, physical activity and body mass index.Findings provide some of the first evidence for multiple possible biological and behavioral pathways between Type-D personality and increased morbidity and mortality.

  6. Leukocyte telomere length and personality: associations with the Big Five and Type D personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoormans, D; Verhoeven, J E; Denollet, J; van de Poll-Franse, L; Penninx, B W J H

    2018-04-01

    Backgrounds Accelerated cellular ageing, which can be examined by telomere length (TL), may be an overarching mechanism underlying the association between personality and adverse health outcomes. This 6-year longitudinal study examined the relation between personality and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) across time among adults with a wide age-range. Data from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety were used and included patients with a depression and/or anxiety disorder and healthy controls. Overall, 2936 persons (18-65 years, 66% female) had data on LTL at baseline and 1883 persons had LTL at 6-year follow-up. The Big Five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) and Type D personality were assessed. Neuroticism was negatively (B = -2.11, p = 0.03) and agreeableness was positively (B = 3.84, p = 0.03) related to LTL measured across two time points, which became just non-significant after adjusting for somatic health, lifestyle factors, and recent life stress (B = -1.99, p = 0.06; and B = 3.01, p = 0.10). Type D personality was negatively (B = -50.16, p Big Five traits high neuroticism and low agreeableness, and Type D personality were associated with shorter LTL measured across a 6-year period. Associations with the Big Five traits became non-significant after controlling for somatic health, lifestyle factors, and recent life stress, yet similar trends were observed. Type D personality remained independently associated with shorter LTL after full adjustment.

  7. Connla's well: An exploration of similar elements of ancient Celtic perspectives and David Bohm's theories in quantum physics from a Jungian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Duan

    This dissertation addresses the common elements between ancient Celtic mystical doctrines and philosophy and David Bohm's unique theories in quantum physics through a Jungian lens, using research based in dialogical hermeneutics. The premise of this dissertation is that psi, or the probability wave function of quantum physics, and its world of potentia are the same entities as Jung's objective psyche (or collective unconscious) and its domain, the unus mundus. In addition, the study explores the remarkable similarity between the ancient Celts' Otherworld, quantum physics' world of potentia, and Jung's unus mundus. These similarities argue for an in-depth Jungian analysis of this important but largely neglected mythology. The study explores the supposition, based partially on physicist David Bohm's theories of the implicate and explicate orders, that the above world of potentia intertwines with our three-dimensional world in a reciprocal creativity, designed to enhance both worlds. The study further advocates a greater emphasis on the creative arts therapies in the therapeutic situation, based on the above reciprocity. It is argued that this emphasis on creativity in the temenos may activate a profound "quantum leap" of insight in the analysand, most likely due to the reciprocity in which the objective psyche responds uniquely to the particular and individual creativity offered in order to heal the personal psyche. As we creatively access the objective psyche, that entity responds in kind, giving us new understanding and allowing us to change our attitudes and to further individuation, which in turn enhances the objective psyche. In addition, a psyche of reality is postulated in which Jung's concept of the objective psyche is expanded from the collective unconscious of humankind to a collective unconscious of All That Is, reflecting the findings in quantum physics that our universe is self-aware, organic, and holistic rather than mechanical and fragmented.

  8. Relationship of self-management to personality types and indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R L; Verble, J S; Price, D E; Layne, B H

    1995-06-01

    This study addressed the relationship between self-management (as measured by the Lifestyle Approaches Inventory, Williams, Moore, Pettibone, & Thomas, 1992) and personality types and indexes (as measured by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, Myers & McCaulley, 1985) in a sample of 347 university students. Correlational analyses indicated that the self-management factor most consistently linked to the Myers-Briggs indices was Organization of Physical Space. The Myers-Briggs index most consistently correlated with the self-management factors was Judgment-Perception. Overall, male and female subjects showed similar patterns of relationships between the self-management and personality indices. When the self-management scores were compared for the various Myers-Briggs types, the analysis indicated that types having a J (planful and organized) or S (precise and practical) in the typology tended to score higher than those having a P (spontaneous and flexible) or N (imaginative and insightful).

  9. Type testing of the Siemens Plessey electronic personal dosemeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirning, C R; Yuen, P S

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a laboratory assessment of the performance of a new type of personal dosimeter, the Electronic Personal Dosemeter made by Siemens Plessey Controls Limited. Twenty pre-production dosimeters and a reader were purchased by Ontario Hydro for the assessment. Tests were performed on radiological performance, including reproducibility, accuracy, linearity, detection threshold, energy response, angular response, neutron response, and response time. There were also tests on the effects of a variety of environmental factors, such as temperature, humidity, pulsed magnetic and electric fields, low- and high-frequency electromagnetic fields, light exposure, drop impact, vibration, and splashing. Other characteristics that were tested were alarm volume, clip force, and battery life. The test results were compared with the relevant requirements of three standards: an Ontario Hydro standard for personal alarming dosimeters, an International Electrotechnical Commission draft standard for direct reading personal dose monitors, and an International Electrotechnical Commission standard for thermoluminescence dosimetry systems for personal monitoring. In general, the performance of the Electronic Personal Dosemeter was found to be quite acceptable: it met most of the relevant requirements of the three standards. However, the following deficiencies were found: slow response time; sensitivity to high-frequency electromagnetic fields; poor resistance to dropping; and an alarm that was not loud enough. In addition, the response of the electronic personal dosimeter to low-energy beta rays may be too low for some applications. Problems were experienced with the reliability of operation of the pre-production dosimeters used in these tests.

  10. Associations between Modifiable Health-Risk Behaviors and Personality Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon C. Schommer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The first objective for this study was to explore if characteristics of personality type (using the Preferred Communication Style Questionnaire are associated with the following modifiable health-risk behaviors: smoking, exercise, alcohol consumption, nutrition, sleep, depression-related stress, anxiety-related stress, healthcare professional usage, and self-discipline. The second objective for this study was to explore if characteristics of personality type are associated with (1 the quality of patient-physician relationships, (2 patient-physician communication, and (3 preferred method for receiving information. Methods: Data were collected from 10,500 adult individuals residing in the United States via an on-line, self-administered survey coordinated by Qualtrics Panels from March 14-30, 2016. Chi-square analysis was used for making comparisons between categories of personality types and items related to health-risk behaviors. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. However, chi-square analysis with large sample sizes (e.g. 10,500 in this study readily yields statistical significance. Practical significance was set at four or more percentage points above or below the overall mean. Results: Regarding objective 1, personality type was associated with all nine health-risk behaviors studied. Personality types within the Experiencer temperament (17% of the U.S. population accounted for 46% of the undesirable scores we computed for health-risk behaviors. The Idealist temperament (17% of population accounted for 32% of the undesirable scores. Conceptualizers (10% of population accounted for 17% of the undesirable scores and Traditionalists (46% of population accounted for 5% of the undesirable scores. Regarding objective 2, the findings showed that personality type was associated with (1 the importance people place on the patient-physician relationship, (2 which characteristics of that relationship are most desirable, (3 desire for

  11. The characteristics of medical students' personality types and interpersonal needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Yera; Cho, A-Ra; Kim, Sun

    2013-12-01

    Medical students' personality types and interpersonal needs must be considered. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics of personality types and interpersonal needs. A total of 171 students in Konyang University College of Medicine were examined using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior (FIRO-B). The data were analyzed by frequency analysis, t-test, and one-sample proportion test. The proportion of the 4 pairs of MBTI dimensions were Extroversion (E)-Introversion (I) (53.2% vs. 46.8%), Sensing (S)-Intuition (N) (63.2% vs. 36.8%), Thinking (T)-Feeling (F) (59.7% vs. 40.4%), and Judging (J)-Perceiving (P) (56.1% vs. 43.9%). The predominant personality types were ISTJ (16.4%), ESTJ (14.0%), and ESFJ (10.5%). The level of interpersonal needs were medium rage that was inclusion (mean=8.1), control (mean=8.8), affection (mean=8.1), expressed behavior (mean=12.1), wanted behavior (mean=12.9), and overall interpersonal needs (mean=25.0). Of the basic social needs, males and females differed significantly with regard to control needs (p=0.028). Educational programs that take into account personality types and characteristics of interpersonal needs are crucial in providing effective medical education. Our results suggest that the characteristics of personality types and interpersonal needs should be considered in developing an interpersonal relations improvement program for medical students.

  12. Teaching Techniques, Types of Personality, and English Listening Skill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Made Ratminingsih

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Teaching Techniques, Types of Personality, and English Listening Skill. This study inves­tigated the effect of teaching techniques and types of personality on English listening skill. This experi­mental study involved 88 students under investigation, which were determined randomly through multi-stage random sampling technique. The results of the research indicate that there is an interaction effect between the teaching techniques and types of personality on the English listening skill; there is no significant difference in the listening skill between the group of students who learn using the game technique and those who learn using the song technique; the listening skill of students having extrovert personality is better than those having introvert personality; the listening skill of students having extrovert personality who learn using the game technique is lower than those who learn using the song technique; and the listen­ing skill of students having introvert personality who learn using the game technique is higher than those who learn using the song technique. Abstrak: Teknik Pembelajaran, Tipe Kepribadian, dan Keterampilan Mendengarkan Bahasa Inggris. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh teknik pembelajaran dan tipe kepribadian terhadap keterampilan mendengarkan bahasa Inggris. Penelitian ini melibatkan 88 orang siswa, yang ditentukan secara acak melalui multi stage random sampling technique. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh interaksi antara teknik pembelajaran dan tipe kepribadian terhadap keterampilan mendengarkan bahasa Inggris; tidak terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan pada keterampilan mendengarkan antara siswa yang belajar dengan teknik pembelajaran permainan dan lagu; keterampilan mendengarkan siswa yang berkepribadian ekstroversi lebih baik daripada yang berkepribadian introversi; keterampilan mendengarkan siswa yang berkepribadian ekstroversi, yang belajar dengan teknik pembelajaran

  13. Influence of academic procrastination and personality types on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the influence of academic procrastination and personality types on the academic achievement and efficacy of In-school adolescents in Ibadan, Oyo state. Two hundred participants were randomly selected from four schools in Akinyele Local Government area of Oyo state. Multiple regression analysis ...

  14. Prevalence and relevance of Type D personality in fibromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Middendorp, H.; Kool, M.B.; van Beugen, S.; Denollet, J.; Lumley, M.A.; Geenen, R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Distressed (Type D) personality, combining high negative affectivity and social inhibition, is linked to poor health in various populations. Because patients with fibromyalgia experience high negative affect and show signs of social inhibition, this study aimed to examine the prevalence of

  15. Interactions between Personality Type and the Experimental Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Tisha L. N.; Taylor, Beck A.

    2007-01-01

    The authors bring together two research streams in the literature that examine separately the effectiveness of using experiments in the principles classroom and the relationship between different personality types and student achievement. Using a sample of 255 principles of microeconomics students, 48 of whom were enrolled in sections that relied…

  16. Type D personality, cardiac events, and impaired quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Denollet, Johan

    2003-01-01

    Psychological distress has been associated with the pathogenesis and progression of coronary heart disease (CHD) but little is known about the determinants of distress as a coronary risk factor. Although it has become unfashionable to focus on personality factors since research on Type A behaviour...

  17. Personality types and development of adolescents' conflict with friends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, R.; Branje, S.T.J.; Keijsers, L.; Meeus, W.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the development of adolescents' conflict frequency and conflict resolution with their best friends, and tested whether adolescents with different personality types differed in these developmental changes from early to middle adolescence. Dutch adolescents (N = 922, 468 boys;

  18. The Relationship Between Personality Types and Career Choice of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to investigate the Relationship between Personality Types and Career Choice of Secondary School Students in Nigeria. The researchers formulated one research question and one hypothesis to guide the study. The researchers employed two sampling techniques, cluster and random sampling ...

  19. Siblings' personality traits and types of sibling relationship in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kavčič

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution presents a follow-up study of sibling relationship and personality in 87 sibling dyads in early/middle childhood from parental perspective. At Time 1 all siblings attended pre-school and one year later approximately half of the older siblings entered compulsory school. At both times of measurement siblings' mothers and fathers independently reported on their children's personality characteristics using the Inventory of Child Individual Differences (Halverson et al., 2003; Slovene adaptation, Zupančič & Kavčič, 2009 and on the observed sibling warmth, agonism, and rivalry using the Parental Expectations and Perceptions of Children's Sibling Relationships Questionnaire (Kramer, 2001. The predictive relationship obtained by two sets of cross-rater analyses (between maternal ratings of child personality and paternal reports on sibling relationship, and vice versa suggested that (a personality traits of both siblings and (b the match between siblings' personalities are associated with sibling type (affectionate, involved or average membership. Among personality traits, disagreeableness seems to be an especially significant contributor to sibling relationship quality.

  20. YouTubers, online selves and the performance principle: Notes from a post-Jungian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Greg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the many challenges facing the field of media studies today, the rapid acceleration of the media ecosystem through which people communicate, share and indulge, and seek escape from the tedium of everyday life, presents a set of specific problems. The contemporary media landscape is both an extension and a continuation of more traditional forms and objects for analysis, and also an arena that has, arguably, radically redefined the discipline in terms of the innovations and stark changes to technology, institutions and financial arrangements that have shaped the world of media and communications as we know it. A key area in which post-Jungian approaches are well-placed to accommodate is in the fast-changing field of online media celebrity. The meteoric rise in popularity of YouTube vloggers has given new impetus to the fields of celebrity studies and persona studies - redefining the popular understanding of how celebrity status is sought, conferred, and consumed; and ultimately, transforming how celebrity is defined as a notion. Using critical inquiry as a method, this article discusses mediatised notions of self, persona, and self-commodification from post-Jungian and relational perspectives. The discussion from these theoretical perspectives will open vistas into the critical study of digital, networked media, as well as affording the possibility of an intensification of the critique from psychological and psychoanalytic perspectives on contradictions and tensions present in such contexts.

  1. The relationship between personality types and reward preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nienaber

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Research has shown that total rewards models structured according to individual preferences, positively influence efforts to attract, retain and motivate key employees. Yet, this is seldom done. Structuring total rewards models according to the preferences of employee segments is a viable alternative to accommodate individual preferences. Research purpose: The primary aim of the study was to determine the relationship between personality types and reward preferences. The secondary aim was to determine the reward preferences for different demographic groups. Motivation for the study: An enhanced understanding of reward preferences for different employee segments will enable employers to offer more competitive reward options to their employees. This may, in turn, have a positive impact on retention. Research design, approach and method: Two measuring instruments, the MBTI® Form GRV and the Rewards Preferences Questionnaire, were distributed electronically to 5 000 potential respondents. The results from 589 sets of questionnaires were used in the data analyses. Primary and secondary factor analyses were done on the items in the Rewards Preferences Questionnaire. Main findings/results: The study confirmed that individuals with certain personality types and personality preferences, have different preferences for certain reward categories. There was a stronger relationship between reward preferences and personality preferences than for reward preferences and personality types. Preferences for reward categories by different demographic groups were confirmed. The significant difference in reward preferences between Black and White respondents in particular was noteworthy, with Black respondents indicating significantly higher mean scores for all reward categories than White respondents. Finally, a total rewards framework influenced by the most prominent preferences for reward categories, was designed. Practical/Managerial implications

  2. Influences on my clinical practice and identity. Jungian analysis on the couch-what and where is the truth of it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Martin

    2014-11-01

    The author considers the various influences that have shaped his clinical practice and particular identity as a Jungian analyst. It is hoped that the sharing of these observations will, like a shard of a hologram, reflect aspects of the Jungian community as a whole. The author also attempts to put Jungian analysis 'on the couch' by looking at the current debate in the Journal between traditional and relational psychoanalysis. This is compared to the discourse that philosophy has been struggling with for centuries concerning the nature of truth. © 2014, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  3. Personal Identification by Keystroke Dynamics in Japanese Free Text Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samura, Toshiharu; Nishimura, Haruhiko

    Biometrics is classified into verification and identification. Many researchers on the keystroke dynamics have treated the verification of a fixed short password which is used for the user login. In this research, we pay attention to the identification and investigate several characteristics of the keystroke dynamics in Japanese free text typing. We developed Web-based typing software in order to collect the keystroke data on the Local Area Network and performed experiments on a total of 112 subjects, from which three groups of typing level, the beginner's level and above, the normal level and above and the middle level and above were constructed. Based on the identification methods by the weighted Euclid distance and the neural network for the extracted feature indexes in Japanese texts, we evaluated identification performances for the three groups. As a result, high accuracy of personal identification was confirmed in both methods, in proportion to the typing level of the group.

  4. Personality, personal model beliefs, and self-care in adolescents and young adults with Type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chas Skinner, T.; Hampson, Sarah E.; Fife-Schaw, Chris

    2002-01-01

    This study compared 3 models of association between personality, personal model beliefs, and self-care in a cross-sectional design. These models were as follows: (a) Emotional stability determines self-care indirectly through personal model beliefs, and conscientiousness is a direct predictor of ....... Participants (N = 358, aged 12-30 years) with Type 1 diabetes completed measures of personality, personal model beliefs, and self-care. Structural equation modeling indicated that Model C was the best fit to the data....

  5. DOING BUSINESS IN ROMANIA - PART I: PERSPECTIVES ON THE TYPES OF DOING BUSINESS. TYPES OF INDIVIDUAL AND COMPANY ENTITIES WITHOUT LEGAL PERSONALITY. TYPES OF ENTITIES WITH LEGAL PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Diana APAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis in the present study integrates the types of trading entities in order to clearly determine them. A first reference theme when setting-up a business is that of the legal personality it would take. The new Civil Code, acting as common law in the field of trading entities, determines the realignment and balancing of the regulations on types of business. Company Law 31 of 1990 preserves the types of trading entities with legal personality regulated here: general partnership, limited partnership, limited partnership by shares, limited liability company, joint-stock company. The simple partnership which can gain legal personality is widely regulated, and for the partnership are mainly preserved the landmarks drawn by the Commercial Code of 1886 that is presently repealed. In conclusion, the present study analyses and answers the question – who are the legal trading entities and what are the regulated types of business.

  6. Diabetes Distress Among Persons With Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Margaret A; Richter, Sara A; Ackard, Diann M; Craft, Cheryl

    2017-02-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to evaluate associations between diabetes distress and a range of psychological health behaviors and concerns among persons with type 1 diabetes for the benefit of enhancing early identification and intervention of at-risk individuals. Methods Persons with type 1 diabetes (n = 268; 57.1% female, 91.0% white, 76.8% satisfaction with life, self-esteem, self-efficacy, depression, perfectionism, body image satisfaction, dietary restraint and eating, and shape and weight concerns. Each subscale score was compared within age groups (depression scores and eating, and shape and weight concerns than those with low or moderate distress. For patients satisfaction with life, self-esteem, and self-efficacy and higher on dietary restraint and several areas of perfectionism than those with low or moderate distress. Conclusions Individuals with type 1 diabetes who have high diabetes distress also report higher A1C values and poorer psychological health concerns. A brief diabetes distress questionnaire can help to identify those who need additional screening, education and support, and treatment for overall health and well-being.

  7. Type D (distressed) personality in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nefs, Giesje; Pouwer, Francois; Pop, Victor J M

    2012-01-01

    D Scale-14 (DS14) in type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS: 1553 primary care patients with type 2 diabetes were assessed for demographic, clinical, lifestyle and psychological characteristics in 2007. A subgroup (n=1012) completed the DS14 again 1 year later. RESULTS: The two-factor model of the Type D...... or physiological risk factors, but Type D women had a more sedentary lifestyle (p=.003). Type D patients experienced less social support and more stressful life events, loneliness, and more depressed mood, anhedonia and anxiety (p0......OBJECTIVE: In cardiovascular research, Type D personality (high negative affectivity and social inhibition) has been associated with a more than 3-fold increased risk of adverse health outcomes. This study examined the validity and clinical correlates of the Type D construct as assessed by the Type...

  8. Consumers in Slovenia: values, personality types and consumerist attitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž Kolar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our paper is to investigate the links between terminal and instrumental values, personality types, consumer attitudes and behavior that are relevant to marketing decision-making. The understanding of the personality and values of individual consumers should enable us to predict their preferences and behavior. Our set of consumer attitudes and behavior includes reported peer influence on shopping behavior, consumer ethnocentrism, value shopping and hedonism in shopping. Two multidimensional statistical approaches are considered: a cluster analysis of the individual’s personality and values and a factor analysis of consumer attitudes and behavior. An analysis of data from a representative sample of 1,094 Slovenian consumers (PGM, Valicon, 2007 reveals five clusters: conscientious-non-agreeable consumers differ in their consumer attitudes from extroversive consumers, neurotic-with-low-values, open-with-high-values and agreeable-conscious-non-open consumers. Implications for marketing decision-making and strategy development are considered, together with a possible extension of the study to multiple national groups of consumers from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE.

  9. Segmenting consumers according to experiential preferences based on personality type vs. personality traits – a latent class analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jeanne

    Differences in consumers’ preferences for experiences have been suggested to be based on personality among other things. Personality in consumer research has primarily been operationalized as personality traits using the Five Factor theory. An old, re-emerged discussion in psychology is pointing...... at personality type rather than single personality traits to better understand behavior. Personality type represents “typical configurations of the dispositional attributes that define individuals” (Donnellan and Robins, 2010: 1). Type accounts for the necessity of understanding not only a person’s defining...... trait but also how this interacts with other traits providing a person centered rather than an attribute centered understanding. This allows for a classification of people rather than a classification of attributes of people. In the context of segmentation the objective is classifying people rather than...

  10. Eliminating barriers to personalized medicine: learning from neurofibromatosis type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, David H

    2014-07-29

    With the emergence of high-throughput discovery platforms, robust preclinical small-animal models, and efficient clinical trial pipelines, it is becoming possible to envision a time when the treatment of human neurologic diseases will become personalized. The emergence of precision medicine will require the identification of subgroups of patients most likely to respond to specific biologically based therapies. This stratification only becomes possible when the determinants that contribute to disease heterogeneity become more fully elucidated. This review discusses the defining factors that underlie disease heterogeneity relevant to the potential for individualized brain tumor (optic pathway glioma) treatments arising in the common single-gene cancer predisposition syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). In this regard, NF1 is posited as a model genetic condition to establish a workable paradigm for actualizing precision therapeutics for other neurologic disorders. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  11. Imaginal action: towards a Jungian conception of enactment, and an extraverted counterpart to active imagination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robin S

    2018-04-01

    This theoretical paper considers the fashion in which Jung's psychology radically challenges modern assumptions concerning the nature of subjectivity. With an eye for the clinical implications of Jung's late work, the author introduces the idea of imaginal action. In order to explain what is meant by this, the paper begins by exploring how Jung's thinking demonstrates an underlying bias towards introversion. It is argued that while Jung's interest in synchronicity ultimately resulted in his developing a worldview that might address the introverted biases of his psychology, the clinical implications of this shift have not been sufficiently clarified. With reference to some short examples from experience, the author outlines a conception of relational synchronicity wherein the intrapsychic emerges non-projectively within the interpersonal field itself. Comparing and contrasting these occurrences to the more introverted practice of active imagination, it is claimed that such a notion is implicit in Jung's work and is needed as a corrective to his emphasis on interiority. The author suggests that imaginal action might be conceived as a distinctly Jungian approach to the psychoanalytic notion of enactment. It is also shown how the idea outlined might find further support from recent developments in the field of transpersonal psychology. © 2018, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  12. Type D Personality Predicts Poor Medication Adherence in Patients with Heart Failure in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Rong; Moser, Debra K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Type D (distressed) personality and medication nonadherence have been associated with poor health outcomes. Type D personality is associated with poor medication adherence in patients with coronary artery disease. However, the relationship between type D personality and medication adherence in patients with heart failure (HF) remains unknown. Purpose Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine the association between type D personality and medication adherence in patients with HF. Method This was a sub-analysis of baseline data from a randomized controlled trial with 84 patients with HF in the USA. Demographic, clinical, and psychological data were collected at baseline by interview, questionnaires, and medical record review. Type D personality was assessed using the Type D Personality Scale (DS14). Medication adherence was measured using both objective (Medication Event Monitoring System, MEMS) and self-reported (Morisky Medication Adherence Scale, MMAS-4) measures. Patients started medication adherence monitoring with the MEMS bottle at baseline and is used continuously for a month. Multiple regressions were used to explore the relationships between type D personality and medication adherence while adjusting for demographic, clinical, and psychological factors. Results Patients with type D personality were more likely to have poor medication adherence. Type D personality was associated with medication adherence before and after adjusting for covariates when it was analyzed as a categorical variable. However, type D personality was not associated with medication adherence when analyzed as a dimensional construct. Negative affectivity, a component of type D personality, was associated with medication adherence. Conclusion As a dimensional construct, type D personality may not reflect the components of the personality associated with poor outcomes. Negative affectivity was associated with medication adherence in patients with HF. Interventions aiming

  13. Childhood Personality Types: Vulnerability and Adaptation over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Barbara; Rettew, David; Althoff, Robert R.; De Bolle, Marleen

    2012-01-01

    Background: Substantial evidence suggests that a Five-Factor Model personality assessment generates a valid description of childhood individual differences and relates to a range of psychological outcomes. Less is known, however, about naturally occurring profiles of personality and their links to psychopathology. The current study explores…

  14. Holland Type as a Moderator of Personality-Performance Predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, Barbara A.; McIntire, Sandra A.; Yost, Amy Powell

    2002-01-01

    Data from 559 undergraduates provided modest evidence that Holland's taxonomy of work environments moderated the relationship between personality and performance. The traits of agreeableness and conscientiousness were better predictors of performance in certain environments. The important relationship between personality and performance may be…

  15. Type D personality and physical inactivity: The mediating effects of low self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiencierz, Stacey; Williams, Lynn

    2017-07-01

    Type D personality is associated with health-damaging behaviours among the general population. This study assessed the relationship between Type D personality, physical activity and self-efficacy. A total of 189 participants completed measures of Type D personality, physical activity and self-efficacy. Type D individuals had significantly lower levels of self-efficacy and engaged in significantly less walking and total exercise compared to non-Type D's. Furthermore, self-efficacy fully mediated the relationship between Type D and physical activity. Low levels of self-efficacy may be one mechanism to help explain why Type D individuals engage in more disease-promoting behaviours.

  16. Type D personality as a predictor of self-efficacy and social support in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Y

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Yechang Shao,1,2 Honglei Yin,3 Chengsong Wan4 1School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, 3Department of Psychiatry, Nanfang Hospital, 4Department of Microbiology, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Research, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Type D personality and assess the relationship between this personality type and self-efficacy/social support in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM.Patients and methods: From January 1, 2014, to July 31, 2014, 532 consecutive patients with T2DM were recruited from two hospitals in Guangzhou, China. The participants completed questionnaires containing questions about sociodemographic characteristics, Type D personality, self-efficacy, and social support scales, and their medical records were reviewed for additional data.Results: Of the 532 patients, 18.2% had Type D personality. Patients with this personality type reported significantly lower levels of self-efficacy (P<0.001, total social support (P<0.001, subjective support (P<0.001, and support utilization (P=0.003, but similar level of objective support (P=0.314, compared to those of patients without Type D personality. Negative affectivity and social inhibition, two intrinsic traits of Type D personality, negatively correlated with self-efficacy and social support scores. Type D personality was significantly associated with less self-efficacy and social support (P<0.001, controlling for other sociodemographic factors. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c levels were significantly higher in T2DM patients with Type D personality than in patients with non-Type D personality.Conclusion: This study provides new evidence linking Type D personality with self-efficacy, social support, and poor

  17. The association between type D personality, and depression and anxiety ten years after PCI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qezweny, M N A; Utens, E M W J; Dulfer, K; Hazemeijer, B A F; van Geuns, R-J; Daemen, J; van Domburg, R

    2016-09-01

    There are indications that type D personality and depression are associated in patients treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, at present it is unclear whether this relationship holds in the long term. This study's aim was to investigate the association between type D personality at 6 months post-PCI (baseline), and depression at 10-year follow-up. A secondary aim was to test the association between type D personality at baseline and anxiety at 10-year follow-up. A cohort of surviving consecutive patients (N = 534) who underwent PCI between October 2001 and October 2002. Patients completed the type D personality scale (DS14) measuring type D personality at baseline, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) measuring anxiety and depression at baseline and at 10 years post-PCI. At baseline, the prevalence of type D personality was 25 % (135/534). Type D personality patients were more often depressed (42 %) than non-type D personality patients (9 %). Response rate of anxiety and depression questionnaires at 10 years was 75 %. At 10-year follow-up, 31 % of type D personality patients were depressed versus 13 % of non-type D personality patients. After adjustments, baseline type D personality remained independently associated with depression at 10 years (OR = 3.69; 95 % CI [1.89-7.19]). Type D showed a similar association with anxiety at 10 years, albeit somewhat lower (OR = 2.72; 95 % CI [1.31-5.63]). PCI patients with type D personality had a 3.69-fold increased risk for depression and a 2.72-fold increased risk for anxiety at 10 years of follow-up.

  18. Measurement of temperament and character in mood disorders: a model of fundamental states as personality types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloninger, C R; Bayon, C; Svrakic, D M

    1998-10-01

    Personality assessment may allow reliable measurement of risk of mood disorders. A group of adults (804) representative of the general population were assessed by questionnaire. Personality types were measured by the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI). Specific TCI configurations define personality types that can be described as hyperthymic, cyclothymic, irritable, and depressive. Each type had a unique profile of emotions, suicide attempts, and hospitalization. TCI traits are associated with mood disorders. Different ways of measuring Kraepelinean subtypes may disagree. Whether differences in personality cause psychopathology, or vice versa, remains uncertain. Personality profiles help in assessing suicidality and planning treatment.

  19. An empirical study on measuring the impact of personality type on employee capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sha’bani

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Personality is a stable set of characteristics and tendencies, which specifies similarities, and differences of people' psychological behavior. Personality is normally a permanent behavior through time and may not be comprehended easily or recognized as immediate or direct situations due to some environmental and social stresses. In this paper, we study the relationship between employees' personality and ability types. The paper identifies that there are some relationships between employees' personality type and their ability. There is also a relationship between introvert, extrovert, sensitive, emotive, thoughtful, considerate and judging personality type and employees' ability.

  20. Verification of Ca F2:Mn type of dosemeters for personal dosimetry purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misovic, M.; Boskovic, Z.; Spasic-Jokic, V.

    1995-01-01

    Verification results of CaF2:Mn type of dosemeters for personal dosimetry purposes are presented in this paper. Tree types of irradiations are proceeded due to verification of relevant features of TLD. It is concluded that mentioned type of dosemeter can be used for purpose of personal dosimetry. (author)

  1. What makes men and women identify with Judith? A Jungian mythological perspective on the feminist value of Judith today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Efthimiadis-Keith

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by her student’s overwhelmingly positive interpretation of Judith as a model for women’s liberation in diverse African contexts – despite the debate around the feminist value of Judith-Judith – the author deals with what could possibly allow men and women, particularly the latter, to interpret Judith positively today. Given her interest in Jungian individuation theory and Ancient Near Eastern (ANE mythology, the author investigates the subject matter by exploring Judith’s relation to male and female individuation patterns, the myths of the hero’s quest and Demeter-Kore, and ANE warrior-goddess myths.

  2. Assessment of the type D personality construct in the Korean population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Hong Euy; Lee, Moon-Soo; Ko, Young-Hoon

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a Korean version of the Type D Personality Scale-14 (DS14) and evaluate the psychiatric symptomatology of Korean cardiac patients with Type D personality. Healthy control (n = 954), patients with a coronary heart disease (n = 111) and patients with hypertension...... and no heart disease (n = 292) were recruited. All three groups completed DS14, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), the state subscale of Spielberger State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD), and the General Health Questionnaire...... for identifying Type D personality. The general population and cardiovascular patients with Type D personality showed higher rate of depression, anxiety and psychological distress regarding their health. Therefore, identifying Type D personality is important in clinical research and practice in chronic medical...

  3. Negative affectivity and social inhibition in cardiovascular disease: evaluating type-D personality and its assessment using item response theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emons, Wilco H M; Meijer, Rob R; Denollet, Johan

    2007-07-01

    Individuals with increased levels of both negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI)-referred to as type-D personality-are at increased risk of adverse cardiac events. We used item response theory (IRT) to evaluate NA, SI, and type-D personality as measured by the DS14. The objectives of this study were (a) to evaluate the relative contribution of individual items to the measurement precision at the cutoff to distinguish type-D from non-type-D personality and (b) to investigate the comparability of NA, SI, and type-D constructs across the general population and clinical populations. Data from representative samples including 1316 respondents from the general population, 427 respondents diagnosed with coronary heart disease, and 732 persons suffering from hypertension were analyzed using the graded response IRT model. In Study 1, the information functions obtained in the IRT analysis showed that (a) all items had highest measurement precision around the cutoff and (b) items are most informative at the higher end of the scale. In Study 2, the IRT analysis showed that measurements were fairly comparable across the general population and clinical populations. The DS14 adequately measures NA and SI, with highest reliability in the trait range around the cutoff. The DS14 is a valid instrument to assess and compare type-D personality across clinical groups.

  4. Leukocyte telomere length and personality : Associations with the big five and type d personality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoormans, D.; Verhoeven, J.E.; Denollet, J.; van de Poll-Franse, L.V.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2018-01-01

    Accelerated cellular ageing, which can be examined by telomere length (TL), may be an overarching mechanism underlying the association between personality and adverse health outcomes. This 6-year longitudinal study examined the relation between personality and leukocyte telomere length (LTL) across

  5. Behavior of Personality Type Toward Stress and Job Performance: A Study of Healthcare Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Janjhua

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present paper has examined the sources of stress among the healthcare professionals and the difference between responses of personality type A and type B healthcare professionals toward stressful situations. Further, the difference in the performance of both the personality types has been studied. The relationship between stress and performance among the healthcare professionals in general and with respect to personality type A and type B healthcare professionals in particular has also been investigated. Methods: A total of 160 healthcare professionals of Post Graduate Institute (PGI, Chandigarh, were subjects of this study. Results: Identification with patients, deterioration and complication in the patient condition, and job criticism emerged to be the sources of stress. Significant difference between personality type A and personality type B professionals′ response pertaining to identification with the patients only has been reported. However, type A individuals showed slightly higher inclination as compared to type B individuals on majority of stressful situations. It was further noted that type A individuals had scored higher on almost all the performance indicators as compared to personality type B individuals. The mean difference between the personality types was found to be significant for two performance dimensions, i.e., relationship with colleagues, and teaching and training. Conclusions: The stressful situation relationship with patients was found to have significantly negative impact on the performance factors such as good clinical care and rapport with patients. Daily work was also found to be negatively related to good medical practice.

  6. Behavior of personality type toward stress and job performance: a study of healthcare professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjhua, Yasmin; Chandrakanta

    2012-07-01

    The present paper has examined the sources of stress among the healthcare professionals and the difference between responses of personality type A and type B healthcare professionals toward stressful situations. Further, the difference in the performance of both the personality types has been studied. The relationship between stress and performance among the healthcare professionals in general and with respect to personality type A and type B healthcare professionals in particular has also been investigated. A total of 160 healthcare professionals of Post Graduate Institute (PGI), Chandigarh, were subjects of this study. Identification with patients, deterioration and complication in the patient condition, and job criticism emerged to be the sources of stress. Significant difference between personality type A and personality type B professionals' response pertaining to identification with the patients only has been reported. However, type A individuals showed slightly higher inclination as compared to type B individuals on majority of stressful situations. It was further noted that type A individuals had scored higher on almost all the performance indicators as compared to personality type B individuals. The mean difference between the personality types was found to be significant for two performance dimensions, i.e., relationship with colleagues, and teaching and training. The stressful situation relationship with patients was found to have significantly negative impact on the performance factors such as good clinical care and rapport with patients. Daily work was also found to be negatively related to good medical practice.

  7. The relationship between childhood trauma and type D personality in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Kadir; Yıldız, Mesut; Selvi, Cansu; Akpınar, Abdullah

    2016-09-01

    There has been increasing evidence that childhood traumas are related to reduced health-related quality of life, neurobiological changes and long-term adverse effects, such as an increase in the likelihood of psychiatric disorders in adulthoods. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between childhood traumas and type D personality. In total, 187 university students (64 males and 123 females; mean age = 21.69 ± 2.00) were included in the study. All participants were evaluated using the Type D Personality Scale (DS-14), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The participants were divided into the two groups according to the presence of type D personality. Then, statistical analyses were performed. The frequency of type D personality in participants was 43.3% (n = 81). The emotional neglect, physical neglect, emotional abuse component of the CTQ-28, total CTQ-28 scores and BDI scores were higher in the group with type D personality than in the group without type D personality (p personality scores and BDI scores, emotional neglect, physical neglect, emotional abuse and childhood trauma total scores (p Childhood trauma may be associated with type D personality, and there is predictive value of the childhood trauma on the scores of type D personality. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Are there differential relationships between different types of childhood maltreatment and different types of adult personality pathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa Janet; Tanis, Thachell; Bhattacharjee, Reetuparna; Nesci, Christina; Halmi, Winter; Galynker, Igor

    2014-01-30

    While considerable data support the relationship between childhood trauma and adult personality pathology in general, there is little research investigating the specific relationships between different types of childhood maltreatment and adult personality disorders. The present study tested a model incorporating five a priori hypotheses regarding the association between distinct forms of childhood maltreatment and personality pathology in 231 psychiatric patients using multiple self-report measures (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4th Edition, Child Trauma Questionnaire, Conflict in Tactics Scale Parent-Child Child-Adult, and Multidimensional Neglectful Behavior Scale). Step-wise linear regressions supported three out of five hypotheses, suggesting independent relationships between: physical abuse and antisocial personality disorder traits; emotional abuse and Cluster C personality disorder traits; and maternal neglect and Cluster A personality disorder traits after controlling for co-occurring maltreatment types and personality disorder traits. Results did not support an independent relationship between sexual abuse and borderline personality traits nor between emotional abuse and narcissistic personality disorder traits. Additionally, there were three unexpected findings: physical abuse was independently and positively associated with narcissistic and paranoid traits and negatively associated with Cluster C traits. These findings can help refine our understanding of adult personality pathology and support the future development of clinical tools for survivors of childhood maltreatment. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. On early starters and late bloomers: the development of sexual behavior in adolescence across personality types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baams, L.; Overbeek, G.; Dubas, J.S.; van Aken, M.A.G.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between personality and sexual development among mid-adolescents. In the current study, we used a person-centered approach to investigate the relation between personality types and the development of sexual behavior. We hypothesized that undercontrolling

  10. Early environmental conditions shape personality types in a jumping spider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannis eLiedtke

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals of many species across the animal kingdom are found to be less plastic than expected, even in behavioral traits. The existence of consistent behavioral differences between individuals, termed personality differences, is puzzling, since plastic behavior is considered ideal to enable animals to adaptively respond to changes in environmental conditions. In order to elucidate which mechanisms are important for the evolution of personality differences, it is crucial to understand which aspects of the environment are important for the development of personality differences. Here, we tested whether physical or social aspects of the environment during development influence individual differentiation (mean level of behavior using the jumping spider Marpissa muscosa. Furthermore, we assessed whether those behaviors were repeatable, i.e. whether personalities existed. We applied a split-brood design and raised spider siblings in three different environments: a deprived environment with no enrichment, a socially and a physically enriched environment. We focused on exploratory behavior and repeatedly assessed individual behavior in a novel environment and a novel object test. Results show that the environment during development influenced spiders’ exploratory tendencies: spiders raised in enriched environments tended to be more exploratory. Most investigated behaviors were repeatable (i.e. personalities existed across all individuals tested, whereas only few behaviors were also repeatable across individuals that had experienced the same environmental condition. Taken together, our results indicate that external stimuli can influence the development of one aspect of personality, the inter-individual variation (mean level of behavior, in a jumping spider. We also found family by environment interactions on behavioral traits potentially suggesting genetic variation in developmental plasticity.

  11. Type D personality, temperament, and mental health in military personnel awaiting deployment

    OpenAIRE

    Mommersteeg, P.M.C.; Denollet, J.; Kavelaars, A.; Geuze, E.; Vermetten, E.; Heijnen, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background The Type D (distressed) personality refers to a general propensity to psychological distress defined by the combination of negative affectivity and social inhibition. Type D personality predicts poor mental and physical health in cardiac patients, but it has been argued that its assessment is affected by the state of illness. Therefore, validation of the Type D construct in healthy adults remains essential. Purpose The objectives of this study were (1) to validate Type D personalit...

  12. Dreams In Jungian Psychology: The use of Dreams as an Instrument For Research, Diagnosis and Treatment of Social Phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodarahimi, Siamak

    2009-10-01

    The significance of dreams has been explained in psychoanalysis, depth psychology and gestalt therapy. There are many guidelines in analytic psychology for dream interpretation and integration in clinical practice. The present study, based on the Jungian analytic model, incorporated dreams as an instrument for assessment of aetiology, the psychotherapy process and the outcome of treatment for social phobia within a clinical case study. This case study describes the use of dream analysis in treating a female youth with social phobia. The present findings supported the three stage paradigm efficiency in the Jungian model for dream working within a clinical setting, i.e. written details, reassembly with amplification and assimilation. It was indicated that childhood and infantile traumatic events, psychosexual development malfunctions, and inefficient coping skills for solving current life events were expressed in the patient's dreams. Dreams can reflect a patient's aetiology, needs, illness prognosis and psychotherapy outcome. Dreams are an instrument for the diagnosis, research and treatment of mental disturbances in a clinical setting.

  13. The distressed (Type D) personality. A risk marker for poor health outcomes in ICD patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Schiffer, A A

    2011-01-01

    The distressed (Type D) personality is an emerging risk marker for poor health outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. Patients with this personality disposition are typified by a general propensity to experience psychological distress. The contribution focuses on the impact of Type D p...

  14. The Relationship between Subjective Well-Being and Vocational Personality Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Elizabeth W.; Fouad, Nadya A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between subjective well-being (SWB) and Holland's Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional (RIASEC) model. It was hypothesized that individuals resembling Social and Enterprising vocational personality types would report higher SWB than those resembling other personality types.…

  15. The influence of personality type on decision making in the physical therapy admission process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezner, J R; Boucher, B K

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the personality types of physical therapy (PT) interviewers and applicants, using the Personality Styles (PS) assessment tool, and to determine whether an interview team's personality type influences the rating score given. The PS was validated in a study of 298 students who completed the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Form G and a PS assessment. By chi-square analysis the PS model appears to be a valid representation of the MBTI (chi 2 = 86.62, p personality type in relation to faculty/clinician team (same, different from both, like one) and 2) applicant personality type as the independent variables. Internal consistency of the interview rating form was alpha = 0.89. Mean interview score was 33.97/42 (SD 4.59). Interview scores were not significantly different between applicants who interviewed with clinician/faculty teams that were "like" compared with "not like" the applicants (F0.864; p = 0.423), but were significantly different between applicants with different PS personality types (F3.159; p = 0.026). Although personality type of the interview team did not impact the score given, thereby refuting the presence of interviewer bias, the rating scores did vary according to personality type of the applicant, suggesting a possible stereotyping bias in the criteria used to rate applicants.

  16. Quality Reform: Personality Type, Preferred Learning Style and Majors in a Business School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallan, Lars

    2006-01-01

    The quality reform of higher education in Norway has generally recommended a substitution of classroom teaching with more active forms of learning in higher education. This study reveals that ignoring the student's personality type may be in conflict with the purpose of the reform. The student's personality type affects both the most effective…

  17. 38 CFR 74.25 - What types of personally identifiable information will VA collect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VETERANS SMALL BUSINESS REGULATIONS Records Management § 74.25 What types of personally identifiable information will VA collect? In order to establish owner... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What types of personally...

  18. Study on Personality Types of Dentists in different Disciplines of Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dlaigan, Yousef H; Alahmari, Albatool S; Almubarak, Sara H; Alateeq, Sahar A; Anil, Sukumaran

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the most common personality type among dentists in seven selected clinical dentistry specialties using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and to compare between these different types of personalities. A survey containing the MBTI and demographic and practice questions was used to assess the personality styles of 243 dental specialists in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The survey results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results of the MBTI for 243 specialist dentists revealed, generally, a higher percentage of scoring for introversion (I) with an average of 65% than extroversion (E). The study identified 10 common personality types among these specialists: ISTJ, ISFJ, INFJ, ISTP, INFP, INTP, ENFP, ENTP, ENFJ, and ENTJ (extraversion-introversion (E-I), sensing-intuition (S-N), thinking-feeling (T-F), and judging-perception (J-P)). The dominant personality type in all seven clinical specialties in dentistry was ISTJ, with an average of 54%. The personality types showed variation among the seven clinical dentistry specialties. However, among these seven clinician's specialties in dentistry, more than 50% of the individuals shared one common type of personality (ISTJ). The identification of the personality type might help in their association with coworkers, students, and patients as well as knowing the individual preferences toward different specialties in dentistry.

  19. Type D personality and the development of PTSD symptoms: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademaker, Arthur R; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Vermetten, Eric; Geuze, Elbert

    2011-05-01

    Psychological trauma and prolonged stress may cause mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Pretrauma personality is an important determinant of posttraumatic adjustment. Specifically, trait neuroticism has been identified as a risk factor for PTSD. Additionally, the combination of high negative affectivity or neuroticism with marked social inhibition or introversion, also called Type D personality (Denollet, 2000), may compose a risk factor for PTSD. There is no research available that examined pretrauma Type D personality in relation to PTSD. The present study examined the predictive validity of the Type D personality construct in a sample of Dutch soldiers. Data were collected prior to and 6 months after military deployment to Afghanistan. Separate multiple regression analyses were performed to examine the predictive validity of Type D personality. First, Type D personality was defined as the interaction between negative affect and social inhibition (Na × Si). In a second analysis, Type D was defined following cutoff criteria recommended by Denollet (2000). Results showed that negative affectivity was a significant predictor of PTSD symptoms. Social inhibition and the interaction Na × Si did not add to the amount of explained variance in postdeployment PTSD scores over the effects of childhood abuse, negative affectivity, and prior psychological symptoms. A second analysis showed that Type D personality (dichotomous) did not add to the amount of explained variance in postdeployment PTSD scores over the effects of childhood abuse, and prior psychological symptoms. Therefore, Type D personality appears to be of limited value to explain development of combat-related PTSD symptoms.

  20. THE APPLICATION OF GRAPHOLOGY AND ENNEAGRAM TECHNIQUES IN DETERMINING PERSONALITY TYPE BASED ON HANDWRITING FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Pratiwi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted with the aim of developing previous studies that have successfully applied the science of graphology to analyze digital handwriting and characteristics of his personality through shape based feature extraction, which in the present study will be applied one method of psychological tests commonly used by psychologists to recognize human’s personality that is Enneagram. The Enneagram method in principle will classify the personality traits of a person into nine types through a series of questions, which then calculated the amount of the overall weight of the answer. Thickness is what will provide direction personality type, which will then be matched with the personality type of the result of the graphology analysis of the handwriting. Personality type of handwritten analysis results is processed based on the personality traits that are the result of the identification of a combination of four dominant form of handwriting through the software output of previous studies, that Slant (tilt writing, Size (font size, Baseline, and Breaks (respite each word. From the results of this research can be found there is a correlation between personality analysis based on the psychology science to the graphology science, which results matching personality types by 81.6% of 49  respondents data who successfully tested.

  1. [Personality traits of perpetrators of various types of crimes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoczek, Adrianna; Gancarczyk, Urszula; Prochownik, Paweł; Sobień, Bartosz; Podolec, Piotr; Komar, Monika

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted in Nowy Wiśnicz, with prisoners sentenced for: murders, sex crimes, theft and robbery, maintenance, bullying. A Polish adaptation of PAI test, made by the author of the study, was used. The study results and its statistical analysis showed characteristic personality features of particular criminal groups can be used in rehabilitation of disturbed people, addicts, and become the basis for preparing actions reducing frequency of committing crimes.

  2. Predicting criminals' personality characteristics by using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI in committing type of crime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Mohebbi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding criminals' personality characteristics could engender appropriate solutions for preventing crimes and treating criminals and the aim of the current work is to predict criminals' (robbers, swindlers and smugglers personality characteristics by using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI in committing type of crime. The research falls under the applied category in terms of goal while in terms of nature it is among surveydescriptive researches. The sample under investigation includes 480 people who were selected by way of classified random sampling method in a systematic form from among the population of criminals in the Central Prison, province of Kermanshah. The tool used in this paper is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI (short form of 71 questions. The results obtained from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI indicated that prevalence of anti-social personalitycharacteristics and mental weakness among robbers; depression, anti-social personality and schizophrenia among swindlers as well as anti-social traits, mental weakness and schizophrenia among smugglers are seen significantly. Also, the results of the variance analysis demonstrated that there is a significant difference between the (MMPI clinical scales among three groups of criminals (robbers, swindlers and smugglers on D scales (depression, Pd (Psychopathy deviation, Pt (Anxiety and psychosis, Sc (Schizophrenia and Ma (Hypomania (p<%5. Research findings revealed that criminals enjoy lower level of normal and positive personality dimensions. To sum up, we can infer that all personality characteristics exist in the population of criminals and therapy experts need to pay attention to all sorts of personalities for treating criminals affected with personality disorder.

  3. Negative affectivity in cardiovascular disease: Evaluating Type D personality assessment using item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emons, Wilco H.M.; Meijer, R.R.; Denollet, Johan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Individuals with increased levels of both negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI)—referred to as type-D personality—are at increased risk of adverse cardiac events. We used item response theory (IRT) to evaluate NA, SI, and type-D personality as measured by the DS14. The

  4. Validating the Type D personality construct in Chinese patients with coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Doris S F; Thompson, David R; Yu, Cheuk Man

    2010-01-01

    Type D personality predicts poor prognosis in coronary heart disease (CHD) but little is known about Type D in non-Western cultures. We examined the (a) validity of the Type D construct and its assessment with the DS14 scale in the Chinese culture, (b) prevalence of Type D, and (c) gender vs. Typ...

  5. Is type-D personality trait(s or state? An examination of type-D temporal stability in older Israeli adults in the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada H. Zohar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Type D personality was suggested as a marker of poorer prognosis for patients of cardiovascular disease. It is defined by having a score of 10 or more on both sub-scales of the DS14 questionnaire, Social Inhibition (SI and Negative Affectivity (NA. As Type D was designed to predict risk, its temporal stability is of prime importance. Methods. Participants in the current study were 285 community volunteers, who completed the DS14, and other personality scales, at a mean interval of six years. Results. The prevalence of Type D did not change. The component traits of Type D showed rank order stability. Type D caseness temporal stability was improved by using the sub-scales product as a criterion. Logistic hierarchical regression predicting Type D classification from Time1 demonstrated that the best predictors were Time1 scores on NA and SI, with the character trait of Cooperation, and the alexithymia score adding some predictive power. Conclusions. The temporal stability of the component traits, and of the prevalence of Type D were excellent. Temporal stability of Type D caseness may be improved by using a product threshold, rather than the current rule. Research is required in order to formulate the optimal timing for Type D measurement for predictive purposes.

  6. The primipara respons based on individual personality type to the intensity of delivery pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita N Sari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Delivery period is one of periods that can cause stress to the mother and the fetus. This period is the natural common phenomenon that for some women subjectively can be considered as pain process that can cause simultaneous anxiety and pain. Psychology research has shown that pain is not only connected to physical respond, the culture that teaches and nurtures us also play important role in coping the pain. These two factors shape different personality for each individual. The objective of this study is to find out the primipara respons based on individual personality type to the intensity of delivery pain. The method of this study was analytical method with survey cross sectional approach. The data was collected prospectively from interview and questionnaire in the same time to find out the correlation between individual personality type and the intensity of delivery pain based on inclusive and exclusive period February 1st 2009 to April 30th 2009. The result with chi-square test and spearman rank test showed significant correlation between individual personality type and the intensity of delivery pain (X2= 8,571 ; p = 0,014. There is the negative correlation between extrovert individual personality and intensity of delivery pain (rs= -0,730; p <0,001, and there is the positive correlation between introvert individual personality type and intensity of delivery pain (rs = 0,726; p <0,001. Based on mann whitney, showed significant difference between extrovert personality type and introverts personality type to intensity of delivery pain (Z M-W: 3,050, p: 0,002. Based on chi-square test showed significant correlation between knowledge based on individual personality type to the intensity of delivery pain (X2= 4,418; p = 0,036 The conclusion of these study are the more extrovert individual personality type the less intense the delivery pain would be, the more introvert individual personality type then the more intense delivery pain would be. The

  7. Cross-cultural analysis of Type D (distressed) personality in 6222 patients with ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupper, Nina; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Höfer, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Type D (distressed) personality, the conjoint effect of negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI), predicts adverse cardiovascular outcomes, and is assessed with the 14-item Type D Scale (DS14). However, potential cross-cultural differences in Type D have not been examined yet in a dir......Type D (distressed) personality, the conjoint effect of negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI), predicts adverse cardiovascular outcomes, and is assessed with the 14-item Type D Scale (DS14). However, potential cross-cultural differences in Type D have not been examined yet...

  8. Alternative Personality Variables and the Relationship to Holland's Personality Types in College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberti, Jonathan W.; Fox, Daniel J.; Tunick, Roy H.

    2003-01-01

    The Vocational Preference Inventory, two personality questionnaires, and the Sensation-Seeking Scale were completed by 126 college students. Younger students had undifferentiated vocational profiles. Men tended toward Realistic, Enterprising, and Investigative occupations, women toward Social, Enterprising, and Artistic. Significant convergence…

  9. Personality correlates of type 1 diabetes in a national representative sample

    OpenAIRE

    Čukić, Iva; Weiss, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    We examined cross-sectional relationships between personality traits and type 1 diabetes. The sample (N=8490) was taken from the 1982-84 wave of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiological Follow-up Study. We fit three logistic regression models to test whether neuroticism, extraversion, openness, or the Type A behavior pattern were associated with type 1 diabetes. Model 1 included sex, age, race/ethnicity and all four personality traits. Model 2 added depressive symp...

  10. The Types of Personal Networks in the Texts Containing Descriptions of Dematerialization of a Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella V. Nesterik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the types of personal networks found in the descriptions of dematerialization of a subject and reveals the role of the linguistic means expressing the category of personality in the linguistic embodiment of this phenomenon. The research is conducted at the junction of several disciplines, among which text linguistics takes the leading place. The authors come to the conclusion that dematerialization is formed in a literary text by explicit means of expression of personality – predicates of a certain type and pronominal personal network.

  11. Family-Work Conflict and Type-E Personality as Stress Inducers in Married Female Nigerian University Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobola, A. A.; Nwoha, P. C.

    2013-01-01

    This piece of article is culled from a larger study. The study investigated the relationship between family-work conflict, Type-E personality and stress in married female Nigerian University Administrators. The study adopted ex-post facto design. The sample consisted of 800 female administrators in the senior cadre of executive/administrative…

  12. Types, Patterns and Outcomes of Personal Watercraft- Related ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    related injuries. Patients injured in Jet Ski accidents were younger than those involved in motorboat accidents (mean age (SD); 25(7.6) vs 32.6(6), p=0.01). Chest injury was the most common type of injury; however, the severity of injury was ...

  13. Assessment of Personality Types and Locus of Control in Multiple Sclerosis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Mazaheri

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune disease with unknown cause. MS is one of the disabling neurologic diseases in adult especially young range that myelin part of central nervous system (CNS is destructed. The aim of this study was assessment of types A and B personality and internal and external locus of control in multiple sclerosis (MS patients and comparison of the results with control group.Materials & Methods: In a case-control study, 30 patients with MS and 30 normal persons as control group evaluated with neurological examination, Rotter locus of control test and Friedman-Rosenman questionnaire for detection of types A and B personality. We employed to analyze the results.Results: 43 percent and 57 percent of MS patients had internal and external locus of control respectively. 63 percent and 37 percent of MS patients had type A and B personality respectively. 60 percent and 40 percent of control group had internal and external locus of control respectively. 20 percent and 80 percent of control group had type A and B personality respectively. Difference between personality type in two groups was significant (P<0.01.Conclusions: In this study, MS patients had more type A personality in comparison to control group.

  14. A critical assessment of two types of personal UV dosimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckmeyer, Gunther; Klingebiel, Marcus; Riechelmann, Stefan; Lohse, Insa; McKenzie, Richard L; Liley, J Ben; Allen, Martin W; Siani, Anna-Maria; Casale, Giuseppe R

    2012-01-01

    Doses of erythemally weighted irradiances derived from polysulphone (PS) and electronic ultraviolet (EUV) dosimeters have been compared with measurements obtained using a reference spectroradiometer. PS dosimeters showed mean absolute deviations of 26% with a maximum deviation of 44%, the calibrated EUV dosimeters showed mean absolute deviations of 15% (maximum 33%) around noon during several test days in the northern hemisphere autumn. In the case of EUV dosimeters, measurements with various cut-off filters showed that part of the deviation from the CIE erythema action spectrum was due to a small, but significant sensitivity to visible radiation that varies between devices and which may be avoided by careful preselection. Usually the method of calibrating UV sensors by direct comparison to a reference instrument leads to reliable results. However, in some circumstances the quality of measurements made with simple sensors may be over-estimated. In the extreme case, a simple pyranometer can be used as a UV instrument, providing acceptable results for cloudless skies, but very poor results under cloudy conditions. It is concluded that while UV dosimeters are useful for their design purpose, namely to estimate personal UV exposures, they should not be regarded as an inexpensive replacement for meteorological grade instruments. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2011 The American Society of Photobiology.

  15. The Relationship between Personality Type and Acceptable Noise Levels: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Cliff; Johnson, Laura V; White, Letitia; Franklin, Clay; Smith-Olinde, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the relationship between acceptable noise level (ANL) and personality. ANL is the difference between a person's most comfortable level for speech and the loudest level of background noise they are willing to accept while listening to speech. Design. Forty young adults with normal hearing participated. ANLs were measured and two personality tests (Big Five Inventory, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) were administered. Results. The analysis revealed a correlation between ANL and the openness and conscientious personality dimensions from the Big Five Inventory; no correlation emerged between ANL and the Myers-Briggs personality types. Conclusions. Lower ANLs are correlated with full-time hearing aid use and the openness personality dimension; higher ANLs are correlated with part-time or hearing aid nonuse and the conscientious personality dimension. Current data suggest that those more open to new experiences may accept more noise and possibly be good hearing aid candidates, while those more conscientious may accept less noise and reject hearing aids, based on their unwillingness to accept background noise. Knowing something about a person's personality type may help audiologists determine if their patients will likely be good candidates for hearing aids.

  16. A Correlational Study: Personality Types and Foreign Language Acquisition in Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capellan, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between personality types and second language acquisition. The study addressed a problem that is inadequately investigated in foreign language acquisition research; specifically, personality traits as predictors of language learning in college students studying Spanish as a foreign…

  17. Which Types of Activities Are Associated With Risk of Recurrent Falling in Older Persons?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, G.M.E.E.; Verweij, L.M.; van Schoor, N.M.; Pijnappels, M.A.G.M.; Pluijm, S.M.F.; Visser, M.; Lips, P.

    2010-01-01

    Background.This study explored the associations between various types of activities, their underlying physical components, and recurrent falling in community-dwelling older persons.Methods.This study included 1,329 community-dwelling persons (≥65 years) of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

  18. Physical and Psychological Health in Persons with Deafblindness that Is due to Usher Syndrome Type II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Moa; Moller, Claes; Moller, Kerstin; Danermark, Berth

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The objectives of the study reported here were to describe the physical and psychological health of persons with Usher syndrome Type II (USH2) and to explore any differences in terms of gender. Methods: The participants were recruited from the Swedish Usher database. In the first step, 122 persons received the questionnaire by mail,…

  19. Replicable personality types in childhood and adolescence: A Slovenian cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Zupančič

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored individual constellations of five personality dimensions (personality types and their internal replicability with a sample of 4- to 14-year-olds (N = 1341. Employing an age- and culture-decentered assessment tool the target participants were rated by their mothers and the procedure by Asendorpf et al. (2001 was followed to derive personality types. Several cluster solutions were investigated with the one representing four personality types appearing the most interpretable. The average type included individuals (26% expressing mean levels of conscientiousness, extraversion, openness/intellect, and neuroticism, and a relatively high level of agreeableness. The reserved children/adolescents (35 % scored below-average in openess/intellect, relatively low in conscientiousness and extraversion, and they were rated relatively high for neuroticism. The wilful participants (30 % were high in openness/intelect and within the average range they appeared relatively extraverted and disagreeable. The resilient type turned out to be the least capacious as it captured extremly conscientious, extraverted, open, emotionally stable and relatively high agreeable individuals. More girls than boys were classified as average and the boys were, in comparison to the girls, more often assigned to the wilful and to the reserved personality types. The wilful type was the most common in early childhood, the reserved type memberhip was the most frequent in middle and late childhood, and early adolesscents were the most frequently classified to the average type.

  20. Differences in social relations between persons with type 2 diabetes and the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempler, Nana Folmann; Ekholm, Ola; Willaing, Ingrid

    2013-01-01

    with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three settings: a specialist diabetes clinic (SDC) (n = 1084), a web panel (WP) consisting.......08-1.41). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. From a public health point of view, special attention is needed with regards to strengthening existing networks and establishing alternative networks among persons with type 2 diabetes.......Aims: Poor social support and lack of social network are well-established risk factors for morbidity and mortality in general populations. Good social relations, such as social support and network contacts, are associated with better self-management and fewer psychosocial problems in persons...

  1. Validity of the Type D personality construct in Danish post-MI patients and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Denollet, Johan

    2004-01-01

    Type D personality has been associated with increased risk of depression, vital exhaustion, social alienation, a higher number of reinfarctions, and higher mortality rates in patients with established coronary artery disease (CAD) independent of traditional biomedical risk factors. The construct ...

  2. Sex-typed personality traits and gender identity as predictors of young adults' career interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinella, Lisa M; Fulcher, Megan; Weisgram, Erica S

    2014-04-01

    Gender segregation of careers is still prominent in the U.S. workforce. The current study was designed to investigate the role of sex-typed personality traits and gender identity in predicting emerging adults' interests in sex-typed careers. Participants included 586 university students (185 males, 401 females). Participants reported their sex-typed personality traits (masculine and feminine traits), gender identities (gender typicality, contentment, felt pressure to conform, and intergroup bias), and interests in sex-typed careers. Results indicated both sex-typed personality traits and gender identity were important predictors of young adults' career interests, but in varying degrees and differentially for men and women. Men's sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality were predictive of their masculine career interests even more so when the interaction of their masculine traits and gender typicality were considered. When gender typicality and sex-typed personality traits were considered simultaneously, gender typicality was negatively related to men's feminine career interests and gender typicality was the only significant predictor of men's feminine career interests. For women, sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality were predictive of their sex-typed career interests. The level of pressure they felt to conform to their gender also positively predicted interest in feminine careers. The interaction of sex-typed personality traits and gender typicality did not predict women's career interests more than when these variables were considered as main effects. Results of the multidimensional assessment of gender identity confirmed that various dimensions of gender identity played different roles in predicting career interests and gender typicality was the strongest predictor of career interests.

  3. Type II diabetes and personality; a study to explore other psychosomatic aspects of diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Esmaeilinasab, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Mehdi; Mokarrar, Mohsen Heidari; Rahmati, Leila; Mahjouri, Mohammad Yoosef; Arzaghi, Seyed Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background As one of the most common chronic diseases, diabetes and its control are affected by the patients? psychological and spiritual attributes. The present study investigates the relationship between glycemic control in patients with type II diabetes and personality traits, defense mechanisms and spirituality. Method The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 Iranian patients with type II diabetes, 64% were men. Participants completed the NEO Personality Inventory, the Defen...

  4. Association between Cognitive Distortion, Type D Personality, Family Environment, and Depression in Chinese Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yong; Li, Hengfen; Zou, Shaohong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Depression prevalence and risk increase among adolescents are related to biological, psychosocial, and cultural factors. Little is known about the association between cognitive distortion, type D personality, family environment, and depression. The aim of this paper was to examine the relationships of cognitive distortion, type D personality, family environment, and depression in a sample of Chinese adolescents. Methods. A sample of Chinese adolescents with depression and the con...

  5. Type D personality mediates the relationship between remembered parenting and perceived health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Broek, Krista C; Smolderen, Kim G; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2014-01-01

    Type D personality (a joint tendency to experience negative emotions and inhibit self-expression) has been associated with adverse outcomes across cardiovascular diseases, but little is known about its association with remembered parenting.......Type D personality (a joint tendency to experience negative emotions and inhibit self-expression) has been associated with adverse outcomes across cardiovascular diseases, but little is known about its association with remembered parenting....

  6. Burnout Syndrome Among Health Care Students: The Role of Type D Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skodova, Zuzana; Lajciakova, Petra; Banovcinova, Lubica

    2016-07-18

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of Type D personality, along with other personality traits (resilience and sense of coherence), on burnout syndrome and its counterpart, engagement, among students of nursing, midwifery, and psychology. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 97 university students (91.9% females; M age = 20.2 ± 1.49 years). A Type D personality subscale, School Burnout Inventory, Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, Sense of Coherence Questionnaire, and Baruth Protective Factor Inventory were used. Linear regression models, Student's t test, and Pearson's correlation analysis were employed. Negative affectivity, a dimension of Type D personality, was a significant personality predictor for burnout syndrome (β = .54; 95% CI = [0.33, 1.01]). The only significant personality predictor of engagement was a sense of coherence. Students who were identified as having Type D personality characteristics scored significantly higher on the burnout syndrome questionnaire (t = -2.58, p burnout. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. On the cross-cultural replicability of the resilient, undercontrolled, and overcontrolled personality types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandri, Guido; Vecchione, Michele; Donnellan, Brent M; Eisenberg, Nancy; Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Cieciuch, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Personality types reflect typical configurations of personality attributes within individuals. Over the last 20 years, researchers have identified a set of three replicable personality types: resilient (R), undercontrolled (U), and overcontrolled (O) types. In this study, we examined the cross-cultural replicability of the RUO types in Italy, Poland, Spain, and the United States. Personality types were identified using cluster analyses of Big Five profiles in large samples of college students from Italy (n = 322), the United States (n = 499), Spain (n = 420), and Poland (n = 235). Prior to clustering the profiles, the measurement invariance of the Big Five measure across samples was tested. We found evidence for the RUO types in all four samples. The three-cluster solution showed a better fit over alternative solutions and had a relatively high degree of cross-cultural generalizability. The RUO types are evident in samples from four countries with distinct linguistic and cultural traditions. Results were discussed in light of the importance of considering how traits are organized within individuals for advancing contemporary personality psychology. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. On early starters and late bloomers: the development of sexual behavior in adolescence across personality types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baams, Laura; Overbeek, Geertjan; Dubas, Judith Semon; van Aken, Marcel A G

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the relationship between personality and sexual development among mid-adolescents. In the current study, we used a person-centered approach to investigate the relation between personality types and the development of sexual behavior. We hypothesized that undercontrolling adolescents would engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior compared to their resilient and overcontrolling peers. Data were used from 407 mid-adolescents (Mage = 14.5) followed across four measurement waves spanning 18 months. Results from latent class analyses (LCA) identified the three classical personality types: resilients, undercontrollers, and overcontrollers. Controlling for perceived pubertal timing and biological sex, latent growth curve analyses in Mplus showed that, at baseline, undercontrollers were more sexually experienced and engaged in more casual and risky sexual behavior than resilients and overcontrollers. Although initial levels of sexual behavior differed by personality types, over time increases in sexual behavior occurred at a similar rate across the types. Overall, the current study showed that undercontrolling adolescents are early sexual developers who engage in more advanced, casual, and risky sexual behavior than other adolescents. The implications of these findings for longer-term differences in sexual behavior between personality types in later adolescence are discussed.

  9. Type D or 'distressed' personality in sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfferich, M D P; De Vries, J; Drent, M

    2011-07-01

    Personality factors have shown to be related to mortality, morbidity, and psychological aspects in chronic disorders. Little is known about the effect of personality on disease severity in sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of Type D personality and its relation with relevant clinical characteristics in sarcoidosis and IPF patients. The study included 441 sarcoidosis and 49 IPF patients from the outpatient clinic of the ild care team of the MUMC, the Netherlands. They completed the DS14 (Type D questionnaire), the fatigue assessment scale (FAS), the WHO quality of life-BREF (WHOQOL-BREF) and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). Moreover, relevant clinical data were collected. The control group consisted of 3678 subjects from a general population. Type D personality was found in 25.6% of the sarcoidosis patients compared to 21% in the controls, but only in 18.8% of the IPF patients. No relation with disease severity was found in either of these disorders. Fatigue was a substantial problem in both populations. Depressive symptoms but not Type D personality predicted fatigue and poorer QOL in sarcoidosis and IPF. Prevalence of Type D personality is not higher in sarcoidosis and IPF patients than in the general population and does not explain QOL impairment. Depressive symptoms explain QOL impairment and fatigue substantially. Therefore, in the multidisciplinary management of sarcoidosis and IPF psychological screening and psychological counselling concerning adequate coping strategies should be incorporated.

  10. Scholar-Craftsmanship: Question-Type, Epistemology, Culture of Inquiry, and Personality-Type in Dissertation Research Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Thomas P.; Rogers, Katrina S.

    2013-01-01

    "Scholar-Craftsmanship" (SC) is a quadrant methodological framework created to help social science doctoral students construct first-time dissertation research. The framework brackets and predicts how epistemological domains, cultures of inquiries, personality indicators, and research question--types can be correlated in dissertation…

  11. Developmental Personality Types from Childhood to Adolescence: Associations with Parenting and Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Amaranta D.; Dekovic, Maja; van den Akker, Alithe L.; Stoltz, Sabine E. M. J.; Prinzie, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether changes in children's self-reported Big Five dimensions are represented by (developmental) personality types, using a cohort-sequential design with three measurement occasions across 5 years (four cohorts, 9-12 years at T1; N = 523). Correlates of, and gender differences in, type membership were examined. Latent…

  12. The lack of theoretical support for using person trade-offs in QALY-type models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2009-01-01

    -adjusted life years (DALYs). This paper discusses the theoretical support for the use of person trade-offs in QALY-type measurement of (changes in) population health. It argues that measures of this type based on such quality-adjustment factors almost always violate the Pareto principle, and so lack normative...

  13. Personality Types and Learners' Interaction in Web-Based Threaded Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JeongMin; Lee, Youngmin

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effects of group composition based on the learners' personality types as measured by the Myers-Briggs type indicator as they interacted in threaded discussions. Three groups comprised introverts, extroverts, and mixed introvert-extrovert classifications. Ninety-six participants were divided into 24 groups of 4 participants…

  14. Do Dental Students' Personality Types and Group Dynamics Affect Their Performance in Problem-Based Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihm, Jung-Joon; An, So-Youn; Seo, Deog-Gyu

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the personality types of dental students and their group dynamics were linked to their problem-based learning (PBL) performance. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) instrument was used with 263 dental students enrolled in Seoul National University School of Dentistry from 2011 to 2013; the students had participated in PBL in their first year. A four-session PBL setting was designed to analyze how individual personality types and the diversity of their small groups were associated with PBL performance. Overall, the results showed that the personality type of PBL performance that was the most prominent was Judging. As a group became more diverse with its different constituent personality characteristics, there was a tendency for the group to be higher ranked in terms of PBL performance. In particular, the overperforming group was clustered around three major profiles: Extraverted Intuitive Thinking Judging (ENTJ), Introverted Sensing Thinking Judging (ISTJ), and Extraverted Sensing Thinking Judging (ESTJ). Personality analysis would be beneficial for dental faculty members in order for them to understand the extent to which cooperative learning would work smoothly, especially when considering group personalities.

  15. Type D personality and coronary atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability: The potential mediating effect of health behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fangman; Lin, Ping; Wang, Yini; Liu, Guojie; Li, Ling; Yu, Huai; Yu, Bo; Zhao, Zhenjuan; Gao, Xueqin

    2018-05-01

    The association between type D personality and coronary plaque vulnerability has been suggested. The objective of the study was to evaluate the potential mediating effects of health behavior on the association between type D personality and plaque vulnerability in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. A total of 319 CAD patients were assessed for type D personality and health behavior via self-administered questionnaires. The plaque vulnerability, evaluated according to characteristics, accompaniment, and outcomes of plaque, was assessed by optical coherence tomography. Regression analysis showed that type D personality was independently associated with lipid plaque (odds ratio [OR] = 2.387, p = 0.001), thin cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) (OR = 2.366, p = 0.001), rupture (OR = 2.153, p = 0.002), and lipid arc (β = -0.291, p vulnerability. Psychological stress mediated the relationship between type D and lipid plaque (p = 0.030), TCFA (p = 0.034), and rupture (p = 0.013). Living habits significantly mediated the relationship between type D and lipid plaque (p = 0.028), TCFA (p = 0.036), but not rupture (p = 0.066). Participating in activities was not a significant mediator of the relationship between type D personality and lipid plaque (p = 0.115), TCFA (p = 0.115), or rupture (p = 0.077). Health behaviors (psychological stress and living habits) may be mediators of the association between type D personality and plaque vulnerability. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Abnormal functional brain connectivity and personality traits in myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Laura; Silvestri, Gabriella; Petrucci, Antonio; Basile, Barbara; Masciullo, Marcella; Makovac, Elena; Torso, Mario; Spanò, Barbara; Mastropasqua, Chiara; Harrison, Neil A; Bianchi, Maria L E; Giacanelli, Manlio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Cercignani, Mara; Bozzali, Marco

    2014-05-01

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), the most common muscular dystrophy observed in adults, is a genetic multisystem disorder affecting several other organs besides skeletal muscle, including the brain. Cognitive and personality abnormalities have been reported; however, no studies have investigated brain functional networks and their relationship with personality traits/disorders in patients with DM1. To use resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the potential relationship between personality traits/disorders and changes to functional connectivity within the default mode network (DMN) in patients with DM1. We enrolled 27 patients with genetically confirmed DM1 and 16 matched healthy control individuals. Patients underwent personality assessment using clinical interview and Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 administration; all participants underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Investigations were conducted at the Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico Santa Lucia Foundation, Catholic University of Sacred Heart, and Azienda Ospedaliera San Camillo Forlanini. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Measures of personality traits in patients and changes in functional connectivity within the DMN in patients and controls. Changes in functional connectivity and atypical personality traits in patients were correlated. We combined results obtained from the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 and clinical interview to identify a continuum of atypical personality profiles ranging from schizotypal personality traits to paranoid personality disorder within our DM1 patients. We also demonstrated an increase in functional connectivity in the bilateral posterior cingulate and left parietal DMN nodes in DM1 patients compared with controls. Moreover, patients with DM1 showed strong associations between DMN functional connectivity and schizotypal-paranoid traits. Our findings provide novel

  17. EFL Teachers’ Emotional Intelligence and Their Personality Types: Exploring Possible Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Razavi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The major aim of this study was to examine the relationship between teachers’ emotional intelligence and their personality traits in an Iranian context. To this end, 85 Iranian EFL teachers were asked to fill out The Big Five Inventory Personality Test (John & Srivastava, 1999 and The Bar-On Emotional Intelligences test (1997. The results showed both negative and positive correlations among different subscales of the variables under study. It was found that among the 15 components of EI, problem solving has the highest positive correlation with personality types (i.e., agreeableness. Also, problem solving was found to have the highest negative significant correlation with personality types (i.e., neuroticism. Pedagogical implications are discussed.

  18. Personality traits, self-care behaviours and glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.; Bruce, D. G.; Davis, T. M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: To determine whether the personality traits of conscientiousness and agreeableness are associated with self-care behaviours and glycaemia in Type 2 diabetes. Methods: The Big Five Inventory personality traits Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Neuroticism and Openness were...... modelling was used to determine whether personality was associated with BMI, smoking, self-monitoring of blood glucose and medication taking. Multivariable regression was used to investigate which traits were independently associated with these self-care behaviours and HbA1c. Results: Patients with higher......, longer diabetes duration, diabetes treatment, self-monitoring of blood glucose (negatively) and less medication taking (P ≤ 0.009), but no personality trait added to the model. Conclusions: Although there was no independent association between personality traits and HbA1c, the relationship between high...

  19. Relationship between the nurses’ subjective and objective career success and extraversion and introversion personality types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Najjari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Career success is an evaluating and relational concept between someone's current progress and his/her future ideals of occupation. Researchers have shown personality characteristics are one of the main predictors of success and favorable job performance. Thus, the aim of present study was to determine the relationship between extraversion and introversion personality types and subjective and objective career success among nurses of selected private hospitals in Tehran. Methods: This research was a descriptive correlational study in which 230 nurses were selected from five private hospitals in Tehran as the study sample through Cochran sampling technique. Proportional to the number of nurses at each hospital, samples were selected via convenient random sampling. Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Golparvar and Ghazavi career success scale and personal information form were utilized to collect the data. The collected data wereanalyzed by SPSS-19 software using Pearson correlation coefficient and regression analysis. Results: The results indicated a significant relationship between personality type and subjective and objective career success of the nurses. Further, there was a negatively significant relationship between subjective and objective career success and introversion personality type (sig=0/004, r=-0.391 and sig=0.001, r=-0.415, respectively. However, there was a positively significant relationship between subjective and objective career success and extraversion personality type (sig=0.001, r=0.473 and sig=0.001, r=0.545, respectively. Conclusion: It is essential to take into account the relationship between career success and related factors such as personality in the planning, decisions and technical choices. Besides, favorable environmental factors and effective factors such as knowledge, attitudes and cognitive, emotional and behavioral skills, activity level and the situation of the organization should also be taken into

  20. The Relationship between Personality Type and Acceptable Noise Levels: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Franklin, Cliff; Johnson, Laura V.; White, Letitia; Franklin, Clay; Smith-Olinde, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the relationship between acceptable noise level (ANL) and personality. ANL is the difference between a person’s most comfortable level for speech and the loudest level of background noise they are willing to accept while listening to speech. Design. Forty young adults with normal hearing participated. ANLs were measured and two personality tests (Big Five Inventory, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator) were administered. Results. The analysis revealed a correlation bet...

  1. Forgiveness and Personality Type among Men and Women Suffering from Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Foroozandeh

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Role of personality and some components of behaviors, traits and emotions as effective factors on coronary heart diseases (CHD were presented nearly 50 years ago with the concept of “type A” behavior, a compound of hostility, impatience, competitiveness and dominance. Later studies showed crucial role of other traits and behaviors like anger, introversion, depression and forgiveness. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare personality type and forgiveness in the patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases based on gender. Materials and method: The cross sectional study was designed and sample was collected from men and women referred to cardiologists (within the age range of 23-75 years old from the patients of Shahid Rajaee Heart Hospital of Tehran, Iran from December 2010 to March 2011. Total 87 subjects were selected using random method. The study subjects were given two questionnaires: personality type A (with two factors: TA1, pathologic behaviors of type A personality and TA2, non pathologic behaviors of type A personality and Interpersonal Forgiveness Inventory (IFI, with three subscales namely reestablishment of relationship, control of revenge and realistic perception. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Mean(±SD age of men was 50.5±11.6 years (n=33 and 55.7±14.4 years in women (n=54. Mean duration of suffering from cardiovascular diseases in men was 7.8 years and in women was 9.10 years. The study found high mean scores of type A pathologic but not non pathologic type A among women compared to men (p<0.038 and no statistically significant differences in forgiveness subscales. Conclusion: The study revealed significant difference between women and men suffering from cardiovascular disease in pathologic type A (TA1 and negative relationship between pathologic type A and forgiveness.

  2. The relationship between Type D personality, affective symptoms and hemoglobin levels in chronic heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Kupper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anemia is associated with poor prognosis in heart failure (HF patients. Contributors to the risk of anemia in HF include hemodilution, renal dysfunction and inflammation. Hemoglobin levels may also be negatively affected by alterations in stress regulatory systems. Therefore, psychological distress characterized by such alterations may adversely affect hemoglobin in HF. The association between hemoglobin and Type D personality and affective symptomatology in the context of HF is poorly understood. AIM: To examine the relationship between Type D personality and affective symptomatology with hemoglobin levels at inclusion and 12-month follow-up, controlling for relevant clinical factors. METHODS: Plasma levels of hemoglobin and creatinine were assessed in 264 HF patients at inclusion and at 12-month follow-up. Type D personality and affective symptomatology were assessed at inclusion. RESULTS: At inclusion, hemoglobin levels were similar for Type D and non-Type D HF patients (p = .23, and were moderately associated with affective symptomatology (r = -.14, p = .02. Multivariable regression showed that Type D personality (β = -.15; p = .02, was independently associated with future hemoglobin levels, while controlling for renal dysfunction, gender, NYHA class, time since diagnosis, BMI, the use of angiotensin-related medication, and levels of affective symptomatology. Change in renal function was associated with Type D personality (β = .20 and hemoglobin at 12 months (β = -.25. Sobel mediation analysis showed significant partial mediation of the Type D - hemoglobin association by renal function deterioration (p = .01. Anemia prevalence increased over time, especially in Type D patients. Female gender, poorer baseline renal function, deterioration of renal function and a longer HF history predicted the observed increase in anemia prevalence over time, while higher baseline hemoglobin was protective

  3. Potential for Drug Abuse: the Predictive Role of Parenting Styles, Stress and Type D Personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahin soheili

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was an attempt to predict potential for drug abuse on the basis of three predictors of parenting style, stress and type D personality. Method: In this descriptive-correlational study, 200 students (100 males and 100 females of Islamic Azad University of Karaj were selected by convenience sampling. For data collection, perceived parenting styles questionnaire, perceived stress scale, type D personality scale, and addiction potential scale were used. Results: The results showed that rejecting/neglecting parenting style and emotional warmth were positively and negatively correlated with addiction potential, respectively. Conclusion: The child-parent relationship and also the relationship between stress and type D personality can be considered as predictive factors in addiction potential.

  4. The relationship between type D personality and perceived social support in myocardial infarction patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Bagherian Sararoudi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type D personality is based on two global and stable personality traits, including negative affectivity (NA and social inhibition (SI. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between type D personality and perceived social support in post myocardial infarction (MI patients. Methods: One hundred seventy six consecutive patients following MI admitted to the cardiac care unit (CCU of nine hospitals in Isfahan, Iran from April to September 2006 were selected based on the inclusive and exclusive criteria. The patients completed the Persian version of type D personality scale and the Persian version of multidimensional scale of perceived social support (MSPSS. Also, demographic and medical questionnaire was completed for each patient. Chi-squared test, t-test and MANOVA were used to analyze the data. Results: The findings indicated that 35.8% patients (35.8 % were classified as type D. The results of MANOVA showed that type D patients were significantly different from non-type D patients (F = 8.72, p = 0.0001 on MSPSS scores and on all dimensions including family subscale (F = 11.52, p = 0.001, friends subscale (F= 16.16, p = 0.0001 and significant others subscale (F = 5.04, p = 0.026. Conclusions: Type D personality substantially affects the way MI patients perceive availability of social support from different sources including family, friends, and significant others. One implication of this finding may be to develop tailor-made interventions for MI patients with type D.

  5. Type D Personality in infarcted patients a study with the Rorschach projective technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Pagano Dritto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Type D personality is a vulnerability factor associated with the psychological suffering that affects the physical and mental health state. Literature shows that the Type D personality is defined by a combination of two independent constructs: the negative affectivity (NA which refers to the tendency to experience negative emotions over time and in several situations; and the social inhibition (SI or the tendency to inhibit emotions and behaviors in social interactions. Objective: The present study aims to explore the emotions of a group of patients with heart disease, through the use of the Rorschach projective tecnique. Method: Fourty subjects with an history of heart attack, aged between 32 and 76 years, were evaluated in order to find some possible indicators of Type D personality such as the quality of contents, movements response, popular responses and Erlebnistypus. Results: Findings shows that the majority of patients present a prevalence of responses belonging to Animal and Anatomy contents and the Erlebnistypus is mostly introversive. Conclusions: The study points out some scientific element useful both in research and in clinical practice, confirming the Rorschach potential in the assessment and identification of specific personality traits, involved in the Type D personality, that characterizes the majority of cardiac impared patients.

  6. Differences in social relations between persons with type 2 diabetes and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempler, Nana Folmann; Ekholm, Ola; Willaing, Ingrid

    2013-06-01

    Poor social support and lack of social network are well-established risk factors for morbidity and mortality in general populations. Good social relations, such as social support and network contacts, are associated with better self-management and fewer psychosocial problems in persons with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate whether persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in three settings: a specialist diabetes clinic (SDC) (n = 1084), a web panel (WP) consisting of persons with type 2 diabetes (n = 1491) and a sample from the 2010 Danish Health and Morbidity Survey, representative of the general population (n = 15,165). We compared social relations using multivariate logistic regression. Compared to the general population, persons with type 2 diabetes more often lived without a partner (SDC, OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.49-2.06; WP, OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.43-1.87), met with family less than once a month (SDC, OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.40-2.27; WP, OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.94-2.84) and were less certain they could count on help from others in case of illness (WP, OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.08-1.41). Our findings suggest that persons with type 2 diabetes have poorer social relations than the general population. From a public health point of view, special attention is needed with regards to strengthening existing networks and establishing alternative networks among persons with type 2 diabetes.

  7. Anesthesiology resident personality type correlates with faculty assessment of resident performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Randall M; Dilorenzo, Amy N; Li, Hsin-Fang; Fragneto, Regina Y; Bowe, Edwin A; Hessel, Eugene A

    2012-11-01

    To study the association between anesthesiology residents' personality preference types, faculty evaluations of residents' performance, and knowledge. Convenience sample and prospective study. Academic department of anesthesiology. Consenting anesthesiology residents (n = 36). All participants completed the Myers Briggs Type Indicator® (MBTI®). All residents' 6-month summation of daily focal evaluations completed by faculty [daily performance score (DPS); 1 = unsatisfactory, 2 = needs improvement, 3 = meets expectations, 4 = exceeds expectations], as well as a global assessment of performance (GAP) score based on placement of each resident into perceived quartile compared with their peers (ie,1 = first, or top, quartile) by senior faculty (n = 7) who also completed the MBTI, were obtained. The resident MBTI personality preferences were compared with the DPS and GAP scores, the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) I and II scores, and faculty MBTI personality type. There was no association between personality preference type and performance on standardized examinations (USMLE I, II). The mean GAP score was better (higher quartile score) for Extraverts than Introverts (median 2.0 vs 2.6, P = 0.0047) and for Sensing versus Intuition (median 2.0 vs 2.6, P = 0.0206) preference. Faculty evaluator MBTI preference type did not influence the GAP scores they assigned residents. Like GAP, the DPS was better for residents with Sensing versus Intuition preference (median 3.5 vs 3.3, P = 0.0111). No difference in DPS was noted between Extraverts and Introverts. Personality preference type was not associated with resident performance on standardized examinations, but it was associated with faculty evaluations of resident performance. Residents with Sensing personality preference were evaluated more favorably on global and focal faculty evaluations than those residents who chose the Intuition preference. Extraverted residents were evaluated more favorably on

  8. Type D personality, self-efficacy, and medication adherence in patients with heart failure-A mediation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jia-Rong; Song, Eun Kyeung; Moser, Debra K

    2015-01-01

    Type D personality is associated with medication non-adherence. Both Type D personality and non-adherence are predictors of poor outcomes. Self-efficacy, which is modifiable, is also associated with medication adherence. To determine the relationships among Type D personality, self-efficacy, and medication adherence in 84 heart failure patients. Self-efficacy, Type D personality, medication adherence, demographic and clinical data were collected. Hierarchical linear regression was used. Type D patients were more likely to have lower self-efficacy (p = .023) and medication non-adherence (p = .027) than non-Type D patients. Low self-efficacy was associated with medication non-adherence (p mediation. Self-efficacy mediates the relationship between Type D personality and medication adherence. Developing and applying interventions to enhance self-efficacy may help to sever the link between Type D personality and poor outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Research into the Relationship Between Type a Personality and Emotional Intelligence in Leadership Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan İncebacak

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study, which is conducted on male and femaleparticipants and managers from different departments and sectors, is to inves-tigate the relationship between Type A personality traits and emotional intelligence dimensions.In addition, for male and female managers, the emotional intelligence dimensions that are effective on type A personality traits are tried to be determined according to each department. In the results of the analysis conducted on 205 participant managers and the survey used as the data collection tool, different findings were obtained for different departments in male and female managers, and the hypotheses proposed for inter-variable effects and relationships were partially accepted.

  10. 25 CFR 900.234 - What types of personal conflicts of interest involving tribal officers, employees or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of personal conflicts of interest involving... ASSISTANCE ACT Conflicts of Interest § 900.234 What types of personal conflicts of interest involving tribal... in which that person has a financial or employment interest that conflicts with that of the trust...

  11. THE WAY TO THE SELF: THE NOVEL «STEPPENWOLF» THROUGH THE LENS OF JUNGIAN PROCESS OF INDIVIDUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana V. Danylova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This paper aims to analyze the life journey of Harry Haller, protagonist of H. Hesse’s novel «Steppenwolf», in the context of Jungian process of individuation. Methodology. The author has used C.G. Jung’s theory of archetypes, along with hermeneutical methodology. Theoretical basis and results. «Steppenwolf» is the story of a man who is dogged by controversy: he feels himself to be a human and a wolf at the same time. Harry Haller learns from the «Treatise on the Steppenwolf» that he has more than two natures. Actually, he consists of hundreds and thousands of them. This idea is based on Jung’s concept of the collective unconscious. And the very novel «Steppenwolf» brightly illustrates Jung’s individuation process. Harry Haller’s mission is to overcome opposition between his social cultural «I» and Shadow (Steppenwolf, to recognize and accept his Anima (Hermine, to understand the mystery of the identity of Pablo, who embodies chthonic depths, and Mozart, who represents sublime spirituality, that is, to comprehend his own Self. Scientific novelty. In the novel, the human nature is depicted as the eternal struggle and eternal unity of two polarities. Individuals have to realize this unity on their way to the Self. Recognizing, confronting and assimilating the Ego, Anima/Animus, Shadow into the larger realm of the Self, one achieves a new level of consciousness. However, this is a never-ending process, unattainable ideal. At the end of the novel, Harry Haller failed to cope with this challenge. It seems that he has remained at the same point, where we had met him. However, nothing was impossible − everything was just beginning. Conclusions. The questions raised by Jungian analysis push us beyond our limits to the great alchemical mystery − the wholeness of our own souls. For the salvation of humankind as a whole and every single human in our world full of conflicts and violence, we all need to

  12. Type D personality, stress, coping and performance on a novel sport task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Borkoles

    Full Text Available We investigated (1 the relationship between Type D personality, stress intensity appraisal of a self-selected stressor, coping, and perceived coping effectiveness and (2 the relationship between Type D personality and performance. In study one, 482 athletes completed the Type D personality questionnaire (DS14, stress thermometer and MCOPE in relation to a recently experienced sport stressor. Type D was associated with increased levels of perceived stress and selection of coping strategies (more emotion and avoidance coping as well as perceptions of their effectiveness. In study two, 32 participants completed a rugby league circuit task and were assessed on pre-performance anxiety, post-performance affect and coping. Type D was associated with poorer performance (reduced distance; more errors, decreases in pre-performance self-confidence and more use of maladaptive resignation/withdrawal coping. Findings suggest that Type D is associated with maladaptive coping and reduced performance. Type D individuals would benefit from interventions related to mood modification or enhancing interpersonal functioning.

  13. Type D personality is associated with the development of stress cardiomyopathy following emotional triggers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compare, Angelo; Bigi, Riccardo; Orrego, Pedro Silva; Proietti, Riccardo; Grossi, Enzo; Steptoe, Andrew

    2013-06-01

    Stress cardiomyopathy (SCM) can be triggered by emotional events. Recently, type D personality has been established as an independent predictor of acute cardiac adverse events. We sought to examine whether type D personality can be identified in SCM patients. A case-control study with 37 SCM patients, 37 myocardial infarction (AMI) patients, who both experienced emotional triggering, and 37 SCM patients without emotional triggers was performed. The DS14 and Interview for Recent Life Events were administered. Twenty-eight (76 %) SCM emotional trigger patients were categorized as type D compared with 13 (43 %) SCM patients without emotional trigger and 12 (32 %) AMI patients (p emotional triggers had higher scores on the social inhibition subscale than the other patient groups. The present study highlights the possible link between type D, with a specific key role for social inhibition component, and increased biological reactivity to acute emotional stress.

  14. Personality types in childhood: relations to latent trajectory classes of problem behavior and overreactive parenting across the transition into adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Akker, A.L.; Deković, M.; Asscher, J.J.; Shiner, R.L.; Prinzie, P.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated relations among children's personality types, trajectories of internalizing and externalizing problems, and overreactive parenting across 6 years. Latent Class Analysis of the Big 5 personality dimensions (modeled as latent factors, based on mother, father and teacher

  15. The distressed (Type D) personality mediates the relationship between remembered parenting and psychological distress in cardiac patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damen, N.L.; Versteeg, H.; Helmondt, S.J. van; Jaegere, P.P. de; Geuns, R.J.M. van; Meine, M.M.; Domburg, R.T. van; Pedersen, S.S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Both the distressed (Type D) personality (i.e. the combination of negative affectivity and social inhibition traits) and dysfunctional parenting styles are associated with anxiety and depression. As parenting styles have been related to personality development, dysfunctional parenting

  16. Student Performance in Principles of Macroeconomics: the Importance of Gender and Personality Type

    OpenAIRE

    Leiv Opstad; Lars Fallan

    2010-01-01

    Several studies indicate that females perform more poorly in economic courses than their male counterparts. Other studies reveal that students' personality types affect their performance in economic courses, as well. The present study explores this issue by testing a number of interactions between gender and the Kersey-Bates temperament types in an ordered probit model explaining students' grades in Principles of Macroeconomics. The results confirm that the interaction of gender and temperame...

  17. Family and Friends: Which Types of Personal Relationships Go Together in a Network?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rözer, Jesper; Mollenhorst, Gerald; Poortman, Anne-Rigt

    We examine the link between family and personal networks. Using arguments about meeting opportunities, competition and social influence, we hypothesise how the presence of specific types of family members (i.e., a partner, children, parents and siblings) and non-family members (i.e., friends, neighbours and colleagues) in the network mutually affect one another. In addition, we propose that-beyond their mere presence-the active role of family members in the network strongly affects the presence of non-family members in the network. Data from the third wave of the Survey on the Social Networks of the Dutch, collected in 2012 and 2013, show that active involvement is of key importance; more than merely having family members present in one's personal network, the active involvement of specific types of family members in the personal network is associated with having disproportionally more other family members and having somewhat fewer non-family members in the network.

  18. Type D personality and cardiac mortality in patients with chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Angélique A; Smith, Otto R F; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2010-01-01

    Clinical predictors of cardiac mortality in chronic heart failure (CHF) are established, but less is known about chronic psychological predictors. Therefore, we examined the prognostic value of Type D personality (tendency to experience negative feelings and inhibit self-expression) in CHF patients....

  19. The Relationship between Iranian EFL Advanced Learners' Personality Types, Motivation and Language Learning Success

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Ebrahimi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Affective factors are the most important factors in SLA and EFL studies. These factors include motivation, self-confidence, anxiety, etc. Researches on learners’ characteristics have been investigated for over a century. In the same vein, the present research, strived at exploring Iranian’s EFL learners personality types and motivation. In the article, the personality types and motivation of students were examined using Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI and motivation questionnaire of Laine. For this purpose, 60 EFL students from one of the language institutions Mashhad (located in Iran were chosen as  the participants of this study. Through two instruments and considering the participants’ previous semester scores, the data were gathered and analyzed by means of SPSS software. The correctional analyses revealed a significant relationship among motivation, personality and students’ success. Multiple regression analysis was also conducted to examine the strength of the relationship among the variables. Among the affective factors, personality type was found to be the best predictor of students’ success. The study provides some pedagogical implications and suggestions for future research.

  20. Personality, birth order and attachment styles as related to various types of jealousy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buunk, Abraham (Bram)

    1997-01-01

    The relationships between jealousy, personality, attachment styles and birth order were examined in a sample of 100 Dutch men and 100 Dutch women. Three types of jealousy were examined: reactive jealousy (a negative response to the emotional or sexual involvement of the partner with someone else),

  1. Association between Cognitive Distortion, Type D Personality, Family Environment, and Depression in Chinese Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Depression prevalence and risk increase among adolescents are related to biological, psychosocial, and cultural factors. Little is known about the association between cognitive distortion, type D personality, family environment, and depression. The aim of this paper was to examine the relationships of cognitive distortion, type D personality, family environment, and depression in a sample of Chinese adolescents. Methods. A sample of Chinese adolescents with depression and the controls were investigated cross-sectionally with life orientation test-revised (LOT-R, type D personality Scale-14 (DS14, family environment scale (FES, and Zung self-depression scale (SDS; respectively, all scales were administered in Chinese. Results. Chinese-depressed adolescents showed more cognitive distortion, type D personality, and adverse family environment than control groups. Furthermore, lower level of Optimism, negative affectivity, and poor family cohesion may increase the risk of depression in Chinese adolescents. Conclusions. Our study indicates that lower level of Optimism, Negative Affectivity, and poor Family Cohesion factors were implicated to contribute to depression in Chinese adolescents. Lower level of optimism and negative affectivity may be crucial associated factors of depression among these samples. our findings pointed to the importance of broad screening and intervention of vulnerable population.

  2. Exercise practices among persons with Type-I diabetes in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study examined the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices among 200 persons with type-1 diabetes mellitus who have completed outpatient counseling. The results indicated that providing education and support for exercise will over-come barriers to exercise and may increase compliance of exercise to ...

  3. 259 “Team Pair Solo” Cooperative Learning and Personality Type ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    learning strategy and students' personality type on achievement and attitude to Chemistry. 175 SS2 ... There is increasing concern among practitioners and educational researchers about the .... Teachers' role in a cooperative learning classroom involves a careful design of meaningful ..... Classroom Management. Harry K.

  4. The Role of Personality in Stress Perception across Different Vocational Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksvik, Ingvild Berg; Hetland, Hilde

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between personality (measured by the subscales of the NEO Five-Factor Inventory [NEO-FFI]; Costa & McCrae, 1992) and stress (measured by the Overall Job Satisfaction scale [Warr, Cook, & Wall, 1979], and Cooper's Job Stress Scale [Cooper, 1981]) across different vocational types as…

  5. Adults Living with Type 2 Diabetes: Kept Personal Health Information Items as Expressions of Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetstone, Melinda

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated personal information behavior and information needs that 21 adults managing life with Type 2 diabetes identify explicitly and implicitly during discussions of item acquisition and use of health information items that are kept in their homes. Research drew upon a naturalistic lens, in that semi-structured interviews were…

  6. The Importance of Soft Skills and it Project Managers’ Personality Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cíntia Araújo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Information technology (IT is a strategic element in business as it is fundamental to create value to organizations. To be efficient, project managers need to develop other competencies besides their technical skills (“hard skills”. This paper aims to show the importance of soft skills in the development of IT project managers’ competencies by answering the following questions (1 “which is the impact of “soft skills” on IT projects management?” and (2 “the personality type of the project manager can influence the development of his/her soft skills?”. To answer these questions, we conducted an exploratory and qualitative research. To collect data, we interviewed IT project managers and applied the MBTI test to identify their personality type. As we crossed the results of MBTI tests and content of the interviews, we noticed that some professionals have a personality type that might hinder them from developing some soft skills. Another important finding is that leadership and communication are the most important soft skills in project management according to IT project managers.  This research contributes to the academia as it indicates opportunities for further studies on the relationship of personality type and competence development. A managerial implication of research results is that managers and leaders can use personality tests such as MBTI to prevent relationship conflicts in teams as well as to design training programs that best suit their subordinates’ personality traits.

  7. Advances in functional brain imaging technology and developmental neuro-psychology: their applications in the Jungian analytic domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petchkovsky, Leon

    2017-06-01

    Analytical psychology shares with many other psychotherapies the important task of repairing the consequences of developmental trauma. The majority of analytic patients come from compromised early developmental backgrounds: they may have experienced neglect, abuse, or failures of empathic resonance from their carers. Functional brain imagery techniques including Quantitative Electroencephalogram (QEEG), and functional Magnetic Resonance Imagery (fMRI), allow us to track mental processes in ways beyond verbal reportage and introspection. This independent perspective is useful for developing new psychodynamic hypotheses, testing current ones, providing diagnostic markers, and monitoring treatment progress. Jung, with the Word Association Test, grasped these principles 100 years ago. Brain imaging techniques have contributed to powerful recent advances in our understanding of neurodevelopmental processes in the first three years of life. If adequate nurturance is compromised, a range of difficulties may emerge. This has important implications for how we understand and treat our psychotherapy clients. The paper provides an overview of functional brain imaging and advances in developmental neuropsychology, and looks at applications of some of these findings (including neurofeedback) in the Jungian psychotherapy domain. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  8. Type D personality is associated with social anxiety in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Nina; Denollet, Johan

    2014-06-01

    Research on the emotional processes associated with Type D personality is important for its further conceptualization. We examined the associations of Type D personality with social and general anxiety symptoms in a large community sample. The aim of the current study was to disentangle the associations of Type D personality and its components with social anxiety and general anxiety in a large sample from the general population. A random sample of 2,475 adults from the general population filled out questionnaires to assess Type D personality (DS-14), social anxiety (SIAS(10), SPS(11), BFNE-II), and general anxiety (HADS-A, GAD-7). Type D individuals were characterized by increased levels of both social and general anxiety. The social inhibition (SI) component of Type D personality was most strongly associated with social interaction anxiety (r = .63), while negative affectivity (NA) was strongly associated with general anxiety (GAD-7: r = .70; HADS-A: r = .66). Within social anxiety, SI was more strongly associated with facets of social interaction anxiety than with social phobia. Multiple regression analysis showed that the synergistic interaction of NA and SI was a predictor of social anxiety (SIAS(10): β = .32, p < .0005; SPS(11): β = .27, p < .0005; BFNE-II: β = .11, p = .007) independent of demographics and the scores on the individual Type D components. This interaction was not a significant predictor of general anxiety. Logistic regression using the dichotomous Type D classification demonstrated a 9.1-fold (95%CI, 7.0-11.8) increased odds of a score in the highest quartile of social interaction anxiety and a 7.6-fold (95%CI, 5.8-9.8) increased odds of high social phobia. Odds ratios for clinically relevant levels of general anxiety were 8.3 (95%CI, 5.5-12.5) for GAD-7 and 6.5 (95%CI, 3.4-12.6) for HADS-A. In the general population, Type D individuals were characterized by both social and general anxiety. The SI component of Type D is strongly associated

  9. Personality assessment of patients with complex regional pain syndrome type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, D A; Herring, C L; Schwartzman, R J; Marchese, M

    1998-12-01

    There is controversy regarding the importance of psychological/psychiatric factors in the development of the Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). Our objective was to determine whether CRPS type I patients were psychiatrically different from other chronic pain patients, with particular attention to personality pathology. A standardized clinical assessment of all major psychiatric categories, including personality disorders, was performed on 25 CRPS type I patients and a control group of 25 patients with chronic low back pain from disc-related radiculopathy. Both sections of the Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (3rd ed., rev.) and the visual analog scale. Both groups were similar in terms of pain intensity and duration. Statistical analysis showed both groups to have a significant amount of major psychiatric comorbidity, in particular major depressive disorder, and a high incidence of personality disorders. Therefore, intense chronic pain was associated with significant psychiatric comorbidity in both groups and in similar proportions. The high incidence of personality pathology in both groups may represent an exaggeration of maladaptive personality traits and coping styles as a result of a chronic, intense, state of pain.

  10. Validating the Type D personality construct in Chinese patients with coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Doris S F; Thompson, David R; Yu, Cheuk Man; Pedersen, Susanne S; Denollet, Johan

    2010-08-01

    Type D personality predicts poor prognosis in coronary heart disease (CHD) but little is known about Type D in non-Western cultures. We examined the (a) validity of the Type D construct and its assessment with the DS14 scale in the Chinese culture, (b) prevalence of Type D, and (c) gender vs. Type D discrepancies in depression/anxiety, among Chinese patients with CHD. Patients with CHD (N=326) completed the Chinese version of the DS14. The NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Stress Symptom Checklist (SSC) were administered to subsamples to establish construct and discriminant validity. Administration of the DS14, HADS, and SSC was repeated at 1 month after hospital discharge in 66 patients, and stability of the DS14 was examined in another subsample of 100 patients. The theoretical structure of the Type D construct in the Chinese culture was supported (chi(2)/df=2.89, root mean square error of approximation=0.08, normal fit index=0.91, non-normal fit index=0.91, comparative fit index=0.93). The Negative Affectivity (NA) and Social Inhibition (SI) subscales of the DS14 in the entire sample were internally consistent (Cronbach's alpha=0.89/0.81), measured stable traits (3-month test-retest ICC=0.76/0.74), and correlated significantly with the neuroticism (NA/neuroticism, r=0.78, Ppersonality was 31%. Type D was not related to transient emotional states. However, Chinese patients with a Type D personality were at increased concurrent risk of anxiety (P=.002) and depression (P=.016). Type D personality is a cross-culturally valid construct, is associated with an increased risk of anxiety and depression, and deserves prompt attention in estimating the prognostic risk of Chinese CHD patients. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The link between personality type and the risk of occupational electrical injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howe, Gavan

    2011-09-15

    Personality type has a very important impact on many occupations and on day-to-day life. A 2006 survey found that over 80% of all electricians have an extrovert profile which is related to risk-bearing (agreeableness) and risk-taking. Non-critical, occupational electrical and powerline accidents doubled from 1998 to 2006. Other trade workers (not electricians) suffer 80% of all occupational deaths due to electrical contact. And young, single, male, extroverted, electrical apprentices are the most vulnerable workers when around electricity. Electricians are vulnerable to electrical accidents. They lack in-depth, day-to-day, supervised training around electricity. By researching the link between personality type and the risk of occupational electrical injury, we can determine which types of workers' profile we need on the job site. Training, education, communications and rehabilitation plans can be modified to safeguard workers' safety.

  12. Personality traits and types predict medical school stress: a six-year longitudinal and nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyssen, Reidar; Dolatowski, Filip C; Røvik, Jan Ole; Thorkildsen, Ruth F; Ekeberg, Oivind; Hem, Erlend; Gude, Tore; Grønvold, Nina T; Vaglum, Per

    2007-08-01

    Personality types (combinations of traits) that take into account the interplay between traits give a more detailed picture of an individual's character than do single traits. This study examines whether both personality types and traits predict stress during medical school training. We surveyed Norwegian medical students (n = 421) 1 month after they began medical school (T1), at the mid-point of undergraduate Year 3 (T2), and at the end of undergraduate Year 6 (T3). A total of 236 medical students (56%) responded at all time-points. They were categorised according to Torgersen's personality typology by their combination of high and low scores on the 'Big Three' personality traits of extroversion, neuroticism and conscientiousness. We studied the effects of both personality types (spectator, insecure, sceptic, brooder, hedonist, impulsive, entrepreneur and complicated) and traits on stress during medical school. There was a higher level of stress among female students. The traits of neuroticism (P = 0.002) and conscientiousness (P = 0.03) were independent predictors of stress, whereas female gender was absorbed by neuroticism in the multivariate model. When controlled for age and gender, 'brooders' (low extroversion, high neuroticism, high conscientiousness) were at risk of experiencing more stress (P = 0.02), whereas 'hedonists' (high extroversion, low neuroticism, low conscientiousness) were more protected against stress (P = 0.001). This is the first study to show that a specific combination of personality traits can predict medical school stress. The combination of high neuroticism and high conscientiousness is considered to be particularly high risk.

  13. Type D Personality Predicts Poor Medication Adherence in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Six-Month Follow-Up Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Li

    Full Text Available Type D personality and medication nonadherence have been shown to be associated with poor health outcomes. Type D personality is associated with poor medication adherence in patients with coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. However, the relationship between type D personality and medication adherence in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM remains unknown. This study aims to examine whether type D personality was associated with medication adherence in patients with T2DM.A follow-up study was conducted in general hospital of the People's Liberation Army in Beijing.412 T2DM patients (205 females, who were recruited by circular systematic random sampling, provided demographic and baseline data about medical information and completed measures of Type D personality. Then, 330 patients went on to complete a self-report measure of medication adherence at the sixth month after baseline data collection. Chi-square test, t tests, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were conducted, as needed.Patients with type D personality were significantly more likely to have poor medication adherence (p<0.001. Type D personality predicts poor medication adherence before and after controlling for covariates when it was analyzed as a categorical variable. However, the dimensional construct of type D personality was not associated with medication adherence when analyzed as a continuous variable.Although, as a dimensional construct, type D personality may not reflect the components of the personality associated with poor medication adherence in patients with T2DM, screening for type D personality may help to identify those who are at higher risk of poor medication adherence. Interventions, aiming to improve medication adherence, should be launched for these high-risk patients.

  14. The relationship between personality types and leisure time activities amongst Casino employees’ workplace expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Naude

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Associations between a person’s character strengths, happiness and well-being can be explained with the overlap that they have with personality. Casino employees’ working hours were and are increasing, which means that their leisure time is decreasing concomitantly, with only 20 hours per week being used in pursuit of leisure activities. Research purpose: The primary purpose of this research was to investigate 1502 casino employees’ personality types and the relationship it has on their leisure life and overall happiness. Motivation for the study: The importance of leisure participation and time to take part in leisure activities, and the effect it has on casino employees’ happiness in the workplace, warrants further investigation. If human resources managers and general management want happier casino employees in the workplace, they should focus on their personality types and make more leisure activities available to them; which will result in a happier workforce. Research design, approach and method: The target population consisted of 3032 casino employees, who received the questionnaires and were given the opportunity to complete the questionnaires anonymously. An availability sampling technique was used, based on the number of casino employees who were willing and available to complete the questionnaires. Main findings and practical/managerial implications: In terms of the structural equation modelling, it was found that the positive personalities such as extraversion and openness to experience correlated well with leisure life and happiness. In this study, the standardised regression weights showed that if an individual has a negative personality, he or she will not necessarily be unhappy. A positive relationship was found between positive personality traits such as cooperativeness and agreeableness and leisure life and happiness. Considering mediation effects, leisure preference was the greatest partial mediator

  15. The distressed (Type D) personality factor of social inhibition, but not negative affectivity, enhances eyeblink conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M T; Handy, J D; Blankenship, M R; Servatius, R J

    2018-06-01

    Recent work has focused on a learning diathesis model in which specific personality factors such as behavioral inhibition (BI) may influence associative learning and in turn increase risk for the development of anxiety disorders. We have found in a series of studies that individuals self-reporting high levels of BI exhibit enhanced acquisition of conditioned eyeblinks. In the study reported here, hypotheses were extended to include distressed (Type D) personality which has been found to be related to BI. Type D personality is measured with the DS-14 scale which includes two subscales measuring negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI). We hypothesized that SI, which is similar to BI, would result in enhanced acquisition while the effect of NA is unclear. Eighty nine participants completed personality inventories including the Adult Measure of Behavioral Inhibition (AMBI) and DS-14. All participants received 60 acquisition trials with a 500 ms, 1000 Hz, tone CS and a co-terminating 50 ms, 5 psi corneal airpuff US. Participants received either 100% CS-US paired trials or a schedule of partial reinforcement where 50% US alone trials were intermixed into CS-US training. Acquisition of CRs did not differ between the two training protocols. Whereas BI was significantly related to Type D, SI, and NA, only BI and SI individuals exhibited enhanced acquisition of conditioned eyeblinks as compared to non-inhibited individuals. Personality factors now including social inhibition can be used to identify individuals who express enhanced associative learning which lends further support to a learning diathesis model of anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The relationship between disease activity, quality of life, and personality types in rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donisan, T; Bojincă, V C; Dobrin, M A; Bălănescu, D V; Predețeanu, D; Bojincă, M; Berghea, F; Opriș, D; Groșeanu, L; Borangiu, A; Constantinescu, C L; Ionescu, R; Bălănescu, A R

    2017-07-01

    We hypothesized that clinical outcomes might be influenced by personality type (A, B, C, D) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). One hundred ninety-four patients (104 with RA, 90 with AS) participated in a questionnaire study. We evaluated health-related quality of life (HRQoL) using the Medical Outcome Study Short-Form 36 (SF-36), personality type A/B with the Jenkins Activity Survey, type C with the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory Anger-in Scale, type D with the Type D Personality Scale, and disease activity with Disease Activity Score with 28 joints for RA and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index for AS. We used Pearson's correlation coefficient, independent samples t tests, and multivariate analyses of variance. In the RA group, type D personality was significantly correlated with 7/12 SF-36 components. AS patients with type D personality had deficits in all SF-36 subscales. Type D was related with higher disease activity in RA and AS. Both RA and AS type C patients had more active disease forms and negatively affected HRQoL subscales. In the RA group, type A personality did not correlate with HRQoL, but it positively influenced pain visual analog scale scores. In AS patients, type A personality was linked with higher HRQoL and with less active disease. Type C and type D personality types were correlated with decreased HRQoL and higher disease activity in RA and AS patients. Type A personality was associated with less active disease and higher HRQoL in AS patients and with less pain in RA patients.

  17. Personalized management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: reflections from a Diabetes Care Editors' Expert Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Itamar; Riddle, Matthew C; Rosenstock, Julio; Buse, John B; Inzucchi, Silvio E; Home, Philip D; Del Prato, Stefano; Ferrannini, Ele; Chan, Juliana C N; Leiter, Lawrence A; Leroith, Derek; Defronzo, Ralph; Cefalu, William T

    2013-06-01

    In June 2012, 13 thought leaders convened in a Diabetes Care Editors' Expert Forum to discuss the concept of personalized medicine in the wake of a recently published American Diabetes Association/European Association for the Study of Diabetes position statement calling for a patient-centered approach to hyperglycemia management in type 2 diabetes. This article, an outgrowth of that forum, offers a clinical translation of the underlying issues that need to be considered for effectively personalizing diabetes care. The medical management of type 2 diabetes has become increasingly complex, and its complications remain a great burden to individual patients and the larger society. The burgeoning armamentarium of pharmacological agents for hyperglycemia management should aid clinicians in providing early treatment to delay or prevent these complications. However, trial evidence is limited for the optimal use of these agents, especially in dual or triple combinations. In the distant future, genotyping and testing for metabolomic markers may help us to better phenotype patients and predict their responses to antihyperglycemic drugs. For now, a personalized ("n of 1") approach in which drugs are tested in a trial-and-error manner in each patient may be the most practical strategy for achieving therapeutic targets. Patient-centered care and standardized algorithmic management are conflicting approaches, but they can be made more compatible by recognizing instances in which personalized A1C targets are warranted and clinical circumstances that may call for comanagement by primary care and specialty clinicians.

  18. From Nutty Professor to Buddy Love--Personality types in modern science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, Bruce G

    2007-01-01

    People often suggest that scientists should have a specific personality type, usually conscientious and self-critical. But this is a mistake. Science as a social system needs to be conscientious and self-critical, but scientists as people do not necessarily have to conform to that stereotype. Since science works by a process of selection, it makes sense to have a wide range of personalities in science. It takes all types. However, the selection pressures within science have changed over recent decades. In the past, a successful scientist often resembled the white-coated, bespectacled and introverted Nutty Professor in Jerry Lewis's movie of that name. But the modern science superstar is more like the Nutty Professor's alter ego, nightclub singer 'Buddy Love': a sharp-suited, good-looking and charismatic charmer. While Nutty was dull but impartial, Buddy is compelling but self-seeking. Our attitude towards public scientific pronouncements should be adjusted accordingly.

  19. THE EFFECT OF TYPE A PERSONALITY ON AUDITOR BURNOUT: EVIDENCE FROM INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Intiyas Utami; Ertambang Nahartyo

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the moderating effect of type A personality on the influence of role stressors (role conflict, role overload, and role ambiguity) on burnout. Most burnout research has focused on various environmental factors, while individual differences also play an important role in the development of burnout (Maslach et al., 2001). Participants of this study are 58 auditors (junior, senior and manager) who work at public accounting firms in Yogyakarta, Semarang, Jakarta and Palembang. ...

  20. Early development influences ontogeny of personality types in young laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rödel, Heiko G; Meyer, Susann

    2011-09-01

    Features of an individual's early development are frequently reported to alter the postnatal ontogeny in litter-bearing mammals with respect to various physiological parameters. We hypothesized that such effects might also apply to the ontogeny of personality types. On the one hand, litter size effects by means of more contacts with littermates, might lead to the development of more offensive types. On the other hand, smaller and less developed young from larger litters might be less offensive due to their lower physical capabilities to deal with challenging situations. We studied these contrasting hypotheses in young rats, which we tested in a battery of emotionality tests. There were clear indications for the existence of distinct behavioral types by means of consistencies in behavioral responses within and across contexts. Based on these responses, we calculated three new variables by PCA, which we interpreted to mainly reflect boldness, exploration, and anxiety. Overall, our results strongly suggest that the early development alters the ontogeny of personality types, with heavier individuals being bolder and more explorative. Furthermore, body mass and litter size influenced the changes in the behavioral responses in successive tests, further supporting the importance of the litter size-dependent body mass for the ontogeny of personalities. Anxiety also depended on litter size, however, in a nonlinear way. Animals born to litters of small or large sizes had higher scores, whereas individuals from medium-sized litters were less anxious. This optimum curve indicates that opposing effects of litter size are involved in shaping personalities in young rats. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A Type A and Type D Combined Personality Typology in Essential Hypertension and Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: Associations with Demographic, Psychological, Clinical, and Lifestyle Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steca, Patrizia; D’Addario, Marco; Magrin, Maria Elena; Miglioretti, Massimo; Monzani, Dario; Pancani, Luca; Sarini, Marcello; Scrignaro, Marta; Vecchio, Luca; Fattirolli, Francesco; Giannattasio, Cristina; Cesana, Francesca; Riccobono, Salvatore Pio

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have focused on Type A and Type D personality types in the context of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), but nothing is known about how these personality types combine to create new profiles. The present study aimed to develop a typology of Type A and Type D personality in two groups of patients affected by and at risk for coronary disease. The study involved 711 patients: 51.6% with acute coronary syndrome, 48.4% with essential hypertension (mean age = 56.4 years; SD = 9.7 years; 70.7% men). Cluster analysis was applied. External variables, such as socio-demographic, psychological, lifestyle, and clinical parameters, were assessed. Six groups, each with its own unique combined personality profile scores, were identified: Type D, Type A-Negatively Affected, Not Type A-Negatively Affected, Socially Inhibited-Positively Affected, Not Socially Inhibited, and Not Type A-Not Type D. The Type A-Negatively Affected cluster and, to a lesser extent, the Type D cluster, displayed the worst profile: namely higher total cardiovascular risk index, physical inactivity, higher anxiety and depression, and lower self-esteem, optimism, and health status. Identifying combined personality profiles is important in clinical research and practice in cardiovascular diseases. Practical implications are discussed. PMID:27589065

  2. A Type A and Type D Combined Personality Typology in Essential Hypertension and Acute Coronary Syndrome Patients: Associations with Demographic, Psychological, Clinical, and Lifestyle Indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Steca

    Full Text Available Many studies have focused on Type A and Type D personality types in the context of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs, but nothing is known about how these personality types combine to create new profiles. The present study aimed to develop a typology of Type A and Type D personality in two groups of patients affected by and at risk for coronary disease. The study involved 711 patients: 51.6% with acute coronary syndrome, 48.4% with essential hypertension (mean age = 56.4 years; SD = 9.7 years; 70.7% men. Cluster analysis was applied. External variables, such as socio-demographic, psychological, lifestyle, and clinical parameters, were assessed. Six groups, each with its own unique combined personality profile scores, were identified: Type D, Type A-Negatively Affected, Not Type A-Negatively Affected, Socially Inhibited-Positively Affected, Not Socially Inhibited, and Not Type A-Not Type D. The Type A-Negatively Affected cluster and, to a lesser extent, the Type D cluster, displayed the worst profile: namely higher total cardiovascular risk index, physical inactivity, higher anxiety and depression, and lower self-esteem, optimism, and health status. Identifying combined personality profiles is important in clinical research and practice in cardiovascular diseases. Practical implications are discussed.

  3. Preliminary evidence for the cross-cultural utility of the type D personality construct in the Ukraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Yagensky, Andriy; Smith, Otto R F

    2009-01-01

    Type D personality is a risk indicator in cardiac patients. The validity and reliability of the Type D Scale (DS14) have been confirmed in Western Europe but not outside this context.......Type D personality is a risk indicator in cardiac patients. The validity and reliability of the Type D Scale (DS14) have been confirmed in Western Europe but not outside this context....

  4. The effect of personality type and musical task on self-perceived arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hayoung A

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to measure the level of arousal influenced by 4 different musical experiences classified by task difficulty and to examine the relationship between music-induced arousal level and personality type. Participants included 32 university students who were neither musicians nor music majors. The Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1975) was used to identify participants as either extravert or introvert. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 types of musical tasks: listening, singing, rhythm tapping, or keyboard playing. Arousal level was measured using the Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List (ADACL) (Thayer, 1978) before and after the musical task. The ADACL is a self-report scale consisting of a list of 20 adjectives which describe various transitory arousal states, including energy, tiredness, tension, and calmness. Results showed no significant difference between personality types and the changes in arousal level. Result indicated a significant effect of listening on decreased tension arousal. Singing and rhythm tapping, which are regarded as having a relatively moderate task difficulty, increased energy arousal significantly and decreased tiredness arousal significantly. Participants' tiredness arousal levels also decreased significantly after keyboard playing. These findings suggest that engaging in musical experience that has a moderate level of task difficulty makes individuals more energetic and less tired.

  5. Types of phone usage: Age differences between younger and older persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Nicoleta Vulpe

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available I Even if more and more people use mobile phones, the gap between younger and older age groups persists and its importance is timely and widened given the present ageing and digital inequality phenomena. How wide is the difference on types of phone usage between different age groups? For answering this research question, we employ binary logistic regressions on several types of phone usage keeping into account age and controlling for region, education, income and whether respondents use a feature phone or a smartphone. The analysed data come from the Spring Change Assessment Survey 2010 provided by the Pew Research Center and it is representative for the United States of America. Our results show that, net of the all the variables included in the model, older persons are less likely than younger persons to use such phone functions, but the strength of association is low. Education and income are relevant for these functions. Using a smartphone in comparison with using a feature phone is important in all the situations included, as well as income. Considering models only for older persons, over 65 years of age, college and income are less relevant. Using a smartphone is more likely than using a feature phone to encourage all types of phone usage, independently of age.

  6. P A Jungian Approach to Self-fragmentation of Twentieth Century in Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty Four

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhdeh Alizadeh Shirazi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The problematic life of modern human has always been a significant issue for many areas of study. In reaction to the absence of romantic values and the unity of the pre-modern world, Human being was afflicted with a sense of inner crises which is referred to as self-fragmentation. Fragmentation is one of the significant features of twentieth century when a mode of anxiety subjugated both art and society. In such an atmosphere many writers of the modern century attempted to reflect in their works of literature, what they had experienced in the real world. Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty Four is one of the popular novels of Modern Era that describes a modern but fragmented society wherein the modern human’s lack of self-integration is perceptible. By representing how the protagonists respond to the voices of their psyches through characterization and dreams, which is also of crucial significance in Jung’s Analytical Psychology, Orwell explores the roots of modern human’s urge for achieving a cohesive sense of self. Accordingly, this study, attempts to illustrate how modern human steps in the path of individuation and to what extent these efforts meet with success, if any. To achieve this goal, some terms and notions of Jungian Criticism such as archetypes and the process of individuation will be borrowed, and a particular focus will be held on dreams occurring in the course of the story. In addition, this paper would like to argue that the dystopian society portrayed in these novels is the offspring of a mere rationalism which prevents human from knowing the opposing forces working within as well as the forces functioning from without.

  7. Effect of disease duration on personality type in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar Vesal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis may have profound emotional consequences. The relation between psychological and physical factors could lead patients toward unforeseen disease. This study focuses on multiple sclerosis (MS disease duration on personality type A and B in relation to individuals' behaviors. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted in Isfahan Alzahra hospital in 2013. Three hundred MS patients and 100 healthy individuals were determined. The distributed questionnaires related to MS patients and considering the descriptive statistics such as demographic variables. Data were analyzed by SPSS software (version 18 based on Chi-square test and independent T-test. Results: Disease duration varied between 1 to 38 years: 30% (1-4 years, 38% (5-10 years, 20% (10-20 years, and 12% (more than 20 years. Significant relationship was observed between disease duration and tendency to type A (higher stress. This relation was positive and significant in Relapsing Remitting MS patients; but negative correlation was seen in Secondary Progressive MS patients. These patients tended to type B (lower stress when disease duration increased. Conclusions: Individuals with disease duration of one year and less than one year tend to type A personality, while patients with increment of disease duration have tendency to type B.

  8. Personality Type and Student Performance in Upper-Level Economics Courses: The Importance of Race and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Mary O.; Stranahan, Harriet A.

    2002-01-01

    Demonstrates that personality type is an important explanatory variable in student performance in upper level economics courses. Finds that certain personality types, combined with race and gender effects, produce students who outperform other students. Introverts and those with the Keirsey-Bates temperament combination of sensing/judging…

  9. Type D personality and depressive symptoms are independent predictors of impaired health status in chronic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Angélique A; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Widdershoven, Jos W

    2008-01-01

    To examine whether Type D personality exerts a stable, independent effect on health status in CHF over time, adjusted for depressive symptoms.......To examine whether Type D personality exerts a stable, independent effect on health status in CHF over time, adjusted for depressive symptoms....

  10. 25 CFR 1000.463 - What types of personal conflicts of interest involving tribal officers, employees or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of personal conflicts of interest involving...-DETERMINATION AND EDUCATION ACT Conflicts of Interest § 1000.463 What types of personal conflicts of interest... financial or employment interest that conflicts with that of the trust beneficiary, whether the tribe...

  11. Type D personality, suboptimal health behaviors and emotional distress in adults with diabetes : Results from Diabetes MILES–The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nefs, G.M.; Speight, J.; Pouwer, F.; Pop, V.J.M.; Bot, M.; Denollet, J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Type D personality – defined as high negative affectivity (NA) and high social inhibition (SI) – has been associated with adverse cardiovascular prognosis. We explored the differential associations of Type D personality and its constituent components with health behaviors, emotional distress

  12. Does Personality Have a Different Impact on Self-Rated Distraction, Job Satisfaction, and Job Performance in Different Office Types?

    OpenAIRE

    Seddigh, Aram; Berntson, Erik; Platts, Loretta G.; Westerlund, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the joint effect of office type (cell, shared room, open-plan, and flex) and personality, measured by the Big Five personality traits, on self-rated measures of distraction, job satisfaction, and job performance (measured by professional efficacy). Regression analyses with interactions between personality and office type were conducted on 1205 participants working in 5 organizations from both the private and public sectors. While few interactions were observed in the c...

  13. The Relationship between Personality Types and Self-Regulated Learning Strategies of Language Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Ghyasi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationship between personality traits, as measured by the NEO Five Factor Inventory, and different learning strategies, measured by the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ, that foreign language student may employ to help them learn the language.  A sample of 231 undergraduate students of English in Iran was administered the Inventory and the MSLQ.  This study is the first to connect learners’ personality traits with general learning strategies, which can be specifically applied to foreign language learning.  Analyzing the data using multiple regressions, the authors found that personality type was able to predict the tendency to use different learning strategies.  Specifically, students who scored high on “conscientiousness” were more likely to use all strategies, particularly managing time and study environment.  Students high on extraversion were more likely to use peer learning and help seeking strategies.  The authors conclude that language teachers could benefit from assessing their students’ personalities and matching strategies to their students’ tendencies.

  14. Health, work, social trust, and financial situation in persons with Usher syndrome type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, Mattias; Wahlqvist, Moa; Danermark, Berth; Dahlström, Örjan; Möller, Claes

    2018-05-28

    Research has demonstrated that persons with Usher syndrome type 1 (USH1) have significantly poorer physical and psychological health compared to a reference group. To explore the relation between work, health, social trust, and financial situation in USH1 compared to a reference group. Sixty-six persons (18-65 y) from the Swedish Usher database received a questionnaire and 47 were included, 23 working and 24 non-working. The reference group comprised 3,049 working and 198 non-working persons. The Swedish Health on Equal Terms questionnaire was used and statistical analysis with multiple logistic regression was conducted. The USH1 non-work group had a higher Odds ratio (95% CI) in poor psychological and physical health, social trust, and financial situation compared to the USH1 work group and reference groups. Age, gender, hearing, and vision impairment did not explain the differences. The relation between the USH1 work and non-work groups showed the same pattern as the reference groups, but the magnitude of problems was significantly higher. Both disability and unemployment increased the risk of poor health, social trust and financial situation in persons with USH1, but having an employment seemed to counteract the risks related to disability.

  15. Personalized therapy algorithms for type 2 diabetes: a phenotype-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceriello A

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Antonio Ceriello,1,2 Marco Gallo,3 Riccardo Candido,4 Alberto De Micheli,5 Katherine Esposito,6 Sandro Gentile,6 Gerardo Medea71Department of Endocrinology, Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Institut d’Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi iSunyer, 2Centro de Investigacion Biomèdica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabolicas Asociadas, Barcelona, Spain; 3Oncological Endocrinology, AOU Città della Salute e della Scienza-Molinette, Turin, 4Diabetes Center, ASS 1 Triestina, Trieste, 5Ligurian Health Agency, Genoa, 6Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Naples, 7Italian College of General Practitioners, Florence, ItalyAbstract: Type 2 diabetes is a progressive disease with a complex and multifactorial pathophysiology. Patients with type 2 diabetes show a variety of clinical features, including different "phenotypes" of hyperglycemia (eg, fasting/preprandial or postprandial. Thus, the best treatment choice is sometimes difficult to make, and treatment initiation or optimization is postponed. This situation may explain why, despite the existing complex therapeutic armamentarium and guidelines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, a significant proportion of patients do not have good metabolic control and at risk of developing the late complications of diabetes. The Italian Association of Medical Diabetologists has developed an innovative personalized algorithm for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, which is available online. According to the main features shown by the patient, six algorithms are proposed, according to glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, ≥9% or ≤9%, body mass index (≤30 kg/m2 or ≥30 kg/m2, occupational risk potentially related to hypoglycemia, chronic renal failure, and frail elderly status. Through self-monitoring of blood glucose, patients are phenotyped according to the occurrence of fasting/preprandial or postprandial hyperglycemia. In each of these six algorithms, the gradual choice of

  16. Type II diabetes and personality; a study to explore other psychosomatic aspects of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeilinasab, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Mehdi; Mokarrar, Mohsen Heidari; Rahmati, Leila; Mahjouri, Mohammad Yoosef; Arzaghi, Seyed Masoud

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most common chronic diseases, diabetes and its control are affected by the patients' psychological and spiritual attributes. The present study investigates the relationship between glycemic control in patients with type II diabetes and personality traits, defense mechanisms and spirituality. The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 Iranian patients with type II diabetes, 64% were men. Participants completed the NEO Personality Inventory, the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) and the Spiritual Assessment Inventory (SAI) and then underwent a blood sampling for the assessment of HbA1C levels. Of the five personality traits, extraversion ( r =  -0.13 and P impression management had significant relationship with glycemic control ( r =  0.17 and P <  0.001). According to data, Extraversion and conscientiousness can help control blood sugar while anxiety and negative emotions have detrimental effects on glycemic control. As a result considering psychological counselling beside medical interventions can help to better treatment.

  17. Student’s Critical Thinking in Solving Open-Ended Problems Based on Their Personality Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitriana, L. D.; Fuad, Y.; Ekawati, R.

    2018-01-01

    Critical thinking plays an important role for students in solving open-ended problems. This research aims at describing student’s critical thinking in solving open-ended problems based on Keirsey’s personality types, namely rational, idealist, guardian, and artisan. Four students, with the higher rank in the mathematics’ test and representing each type of Keirsey personality, were selected as the research subjects. The data were collected from the geometry problem and interviews. The student’s critical thinking is described based on the FRISCO criteria. The result underlines that rational and idealist students fulfilled all FRISCO criteria, and but not for guardian and artisan students. Related to the inference criteria, guardian and artisan students could not make reasonable conclusions and connect the concepts. Related to the reason of criteria, rational student performed critical thinking by providing logical reason that supported his strategy to solve the problem. In contrast, the idealist student provided subjective reason. This results suggest that teachers should frequently train the students’ logical thinkingin every lesson and activity to develop student’s critical thinking and take the student’s personality character into account, especially for guardian and artisan students.

  18. Experience of dietary advice among Pakistani-born persons with type 2 diabetes in Oslo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagerli, Rønnaug Aa; Lien, Marianne E; Wandel, Margareta

    2005-12-01

    Experience and implementation of dietary advice are influenced by various factors including ethnic, cultural and religious background. The aim is to explore how ethnic minority persons with diabetes experience dietary advice given by Norwegian health-workers, which strategies they have in response to the advice and how they explain their actions. In-depth interviews were performed with 15 Pakistani-born persons with type 2 diabetes living in Oslo. The analyses are based on the principles of Giorgi's interpretation of phenomenology. The participants expressed great concern to follow the advice. However, narratives about constraints were numerous. These concerned different life-situational factors, but more importantly they were related to communication problems arising from discontinuities between universalising medical knowledge and lay knowledge, as well as between different types of culturally defined lay knowledge. As a consequence, advice was generally experienced as inadequately based on the participant's food-cultural background, leaving the person with diabetes to do the translation between different levels of knowledge. In general health-workers would benefit from expanding their knowledge of the many positive aspects of their patients' cultural background, and apply their knowledge thereafter, whether it concerns (food)-culture or the impact of religion in everyday life.

  19. The Relationship between Personality Disorders and the Type of Crime Committed and Substance Used among Prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhrzadegan, Shahin; Gholami-Doon, Hossein; Shamloo, Bagher; Shokouhi-Moqhaddam, Solmaz

    2017-04-01

    Prisoners are a vulnerable group within societies, and also threaten society due to their dangerous behavior. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between prisoners' personality disorders and their crime and substance use. This was a descriptive-correlational study. The statistical population consisted of all prisoners of Kerman, Iran. Through stratified random sampling, 228 prisoners (114 women and 114 men) were selected as the study subjects. Data were collected through clinical interviews by a psychiatrist [structured interviews based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-4 th Edition (DSM-IV)], a social worker, and a physician and using a demographic characteristics questionnaire and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-2 nd Edition (MCMI-II) (the 175-item Persian version). Data were analyzed using frequency, percentage, and Fisher's z-distribution in SPSS software. The results showed that 87.3% of women and 83.3% of men had a personality disorder at the time of committing the crime. Moreover, 46.5% of the target population had developed substance dependence at the time of committing the crime. The highest percentage of substance abuse in both women and men was related to opium, especially in the age group of 18-28 years. The highest rates of mental disorders were related to major depressive disorder (MDD), dependent personality disorder (DPD), borderline personality disorder (BPD), and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), respectively. In these personality disorders, opium, methamphetamine, heroin, and alcohol, respectively, had the highest rates of use. The results of Fisher's z-distribution illustrated a significant relationship between personality disorders and type of crime committed and substance used. The total rate of substance abuse was lower in sexual offenses and fraud, but was the highest in theft and drug trafficking. The presence of personality disorders in the target population is

  20. Problem drinking among Flemish students: beverage type, early drinking onset and negative personal & social consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruyn, Sara; Wouters, Edwin; Ponnet, Koen; Van Damme, Joris; Maes, Lea; Van Hal, Guido

    2018-02-12

    Although alcohol is socially accepted in most Western societies, studies are clear about its associated negative consequences, especially among university and college students. Studies on the relationship between alcohol-related consequences and both beverage type and drinking onset, however, are scarce, especially in a European context. The aim of this research was, therefore, twofold: (1) What is the relationship between beverage type and the negative consequences experienced by students? and (2) Are these consequences determined by early drinking onset? We will examine these questions within the context of a wide range of alcohol-related consequences. The analyses are based on data collected by the inter-university project 'Head in the clouds?', measuring alcohol use among students in Flanders (Belgium). In total, a large dataset consisting of information from 19,253 anonymously participating students was available. Negative consequences were measured using a shortened version of the Core Alcohol and Drug Survey (CADS_D). Data were analysed using negative binomial regression. Results vary depending on the type of alcohol-related consequences: Personal negative consequences occur frequently among daily beer drinkers. However, a high rate of social negative consequences was recorded for both daily beer drinkers and daily spirits drinkers. Finally, early drinking onset was significantly associated with both personal and social negative consequences, and this association was especially strong between beer and spirits drinking onset and social negative consequences. Numerous negative consequences, both personal and social, are related to frequent beer and spirits drinking. Our findings indicate a close association between drinking beer and personal negative consequences as well as between drinking beer and/or spirits and social negative consequences. Similarly, early drinking onset has a major influence on the rates of both personal and social negative consequences

  1. [The relationship between cognitive intelligence, emotional intelligence, coping and stress symptoms in the context of type A personality pattern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisli Sahin, Nesrin; Güler, Murat; Basim, H Nejat

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationships between cognitive and emotional intelligence, coping and stress symptoms in the context of Type A personality pattern. The Raven Progressive Matrices, Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, Ways of Coping Inventory, Stress Symptoms Scale, and Type A Personality Scale were administered to 271 university students. Two groups, Type As and Type Bs were created according to the Type A Personality Scale scores and were compared in terms of their scores on the other scales that were administered. Our analyses showed that stress symptoms were negatively correlated with effective coping, stress management, and general mood dimensions of the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire. They were also positively correlated with ineffective coping and Type A behaviors. Being female also significantly predicted stress symptoms. When the participants were grouped according to Type A Personality Scale scores as Type As and Type Bs, the regression analysis showed that the stress symptoms of Type As were significantly predicted by the insufficient use of effective coping styles and deficiencies in the general mood component of emotional intelligence, whereas the stress symptoms of Type Bs were predicted by the insufficient use of effective coping styles, overuse of ineffective coping styles, and increase in the intrapersonal abilities component of emotional intelligence. Stress symptoms can be related to the variables associated with personality styles. It is suggested that stress management programs for Type As should include exercises that increase emotional intelligence, especially the components of drawing pleasure from their life situation, being more positive, hopeful and optimistic.

  2. Nursing interventions for promoting self-care of persons with type 2 diabetes: an integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glória Yanne Martins de Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This is an integrative review aiming at analyzing and identifying the evidence available in the literature on nursing interventions to promote self-care for persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Data collection occurred in the Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences (LILACS, MEDLINE (via EBSCO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL and SCOPUS. The survey of articles occurred in July and August 2015 by two independent reviewers. The initial search identified 239 articles and eight of them met the selection criteria. Health education has emerged as a strategic field for implementing nursing interventions. Interventions with patient monitoring and that provided more care time were more satisfactory regarding self-care practices. The Orem's Self-Care Deficit Theory is indicated as a guide to direct the educator in self-care of diabetic persons.

  3. Analysis of difficulties in mathematics learning on students with guardian personality type in problem-solving HOTS geometry test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimah, R. K. N.; Kusmayadi, T. A.; Pramudya, I.

    2018-04-01

    Learning in the current 2013 curriculum is based on contextual issues based on questions that can encourage students to think broadly. HOTS is a real-life based assessment of everyday life, but in practice, the students are having trouble completing the HOTS issue. Learning difficulty is also influenced by personality type Based on the fact that the real difference one can see from a person is behavior. Kersey classifies the personality into 4 types, namely Idealist, Rational, Artisan, and Guardian. The researcher focuses on the type of guardian personality that is the type of personality that does not like the picture. This study aims to describe the difficulty of learning mathematics in students with a type of guardian personality in the completion of Geometry materials especially in solving HOTS. This research type is descriptive qualitative research. Instruments used in this study were the researchers themselves, personality class test sheets, learning difficulty test sheets in the form of HOTS Geometry test, and interview guides. The results showed that students with guardian personality it was found that a total of 3.37 % difficulties of number fact skill, 4.49 % difficulties of arithmetics skill, 37.08 % difficulties of information skill, 31.46% difficulties of language skill, 23.60 % difficulties of visual-spatial skill.

  4. Validity of Type D personality in Iceland: association with disease severity and risk markers in cardiac patients

    OpenAIRE

    Svansdottir, Erla; Karlsson, Hrobjartur D.; Gudnason, Thorarinn; Olason, Daniel T.; Thorgilsson, Hordur; Sigtryggsdottir, Unnur; Sijbrands, Eric J.; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Denollet, Johan

    2011-01-01

    textabstractType D personality has been associated with poor prognosis in cardiac patients. This study investigated the validity of the Type D construct in Iceland and its association with disease severity and health-related risk markers in cardiac patients. A sample of 1,452 cardiac patients completed the Type D scale (DS14), and a subgroup of 161 patients completed measurements for the five-factor model of personality, emotional control, anxiety, depression, stress and lifestyle factors. Th...

  5. Personal characteristics of effective managers in organizational cultures of different types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakharova L.N.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s Russian enterprises have been experiencing difficulties in transitioning to the market-innovative model of development. In the context of the current variability of management paradigms, we had an opportunity to study the internal and external regulators of organizational changes that are typical for a transitioning economy. Organizational culture (ОС was studied as an external factor, while the personal traits of middle managers were viewed as internal factors because these managers are the agents for values and for behavior models, from corporate directives to “front-desk’ personnel. The goal of this theoretical and empirical study was to determine the personality traits of middle managers who were deemed effective by top management in companies transitioning to the market-innovative model of development in the context of different types of OCs. During the preliminary stage, we conducted a comparative analysis of the requirements for the personal traits of middle managers who are working in stable conditions as well as in conditions of transfer to the market-innovative model of development, and we selected the relevant methods of empirical research. During the first stage of the empirical part of our research we defined a group of four enterprises with OCs of different types, identified their effective mid-level managers based on expert evaluations by the top leadership, and formed test groups. During the second stage we studied the personal characteristics of these managers. We determined that the personality traits of managers deemed effective by their leaders form integral complexes, which in turn correlate in a certain way with the type of ОС of an enterprise. We identified four models of an effective manager: Mentor, Dictator, Innovator, and Businessman; these managers have varying degrees of work productivity, value priorities in the development of ОС, personal self-concepts, organizational leadership skills

  6. Is Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus More Prevalent Than Expected in Transgender Persons? A Local Observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defreyne, Justine; De Bacquer, Dirk; Shadid, Samyah; Lapauw, Bruno; T'Sjoen, Guy

    2017-09-01

    The International Diabetes Federation estimates that approximately 0.4% of the Belgian population is diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus, which is similar to other industrialized countries. The prevalence of transgenderism is estimated at 0.6% to 0.7% of all adults in Western populations. In this study, we evaluated whether there was an increased prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus in transgender people in the local cohort. Medical records of transgender patients were analyzed retrospectively. From January 1, 2007 until October 10, 2016, 1,081 transgender patients presented at a tertiary reference center to start hormonal treatment. Nine of these 1,081 patients were previously diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 1 was diagnosed with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults. A 2.3-fold higher prevalence of type 1 diabetes mellitus was observed in transgender patients. We concluded that type 1 diabetes mellitus was more prevalent in transgender patients than one would expect from population prevalences. This could be a spurious result in a local cohort, because a causal relation seems unlikely, but our finding might encourage other centers to investigate this putative association. Defreyne J, De Bacquer D, Shadid S, et al. Is Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus More Prevalent Than Expected in Transgender Persons? A Local Observation. Sex Med 2017;5:e215-e218. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification during imposed change: the roles of personal values, type of change, and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sverdlik, Noga; Oreg, Shaul

    2015-06-01

    Using a person-situation perspective, we explain what happens to individuals' identification with a collective in the context of a change. We propose that given the anxiety that often emerges during change, individuals' personal values (conservation and openness to change) interact with type of change (imposed vs. voluntary) in predicting identification following change. In a pilot, longitudinal field study (N = 61, 67% female) of an imposed university campus relocation, we measured employees' values and identification with the university before and several months after the relocation. In two lab experiments (Study 1: N = 104, 91.3% female; Study 2: N = 113, 75.2% female), we manipulated a change to be either imposed or voluntary and compared the relationships between values and identification across types of change. In Study 2, we also measured anxiety from the change. When change was imposed (all three studies), but not when voluntary (Studies 1 and 2), individuals' conservation was positively, and openness negatively, related to individuals' post-change identification. The effects emerged only for individuals who experienced change-related anxiety (Study 2). Our findings demonstrate that individuals' identification with a changing collective depends on the amount of anxiety change elicits and on the particular combination of their values and type of change. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The burden of suicidal ideation among persons with type II diabetes: A scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabb, Karen M; Perez-Flores, Nancy; Wang, Yang; Huang, Hsiang

    2017-12-01

    Diabetes is a major global health concern. People with diabetes have worse mental health outcomes than those without diabetes. Researchers have recently sought to examine the relationship between diabetes and suicidal ideation. The aim of this study is to determine the burden of suicidal ideation among adults with type II diabetes from existing literature. We conducted a scoping review of published literature in PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Google Scholar published before March 2017. To identify relevant literature, search terms included suicidal ideation and type II diabetes. The search was limited to English language peer-reviewed journal articles. The main outcome of interest was suicidal ideation captured on a validated scale in a population with type II diabetes. This review resulted in 10 relevant studies, which reported the prevalence of suicidal ideation ranging from 2.5-51.4% with a median prevalence of 18.6% among adults with diabetes. Across the five studies reporting the associated risks, all but one study found a significant risk for persons with diabetes to endorse suicidal ideation and only three studies adjusted for depression. This review demonstrates the need for future studies to investigate potential mechanistic pathways of suicidality among persons with diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Type D personality is associated with delaying patients to medical assessment and poor quality of life among rectal cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jia-kui; Fang, Li-li; Zhang, De-wei; Jin, Qiu; Wu, Xiao-mei; Liu, Ji-chao; Zhang, Chun-dong; Dai, Dong-qiu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to explore quality of life (QoL), mental health status, type D personality, symptom duration, and emergency admissions of Chinese rectal cancer patients as well as the relationship between these factors. Type D personality was measured with the 14-item Type D Personality Scale (DS14). Mental health status was measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The QoL outcomes were assessed longitudinally using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 and QLQ-CR38 questionnaires at the baseline and 6 months after diagnosis. Of the 852 survivors who responded (94 %), 187 (22 %) had a type D personality. The proportion of patients with duration of symptoms >1 month and being diagnosed after emergency admissions in type D group is significantly higher than that in non-type D group. At both of the time points, type D patients reported statistically significant lower scores on most of the functional scales, global health status/QoL scales, and worse symptom scores compared to patients without a type D personality. At the 6-month time point, a higher percentage of patients in the type D group demonstrated QoL deterioration. Clinically elevated levels of anxiety and depression were more prevalent in type D than in non-type D survivors. Type D personality was associated with poor QoL and mental health status among survivors of rectal cancer, even after adjustment for confounding background variables. Type D personality might be a general vulnerability factor to screen for subgroups at risk for longer symptom duration and emergency admissions in clinical practice.

  10. Applying Personality Type Theory to Develop Individualized Wellness Plans for Reducing Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon C. Schommer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to explore if characteristics of personality type (using the Preferred Communication Style Questionnaire are associated with activities people prefer for getting adequate exercise, losing weight, managing stress, quitting smoking, reducing alcohol consumption, and taking medications as prescribed. Methods: The data source for this study was the 2016 National Consumer Survey of the Medication Experience and Pharmacists’ Roles. Data were collected via an on-line, self-administered survey conducted from March 14-30, 2016. Data were obtained from 10,500 adults residing in the United States. Chi-square analysis was used for making comparisons between categories of personality types and how respondents believed they could best reach their personal goals. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Practical significance was set at five or more percentage points above or below the overall mean. Results: Findings showed that (1 there are key differences between individuals that impact their behavior and (2 these differences can be easily and accurately identified using the Preferred Communication Style Questionnaire. The findings supported the notion that individuals are more likely to experience success in changing health-risk behaviors if they engage in activities that are consistent with (i how they are energized, (ii the kind of information they naturally notice, (iii how they prefer to make decisions, and (iv their preferences to live in a more structured way or in a more spontaneous way. Conclusions: Personality type characteristics can be used to develop and implement successful change strategies and intervention tools, such as individualized wellness plans (IWPTM that help promote intention stability, create implementation intention, resist situational pressure, reduce the impact of past habits on future performances, and improve change maintenance. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of

  11. Assessment of the type D personality construct in the Korean population: a validation study of the Korean DS14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hong Euy; Lee, Moon-Soo; Ko, Young-Hoon; Park, Young-Min; Joe, Sook-Haeng; Kim, Yong-Ku; Han, Changsu; Lee, Hwa-Young; Pedersen, Susanne S; Denollet, Johan

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a Korean version of the Type D Personality Scale-14 (DS14) and evaluate the psychiatric symptomatology of Korean cardiac patients with Type D personality. Healthy control (n = 954), patients with a coronary heart disease (n = 111) and patients with hypertension and no heart disease (n = 292) were recruited. All three groups completed DS14, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), the state subscale of Spielberger State and Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Short Depression Scale (CESD), and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). The Korean DS14 was internally consistent and stable over time. 27% of the subjects were classified as Type D. Type D individuals had significantly higher mean scores on the STAI-S, CESD, and GHQ compared to non-Type D subjects in each group. The Korean DS14 was a valid and reliable tool for identifying Type D personality. The general population and cardiovascular patients with Type D personality showed higher rate of depression, anxiety and psychological distress regarding their health. Therefore, identifying Type D personality is important in clinical research and practice in chronic medical disorders, especially cardiovascular disease, in Korea.

  12. Relationship Between Personality Types Conceptualized by C. G. Jung and Emotional Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Virmozelova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to present the results from a study of the relationship between personality types described by C. G. Jung and emotional intelligence. The investigated subjects were 150 at the age of 18 – 50. The methods of research were MBTI (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator - Bulgarian adaptation (Rusinova, 1992 and one psychological questionnaire measuring emotional intelligence -Bulgarian adaptation (Stoyanova, 2008. The received data indicated that the functions of thinking and sensing, and introversion correlated inversely with the factors of emotional intelligence “Sharing emotions and empathy”, “Motivation to overcome difficulties and optimisms” and extroversion correlated proportionally with them. The function feeling correlated proportionally with the factor “Sharing emotions and empathy” and it correlated inversely with the factor “Recognition of nonverbal expression of emotion of the other people”.

  13. The relationship between parenting types and older adolescents' personality, academic achievement, adjustment, and substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, L H; Schwarz, J C

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine Baumrind's T3 conceptual framework using a multiple informant design and an older adolescent population. With 178 college students and their families as participants, the present study found many of the predicted relations between parents' child-rearing style (Authoritative, Democratic, Nondirective, Nonauthoritarian-Directive, Authoritarian-Directive, and Unengaged) and their adolescent children's behavior in the 4 domains assessed: personality, adjustment, academic achievement, and substance use. The differences between parenting types on the criterion measures were not as large as reported in Baumrind's study, and significant effects were predominantly due to the poor scores from children with Unengaged and Authoritarian-Directive parents. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the Authoritative parenting type, the utility of using a typology, and areas for future research.

  14. Experimental Evaluation of the Effectiveness Offered by Different Types of Personal Protective Clothing Against Nanoaerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domat, M.; Pla, J.; Cadavid-Rodríguez, M. C.; Fito, C.

    2017-06-01

    The rapid expansion of nanotechnology is outpacing health and safety recommendations for engineered nanomaterials. Thus, there is a lack of information about the effects that nanomaterials can induce in the human health. Nevertheless, workers in nanotechnology-related industries are potentially at risk of being exposed to nanomaterials. Therefore, there is a need of characterize the behaviour of personal protective equipment against penetration nanoparticles, in order to provide an adequate protection to the workers. In this study, the efficiency of several protective dermal equipment against water-based NaCl aerosol was evaluated. For this purpose, different protective clothing and gloves were selected to carry out the assays, simulating typical use conditions of protective equipment under occupational settings. Results obtained exposed that the level of protection offered by the distinct types of personal protective coveralls depended not only on the fabric, but also on their fitting to the body of the subject. On the other hand, the efficiency of the protective gloves was set in the range from 95% to 99%, depending on the thickness and the type of material.

  15. The Effect of Mortality Salience and Type of Life on Personality Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gordillo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mortality salience, or awareness of the inevitability of one’s own death, generates a state of anxiety that triggers a defense mechanism for the control of thinking that affects different human activities and psychological processes. This study aims to analyze the effect of mortality salience on the formation of impressions. The sample comprised 135 women who made inferences about a woman’s personality from information about her life (type of life, LT: positive, negative, provided through five words, all positive or negative, that appeared surrounding a photograph, together with a sixth word that indicated whether she was “dead” or “alive” at the time (mortality manipulation, MM: dead, alive. The results pointed to a more negative assessment of life (Dead M - Alive M = -1.16, SE = .236, p < .001, emotional stability (Dead M - Alive M = -1.13, SE = .431, p = .010, and responsibility (Dead M - Alive M = -1.14, SE = .423, p = .008 only when the participants had access to negative information about the person assessed, and she was known to be dead. We discuss the results within the framework of Terror Management Theory, and analyze the different effects that the manipulation of mortality has on the formation of impressions depending on the type of information available.

  16. The distressed (Type D) personality mediates the relationship between remembered parenting and psychological distress in cardiac patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damen, Nikki L; Versteeg, Henneke; van Helmondt, Sanne J

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Both the distressed (Type D) personality (i.e. the combination of negative affectivity and social inhibition traits) and dysfunctional parenting styles are associated with anxiety and depression. As parenting styles have been related to personality development, dysfunctional parenting...... styles may also be associated with Type D personality. We examined whether remembered parenting was associated with anxiety and depression in cardiac patients and whether Type D personality mediated this relationship. Methods: Our sample comprised 435 patients treated with percutaneous coronary...... intervention (PCI) and 123 patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Patients completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Type D Scale (DS14), and Remembered Relationship with Parents (RRP(10)) scale. Results: Remembered parenting was significantly associated with higher anxiety and depression...

  17. Type-D personality but not depression predicts severity of anxiety in heart failure patients at 1-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Angélique A; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Broers, Herman

    2008-01-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a debilitating condition associated with poor outcome, including increased anxiety. However, anxiety and its determinants have not yet been studied systematically in CHF. We examined whether type-D personality and depressive symptoms would predict clinically signifi...

  18. The Comparison of Healthy and Unhealthy Perfectionism and Type A Personality in The Perceived Parenting Styles in University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    مریم جهان بخش

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present research is to study healthy and unhealthy perfectionism as well as type A personality based on different parenting styles. With a ex-post-facto method, a sample of undergraduate students at Shahid Beheshti University was selected through random multistage cluster sampling with at least 80 students in every parenting style. This sample consists of 407 students: 235 girls and 172 boys. The subjects completed three questionnaires of perceived parenting style, positive and negative perfectionism scale and type A personality. The collected data was analyzed by statistical tests MANOVA and ANOVA and Scheffe post hoc test. Results indicated that healthy perfectionism in the authoritative parenting style is more and in negligent parenting style is lower than the other parenting styles. The unhealthy perfectionism of the boys was more than girls. The interactive effect of the two variables namely parenting styles and gender upon healthy perfectionism was significant. Healthy­ perfectionism in authoritative parenting style in girls was more than boys and in permissive parenting style healthy perfectionism in boys was more than girls. The general effect of parenting styles and general effect of gender in score of type A personality did not show significant difference; however, the interactive effect of parenting styles and gender upon type A personality was supported. Here in permissive parenting style the type A personality in boys is higher than girls and in authoritarian parenting style the type A personality in girls is higher than boys. Conclusion: Due to the crucial role of parents' parenting styles in creating healthy and unhealthy perfectionism and also due to interactive effect of parenting style and gender on the healthy perfectionism and type A personality, educating parents on parenting styles and also giving instruction to the families for raising healthy persons in the society is a high priority.

  19. Likelihood ratio-based integrated personal risk assessment of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Noriko; Htun, Nay Chi; Daimon, Makoto; Tamiya, Gen; Kato, Takeo; Kubota, Isao; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Yamashita, Hidetoshi; Fukao, Akira; Kayama, Takamasa; Muramatsu, Masaaki

    2014-01-01

    To facilitate personalized health care for multifactorial diseases, risks of genetic and clinical/environmental factors should be assessed together for each individual in an integrated fashion. This approach is possible with the likelihood ratio (LR)-based risk assessment system, as this system can incorporate manifold tests. We examined the usefulness of this system for assessing type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our system employed 29 genetic susceptibility variants, body mass index (BMI), and hypertension as risk factors whose LRs can be estimated from openly available T2D association data for the Japanese population. The pretest probability was set at a sex- and age-appropriate population average of diabetes prevalence. The classification performance of our LR-based risk assessment was compared to that of a non-invasive screening test for diabetes called TOPICS (with score based on age, sex, family history, smoking, BMI, and hypertension) using receiver operating characteristic analysis with a community cohort (n = 1263). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) for the LR-based assessment and TOPICS was 0.707 (95% CI 0.665-0.750) and 0.719 (0.675-0.762), respectively. These AUCs were much higher than that of a genetic risk score constructed using the same genetic susceptibility variants, 0.624 (0.574-0.674). The use of ethnically matched LRs is necessary for proper personal risk assessment. In conclusion, although LR-based integrated risk assessment for T2D still requires additional tests that evaluate other factors, such as risks involved in missing heritability, our results indicate the potential usability of LR-based assessment system and stress the importance of stratified epidemiological investigations in personalized medicine.

  20. Childhood maltreatment, maladaptive personality types and level and course of psychological distress: A six-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M; Van Hemert, Albert M; de Rooij, Mark; Penninx, Brenda W

    2016-02-01

    Childhood maltreatment and maladaptive personality are both cross-sectionally associated with psychological distress. It is unknown whether childhood maltreatment affects the level and longitudinal course of psychological distress in adults and to what extent this effect is mediated by maladaptive personality. A sample of 2947 adults aged 18-65, consisting of healthy controls, persons with a prior history or current episode of depressive and/or anxiety disorders according to the Composite Interview Diagnostic Instrument were assessed in six waves at baseline (T0) and 1 (T1), 2 (T2), 4 (T4) and 6 years (T6) later. At each wave psychological distress was measured with the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Fear Questionnaire. At T0 childhood maltreatment types were measured with a semi-structured interview (Childhood Trauma Interview) and personality traits with the NEO-Five Factor Inventory. Using latent variable analyses, we found that severity of childhood maltreatment (emotional neglect and abuse in particular) predicted higher initial levels of psychological distress and that this effect was mediated by maladaptive personality types. Differences in trajectories of distress between persons with varying levels of childhood maltreatment remained significant and stable over time. Childhood maltreatment was assessed retrospectively and maladaptive personality types and level of psychological distress at study entry were assessed concurrently. Routine assessment of maladaptive personality types and possible childhood emotional maltreatment in persons with severe and prolonged psychological distress seems warranted to identify persons who may need a different or more intensive treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Developing the Innovative Personality Type as the Priority Direction of Political Modernization in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernykh Natalya Sergeevna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to explain the necessity to modernize the Russian political system and to implement the national innovative strategy. The need to strengthen and to develop the fundamentals of innovative-typed society – human potential and social capital – is analyzed on the basis of national empirical research. Today, humanity has entered the innovative information stage of development, where creative and active potential of a nation signifies one of the primary resources for achieving the status of a competitive state. The following characteristics become of the utmost value in such a society: independent and critical thinking, responsibility for the decisions, leadership and mobility. Unfortunately, the conditions for transitioning to the innovative type of society are not so favorable in Russia. Low birth rate, high mortality rate, underdeveloped state institutions, bureaucratization of goverment apparatus, brain drain from the periphery to the centre and abroad, weak legal culture and other social problems hinder the development of the innovative characteristics among Russian citizens. Russia needs to strengthen the fundamentals of the innovative-typed society, as there are positive impulses for its development (energy and raw material resources, high scientific potential, recognition by the most active part of society that the systemic transformations are necessary. The article presents the statistical data, which points to the need to invest in the development of the innovative personality characteristics, and the necessity to implement structural modernization of the specific areas of human capital.

  2. A case of stiff-person syndrome, type 1 diabetes, celiac disease and dermatitis herpetiformis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Sullivan, Eoin P

    2009-05-01

    Antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) are involved in the pathophysiology of stiff-person syndrome (SPS) and type 1 diabetes. GAD catalyses the conversion of glutamate to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). GABA acts as a neurotransmitter between neurones, while in pancreatic beta cells it plays an integral role in normal insulin secretion, hence the clinical presentation of muscular spasms in SPS and insulin deficiency in diabetes. Despite this apparent major overlap in pathophysiology, SPS only rarely occurs in individuals with type 1 diabetes. We report the case of a 41-year-old man presenting with a simultaneous diagnosis of both these conditions. His case is unusual in that it is the first reported case in the literature of these conditions occurring in someone with celiac disease (CD) and dermatitis herpetiformis. We discuss why SPS and type 1 diabetes co-exist in only a minority of cases and speculate on the underlying mechanism of the association with CD and dermatitis herpetiformis in our patient.

  3. HIV-infected persons with type 2 diabetes show evidence of endothelial dysfunction and increased inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hove-Skovsgaard, Malene; Gaardbo, Julie Christine; Kolte, Lilian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in both HIV infection and type 2 diabetes (T2D) compared to the general population has been described. Little is known about the combined effect of HIV infection and T2D on inflammation and endothelial function, both of which may...... contribute to elevated risk of CVD. METHODS: Cross-sectional study including 50 HIV-infected persons on combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART), with HIV RNA 2D (HIV + T2D+), n = 25 without T2D (HIV + T2D-)) and 50 uninfected persons (n = 22 with T2D (HIV-T2D+) and n = 28...... without T2D (HIV-T2D-)). Groups were matched on age and sex. High sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) was used to determine inflammation (cut-off 3 mg/L). The marker of endothelial dysfunction asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Trimethylamine...

  4. Change in neurocognition by housing type and substance abuse among formerly homeless seriously mentally ill persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Brina; Schutt, Russell K; Turner, Winston M; Goldfinger, Stephen M; Seidman, Larry J

    2006-03-01

    To test the effect of living in group housing rather than independent apartments on executive functioning, verbal memory and sustained attention among formerly homeless persons with serious mental illness and to determine whether substance abuse modifies this effect. In metropolitan Boston, 112 persons in Department of Mental Health shelters were randomly assigned to group homes ("Evolving Consumer Households", with project facilitator, group meetings, resident decision-making) or independent apartments. All were case managed. A neuropsychological test battery was administered at baseline, at 18 months (Time 2), with an 81% follow-up rate, and at 48 months (Time 3), with a 59% follow-up rate. Hierarchical Linear Modeling was applied to executive functioning--assessed with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (Perseverations)-Logical Memory story recall, and an auditory Continuous Performance Test (CPT) for sustained attention. Subject characteristics were controlled. When moved to group homes, subjects without a lifetime substance abuse history improved on Perseverations, while those who moved to independent apartments deteriorated on Perseverations. Across the two housing conditions, subjects showed no change in Perseverations, but improved on Logical Memory story recall and the CPT. Type of housing placement can influence cognitive functioning; notably, socially isolating housing is associated with weakened executive functioning. Substance abuse significantly diminishes environmental effects. These are important factors to consider in housing placement and subsequent treatment.

  5. Informing cancer patient based on his type of personality: the suspicious (paranoid) patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallergis, G

    2013-01-01

    Imparting bad news had always been an unpleasant task for the physician, as shown from ancient years to our days. In the healthcare sector and as far as the cancer patient is concerned, the imparting of bad news is performed by the patient's doctor within a therapeutic relationship of course. The fundamental question is how a therapist could tailor the information to any patient and if "Is it possible to determine who should be told what, when and how ?". The aim of this paper was to describe the suspicious character or type of personality thoroughly so that any physician can make a diagnosis and tailor the information strategy to the patient's needs. As method of research was used the qualitative method through groups with doctors and nurses, while research within groups lasted for 5 years. The degree of informing of the suspicious personality in the range "minimal - small - medium - large - very large" is : the degree of denial varies between large and very large. The degree of informing varies between medium and small and sometimes minimal. Informing the Family: The hardest family to deal with. Pay attention to litigious mania. Avoid confrontation or be drawn into agreeing with the family views.

  6. Does Personality Have a Different Impact on Self-Rated Distraction, Job Satisfaction, and Job Performance in Different Office Types?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram Seddigh

    Full Text Available This study investigates the joint effect of office type (cell, shared room, open-plan, and flex and personality, measured by the Big Five personality traits, on self-rated measures of distraction, job satisfaction, and job performance (measured by professional efficacy. Regression analyses with interactions between personality and office type were conducted on 1205 participants working in 5 organizations from both the private and public sectors. While few interactions were observed in the cases of professional efficacy and job satisfaction, several were observed between personality traits and office type on the level of distraction reported. Specifically, more emotionally stable participants reported lower distraction, particularly those working in flex offices. Both agreeableness and openness to experience were associated with higher levels of distraction among participants in open-plan compared to cell offices.

  7. Does Personality Have a Different Impact on Self-Rated Distraction, Job Satisfaction, and Job Performance in Different Office Types?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddigh, Aram; Berntson, Erik; Platts, Loretta G; Westerlund, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the joint effect of office type (cell, shared room, open-plan, and flex) and personality, measured by the Big Five personality traits, on self-rated measures of distraction, job satisfaction, and job performance (measured by professional efficacy). Regression analyses with interactions between personality and office type were conducted on 1205 participants working in 5 organizations from both the private and public sectors. While few interactions were observed in the cases of professional efficacy and job satisfaction, several were observed between personality traits and office type on the level of distraction reported. Specifically, more emotionally stable participants reported lower distraction, particularly those working in flex offices. Both agreeableness and openness to experience were associated with higher levels of distraction among participants in open-plan compared to cell offices.

  8. Successful holistic management of type 2 diabetes with depression: a very personal story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Linda Denise; Aekwarangkoon, Saifon; Ward, Earlise C

    2011-01-01

    We used illness narrative methods to evaluate the retrospective illness story of a bereaved woman who has recovered from type 2 diabetes and depression with comorbid hypertension, hyperlipidemia, vertigo, and obesity. Her spoken illness story was obtained with a single interview question: What happened? Our findings show that the patient searched for and found personal meaning in her illness. The finding of meaning in her illness appears to have supported her efforts to adopt more positive health beliefs and health behaviors. Although she received excellent health care throughout her illness, she attributes her return to good health to spiritual growth. We discuss the practice implications of this patient's illness story for clinicians who seek new insights into patients who have complex illness stories.

  9. Effectiveness of remote feedback on physical activity in persons with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Malte Bue; Valentiner, Laura Staun; Ried-Larsen, Mathias

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the effectiveness of remote feedback intervention compared with standardized treatment on physical activity levels in persons with type 2 diabetes. Further, to investigate the influence of the length of intervention...... diabetes, using physical activity as outcome. The effect size was calculated as standardized mean difference (SMD) and was pooled in a meta-analysis using a random-effects model. Meta-regression analyses were performed to examine if the observed effect size could be attributed to study- or intervention...... characteristics using these as covariates. Results The literature search identified 4455 articles of which 27 met the eligibility criteria. The meta-analysis including a total of 4215 participants found an overall effect size in favour of remote feedback interventions compared to standardized treatment, SMD = 0...

  10. Assessing the effect of weight and weight loss in obese persons with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Curtis

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Bradley Curtis1, Risa P Hayes1, Sheri Fehnel2, Laurie Zografos21Global Health Outcomes, Eli Lilly and Co, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 2RTI Health Solutions, Research Triangle Park, NC, USAAbstract: The objective of this study was to assess specific areas of life in which obesity affects individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and changes that obese persons with T2DM experience with weight loss of varying degrees. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted in persons identified as: age ≥40 years, diagnosed with T2DM for ≥2 years, on oral antihyperglycemic medications >3 months, BMI 30–35 kg/m2, having attempted to lose weight in the last 2 years. Participants (60% female, mean age 53 years, 53% Caucasian, mean BMI 32.2 kg/m2 agreed that 5% weight loss, while not reflective of an ultimate goal, would be meaningful and important; benefits were expected to accrue in physical functioning, self-confidence, blood glucose levels, and motivation to keep losing weight. Participants reported the greatest effect of weight loss on energy, physical activity, mobility, pain, and clothes/appearance. Participants reported weight affecting mood, with feelings of depression and frustration most commonly described. This research indicates that weight loss is likely to affect health-related quality of life in obese individuals with T2DM. Given the purported weight loss benefits of many emerging diabetic medications, it will be important to include measures of weight-related quality of life in future clinical trials of these agents.Keywords: health-related quality of life, obesity, type 2 diabetes, weight loss, patient-reported outcomes

  11. Association of Type D personality to perceived side effects and adherence in CPAP-treated patients with OSAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broström, Anders; Strömberg, Anna; Mårtensson, Jan; Ulander, Martin; Harder, Lena; Svanborg, Eva

    2007-12-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), but side effects are common and long-term adherence low. The Type D (distressed) personality is defined as a combination of negative affectivity and social inhibition. The association of Type D personality with adherence has not been studied in CPAP-treated patients with OSAS. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of Type D personality in OSAS patients with CPAP treatment longer than 6 months and the association with self-reported side effects and adherence. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. A total of 247 OSAS patients with a mean use of CPAP treatment for 55 months (6-182 months) were included. Data collection was achieved by two questionnaires; the Type D scale 14 (DS14) (Type D personality), SECI (side effects of CPAP), as well as from medical records (clinical variables and objective adherence to CPAP treatment). Type D personality occurred in 30% of the patients with OSAS and significantly (P < 0.05-0.001) increased the perceived frequency and severity of a broad range of side effects. The objective adherence was significantly lower (P < 0.001) for OSAS patients with Type D compared to OSAS patients without Type D, both with regard to a mean use of 4 h per night and 85% of the self-rated sleep time per night. The additional effect of a Type D personality on perceived side effects and adherence to CPAP treatment found in this study could be used by healthcare personnel when evaluating patients waiting for treatment.

  12. Association of Type D personality with unhealthy lifestyle, and estimated risk of coronary events in the general Icelandic population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svansdóttir, E.; Denollet, J.; Thorsson, B.; Gudnason, T.; Halldorsdottir, S.; Gudnason, V.; van den Broek, K.C.; Karlsson, D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Type D personality is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality risk in cardiovascular disease patients, but the mechanisms explaining this risk are unclear. We examined whether Type D was associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors, estimated risk of developing

  13. Effects of Type A Personality and Leisure Ethic on Chinese College Students' Leisure Activities and Academic Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Thomas Li-Ping

    In an earlier laboratory experiment using university students in the United States, Tang and Baumeister (1984) examined the effects of the Leisure Ethic, Type A personality, and task labels on subjects' task performance. The results showed that the interaction between Leisure Ethic endorsement and task label was significant among Type A…

  14. Type D personality predicts death or myocardial infarction after bare metal stent or sirolimus-eluting stent implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Lemos, Pedro A; van Vooren, Priya R

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Type D personality on the occurrence of adverse events at nine months in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with sirolimus-eluting stents (SESs) or bare stents. Type D patients experience increased negative...

  15. Type D personality is associated with low cardiovascular reactivity to acute mental stress in heart failure patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupper, N.; Denollet, J.; Widdershoven, J.W.M.G.; Kop, W.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The distressed (Type D) personality is associated with adverse coronary heart disease outcomes, but the mechanisms accounting for this association remain to be elucidated. We examined whether myocardial and hemodynamic responses to mental stress are disrupted in Type D patients with

  16. Association of Emotional Labor, Self-efficacy, and Type A Personality with Burnout in Korean Dental Hygienists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeung, Da Yee; Lee, Hyun Ok; Chung, Won Gyun; Yoon, Jin Ha; Koh, Sang Baek; Back, Chi Yun; Hyun, Dae Sung; Chang, Sei Jin

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between emotional labor and burnout, and whether the levels of self-efficacy and type A personality characteristics increase the risk of burnout in a sample of Korean female dental hygienists. Participants were 807 female dental hygienists with experience in performing customer service for one year or more in dental clinics, dental hospitals, or general hospitals in Korea. Data were collected using a structured self-administered questionnaire. A hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was used to examine the effects of emotional labor on burnout, and to elucidate the additive effects of self-efficacy and type A personality on burnout. The results showed that "overload and conflict in customer service," "emotional disharmony and hurt," and "lack of a supportive and protective system in the organization" were positively associated with burnout. With reference to the relationship between personality traits and burnout, we found that personal traits such as self-efficacy and type A personality were significantly related to burnout, which confirmed the additive effects of self-efficacy and type A personality on burnout. These results indicate that engaging in excessive and prolonged emotional work in customer service roles is more likely to increase burnout. Additionally, an insufficient organizational supportive and protective system toward the negative consequences of emotional labor was found to accelerate burnout. The present findings also revealed that personality traits such as self-efficacy and type A personality are also important in understanding the relationship between emotional labor and burnout. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  17. Designing an ICT self-management service: suggestions from persons with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardsten, Cecilia; Mörtberg, Christina; Blomqvist, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports the wishes and needs of people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) for a future information and communication technology (ICT) self-management service to help manage their condition and their everyday life. Diabetes is a chronic disease affecting more and more people and placing increasing demands on health care. The self-management of diabetes includes instrumental and, decision-making skills and skills in managing daily activities, which may be supported by an ICT service. In this study we used a participatory design including two sessions of Future Workshop (FW) as part of a larger research project on the self-management of diabetes. Adults with type 2 diabetes participated in two FW sessions in which their expressed wishes and needs for an ICT service all fell under the broad category of Acceptance of the diagnosis, with three other suggestions; Trust in partnerships, Communication, and Individualized information. The participants' experience of the FW as a democratic process and their appreciation of mutual learning contributed to these results, which are consistent with the aims of person-centred care.

  18. Type D personality, stress coping strategies and self-efficacy as predictors of Facebook intrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Błachnio, Agata; Przepiorka, Aneta; Czuczwar, Stanisław Jerzy

    2017-07-01

    Recently, Facebook has become one of the most popular social networking sites. People use it more and more often. A number of studies have recently addressed the issue of excessive Facebook use, showing this phenomenon to be a spreading problem. The main aim of the present study was to examine whether Type D personality, self-efficacy and coping strategies are related to Facebook intrusion. The participants were 882 students of Polish universities, all of them Facebook users (72% women, mean age: 22.25 years, SD =2.06). We used the Facebook Intrusion Questionnaire, the Facebook Intensity Scale, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and the Type D Scale. We applied the pen-and-paper procedure. Our results indicate that emotion-oriented and avoidance-oriented strategies of coping in stressful situations are predictors of Facebook intrusion and Facebook intensity. The relations between both Facebook intrusion and intensity and social inhibition are significant only when emotion-oriented coping strategy is controlled. The knowledge of whether coping strategies in stressful situations, such as focus on emotions or avoidance, are related to Facebook intrusion might be useful for clinical purposes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A comparison of music education and music therapy majors: personality types as described by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator and demographic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Anita Louise; Young, Sylvester

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop both personality and demographic profiles for students who are interested in majoring in music education or music therapy. Two primary questions were addressed in the study: (a) Are there similarities and differences in the personality types of music education and music therapy majors as measured by the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI )? (b) Are there similarities and differences in demographic characteristics of music education and music therapy majors in regard to (i) principal instrument studied in college, (ii) grade point average, (iii) scholarship awards, (iv) high school participation in private study and (v) ensembles, (vi) church/community participation, and (vii) volunteerism in high school?

  20. Identity processes and personality traits and types in adolescence : Directionality of effects and developmental trajectories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luyckx, K.; Teppers, E.; Klimstra, T.A.; Rassart, J.

    2014-01-01

    Personality traits are hypothesized to be among the most important factors contributing to individual differences in identity development. However, longitudinal studies linking Big Five personality traits to contemporary identity models (in which multiple exploration and commitment processes are

  1. Assessment of Personality Types in an Urban Community of District Dehradun, Uttarakhand using Introversion- Extroversion Inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Madhavi Bhargava, Jayanti Semwal, Ruchi Juyal, Shaili Vyas, Deepshikha Varshney

    2015-01-01

    "Introduction: Personality can be defined as a person’s pattern of internal experience and social interaction that arises from his action. The trait of extroversion–introversion is a central dimension of human personality theories. Objectives: To study the difference in personality in adults according to age and sex and the association of education and personality. Methods: The study was conducted in Rishikesh, Dehradun. A judgemental-purposive sampling was done in view of explor...

  2. Prevalence of Depressive Disorder in Persons With Type 2 Diabetes: A National Population-Based Cohort Study 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Hung-Pin; Hsieh, Hui-Min; Liu, Tai-Ling; Jiang, He-Jiun; Wang, Peng-Wei; Huang, Chun-Jen

    Diabetes mellitus, a chronic and disabling disease, is epidemic worldwide. Depressive disorder affects the productivity of workers and leads to disability. This study investigated the prevalence of depressive disorder among persons with type 2 diabetes in Taiwan. We extracted service claims data for subjects who had at least 2 ambulatory care service claims or 1 inpatient service claim with a principal diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and at least 1 ambulatory or inpatient service claim with a principal diagnosis of depressive disorder from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Database. From 2000-2010, the prevalence of depressive disorder increased from 3.50-4.07% in people with type 2 diabetes, and from 1.05-2.27% in the general population. The higher prevalence of depressive disorder in persons with type 2 diabetes was associated with being female; residence in central, southern, and eastern Taiwan; residence in urban areas; the comorbidities of hemiplegia or paraplegia, cerebrovascular disease, and anxiety disorder; Charlson Comorbidity Index scores ≥1; diabetes duration >9 years; and the use of rapid-acting insulin injection therapy. The prevalence of depressive disorder is higher among persons with type 2 diabetes than the general population. Consequently, more public health attention should be devoted to the prevention and treatment of this debilitating disease in persons with type 2 diabetes, especially those with the earlier mentioned risk factors. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Type D personality predicts chronic anxiety following percutaneous coronary intervention in the drug-eluting stent era

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Helle; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Serruys, Patrick W.

    2007-01-01

      Background: Anxiety is an often overlooked risk factor in coronary artery disease (CAD). Hence, little is known about predictors of unremitting chronic anxiety in CAD patients. This study examined whether the distressed personality (Type D) predicts chronic anxiety post percutaneous coronary...... months post-PCI. Results: Of 167 patients anxious at 6 months, 108 (65%) were still anxious 12 months post-PCI. Significant univariable predictors of chronic anxiety were Type D personality (OR:3.17: 95% CI:1.64-6.14) and sirolimus-eluting stents (OR:0.51; 95% CI:0.27-0.98), with sirolimus-eluting stents...... showing a protective effect. In multivariable analyses, Type D personality (OR:3.31; 95% CI:1.59-6.87) and sirolimus-eluting stents (OR:0.44; 95% CI:0.21-0.92) remained significant independent predictors of chronic anxiety adjusting for depressive symptoms at 6 months, and demographic and clinical risk...

  4. A Study Of The Relation Between IQ And Personality Types Among Male And Female Students Of Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vafaee D

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychologists have been thinking that some personality types may have a higher IQ comparing with the other types, and this could be considered as a general belief. Eysenck, the eminent British psychologist, described the introverted people to have a higher. Intelligence comparing with the extroverted people. Materials and Methods: We maintain two objectives from this study. Firstly if there is a relation between the IQ and personality types or not and secondly the mean IQ of which group is higher and thirdly, what is the relation between sexes. Results: 297 students were selected randomly from Tabriz University and Tabriz Medical Sciences University. Every examination was given both Raven IQ test and Eysenck personality inventory and examination answered the both tests at the same time. Both tests were evaluated by the standard scoring system. The results of both tests were extracted then statistical evaluations ofx and t-test were done. No significant and meaningful relation was found between IQ and personality types pf Eysenck ( introversion- extroversion, neuroticism, emotion stability among male and female students. Also introverted students and extroverted students did not have significant differences in the mean of IQ. Conclusion: Altogether these kinds of findings seem to be interesting, judging about psychological and behavioral characteristic of people needs more studies, and a single IQ or personality test is not sufficient. Therefore reaching an exact conclusion as a scientific fact will be possible by further researches.

  5. Type A personality and mortality: Competitiveness but not speed is associated with increased risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Tina; Rohrmann, Sabine; Richard, Aline; Bopp, Matthias; Faeh, David

    2017-07-01

    Type A behavior pattern (TABP) is a possible risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, existing evidence is conflicting, also because studies did not examine underlying traits separately. In this study, we investigated whether all-cause and CVD mortality were associated with the Bortner Scale, a measure of TABP, in particular with its subscales competitiveness and speed. Information on Bortner Scale and covariates of 9921 participants was collected at baseline in two cross-sectional studies that were linked with mortality information, yielding a follow-up of up to 37 years. We analyzed the Bortner Scale and its two subscales competitiveness and speed. Applying Cox regression models, we investigated the association with all-cause, CVD, and specific CVD type mortality. During follow-up, 3469 deaths were observed (1118 CVD deaths). The total Bortner Scale was not associated with mortality, only its subscales. In women, competitiveness was positively associated with all-cause mortality (highest category vs. the lowest, HR 1.25 [95% CI 1.08,1.44]), CVD mortality (1.39 [1.07,1.81]), and ischemic heart disease mortality (intermediate category vs. the lowest, 1.46 [1.02,2.10]). In men, CVD mortality was inversely associated with speed (highest category vs. the lowest, 0.74 [0.59,0.93]). The subscales of the Bortner Scale may be associated with CVD in an opposed manner and may therefore have to be analyzed separately. More studies are needed to further investigate this association, also considering differences by sex. Persons scoring high in the competitiveness subscale ought to be screened and counselled in order to reduce their CVD risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. THE DOCTOR’S PERSONALITY IN MODERN SOCIETY: THE IDEAL TYPE AND PROFESSIONAL DEFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Osipova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problems associated with the construction of the ideal type of the modern physician, as well as the identification of the key aspects of professional deformations of his personality and the analysis of the effects of these strains on the principles of conduct in relation to a patient. The introduction of market relations in health care system caused the competition between medical institutions, forcing them to look for additional ways to attract patients and as a result, the range of medical services to the population has significantly expended. A positive consequence has become a trend, expressed in an effort to improve the skills of doctors, the quality of work with patients. On the other hand, liberal globalization has led to the devaluation of the structure of the individual doctor and the public interest has strengthened the role and importance of individualistic interests. The result was the alienation of the doctors from the patients took on a mass character, which led to a degradation of the professional medical community and health care system in general. The authors are regarded as normative characteristics of medical practice, and indicators related to the subjectivity of doctor’s behavior, which reflects the perceived boundaries of the doctor’s professional and personal effects to the patient; attitude toward himself as a person and a professional; professional attitude of the society to the doctors and to the prevailing social and historical traditions of healing. The main characteristics that allow to construct an ideal type of physician are: high professionalism and its use for the benefit of man and society; rules of communicating with people who are sick; ethics in relationships in a professional environment; moral principles and ethics of the individual and the social order: the observance of a number of limitations and restrictions. However, under the pressure of contemporary

  7. Pharmacogenomics in type II diabetes mellitus management: Steps toward personalized medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Avery

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Peter Avery, Shaymaa S Mousa, Shaker A MousaThe Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Albany College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Albany, NY, USAAbstract: Advances in genotype technology in the last decade have put the pharmacogenomics revolution at the forefront of future medicine in clinical practice. Discovery of novel gene variations in drug transporters, drug targets, effector proteins and metabolizing enzymes in the form of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs continue to provide insight into the biological phenomena that govern drug efficacy and toxicity. To date, novel gene discoveries extracted from genome-wide association scans and candidate gene studies in at least four antidiabetic drug classes have helped illuminate possible causes of interindividual variability in response. Inadequate protocol guidelines for pharmacogenomics studies often leads to poorly designed studies, making it hard to formulate a definitive conclusion regarding the clinical relevance of the information at hand. These issues, along with the ethical, social, political, legislative, technological, and economic challenges associated with pharmacogenomics have only delayed its entry to mainstream clinical practice. On the other hand, these issues are being actively pursued and rapid progress is being made in each area which assures the possibility of gaining widespread acceptance in clinical practice.Keywords: pharmacogenomics, genetics, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, personalized medicine, type 2 diabetes, pharmacotherapy, antidiabetic drugs, efficacy, and safety

  8. Effects of electromagnetic shielding cases for semiconductor-type electronic personal dosimeters on preventing electromagnetic interference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deji, Shizuhiko; Ito, Shigeki; Nishizawa, Kunihide; Saze, Takuya; Mori, Kazuyuki

    2005-01-01

    Performance of electromagnetic shielding cases for preventing malfunction of semiconductor-type electronic personal dosimeters (SEPDs) caused by high frequency electromagnetic fields emitted from a digital cellular telephone (cell phone) and a card reader of access control system were analyzed. The cases were handcrafted by using cloth of activated carbon fiber, polyester film laminated metal, and two kinds of metal netting. Five kinds of SEPDs put in the cases were exposed to the high frequency electromagnetic fields for 50 sec or 1 min. The cases prevented perfectly the malfunction due to the cell phone. The cases shortened distances required to prevent the malfunction due to the card reader, but did not prevent the malfunction. The electromagnetic immunity level of SEPD inserted in the cases increased from greater than 11.2 to greater than 18.7 times for the cell phone and from 1.1 to greater than 4.3 times for the card reader. The maximum of electromagnetic shielding effectiveness of each case was greater than 18.7 times for the cell phone and greater than 4.3 times for the card reader. (author)

  9. Association of type D personality with unhealthy lifestyle, and estimated risk of coronary events in the general Icelandic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svansdottir, Erla; Denollet, Johan; Thorsson, Bolli; Gudnason, Thorarinn; Halldorsdottir, Sigrun; Gudnason, Vilmundur; van den Broek, Krista C; Karlsson, Hrobjartur D

    2013-04-01

    Type D personality is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality risk in cardiovascular disease patients, but the mechanisms explaining this risk are unclear. We examined whether Type D was associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors, estimated risk of developing CAD, and previous cardiac events. Cross-sectional study in the general Icelandic population. A random sample of 4753 individuals (mean age 49.1 ± 12.0 years; 49% men) from the REFINE-Reykjavik study completed assessments for Type D personality and conventional CAD risk factors. Ten-year risk of developing CAD was estimated with the Icelandic risk calculator. Type D personality (22% of sample) was associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension (35 vs. 31%, p = 0.009), but less use of hypertension medication (58 vs. 65%, p = 0.013) in hypertensives, more diabetes (6 vs. 4%, p = 0.023), wider waist circumference (p = 0.007), and elevated body mass index (p = 0.025) and blood lipids (p lifestyle-related CAD risk factors, a higher estimated risk of developing CAD, and higher incidence of previous cardiac events. Unhealthy lifestyles may partly explain the adverse cardiovascular effect of Type D personality.

  10. The Effect of Positive and Negative Perfectionism and Type D Personality on General Health of the Aged

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ahamadi Tahoor

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Many factors such as retirement, work disability, being isolated from the society, physical illness… affect the general health of the aged , one factor among many, is the role of psychological variables. The purpose of this study has been the investigation of the effect of positive and negative perfectionism and type D personality on general health of the aged. Materials & Methods: In this descriptive-correlational study, 80 subjects (47 males and 33 females were selected through available sampling method among the aged in nursing homes in Hamadan and Malayer. Then the positive and negative perfectionism questionnaire of Terry- Short et al, that of type D personality and Goldberg and Hiller's general health questionnaire were administered to them. Results: Positive perfectionism (r=-0.30 and type D personality (r=0.32 had significant correlations with general health. Multiple regression analysis also revealed that positive perfectionism and type D could explain at least 49 percent of the variance of general health. The females’ mean was higher than that of males concerning the variables of depression-anxiety, speech inhibition and irritability and in positive perfectionism, general health and social function variables the males’ mean was higher than that of females. Conclusion: Creating optimistic attitudes and enhancing social functions, positive perfectionism may cause the mental disorder to be decreased in old age and type D personality; however, positive perfectionism makes the aged apt to physical illness and mental disorder. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2010;17(3: 64-69

  11. USING BAYESIAN NETWORKS TO UNDERSTAND RELATIONSHIPS AMONG MATH ANXIETY, GENDERS, PERSONALITY TYPES, AND STUDY HABITS AT A UNIVERSITY IN JORDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Smail

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mathematics is the foundation of all sciences, but most students have problems learning math. Although students’ success in life related to their success in learning, many would not take a math course unless it is their university’s core requirements. Multiple reasons exist for students’ poor performance in mathematics, but one prevalent variable worth consideration is the personality type. This work seeks to uncover relationships, if any, between students’ math anxiety and the students’ learning type in learning math and preparing for exams and tests. We use Bayesian networks to link those different variables and detect possible relationships among these variables. The data was obtained from population of 468 students during spring in 2009 at a U.S. institution in Jordan. Not many researches have been performed in the area of math study and personality types so we undertook this study to add to this area of knowledge. The study reveals that math anxiety related to gender, personality type, and study habits among this group of university students. Keywords: Mathematics Anxiety, MBTI, Personality Types, Bayesian Networks DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.8.1.3405.17-34

  12. Increased anxiety and depression in Danish cardiac patients with a type D personality: cross-validation of the Type D Scale (DS14)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Helle; Kruse, Charlotte; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Type D personality is an emerging risk factor in cardiovascular disease. We examined the psychometric properties of the Danish version of the Type D Scale (DS14) and the impact of Type D on anxiety and depression in cardiac patients. METHOD: Cardiac patients (n = 707) completed the DS14......, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. A subgroup (n = 318) also completed the DS14 at 3 or 12 weeks. RESULTS: The two-factor structure of the DS14 was confirmed; the subscales negative affectivity and social inhibition were shown to be valid, internally...... consistent (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87/0.91; mean inter-item correlations = 0.49/0.59), and stable over 3 and 12 weeks (r = 0.85/0.78; 0.83/0.79; ps depression (beta, 0.47; p

  13. The moderating effects of sample type as evidence of the effects of faking on personality scale correlations and factor structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KEVIN M. BRADLEY

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Motivational differences as a function of sample type (applicants versus incumbents have frequently been suspected of causing meaningful differences in the psychometric properties of personality inventories due to the effects of faking. In this quantitative review, correlations among the Big Five personality constructs were estimated and sample type was examined as a potential moderator of the personality construct inter-correlations. The resulting subgroup meta-analytic correlation matrices were factor-analyzed, and the second order factor solutions for job incumbents and job applicants were compared. Results of the meta-analyses indicate frequent, but small moderating effects. The second order factor analyses indicated that the observed moderation had little effect on the congruence of factor loadings. Together, the results are consistent with the position that faking is of little practical consequence in selection settings.

  14. Child Maltreatment and Mediating Influences of Childhood Personality Types on the Development of Adolescent Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate longitudinal risk processes linking early child maltreatment, childhood personality organizations, and adolescent maladaptation. In a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children ("N" = 400; 62.3% African American, 11.8% Hispanic; 40.8% girls), a tripartite personality typology based on…

  15. Identity Processes and Personality Traits and Types in Adolescence: Directionality of Effects and Developmental Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyckx, Koen; Teppers, Eveline; Klimstra, Theo A.; Rassart, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Personality traits are hypothesized to be among the most important factors contributing to individual differences in identity development. However, longitudinal studies linking Big Five personality traits to contemporary identity models (in which multiple exploration and commitment processes are distinguished) are largely lacking. To gain more…

  16. MULTI - multifunctional interface of the IBM XT and AT type personal computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, T.; Kalavski, D.; Rubin, D.; Tulaev, A.B.; Tumanov, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    MULTI multifunctional interface which enables to solve problems of personal computer connestion with physical equipment without application of intermediate buses is described. Parallel 32-digit bidirectional 1/10 register and buffered bus of personal computer represent MULTI base. Ways of MULTI application are described

  17. EFL Teachers' Emotional Intelligence and Their Personality Types: Exploring Possible Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Roya

    2014-01-01

    The major aim of this study was to examine the relationship between teachers' emotional intelligence and their personality traits in an Iranian context. To this end, 85 Iranian EFL teachers were asked to fill out The Big Five Inventory Personality Test (John & Srivastava, 1999) and The Bar-On Emotional Intelligences test (1997). The results…

  18. Peer Victimization, Self-esteem, and Ego Resilience Types in Adolescents: A Prospective Analysis of Person-context Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overbeek, G.J.; Zeevalkink, H.; Vermulst, A.A.; Scholte, R.H.J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined bidirectional, longitudinal associations between peer victimisation and self-esteem in adolescents, and tested for moderator effects of undercontrolling, overcontrolling, and ego-resilient personality types in these associations. Data were used from 774 adolescents ages 11-16

  19. Type D (distressed) personality and its assessment with the DS14 in Lithuanian patients with coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunevicius, A.; Staniute, M.; Brozaitiene, J.; Stropute, D.; Bunevicius, R.; Denollet, J.

    2013-01-01

    We examined Type D personality (combination of negative affectivity with social inhibition) and its assessment with the DS14 in 543 Lithuanian coronary patients. Psychometric analyses confirmed the two-factor structure, internal consistency (α = 0.84/α = 0.75), and test–retest reliability (r =

  20. An Investigation of the Problematic Internet Use of Teacher Candidates Based on Personality Types, Shyness and Demographic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Ebru; Kaymak Ozmen, Suna

    2011-01-01

    Researches proved that a new psychological disorder of problematic Internet use was associated with individual characteristics as loneliness, shyness, anxiety, depression, personality type, and self-cognition. But there appears to be little consensus about Problematic Internet Use disorder. Consequently the aim of study was to investigate…

  1. Explaining emotional exhaustion and work engagement : The role of job demands-resources and Type D personality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Tooren, M.; Rutte, C.G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to show that Type D personality—a personality trait characterized by high levels of negative affectivity and high levels of social inhibition—can explain a significant amount of variance in emotional exhaustion and work engagement above and beyond the variance

  2. Creative Thinking of University Teachers in the Age of Intellectual Capital: Is It Affected by Personality Types and Traits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlFuqaha, Isam Najib; Tobasi, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    This article attempts to probe the level of creative thinking of teachers at Philadelphia University in Jordan, and to define its relation with several independent demographic variables, namely age, gender, duration of experience, specialization, and personality types and traits. To accomplish this purpose, three questionnaires are administered on…

  3. What works best: objective statistics or a personal testimonial? An assessment of different types of message evidence on risk perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, J.B.F.; Das, E.; Vet, R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: In an experimental online study we compared the effects of different types of persuasive evidence in promoting the acceptance of a personal health risk. Design: 118 men who have sex with men (MSM) at-risk for infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) were recruited via a range of

  4. Moderating Effect of Personality Type on the Relation between Sensation Seeking and Illegal Substance Use in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Marcus; Liebe, Nico

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the moderating effect of big-five based personality types on the relation between sensation seeking and three adolescent marijuana use outcomes (lifetime use, current use, attraction to marijuana use). 1,236 German adolescents, aged 14 to 16 years, participated in the current study. The results show that sensation seeking is…

  5. Design and evaluation of a personal robot playing a self-management education game with children with diabetes type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanson Henkemans, O.A.; Bierman, B.P.B.; Janssen, J.; Looije, R.; Neerincx, M.A.; Dooren, M.M.M. van; Vries, J.L.E. de; Burg, G.J. van der; Huisman, S.D.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of a personal robot, providing diabetes self-management education in a clinical setting on the pleasure, engagement and motivation to play a diabetes quiz of children (7–12) with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and on their acquisition of knowledge about their

  6. The Experience of Contrasting Learning Styles, Learning Preferences, and Personality Types in the Community College English Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, William K.

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the classroom experiences of students who identify themselves as learning best as reflective-observers (Assimilators) in contrast to those who learn best as active- experimenters (Accommodators), with additional consideration for their self-identified personality type (introvert vs. extrovert) as well as one of the VARK…

  7. Peer Victimization, Self-Esteem, and Ego Resilience Types in Adolescents: A Prospective Analysis of Person-Context Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeek, Geertjan; Zeevalkink, Herma; Vermulst, Ad; Scholte, Ron H. J.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined bidirectional, longitudinal associations between peer victimisation and self-esteem in adolescents, and tested for moderator effects of undercontrolling, overcontrolling, and ego-resilient personality types in these associations. Data were used from 774 adolescents ages 11-16 years who participated in a three-wave (i.e., 2005,…

  8. Assessment of personality type and medical specialty choice among medical students from Karachi; using Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafrani, Sana; Zehra, Nosheen; Zehra, Muneeza; Abuzar Ali, Syed Muhmmad; Abubakar Mohsin, Saiyed Abdullah; Azhar, Rasheed

    2017-04-01

    To assess personality type of medical students and associate it with their choice of medical specialty. This cross-sectional study was conducted in February 2014 at one public and one private medical university of Karachi, and comprised medical students. A self- administered questionnaire based on Myers-Briggs type indicator was used to collect data which was analysed using SPSS 20. Of the 400 participants, there were 200(50%) each from public and private universities. Of all, 201(50.3%) students were found to be extroverted and 199(49.8%) were introverted personality types. Clinical fields were the main preference of students after their medical degree as selected by 317(79.2%) students; of the, Extroverted-Sensing-Feeling-Perceptive was the most common type identified in39(7.2%) students. Extroverted-Sensing-Feeling-Perceptive 11(2.8%), Extroverted-Sensing-Thinking-Judging 12(3%), Extroverted-Sensing-Feeling-Judging 5(1.3%), Introverted-Sensing-Feeling-Judging 6(1.5%), Introverted-Sensing-Thinking-Perceptive 7(1.8%) had preference for surgery, medicine, gynaecology, paediatrics and cardiology, respectively. Personality had significant impact on specialty and career choice.

  9. Assessment of job stress factors and organizational personality types for procedure-based jobs in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae-Ho; Lee, Yong-Hee; Lee, Jung-Woon

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the organizational types and the job stress factors that affect procedure-based job performances in nuclear power plants. We derived 24 organizational factors affecting job stress level in nuclear power plants from the job stress analysis models developed by NIOSH, JDI, and IOR. Considering the safety characteristics in the operating tasks of nuclear power plants, we identified the job contents and characteristics through the analyses of job assignments that appeared in the organizational chart and the results of an activity-based costing. By using questionnaire surveys and structured interviews with the plant personnel and expert panels, we assessed 70 jobs among the 777 jobs managed officially in accordance with the procedures. They consist of the representative jobs of each department and are directly related to safety. We utilized the organizational personality type indicators to characterize the personality types of each organization in nuclear power plants. (author)

  10. Incidence, prevalence and seasonal onset variation of Addison's disease among persons with type 1 diabetes mellitus: nationwide, matched cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantzichristos, Dimitrios; Persson, Anders; Eliasson, Björn; Miftaraj, Mervete; Franzén, Stefan; Svensson, Ann-Marie; Johannsson, Gudmundur

    2018-01-01

    We determined the incidence and prevalence of Addison's disease (AD) among persons with or without type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in nationwide, matched cohort studies. Persons with T1DM were identified from the Swedish National Diabetes Register and each was matched for age, sex, year and county to five controls randomly selected from the general population. Persons with AD were identified from the Swedish National Inpatient Register. Baseline demographics and seasonal onset variation of AD were presented by descriptive statistics. Prevalence and incidence were estimated by proportions and incidence rates, respectively. Times to AD were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazard model. Between 1998 and 2013, 66 persons with T1DM were diagnosed with AD at a mean age (s.d.) of 36.4 (13.0) years among 36 514 persons with T1DM, while 32 were diagnosed with AD at a mean age of 42.7 (15.2) years among 182 570 controls. The difference in mean age at diagnosis of AD between the groups was 6.3 years ( P value = 0.036). The incidence of AD for a person with or without T1DM was therefore 193 and 18 per million person-years, respectively. The adjusted relative risk increase of developing AD in T1DM was 10.8 (95% CI: 7.1-16.5). The highest incidence of AD was observed during February-March and September-October. The prevalence of AD in persons with or without T1DM in December 2012 was 3410 and 208 per million, respectively. The odds ratio for AD in persons with T1DM vs controls was 16.5 (95% CI: 11.1-24.5). The risk to develop AD among persons with T1DM is more than 10 times higher than in persons without T1DM. Persons with T1DM develop AD at a younger age. The incidence of AD may have a seasonal pattern. © 2018 European Society of Endocrinology.

  11. Correlation Among the Army Combat Identifier, Personality Type, and Career Satisfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garren, Laura J

    2005-01-01

    Retaining quality officers in today's volunteer Army is critical. Personality should be considered during the selection process to assist in placing officers in a career branch suited to their character...

  12. Performance testing of selected types of electronic personal dosimeters used in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suliman, I.I.; Yousif, E.H.; Beineen, A.A.; Yousif, B.E.; Hassan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements were carried out for calibration and performance testing of a set of 10 electronic personal dosimeters (EPDs) at the Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory of Sudan. Calibrations were carried out at three X-ray beam qualities described in ISO standard 4037 in addition to 137 Cs and 60 Co gamma ray beams. The experimental was performed with EPDs mounted on ICRU Slab phantom. X-ray and γ-ray beams were characterized in terms of air kerma free-in-air which were converted to the known delivered personal dose equivalent, H p (10) using appropriate the air kerma to personal dose equivalent conversion coefficients. Dosimeters tested showed excellent energy and angular response and relative error of indication within the recommended limit for photon energies from 65 keV to 1.25 MeV. The study showed encouraging results for using electronic dosimeters in personal dosimetry.

  13. Influence of Personality Type and Anonymity on Participation in a Group Support System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hartmann, Robert

    2000-01-01

    A group support system (GSS) uses a combination of networked personal computers, software that collects, manipulates, and aggregates member's individual input, and human facilitation to improve the group decision-making process...

  14. Type D personality and the development of PTSD symptoms: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademaker, Arthur R.; van Zuiden, Mirjam; Vermetten, Eric; Geuze, Elbert

    2011-01-01

    Psychological trauma and prolonged stress may cause mental disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Pretrauma personality is an important determinant of posttraumatic adjustment. Specifically, trait neuroticism has been identified as a risk factor for PTSD. Additionally, the

  15. Type D personality, illness perception, social support and quality of life in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianying; Wu, Xiaofeng; Lin, Jianxiong; Zou, Dongmei; Yang, Xiao; Cheng, Shouzhen; Guo, Qunying

    2017-02-01

    The previous studies reported Type D was associated with poor quality of life (QoL), increased psychological distress, and impaired health status in cardiac patients. The aim of this study is to assess the relationships among Type D personality, illness perception, social support, and investigate the impact of Type D personality on QoL in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients. Type D personality was assessed by the Chinese 14-item Type D Personality Scale (DS14). Illness perceptions were assessed using the Chinese version of the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (B-IPQ). Social support status was assessed by the well-validated social support rating scale (SSRS). Patients' QoL was assessed by using Medical Outcomes Short Form 36 (SF-36), respectively. The Type Ds had significantly lower objective support score (8.18 ± 2.56 vs. 9.67 ± 3.28, p = 0.0001), subjective support score (6.71 ± 2.0 vs. 7.62 ± 1.93, p = 0.0001) and utilization of social support score (6.76 ± 2.0 vs. 7.61 ± 1.94, p = 0.0001) than that of the non-type Ds. Type Ds believed their illness had much more serious consequences (7.67 ± 2.64 vs. 6.27 ± 3.45, p illness (6.65 ± 2.54 vs. 7.31 ± 2.36, p = 0.023). Significant differences were found between Type Ds and non-Type Ds in PCS (40.53 ± 6.42 vs. 48.54 ± 6.21 p mental component score (MCS) (r = -0.31, p social support (r = -0.24, p illness perceptions, social support and QoL in CAPD patients. The worse illness perceptions and lower social support level therefore represent possible mechanisms to explain the link between Type D and poor QoL in CAPD patients.

  16. Success of nutrition-therapy interventions in persons with type 2 diabetes: challenges and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz MJ

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Marion J Franz,1 Janice MacLeod2 1Nutrition Concepts by Franz, Minneapolis, MN, 2Clinical Innovation, WellDoc, Columbia, MD, USA Abstract: A systematic review was conducted by the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics to determine the evidence for the effectiveness of individualized nutrition therapy provided by a dietitian nutritionist and evidence-based (EB nutrition-therapy interventions in adults with diabetes. This article briefly reviews the systematic process used and summarizes the effectiveness evidence and intervention recommendations. In persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D, 18 studies met study criteria for the effectiveness question. A 0.3%–2.0% decrease from baseline in glycated hemoglobin was reported at 3 months in 13 study arms, a 0.3%–1.8% decrease at 6 months in 12 study arms, a 0.3%–1.6% decrease at 12 months with ongoing support in six study arms, and a 0.6%–1.8% decrease at >12 months in four study arms. An initial series of encounters with follow-up visits and implementation of a variety of nutrition-therapy interventions, all of which reduced energy intake, were reported. Nutrition therapy also significantly decreased doses or number of glucose-lowering medications used and resulted in improvements in quality of life. Mixed effects on cardiovascular risk factors and body weight were reported. Fourteen questions were identified related to nutrition-therapy interventions. A total of 38 studies met study criteria for the nutrition-intervention questions, from which 30 conclusion statements and 19 nutrition-practice guideline recommendations for T2D were written. Three additional NPG recommendations for T2D were written based on evidence reviewed by the American Diabetes Association. The 22 nutrition-intervention recommendations for T2D are summarized. How to implement nutrition-practice guideline recommendations effectively by health care providers and individuals with T2D remains challenging. Of importance, it is

  17. Ion torrent personal genome machine sequencing for genomic typing of Neisseria meningitidis for rapid determination of multiple layers of typing information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Ulrich; Szczepanowski, Rafael; Claus, Heike; Jünemann, Sebastian; Prior, Karola; Harmsen, Dag

    2012-06-01

    Neisseria meningitidis causes invasive meningococcal disease in infants, toddlers, and adolescents worldwide. DNA sequence-based typing, including multilocus sequence typing, analysis of genetic determinants of antibiotic resistance, and sequence typing of vaccine antigens, has become the standard for molecular epidemiology of the organism. However, PCR of multiple targets and consecutive Sanger sequencing provide logistic constraints to reference laboratories. Taking advantage of the recent development of benchtop next-generation sequencers (NGSs) and of BIGSdb, a database accommodating and analyzing genome sequence data, we therefore explored the feasibility and accuracy of Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) sequencing for genomic typing of meningococci. Three strains from a previous meningococcus serogroup B community outbreak were selected to compare conventional typing results with data generated by semiconductor chip-based sequencing. In addition, sequencing of the meningococcal type strain MC58 provided information about the general performance of the technology. The PGM technology generated sequence information for all target genes addressed. The results were 100% concordant with conventional typing results, with no further editing being necessary. In addition, the amount of typing information, i.e., nucleotides and target genes analyzed, could be substantially increased by the combined use of genome sequencing and BIGSdb compared to conventional methods. In the near future, affordable and fast benchtop NGS machines like the PGM might enable reference laboratories to switch to genomic typing on a routine basis. This will reduce workloads and rapidly provide information for laboratory surveillance, outbreak investigation, assessment of vaccine preventability, and antibiotic resistance gene monitoring.

  18. A unique combination of autoimmune limbic encephalitis, type 1 diabetes, and Stiff person syndrome associated with GAD-65 antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Mohan Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies to GAD-65 have been implicated in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes , limbic encephalitis and Stiff person syndrome, however these diseases rarely occur concurrently. We intend to present a rare case of 35 year old female who was recently diagnosed as having type 1 diabetes presented with 1½ month history of recurrent seizures, subacute onset gait ataxia, dysathria, psychiatric disturbance and cognitive decline. No tumor was found on imaging and the classic paraneoplastic panel was negative. Cerebrospinal fluid and blood was positive for GAD-65 antibodies.Patient showed significant improvement with immunomodulatory therapy. Association of GAD-65 antibodies has been found with various disorders including type 1 diabetes, limbic encephalitis, Stiff person syndrome,cerebellar ataxia and palatal myoclonus.This case presents with unique combination of type 1 diabetes, Stiff person syndrome and limbic encephalitis associated with GAD-65 antibodies that is responsive to immunotherapy. It also highlights the emerging concept of autoimmunity in the causation of various disorders and there associations.

  19. The Comparison of Healthy and Unhealthy Perfectionism and Type A Personality in The Perceived Parenting Styles in University Students

    OpenAIRE

    مریم جهان بخش; ابوالقاسم خوش کنش; محمود حیدری

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present research is to study healthy and unhealthy perfectionism as well as type A personality based on different parenting styles. With a ex-post-facto method, a sample of undergraduate students at Shahid Beheshti University was selected through random multistage cluster sampling with at least 80 students in every parenting style. This sample consists of 407 students: 235 girls and 172 boys. The subjects completed three questionnaires of perceived parenting style, positive...

  20. Different Types of Sensation Seeking: A Person-Oriented Approach in Sensation-Seeking Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suranyi, Zsuzsanna; Hitchcock, David B.; Hittner, James B.; Vargha, Andras; Urban, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Previous research on sensation seeking (SS) was dominated by a variable-oriented approach indicating that SS level has a linear relation with a host of problem behaviors. Our aim was to provide a person-oriented methodology--a probabilistic clustering--that enables examination of both inter- and intra-individual differences in not only the level,…

  1. The Distressed (Type D) Personality Is Independently Associated With Tinnitus : A Case-Control Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Hilke; Middel, Berrie; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Staal, Michiel J.; Albers, Frans W. J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Tinnitus is a common and disturbing condition, reported by 10% to 20% of the general population. Objective: The authors sought to determine personality characteristics associated with tinnitus patients versus a control group of ear-nose-throat (ENT) patients without tinnitus. Method:

  2. Child maltreatment and mediating influences of childhood personality types on the development of adolescent psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate longitudinal risk processes linking early child maltreatment, childhood personality organizations, and adolescent maladaptation. In a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children (N = 400; 62.3% African American, 11.8% Hispanic; 40.8% girls), a tripartite personality typology based on California Child Q-Set items representative of ego resiliency and ego control personality dimensions (Block & Block, 1969/1980 ) was derived at Wave 1 (age range = 10-12). The typology, composed of Resilient, Overcontrolled, and Undercontrolled profiles, was evaluated for associations with previous child maltreatment, and for its utility in predicting adolescent psychopathology (age range = 15-18). Maltreated children were significantly more likely than nonmaltreated children to be classified into the overcontrolled (Odds Ratio = 1.847) and undercontrolled profiles (Odds Ratio = 2.101), compared to the Resilient profile. The undercontrolled profile reported higher cannabis symptoms and externalizing problems in adolescence than the other two profiles. The overcontrolled group showed the highest levels of internalizing and lowest levels of alcohol problems compared to the other profiles. Person-centered mediation analyses showed that the overcontrolled and the undercontrolled profiles significantly and differentially mediated the link between number of child maltreatment subtypes and the development of adolescent psychopathology. Child maltreatment is a potent environmental stressor that potentiates compromised personality development, eventuating in heightened psychopathology in adolescence. These findings have important implications for prevention and intervention of psychopathology and substance abuse among low income and maltreated youth.

  3. Different types of out-of-home activities and well-being amongst urban residing old persons with mobility impediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siren, Anu; Hjorthol, Randi; Levin, Lena

    2015-01-01

    , a complex one. The present study explicates this by focusing on how utilitarian and discretionary activities—representing different types out-of-home activities—contribute to well-being, using data from individual interviews with persons aged 80–95, living in Copenhagen, Denmark. We structured the material...... by the two activity types and found both to contribute to participants׳ well-being by representing different sides of ‘being’. Utilitarian activities were important in maintaining independence and fulfilling basic needs, while discretionary activities were important for the individual existing in relation...

  4. The distressed (Type D) and Five-Factor Models of personality in young, healthy adults and their association with emotional inhibition and distress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svansdóttir, E.; van den Broek, K.C.; Karlsson, H.D.; Olason, D.T.; Thorgilsson, H.; Denollet, J.

    2013-01-01

    The distressed (Type D) personality (the combination of negative affectivity and social inhibition traits) has been associated with adverse health outcomes. This study investigated the validity of the Type D construct against the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality, and its association with

  5. Type D personality is associated with increased metabolic syndrome prevalence and an unhealthy lifestyle in a cross-sectional Dutch community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denollet Johan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People with Type D-Distressed-personality have a general tendency towards increased negative affectivity (NA, while at the same time inhibiting these emotions in social situations (SI. Type D personality is associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. Whether Type D personality is a cardiovascular risk factor in healthy populations remains to be investigated. In the present study, the relations between Type D personality and classical cardiovascular risk factors, i.e. metabolic syndrome and lifestyle were investigated in a Dutch community sample. Methods In a cross-sectional study 1592 participants were included, aged 20-80 years. Metabolic syndrome was defined by self-report, following the International Diabetes Federation-IDF-guidelines including an increased waist circumference, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes. In addition lifestyle factors smoking, alcohol use, exercise and dietary habits were examined. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was stratified by Type D personality (a high score on both NA and SI, lifestyle and confounders age, gender, having a partner, higher education level, cardiac history, family history of cardiovascular disease. Results Metabolic syndrome was more prevalent in persons with a Type D personality (13% vs. 6%. Persons with Type D personality made poorer lifestyle choices, adhered less to the physical activity norm (OR = 1.5, 95%CI = 1.1-2.0, p = .02, had a less varied diet (OR = 0.50, 95%CI = 0.40-0.70, p p = .01. Type D personality was related to a twofold increased risk of metabolic syndrome (OR = 2.2, 95%CI = 1.2-4.0, p = .011, independent of lifestyle factors and confounders. Conclusions Type D personality is related to an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome and unhealthy lifestyle, which suggests both behavioral and biological vulnerability for development of cardiovascular disorders and diabetes.

  6. A Longitudinal Study of Myers-Briggs Personality Types in Air Traffic Controllers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dollar, Carolyn S; Schroeder, David J

    2004-01-01

    .... The study investigated the relationship between MBTI types and initial success in the Air Traffic Control Academy Screen Program, subsequent field training outcomes, and transition to a supervisory...

  7. Personality variables and compliance with insulin therapy in Type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, P; Maldonato, A; Bloise, D; Burla, F; Coronel, G; Di Paolantonio, T

    2000-02-01

    Forty-five diabetic patients were studied to evaluate adaptation and coping strategies. The authors have also analysed personality traits mainly to study different behaviour in compliance conduct. The results revealed an important psychological dimension made up of difficulties in accepting insulin immediately, in fear of addiction and doubts about the therapy. On the basis of these results the sample was then divided into two subgroups, which were then tested and compared with the Adjective Check List. The subgroup that showed more fear, insecurity and initial resistance towards insulin therapy appeared to be more rigid and seemingly conforming. These people also revealed personality aspects compatible with the presence of passive-aggressive and avoidant traits.

  8. Type tests to the automatic thermoluminescent dosimetry system acquired by the CPHR for personal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molina P, D.; Pernas S, R.; Martinez G, A.

    2006-01-01

    The CPHR individual monitoring service acquired an automatic RADOS TLD system to improve its capacities to satisfy the increasing needs of their national customers. The TLD system consists of: two automatic TLD reader, model DOSACUS, a TLD irradiator and personal dosimeters card including slide and holders. The dosimeters were composed by this personal dosimeters card and LiF:Mg,Cu,P (model GR-200) detectors. These readers provide to detectors a constant temperature readout cycle using hot nitrogen gas. In order to evaluate the performance characteristics of the system, different performance tests recommended by the IEC 1066 standard were carried out. Important dosimetric characteristics evaluated were batch homogeneity, reproducibility, detection threshold, energy dependence, residual signal and fading. The results of the tests showed good performance characteristics of the system. (Author)

  9. Predictive biomarkers for type 2 of diabetes mellitus: Bridging the gap between systems research and personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraniotou, Christina; Karadima, Vasiliki; Bellos, George; Tsangaris, George Th

    2018-03-05

    The global incidence of metabolic disorders like type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) has assumed epidemic proportions, leading to adverse health and socio-economic impacts. It is therefore of critical importance the early diagnosis of DM2 patients and the detection of those at increased risk of disease. In this respect, Precision Medicine (PM) is an emerging approach that includes practices, tests, decisions and treatments adapted to the characteristics of each patient. With regard to DM2, PM manages a wealth of "omics" data (genomic, metabolic, proteomic, environmental, clinical and paraclinical) to increase the number of clinically validated biomarkers in order to identify patients in early stage even before the prediabetic phase. In this paper, we discuss the epidemic dimension of metabolic disorders like type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and the urgent demand for novel biomarkers to reduce the incidence or even delay the onset of DM2. Recent research data produced by "multi-omics" technologies (genomics/epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics), suggest that many potential biomarkers might be helpful in the prediction and early diagnosis of DM2. Predictive, Preventive and Personalized Medicine (PPPM) manages and integrates these data to apply personalized, preventive, and therapeutic approaches. This is significant because there is an emerging need for establishing channels for communication and personalized consultation between systems research and precision medicine, as the medicine of the future. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Within-person relationship between self-efficacy and performance across trials. Effect of task objective and task type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, Teri J; Ritchie, Jason; Hill, Christopher R

    2017-07-05

    Self-efficacy has been shown to be a consistent, positive predictor of between-persons performance in sport. However, there have been equivocal results regarding the influence of self-efficacy on a person's performance over time. This study investigated the influence of self-efficacy on motor skill performance across trials with respect to two different task objectives and task types. Participants (N=84) performed 4 blocks of 10 trials of a dart throwing (closed skill) and a hitting (open skill) task under 2 different task objectives: competitive and goal-striving. For the goal-striving condition, success was defined as reaching a pre-determined performance level. The competitive condition involved competing against an opponent. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the influence of past performance and self-efficacy on the within-person performance across multiple trials. Previous performance was negatively related with subsequent performance on all conditions. Self-efficacy was not a significant predictor of performance on any of the conditions. While task objective and task type did not moderate the efficacy-performance relationship in the current study, it is important to consider the role of other moderators in future research.

  11. Type D personality is associated with impaired psychological status and unhealthy lifestyle in Icelandic cardiac patients: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svansdottir Erla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type D (distressed personality has been associated with adverse cardiac prognosis and poor emotional well-being in cardiac patients, but it is still unclear what mechanisms link Type D personality with poor clinical outcomes in cardiac patients. In the present cohort of Icelandic cardiac patients, we examined potential pathways that may explain this relationship. The objectives were to examine 1 the association between Type D personality and impaired psychological status, and to explore whether this association is independent of disease severity; and 2 the association between Type D personality and an unhealthy lifestyle. Methods A sample of 268 Icelandic coronary angiography patients (74% males (N = 199; mean age 62.9 years (SD 10.5, range 28-85 years completed the Type D Scale (DS14, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS, and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS at hospitalization. Health-related behaviors were assessed 4 months following angiography. Clinical data were collected from medical files. Results Type D personality was associated with an increased risk of anxiety (OR 2.97, 95% CI:1.55-5.69, depression (OR 4.01, 95% CI:1.42-11.29, and stress (OR 5.99, 95% CI:3.08-11.63, independent of demographic variables and disease severity. Furthermore, fish consumption was lower among Type Ds, as 21% of Type Ds versus 5% of non-Type Ds consumed fish p p = 0.024 and to use antidepressants (17% versus 9%, p = 0.049 and sleeping pills (49% versus 33%, p = 0.019 compared to non-Type Ds. Type D personality was not associated with other health-related behaviors, aside from trends towards less fruit and vegetable consumption, and more weight gain. Conclusion Type D personality was associated with psychological distress and an unhealthy lifestyle in Icelandic cardiac patients. Future studies should further investigate the association between Type D personality and health-related behaviors.

  12. Type D personality is associated with impaired psychological status and unhealthy lifestyle in Icelandic cardiac patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svansdottir, Erla; van den Broek, Krista C; Karlsson, Hrobjartur D; Gudnason, Thorarinn; Denollet, Johan

    2012-01-18

    Type D (distressed) personality has been associated with adverse cardiac prognosis and poor emotional well-being in cardiac patients, but it is still unclear what mechanisms link Type D personality with poor clinical outcomes in cardiac patients. In the present cohort of Icelandic cardiac patients, we examined potential pathways that may explain this relationship. The objectives were to examine 1) the association between Type D personality and impaired psychological status, and to explore whether this association is independent of disease severity; and 2) the association between Type D personality and an unhealthy lifestyle. A sample of 268 Icelandic coronary angiography patients (74% males (N = 199); mean age 62.9 years (SD 10.5), range 28-85 years) completed the Type D Scale (DS14), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) at hospitalization. Health-related behaviors were assessed 4 months following angiography. Clinical data were collected from medical files. Type D personality was associated with an increased risk of anxiety (OR 2.97, 95% CI:1.55-5.69), depression (OR 4.01, 95% CI:1.42-11.29), and stress (OR 5.99, 95% CI:3.08-11.63), independent of demographic variables and disease severity. Furthermore, fish consumption was lower among Type Ds, as 21% of Type Ds versus 5% of non-Type Ds consumed fish unhealthy lifestyle in Icelandic cardiac patients. Future studies should further investigate the association between Type D personality and health-related behaviors.

  13. Type D (distressed) personality and its assessment with the DS14 in Lithuanian patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunevicius, Adomas; Staniute, Margarita; Brozaitiene, Julija; Stropute, Dalia; Bunevicius, Robertas; Denollet, Johan

    2013-09-01

    We examined Type D personality (combination of negative affectivity with social inhibition) and its assessment with the DS14 in 543 Lithuanian coronary patients. Psychometric analyses confirmed the two-factor structure, internal consistency (α = 0.84/α = 0.75), and test-retest reliability (r = 0.69/0.81) of the DS14 negative affectivity and inhibition components. Negative affectivity correlated (r = -0.58) with emotional stability and social inhibition (r = -0.46) with extraversion; correlations with other Big-Five traits ranged between r = -0.11 and -0.19. Type D patients (34%) had a ninefold increased odds of depression (95% confidence interval = 5.01-17.36) and a fivefold increased odds of anxiety (95% confidence interval = 3.47-7.97). These findings support the validity of the Type D construct in Lithuania.

  14. Vascular effects of ultrafine particles in persons with type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Diabetes confers an increased risk for cardiovascular effects of airborne particles. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that inhalation of elemental carbon ultrafine particles (UFP) would activate blood platelets and vascular endothelium in people with type 2 diabetes. ...

  15. “Team Pair Solo” Cooperative Learning and Personality Type as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Type as Determinants of Students' Achievement and Attitude to Chemistry. ... 2x3 factorial setting and a pretest-posttest control group quasi-experimental design. ... recommended that Chemistry teachers should adopt the TPS strategy with

  16. Comparisons among three types of generalist physicians: Personal characteristics, medical school experiences, financial aid, and other factors influencing career choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G; Veloski, J J; Barzansky, B; Hojat, M; Diamond, J; Silenzio, V M

    1996-01-01

    A national survey of family physicians, general internists, and general pediatricians was conducted in the US to examine differences among the three groups of generalists physicians, with particular regard to the factors influencing their choice of generalist career. Family physicians were more likely to have made their career decision before medical school, and were more likely to have come from inner-city or rural areas. Personal values and early role models play a very important role in influencing their career choice. In comparison, a higher proportion of general internists had financial aid service obligations and their choice of the specialty was least influenced by personal values. General pediatricians had more clinical experiences either in primary care or with underserved populations, and they regarded medical school experiences as more important in influencing their specialty choice than did the other two groups. Admission committees may use these specialty-related factors to develop strategies to attract students into each type of generalist career.

  17. An Investigation into the Role of Mobile Technology in Collaborative Disease Management for Persons Living with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sultan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes and other chronic non-communicable diseases represent a leading threat to health care and human development. The authors discusses how mobile technology can achieve collaborative disease management (CDM within a population living with Type 2 diabetes. We introduces a framework for CDM using mobile technologies. While it can be applied to the management of any disease, we describe a specific instance for diabetes peer-support. In this paper, we validate the framework through the development and testing of a Mobile Health initiative called Mobile Diabetes Self-Management Support (DSMS. It allows persons living with diabetes to learn from each others’ experiences through a virtual support group. The paper presents two user studies conducted. The first study captured the participants’ initial perceptions of the application in a controlled environment and the second study investigated system usage and collaboration when the application was used in their personal settings.

  18. Influence of type D personality on job stress and job satisfaction in clinical nurses: the mediating effects of compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Hee; Kim, Sung Reul; Kim, Yeo Ok; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Hye Young

    2017-04-01

    To test a hypothetical path model evaluating the influence of type D personality on job stress and job satisfaction and to identify the mediating effects of compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction among clinical nurses in South Korea. Personalities susceptible to stress, compassion fatigue, and burnout in clinical nurses have negative effects on the job stress and job satisfaction. A correlational, cross-sectional design was used. A convenience sample of 875 clinical nurses was recruited between December 2014 - February 2015. The structured questionnaires included the Type D personality scale-14, Professional Quality of Life, job stress, job satisfaction, and general characteristics. To test the hypothetical path model, we performed a path analysis by using the AMOS 18·0 program. Based on the path model, type D personality was significantly associated with compassion fatigue, burnout, and compassion satisfaction in our study subjects. Type D personality was significantly associated with job stress and job satisfaction via the effect of burnout, compassion satisfaction, and job stress. Since type D personality is associated with job stress and job satisfaction, identifying personalities vulnerable to stress would help to address job stress and to enhance job satisfaction when nurses have a high level of compassion fatigue and burnout and a low level of compassion satisfaction. The development of interventions that can reduce negative affect and social inhibition of nurses with type D personality and investigation of methods to decrease their compassion fatigue and burnout and to increase compassion satisfaction should be encouraged. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Psychological and personality factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus, presenting the rationale and exploratory results from The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dooren, Fleur E P; Denollet, Johan; Verhey, Frans R J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strong longitudinal evidence exists that psychological distress is associated with a high morbidity and mortality risk in type 2 diabetes. Little is known about the biological and behavioral mechanisms that may explain this association. Moreover, the role of personality traits...... in these associations is still unclear. In this paper, we first describe the design of the psychological part of The Maastricht Study that aims to elucidate these mechanisms. Next, we present exploratory results on the prevalence of depression, anxiety and personality traits in type 2 diabetes. Finally, we briefly....... Personality traits were measured by the DS14 and Big Five personality questionnaires. Type 2 diabetes was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of depression, anxiety and personality with type 2 diabetes, adjusted for age, sex...

  20. A mixed-binomial model for Likert-type personality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allik, Jüri

    2014-01-01

    Personality measurement is based on the idea that values on an unobservable latent variable determine the distribution of answers on a manifest response scale. Typically, it is assumed in the Item Response Theory (IRT) that latent variables are related to the observed responses through continuous normal or logistic functions, determining the probability with which one of the ordered response alternatives on a Likert-scale item is chosen. Based on an analysis of 1731 self- and other-rated responses on the 240 NEO PI-3 questionnaire items, it was proposed that a viable alternative is a finite number of latent events which are related to manifest responses through a binomial function which has only one parameter-the probability with which a given statement is approved. For the majority of items, the best fit was obtained with a mixed-binomial distribution, which assumes two different subpopulations who endorse items with two different probabilities. It was shown that the fit of the binomial IRT model can be improved by assuming that about 10% of random noise is contained in the answers and by taking into account response biases toward one of the response categories. It was concluded that the binomial response model for the measurement of personality traits may be a workable alternative to the more habitual normal and logistic IRT models.

  1. Type D personality is associated with increased metabolic syndrome prevalence and an unhealthy lifestyle in a cross-sectional Dutch community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mommersteeg, Paula M C; Kupper, Nina; Denollet, Johan

    2010-11-19

    People with Type D-Distressed-personality have a general tendency towards increased negative affectivity (NA), while at the same time inhibiting these emotions in social situations (SI). Type D personality is associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease. Whether Type D personality is a cardiovascular risk factor in healthy populations remains to be investigated. In the present study, the relations between Type D personality and classical cardiovascular risk factors, i.e. metabolic syndrome and lifestyle were investigated in a Dutch community sample. In a cross-sectional study 1592 participants were included, aged 20-80 years. Metabolic syndrome was defined by self-report, following the International Diabetes Federation-IDF-guidelines including an increased waist circumference, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes. In addition lifestyle factors smoking, alcohol use, exercise and dietary habits were examined. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was stratified by Type D personality (a high score on both NA and SI), lifestyle and confounders age, gender, having a partner, higher education level, cardiac history, family history of cardiovascular disease. Metabolic syndrome was more prevalent in persons with a Type D personality (13% vs. 6%). Persons with Type D personality made poorer lifestyle choices, adhered less to the physical activity norm (OR = 1.5, 95%CI = 1.1-2.0, p = .02), had a less varied diet (OR = 0.50, 95%CI = 0.40-0.70, p lifestyle factors and confounders. Type D personality is related to an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome and unhealthy lifestyle, which suggests both behavioral and biological vulnerability for development of cardiovascular disorders and diabetes.

  2. Analysis of cardiac images of radionuclide ventriculography in AT-Type personal computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lillo, R.; Gonzalez, P.; Ehijo, A.; Otarola, T.M.S.; Ortiz, M.; Silva, A.M.; Ortiz, M.

    1990-01-01

    The goal of this research was to produce software for the processing of Cardiac Phase images in personal computers. The results of standard radionuclide Ventriculography and Fourier analysis, got on gamma camera Ohio Nuclear 410 Sygma and Digital PDP 11/34 computer were coded into ASCII file and then transfered via Smarterm 220/Kermit to an Accel 900 AT PC. After decoding the images they were processed with a program develope in C Lenguaje obtaining the values of Phase Angles in the whole phase images and in regions of interest drawn around the cardiac chambers. The images and values were the same as those obtained by conventional processing in the PDP 11/34 computer. This is considered a first stage for the use of PC to Nuclear Medicine imaging studies. (author)

  3. Social inhibition and emotional distress in patients with coronary artery disease : The type D personality construct

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, I.A.L.; Versteeg, H.; Duijndam, S.N.C.; Graafmans, C.; Polak, P.; Denollet, J.K.

    2018-01-01

    We examined the validity of the social inhibition component of Type D, its distinctiveness from negative affectivity, and value regarding emotional distress as measured with the DS14 in 173 coronary artery disease patients. In dimensional analysis, social inhibition and negative affectivity emerged

  4. [Two scales for job stress and psychological health investigation: type-A personality and job satisfaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batigün, Ayşegül Durak; Sahin, Nesrin H

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate the psychometric properties of two instruments developed to measure Type-A behaviors and job satisfaction, two important variables mentioned in the stress literature. The data were collected from two different samples, one composed of 426 bank personnel, the other composed of 94 adults working in a private company. The findings are presented separately under the titles Study I and Study II. In both of the studies the assessment instruments used were: Stress Audit (Symptoms), Stress Audit (Vulnerability), Stress Coping Behaviors, Job Satisfaction Scale, and Type-A Behaviors Inventory. For both of the instruments, the studies were based on factor analyses. For Type-A Behaviors Inventory the analyses revealed 4 factors, while for Job Satisfaction Scale they revealed 6 factors. The factor subscales developed from these factors were found to have satisfactory Cronbach's alphas. For Type-A Behaviors Inventory they ranged between .40 and .90; whereas for Job Satisfaction Inventory these values were between .53 and .94. Both studies also included correlational analyses to specify the criterion validity values of the two instruments. The findings revealed that both of the instruments had satisfactory psychometric values, indicating that they can be reliably used in health psychology and job stress studies.

  5. Effect of Low Frequency Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Glucose Profile of Persons with Type 2 Diabetes: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Jabbour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of low-frequency neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES on glucose profile in persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Eight persons with T2DM (41 to 65 years completed a glucose tolerance test with and without NMES delivered to the knee extensors for a 1-hour period at 8 Hz. Three blood samples were collected: at rest, and then 60 and 120 minutes after consumption of a glucose load on the NMES and control days. In NMES groups glucose concentrations were significantly lower (P<0.01 than in the control conditions. Moreover, a significant positive correlation (r=0.9, P<0.01 was obtained between the intensity of stimulation and changes in blood glucose. Our results suggest that low-frequency stimulation seem suitable to induce enhance glucose uptake in persons with T2DM. Moreover, the intensity of stimulation reflecting the motor contraction should be considered during NMES procedure.

  6. Mortality reduction among persons with type 2 diabetes: (-)-Epicatechin as add-on therapy to metformin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Ulloa, Aldo; Moreno-Ulloa, Javier

    2016-06-01

    Diabetes has become a worldwide epidemic, and is growing at a rapid rate with drastic projections for developing countries. Mexico occupies the ninth place worldwide for type 2 diabetes prevalence, and in the foreseeable future, it is expected rise to the seventh place. Myocardial infarction is the most common cause of death in these patients. Although several drugs are approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes that reduce factors associated with myocardial infarction, an excess risk of death is still present. In this regard, the American Diabetes Association recommends metformin (oral glucose lowering drug) as the first-line therapy in type 2 diabetic subjects, based on its amply confirmed positive metabolic effects; however, its capacity to reduce cardiovascular mortality in type 2 diabetic subjects is inconclusive. Thus, mortality reduction in these patients has been an elusive goal, and is therefore, imperative to evaluate new pharmacological interventions that may favorably impact mortality in these individuals. On the other hand, epidemiological studies have suggested that moderate consumption of cacao-derived products (i.e., chocolate and cocoa) may reduce the risk of diabetes, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular disease-associated mortality. Moreover, interventional studies have also suggested that dark chocolate and cocoa consumption is vasculoprotective in normal and type 2 diabetic individuals. (-)-Epicatechin ((-)-EPI) is the main flavanol present in cacao, and suggested to be responsible for the beneficial effects observed after dark chocolate/cocoa consumption. Interestingly, in vivo studies have evidenced the capacity of (-)-EPI to reduce infarct size, and preserve cardiac mechanics in rodent models of ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Nonetheless, long-term studies using (-)-EPI and evaluating its effects on mortality are lacking. Thus, based on their particular properties, it is valid to speculate that (-)-EPI and metformin in conjunction may

  7. Absence of nocturnal fall in blood pressure in elderly persons with Alzheimer-type dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, A; Mikami, H; Katahira, K; Nakamoto, Y; Minamitani, K; Imaoka, M; Nishide, M; Ogihara, T

    1990-09-01

    Circadian changes of the blood pressure and heart rate in elderly normotensive bedridden patients with severe dementia of the Alzheimer type (group D) were compared with those in elderly normotensive bedridden patients without dementia (group R), normotensive subjects with normal daily activity (group N), and hypertensive patients with normal daily activity (group H). In groups R, N, and H, the blood pressure increased in the afternoon and decreased at midnight; in group D, however, although it increased in the afternoon, it did not decrease at night. The circadian changes of the heart rate were similar in all four groups, showing maxima in the afternoon and minima at midnight. Thus, a specific alteration was found in the circadian rhythm of the blood pressure in patients with Alzheimer-type dementia.

  8. Feature Extraction with GMDH-Type Neural Networks for EEG-Based Person Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schetinin, Vitaly; Jakaite, Livija; Nyah, Ndifreke; Novakovic, Dusica; Krzanowski, Wojtek

    2018-08-01

    The brain activity observed on EEG electrodes is influenced by volume conduction and functional connectivity of a person performing a task. When the task is a biometric test the EEG signals represent the unique "brain print", which is defined by the functional connectivity that is represented by the interactions between electrodes, whilst the conduction components cause trivial correlations. Orthogonalization using autoregressive modeling minimizes the conduction components, and then the residuals are related to features correlated with the functional connectivity. However, the orthogonalization can be unreliable for high-dimensional EEG data. We have found that the dimensionality can be significantly reduced if the baselines required for estimating the residuals can be modeled by using relevant electrodes. In our approach, the required models are learnt by a Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) algorithm which we have made capable of discovering reliable models from multidimensional EEG data. In our experiments on the EEG-MMI benchmark data which include 109 participants, the proposed method has correctly identified all the subjects and provided a statistically significant ([Formula: see text]) improvement of the identification accuracy. The experiments have shown that the proposed GMDH method can learn new features from multi-electrode EEG data, which are capable to improve the accuracy of biometric identification.

  9. Clinical Characteristics of Patients with Antisocial Personality Disorder According to the Crime Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan KARADAG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to evaluate the relation between the crimes committed, and the childhood behavioral problems, current clinical characteristics and anger levels of patients with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD. One hundred and fifty-three patients with ASPD were enrolled. The diagnosis was made according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV criteria. DSM-IV conduct disorder criteria and life history inventory was used to assess childhood characteristics. The State-Trait Anger Scale (STAS was used to assess experience, expression, and control of anger. The main differences between crime groups were as follows: A head trauma history was more frequent in ASPD patients who had a crime history of physical assault. Loss of a parent in childhood was more frequent in individuals who committed burglary. Divorce or separation of the parents in childhood was more frequent in those who committed murder. The usage of weapons in fight during childhood was significantly higher in those who committed murder and aggravated assault. According to STAS scores, the anger control scores were significantly lower in those who committed murder. Childhood and behavioral characteristics of ASPD patients is not homogenous. There is a need for further studies to demonstrate these differences and make a new classification for ASPD. [JCBPR 2016; 5(1.000: 13-21

  10. Association of Type D personality with increased vulnerability to depression : Is there a role for inflammation or endothelial dysfunction? - The Maastricht Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dooren, F.E.P.; Verhey, Frans R J; Pouwer, Frans; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Sep, Simone J S; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Henry, Ronald M A; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Schaper, Nicolaas C; van der Kallen, Carla J H; Koster, Annemarie; Schram, Miranda T; Denollet, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Type D personality – the combination of negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI) – has been associated with depression but little is known about underlying mechanisms. We examined whether (1) Type D is a vulnerability factor for depression in general, (2) Type D is associated

  11. Predicting the Air Quality, Thermal Comfort and Draught Risk for a Virtual Classroom with Desk-Type Personalized Ventilation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eusébio Z. E. Conceição

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the prediction of indoor air quality (IAQ, thermal comfort (TC and draught risk (DR for a virtual classroom with desk-type personalized ventilation system (PVS. This numerical study considers a coupling of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD, human thermal comfort (HTC and building thermal behavior (BTB numerical models. The following indexes are used: the predicted percentage of dissatisfied people (PPD index is used for the evaluation of the TC level; the carbon dioxide (CO2 concentration in the breathing zone is used for the calculation of IAQ; and the DR level around the occupants is used for the evaluation of the discomfort due to draught. The air distribution index (ADI, based in the TC level, the IAQ level, the effectiveness for heat removal and the effectiveness for contaminant removal, is used for evaluating the performance of the personalized air distribution system. The numerical simulation is made for a virtual classroom with six desks. Each desk is equipped with one PVS with two air terminal devices located overhead and two air terminal devices located below the desktop. In one numerical simulation six occupants are used, while in another simulation twelve occupants are considered. For each numerical simulation an air supply temperature of 20 °C and 24 °C is applied. The results obtained show that the ADI value is higher for twelve persons than for six persons in the classroom and it is higher for an inlet air temperature of 20 °C than for an inlet air temperature of 24 °C. In future works, more combinations of upper and lower air terminal devices located around the body area and more combinations of occupants located in the desks will be analyzed.

  12. Texting for Health: An Evaluation of a Population Approach to Type 2 Diabetes Risk Reduction With a Personalized Message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Anjum; Brown, Lisanne; Mukherjee, Snigdha; Abebe, Nebeyou; Kulick, David

    2015-11-01

    txt4health is an innovative, 14-week, interactive, population-based mobile health program for individuals at risk of type 2 diabetes, developed under the Beacon Community Program in the Greater New Orleans, La., area. A comprehensive social marketing campaign sought to enroll hard-to-reach, at-risk populations using a combination of mass media and face-to-face engagement in faith-based and retail environments. Little is known about the effectiveness of social marketing for mobile technology application in the general population. A systematic evaluation of the campaign identified successes and barriers to implementing a population-based mobile health program. Face-to-face engagement helped increase program enrollment after the initial launch; otherwise, enrollment leveled off over time. Results show positive trends in reaching target populations and in the use of mobile phones to record personal health information and set goals for reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes. The lessons from the txt4health campaign can help inform the development and programmatic strategies to provide a person-level intervention using a population-level approach for individuals at risk for diabetes as well as aid in chronic disease management.

  13. Mildly elevated serum total bilirubin levels are negatively associated with carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamoto, Ryuichi; Ninomiya, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Yoichi; Kasai, Yoshihisa; Kusunoki, Tomo; Ohtsuka, Nobuyuki; Kumagi, Teru; Abe, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes is strongly associated with several mechanisms of tissue damage such as oxidative stress. Serum bilirubin may have a beneficial role in preventing oxidative changes in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Limited information is available on whether serum bilirubin is an independent confounding factor for carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes. The study subjects were 169 men aged 79 ± 8 (mean ± SD) years and 205 women aged 81 ± 8 years that were enrolled consecutively from patients in the medical department. Carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque were derived via B-mode ultrasonography. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that serum total bilirubin (β = -0.160) was significantly associated with carotid IMT. Compared to subjects with a serum total bilirubin of tertile-1 (0.13-0.58 mg/dL), the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of carotid IMT ≥1.0 mm including plaque and carotid plaque was 0.46 (0.23-0.93) and 0.32 (0.17-0.60) in the Tertile-3 group (0.87-1.93 mg/dL), respectively. Next, data were further stratified by gender, age, smoking status, medication and prevalence of CVD. There were no significant differences in serum total bilirubin levels between selected subgroups. Our data demonstrated a negative association between serum total bilirubin and carotid atherosclerosis among elderly persons with type 2 diabetes.

  14. Recognition of a Person Wearing Sport Shoes or High Heels through Gait Using Two Types of Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Derlatka

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is currently an area that is both very interesting as well as rapidly growing. Among various types of biometrics the human gait recognition seems to be one of the most intriguing. However, one of the greatest problems within this field of biometrics is the change in gait caused by footwear. A change of shoes results in a significant lowering of accuracy in recognition of people. The following work presents a method which uses data gathered by two sensors: force plates and Microsoft Kinect v2 to reduce this problem. Microsoft Kinect is utilized to measure the body height of a person which allows the reduction of the set of recognized people only to those whose height is similar to that which has been measured. The entire process is preceded by identifying the type of footwear which the person is wearing. The research was conducted on data obtained from 99 people (more than 3400 strides and the proposed method allowed us to reach a Correct Classification Rate (CCR greater than 88% which, in comparison to earlier methods reaching CCR’s of <80%, is a significant improvement. The work presents advantages as well as limitations of the proposed method.

  15. Recognition of a Person Wearing Sport Shoes or High Heels through Gait Using Two Types of Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlatka, Marcin; Bogdan, Mariusz

    2018-05-21

    Biometrics is currently an area that is both very interesting as well as rapidly growing. Among various types of biometrics the human gait recognition seems to be one of the most intriguing. However, one of the greatest problems within this field of biometrics is the change in gait caused by footwear. A change of shoes results in a significant lowering of accuracy in recognition of people. The following work presents a method which uses data gathered by two sensors: force plates and Microsoft Kinect v2 to reduce this problem. Microsoft Kinect is utilized to measure the body height of a person which allows the reduction of the set of recognized people only to those whose height is similar to that which has been measured. The entire process is preceded by identifying the type of footwear which the person is wearing. The research was conducted on data obtained from 99 people (more than 3400 strides) and the proposed method allowed us to reach a Correct Classification Rate (CCR) greater than 88% which, in comparison to earlier methods reaching CCR’s of <80%, is a significant improvement. The work presents advantages as well as limitations of the proposed method.

  16. Combinations of Injunctions and Personality Types Determining Forms of Self-Destructive Behaviour in Alcohol-Dependent Clients: Findings of a Russian Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri Shustov

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This observational study, conducted 2009-2012 with 190 male out-patient clients diagnosed with alcohol dependence and receiving psychotherapeutic treatment in Ryazan, Russia, investigated whether the patterns of self-destructive behaviours exhibited by the subjects were linked to their Personality Types and which combinations of injunctions were reflected in their main personality traits. Self-destructive behaviour was measured according to the 7 Alcoholic Self-Destructiveness Dimensions (ASD (Shustov 2005; data on alcohol abuse and preferred ASD were gathered through semi-structured interview; personality patterns and psychosocial functioning were assessed by means of clinical observation, semi-structured interview, the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire: Version 4+ (Hyler, 1994 (Russian version and ICD-10 criteria except for Narcissistic Disorder diagnosed according to DSM-IV; 12 injunctions were assessed with The Drego Injunction Scale (Drego, 1994 (Russian version. When correlations were analysed, it was found that injunctions had a significant impact on the hamartic alcoholic script of the out-patient alcohol-dependent clients on the following continuum: Don’t Be, Don’t Think, Don’t Be a Child, Don’t Trust, Don’t Feel, Don’t Grow Up; client personality types had direct relationship with specific injunction patterns. Personality Types mediated the Alcoholic Self-Destructiveness Dimensions: the Classical Suicidal Dimension being associated with Borderline personality traits; Antisocial with the Antisocial personality; and Professional with the Narcissistic Personality.

  17. Uptake and Effects of the e-Vita Personal Health Record with Self-Management Support and Coaching, for Type 2 Diabetes Patients Treated in Primary Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, M.; de Wit, M.; Sieverink, Floor; Roelofsen, Y.; Hendriks, S.H.; Bilo, H.J.G.; Snoek, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    We studied the use, uptake, and effects of e-Vita, a personal health record, with self-management support and personalized asynchronized coaching, for type 2 diabetes patients treated in primary care. Patients were invited by their practice nurse to join the study aimed at testing use and effects of

  18. Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, R R; Richards, W A; McCann, U; Jesse, R

    2006-08-01

    Although psilocybin has been used for centuries for religious purposes, little is known scientifically about its acute and persisting effects. This double-blind study evaluated the acute and longer-term psychological effects of a high dose of psilocybin relative to a comparison compound administered under comfortable, supportive conditions. The participants were hallucinogen-naïve adults reporting regular participation in religious or spiritual activities. Two or three sessions were conducted at 2-month intervals. Thirty volunteers received orally administered psilocybin (30 mg/70 kg) and methylphenidate hydrochloride (40 mg/70 kg) in counterbalanced order. To obscure the study design, six additional volunteers received methylphenidate in the first two sessions and unblinded psilocybin in a third session. The 8-h sessions were conducted individually. Volunteers were encouraged to close their eyes and direct their attention inward. Study monitors rated volunteers' behavior during sessions. Volunteers completed questionnaires assessing drug effects and mystical experience immediately after and 2 months after sessions. Community observers rated changes in the volunteer's attitudes and behavior. Psilocybin produced a range of acute perceptual changes, subjective experiences, and labile moods including anxiety. Psilocybin also increased measures of mystical experience. At 2 months, the volunteers rated the psilocybin experience as having substantial personal meaning and spiritual significance and attributed to the experience sustained positive changes in attitudes and behavior consistent with changes rated by community observers. When administered under supportive conditions, psilocybin occasioned experiences similar to spontaneously occurring mystical experiences. The ability to occasion such experiences prospectively will allow rigorous scientific investigations of their causes and consequences.

  19. Pre-implantation implantable cardioverter defibrillator concerns and Type D personality increase the risk of mortality in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; van den Broek, Krista C; Erdman, Ruud A M

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the influence of psychological factors on prognosis in implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) patients. We examined the influence of the distressed personality (Type D) and pre-implantation device concerns on short-term mortality in ICD patients.......Little is known about the influence of psychological factors on prognosis in implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) patients. We examined the influence of the distressed personality (Type D) and pre-implantation device concerns on short-term mortality in ICD patients....

  20. Perception of persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moudi Albargawi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To explore how perceptions of self-efficacy, health locus of control and outcome expectancy impact the adherence of adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Saudi Arabiato self-care activities. Methods: A descriptive correlation design was used to analyse self-report questionnaires completed by a convenience sample of Arabic-speaking individuals (n = 30 with type 2 diabetes mellitus from King Abdulaziz Medical City in Riyadh. Results: More than half (53% of participants reported high self-efficacy, and the majority (77% valued health and believed that effective diabetes management was important. Although the vast majority (93% of participants believed that their doctor influenced their diabetes management, 90% and 80% also acknowledged themselves and God, respectively, as the health locus of control. Participants who perceived that they or their doctors were in control of their health condition were more likely to adhere to self-care activities, such as follow a specific diet and perform foot care (p < 0.05. Furthermore, female participants reported significantly greater adherence to medication than male participants (6.91 ± 0.29 vs 5.14 ± 2.44; p = 0.02, and unmarried participants reported greater adherence to exercise than married participants (4.15 ± 2.22 vs 1.60 ± 1.43; p = 0.001. Finally, self-efficacy had a significant, positive correlation with participants' adherence to exercise (r = 0.491; p = 0.006 and performing their foot care (r = 0.586; p = 0.001. Conclusion: Patients' perceptions of their health should be considered by healthcare providers to maximize adherence to effective self-care management. Keywords: Health locus of control, Saudi Arabia, Self-care activities, Type 2 diabetes mellitus

  1. Toward a more personalized motor function rehabilitation in Myotonic dystrophy type 1: The role of neuroplasticity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Portaro

    Full Text Available Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1 is the most prevalent adult muscular dystrophy, often accompanied by impairments in attention, memory, visuospatial and executive functions. Given that DM1 is a multi-system disorder, it requires a multi-disciplinary approach, including effective rehabilitation programs, focusing on the central nervous system neuroplasticity, in order to develop patient-tailored rehabilitative procedures for motor function recovery. Herein, we performed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS study aimed at investigating central motor conduction time, sensory-motor plasticity, and cortical excitability in 7 genetically defined DM1 patients. As compared to healthy individuals, DM1 patients showed a delayed central motor conduction time and an abnormal sensory-motor plasticity, with no alteration of cortical excitability. These findings may be useful to define patient-tailored motor rehabilitative programs.

  2. The relationship between Type D personality and physical health complaints is mediated by perceived stress and anxiety but not diurnal cortisol secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael A; Riccalton, Victoria C; Kelly-Hughes, Denise H; Craw, Olivia A; Allen, Sarah F; O'Connor, Daryl B; Wetherell, Mark A

    2018-05-01

    Type D personality has been associated with minor health complaints in the general population and dysregulation of basal cortisol secretion in coronary patients. The aims of the present study were to investigate (i) whether there is an association between Type D personality and basal cortisol secretion in the general population, and (ii) whether subjective measures of stress and anxiety, as well as indices of basal cortisol secretion, mediate the relationship between Type D personality and self-reported physical symptoms in this group. Self-report measures of stress, trait anxiety and physical symptoms were provided by 101 individuals aged 18-45 years. Saliva samples were also provided over two consecutive "typical" days, to enable indices of the cortisol awakening response and diurnal cortisol profile to be determined. There was a significant relationship between Type D personality and self-reported physical symptoms, which was fully mediated by subjective stress and anxiety. However, there were no significant relationships between Type D personality and the basal cortisol indices. These findings suggest that the association between Type D personality and minor health complaints in the general population can be explained by feelings of stress and anxiety, but a precise biological mechanism for this link is yet to be elucidated.

  3. What type of person are you? Old-fashioned thinking even in modern science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Kenneth M; Lambert, Brian W

    2014-01-01

    People around the world have folk origin myths, stories that explain where they came from and account for their place in the world and their differences from other peoples. As scientists, however, we claim to be seeking literal historical truth. In Western culture, typological ideas about human variation are at least as ancient as written discussion of the subject, and have dominated both social and scientific thinking about race. From Herodotus to the Biblical lost tribes of Israel, and surprisingly even to today, it has been common to view our species as composed of distinct, or even discrete groups, types, or "races," with other individuals admixed from among those groups. Such rhetoric goes so much against the well-known evolutionary realities that it must reflect something deep about human thought, at least in Western culture. Typological approaches can be convenient for some pragmatic aspects of scientific analysis, but they can be seductively deceiving. We know how to think differently and should do so, given the historical abuses that have occurred as a result of typological thinking that seem always to lurk in the human heart.

  4. Investigating measurement equivalence of visual analogue scales and Likert-type scales in Internet-based personality questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Tim; Dantlgraber, Michael; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

    2017-12-01

    Visual analogue scales (VASs) have shown superior measurement qualities in comparison to traditional Likert-type response scales in previous studies. The present study expands the comparison of response scales to properties of Internet-based personality scales in a within-subjects design. A sample of 879 participants filled out an online questionnaire measuring Conscientiousness, Excitement Seeking, and Narcissism. The questionnaire contained all instruments in both answer scale versions in a counterbalanced design. Results show comparable reliabilities, means, and SDs for the VAS versions of the original scales, in comparison to Likert-type scales. To assess the validity of the measurements, age and gender were used as criteria, because all three constructs have shown non-zero correlations with age and gender in previous research. Both response scales showed a high overlap and the proposed relationships with age and gender. The associations were largely identical, with the exception of an increase in explained variance when predicting age from the VAS version of Excitement Seeking (B10 = 1318.95, ΔR(2) = .025). VASs showed similar properties to Likert-type response scales in most cases.

  5. Co-occupant's exposure to exhaled pollutants with two types of personalized ventilation strategies under mixing and displacement ventilation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X; Niu, J; Gao, N

    2013-04-01

    Personalized ventilation (PV) system in conjunction with total ventilation system can provide cleaner inhaled air for the user. Concerns still exist about whether the normally protecting PV device, on the other hand, facilitates the dispersion of infectious agents generated by its user. In this article, two types of PV systems with upward supplied fresh air, namely a chair-based PV and one kind of desk-mounted PV systems, when combined with mixing ventilation (MV) and displacement ventilation (DV) systems, are investigated using simulation method with regard to their impacts on co-occupant's exposure to the exhaled droplet nuclei generated by the infected PV user. Simulation results of tracer gas and particles with aerodynamic diameter of 1, 5, and 10 μm from exhaled air show that, when only the infected person uses a PV, the different PV air supplying directions present very different impacts on the co-occupant's intake under DV, while no apparent differences can be observed under MV. The findings demonstrate that better inhaled air quality can always be achieved under DV when the adopted PV system can deliver conditioned fresh air in the same direction with the mainly upward airflow patterns of DV. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Cross-cultural analysis of type D (distressed) personality in 6222 patients with ischemic heart disease: a study from the International HeartQoL Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Nina; Pedersen, Susanne S; Höfer, Stefan; Saner, Hugo; Oldridge, Neil; Denollet, Johan

    2013-06-20

    Type D (distressed) personality, the conjoint effect of negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI), predicts adverse cardiovascular outcomes, and is assessed with the 14-item Type D Scale (DS14). However, potential cross-cultural differences in Type D have not been examined yet in a direct comparison of countries. To examine the cross-cultural validity of the Type D construct and its relation with cardiovascular risk factors, cardiac symptom severity, and depression/anxiety. In 22 countries, 6222 patients with ischemic heart disease (angina, 33%; myocardial infarction, 37%; or heart failure, 30%) completed the DS14 as part of the International HeartQoL Project. Type D personality was assessed reliably across countries (αNA>.80; αSI>.74; except Russia, which was excluded from further analysis). Cross-cultural measurement equivalence was established for Type D personality at all measurement levels, as the factor-item configuration, factor loadings, and error structure were not different across countries (fit: CFI=.91; NFI=.88; RMSEA=.018), as well as across gender and diagnostic subgroups. Type D personality was more prevalent in Southern (37%) and Eastern (35%) European countries compared to Northern (24%) and Western European and English-speaking (both 27%) countries (pcultural measurement equivalence was demonstrated for the Type D scale in 21 countries. There is a pan-cultural relationship between Type D personality and some cardiovascular risk factors, supporting the role of Type D personality across countries and cardiac conditions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effects of aerobic exercise for persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain. A randomized, controlled, clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøll, Lotte Skytte; Hammarlund, Catharina Sjödahl; Linde, Mattias

    2018-01-01

    Aim To evaluate aerobic exercise in migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain. Methods Consecutively recruited persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain were randomized into an exercise group or control group. Aerobic exercise consisted of bike...

  8. Personality Types and Burnout Syndrome in Primary School Teachers in Chile [Tipos de personalidad y síndrome de burnout en Educadoras de Párvulos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Salvador Ortiz Parada

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available With the purpose to determine differences in burnout’s level as function of personalities types and attendance in public or private school, a non-experimental study was designed. Burnout levels were measured with the MBI teacher’s version and personalities types with the NEO-Five Factors Inventory (n = 133. A set of socio-demographic variables was included. By means of ANOVA ONEWAY, differences were found in emotional exhaustion among kindergarten teachers who work in public and private school (p ≤ 0,05. Differences were also found between spectator and skeptic personality types in burnout levels, and between skeptic and complicated types in emotional exhaustion (p ≤ 0,05. These results emphasize the relevance to give attention to public school’s educator and those who had high neuroticism’s levels because they tend to have more burnout

  9. Usefulness of type D personality in predicting five-year cardiac events above and beyond concurrent symptoms of stress in patients with coronary heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denollet, Johan; Pedersen, Susanne S.; Vrints, Christiaan J

    2006-01-01

    Psychological stress and type D personality have been associated with adverse cardiac prognosis, but little is known about their relative effect on the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD). "Type D" refers to the tendency to experience negative emotions and to inhibit the expression...... of these emotions in social interactions. We investigated the relative effect of stress and type D personality on prognosis at 5-year follow-up. At baseline, 337 patients with CHD who participated in cardiac rehabilitation filled in the General Health Questionnaire (psychological stress) and the Type D personality.......001) were related to an increased risk of developing a major adverse cardiac event after adjusting for gender, age, and biomedical risk factors. Multivariate analysis yielded left ventricular ejection fraction...

  10. A qualitative study of how patients with type 2 diabetes use an electronic stand-alone personal health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuji, Kevin T; Abbott, Amy A; Galt, Kimberly A

    2015-04-01

    Patient use of personal health records (PHRs) to manage their health information has been proposed to enhance patient knowledge and empower patients to make changes in their self-care behaviors. However, there remains a gap in understanding about patients' actual PHR use behaviors. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how patients with type 2 diabetes used a PHR to manage their diabetes-related health information for self-care. Fifty-nine patients with type 2 diabetes were interviewed 3-6 months after receiving initial training on a free-of-charge, Web-based PHR. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using an iterative process of in vivo coding, categorization, and theme development. Nine themes emerged, three of which expressed positive experiences: complete and accessible record; increased awareness; and behavioral changes. The remaining six themes expressed negative experiences: out of sight, out of mind; I would have used it if I were sicker; economic, infrastructure, and computer literacy barriers; lack of patient-provider engagement; double tracking; and privacy and security concerns. Despite some potential positive benefits resulting from PHR use, several barriers inhibited sustained and effective use over time. Provider and patient education about the benefits of PHR use and about the potential for filling in information gaps in the provider-based record is key to engage patients and stimulate PHR adoption and use.

  11. Empirical models of structure of personal qualities of heads: affective type of social action by M. Weber (results of applied researches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Oseev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to methodological foundations of research of leader’s personal qualities. In difference from the previous work, which was devoted to a research of personal qualities of heads, including civil officers, at works of Plato, Aristotle and M. Weber, where were shown empirical models of structure of personal qualities of heads: instrumental-rational and value-rational social actions. This publication presents the empirical models of structure of personal qualities of heads of affective type of M. Weber’s social action. Thanks to it, M. Weber’s concept about social action receives one more approach to verification in practice. The following directions of social researches are allocated. The first direction. When in structure of personal qualities the emotional component is a dominant (“emotional unbalance”, in comparison with intellectual, moral, strong-willed and other personal qualities (diplomacy, social experience, and so forth. Those people, whose indicators of emotional unbalance are in extreme, in maximum borders - carry to psychopaths and they are an object of clinical psychology and medicine. The second direction. When in structure of personal qualities emotional unbalance competes on equal terms (equally has bright difference, a deviation from average values to intellectual, moral and strong-willed qualities. The third direction. When in structure of personal qualities intellectual, moral and strong-willed and others personal qualities dominate over affective lines.

  12. The influence of motor imagery on postural sway: Differential effects of type of body movement and person perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stins, J.F.; Schneider, I.K.; Koole, S.L.; Beek, P.J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the differential effects of kinesthetic imagery (first person perspective) and visual imagery (third person perspective) on postural sway during quiet standing. Based on an embodied cognition perspective, the authors predicted that kinesthetic imagery would lead to

  13. Medication Adherence Mediates the Association between Type D Personality and High HbA1c Level in Chinese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Six-Month Follow-Up Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To examine the association between Type D personality and HbA1c level and to explore the mediating role of medication adherence between them in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Methods. 330 patients went on to complete a self-report measure of medication adherence and the HbA1c tests. Chi-square test, T test, Ordinary Least Square Regression (OLS, and Recentered Influence Function Regression (RIF were employed. Results. Patients with Type D personality had significantly higher HbA1c value (P0.1. On the other hand, when Type D personality was operationalized as a continuous variable, only SI trait was associated with HbA1c level (P<0.01. When NA, SI, and NA×SI term together were entered into regression, only SI was not related to HbA1c level. Furthermore, medication adherence had a significant mediation effect between Type D personality and HbA1c, accounting for 54.43% of the total effect. Conclusion. Type D personality was associated with HbA1c in direct and indirect ways, and medication adherence acted as a mediator role.

  14. Non-suicidal Self-injury in Different Eating Disorder Types: Relevance of Personality Traits and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammed A; Steiger, Howard; Jimenez-Murcia, Susana; Israel, Mimi; Granero, Roser; Agüera, Zaida; Castro, Rita; Sánchez, Isabel; Riesco, Nadine; Menchón, José M; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-11-01

    The study explored lifetime prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in female and male individuals with eating disorders (ED) and compared ED symptoms, general psychopathology and personality traits across individuals with and without a history of NSSI. The incremental discriminative capacity of gender on the manifestation of lifetime NSSI was also studied. A total sample of 1649 consecutively admitted ED patients (1515 women and 134 men) participated in the current study [339 ED + NSSI (ED with NSSI) and 1310 ED - NSSI (ED without NSSI)]. Specific self-report measures were included and other clinical and psychopathological indices. The observed lifetime prevalence of NSSI was 20.6% (20.9% in women and 17.2% in men). NSSI was not associated with ED type or gender. However, ED + NSSI patients exhibited more impulsive behaviour, substance-abuse disorders and additional impulse-control disorders, were younger and had more previous treatments. Age was shown to affect the presentation of NSSI. Additionally, ED + NSSI patients exhibited more severe ED and general psychopathological symptoms and had more dysfunctional personality traits when compared with ED - NSSI. ED + NSSI was found to be positively associated with harm avoidance and self-transcendence but negatively with reward dependence, self-directedness and cooperativeness. Thus, the variables with stronger capacity to identify the presence of ED + NSSI were younger age, harm avoidance, self-directedness and self-transcendence. A lack of association between sex and ED subtype with the presence of NSSI was observed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  15. Psychological and personality factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus, presenting the rationale and exploratory results from The Maastricht Study, a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dooren, Fleur E P; Denollet, Johan; Verhey, Frans R J; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Sep, Simone J S; Henry, Ronald M A; Kremers, Stef P J; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Schaper, Nicolaas C; van der Kallen, Carla J H; Koster, Annemarie; Pouwer, Frans; Schram, Miranda T

    2016-01-27

    Strong longitudinal evidence exists that psychological distress is associated with a high morbidity and mortality risk in type 2 diabetes. Little is known about the biological and behavioral mechanisms that may explain this association. Moreover, the role of personality traits in these associations is still unclear. In this paper, we first describe the design of the psychological part of The Maastricht Study that aims to elucidate these mechanisms. Next, we present exploratory results on the prevalence of depression, anxiety and personality traits in type 2 diabetes. Finally, we briefly discuss the importance of these findings for clinical research and practice. We measured psychological distress and depression using the MINI diagnostic interview, the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 questionnaires in the first 864 participants of The Maastricht Study, a large, population-based cohort study. Personality traits were measured by the DS14 and Big Five personality questionnaires. Type 2 diabetes was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of depression, anxiety and personality with type 2 diabetes, adjusted for age, sex and education level. Individuals with type 2 diabetes had higher levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms, odds ratios (95 % CI) were 3.15 (1.49; 6.67), 1.73 (0.83-3.60), 1.50 (0.72-3.12), for PHQ-9 ≥ 10, current depressive disorder and GAD-7 ≥ 10, respectively. Type D personality, social inhibition and negative affectivity were more prevalent in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios were 1.95 (1.23-3.10), 1.35 (0.93-1.94) and 1.70 (1.14-2.51), respectively. Individuals with type 2 diabetes were less extraverted, less conscientious, less agreeable and less emotionally stable, and similar in openness to individuals without type 2 diabetes, although effect sizes were small. Individuals with type 2 diabetes experience more psychological distress and have different personality traits compared to individuals

  16. Relapse (number of detoxifications) in abstinent male alcohol-dependent patients as related to personality traits and types of tolerance to frustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, Melanie Y; Müller, Matthias J; Gallhofer, Bernd; Netter, Petra

    2013-01-01

    Personality traits like depression on the one hand and aggression and impulsivity on the other are assumed to be predisposing factors for different types of alcohol dependence. Both types are associated with sensitivity to frustration, but this may be different for the two types of personality according to whether they are confronted with frustrations caused by withdrawal from positive or infliction of negative events. It has not been shown so far if both types of personality factors and the two different sources of frustration are differently relevant for the propensity of relapse. This was investigated here in a study on 60 abstinent male alcohol-dependent patients. Correlations between the number of previous detoxifications reflecting liability to relapse and questionnaire scores on personality factors and on reactions to frustration were computed. Bonferroni-corrected correlations yielded significant relationships between the number of detoxifications and the personality factor of aggression as well as pronounced depressive reactions to frustrating conditions of non-reward caused by humans. Controlling for impulsivity, aggression and depression revealed that depressive reactions to frustration are genuine predictors for probability of relapse independent of underlying personality factors. Persons particularly sensitive to frustrations from human denial of positive reinforcers are liable to relapse which fits the theory of sensitivity to reward in drug-addicted individuals. Results demonstrate that relapse is clearly more related to aggression than to impulsivity, depression and anxiety and may be facilitated if persons are sensitive to frustrating conditions of non-reward caused by social partners. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. The Moderating Effect of Personality Type on the Relationship between Leisure Activity and Executive Control in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Nikki L.; Lin, Feng Vankee; Parisi, Jeanine M.; Kolanowski, Ann

    2016-01-01

    We examined the moderating effect of personality on the association between leisure activities and executive control in healthy community-dwelling older adults. We found two distinct personality typologies: individuals with a Resilient personality were characterized by emotional stability and self-confidence; whereas, those who resembled an Overcontrolled personality tended to be introverted, but also low on neuroticism. Resilient individuals were more likely than Overcontrolled individuals to demonstrate higher executive function and attention as a result of participation in mental activities. These results suggest that personality might be important to include in studies that test the efficacy of activity interventions for improving cognition. PMID:27087715

  18. A descriptive study of Myers-Briggs personality types of professional music educators and music therapists with comparisons to undergraduate majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Anita Louise; Young, Sylvester

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine personality types and demographic characteristics of professional music educators and music therapists. The researchers also sought to determine if personality types of professionals were consistent with undergraduate majors in those fields and personal characteristics as suggested by The Music Education National Conference (MENC) and the American Music Therapy Association (AMTA). The research of Steele and Young (2008) found strong similarities and some differences between undergraduate music education and music therapy students. The possibility that basic types extend across the life span may strengthen understanding of job satisfaction, stress, burn out and other factors affecting retention. Participants were a voluntary convenience sample of 253 music educators (n=110) and music therapists (n=143). The highest preference for music educators was Extrovert-Intuition-Feeling-Judgment (ENFJ) and the highest preference for music therapists was Introvert-Intuition-Feeling-Judgment (INFJ). The difference in the collective type of each group was their "outlook on life", which was either Extrovert or Introvert. However, both groups were the same in their secondary type functions of "NFJ". A comparison of findings with the Steele and Young (2008) study suggested small changes in personality type over time. Caution must be exercised in generalizing findings; however this descriptive investigation may serve as the basis for future studies, which should help foster a stable work force in these professions.

  19. Level of physical activity, well-being, stress and self-rated health in persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøll, Lotte Skytte; Hammarlund, Catharina Sjödahl; Westergaard, Maria Lurenda

    2017-01-01

    where questionnaires on physical activity, psychological well-being, perceived stress and self-rated health were completed by 148 persons with migraine and 100 healthy controls matched by sex and average age. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to assess characteristics of migraine, tension......-existing tension-type headache and neck pain in a clinic-based sample, b) the level of physical activity, psychological well-being, perceived stress and self-rated health in persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain compared to healthy controls, c) the perceived ability of persons...... well-being, higher level of perceived stress and poorer self-rated health compared to healthy controls. They reported reduced ability to perform physical activity owing to migraine (high degree), tension-type headache (moderate degree) and neck pain (low degree). The most burdensome condition...

  20. Institutional conflicts in Jungian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisold, K

    2001-04-01

    This paper explores how the institutional life of analytical psychology has been beset by its historical and continuing conflictual relationship with psychoanalysis. Stemming from a division in Jung's identity, that of the spiritual seeker and that of a mental health practitioner, the organizations of analytical psychology have repeatedly enacted that division, resulting in an unclear mission and considerable conflict. In England those conflicts have led to schisms; in America they have played out in internal conflicts within training institutes. Examples of areas of conflict are provided, along with suggestions for addressing these conflicts by recognizing them more openly.

  1. Effects of hand-training in persons with myotonic dystrophy type 1--a randomised controlled cross-over pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldehag, Anna; Jonsson, Hans; Lindblad, Jan; Kottorp, Anders; Ansved, Tor; Kierkegaard, Marie

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the effects of a hand-training programme on grip, pinch and wrist force, manual dexterity and activities of daily living, in adults with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). In this randomised controlled trial with a crossover design, 35 adults with DM1 were, after stratification for grip force, assigned by lot to two groups. Group A started with 12 weeks of hand training, while group B had no intervention. After a wash-out period of 12 weeks, where none received training, the order was reversed. The Grippit® was used as primary outcome measure and the hand-held Microfet2™ myometer, the Purdue Pegboard, the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) and the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) were secondary outcome measures. Assessments were performed before and after training and control periods, i.e. four times altogether. Ten persons dropped out and 13 had acceptable adherence. Intention-to-treat analyses revealed significant intervention effects for isometric wrist flexor force (p = 0.048), and for COPM performance (p = 0.047) and satisfaction (p = 0.027). On an individual level, improvements were in general showed after a training period. The hand-training programme had positive effects on wrist flexor force and self-perception of occupational performance, and of satisfaction with performance. No evident detrimental effects were shown. Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a slowly progressive neuromuscular disease characterised by myotonia and muscle weakness and wasting. People with DM1 are often concerned about their ability to carry out ADL and to participate in, e.g. work, sports and hobbies when they gradually become weaker. This pilot study showed that a hand-training programme improved wrist flexor force and self-perception and satisfaction of occupational performance. Resistance training of hand muscles with a silicon-based putty can be a therapy option for people with DM1 in clinical practise.

  2. Level of physical activity, well-being, stress and self-rated health in persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krøll, Lotte Skytte; Hammarlund, Catharina Sjödahl; Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Nielsen, Trine; Sloth, Louise Bönsdorff; Jensen, Rigmor Højland; Gard, Gunvor

    2017-12-01

    The prevalence of migraine with co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain is high in the general population. However, there is very little literature on the characteristics of these combined conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate a) the prevalence of migraine with co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain in a clinic-based sample, b) the level of physical activity, psychological well-being, perceived stress and self-rated health in persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain compared to healthy controls, c) the perceived ability of persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain to perform physical activity, and d) which among the three conditions (migraine, tension-type headache or neck pain) is rated as the most burdensome condition. The study was conducted at a tertiary referral specialised headache centre where questionnaires on physical activity, psychological well-being, perceived stress and self-rated health were completed by 148 persons with migraine and 100 healthy controls matched by sex and average age. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to assess characteristics of migraine, tension-type headache and neck pain. Out of 148 persons with migraine, 100 (67%) suffered from co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain. Only 11% suffered from migraine only. Persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain had lower level of physical activity and psychological well-being, higher level of perceived stress and poorer self-rated health compared to healthy controls. They reported reduced ability to perform physical activity owing to migraine (high degree), tension-type headache (moderate degree) and neck pain (low degree). The most burdensome condition was migraine, followed by tension-type headache and neck pain. Migraine with co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain was highly prevalent in a clinic-based sample. Persons with migraine and co

  3. Modified social learning theory re-examined: correlates of self-management behaviors of persons with Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugent, Linda E; Wallston, Kenneth A

    2016-12-01

    Modified social learning theory (MSLT) applied to health predicts that health behavior is a multiplicative function of health value and perceptions of control over health. The self-management behaviors of persons with Type 2 diabetes mellitus, internal diabetes locus of control (IDLC), diabetes self-efficacy (DSE), and health value (HV) were assessed with an index of diabetes self-care activities in 107 patients receiving insulin. Multiple regression analysis showed DSE as the only MSLT construct that correlated with the index of diabetes self-care behaviors (β = .21, p < .05). While the predicted three-way interaction of IDLC × DSE × HV was significant (∆R 2  = 4.5 %, p < .05) in the final step of the hierarchical model, the pattern of the findings only partially supported MSLT. Instead of finding that patients who were simultaneously high on all three predictors scored highest on the behavioral index, we found that patients who were low on all three constructs reported the least amount of diabetes self-care behavior. Implications for further modification of MSLT and its applications to clinical practice are discussed.

  4. Forms of Friendship: A Person-Centered Assessment of the Quality, Stability, and Outcomes of Different Types of Adolescent Friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Cody; Laursen, Brett; Mooney, Karen S; Rubin, Kenneth H

    2015-04-01

    Friendships differ in terms of their quality and participants may or may not agree as to their perceptions of relationship quality. Two studies ( N = 230 and 242) were conducted to identify distinct and replicable categories of friendship among young adolescents ( M = 11.6 years old) using self and partner reports of relationship quality. Same-sex friendships were identified from reciprocated friend nominations. Each friend described perceptions of negativity and social support in the relationship. Cluster analyses based on reports from both friends yielded 4 friendship types in each study: a high quality group, a low quality group, and two groups in which friends disagreed about the quality of the relationship. High quality friendships were most apt to be stable from the 6 th to the 7 th grade. Participants in high quality friendships reported the highest levels of global self-worth and perceived behavioral conduct and the lowest levels of problem behaviors. Dyads reporting discrepant perceptions of quality differed from dyads who agreed that the friendship was high quality in terms of stability and individual adjustment, underscoring the advantages of person-centered strategies that incorporate perceptions of both partners in categorizations of relationships.

  5. Additional approaches to DNA typing of skeletal remains: the search for "missing" persons killed during the last dictatorship in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corach, D; Sala, A; Penacino, G; Iannucci, N; Bernardi, P; Doretti, M; Fondebrider, L; Ginarte, A; Inchaurregui, A; Somigliana, C; Turner, S; Hagelberg, E

    1997-08-01

    DNA typing techniques are among the most advanced tools for human identification and can contribute to the identification of poorly preserved skeletal remains. Ten thousand people are thought to have been killed during the last dictatorship in Argentina (1976-1983) and there are few official records on the identity of the victims or the location of burials. A mass grave containing 340 skeletons was excavated using archeological methods. A small number of individuals was identified by traditional forensic methods and one family group by mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis. Due to the lack of antemortem physical information on many of the victims, the application of molecular methods is imperative to speed up the identification process. We have tested two molecular screening methods, Y chromosome-specific short tandem repeats (DYS19, DYS385, DYS389 I, DYS389 II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393) and amplification of autosomal microsatellites using nested primers. These methods can complement solely matrilineal mtDNA sequence data in the identification of "missing" persons.

  6. Organisational culture, employee satisfaction, perceived leader emotional competency and personality type: An exploratory study in a South African engineering company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Martins

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate employees’ experiences of their organisation’s culture and general satisfaction levels and to explore whether potential explanations for these could be derived from measures of the perceived emotional competency and dominant personality type of senior management as aspects of their predominant leadership style. The South African Culture Instrument (SACI, an Employee Satisfaction Survey questionnaire and the 360 Degree Emotional Competency Profiler (ECP were administered to a sample of 181 (SACI, 170 (Employee Satisfaction Survey questionnaire and 88 (ECP volunteer employees of a South African engineering company. All nine senior directors voluntary participated in completing the MBTI, Form G. The results indicated significant differences between the various biographical groups regarding the measured dimensions. The ECP and MBTI results showed the affective and social aspects of leadership behaviour to be a development area for senior management. This study makes an important contribution to the expanding body of knowledge that focuses on the evaluation of organisational factors and leader attributes that influence the motivation, commitment and satisfaction of employees in South African organisations.

  7. Forms of Friendship: A Person-Centered Assessment of the Quality, Stability, and Outcomes of Different Types of Adolescent Friends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiatt, Cody; Laursen, Brett; Mooney, Karen S.; Rubin, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    Friendships differ in terms of their quality and participants may or may not agree as to their perceptions of relationship quality. Two studies (N = 230 and 242) were conducted to identify distinct and replicable categories of friendship among young adolescents (M = 11.6 years old) using self and partner reports of relationship quality. Same-sex friendships were identified from reciprocated friend nominations. Each friend described perceptions of negativity and social support in the relationship. Cluster analyses based on reports from both friends yielded 4 friendship types in each study: a high quality group, a low quality group, and two groups in which friends disagreed about the quality of the relationship. High quality friendships were most apt to be stable from the 6th to the 7th grade. Participants in high quality friendships reported the highest levels of global self-worth and perceived behavioral conduct and the lowest levels of problem behaviors. Dyads reporting discrepant perceptions of quality differed from dyads who agreed that the friendship was high quality in terms of stability and individual adjustment, underscoring the advantages of person-centered strategies that incorporate perceptions of both partners in categorizations of relationships. PMID:25620829

  8. Age-Related Differences in the Effect of Psychological Distress on Mortality: Type D Personality in Younger versus Older Patients with Cardiac Arrhythmias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Denollet

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mixed findings in biobehavioral research on heart disease may partly be attributed to age-related differences in the prognostic value of psychological distress. This study sought to test the hypothesis that Type D (distressed personality contributes to an increased mortality risk following implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD treatment in younger patients but not in older patients. Methods. The Type D Scale (DS14 was used to assess general psychological distress in 455 younger (≤70 y,. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT, but not Type D personality, was associated with increased mortality in older patients. Among younger patients, however, Type D personality was associated with an adjusted hazard ratio = 1.91 (95% CI 1.09–3.34 and 2.26 (95% CI 1.16–4.41 for all-cause and cardiac mortality; other predictors were increasing age, CRT, appropriate shocks, ACE-inhibitors, and smoking. Conclusion. Type D personality was independently associated with all-cause and cardiac mortality in younger ICD patients but not in older patients. Cardiovascular research needs to further explore age-related differences in psychosocial risk.

  9. Association of Type D personality with increased vulnerability to depression: Is there a role for inflammation or endothelial dysfunction? - The Maastricht Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dooren, Fleur E P; Verhey, Frans R J; Pouwer, Frans; Schalkwijk, Casper G; Sep, Simone J S; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Henry, Ronald M A; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Schaper, Nicolaas C; van der Kallen, Carla J H; Koster, Annemarie; Schram, Miranda T; Denollet, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Type D personality - the combination of negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI) - has been associated with depression but little is known about underlying mechanisms. We examined whether (1) Type D is a vulnerability factor for depression in general, (2) Type D is associated with inflammation or endothelial dysfunction, and (3) these biomarkers alter the possible association between Type D and depression. In the Maastricht Study, 712 subjects underwent assessment of NA, SI and Type D personality (DS14), depressive disorder (Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview) and depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9). Plasma biomarkers of inflammation (hsCRP, SAA, sICAM-1, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α) and endothelial dysfunction (sVCAM-1, sICAM-1, E-selectin, vWF) were measured with sandwich immunoassays or ELISA and combined into standardized sumscores. Regarding personality, 49% of the study population was low in NA and SI, 22% had SI only, 12% NA only and 17% had Type D. Depressive disorder and depressive symptoms were significantly more prevalent in Type D versus the other three personality subgroups. Multivariable regression analyses showed that Type D was associated with inflammation (β=0.228, p=0.014) and endothelial dysfunction (β=0.216, p=0.022). After adjustment for these biomarkers, Type D remained independently associated with increased vulnerability to depressive disorder (OR=13.20, ppersonality may be a vulnerability factor for depression, irrespective of levels of inflammation or endothelial dysfunction. Future research should examine possible underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Has aerobic exercise effect on pain perception in persons with migraine and coexisting tension-type headache and neck pain? A randomized, controlled, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krøll, L S; Sjödahl Hammarlund, C; Gard, G; Jensen, R H; Bendtsen, L

    2018-04-10

    A large subset of persons with migraine suffers from coexisting tension-type headache and neck pain which may adversely affect the prognosis of migraine. Aerobic exercise has been shown to decrease migraine burden in these persons. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the effect of aerobic exercise in persons with migraine and coexisting tension-type headache and neck pain can be explained by changes in pain perception. Seventy consecutively recruited persons with migraine and coexisting tension-type headache and neck pain were randomized into exercise group or control group. Aerobic exercise consisted of bike/cross-trainer/brisk walking for 45 min, three times/week for 3 months. Controls continued their usual daily activities. Pericranial tenderness, pain thresholds, supra-thresholds and temporal summation were assessed at baseline, after treatment and at follow-up (6 months from baseline). Fifty-two persons with migraine and coexisting tension-type headache and neck pain completed the study. Aerobic exercise did not induce consistent changes in nociceptive pathways measured by pericranial tenderness, pressure pain thresholds and sensitivity to electrical stimulation. The effect of aerobic exercise cannot be explained by measurable effects on the pain modulation system. Thus, the positive effect on migraine burden may rather be explained by positive alteration of avoidance behaviour. Aerobic exercise can be recommended as a safe and inexpensive migraine treatment strategy. This study adds further knowledge about the positive effect of aerobic exercise for persons with migraine and coexisting tension-type headache and neck pain. This effect cannot be measured by changes in pain modulation, but may rather be explained by positive alteration of avoidance behaviour. © 2018 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  11. Type D personality in the general population: a systematic review of health status, mechanisms of disease, and work-related problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denollet Johan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective was to review all available literature concerning Type D (distressed personality among the general population and to discuss its implications for research on health status, disease-promoting mechanisms and work-related problems in non-clinical populations. Methods A computerized search of the literature was performed independently and in duplicate by both investigators on December 21st, 2009. Published research reports were included if they studied Type D personality among the general population. Nineteen articles were selected and they were subjected to an 11-item standardised quality checklist by both investigators. Results The methodological quality of the selected studies was adequate to high. The studies included in this review showed that the presence of Type D characteristics had a negative impact on mental health status (more symptoms of depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, mental distress, passive coping, and less social support and physical health status (more somatic complaints, lower health status, more influenza-like illness reporting. Other studies reported on behavioral and biological mechanisms of disease in apparently healthy individuals with a Type D personality. Finally, some studies also showed a negative effect of Type D personality on work-related problems (higher absence-leave, higher levels of vital exhaustion and burnout, and more work-related stress. Conclusions Type D personality is a vulnerability factor for general psychological distress that affects mental and physical health status and is associated with disease-promoting mechanisms and work-related problems in apparently healthy individuals.

  12. The impact of gender on the long-term morbidity and mortality of patients with type 2 diabetes receiving structured personal care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Marlene Øhrberg; Hasselbalch, Lotte; Siersma, Volkert Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: The aim of this study was to assess gender differences in mortality and morbidity during 13 follow-up years after 6 years of structured personal care in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: In the Diabetes Care in General Practice (DCGP) multicentre, cluster......-randomised, controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov registration no. NCT01074762), 1,381 patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were randomised to receive 6 years of either structured personal care or routine care. The intervention included regular follow-up, individualised goal setting and continuing medical...... = 0.005). Conclusions/interpretation: Compared with routine care, structured personal diabetes care reduced all-cause mortality and diabetes-related death in women but not in men. This gender difference was also observed for any diabetes-related outcome and stroke but was not statistically significant...

  13. Association of psychiatric history and type D personality with symptoms of anxiety, depression, and health status prior to ICD implantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starrenburg, Annemieke H; Kraaier, Karin; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2013-01-01

    Personality factors and psychiatric history may help explain individual differences in risk of psychological morbidity and poor health outcomes in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD).......Personality factors and psychiatric history may help explain individual differences in risk of psychological morbidity and poor health outcomes in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)....

  14. Exploring Type-and-Identity-Based Proxy Re-Encryption Scheme to Securely Manage Personal Health Records

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ibraimi, L.; Gangopadhyay, Aryya; Tang, Qiang; Hartel, Pieter H.; Jonker, Willem

    2010-01-01

    Commercial Web-based Personal-Health Record (PHR) systems can help patients to share their personal health records (PHRs) anytime from anywhere. PHRs are very sensitive data and an inappropriate disclosure may cause serious problems to an individual. Therefore commercial Web-based PHR systems have

  15. Advertising vs. Public Service Announcements: The Role of Message Type in Safer-Sex Campaigns and Third-Person Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, John

    Fifteen years ago, W. Davison introduced the third-person effect hypothesis, that individuals believe they are less influenced than others by media messages. Although third-person effect is a perceptual bias, Davison believed that individuals act on such misperceptions. Few studies since have tested the behavioral aspect of the third-person…

  16. Perceived Personality Traits and Types of Teachers and Their Relationship to the Subjective Well-Being and Academic Achievements of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryilmaz, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship of the perceived types of teachers (liked, disliked and neutral) with the subjective well-being and academic success of their students, and to determine how students come to categorize their liked, disliked and neutral teachers considering the Big-Five Personality Model. The quantitative…

  17. An Identification and Evaluation of the Various Types and Forms of Personal Relationships within a Sino Foreign University Strategic Alliance Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This article identifies a range of personal relationships observable in Sino foreign strategic alliances. Guanxi relationships remained the key to a successful alliance; and encompassed various levels, stages, and dimensions--making them complex and changeable forms of human behavior. Other types of relationships identified included "basic…

  18. The impact of Type D personality on health-related quality of life in tinnitus patients is mainly mediated by anxiety and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Hilke; Pedersen, Susanne S.; van der Laan, Bernard F A M

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of Type D personality on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and self-reported tinnitus-related distress in chronic tinnitus patients and whether this relationship is mediated by indicators of psychological distress (i.e., vital exhaustion, anxiety, and depression)....

  19. The correlation between the use of personal protective equipment and level wild-type p53 of dental technicians in Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puspa Dila Rohmaniar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exposure of metals among dental technicians that come from the working environment can lead to the formation reactive oxygen species (ROS. ROS can cause mutations in the p53 gene (p53. The mutation is transversion mutation GuanineThymine. p53 mutations can lead to low expression of the wild-type p53 protein (p53. Wild-type p53 involved in many biological processes such as regulation of genes involved in cell cycle, cell growth after DNA damage, and apoptosis. However, exposure to metals among dental technicians can be prevented through the use of personal protective equipment (PPE during work. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze the correlation between the use of personal protective equipment to wild-type p53 protein levels among dental technicians in Surabaya. Method: This study was observational analytic with cross sectional approach. 40 samples were taken by random sampling. Data were retrieved through interviews and observations. Wild-type p53 was analyzed from saliva with indirect ELISA method. Analysis of data used Kolmogorov Smirnov normality test and a Pearson correlation test. Value significance was p<0.05 (95% confidence level. Result: There was a significant association between the use of personal protective equipment with wild-type p53 levels with p=0.002 Conclusion: The use PPE properly is positively correlated with the wild-type p53 protein levels of dental technicians in Surabaya.

  20. Type D Personality, Social Support, and Depression Among Ethnic Chinese Coronary Artery Disease Patients Undergoing a Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shu-Fen; He, Chung-Ping

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between Type D personality, depression, and social support among ethnic Chinese coronary artery disease (CAD) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions. Type D personality is associated with CAD, and may increase patients' depression and mortality rate. However, very few studies have explored the relationships between depression and social support among ethnic Chinese Type D CAD patients. A longitudinal, repeated-measures design was used; 105 Taiwanese CAD patients undergoing a percutaneous coronary intervention were recruited between January and December 2015. A demographic questionnaire, Type D Scale, ENRICHD Social Support Inventory, and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 were completed by 102 participants (mean age = 64.42, SD = 13.67 years) at hospitalization, and at the second week and third month after discharge. Data were analyzed using t tests and a generalized estimating equation. Results indicated that 46.7% of participants who had Type D personality had lower social support and higher depression than did the remaining (non-Type D) participants. At two weeks after discharge, the improvement in social support was higher among Type D patients than non-Type D participants; the same was true for depression at two weeks and three months after discharge each. Type D Taiwanese CAD patients showed lower perceived social support and higher depression during hospitalization than did non-Type D participants. Furthermore, the more social support patients received at home, the lower was their depression. Health-care providers should provide continuous mental health care, conduct early screening of mental health issues, and ensure that patients receive sufficient social support to reduce depression.

  1. Relationship between Leadership Style and Personality Type in Three Levels of Nursing Managers in Iran-Esfahan Medical University Hospitals In 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Akbari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Proper leadership style helps proper functioning of nurses who are the most frequent experts in hospitals and improves quality of their work. One of the important factors affecting nurses` performance is the behaviors of managers toward them which is due to their personality type. The purpose of this study was to study the relationship between personality type and leadership style of nursing managers in Iran-Esfahan medical university hospitals in 2015. Present study is descriptive correlation type. The research community are 150 nursing managers of three levels, Matron, Supervisor and head nurse, from hospitals belonging to Esfahan medical university. Data collection was done by a 3-part questionnaire consisting of demographic information, McCurry and Costa 5-factor personality questionnaire and Renesis Likert questionnaire for determining leadership style. Data were analyzed using SPSS software ver. 22 in two level, descriptive and inferential. The average scores of dominant responsible personality among the first, second and third level were 36.33±5.12, 39.59±5.51 and 36.50±6.75, respectively and a verage scores of dominant organization oriented leadership style were 12.56±1.88, 11.03±4.54 and 12.30±4.40. Hospitals like other organizations require modern leadership styles instead of conventional one. Although organizationoriented leadership has been beneficial to achieve organizational objectives in short term, but in the long term it decreases productivity and job satisfaction because of lack of proper attention to the staff. Thus, applying humanoriented leadership, specially combined leadership will have much better results. Responsible personality is useful for the organization and increases productivity but it seems that in health care department in which interaction with humans is crucial, flexible or extroverted personality is more beneficial.

  2. Self-Efficacy, Self-Care, and Metabolic Control in Persons with Type 2, Diet and Exercised Controlled Diabetes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Randall, Lisa

    1998-01-01

    ... (Diabetes control and Complications Trial, 1993). Nurses' understanding of diabetes management coupled with a holistic view of person makes them the optimal professionals to facilitate patient movement toward tight metabolic control...

  3. Illness Perception and Depressive Symptoms among Persons with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Analytical Cross-Sectional Study in Clinical Settings in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Suira; Dhungana, Raja Ram; Subba, Usha Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Background. This study aimed to assess the relationship between illness perception and depressive symptoms among persons with diabetes. Method. This was an analytical cross-sectional study conducted among 379 type 2 diabetic patients from three major clinical settings of Kathmandu, Nepal. Results. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 44.1% (95% CI: 39.1, 49.1). Females (p perception and depressive symptoms among diabetic patients. Study finding indicated that persons living with diabetes in Nepal need comprehensive diabetes education program for changing poor illness perception, which ultimately helps to prevent development of depressive symptoms.

  4. Influence Cooperative Learning Method and Personality Type to Ability to Write The Scientific Article (Experiment Study on SMAN 2 Students Ciamis Learning Indonesian Subject

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriatna Supriatna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to know the influence of cooperative learning method (Jigsaw and TPS and personality type (extrovert and introvert toward students’ ability in scientific writing at the SMA Negeri 2 Ciamis class XII. The research used experimental method with 2 x 2 factorial design. The population was the students of class XII which consisted of 150. The sample was 57 students. The results showed that: (1 The ability to write scientific articles of students learning by cooperative learning method jigsaw model (= 65,88 is higher than students who learn by cooperative technique method of TPS (= 59,88, (2 Ability writing scientific articles of students whose extroverted personality (= 65.69 is higher than introverted students (= 60.06; (3 there is interaction between cooperative learning method and personality type to score of writing ability of scientific article (4 ability to write scientific article of extrovert student and studying with technique of Jigsaw (= 77,75 higher than extrovert student learning with cooperative learning method model of TPS (= 53,63 to score of writing ability of scientific article, (5 ability to write introverted student's scientific article and get treatment of cooperative learning method of jigsaw model (= 54,00 lower than introverted student learning TPS technique = 66,13, (6 the ability to write extroverted students' scientific articles studied with jigsaw techniques, and introverted students who studied Jigsaw techniques (= 77.75 were higher than those with introverted personality types studied by the Jigsaw technique (= 54.00 , (7 Ability to write scientific articles of students learning by cooperative techniques of TPS technique and have extrovert personality type ( = 53.63 lower than introverted students learning TPS techniques (= 66.13.

  5. The relationship between event-related potentials, stress perception and personality type in patients with multiple sclerosis without cognitive impairment: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewska-Prosół, Marta; Nowakowska-Kotas, Marta; Kotas, Roman; Bańkowski, Tomasz; Pokryszko-Dragan, Anna; Podemski, Ryszard

    2018-06-08

    The clinical course of multiple sclerosis (MS) can vary significantly among patients and is affected by exogenous and endogenous factors. Among these, stress and personality type have been gaining more attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the parameters of event-related potentials (ERPs) with regards to stress perception and personality type, as well as cognitive performance in MS patients. The study group consisted of 30 MS patients and 26 healthy controls. Auditory ERPs were performed in both groups, including an analysis of P300 and N200 response parameters. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was used in the MS group to measure the perception of stress. The D-type Scale (DS14) scale was used to determine the features of Type D personality, characterized by social inhibition and negative affectivity. The score on the PSS corresponded with a moderate or high level of stress perception in 63% of MS patients, while 23% of patients presented with a Type D personality. P300 latencies were significantly longer (p = 0.001), N200 amplitudes were significantly higher (p = 0.004), and N200 latencies were longer in MS patients than in the controls. Strong positive correlations were found between N200 and P300 amplitudes, as well as between the DS14 and PSS results. Most MS patients experience moderate to severe stress. ERP abnormalities were found in MS patients who did not have overt cognitive impairment and showed correlations with stress levels and negative affectivity. Event-related potentials may be useful in assessing the influence of stress and emotions on the course of MS.

  6. Transmission of DICOM 3.0 type MR data to the personal computer in the hospital without PACS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seon Kyu; Kim, Hak Soo; Hwang, Hee Young; Kim, Ji Hye; Chung, Hyo Sun; Kim, Hyung Sik

    1999-01-01

    To transmit DICOM data to a personal computer in the hospital without PACS, and estimate the usefulness of digital image management and its convenience for physicians through transmitted file size, transmission time and quality of transmitted images. The raw data of three brain MRI and lumbar spine MRI were transmitted from an MR system to a personal computer via Ethernet TCP/IP connection. The file size and transmission time of transmitted images were measured according to the matrix number. Three board-certified radiologists compared the image quality of the transmitted and scanned images. The transmission of DICOM data to the personal computer was successful and the transmitted images and their header information were displayed by various personal computer-based DICOM viewing programs. The file size and transmission time of the 256 and 512 matrix images were 136 Kbyte, 2.17 seconds/slice and 520 Kbyte, 4.37 seconds/slice, respectively. All radiologists regarded the transmitted brain MRI images as superior. One radiologist considered the transmitted lumbar spine MRI images superior, while others decided that the quality of transmitted and scanned images was the same. The transmission of DICOM format image data to a personal computer through an appropriate DICOM receiving program is useful for managing digital images and convenient for physicians in the hospital without PACS

  7. Assessment of Pathological Traits in DSM-5 Personality Disorders by the DAPP-BQ: How Do These Traits Relate to the Six Personality Disorder Types of the Alternative Model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghuis, Han; Ingenhoven, Theo J M; van der Heijden, Paul T; Rossi, Gina M P; Schotte, Chris K W

    2017-11-09

    The six personality disorder (PD) types in DSM-5 section III are intended to resemble their DSM-IV/DSM-5 section II PD counterparts, but are now described by the level of personality functioning (criterion A) and an assigned trait profile (criterion B). However, concerns have been raised about the validity of these PD types. The present study examined the continuity between the DSM-IV/DSM-5 section II PDs and the corresponding trait profiles of the six DSM-5 section III PDs in a sample of 350 Dutch psychiatric patients. Facets of the Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ) were presumed as representations (proxies) of the DSM-5 section III traits. Correlational patterns between the DAPP-BQ and the six PDs were consistent with previous research between DAPP-BQ and DSM-IV PDs. Moreover, DAPP-BQ proxies were able to predict the six selected PDs. However, the assigned trait profile for each PD didn't fully match the corresponding PD.

  8. The Interaction of Age and Type 2 Diabetes on Executive Function and Memory in Persons Aged 35 Years or Older

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eersel, Marlise E. A.; Joosten, Hanneke; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Slaets, Joris P. J.; Izaks, Gerbrand J.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally assumed that type 2 diabetes increases the risk of cognitive dysfunction in old age. As type 2 diabetes is frequently diagnosed before the age of 50, diabetes-related cognitive dysfunction may also occur before the age of 50. Therefore, we investigated the association of type 2

  9. Childhood maltreatment, maladaptive personality types and level and course of psychological distress : A six-year longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Van Hemert, Albert M.; de Rooij, Mark; Penninx, Brenda W.

    Background: Childhood maltreatment and maladaptive personality are both cross-sectionally associated with psychological distress. It is unknown whether childhood maltreatment affects the level and longitudinal course of psychological distress in adults and to what extent this effect is mediated by

  10. Further Empirical Results on Parametric Versus Non-Parametric IRT Modeling of Likert-Type Personality Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maydeu-Olivares, Albert

    2005-01-01

    Chernyshenko, Stark, Chan, Drasgow, and Williams (2001) investigated the fit of Samejima's logistic graded model and Levine's non-parametric MFS model to the scales of two personality questionnaires and found that the graded model did not fit well. We attribute the poor fit of the graded model to small amounts of multidimensionality present in…

  11. Interactional Features of Repair Negotiation in NS-NNS Interaction on Two Task Types: Information Gap and Personal Information Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Ryu

    2013-01-01

    The studies in task-based approaches in second language acquisition claim that controlled and goal convergent tasks such as information gap tasks surpass open-ended conversations such as personal information exchange tasks for the development of the learner's interlanguage, in that the formers promote more repair negotiation. And yet, few studies…

  12. The Mass Comm Type: Student Personality Traits, Motivations, and the Choice between News and Strategic Communication Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Elizabeth Crisp; Fudge, Julie; Hubbard, Glenn T.; Filak, Vincent F.

    2013-01-01

    A study of news media and strategic communication majors (n = 273) revealed differences in regard to personality indices and impetuses for selecting to pursue degrees. Showing overall agreement in the importance of openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness, strategic communication students were significantly higher in their ratings of…

  13. Shock and patient preimplantation type D personality are associated with poor health status in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Tekle, Fetene B; Hoogwegt, Madelein T

    2012-01-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shock is a critical event to patients associated with well-being after implantation, although other factors may play an equally important role. We compared the association of shock and the patient's preimplantation personality with health status, using...

  14. The role of personality traits in self-rated oral health and preferences for different types of flawed smiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, J; Gómez Polo, C; Rosel, E; Barrios, R; Albaladejo, A; López-Valverde, A

    2016-01-01

    Symmetric, aligned and luminous smiles are usually classified as 'beautiful' and aesthetic. However, smile perception is not strictly governed by standardised rules. Personal traits may influence the perception of non-ideal smiles. We aimed to determine the influence of personality traits in self-rated oral health and satisfaction and in the aesthetic preference for different strategically flawed smiles shown in photographs. Smiles with dark teeth, with uneven teeth, with lip asymmetry and dental asymmetry were ordered from 1 to 4 as a function of the degree of beauty by 548 participants, of which 50·7% were females with a mean age of 41·5 ± 17·6 years (range: 16-89 years). Self-assessment and oral satisfaction were recorded on a Likert scale. Personality was measured by means of the Big Five Inventory (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness), and the Life Orientation Test was used to measure optimism and pessimism. Of the four photographs with imperfect smiles, dental asymmetry was the most highly assessed in 63% of the sample, and the worst was lip asymmetry, in 43·7% of the sample. Some personality traits (above all conscientiousness and openness) were significantly correlated with the position assigned to the photographs with dental and lip asymmetry or with misaligned teeth. The extraversion, agreeableness and openness traits were correlated with the self-perceptions of oral health and aesthetics of the participants. Dental asymmetry seems to be better tolerated than lip asymmetry. Personality traits are weakly but significantly correlated with the aesthetic preference and oral health values, conscientiousness and openness being the most relevant domains in this sense. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Collective knowledge: Using a Consensus Conference approach to develop recommendations for physical activity and nutrition programs for persons with Type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya eBerry

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this consensus conference was to have a lay panel of persons with type 2 diabetes (T2D work in collaboration with an expert panel of diabetes professionals to develop strategies designed to improve dietary and physical activity adherence in persons with T2D. Lay panel participants were 15 people living with T2D. The seven experts had expertise in exercise management, cardiovascular risk factors, community-based lifestyle interventions, healthy weight strategies, the glycemic index, exercise motivation, and social, environmental and cultural interactions. All meetings were facilitated by a professional, neutral facilitator. During the conference each expert gave a 15-minute presentation answering questions developed by the lay panel and all panel members worked to generate suggestions for programs and ways in which the needs of persons with T2D may be better met. A subgroup of the lay panel used the suggestions created from the conference to generate a final list of recommendations. Recommendations were categorized into 1 diagnosis/awareness (e.g., increasing awareness about T2D in the general public, need for lifelong self-monitoring post-diagnosis; 2 education for the person with diabetes (e.g., periodic refresher courses, professionals (e.g., regular interactions between researchers and persons with T2D so researchers better understand the needs of the affected population, and the community (e.g., support for families and employers; and 3 ongoing support (e.g., peer support groups. The recommendations from the conference can be used by researchers to design and evaluate physical activity and nutrition programs. The results can also be of use to policy makers and health promoters interested in increasing adherence to physical activity and nutrition guidelines among persons with T2D.

  16. [The types of matrimonial relations and personal characteristics of married couples in the families of men suffering from alcoholism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhnova, T M

    2007-02-01

    The family of patient suffering from alcoholism was investigated form the standpoints of systemic analysis, that allowed revealing the leading personal characteristics of married couples. The men suffering from alcoholism are characterized by weak will, inclination to dependence, disregard of behavioral social norms, increased excitability and tendency to frustration in combination with high level of aggressiveness against the background of decreased masculine and prevailing feminine characteristics. Co-dependent wives of men suffering from alcoholism are characterized by predominance, observance of social norms, pronounced autoagression and orientation to masculine characteristics against the background of high indices of both femininity and masculinity. Such combination of married couples' personal characteristics forms the basis for development of dysfunctional relations in a family of man suffering from alcoholism. The families where husband and wife had no alcohol dependence, with harmonic functional relations served as the control group.

  17. Mystical-type experiences occasioned by psilocybin mediate the attribution of personal meaning and spiritual significance 14 months later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Roland R.; Richards, William A.; Johnson, Matthew W.; McCann, Una D.; Jesse, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Psilocybin has been used for centuries for religious purposes; however little is known scientifically about its long-term effects. We previously reported the effects of a double-blind study evaluating the psychological effects of a high psilocybin dose. This report presents the 14-month follow-up and examines the relationship of the follow-up results to data obtained at screening and on drug session days. Participants were 36 hallucinogen-naïve adults reporting regular participation in religious/spiritual activities. Oral psilocybin (30 mg/70kg) was administered on one of two or three sessions, with methylphenidate (40 mg/70kg) administered on the other session(s). During sessions, volunteers were encouraged to close their eyes and direct their attention inward. At the 14-month follow-up, 58% and 67%, respectively, of volunteers rated the psilocybin-occasioned experience as being among the five most personally meaningful and among the five most spiritually significant experiences of their lives; 64% indicated the experience increased well-being or life satisfaction; 58% met criteria for having had a “complete” mystical experience. Correlation and regression analyses indicated a central role of the mystical experience assessed on the session day in the high ratings of personal meaning and spiritual significance at follow-up. Of the measures of personality, affect, quality of life, and spirituality assessed across the study, only a scale measuring mystical experience showed a difference from screening. When administered under supportive conditions, psilocybin occasioned experiences similar to spontaneously-occurring mystical experiences that, at 14-month follow-up, were considered by volunteers to be among the most personally meaningful and spiritually significant of their lives. PMID:18593735

  18. Mystical-type experiences occasioned by psilocybin mediate the attribution of personal meaning and spiritual significance 14 months later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Rr; Richards, Wa; Johnson, Mw; McCann, Ud; Jesse, R

    2008-08-01

    Psilocybin has been used for centuries for religious purposes; however, little is known scientifically about its long-term effects. We previously reported the effects of a double-blind study evaluating the psychological effects of a high psilocybin dose. This report presents the 14-month follow-up and examines the relationship of the follow-up results to data obtained at screening and on drug session days. Participants were 36 hallucinogen-naïve adults reporting regular participation in religious/ spiritual activities. Oral psilocybin (30 mg/70 kg) was administered on one of two or three sessions, with methylphenidate (40 mg/70 kg) administered on the other session(s). During sessions, volunteers were encouraged to close their eyes and direct their attention inward. At the 14-month follow-up, 58% and 67%, respectively, of volunteers rated the psilocybin-occasioned experience as being among the five most personally meaningful and among the five most spiritually significant experiences of their lives; 64% indicated that the experience increased well-being or life satisfaction; 58% met criteria for having had a 'complete' mystical experience. Correlation and regression analyses indicated a central role of the mystical experience assessed on the session day in the high ratings of personal meaning and spiritual significance at follow-up. Of the measures of personality, affect, quality of life and spirituality assessed across the study, only a scale measuring mystical experience showed a difference from screening. When administered under supportive conditions, psilocybin occasioned experiences similar to spontaneously occurring mystical experiences that, at 14-month follow-up, were considered by volunteers to be among the most personally meaningful and spiritually significant of their lives.

  19. Personality, posttraumatic stress and trauma type: factors contributing to posttraumatic growth and its domains in a Turkish community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Nuray Karanci

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Posttraumatic growth (PTG is conceptualized as a positive transformation resulting from coping with and processing traumatic life events. This study examined the contributory roles of personality traits, posttraumatic stress (PTS severity and their interactions on PTG and its domains, as assessed with the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory Turkish form (PTGI-T. The study also examined the differences in PTG domains between survivors of accidents, natural disasters and unexpected loss of a loved one. Methods: The Basic Personality Traits Inventory, Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale, and PTGI-T were administered to a large stratified cluster community sample of 969 Turkish adults in their home settings. Results: The results showed that conscientiousness, agreeableness, and openness to experience significantly related to the total PTG and most of the domains. The effects of extraversion, neuroticism and openness to experience were moderated by the PTS severity for some domains. PTG in relating to others and appreciation of life domains was lower for the bereaved group. Conclusion: Further research should examine the mediating role of coping between personality and PTG using a longitudinal design.

  20. Beneficial Effects of Two Types of Personal Health Record Services Connected With Electronic Medical Records Within the Hospital Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jisan; Kim, James G Boram; Jin, Meiling; Ahn, Kiwhan; Kim, Byungjun; Kim, Sukwha; Kim, Jeongeun

    2017-11-01

    Healthcare consumers must be able to make decisions based on accurate health information. To assist with this, we designed and developed an integrated system connected with electronic medical records in hospitals to ensure delivery of accurate health information. The system-called the Consumer-centered Open Personal Health Record platform-is composed of two services: a portal for users with any disease and a mobile application for users with cleft lip/palate. To assess the benefits of these services, we used a quasi-experimental, pretest-posttest design, assigning participants to the portal (n = 50) and application (n = 52) groups. Both groups showed significantly increased knowledge, both objective (actual knowledge of health information) and subjective (perceived knowledge of health information), after the intervention. Furthermore, while both groups showed higher information needs satisfaction after the intervention, the application group was significantly more satisfied. Knowledge changes were more affected by participant characteristics in the application group. Our results may be due to the application's provision of specific disease information and a personalized treatment plan based on the participant and other users' data. We recommend that services connected with electronic medical records target specific diseases to provide personalized health management to patients in a hospital setting.

  1. Association of an APOC3 promoter variant with type 2 diabetes risk and need for insulin treatment in lean persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Hoek (Mandy); T.W. van Herpt (Thijs); A. Dehghan (Abbas); A. Hofman (Albert); A. Lieverse (Aloysius); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAims/hypothesis: An APOC3 promoter haplotype has been previously associated with type 1 diabetes. In this population-based study, we investigated whether APOC3 polymorphisms increase type 2 diabetes risk and need for insulin treatment in lean participants. Methods: In the Rotterdam

  2. The effects of aerobic exercise for persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain. A randomized, controlled, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krøll, Lotte Skytte; Hammarlund, Catharina Sjödahl; Linde, Mattias; Gard, Gunvor; Jensen, Rigmor Højland

    2018-01-01

    Aim To evaluate aerobic exercise in migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain. Methods Consecutively recruited persons with migraine and co-existing tension-type headache and neck pain were randomized into an exercise group or control group. Aerobic exercise consisted of bike/cross-trainer/brisk walking for 45 minutes, three times/week. Controls continued usual daily activities. Pain frequency, intensity, and duration; physical fitness, level of physical activity, well-being and ability to engage in daily activities were assessed at baseline, after treatment and at follow-up. Results Fifty-two persons completed the study. Significant between-group improvements for the exercise group were found for physical fitness, level of physical activity, migraine burden and the ability to engage in physical activity because of reduced impact of tension-type headache and neck pain. Within the exercise group, significant reduction was found for migraine frequency, pain intensity and duration, neck pain intensity, and burden of migraine; an increase in physical fitness and well-being. Conclusions Exercise significantly reduced the burden of migraine and the ability to engage in physical activity because of reduced impact of tension-type headache and neck pain. Exercise also reduced migraine frequency, pain intensity and duration, although this was not significant compared to controls. These results emphasize the importance of regular aerobic exercise for reduction of migraine burden.

  3. he effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction in depression and blood sugar reduction diabetic patients with BIS type of personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Mohammadi Shirmahaleh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction in depression reduction and blood sugar control in diabetic patients with Behavioral Inhibition type of personality. It was a quasi-experimental study with pretest/posttest design employing one experimental and one control group. The participants were 225 patients in Tehran. First, 30 patients with diabetes Type 2 were selected on the basis of interview and then randomly assigned to two experimental and control groups (n=15 in each group. Then, Wilson’s personality questionnaire and beck’s depression inventory were used to collect data. After conducting the pretest and measuring blood sugar level, the experimental group received an intervention in eight sessions of 120 minutes while the control group received no intervention. Finally, the posttest was administered to both groups. The results indicated that there was a significant difference between the results of the pretest and posttest, indicating that mindfulness-based training had a positive effect on the reduction of stress as well as reduction of blood sugar among patients with type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the mindfulness-based educational method can be used in clinics and healthcare centers to reduce stress and blood sugar levels among patients suffering from diabetes Type 2.

  4. Is there a relationship between personality type and preferred conflict-handling styles? An exploratory study of registered nurses in southern Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitworth, Bobbie Sue

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between different personality factors of female registered nurses and their method of dealing with conflict. Conflict is both necessary and absolute and factors that influence development and resolution of conflict include personality traits. Ninety-seven female registered nurses working in three health care facilities in south Mississippi participated in this quantitative study. The instruments used were the Myers Briggs Type Indicator and the Thomas Kilmann Mode Instrument, which are forced choice questionnaires resulting in numerical data. There was not a statistically significant correlation between female registered nurses' personality factors and methods of dealing with conflict. The literature reveals that interpersonal conflict among nurses is a significant issue for the nursing profession. However, according to this study, there is no relationship between registered nurses' personality factors and methods used to deal with conflict. The United States is faced with a serious nursing shortage, in part due to job dissatisfaction related to conflict in the workplace. Understanding conflict management styles can increase registered nurses' positive conflict outcomes and lead to improved relationships, increased job satisfaction, and increased retention of registered nurses.

  5. Western psychology and Muslim psychology in dialogue: comparisons between a Qura'nic theory of personality and Freud's and Jung's ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Raiya, Hisham

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, comparisons are made between a newly developed Qura'nic theory of personality and the Freudian and Jungian theories of the mind. Notable similarities were found between the Freudian id, ego, superego and neurosis and the Qura'nic nafs ammarah besoa' (evil-commanding psyche), a'ql (intellect), al-nafs al-lawammah (the reproachful psyche) and al-nafs al-marid'a (the sick psyche), respectively. Noteworthy resemblances were detected also between the Jungian concepts collective unconscious, archetypes, Self and individuation and the Qura'nic constructs roh (spirit), al-asmaa' (the names), qalb (heart), and al-nafs al-mutmainnah (the serene psyche), respectively. These parallels, as well as the departure points, between the models are thoroughly discussed and analyzed. The comparisons performed in this paper open new avenues for dialogue between western models of the psyche and their Muslim counterparts, a dialogue that can enrich both perspectives and advance the field of psychology.

  6. Student Learning Styles and Performance in an Introductory Finance Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiver, Daniel Alan; Haddad, Kamal; Do, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Many academic disciplines have examined the role that variation in Jungian personality types plays in the academic performance of college students. Different personality types tend to have different learning styles, which in turn influence student performance in a variety of college courses. To measure the impact of learning styles on student…

  7. European green lizard (Lacerta viridis) personalities: Linking behavioural types to ecologically relevant traits at different ontogenetic stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Katalin; Horváth, Gergely; Molnár, Orsolya; Török, János; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Herczeg, Gábor

    2015-02-01

    Consistent individual differences within (animal personality) and across (behavioural syndrome) behaviours became well recognized during the past decade. Nevertheless, our knowledge about the evolutionary and developmental mechanisms behind the phenomena is still incomplete. Here, we explored if risk-taking and exploration were consistent and linked to different ecologically relevant traits in wild-caught adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis) and in their 2-3 weeks old laboratory-reared offspring. Both adults and juveniles displayed animal personality, consistency being higher in juveniles. We found correlation between risk-taking and exploration (suggestive of a behavioural syndrome) only in adults. Juveniles were more explorative than adults. Large or ectoparasite-free adult males were more explorative than small or parasitized males. Juvenile females tended to be more risk-taking than males. Behaviour of fathers and their offspring did not correlate. We conclude that European green lizards show high behavioural consistency and age is an important determinant of its strength and links to traits likely affecting fitness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of novelty and type of material on recognition in healthy older adults and persons with mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belleville, Sylvie; Ménard, Marie-Claude; Lepage, Emilie

    2011-08-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of novelty on correct recognition (hit minus false alarms) and on recollection and familiarity processes in normal aging and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Recognition tasks compared well-known and novel stimuli in the verbal domain (words vs. pseudowords) and in the musical domain (well-known vs. novel melodies). Results indicated that novel materials associated with lower correct recognition and lower recollection, an effect that can be related to its lower amenability to elaborative encoding in comparison with well-known items. Results also indicated that normal aging impairs recognition of well-known items, whereas MCI impairs recognition of novel items only. Healthy older adults showed impaired recollection and familiarity relative to younger controls and individuals with MCI showed impaired recollection relative to healthy older adults. The recollection deficit in healthy older adults and persons with MCI and their impaired recognition of well-known items is compatible with the difficulty both groups have in encoding information in an elaborate manner. In turn, familiarity deficit could be related to impaired frontal functioning. Therefore, novelty of material has a differential impact on recognition in persons with age-related memory disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Personality Type Analysis of Air Force Institute of Technology School of Systems and Logistics Graduate Degree 85S Class Using Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-01

    presentation of the resulting sixteen types is: 13 A ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ ISTP ISFP INFP INTP ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ In-depth...possibilites, and relationships of the situation. The two possible judgement processes are thinking and feeling. Thinking refers to the preference for...It therefore must be understood that the letter combinations identifying the four indices, such as El, mean E or I; not a relationship of E to I (15

  10. Effect of Perceived Politics and Perceived Support on Bullying and Emotional Exhaustion: The Moderating Role of Type A Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseer, Saima; Raja, Usman; Donia, Magda Bezerra Leite

    2016-07-03

    Recognizing that bullying can occur in varying degrees of severity, the current study suggest the importance of individual traits in individual perceptions of being targets of bullying and ensuing emotional exhaustion. The present study extends the work environment hypothesis and trait activation theory by a joint investigation of the mediating role of (a) workplace bullying in linking perceived organization politics and perceived organization support with emotional exhaustion and (b) the moderating role of Type A behavioral pattern in influencing the mediation. Using a field sample of 262 employees working in different organizations of Pakistan, this study tested a moderated mediation model. Results were consistent with the hypothesized model, in that workplace bullying mediated the relationship of perceived organization politics and perceived organization support with emotional exhaustion. Type A behavior moderated the perceived politics-bullying, perceived support-bullying, and bullying-emotional exhaustion relationships. The mediation of bullying varied with levels of Type A behavior in these relationships.

  11. Eating disorders in persons with type 1 diabetes: A focus group investigation of early eating disorder risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Margaret A; Richter, Sara A; Ackard, Diann M; Cronemeyer, Catherine

    2016-12-01

    Through focus groups, we examined the development and maintenance of an eating disorder in 16 females with type 1 diabetes and an eating disorder. The quotes and qualitative data summaries provide rich insights into understanding why those with type 1 diabetes are at increased risk for eating disorders. Content analyses revealed five themes pertinent to the dual diagnosis (feeling different, difficulty with control/coping, body image, feelings, and quality of life) of which four themes were relevant to eating disorder development. Findings support early identification of those at risk and inform interventions to mitigate development of an eating disorder. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Social support and personal models of diabetes in relation to self-care and well-being in adolescents with type I diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. Chas; Hampson, Sarah E.

    1998-01-01

    , anxiety, perceived social support and personal models of diabetes. Perceived impact of diabetes, but not perceived seriousness, and peer support were significant predictors of depression. Family support was a significant predictor of all self-management measures. However, for dietary self......This study set out to examine whether peer support and illness representation mediates the link between family support, self-management and well-being. Seventy-four participants (12-18-years-old) with type I diabetes mellitus completed questionnaires assessing their self-management, depression...

  13. Personalizing Type 2 Diabetes Management: Use of a Patient-Centered Approach to Individualizing A1C Goals and Pharmacological Regimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Sharon W

    2017-12-01

    IN BRIEF Caring for people with type 2 diabetes requires a patient-centered approach to treatment targets and medication regimens. Focusing on patients' individual characteristics, needs, and treatment responses can improve compliance and clinical outcomes. Medication selection can be guided by the mechanisms of action, advantages, disadvantages, and costs of available options; patients' behavioral and psychological variables, personal preferences, and socioeconomic status also should be taken into account. This article provides an overview of patient-centered and individualized diabetes management, offers pharmacological recommendations for specific clinical scenarios, and describes a complicated case illustrating the patient-centered approach in clinical practice.

  14. Recent progress in the use and tracking of transplanted islets as a personalized treatment for type 1 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paredes-Juarez, Genaro A; de Vos, Paul; Bulte, Jeff W M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease in which the pancreas produces insufficient amounts of insulin. T1DM patients require exogenous sources of insulin to maintain euglycemia. Transplantation of naked or microencapsulated pancreatic islets represents an alternative

  15. Student Satisfaction with Blended and Online Courses Based on Personality Type / Niveau de satisfaction des étudiants dans les cours hybrides et en ligne basé sur le type de personnalité

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris U Bolliger

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to investigate differences in perceived student satisfaction in blended and online learning environments based on personality type. A total of 72 graduate students enrolled in blended and online courses at two research universities in the United States completed an abbreviated online version of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI® and an online student satisfaction questionnaire. Overall, results indicate participants were satisfied with courses delivered in both environments. Analyses revealed several significant differences in perceived student satisfaction with certain elements in blended and online courses based on personality type. Cette étude a pour but d'examiner si la satisfaction des étudiants à l’égard d’environnements d'apprentissage hybride et en ligne varie en fonction du type de personnalité. 72 étudiants de cycle supérieur inscrits dans des cours hybrides et en ligne de deux universités de recherche américaines ont rempli en ligne une version abrégée de l'indicateur de types psychologiques de MyersBriggs (MBTI ® ainsi qu’un questionnaire mesurant le niveau de satisfaction des étudiants. Dans l'ensemble, les résultats indiquent que les participants étaient satisfaits des cours enseignés dans ces deux environnements. Les analyses ont révélé que la satisfaction des étudiants à l’égard de certains éléments des cours hybrides et en ligne varie en fonction du type de personnalité.

  16. Atypical blood glucose response to continuous and interval exercise in a person with type 1 diabetes: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Othmar; Tschakert, Gerhard; Mueller, Alexander; Groeschl, Werner; Pieber, Thomas R; Koehler, Gerd; Eckstein, Max L; Bracken, Richard M; Hofmann, Peter

    2017-06-30

    Therapy must be adapted for people with type 1 diabetes to avoid exercise-induced hypoglycemia caused by increased exercise-related glucose uptake into muscles. Therefore, to avoid hypoglycemia, the preexercise short-acting insulin dose must be reduced for safety reasons. We report a case of a man with long-lasting type 1 diabetes in whom no blood glucose decrease during different types of exercise with varying exercise intensities and modes was found, despite physiological hormone responses. A Caucasian man diagnosed with type 1 diabetes for 24 years performed three different continuous high-intensity interval cycle ergometer exercises as part of a clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02075567). Intensities for both modes of exercises were set at 5% below and 5% above the first lactate turn point and 5% below the second lactate turn point. Short-acting insulin doses were reduced by 25%, 50%, and 75%, respectively. Measurements taken included blood glucose, blood lactate, gas exchange, heart rate, adrenaline, noradrenaline, cortisol, glucagon, and insulin-like growth factor-1. Unexpectedly, no significant blood glucose decreases were observed during all exercise sessions (start versus end, 12.97 ± 2.12 versus 12.61 ± 2.66 mmol L -1 , p = 0.259). All hormones showed the expected response, dependent on the different intensities and modes of exercises. People with type 1 diabetes typically experience a decrease in blood glucose levels, particularly during low- and moderate-intensity exercises. In our patient, we clearly found no decline in blood glucose, despite a normal hormone response and no history of any insulin insensitivity. This report indicates that there might be patients for whom the recommended preexercise therapy adaptation to avoid exercise-induced hypoglycemia needs to be questioned because this could increase the risk of severe hyperglycemia and ketosis.

  17. Severe hypoglycemia and diabetic ketoacidosis in young persons with preschool onset of type 1 diabetes mellitus: An analysis of three nationwide population-based surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Lena M E; Gontscharuk, Veronika; Bächle, Christina; Castillo, Katty; Stahl-Pehe, Anna; Tönnies, Thaddäus; Yossa, Rhuphine; Holl, Reinhard W; Rosenbauer, Joachim

    2018-06-01

    To describe incidence rates and temporal trends of severe hypoglycemia (SH) and of hospitalizations for SH or diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in persons with early-onset, long-term type 1 diabetes (T1D) and associations of these short-term complications with potential risk factors. This study includes data of 1,875 persons 11.2 to 21.9 years of age with early-onset (10 years) T1D from 3 cross-sectional nationwide, population-based surveys conducted in 2009/2010, 2012/2013 and 2015/2016 using standardized questionnaires. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate incidence rates per 100 person-years (py), temporal trends and associations between potential risk factors and outcomes. The crude incidence rate of SH showed a decreasing trend over time (P for trend = .004), disappearing after adjustment for confounders (P for trend = .341). In contrast, adjusted rates of SH- and DKA-associated hospitalizations did not change significantly between 2009 and 2016 (P for trend = .306 and .774, respectively). Associations between sex, diabetes duration, insulin treatment regimen, hypoglycemia awareness as well as physical activity and SH were found, while family structure was associated with hospitalizations for SH. Family structure, socioeconomic status (SES), diabetes duration, and hemoglobin A1c values showed associations with DKA-related hospitalizations. After adjustment, rates of SH and SH- or DKA-associated hospitalization showed no significant changes in recent years. Structured education programs focusing on high-risk groups as, for example, persons with T1D living with 1 biological parent and the parents' partner or those with a low SES, should be implemented to reduce incidence rates of hospitalizations. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Impact of personal competencies and market value of type of occupation over objective employability and perceived career opportunities of young professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Bargsted

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The research of employability shows tension in the social field of career, where variables such as market value, gender, and personal skills are important. The aim of this study was to identify the predicted weight of market value of type of occupation, sex, and career competences (self-efficacy, pro-activity, and locus of control over objective employability and perceived opportunities for a future career and satisfaction of young professionals. In this study, 294 graduates from 27 different undergraduate degree programs participated, describing their labor situation, satisfaction with career opportunities, and their level in the studied competences. Each type of occupation has a specific market value score, according to national and international criteria. It was possible to identify that the market value of their occupations had significant effects on objective employability (p < .000, f = .48. Also, self-efficacy and locus of control were significant predictors of perceived employability opportunities (p < .000, f = .26. This predictive value of personal variables was different between males (p = .011, f = .82, and females (p < .000, f = .34, and between occupations with low market value (p=.016, f=.45, medium market value (p < .000, f = .34, and high market value (p = .006, f = .21, which allows the development of specific intervention strategies to promote equality in labor opportunities and job placement.

  19. Type D personality is a predictor of poor emotional quality of life in primary care heart failure patients independent of depressive symptoms and New York Heart Association functional class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph; de Jonge, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Quality of life is an important patient-centered outcome and predictor of mortality in heart failure, but little is known about the role of personality as a determinant of quality of life in this patient group. We examined the influence of Type D personality (i.e., increased negative emotions...

  20. DNA typing for personal identification of urine after long-term preservation for testing in doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kimiko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Ueki, Makoto

    2017-08-01

    When the tampering of a urine sample is suspected in doping control, personal identification of the sample needs to be determined by short tandem repeat (STR) analysis using DNA. We established a method for extracting DNA from urine samples stored at -20 °C without using any additives or procedures, which is consistent with how samples are required to be managed for doping control. The method, using the Puregene® Blood Core kit followed by NucleoSpin® gDNA Clean-up or NucleoSpin® gDNA Clean-up XS kit, does not need any special instrument and can provide a purified extract with high-quality DNA from up to 40 mL of urine suitable for STR analysis using an AmpFlSTR® Identifiler® PCR amplification kit. Storing urine at -20 °C is detrimental to the stability of DNA. The DNA concentration of preserved urine could not be predicted by specific gravity or creatinine level at the time of urine collection. The DNA concentration of a purified extract (10 μL) was required to be >0.06 ng/μL to ensure a successful STR analysis. Thus, the required extraction volumes of urine preserved for 3-7 years at -20 °C were estimated to be 30 mL and 20 mL to succeed in at least 86% of men and 91% of women, respectively. Considering the long half-life of DNA during long-term preservation, our extraction method is applicable to urine samples stored even for 10 years, which is currently the storage duration allowed (increased from 8 years) before re-examination in doping control. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Treated Autoimmune Thyroid Disease Is Associated with a Decreased Quality of Life among Young Persons with Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Spirkova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1D in children and adolescents is relatively often accompanied by other immunopathological diseases, autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD or celiac disease (CD. Our aim was to assess whether these conditions are associated with changes in the health-related quality of life (HRQOL in pediatric patients with T1D. In a cross-sectional study we identified eligible 332 patients with T1D aged 8–18 years, of whom 248 (75% together with their parents responded to the PedsQL Generic and Diabetes Modules. Compared to 143 patients without thyroid autoantibodies, 40 patients with a thyroxine-treated AITD scored lower in the overall generic HRQOL (P=0.014, as well as in the overall diabetes-specific HRQOL (P=0.013. After adjustment for age, gender, duration of diabetes, type of diabetes treatment, and diabetes control, this association remained statistically significant for the generic HRQOL (P=0.023. Celiac disease was not associated with a change in the generic or diabetes-specific HRQOL (P=0.07  and   P=0.63, resp.. Parental scores showed no association with AITD or celiac disease, except a marginally significant decrease in the overall generic HRQOL (P=0.039 in the T1D + AITD compared to T1D group. Our study indicates that, in pediatric patients with T1D, concomitant thyroxine-treated AITD is associated with lower quality of life.

  2. Demographic and personal factors associated with metabolic control and self-care in youth with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neylon, Orla M.; O'Connell, Michele A.; Skinner, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Optimal use of recent technological advances in insulin delivery and glucose monitoring remain limited by the impact of behaviour on self-care. In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in psychosocial methods of optimizing care in youth with type 1 diabetes. We therefore sought...... studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. These studies have indicated that identifiable individual characteristics in each domain are robustly associated with metabolic control and/or self-care in children and adolescents. We present these characteristics and propose a theoretical model...... of their interactions and effect on diabetes outcomes. There is currently no consensus regarding patient selection for insulin pump therapy. In this era of scarce healthcare resources, it may be prudent to identify youth requiring increased psychosocial support prior to regimen intensification. The importance...

  3. A standardized patient model to teach and assess professionalism and communication skills: the effect of personality type on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lifchez, Scott D; Redett, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Teaching and assessing professionalism and interpersonal communication skills can be more difficult for surgical residency programs than teaching medical knowledge or patient care, for which many structured educational curricula and assessment tools exist. Residents often learn these skills indirectly, by observing the behavior of their attendings when communicating with patients and colleagues. The purpose of this study was to assess the results of an educational curriculum we created to teach and assess our residents in professionalism and communication. We assessed resident and faculty prior education in delivering bad news to patients. Residents then participated in a standardized patient (SP) encounter to deliver bad news to a patient's family regarding a severe burn injury. Residents received feedback from the encounter and participated in an education curriculum on communication skills and professionalism. As a part of this curriculum, residents underwent assessment of communication style using the Myers-Briggs type inventory. The residents then participated in a second SP encounter discussing a severe pulmonary embolus with a patient's family. Resident performance on the SP evaluation correlated with an increased comfort in delivering bad news. Comfort in delivering bad news did not correlate with the amount of prior education on the topic for either residents or attendings. Most of our residents demonstrated an intuitive thinking style (NT) on the Myers-Briggs type inventory, very different from population norms. The lack of correlation between comfort in delivering bad news and prior education on the subject may indicate the difficulty in imparting communication and professionalism skills to residents effectively. Understanding communication style differences between our residents and the general population can help us teach professionalism and communication skills more effectively. With the next accreditation system, residency programs would need to

  4. Stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits in persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention: the Norwegian study in RENEWING HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid; Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Ribu, Lis

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits using baseline data from persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention. We examined the associations between stages of change for physical activity change and dietary change, and between stages of change for each behavior and individual characteristics, health-related quality of life, self-management, depressive symptoms, and lifestyle. We examined 151 persons with type 2 diabetes with an glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7.1%, aged ≥18 years at baseline of a randomized controlled trial, before testing a mobile app with or without health counseling. Stages of change were dichotomized into 'pre-action' and 'action'. Self-management was measured using the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) where a higher score reflects increased self-management, and health-related quality of life was measured with the Short-Form-36 (SF-36). Logistic regression modeling was performed. The median HbA1c level was 7.9% (7.1-12.4), 90% were overweight or obese, and 20% had ≥3 comorbidities. 58% were in the preaction stage for physical activity change and 79% in the preaction stage for dietary change. Higher scores of self-management were associated with an increased chance of being in the action stage for both dietary change and physical activity change. Higher body mass index was associated with an 8% reduced chance of being in the action stage for physical activity change (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99). Being in the action stage was associated with higher scores of self-management, crucial for type 2 diabetes. Over half of the participants were in the preaction stage for physical activity and dietary change, and many had a high disease burden with comorbidities and overweight. NCT01315756.

  5. Insulin secretagogues for prevention or delay of type 2 diabetes mellitus and its associated complications in persons at increased risk for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmingsen, Bianca; Sonne, David Peick; Metzendorf, Maria-Inti; Richter, Bernd

    2016-10-17

    The projected rise in the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) could develop into a substantial health problem worldwide. Whether insulin secretagogues (sulphonylureas and meglitinide analogues) are able to prevent or delay T2DM and its associated complications in people at risk for the development of T2DM is unknown. To assess the effects of insulin secretagogues on the prevention or delay of T2DM and its associated complications in people with impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting blood glucose, moderately elevated glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) or any combination of these. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and the reference lists of systematic reviews, articles and health technology assessment reports. We asked investigators of the included trials for information about additional trials. The date of the last search of all databases was April 2016. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with a duration of 12 weeks or more comparing insulin secretagogues with any pharmacological glucose-lowering intervention, behaviour-changing intervention, placebo or no intervention in people with impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, moderately elevated HbA1c or combinations of these. Two review authors read all abstracts and full-text articles/records, assessed quality and extracted outcome data independently. One review author extracted data which were checked by a second review author. We resolved discrepancies by consensus or the involvement of a third review author. For meta-analyses we used a random-effects model with investigation of risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous outcomes and mean differences (MDs) for continuous outcomes, using 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for effect estimates. We carried out trial sequential analyses (TSAs) for all outcomes that could be meta

  6. D型人格与经皮冠状动脉介入治疗术后并发症%Type D personality and postoperative complications after undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓静

    2011-01-01

    Abstract By expounding the origin and definition of a new type of personality traits - D personality, it expounded the mechanisms of long - term presence of personality leading to cardiovascular diseases. It emphasized the influence of personality on curative effect of patients accepting percutaneous coronary intervention. And it probed that psychological treatment based on the type D personality of patients had clinical value on enhancing postoperative curative effect of patients after PCI.%通过阐述一类新型人格特质--D型人格的起源和定义以及它长期存在下导致心血管疾病的机制,强调其对经皮冠状动脉介入治疗(PCI)术后疗效的影响,探讨了针对D型人格病人的心理治疗对提高PCI术后疗效具有临床价值.

  7. Personality and Development in Childhood: A Person-Centered Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Daniel; Atkins, Robert; Fegley, Suzanne

    2003-01-01

    Applied a person-centered approach to childhood personality development in 28 diverse samples of 3- to 6-year-olds studied over 6 years. Identified resilient, overcontrolled, and undercontrolled personality types. Found that the undercontrolled personality type related to intellectual decline over 6 years. The number of family risks predicted…

  8. Illness Perception and Depressive Symptoms among Persons with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: An Analytical Cross-Sectional Study in Clinical Settings in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suira Joshi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study aimed to assess the relationship between illness perception and depressive symptoms among persons with diabetes. Method. This was an analytical cross-sectional study conducted among 379 type 2 diabetic patients from three major clinical settings of Kathmandu, Nepal. Results. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 44.1% (95% CI: 39.1, 49.1. Females (p<0.01, homemakers (p<0.01, 61–70 age group (p=0.01, those without formal education (p<0.01, and people with lower social status (p<0.01 had significantly higher proportion of depressive symptoms than the others. Multivariable analysis identified age (β=0.036, p=0.016, mode of treatment (β=0.9, p=0.047, no formal educational level (β=1.959, p=0.01, emotional representation (β=0.214, p<0.001, identity (β=0.196, p<0.001, illness coherence (β=-0.109, p=0.007, and consequences (β=0.093, p=0.049 as significant predictors of depressive symptoms. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated a strong relationship between illness perception and depressive symptoms among diabetic patients. Study finding indicated that persons living with diabetes in Nepal need comprehensive diabetes education program for changing poor illness perception, which ultimately helps to prevent development of depressive symptoms.

  9. Type D personality is a predictor of poor emotional quality of life in primary care heart failure patients independent of depressive symptoms and New York Heart Association functional class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Susanne S; Herrmann-Lingen, Christoph; de Jonge, Peter; Scherer, Martin

    2010-02-01

    Quality of life is an important patient-centered outcome and predictor of mortality in heart failure, but little is known about the role of personality as a determinant of quality of life in this patient group. We examined the influence of Type D personality (i.e., increased negative emotions paired with emotional non-expression) on quality of life in primary care heart failure patients, using a prospective study design. Heart failure patients (n = 251) recruited from 44 primary care practices in Germany completed standardized questionnaires at baseline and 9 months. The prevalence of Type D was 31.9%. Type D patients experienced poorer emotional (P emotional (P = .78) nor physical quality of life (P = .74) over time; neither the interaction for time by Type D for emotional (P = .31) nor physical quality of life (P = .91) was significant, indicating that Type D exerted a stable effect on quality of life over time. Adjusting for demographics, New York Heart Association functional class, and depressive symptoms, Type D remained an independent determinant of emotional (P = .03) but not physical quality of life (P = .29). Primary care heart failure patients with a Type D personality experienced poorer emotional but not physical quality of life compared to non-Type D patients. Patients with this personality profile should be identified in primary care to see if their treatment is optimal, as both Type D and poor quality of life have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality.

  10. DOING BUSINESS IN ROMANIA - PART II: THE PARADIGM OF THE (UNLIMITED LIABILITY OF THE ENTREPRENEUR FOR THE PROFESSIONAL OBLIGATIONS OF THE TYPES OF ENTITIES WITHOUT LEGAL PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Diana APAN

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the analysis of the legal status of the affectation patrimony of the registered sole trader authorised to carry out trading activity as well as that of the simple partnership. Representing a distinct part of assets within the individual's own patrimony, the affectation patrimony attract the segregation of the professional creditors who can pursue the assets mainly for the professional obligations. But the effect of constituting the affectation patrimony is not that of preventing the creditors to pursue the other properties within the individual's own assets in the case where they have not been satiated from the affectation patrimony. We conclude that the patrimony of the persons that form a partnership from the individual type of business are exposed up to various degrees to be being pursued for the obligations towards the third parties.

  11. The clinician factor: Personality characteristics of clinicians and their impact upon clinical outcomes in the management of children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Fergus J; Russell, Ellyn; McCombe, Julia; O'Connell, Michele A; Skinner, Timothy

    2018-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate clinician qualities that influence metabolic outcomes in youth with type 1 diabetes. Data were gathered over two 3 month periods in a large tertiary diabetes center (1500 patients, 8 clinicians) from patients with type 1 diabetes who received continuous care from each clinician. Data included sex, age, diabetes duration, insulin regimen, body mass index (BMI), insulin dose and episodes of severe hypoglycemia. Clinician data included target blood glucose levels, target glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), Diabetes Attitude Scale and Big 5 Personality Inventory Scale. Mean HbA1c per clinician was the primary outcome variable. The 8 clinicians saw a total of 464 patients during the first time period, and 603 in the second time period. Lowest to highest mean HbA1c per clinician varied by 0.7%. There were small but statistically significant differences between clinicians with their patients' age at diagnosis, duration of diabetes, age, gender, treatment type and BMI SD score. After controlling for these differences, the clinician characteristics that were associated with lower mean HbA1c were having no lower limit in target HbA1c and being self-reportedly "less agreeable." The impact of these clinician attitudinal traits was equivalent to the combined effects of patient characteristics and treatment type. There was a significant variation in metabolic outcomes between treating clinicians. After controlling for patient clinical differences, clinician mean HbA1c was associated with lower limit in target HbA1c and being "less agreeable." Clinicians who were more demanding and dogmatic appeared to have better outcomes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Personality and Adult Perceptions of Childhood Dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacka, Brian

    This study used adult recall of childhood dreams to test Cann and Donderi's (1986) findings that Jungian intuitives recall more archetypal dreams than do sensate subjects, and that introverts recall more everyday dreams than extraverts. It was hypothesized that since dreams recalled from childhood are relatively high in archetypal content, there…

  13. Effectiveness of Personalized Feedback Alone or Combined with Peer Support to Improve Physical Activity in Sedentary Older Malays with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazlina, Shariff-Ghazali; Browning, Colette Joy; Yasin, Shajahan

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity is an important aspect of self-management among older people with type 2 diabetes but many remain inactive. Interventions to improve physical activity levels have been studied but few studies have evaluated the effects of personalized feedback (PF) or peer support (PS); and there was no study on older people of Asian heritage. Hence, this trial evaluated whether PF only or combined with PS improves physical activity among older Malays with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) compared to usual care only. A three-arm randomized controlled trial was conducted in a primary healthcare clinic in Malaysia. Sixty-nine sedentary Malays aged 60 years and older with T2DM who received usual diabetes care were randomized to PF or PS interventions or as controls for 12 weeks with follow-ups at weeks 24 and 36. Intervention groups performed unsupervised walking activity and received written feedback on physical activity. The PS group also received group and telephone contacts from trained peer mentors. The primary outcome was pedometer steps. Secondary outcomes were self-reported physical activity, cardiovascular risk factors, cardiorespiratory fitness, balance, quality of life, and psychosocial wellbeing. Fifty-two (75.4%) completed the 36-week study. The PS group showed greater daily pedometer readings than the PF and controls (p = 0.001). The PS group also had greater improvement in weekly duration (p fitness, and support from friends. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN71447000.

  14. Personality correlates of the Five-Factor Model for a sample of business owners/managers: associations with scores on Self-Monitoring, Type A Behavior, Locus of Control, and Subjective Well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, K A

    1997-02-01

    Bivariate relationships were examined between scores on the Five-Factor Model of personality and four personality dimensions including Self-monitoring, Locus of Control, Type A Behavior, and Subjective Well-being. Data were collected from 307 franchise business owner/managers from four different industries. Scores for Self-monitoring were positively related to those on Extraversion; Self-monitoring was the only personality measure significantly correlated with scores on Openness to Experience. Scores for Type A Behavior, measured by the Jenkins Activity Survey, were negatively correlated with Agreeableness and positively correlated with those for Extraversion. Somewhat surprisingly, the score for Type A Behavior had a relatively low correlation with the score for Conscientiousness. Scores for Subjective Well-being and Locus of Control were most strongly correlated with the positive pole of Neuroticism (Emotional Stability), Conscientiousness, and Extraversion. Possible explanations for the observed relationships are discussed.

  15. Screen media time usage of 12-16 year-old Spanish school adolescents: Effects of personal and socioeconomic factors, season and type of day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devís-Devís, José; Peiró-Velert, Carmen; Beltrán-Carrillo, Vicente J; Tomás, José Manuel

    2009-04-01

    This study examined screen media time usage (SMTU) and its association with personal and socioeconomic factors, as well as the effect of season and type of day, in a Spanish sample of 12-16 year-old school adolescents (N=323). The research design was a cross-sectional survey, in which an interviewer-administered recall questionnaire was used. Statistical analyses included repeated measures analyses of variance, analysis of covariance and structural equation models. Results showed an average of 2.52h per day of total SMTU and partial times of 1.73h per day in TV viewing, 0.27h per day in computer/videogames, and 0.52h per day in mobile use. Four significant predictors of SMTU emerged. Firstly, the type of school was associated with the three media of our study, particularly students from state/public school spent more time on them than their private schools counterparts. Secondly, older adolescents (14-16 years old) were more likely to use computer/videogame and mobile phone than younger adolescents. Thirdly, the more accessibility to household technology the more probable computer/videogames and mobile phone were used. Finally, boys spent significantly more time in mobile phone than girls. Additionally, results revealed that adolescents seemed to consume more TV and computer/videogames in autumn than in winter, and more TV and mobile phones on weekends than on weekdays, especially among state school students. Findings from this study contribute to the existing knowledge on adolescents' SMTU patterns that can be transferred to families and policies.

  16. Psychometric evaluation of the short version of the Personal Diabetes Questionnaire to assess dietary behaviors and exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akohoue, Sylvie A; Wallston, Kenneth A; Schlundt, David G; Rothman, Russell L

    2017-08-01

    Patients with diabetes and of lower socioeconomic status have difficulty adhering to dietary recommendations. Practical and effective tools assessing self-management behaviors are needed to help evaluate interventions tailored to the needs of individual patients or population groups. This study examined the psychometric properties of a short 11-item version of the Personal Diabetes Questionnaire scale (PDQ-11) using data from the Public-Private Partnership to Improve Diabetes Education trial. Patients (n=411) with type 2 diabetes from ten safety net primary care clinics in the Mid-Cumberland Region of Tennessee completed the PDQ-11, the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA), the Perceived Diabetes Self-Management Scale (PDSMS), and the Adherence to Refills and Medications Scale (ARMS). Statistical analyses were conducted to explore the subscale structure of the PDQ-11, and the internal consistency and validity of its subscales. Exploratory factor analysis of the PDQ-11 revealed four components (Cronbach's α=0.50 to 0.81): Eating Behavior Problems; Use of Information for Dietary Decision Making; Calorie Restriction; and Activity and Exercise. Eating Behavior Problems and Use of Information for Dietary Decision Making had the strongest associations with the diet subscales of the SDSCA and were also correlated with the PDSMS and the ARMS scores (all ps<0.001). Different PDQ-11 subscales were correlated with BMI (Calorie Restriction Activity and Exercise) and blood pressure (Eating Behavior Problems). The PDQ-11 is a useful measure of dietary behaviors in patients with type 2 diabetes; its use may help providers tailor individual nutrition intervention strategies to patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Viscoelasticity as a measurement of clot structure in poorly controlled type 2 diabetes patients: towards a precision and personalized medicine approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, Etheresia; Bester, Janette

    2016-08-09

    Type 2 diabetes patients (T2D) have a considerably higher cardiovascular risk, which is closely associated with systemic inflammation, and an accompanying pathologic coagulation system. Due to the complexity of the diabetic profile, we suggest that we need to look at each patient individually and particularly at his or her clotting profile; as the healthiness of the coagulation system gives us an indication of the success of clinical intervention. T2D coagulability varied markedly, although there were no clear difference in medication use and the standards of HbA1c levels. Our sample consisted of 90 poorly controlled T2D and 71 healthy individuals. We investigated the medication use and standards of HbA1c levels of T2D and we used thromboelastography (TEG) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to study their clot formation. The latest NIH guidelines suggest that clinical medicine should focus on precision medicine, and the current broad understanding is that precision medicine may in future, provide personalized targets for preventative and therapeutic interventions. Here we suggest a practical example where TEG can be used as an easily accessible point-of-care tool to establish a comprehensive clotting profile analysis for T2D patients; and additionally may provide valuable information that may be used in the envisaged precision medicine approach. Only by closely following each individual patient's progress and healthiness and thereby managing systemic inflammation, will we be able to reduce this pandemic.

  18. The Added Value of Log File Analyses of the Use of a Personal Health Record for Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieverink, Floor; Kelders, Saskia M; Braakman-Jansen, Louise M A; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E W C

    2014-03-01

    The electronic personal health record (PHR) is a promising technology for improving the quality of chronic disease management. Until now, evaluations of such systems have provided only little insight into why a particular outcome occurred. The aim of this study is to gain insight into the navigation process (what functionalities are used, and in what sequence) of e-Vita, a PHR for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), to increase the efficiency of the system and improve the long-term adherence. Log data of the first visits in the first 6 weeks after the release of a renewed version of e-Vita were analyzed to identify the usage patterns that emerge when users explore a new application. After receiving the invitation, 28% of all registered users visited e-Vita. In total, 70 unique usage patterns could be identified. When users visited the education service first, 93% of all users ended their session. Most users visited either 1 or 5 or more services during their first session, but the distribution of the routes was diffuse. In conclusion, log file analyses can provide valuable prompts for improving the system design of a PHR. In this way, the match between the system and its users and the long-term adherence has the potential to increase. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  19. Five loaves and two fishes: An empirical study in psychological type and biblical hermeneutics among Anglican preachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie J. Francis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The sensing, intuition, feeling and thinking (SIFT method of biblical hermeneutics and liturgical preaching has its roots in three fields: a theology of individual differences situated within the doctrine of creation, an application of Jungian psychological-type theory and empirical observation. The present study tested the empirical foundations for this method by examining the psychological-type profile of two groups of Anglican preachers (24 licensed readers in England and 22 licensed clergy in Northern Ireland and by examining the content of their preaching according to their dominant psychological-type preferences. These data provided further support for the psychological principles underpinning the SIFT method of biblical hermeneutics and liturgical preaching.

  20. The effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on hemoglobin A1c levels in persons with type 2 diabetes and chronic periodontitis: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretson, Steven P; Hyman, Leslie G; Michalowicz, Bryan S; Schoenfeld, Elinor R; Gelato, Marie C; Hou, Wei; Seaquist, Elizabeth R; Reddy, Michael S; Lewis, Cora E; Oates, Thomas W; Tripathy, Devjit; Katancik, James A; Orlander, Philip R; Paquette, David W; Hanson, Naomi Q; Tsai, Michael Y

    2013-12-18

    Chronic periodontitis, a destructive inflammatory disorder of the supporting structures of the teeth, is prevalent in patients with diabetes. Limited evidence suggests that periodontal therapy may improve glycemic control. To determine if nonsurgical periodontal treatment reduces levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in persons with type 2 diabetes and moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis. The Diabetes and Periodontal Therapy Trial (DPTT), a 6-month, single-masked, multicenter, randomized clinical trial. Participants had type 2 diabetes, were taking stable doses of medications, had HbA1c levels between 7% and less than 9%, and untreated chronic periodontitis. Five hundred fourteen participants were enrolled between November 2009 and March 2012 from diabetes and dental clinics and communities affiliated with 5 academic medical centers. The treatment group (n = 257) received scaling and root planing plus chlorhexidine oral rinse at baseline and supportive periodontal therapy at 3 and 6 months. The control group (n = 257) received no treatment for 6 months. Difference in change in HbA1c level from baseline between groups at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included changes in probing pocket depths, clinical attachment loss, bleeding on probing, gingival index, fasting glucose level, and Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA2) score. Enrollment was stopped early because of futility. At 6 months, mean HbA1c levels in the periodontal therapy group increased 0.17% (SD, 1.0), compared with 0.11% (SD, 1.0) in the control group, with no significant difference between groups based on a linear regression model adjusting for clinical site (mean difference, -0.05% [95% CI, -0.23% to 0.12%]; P = .55). Periodontal measures improved in the treatment group compared with the control group at 6 months, with adjusted between-group differences of 0.28 mm (95% CI, 0.18 to 0.37) for probing depth, 0.25 mm (95% CI, 0.14 to 0.36) for clinical attachment loss, 13.1% (95% CI, 8

  1. Jung in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gitz-Johansen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    -Jungian inspiration are identified: Mytho-historical education, holistic education, archetypal pedagogy, educating imagination, educating different personality types, and transformative education. Finally it is suggested, that while analytical psychology may never occupy a place in the mainstream of educational......This article is a review of the influence of analytical psychology within the field of education. The influence of analytical psychology on the mainstream of educational thought and practice has never been great. However, Jung himself gave a number of lectures on education and post-Jungians have...... further explored the relevance of analytical thought in education. The article first outlines Jung’s own thoughts about education and their reception in primarily North-America and England. The second half of the article discusses the post-Jungian contributions. Six different strands of post...

  2. Jungian constructivism and the value of uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young-Eisendrath, P

    1997-10-01

    Introducing the basic assumptions of constructivism as a philosophical position, this paper illustrates how Jung's psychology-especially complex, archetype and transcendent function-is consonant with constructivism. Further, the paper explores some clinical implications of constructivism by reviewing the problems of chronic projective-identification in a stalemated analytic case, drawing on the contributions of Winnicott, Ogden and Modell in expanding our understanding of, and facility with, the transcendent function.

  3. Proposed changes in personality and personality disorder assessment and diagnosis for DSM-5 part I: description and rationale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skodol, A.E.; Clark, L.A.; Bender, D.S.; Krueger, R.F.; Morey, L.C.; Verheul, R.; Alarcon, R.D.; Bell, C.C.; Siever, L.J.; Oldham, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    A major reconceptualization of personality psychopathology has been proposed for DSM-5 that identifies core impairments in personality functioning, pathological personality traits, and prominent pathological personality types. A comprehensive personality assessment consists of four components:

  4. Selecting Personal Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djang, Philipp A.

    1993-01-01

    Describes a Multiple Criteria Decision Analysis Approach for the selection of personal computers that combines the capabilities of Analytic Hierarchy Process and Integer Goal Programing. An example of how decision makers can use this approach to determine what kind of personal computers and how many of each type to purchase is given. (nine…

  5. On Person Deixis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段翠霞

    2005-01-01

    Deixis is one of the important topics in pragmatics.Deixis can be classified into different types, but this paper only focuses on person deixis.Through the detail analysis of the usage of it we come to the conclusion that in order to understand utterances better we need to make clear the complexity of person deixis.

  6. Characterizing Active Ingredients of eHealth Interventions Targeting Persons With Poorly Controlled Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Using the Behavior Change Techniques Taxonomy: Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Mihiretu M; Liedtke, Tatjana P; Möllers, Tobias; Pischke, Claudia R

    2017-10-12

    The behavior change technique taxonomy v1 (BCTTv1; Michie and colleagues, 2013) is a comprehensive tool to characterize active ingredients of interventions and includes 93 labels that are hierarchically clustered into 16 hierarchical clusters. The aim of this study was to identify the active ingredients in electronic health (eHealth) interventions targeting patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and relevant outcomes. We conducted a scoping review using the BCTTv1. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), studies with or pre-post-test designs, and quasi-experimental studies examining efficacy and effectiveness of eHealth interventions for disease management or the promotion of relevant health behaviors were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycINFO. Reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts for eligibility using predetermined eligibility criteria. Data were extracted following a data extraction sheet. The BCTTv1 was used to characterize active ingredients of the interventions reported in the included studies. Of the 1404 unique records screened, 32 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and reported results on the efficacy and or or effectiveness of interventions. Of the included 32 studies, 18 (56%) were Web-based interventions delivered via personal digital assistant (PDA), tablet, computer, and/or mobile phones; 7 (22%) were telehealth interventions delivered via landline; 6 (19%) made use of text messaging (short service message, SMS); and 1 employed videoconferencing (3%). Of the 16 hierarchical clusters of the BCTTv1, 11 were identified in interventions included in this review. Of the 93 individual behavior change techniques (BCTs), 31 were identified as active ingredients of the interventions. The most common BCTs identified were instruction on how to perform behavior, adding objects to the environment, information about health consequences, self-monitoring of the outcomes and/or and prefers to be

  7. Type D personality is associated with increased anxiety and depressive symptoms in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator and their partners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne S.; van Domburg, Ron T; Theuns, Dominic A M J

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and their partners, and the role of personality factors and social support as determinants of distress....

  8. Personal monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Sources of ionizing radiation have innumerable applications in the workplace. The potential exposures of the individual workers involved may need to be routinely monitored and records kept of their cumulative radiation doses. There are also occasions when it is necessary to retrospectively determine a dose which may have been received by a worker. This Module explains the basic terminology associated with personal monitoring and describes the principal types of dosimeters and other related techniques and their application in the workplace. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a qualified expert in radiation protection. Most of the dosimeters and techniques described in this Module can only be provided by qualified experts

  9. Type tests to the automatic thermoluminescent dosimetry system acquired by the CPHR for personal dosimetry; Pruebas tipo al sistema de dosimetria termoluminiscente automatico adquirido por el CPHR para dosimetria personal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina P, D.; Pernas S, R.; Martinez G, A. [Centro de Proteccion e Higiene de las Radiaciones (CPHR), Calle 20 No. 4113 e/41 y 47. Playa, C.P. 11300, A.P. 6195, C.P. 10600 La Habana (Cuba)

    2006-07-01

    The CPHR individual monitoring service acquired an automatic RADOS TLD system to improve its capacities to satisfy the increasing needs of their national customers. The TLD system consists of: two automatic TLD reader, model DOSACUS, a TLD irradiator and personal dosimeters card including slide and holders. The dosimeters were composed by this personal dosimeters card and LiF:Mg,Cu,P (model GR-200) detectors. These readers provide to detectors a constant temperature readout cycle using hot nitrogen gas. In order to evaluate the performance characteristics of the system, different performance tests recommended by the IEC 1066 standard were carried out. Important dosimetric characteristics evaluated were batch homogeneity, reproducibility, detection threshold, energy dependence, residual signal and fading. The results of the tests showed good performance characteristics of the system. (Author)

  10. The Relationship of Stated Learning Preferences, Personality Type, and Career Background to Academic and Leadership Performance at the United States Air Command and Staff College

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-12-11

    Kolb envisioned experiential 26 Table 2 Subscales on the NASSP Learning Styles Profile Cognitive Styles Perceptual Responses Analytic Skill...Research Type Theory and Learning Preferences Jung and the Theory of Psychological Types Isabel Briggs Myers’ Contribution to Jung’s Work The Myers...Implications Recommendations for Further Study Summary of Specific Conclusions Discussion Grounded Curriculum Learning Preferences Type Theory Student

  11. Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Personality disorders are a group of mental illnesses. They involve long-term patterns of thoughts and behaviors ... serious problems with relationships and work. People with personality disorders have trouble dealing with everyday stresses and ...

  12. Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorders in Adults Data Sources Share Personality Disorders Definitions Personality disorders represent “an enduring pattern of inner ... MSC 9663 Bethesda, MD 20892-9663 Follow Us Facebook Twitter YouTube Google Plus NIMH Newsletter NIMH RSS ...

  13. Analyzing the Relationship of Strengths to Personality Preferences and Vocational Interests Utilizing Clifton StrengthsFinder, Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, and Strong Interest Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck, Paulette M.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the history of vocational psychology, career counselors have constantly searched for, devised, and implemented practices and techniques to best prepare clients for the world of work. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between strengths to personality preference and vocational interests utilizing the Myers-Briggs…

  14. The Added Value of Log File Analyses of the use of a Personal Health Record for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Preliminary Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieverink, Floor; Kelders, Saskia Marion; Braakman-Jansen, Louise Marie Antoinette; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.

    2014-01-01

    The electronic personal health record (PHR) is a promising technology for improving the quality of chronic disease management. Until now, evaluations of such systems have provided only little insight into why a particular outcome occurred. The aim of this study is to gain insight into the navigation

  15. Stres, A ve B Tipi Kişilik Yapısı ve Bunlar Arasındaki İlişki Üzerine Bir Araştırma(Stress, Type A And Type B Personalıty Charasterıstıcs And A Research On The Relatıonshıp Between Stress And The Two Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk DURNA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available People are exposed to the stress due to various reasons. We can classify these reasons into two groups: organizational reasons and extraorganizational reasons. Today many techniques which aim to cope with stress have been developed. Stress could be managed and controlled by physiological, psychological, behavioral, environmental techniques.Type A individuals are extremely competitive, highly work oriented, impatient and sensitive to time. Type B individuals are with less conflict with both other people and time and have a more balanced and relaxed life style.Our research attempts to explore relationship between the individual stress level and Type A and Type B personality. It has been found that, individuals who have a high stress level show mostly Type A personality characteristics.

  16. Methodology review: evaluating person fit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, R.R.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2001-01-01

    Person-fit methods based on classical test theory-and item response theory (IRT), and methods investigating particular types of response behavior on tests, are examined. Similarities and differences among person-fit methods and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed. Sound person-fit

  17. Personal Branding

    OpenAIRE

    Climent i Martí, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Proyecto Fin de Grado leído en la Universidad Rey Juan Carlos en el curso académico 2013/2014. Director: Cristina Ayala del Pino Con este Trabajo Fin de Grado he querido aproximar el concepto del Personal Branding y de marca personal como la herramienta para diferenciarse en el entorno profesional. Partiendo con la definición del concepto, su construcción, el panorama actual, compaginar empleo con marca personal y acabando con la visión personal de un gurú de la Marca Person...

  18. [Ultrasonographic evaluation of selected parameters of the endothelial function in brachial arteries and IMT measurements in carotid arteries in children with diabetes type 1 using personal insulin pumps--preliminary report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tołwińska, Joanna; Głowińska-Olszewska, Barbara; Urban, Mirosława; Florys, Bozena; Peczyńska, Jadwiga

    2006-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is a known risk factor for arterial atherosclerosis. The first symptoms can be found even in childhood. The ultrasonographic measurements of intimal plus medial thickness in carotid arteries (IMT) and flow mediated dilatation (FMD) evaluated in brachial arteries, play a known role in the detection in these cases. The diabetes treatment intensification is an important factor in delaying early atherosclerotic changes. Currently, intensive treatment of children's diabetes with use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion with personal insulin pumps is gaining more and more popularity. THE AIM OF THIS STUDY was the evaluation of IMT and FMD indexes in children suffering from type 1 diabetes in the context of treatment intensification (multidose insulin injections v. personal insulin pumps). We examined 64 children (29 boys and 35 girls) in the mean age 15.5 years treated with the multidose insulin injections method and 10 children using personal insulin pumps (4 girls and 6 boys) in the mean age 14.5 years. Using high resolution ultrasonography we evaluated IMT values in carotid arteries and FMD parameters in brachial arteries. In our analysis we estimated the blood concentration of lipid parameters, values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, the age of diabetes onset, duration time of the illness and the values of HbA1c as a marker of metabolic control. We noticed significantly higher FMD values in patients treated with personal insulin pumps (13.7 vs. 5.5%, p=0.001). IMT values were similar in both groups (0.52 vs. 0.5 mm, p=0. 41). The level of HDL cholesterol was higher and triglycerides lower in the group with treatment intensification. The metabolic control was the same in both groups. In patients treated by the multidose insulin injections IMT correlated with systolic blood pressure values. We didn't notice any correlation between IMT and FMD in any group. 1. Treatment intensification (personal insulin pumps) influences better vascular

  19. Personality Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Ozdemir

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Personality is the integration of characteristics acquired or brought by birth which separate the individual from others. Personality involves aspects of the individual's mental, emotional, social, and physical features in continuum. Several theories were suggested to explain developmental processes of personality. Each theory concentrates on one feature of human development as the focal point, then integrates with other areas of development in general. Most theories assume that childhood, especially up to 5-6 years, has essential influence on development of personality. The interaction between genetic and environmental factors reveals a unique personality along growth and developmental process. It could be said that individual who does not have any conflict between his/her basic needs and society's, has well-developed and psychologically healthy personality.

  20. [Narcissistic personality disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, C-H; Vater, A; Roepke, S

    2013-07-01

    Narcissism is a multifaceted term which encompasses traits of normal personality as well as a specific personality disorder. While much research has been concerned with narcissism as a trait there are only few empirical studies available on narcissistic personality disorder (NPS). The current diagnostic of NPS according to DSM-IV-TR focuses on grandiose type narcissism whereas vulnerable narcissism, which has been described by clinicians and researchers has not yet been recognised. Psychotherapy of narcissistic patients through different psychotherapeutic schools focuses mainly on processes in the therapeutic relationship, the analysis and change of grandiose and vulnerable schemas, emotion regulation techniques and correction of narcissistic behavior in favor of prosocial interactions.

  1. Floating Characteristics of Rudders and Elevators in Spinning Attitudes as Determined From Hinge-Moment-Coefficient Data With Application to Personal-Owner-Type Airplanes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bihrle, William

    1950-01-01

    A study was made of available rudder and elevator hinge-moment-coefficient-coefficient data in order to determine the floating characteristics of various types of rudders and elevators in spinning attitudes...

  2. A radon (thoron) daughter personal alpha-dosimeter of the passive type using a diffused-junction detector and an electrostatic collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.; Frattini, A.

    1984-05-01

    A solid-state alpha-dosimeter has been designed and found to be suitable for personal and environmental radon-thoron daughter monitoring. The dosimeter basically consists of an electrostatic collector and an alpha-particle counting system with spectroscopy capabilities. The sensitive volume (∼20 cm 3 ) of the electrostatic collector consists of a cylindrically-shaped metal wire screen and a diffused-junction silicon alpha-detector covered with a thin aluminized mylar sheet. A DC voltage (∼450 V) is applied between the wire screen and the mylar sheet, the latter held at negative potential relative to the metal screen. Data can be retrieved during or after sampling by means of a micro-computer (Epson HX20) via a RS-232 communcation interface unit. The dosimeter has been calibrated in a large (26 m 3 ) radon/thoron test facility. A linear relationship was found between radon gas concentration and radon daughter Working Level, and the dosimeter's alpha-count. The dosimeter is mounted on top of an ordinary miner's cap lamp battery and is ideally suited for personal monitoring in underground uranium mines and other working areas. The dosimeter presented here is a considerably improved version of an earlier prototype

  3. Personal Reflections

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Personal Reflections. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 6 Issue 3 March 2001 pp 90-93 Personal Reflections. Why did I opt for Career in Science? Jayant V Narlikar · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 9 Issue 8 August 2004 pp 89-89 ...

  4. Economic Evaluation of Combined Diet and Physical Activity Promotion Programs to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes Among Persons at Increased Risk: A Systematic Review for the Community Preventive Services Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Qu, Shuli; Zhang, Ping; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Gregg, Edward W.; Albright, Ann; Hopkins, David; Pronk, Nicolaas P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes is a highly prevalent and costly disease. Studies indicate that combined diet and physical activity promotion programs can prevent type 2 diabetes among persons at increased risk. Purpose To systematically evaluate the evidence on cost, cost-effectiveness, and cost-benefit estimates of diet and physical activity promotion programs. Data Sources Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Sociological Abstracts, Web of Science, EconLit, and CINAHL through 7 April 2015. Study Selection English-language studies from high-income countries that provided data on cost, cost-effectiveness, or cost-benefit ratios of diet and physical activity promotion programs with at least 2 sessions over at least 3 months delivered to persons at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. Data Extraction Dual abstraction and assessment of relevant study details. Data Synthesis Twenty-eight studies were included. Costs were expressed in 2013 U.S. dollars. The median program cost per participant was $653. Costs were lower for group-based programs (median, $417) and programs implemented in community or primary care settings (median, $424) than for the U.S. DPP (Diabetes Prevention Program) trial and the DPP Outcomes Study ($5881). Twenty-two studies assessed the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of the programs. From a health system perspective, 16 studies reported a median ICER of $13 761 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) saved. Group-based programs were more cost-effective (median, $1819 per QALY) than those that used individual sessions (median, $15 846 per QALY). No cost-benefit studies were identified. Limitation Information on recruitment costs and cost-effectiveness of translational programs implemented in community and primary care settings was limited. Conclusion Diet and physical activity promotion programs to prevent type 2 diabetes are cost-effective among persons at increased risk. Costs are lower when programs are delivered to groups in community

  5. Design of control system parameters of voltage, current and timer on x-ray device mobile type IX 7-02 using personal computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujatno; Tatah Nurbarkah; Toto Trikasjono; Nugroho

    2013-01-01

    The control system has made a parameter X-ray machine mobile IX 7-02 using personal computers. The X-Ray or Roentgen apparatus is an equipment used for medical diagnosis. Before the X-Ray apparatus is operated, its parameter to be set are high voltage (kV), tube current (mA) and exposure time (s). The control system in a conventional X-Ray apparatus still use analog system. On the X-Ray manual operations resulted the value of velocity data that are less accurate, therefore it needs to be carried out a control system modifying using micro controller AT89S51 and the parameter value was setting through personal computer. In the limited voltage regulation to the movement of the stepper motor that drives the chain dimer, the result of testing obtained the value of angle stepper motors with an estimated value of voltage 50 kV, 60 kV, 70 kV, 80 kV, 90 kV and 100 kV respectively 164°, 182°, 200°, 218°, 236° and 258°. Current selection by 4 choices such as 50 mA, 60 mA, 70 mA and 80 mA can successfully activate the relay. The timing of exposure in the range of 0.01 to 1 second which is set through the microcontroller program can be realized as well. The X-ray can be operated with these results. (author)

  6. Predictors of CD4(+) T-Cell Counts of HIV Type 1–Infected Persons After Virologic Failure of All 3 Original Antiretroviral Drug Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costagliola, Dominique; Ledergerber, Bruno; Torti, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Low CD4(+) T-cell counts are the main factor leading to clinical progression in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. We aimed to investigate factors affecting CD4(+) T-cell counts after triple-class virological failure....

  7. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 02: Developing personal responsibility for fuels reduction: Types of information to encourage proactive behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocky Mountain Research Station USDA Forest Service

    2004-01-01

    Fuels management responsibilities may include providing local property owners with the information for taking responsibility for reducing fuels on their land. This fact sheet discusses three different types of information that may be useful in programs to engage property owners in fuel reduction activities.

  8. Adolescence, physical inactivity and overweight: analysis based on socio-personal variables of the parents and the type of sport practiced by the children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantallops Ramón, Jaume

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of a larger study carry out in the island of Majorca, which aims to identify the major causes of obesity and overweight in adolescents, as well as to establish different types of analysis in order to understand and to promote interventions to increase physical activity levels in this population, as both a poor diet and sedentary lifestyle are the main causes of overweight. In this case we focus on the following aspects: the relationship between educational level of parents/mothers and their children’s obesity, socioeconomic status of families and its impact on overweight/obesity children and, finally, the relationship between type of sport practiced by the children (competitive sport/ non-competitive sport and overweight/obesity. To this end surveyed 4135 boys and girls from Majorca. The sample was obtained from a multistage sampling. The instrument used was a specifically designed questionnaire. The results show that educational level and socioeconomic status of parents as well as the type of sport practiced by their children are variables that favor the development of overweight and obesity in adolescence

  9. Personal Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toong, Hoo-min D.; Gupta, Amar

    1982-01-01

    Describes the hardware, software, applications, and current proliferation of personal computers (microcomputers). Includes discussions of microprocessors, memory, output (including printers), application programs, the microcomputer industry, and major microcomputer manufacturers (Apple, Radio Shack, Commodore, and IBM). (JN)

  10. "A Match Made...Online?" The Effects of User-Generated Online Dater Profile Types (Free-Spirited Versus Uptight) on Other Users' Perception of Trustworthiness, Interpersonal Attraction, and Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Seunga Venus; Martin, Cassie

    2015-06-01

    This study tested the effects of an online dater's profile type (open/free-spirited vs. traditional/uptight) on people's perception of the dater's trustworthiness, interpersonal attraction, and Big Five personality traits (agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness, and extraversion). Interpersonal deception theory, theories of attraction, and source credibility model inform this research, providing a theoretical foundation for the proposed research questions and hypothesis. This research employed a simple two-group comparison experiment (open/free-spirited dater profile vs. traditional/uptight dater profile). Participants were randomly assigned to view either open or traditional profiles, and asked about their perception of the target dater. Results indicated a significant causal effect of user-generated online dater profile types on the dependent variables (perceived trustworthiness, interpersonal attraction, and Big Five personality traits) as well as a significant mediating effect of perceived trustworthiness. This study provided unique and necessary information on self-presentation and other perception in the online dating context, with the aim of helping theorists, online daters, and managers of online dating sites further their understandings of this novel and exciting romantic frontier.

  11. [The use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) with personal insulin pumps in the treatment of children and adolescents with diabetes type 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz-Chobot, Przemysława

    2004-01-01

    This paper sums up recently published researches on the continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) with the use of insulin pump in children and adolescents with diabetes type 1. Obtaining a balance in the organism metabolism in childhood and adolescence diabetology is nowadays one of the most important rules of the diabetes management in children. One of the modern ways to achieve that goal is the intensive insulin therapy model with use of the insulin pump. In this paper the advantages and disadvantages as well as the indications and contraindications for the CSII in children and adolescents with diabetes are widely discussed.

  12. Lifestyle Advice Combined with Personalized Estimates of Genetic or Phenotypic Risk of Type 2 Diabetes, and Objectively Measured Physical Activity: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Job G Godino

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Information about genetic and phenotypic risk of type 2 diabetes is now widely available and is being incorporated into disease prevention programs. Whether such information motivates behavior change or has adverse effects is uncertain. We examined the effect of communicating an estimate of genetic or phenotypic risk of type 2 diabetes in a parallel group, open, randomized controlled trial.We recruited 569 healthy middle-aged adults from the Fenland Study, an ongoing population-based, observational study in the east of England (Cambridgeshire, UK. We used a computer-generated random list to assign participants in blocks of six to receive either standard lifestyle advice alone (control group, n = 190 or in combination with a genetic (n = 189 or a phenotypic (n = 190 risk estimate for type 2 diabetes (intervention groups. After 8 wk, we measured the primary outcome, objectively measured physical activity (kJ/kg/day, and also measured several secondary outcomes (including self-reported diet, self-reported weight, worry, anxiety, and perceived risk. The study was powered to detect a between-group difference of 4.1 kJ/kg/d at follow-up. 557 (98% participants completed the trial. There were no significant intervention effects on physical activity (difference in adjusted mean change from baseline: genetic risk group versus control group 0.85 kJ/kg/d (95% CI -2.07 to 3.77, p = 0.57; phenotypic risk group versus control group 1.32 (95% CI -1.61 to 4.25, p = 0.38; and genetic risk group versus phenotypic risk group -0.47 (95% CI -3.40 to 2.46, p = 0.75. No significant differences in self-reported diet, self-reported weight, worry, and anxiety were observed between trial groups. Estimates of perceived risk were significantly more accurate among those who received risk information than among those who did not. Key limitations include the recruitment of a sample that may not be representative of the UK population, use of self-reported secondary outcome

  13. Determination of mean recency period for estimation of HIV type 1 Incidence with the BED-capture EIA in persons infected with diverse subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Bharat S; Hanson, Debra L; Hargrove, John; Branson, Bernard; Green, Timothy; Dobbs, Trudy; Constantine, Niel; Overbaugh, Julie; McDougal, J Steven

    2011-03-01

    The IgG capture BED enzyme immunoassay (BED-CEIA) was developed to detect recent HIV-1 infection for the estimation of HIV-1 incidence from cross-sectional specimens. The mean time interval between seroconversion and reaching a specified assay cutoff value [referred to here as the mean recency period (ω)], an important parameter for incidence estimation, is determined for some HIV-1 subtypes, but testing in more cohorts and new statistical methods suggest the need for a revised estimation of ω in different subtypes. A total of 2927 longitudinal specimens from 756 persons with incident HIV infections who had been enrolled in 17 cohort studies was tested by the BED-CEIA. The ω was determined using two statistical approaches: (1) linear mixed effects regression (ω(1)) and (2) a nonparametric survival method (ω(2)). Recency periods varied among individuals and by population. At an OD-n cutoff of 0.8, ω(1) was 176 days (95% CL 164-188 days) whereas ω(2) was 162 days (95% CL 152-172 days) when using a comparable subset of specimens (13 cohorts). When method 2 was applied to all available data (17 cohorts), ω(2) ranged from 127 days (Thai AE) to 236 days (subtypes AG, AD) with an overall ω(2) of 197 days (95% CL 173-220). About 70% of individuals reached a threshold OD-n of 0.8 by 197 days (mean ω) and 95% of people reached 0.8 OD-n by 480 days. The determination of ω with more data and new methodology suggests that ω of the BED-CEIA varies between different subtypes and/or populations. These estimates for ω may affect incidence estimates in various studies.

  14. Integrating personality structure, personality process, and personality development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baumert, Anna; Schmitt, Manfred; Perugini, Marco; Johnson, Wendy; Blum, Gabriela; Borkenau, Peter; Costantini, Giulio; Denissen, J.J.A.; Fleeson, William; Grafton, Ben; Jayawickreme, Eranda; Kurzius, Elena; MacLeod, Colin; Miller, Lynn C.; Read, Stephen J.; Robinson, Michael D.; Wood, Dustin; Wrzus, Cornelia

    2017-01-01

    In this target article, we argue that personality processes, personality structure, and personality development have to be understood and investigated in integrated ways in order to provide comprehensive responses to the key questions of personality psychology. The psychological processes and

  15. Predictors of adherence with self-care guidelines among persons with type 2 diabetes: results from a logistic regression tree analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Takashi; Kart, Cary S; Noe, Douglas A

    2012-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes is known to contribute to health disparities in the U.S. and failure to adhere to recommended self-care behaviors is a contributing factor. Intervention programs face difficulties as a result of patient diversity and limited resources. With data from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, this study employs a logistic regression tree algorithm to identify characteristics of sub-populations with type 2 diabetes according to their reported frequency of adherence to four recommended diabetes self-care behaviors including blood glucose monitoring, foot examination, eye examination and HbA1c testing. Using Andersen's health behavior model, need factors appear to dominate the definition of which sub-groups were at greatest risk for low as well as high adherence. Findings demonstrate the utility of easily interpreted tree diagrams to design specific culturally appropriate intervention programs targeting sub-populations of diabetes patients who need to improve their self-care behaviors. Limitations and contributions of the study are discussed.

  16. Recovery of personal neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iosa, Marco; Guariglia, Cecilia; Matano, Alessandro; Paolucci, Stefano; Pizzamiglio, Luigi

    2016-12-01

    Extrapersonal unilateral spatial neglect after stroke is associated to a poor rehabilitation outcome. Minor attention has been paid to the recovery of personal neglect, to its relationship with the recovery of extrapersonal neglect and of independency in activities of daily living. The present study aims at evaluating whether there is an association between recovery of extrapersonal and personal neglect. The secondary aim was to investigate if personal neglect may affect the effectiveness of neurorehabilitation in patients with subacute stroke. Observational study. Neurorehabilitation Hospital in Rome, Italy, inpatients. A sample of 49 patients with unilateral spatial neglect resulting from right ischemic cerebral infarction was enrolled in this study, divided into three subgroups according to the presence and the degree of personal neglect, and evaluated pre and postneurorehabilitation. Personal neglect was evaluated using Zoccolotti and Judica's Scale, extrapersonal neglect using Letter Cancellation Test, Barrage Test, Sentence Reading Test and Wundt-Jastrow Area Illusion Test. Barthel Index (BI), Rivermead Mobility Index, and Canadian Neurological Scale were also administered. Results showed the following: 1) recovery of personal neglect was not significantly correlated with that of extrapersonal neglect, despite both the disorders were ameliorated after a "non-specific" rehabilitation treatment; 2) personal neglect per se was not an additional negative prognostic factor in the rehabilitation findings. Our results suggested that the recoveries of the two types of neglect are independent from each other, and that the presence of personal neglect does not imply significant additional problems to the functional outcomes. Our study highlighted the need of novel tools to assess the presence and to improve the recovery of personal neglect.

  17. Symmetric and asymmetric dimethylarginine as risk markers of cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality and deterioration in kidney function in persons with type 2 diabetes and microalbuminuria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zobel, Emilie H; von Scholten, Bernt Johan; Reinhard, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    IDI). C statistic (area under the curve) quantifies the model's improved ability to discriminate events from non-events. rIDI quantifies the increase in separation of events and non-events on a relative scale. RESULTS: Higher SDMA was associated with increased risk of all three endpoints (unadjusted: p......BACKGROUND: To evaluate symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) as risk markers of cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality and deterioration in renal function in a well characterised type 2 diabetic population with microalbuminuria and without symptoms...... of coronary artery disease. METHODS: 200 participants followed for 6.1 years. SDMA and ADMA were measured at baseline. Endpoints included (1) composite cardiovascular endpoint (n = 40); (2) all-cause mortality (n = 26); and (3) decline in eGFR of >30% (n = 42). Cox models were unadjusted and adjusted...

  18. The Intensity of Free Radical Processes and the Testosterone and Estradiol Levels in Seminal Fluid of Men with Different Types of Pathospermia - Personalized Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkurat T

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: We studied the intensity of free-radical processes and the testosterone and estradiol levels in seminal fluid of men with normospermia, asthenozoospermia, oligozoospermia, oligoasthenozoospermia, teratozoospermia. Results: An increased ability to generate reactive oxygen species in seminal fluid in patients with oligozoospermia was determined. Increased levels of testosterone and estradiol in semen were noted in pathospermia associated with reduced sperm motility. A positive correlation was found between the free-radical processes intensity and testosterone levels increase, and high correlation (r = 0.8 between the testosterone and estradiol levels in seminal fluid in patients with oligozoospermia was marked. Conclusion: The prooxidant and antioxidant processes conjugacy violation occurs in one of the pathospermia types - asthenozoospermia, which is reflected in the absence of all studied parameters correlation in the seminal fluid.

  19. Predictors of health-related quality of life changes after lifestyle intervention in persons at risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Vegard; Bakke, Per Sigvald; Rohde, Gudrun; Gallefoss, Frode

    2014-11-01

    To assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of subjects at risk of type 2 diabetes undergoing lifestyle intervention, and predictors for improved HRQOL. The Finnish Diabetes Risk Score was used by general practitioners to identify individuals at risk. Low-intensity interventions with an 18-month follow-up were employed. HRQOL was assessed using the SF-36 at baseline and compared with results from a general Norwegian population survey and further at 6 and 18 months. Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were applied to identify predictors of changes in HRQOL of clinical importance. Two hundred and thirteen participants (50 % women; mean age: 46 years, mean body mass index: 37) were included: 182 returned for 18-month follow-up, of whom 172 completed the HRQOL questionnaire. HRQOL was reduced with clinical significance compared with general Norwegians. The mean changes in HRQOL from the baseline to the follow-up were not of clinical importance. However, one out of three individuals achieved a moderate or large clinical improvement in HRQOL. The best determinant for improved HRQOL was obtained for a composite, clinically significant lifestyle change, i.e. both a weight reduction of at least 5 % and an improvement in exercise capacity of at least 10 %, which was associated with an improvement in five out of the eight SF-36 domains. Subjects at risk of type 2 diabetes report a clinically important reduction in HRQOL compared with general Norwegians. The best predictor of improved HRQOL was a small weight loss combined with a small improvement in aerobic capacity.

  20. Personalized State-space Modeling of Glucose Dynamics for Type 1 Diabetes Using Continuously Monitored Glucose, Insulin Dose, and Meal Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Peter; Harsh, Saurabh; Freeman, Kenneth; Xie, Jinyu; Gold, Carol; Rovine, Mike; Ulbrecht, Jan

    2014-01-01

    An essential component of any artificial pancreas is on the prediction of blood glucose levels as a function of exogenous and endogenous perturbations such as insulin dose, meal intake, and physical activity and emotional tone under natural living conditions. In this article, we present a new data-driven state-space dynamic model with time-varying coefficients that are used to explicitly quantify the time-varying patient-specific effects of insulin dose and meal intake on blood glucose fluctuations. Using the 3-variate time series of glucose level, insulin dose, and meal intake of an individual type 1 diabetic subject, we apply an extended Kalman filter (EKF) to estimate time-varying coefficients of the patient-specific state-space model. We evaluate our empirical modeling using (1) the FDA-approved UVa/Padova simulator with 30 virtual patients and (2) clinical data of 5 type 1 diabetic patients under natural living conditions. Compared to a forgetting-factor-based recursive ARX model of the same order, the EKF model predictions have higher fit, and significantly better temporal gain and J index and thus are superior in early detection of upward and downward trends in glucose. The EKF based state-space model developed in this article is particularly suitable for model-based state-feedback control designs since the Kalman filter estimates the state variable of the glucose dynamics based on the measured glucose time series. In addition, since the model parameters are estimated in real time, this model is also suitable for adaptive control. PMID:24876585

  1. Personalized State-space Modeling of Glucose Dynamics for Type 1 Diabetes Using Continuously Monitored Glucose, Insulin Dose, and Meal Intake: An Extended Kalman Filter Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Molenaar, Peter; Harsh, Saurabh; Freeman, Kenneth; Xie, Jinyu; Gold, Carol; Rovine, Mike; Ulbrecht, Jan

    2014-03-01

    An essential component of any artificial pancreas is on the prediction of blood glucose levels as a function of exogenous and endogenous perturbations such as insulin dose, meal intake, and physical activity and emotional tone under natural living conditions. In this article, we present a new data-driven state-space dynamic model with time-varying coefficients that are used to explicitly quantify the time-varying patient-specific effects of insulin dose and meal intake on blood glucose fluctuations. Using the 3-variate time series of glucose level, insulin dose, and meal intake of an individual type 1 diabetic subject, we apply an extended Kalman filter (EKF) to estimate time-varying coefficients of the patient-specific state-space model. We evaluate our empirical modeling using (1) the FDA-approved UVa/Padova simulator with 30 virtual patients and (2) clinical data of 5 type 1 diabetic patients under natural living conditions. Compared to a forgetting-factor-based recursive ARX model of the same order, the EKF model predictions have higher fit, and significantly better temporal gain and J index and thus are superior in early detection of upward and downward trends in glucose. The EKF based state-space model developed in this article is particularly suitable for model-based state-feedback control designs since the Kalman filter estimates the state variable of the glucose dynamics based on the measured glucose time series. In addition, since the model parameters are estimated in real time, this model is also suitable for adaptive control. © 2014 Diabetes Technology Society.

  2. Personality disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrer, Peter; Mulder, Roger; Crawford, Mike

    2010-01-01

    and to society, and interferes, usually negatively, with progress in the treatment of other mental disorders. We now have evidence that personality disorder, as currently classified, affects around 6% of the world population, and the differences between countries show no consistent variation. We are also getting......Personality disorder is now being accepted as an important condition in mainstream psychiatry across the world. Although it often remains unrecognized in ordinary practice, research studies have shown it is common, creates considerable morbidity, is associated with high costs to services...... increasing evidence that some treatments, mainly psychological, are of value in this group of disorders. What is now needed is a new classification that is of greater value to clinicians, and the WPA Section on Personality Disorders is currently undertaking this task....

  3. Personality disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Sebastian; Heinskou, Torben; Sørensen, Per

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In this naturalistic study, patients with personality disorders (N = 388) treated at Stolpegaard Psychotherapy Center, Mental Health Services, Capital Region of Denmark were allocated to two different kinds of treatment: a standardized treatment package with a preset number of treatment...... characteristics associated with clinicians' allocation of patients to the two different personality disorder services. METHODS: Patient characteristics across eight domains were collected in order to study whether there were systematic differences between patients allocated to the two different treatments....... Patient characteristics included measures of symptom severity, personality pathology, trauma and socio-demographic characteristics. Significance testing and binary regression analysis were applied to identify important predictors. RESULTS: Patient characteristics on fifteen variables differed...

  4. Personalized ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2004-01-01

    microenvironment. Furthermore, HVAC systems should be designed to protect occupants from airborne transmission of infectious agents that may be present in exhaled air. Personalized ventilation is a new development in the field of HVAC and has the potential to fulfill the above requirements. This paper reviews...... existing knowledge on performance of personalized ventilation (PV) and on human response to it. The airflow interaction in the vicinity of the human body is analyzed and its impact on thermal comfort and inhaled air quality is discussed together with control strategies and the application of PV in practice...

  5. [Assessment of efficiency of the personalized therapy of patients with obesity and diabetes mellitus 2 types appointed on the basis of studying rs5219 polymorphism of KCNJ11 gene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapik, I A; Gapparova, K M; Sharafetdinov, Kh Kh; Sorokina, E Yu; Sentsova, T B; Plotnikova, O A; Chekhonina, Yu G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of personalized therapy forpatients with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM) and obesity based on the study of rs5219 polymorphism of KCNJ11gene. The study involved 120 women with DM and obesity I-II degree. Genotyping was performed in patients using allele-specific amplification with the detection in real time. Depending on the genotype of KCNJ11 gene patients with DM and obesity received different treatment and were divided into 2 groups (40 patients in each): group A (C/T genotype) received standard low-calorie diet + metformin 2000 mg/day and group B (T/T genotype) received a personalized diet + vitamin-mineral complex (VMC) + metformin 2000 mg/day. Results of the study of rs5219 polymorphism of KCNJII gene in patients with,DM and obesity have shown that 49% of them were carriers of the mutated T allele in the heterozygous form and 37% - in the homozygous variant. It has been found that reducing of calories in a diet promoted weight loss in patients with DM and obesity mainly due to lean body mass in Group A and in Group B - mainly due to the fat component. A significant decrease in blood glucose under complex therapy was observed in both groups. However, after treatment in group B blood glucose levels were significantly lower than in group A. Thus, personalized therapy of patients with DM and obesity should be based on molecular genetic studies that will allow to improve the efficiency of therapeutic measures in these diseases.

  6. Movement and personality development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida M. Aylamazyan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the role of the movement in the process of shaping the personality, its importance as a mechanism for personality development is considered. The issue of the movement has always occupied a central place in Russian psychology. However, subsequently the movement began to be considered primarily as an executive action in human life. The role of movement in personality development can vary depending on the level it occupies in the hierarchical structure of activity, and also on the type of movement, its character, and the way it is constructed. Under certain conditions, the movement can express the attitude of the subject to the surrounding world and people. Many foreign and Russian psychologists point to a special place of the postural tonic component of the motor movement, the posture in personal regulation. The posture reflects his/her personal attitudes, the system of relationships, and, above all, the emotional attitude or emotional assessment of the current situation, the interest in the actions performed. Mastering the tonic level of motor management is based on the emotional regulation, so the ability to regulate one’s own pose is an important stage in the personality development. Posture tonic regulation of motor movements in humans reveals a qualitatively different character than in animals, this being due to the person’s facing the task of mastering his’her posture, arbitrary retention of the body in one or another position. Maintaining a vertical posture requires constant activity at an arbitrary and involuntary level of mental regulation. Mastering the posture of an unstable equilibrium presupposes the emergence of the «I» and is the last stage of the development. The way a person solves the motor task of maintaining the vertical position of the body reflects his/her specific personal strategy or attitude.

  7. Personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bosch, L.M.C.; Verheul, R.; Verster, J.C.; Brady, K.; Galanter, M.; Conrod, P.

    2012-01-01

    Subject of this chapter is the often found combination of personality disorders and ­substance abuse disorders. The serious nature of this comorbidity is shown through the discussion of prevalence and epidemiological data. Literature shows that the comorbidity, hampering the diagnostic process, is

  8. Personalized nanomedicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, Twan Gerardus Gertudis Maria; Rizzo, L.Y.; Storm, Gerrit; Kiessling, F.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Personalized medicine aims to individualize chemotherapeutic interventions on the basis of ex vivo and in vivo information on patient- and disease-specific characteristics. By noninvasively visualizing how well image-guided nanomedicines-that is, submicrometer-sized drug delivery systems

  9. Personal Beacon

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The MicroPLB (personal locator beacon) is a search and rescue satellite-aided tracking (SARSAT) transmitter. When activated it emits a distress signal to a constellation of internationally operated satellites. The endangered person's identity and location anywhere on Earth is automatically forwarded to central monitoring stations around the world. It is accurate to within just a few meters. The user uses the device to download navigation data from a global positioning satellite receiver. After the download is complete, the MicroPLB functions as a self-locating beacon. Also, it is the only PLB to use a safe battery. In the past, other PLB devices have used batteries that have enough volatility to explode with extreme force. It was developed by Microwave Monolithic, Inc. through SBIR funding from Glenn Research Center and Goddard Space Flight Center.

  10. Personalized Search

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)749939

    2015-01-01

    As the volume of electronically available information grows, relevant items become harder to find. This work presents an approach to personalizing search results in scientific publication databases. This work focuses on re-ranking search results from existing search engines like Solr or ElasticSearch. This work also includes the development of Obelix, a new recommendation system used to re-rank search results. The project was proposed and performed at CERN, using the scientific publications available on the CERN Document Server (CDS). This work experiments with re-ranking using offline and online evaluation of users and documents in CDS. The experiments conclude that the personalized search result outperform both latest first and word similarity in terms of click position in the search result for global search in CDS.

  11. PERSONALITY AND SPEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard TAY

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available While there has been extensive research on the effect of sensation seeking on risky driving, relatively little research has been conducted on Type-A personality. The motivations for speeding are likely to be different for each group and these differences have important implications for the design, implementation and expected efficacy of road safety countermeasures. This paper examines the influence of sensation seeking and Type-A behavior pattern on speeding behaviour. A sample of 139 staff and students in an Australian university were surveyed in July 2001 to gather information on their gender, age, personality and self-reported speeding behaviour. The data were analysed using correlations and analysis of variance procedures. Finally, some implications for road safety are discussed.

  12. Relationship between parenting style, family type, personality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    208 females) from single parent, monogamous and polygamous families responded ... It was hypothesized that: there would be significant and positive correlations ... self esteem, need for achievement, locus of control, sense of competence and ... that young people from families where authoritative parenting was practiced ...

  13. Personality types and nicotine dependency among medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    %41, among French students. 14%13 ... The present study can be helpful in adapting public policies ... Motivational influences on cigarette smoking. .... Scale. Br J Psychol.1990;81(pt3):315-33. 36. Fagerstrom KO. Measuring degree of physical.

  14. Öğretmenlerde A Tipi Kişilik, Stres Kaynakları, Öz Yeterlik ve İş Doyumu Type A Personality, Stress Resources, Self Efficacy And Job Satisfaction Among Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet YAZICI

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Job satisfaction that is defined as work-related well-being of a person, is a form of assessment on job or the state of one’s job, positively or negatively. Job satisfaction is affected stressful life events such as work load and role conflict, and some psychological variables such as self-efficacy and personality. Also, job satisfaction is related to the kind and nature of the profession. There are some researches examining the teachers' job satisfaction depending on the different variables. The main aim of this study is to examine the relationships between teachers' job satisfaction and Type-A personality traits, stress resources, self-efficacy beliefs. In this study, the relationships between teachers' job satisfaction and age, gender, marital status, kind of working institution and administration experience also are investigated. The research was carried out in the academic year 2012-2013, with the participation 689 teachers (Female = 346, Male = 343 working in private and public educational institutions in Trabzon. The Personal Information Form, Type A Personality Scale, Job Satisfaction Scale, Stress Sources Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale were used as data collection tools. According to the findings of the study, Type A personality traits, stress sources and self-efficacy beliefs predicted job satisfaction of teachers significantly. In addition, findings showed that age, kind of working institution were significant predictors of the job satisfaction. The obtained results were discussed in accordance with the findings of the literature and were made recommendations. İşe bağlı iyi olma halini ifade eden iş doyumu, bireyin işe ya da iş durumuna ilişkin olumlu ya da olumsuz değerlendirme biçimidir. İş doyumu, iş yoğunluğu, rol çatışmaları gibi stres yapıcı yaşam olayları ile kişilik ve öz-yeterlik gibi psikolojik değişkenlerden etkilenir. İş doyumu aynı zamanda sürdürülen işin türü ve niteliği ile ili

  15. Personal reputation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foste, Elizabeth; Botero, Isabel C.

    2012-01-01

    the importance of supervisor perceptions for the future of employees in the organization, this study uses principles of language expectancy theory (LET) to explore how message content (benefit organization vs. no benefit) and delivery style (aggressive vs. nonaggressive) in upward communication situations affect......One of the pitfalls of past research in upward influence communication is that messages are often categorized using more than one characteristic. This categorization has made it difficult to understand how different message characteristics affect supervisors’ perceptions about employees. Given...... perceptions of personal reputation and work competence. Participants, acting in the role of supervisors, read one of four scenarios and evaluated a new employee. Results suggest that delivery style and message content independently influence the supervisor’s willingness to grant a request as well as influence...

  16. Personalized medicine and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josko, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    An entire series could be dedicated to the topic of ethics in personalized medicine. Due to the advancements in NGS and genetic testing, personalized medicine is no longer something that will occur in the future, the reality is upon us now. Sequencing an individual's genome can have a substantial impact on the patient's treatment and overall quality of life. However, this can open "Pandora's box" especially if an individual does not want to know the information obtained. In addition, will insurance companies require genetic testing in order to pay for a targeted treatment? If the patient refuses to have the genetic testing, will they have to pay for their treatment out of pocket? In the human interest story presented, the researcher and his team discovered over activity of the FTL3 protein through RNA sequencing which resulted in rapid proliferation of his leukemic cells. He identified a drug marketed for advanced kidney cancer which was a FTL3 inhibitor. However, his insurance company refused to pay for the drug because it was not a known treatment for his condition of ALL. He incurred numerous out of pocket expenses in order to go into remission. Was it unethical for the insurance company to not pay for a treatment that ultimately worked but was not marketed or FDA cleared for his type of leukemia? There are so many questions and concerns when personalized medicine is implemented. Only time will tell the effects next generation sequencing and its role in personalized medicine will have in the future.

  17. A personal radon dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberstedt, S.; Vanmarcke, H.

    1994-03-01

    In the last decade the radon issue has become one of the major problems of radiation protection. Animal studies as well as epidemiological studies showed an increased lung cancer risk. A new personal radon-dosemeter on the basis of a CR-39 (poly-allyl diglycol carbonate) track-etch detector has been developed. The read-out of the detectors is based on the image- processing technique. The actual efficiency of the new dosemeter, obtained with a semi-automatic personal-computer based image-analysis system, is 1.43 +/- 0.15 tracks/cm 2 /(kBq/m 3 h), which is about three times that of the widely used Karlsruhe-type detector based on polycarbonate detectors

  18. Effectiveness of behavioral change techniques employed in eHealth interventions designed to improve glycemic control in persons with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihiretu Kebede

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incorporation of Behavioral Change Techniques (BCTs in eHealth interventions for the management of non-communicable diseases (NCDs, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, might be a promising approach to improve clinical and behavioral outcomes of NCDs in the long run. This 3paper reports a protocol for a systematic review that aims to (a identify the effects of individual BCTs in eHealth interventions for lowering glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c and (b investigate which additional intervention features (duration of intervention, tailoring, theory-base, and mode of delivery affect levels of HbA1c in this population. The protocol follows the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis Protocols (PRISMA-P 2015 guideline. Methods/design To identify eligible studies, an extensive systematic database search (PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycINFO using keywords will be conducted. This review will include randomized controlled trials examining the effects of eHealth interventions on HbA1c in persons with poorly controlled T2DM over a minimum follow-up period of 3 months. Relevant data will be extracted from the included studies using Microsoft Excel. The content of the interventions will be extracted from the description of interventions and will be classified according to the BCT taxonomy v1 tool. The quality of studies will be independently assessed by two reviewers using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. If the studies have adequate homogeneity, meta-analysis will be considered. The effect sizes of each BCT will be calculated using the random effect model. The quality of the synthesized evidence will be evaluated employing the Grading of the Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE criteria. Discussion This systematic review is one of the firsts to appraise the effectiveness of eHealth interventions employing BCTs which aimed at improving glycemic control in persons with poorly

  19. Stress and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecic-Tosevski, D; Vukovic, O; Stepanovic, J

    2011-01-01

    Stress is an adaptation reaction of living organisms in response to internal or external threats to homeostasis. It is considered as a complex defence mechanism representing the final endpoint of numerous dynamic and interconnected factors of biological, psychological and social nature. Stress is not a simple, stimulus-response reaction, but the interaction between an individual and the environment, involving subjective perception and assessment of stressors, thus constituting a highly personalized process. Specific inherited characteristics, early experience in life, and particular, learned cognitive predispositions make individuals more or less susceptible to the effects of stressors. Resilience and vulnerability to stressors as well as intensity of stress response are greatly dependable on age, gender, intelligence, and numerous characteristics of personality, such as hardiness,locus of control, self-efficacy, self-esteem, optimism, hostility (component of type A personality)and type D traits (negative affectivity and social inhibition). To understand the relation between personality and stress, it is essential to recognize the impact of individual differences in the following four aspects: (1) choice or avoidance of environments that are associated with specific stressors, challenges or benefits, (2) way of interpreting a stressful situation and evaluating one's own abilities and capacities for proactive behaviour so as to confront or avoid it, (3) intensity of response to a stressor,and (4) coping strategies employed by the individual facing a stressful situation. Studies have recorded considerable consistency in coping strategies employed to confront stressful situations, independentlyof situational factors and in connection with permanent personality and temperamental traits,such as neuroticism, extraversion, sense of humour, persistence, fatalism, conscientiousness, andopenness to experience. Positive affect has been associated with positive reappraisal

  20. [Precision and personalized medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipka, Sándor

    2016-10-01

    The author describes the concept of "personalized medicine" and the newly introduced "precision medicine". "Precision medicine" applies the terms of "phenotype", "endotype" and "biomarker" in order to characterize more precisely the various diseases. Using "biomarkers" the homogeneous type of a disease (a "phenotype") can be divided into subgroups called "endotypes" requiring different forms of treatment and financing. The good results of "precision medicine" have become especially apparent in relation with allergic and autoimmune diseases. The application of this new way of thinking is going to be necessary in Hungary, too, in the near future for participants, controllers and financing boards of healthcare. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(44), 1739-1741.