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Sample records for junction phase qubits

  1. A model of magnetic impurities within the Josephson junction of a phase qubit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, R P; Pappas, D P [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    We consider a superconducting phase qubit consisting of a monocrystalline sapphire Josephson junction with its symmetry axis perpendicular to the junction interfaces. Via the London gauge, we present a theoretical model of Fe{sup 3+} magnetic impurities within the junction that describes the effect of a low concentration of such impurities on the operation of the qubit. Specifically, we derive an interaction Hamiltonian expressed in terms of angular momentum states of magnetic impurities and low-lying oscillator states of a current-biased phase qubit. We discuss the coupling between the qubit and impurities within the model near resonance. When the junction is biased at an optimal point for acting as a phase qubit, with a phase difference of {pi}/2 and impurity concentration no greater than 0.05%, we find only a slight decrease in the Q factor of less than 0.01%.

  2. Superconducting flux qubits with π-junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbakova, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis, we present a fabrication technology of Al/AlO x /Al Josephson junctions on Nb pads. The described technology gives the possibility of combining a variety of Nb-based superconducting circuits, like pi-junction phase-shifters with sub-micron Al/AlO x /Al junctions. Using this approach, we fabricated hybrid Nb/Al flux qubits with and without the SFS-junctions and studied dispersive magnetic field response of these qubits as well as their spectroscopy characteristics.

  3. Overlap junctions for high coherence superconducting qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Long, J. L.; Ku, H. S.; Lake, R. E.; Bal, M.; Pappas, D. P.

    2017-07-01

    Fabrication of sub-micron Josephson junctions is demonstrated using standard processing techniques for high-coherence, superconducting qubits. These junctions are made in two separate lithography steps with normal-angle evaporation. Most significantly, this work demonstrates that it is possible to achieve high coherence with junctions formed on aluminum surfaces cleaned in situ by Ar plasma before junction oxidation. This method eliminates the angle-dependent shadow masks typically used for small junctions. Therefore, this is conducive to the implementation of typical methods for improving margins and yield using conventional CMOS processing. The current method uses electron-beam lithography and an additive process to define the top and bottom electrodes. Extension of this work to optical lithography and subtractive processes is discussed.

  4. Qubit rotation and Berry phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D.; Bandyopadhyay, P.

    2005-11-01

    A quantized fermion is represented by a scalar particle encircling a magnetic flux line. It has the spinor structure which can be constructed from quantum gates and qubits. We have studied here the role of Berry phase in removing dynamical phase during one qubit rotation of a quantized fermion. The entanglement of two qubits inserting spin-echo to one of them results the trapped Berry phase to measure entanglement. Some effort is given to study the effect of noise on the Berry phase of spinors and their entangled states. (author)

  5. Qubit rotation and Berry phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Dipti; Bandyopadhyay, Pratul

    2006-01-01

    A quantized fermion is represented by a scalar particle encircling a magnetic flux line. It has a spinor structure which can be constructed from quantum gates and qubits. We have studied here the role of Berry phase in removing dynamical phase during one qubit rotation of a quantized fermion. The entanglement of two qubits inserting spin-echo to one of them allows the trapped Berry phase to measure entanglement. Some effort is given to study the effect of noise on the Berry phase of spinors and their entangled states

  6. Coherence in a transmon qubit with epitaxial tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weides, Martin [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Kline, Jeffrey; Vissers, Michael; Sandberg, Martin; Pappas, David [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Wisbey, David [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Saint Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri 63103 (United States); Johnson, Blake; Ohki, Thomas [Raytheon BBN Technologies, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Transmon qubits based on epitaxial tunnel junctions and interdigitated capacitors were developed. This multileveled qubit, patterned by use of all-optical lithography, is a step towards scalable qubits with a high integration density. The relaxation time T{sub 1} is.72-.86 {mu} sec and the ensemble dephasing time T{sub 2}{sup *} is slightly larger than T{sub 1}. The dephasing time T{sub 2} (1.36 {mu} sec) is nearly energy-relaxation-limited. Qubit spectroscopy yields weaker level splitting than observed in qubits with amorphous barriers in equivalent-size junctions. The qubit's inferred microwave loss closely matches the weighted losses of the individual elements (junction, wiring dielectric, and interdigitated capacitor), determined by independent resonator measurements.

  7. LTS junction technology for RSFQ and qubit circuit applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchholz, F.-Im.; Balashov, D.V.; Dolata, R.; Hagedorn, D.; Khabipov, M.I.; Kohlmann, J.; Zorin, A.B.; Niemeyer, J.

    2006-01-01

    The potentials of LTS junction technology and electronics offer innovative solutions for the processing of quantum information in RSFQ and qubit circuits. We discuss forthcoming approaches based on standard SIS technology and addressed to the development of new superconducting device concepts. The challenging problem of reducing back action noise of the RSFQ circuits deteriorating coherent properties of the qubit is currently solved by implementing Josephson junctions with non-linear shunts based on LTS SIS-SIN technology. Upgraded NbAlO x trilayer technology enables the fabrication of high-quality mesoscopic Josephson junction transistors down to the nanometer range suitable for a qubit-operation regime. As applications, circuit concepts are presented which combine superconducting devices of different nature

  8. The two Josephson junction flux qubit with large tunneling amplitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shnurkov, V.I.; Soroka, A.A.; Mel'nik, S.I.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we discuss solid-state nanoelectronic realizations of Josephson flux qubits with large tunneling amplitude between the two macroscopic states. The latter can be controlled via the height and form of the potential barrier, which is determined by quantum-state engineering of the flux qubit circuit. The simplest circuit of the flux qubit is a superconducting loop interrupted by a Josephson nanoscale tunnel junction. The tunneling amplitude between two macroscopically different states can be increased substantially by engineering of the qubit circuit if the tunnel junction is replaced by a ScS contact. However, only Josephson tunnel junctions are particularly suitable for large-scale integration circuits and quantum detectors with present-day technology. To overcome this difficulty we consider here a flux qubit with high energy-level separation between the 'ground' and 'excited' states, consisting of a superconducting loop with two low-capacitance Josephson tunnel junctions in series. We demonstrate that for real parameters of resonant superposition between the two macroscopic states the tunneling amplitude can reach values greater than 1 K. Analytical results for the tunneling amplitude obtained within the semiclassical approximation by the instanton technique show good correlation with a numerical solution

  9. Accurate Control of Josephson Phase Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-14

    for Bits and Atoms and Department of Physics, MIT, Cambridge , Massachusetts 02139, USA 2Solid State and Photonics Laboratory, Stanford University...computing to simulate tun- neling effects in Josephson junction qubits, illustrating how quantum computing is useful in modeling and simulating the...Computation and Quantum Information ~ Cambridge University Press, Cambridge , 2000!. 2 J. I. Cirac and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4091 ~1995!. 3 Y

  10. Phase-dependent noise in Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Forrest; Peotta, Sebastiano; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2018-03-01

    In addition to the usual superconducting current, Josephson junctions (JJs) support a phase-dependent conductance related to the retardation effect of tunneling quasi-particles. This introduces a dissipative current with a memory-resistive (memristive) character that should also affect the current noise. By means of the microscopic theory of tunnel junctions we compute the complete current autocorrelation function of a Josephson tunnel junction and show that this memristive component gives rise to both a previously noted phase-dependent thermal noise, and an undescribed non-stationary, phase-dependent dynamic noise. As experiments are approaching ranges in which these effects may be observed, we examine the form and magnitude of these processes. Their phase dependence can be realized experimentally as a hysteresis effect and may be used to probe defects present in JJ based qubits and in other superconducting electronics applications.

  11. Adaptive homodyne phase discrimination and qubit measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarovar, Mohan; Whaley, K. Birgitta

    2007-01-01

    Fast and accurate measurement is a highly desirable, if not vital, feature of quantum computing architectures. In this work we investigate the usefulness of adaptive measurements in improving the speed and accuracy of qubit measurement. We examine a particular class of quantum computing architectures, ones based on qubits coupled to well-controlled harmonic oscillator modes (reminiscent of cavity QED), where adaptive schemes for measurement are particularly appropriate. In such architectures, qubit measurement is equivalent to phase discrimination for a mode of the electromagnetic field, and we examine adaptive techniques for doing this. In the final section we present a concrete example of applying adaptive measurement to the particularly well-developed circuit-QED architecture

  12. Characterization of double-loop four-Josephson-junction flux qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimazu, Y.; Saito, Y.; Wada, Z.

    2009-01-01

    An advantage of a double-loop four-Josephson-junction (4-JJ) flux qubit is the tunability of the energy gap at a symmetry point, i.e., the point at which the double-well potential of the qubit is symmetric. The energy gap is controlled via the magnetic flux in a DC superconducting quantum interference device (DC-SQUID) loop incorporated in a 4-JJ qubit. We investigate the locus of the symmetry point in the plane of two control fluxes of the qubit, taking into account the asymmetry in the DC-SQUID, which is inevitable in practical cases. The observed positions of the qubit steps are in reasonable agreement with the calculated locus of the symmetry point. We estimate the asymmetry parameter of the DC-SQUID from this analysis.

  13. Josephson phase qubit circuit for the evaluation of advanced tunnel barrier materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kline, Jeffrey S; Oh, Seongshik; Pappas, David P [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Wang Haohua; Martinis, John M [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)], E-mail: klinej@nist.gov

    2009-01-15

    We have found that crystalline Josephson junctions have problems with the control of critical current density that decrease the circuit yield. We present a superconducting quantum bit circuit designed to accommodate a factor of five variation in critical current density from one fabrication run to the next. The new design enables the evaluation of advanced tunnel barrier materials for superconducting quantum bits. Using this circuit design, we compare the performance of Josephson phase qubits fabricated with MgO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} advanced crystalline tunnel barriers to AlO{sub x} amorphous tunnel barrier qubits.

  14. Reduced phase error through optimized control of a superconducting qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucero, Erik; Kelly, Julian; Bialczak, Radoslaw C.; Lenander, Mike; Mariantoni, Matteo; Neeley, Matthew; O'Connell, A. D.; Sank, Daniel; Wang, H.; Weides, Martin; Wenner, James; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, John M.; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Minimizing phase and other errors in experimental quantum gates allows higher fidelity quantum processing. To quantify and correct for phase errors, in particular, we have developed an experimental metrology - amplified phase error (APE) pulses - that amplifies and helps identify phase errors in general multilevel qubit architectures. In order to correct for both phase and amplitude errors specific to virtual transitions and leakage outside of the qubit manifold, we implement 'half derivative', an experimental simplification of derivative reduction by adiabatic gate (DRAG) control theory. The phase errors are lowered by about a factor of five using this method to ∼1.6 deg. per gate, and can be tuned to zero. Leakage outside the qubit manifold, to the qubit |2> state, is also reduced to ∼10 -4 for 20% faster gates.

  15. Distinguishing quantum from classical oscillations in a driven phase qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevchenko, S N; Omelyanchouk, A N; Zagoskin, A M; Savel'ev, S; Nori, Franco

    2008-01-01

    Rabi oscillations are coherent transitions in a quantum two-level system under the influence of a resonant drive, with a much lower frequency dependent on the perturbation amplitude. These serve as one of the signatures of quantum coherent evolution in mesoscopic systems. It was shown recently (Groenbech-Jensen N and Cirillo M 2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 067001) that in phase qubits (current-biased Josephson junctions) this effect can be mimicked by classical oscillations arising due to the anharmonicity of the effective potential. Nevertheless, we find qualitative differences between the classical and quantum effects. Firstly, while the quantum Rabi oscillations can be produced by the subharmonics of the resonant frequency ω 10 (multiphoton processes), the classical effect also exists when the system is excited at the overtones, nω 10 . Secondly, the shape of the resonance is, in the classical case, characteristically asymmetric, whereas quantum resonances are described by symmetric Lorentzians. Thirdly, the anharmonicity of the potential results in the negative shift of the resonant frequency in the classical case, in contrast to the positive Bloch-Siegert shift in the quantum case. We show that in the relevant range of parameters these features allow us to distinguish confidently the bona fide Rabi oscillations from their classical Doppelgaenger

  16. Notes on qubit phase space and discrete symplectic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livine, Etera R

    2010-01-01

    We start from Wootter's construction of discrete phase spaces and Wigner functions for qubits and more generally for finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. We look at this framework from a non-commutative space perspective and we focus on the Moyal product and the differential calculus on these discrete phase spaces. In particular, the qubit phase space provides the simplest example of a four-point non-commutative phase space. We give an explicit expression of the Moyal bracket as a differential operator. We then compare the quantum dynamics encoded by the Moyal bracket to the classical dynamics: we show that the classical Poisson bracket does not satisfy the Jacobi identity thus leaving the Moyal bracket as the only consistent symplectic structure. We finally generalize our analysis to Hilbert spaces of prime dimensions d and their associated d x d phase spaces.

  17. Topologically protected qubits as minimal Josephson junction arrays with non-trivial boundary conditions: A proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristofano, Gerardo; Marotta, Vincenzo [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , and INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, Complesso Universitario M. Sant' Angelo, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Naddeo, Adele [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E.R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno and CNISM, Unita di Ricerca di Salerno, Via Salvador Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Italy)], E-mail: naddeo@sa.infn.it; Niccoli, Giuliano [Theoretical Physics Group, DESY, NotkeStrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany)

    2008-11-17

    Recently a one-dimensional closed ladder of Josephson junctions has been studied [G. Cristofano, V. Marotta, A. Naddeo, G. Niccoli, Phys. Lett. A 372 (2008) 2464] within a twisted conformal field theory (CFT) approach [G. Cristofano, G. Maiella, V. Marotta, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 15 (2000) 1679; G. Cristofano, G. Maiella, V. Marotta, G. Niccoli, Nucl. Phys. B 641 (2002) 547] and shown to develop the phenomenon of flux fractionalization [G. Cristofano, V. Marotta, A. Naddeo, G. Niccoli, Eur. Phys. J. B 49 (2006) 83]. That led us to predict the emergence of a topological order in such a system [G. Cristofano, V. Marotta, A. Naddeo, J. Stat. Mech.: Theory Exp. (2005) P03006]. In this Letter we analyze the ground states and the topological properties of fully frustrated Josephson junction arrays (JJA) arranged in a Corbino disk geometry for a variety of boundary conditions. In particular minimal configurations of fully frustrated JJA are considered and shown to exhibit the properties needed in order to build up a solid state qubit, protected from decoherence. The stability and transformation properties of the ground states of the JJA under adiabatic magnetic flux changes are analyzed in detail in order to provide a tool for the manipulation of the proposed qubit.

  18. Deterministic nonlinear phase gates induced by a single qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kimin; Marek, Petr; Filip, Radim

    2018-05-01

    We propose deterministic realizations of nonlinear phase gates by repeating a finite sequence of non-commuting Rabi interactions between a harmonic oscillator and only a single two-level ancillary qubit. We show explicitly that the key nonclassical features of the ideal cubic phase gate and the quartic phase gate are generated in the harmonic oscillator faithfully by our method. We numerically analyzed the performance of our scheme under realistic imperfections of the oscillator and the two-level system. The methodology is extended further to higher-order nonlinear phase gates. This theoretical proposal completes the set of operations required for continuous-variable quantum computation.

  19. Fully frustrated Josephson junction ladders with Mobius boundary conditions as topologically protected qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristofano, Gerardo; Marotta, Vincenzo [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' and INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Via Cintia, Complesso Universitario M. Sant' Angelo, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Naddeo, Adele [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E.R. Caianiello' , Universita degli Studi di Salerno and CNISM, Unita di Ricerca di Salerno, Via Salvador Allende, 84081 Baronissi (Saudi Arabia) (Italy)], E-mail: naddeo@sa.infn.it; Niccoli, Giuliano [LPTM, Universite de Cergy-Pontoise, 2 avenue Adolphe Chauvin, 95302 Cergy-Pontoise (France)

    2008-03-31

    We show how to realize a 'protected' qubit by using a fully frustrated Josephson junction ladder (JJL) with Mobius boundary conditions. Such a system has been recently studied within a twisted conformal field theory (CFT) approach [G. Cristofano, G. Maiella, V. Marotta, Mod. Phys. Lett. A 15 (2000) 1679; G. Cristofano, G. Maiella, V. Marotta, G. Niccoli, Nucl. Phys. B 641 (2002) 547] and shown to develop the phenomenon of flux fractionalization [G. Cristofano, V. Marotta, A. Naddeo, G. Niccoli, Eur. Phys. J. B 49 (2006) 83]. The relevance of a 'closed' geometry has been fully exploited in relating the topological properties of the ground state of the system to the presence of half flux quanta and the emergence of a topological order has been predicted [G. Cristofano, V. Marotta, A. Naddeo, J. Stat. Mech.: Theory Exp. (2005) P03006]. In this Letter the stability and transformation properties of the ground states under adiabatic magnetic flux change are analyzed and the deep consequences on the realization of a solid state qubit, protected from decoherence, are presented.

  20. Gatemon Benchmarking and Two-Qubit Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casparis, Lucas; Larsen, Thorvald; Olsen, Michael; Petersson, Karl; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Krogstrup, Peter; Nygard, Jesper; Marcus, Charles

    Recent experiments have demonstrated superconducting transmon qubits with semiconductor nanowire Josephson junctions. These hybrid gatemon qubits utilize field effect tunability singular to semiconductors to allow complete qubit control using gate voltages, potentially a technological advantage over conventional flux-controlled transmons. Here, we present experiments with a two-qubit gatemon circuit. We characterize qubit coherence and stability and use randomized benchmarking to demonstrate single-qubit gate errors of ~0.5 % for all gates, including voltage-controlled Z rotations. We show coherent capacitive coupling between two gatemons and coherent SWAP operations. Finally, we perform a two-qubit controlled-phase gate with an estimated fidelity of ~91 %, demonstrating the potential of gatemon qubits for building scalable quantum processors. We acknowledge financial support from Microsoft Project Q and the Danish National Research Foundation.

  1. Quantum memory for superconducting qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pritchett, Emily J.; Geller, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    Many protocols for quantum computation require a memory element to store qubits. We discuss the speed and accuracy with which quantum states prepared in a superconducting qubit can be stored in and later retrieved from an attached high-Q resonator. The memory fidelity depends on both the qubit-resonator coupling strength and the location of the state on the Bloch sphere. Our results show that a quantum memory demonstration should be possible with existing superconducting qubit designs, which would be an important milestone in solid-state quantum information processing. Although we specifically focus on a large-area, current-biased Josesphson-junction phase qubit coupled to the dilatational mode of a piezoelectric nanoelectromechanical disk resonator, many of our results will apply to other qubit-oscillator models

  2. Multi-target-qubit unconventional geometric phase gate in a multi-cavity system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Cao, Xiao-Zhi; Su, Qi-Ping; Xiong, Shao-Jie; Yang, Chui-Ping

    2016-02-22

    Cavity-based large scale quantum information processing (QIP) may involve multiple cavities and require performing various quantum logic operations on qubits distributed in different cavities. Geometric-phase-based quantum computing has drawn much attention recently, which offers advantages against inaccuracies and local fluctuations. In addition, multiqubit gates are particularly appealing and play important roles in QIP. We here present a simple and efficient scheme for realizing a multi-target-qubit unconventional geometric phase gate in a multi-cavity system. This multiqubit phase gate has a common control qubit but different target qubits distributed in different cavities, which can be achieved using a single-step operation. The gate operation time is independent of the number of qubits and only two levels for each qubit are needed. This multiqubit gate is generic, e.g., by performing single-qubit operations, it can be converted into two types of significant multi-target-qubit phase gates useful in QIP. The proposal is quite general, which can be used to accomplish the same task for a general type of qubits such as atoms, NV centers, quantum dots, and superconducting qubits.

  3. Berry phase in superconducting charge qubits interacting with a cavity field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aty, Mahmoud

    2009-01-01

    We propose a method for analyzing Berry phase for a multi-qubit system of superconducting charge qubits interacting with a microwave field. By suitably choosing the system parameters and precisely controlling the dynamics, novel connection found between the Berry phase and entanglement creations.

  4. Quantum state engineering with flux-biased Josephson phase qubits by rapid adiabatic passages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, W.; Huang, J. S.; Shi, X.; Wei, L. F.

    2010-09-01

    In this article, the scheme of quantum computing based on the Stark-chirped rapid adiabatic passage (SCRAP) technique [L. F. Wei, J. R. Johansson, L. X. Cen, S. Ashhab, and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.100.113601 100, 113601 (2008)] is extensively applied to implement quantum state manipulations in flux-biased Josephson phase qubits. The broken-parity symmetries of bound states in flux-biased Josephson junctions are utilized to conveniently generate the desirable Stark shifts. Then, assisted by various transition pulses, universal quantum logic gates as well as arbitrary quantum state preparations can be implemented. Compared with the usual π-pulse operations widely used in experiments, the adiabatic population passages proposed here are insensitive to the details of the applied pulses and thus the desirable population transfers can be satisfyingly implemented. The experimental feasibility of the proposal is also discussed.

  5. Quantum state engineering with flux-biased Josephson phase qubits by rapid adiabatic passages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nie, W.; Huang, J. S.; Shi, X.; Wei, L. F.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the scheme of quantum computing based on the Stark-chirped rapid adiabatic passage (SCRAP) technique [L. F. Wei, J. R. Johansson, L. X. Cen, S. Ashhab, and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 113601 (2008)] is extensively applied to implement quantum state manipulations in flux-biased Josephson phase qubits. The broken-parity symmetries of bound states in flux-biased Josephson junctions are utilized to conveniently generate the desirable Stark shifts. Then, assisted by various transition pulses, universal quantum logic gates as well as arbitrary quantum state preparations can be implemented. Compared with the usual π-pulse operations widely used in experiments, the adiabatic population passages proposed here are insensitive to the details of the applied pulses and thus the desirable population transfers can be satisfyingly implemented. The experimental feasibility of the proposal is also discussed.

  6. Controlled phase gate for solid-state charge-qubit architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmer, S.G.; Oi, D.K.L.; Greentree, Andrew D.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a mechanism for realizing a controlled phase gate for solid-state charge qubits. By augmenting the positionally defined qubit with an auxiliary state, and changing the charge distribution in the three-dot system, we are able to effectively switch the Coulombic interaction, effecting an entangling gate. We consider two architectures, and numerically investigate their robustness to gate noise

  7. Preservation of Quantum Fisher Information and Geometric Phase of a Single Qubit System in a Dissipative Reservoir Through the Addition of Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y. N.; Tian, Q. L.; Mo, Y. F.; Zhang, G. L.; Zeng, K.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we have investigated the preservation of quantum Fisher information (QFI) of a single-qubit system coupled to a common zero temperature reservoir through the addition of noninteracting qubits. The results show that, the QFI is completely protected in both Markovian and non-Markovian regimes by increasing the number of additional qubits. Besides, the phenomena of QFI display monotonic decay or non-monotonic with revival oscillations depending on the number of additional qubits N - 1 in a common dissipative reservoir. If N revival oscillations. Moreover, we extend this model to investigate the effect of additional qubits and the initial conditions of the system on the geometric phase (GP). It is found that, the robustness of GP against the dissipative reservoir has been demonstrated by increasing gradually the number of additional qubits N - 1. Besides, the GP is sensitive to the initial parameter 𝜃, and possesses symmetric in a range regime [0,2 π].

  8. Efficient Atomic One-Qubit Phase Gate Realized by a Cavity QED and Identical Atoms System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Yong; Jiang Nianquan

    2010-01-01

    We present a scheme to implement a one-qubit phase gate with a two-level atom crossing an optical cavity in which some identical atoms are trapped. One can conveniently acquire an arbitrary phase shift of the gate by properly choosing the number of atoms trapped in the cavity and the velocity of the atom crossing the cavity. The present scheme provides a very simple and efficient way for implementing one-qubit phase gate. (general)

  9. Generation of an N-qubit phase gate via atom—cavity nonidentical coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying-Qiao, Zhang; Shou, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A scheme for approximate generation of an N-qubit phase gate is proposed in cavity QED based on nonidentical coupling between the atoms and the cavity. The atoms interact with a highly detuned cavity-field mode, but quantum information does not transfer between the atoms and cavity field, and thus the cavity decay is negligible. The gate time does not rise with an increase in the number of qubits. With the choice of a smaller odd number l (related to atom–cavity coupling constants), the phase gate can be generated with a higher fidelity and a higher success probability in a shorter time (the gate time is much shorter than the atomic radiative lifetime and photon lifetime). When the number of qubits N exceeds certain small values, the fidelity and success probability rise slowly with an increase in the number of qubits N. When N → ∞, the fidelity and success probability infinitely approach 1, but never exceed 1. (general)

  10. Coherence properties in superconducting flux qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spilla, Samuele

    2015-02-16

    The research work discussed in this thesis deals with the study of superconducting Josephson qubits. Superconducting qubits are solid-state artificial atoms which are based on lithographically defined Josephson tunnel junctions properties. When sufficiently cooled, these superconducting devices exhibit quantized states of charge, flux or junction phase depending on their design parameters. This allows to observe coherent evolutions of their states. The results presented can be divided into two parts. In a first part we investigate operations of superconducting qubits based on the quantum coherence in superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUID). We explain experimental data which has been observed in a SQUID subjected to fast, large-amplitude modifications of its effective potential shape. The motivations for this work come from the fact that in the past few years there have been attempts to interpret the supposed quantum behavior of physical systems, such as Josephson devices, within a classical framework. Moreover, we analyze the possibility of generating GHZ states, namely maximally entangled states, in a quantum system made out of three Josephson qubits. In particular, we investigate the possible limitations of the GHZ state generation due to coupling to bosonic baths. In the second part of the thesis we address a particular cause of decoherence of flux qubits which has been disregarded until now: thermal gradients, which can arise due to accidental non equilibrium quasiparticle distributions. The reason for these detrimental effects is that heat currents flowing through Josephson tunnel junctions in response to a temperature gradient are periodic functions of the phase difference between the electrodes. The phase dependence of the heat current comes from Andreev reflection, namely an interplay between the quasiparticles which carry heat and the superconducting condensate which is sensitive to the superconducting phase difference. Generally speaking

  11. Computing prime factors with a Josephson phase qubit quantum processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Erik; Barends, R.; Chen, Y.; Kelly, J.; Mariantoni, M.; Megrant, A.; O'Malley, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T.; Yin, Y.; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, John M.

    2012-10-01

    A quantum processor can be used to exploit quantum mechanics to find the prime factors of composite numbers. Compiled versions of Shor's algorithm and Gauss sum factorizations have been demonstrated on ensemble quantum systems, photonic systems and trapped ions. Although proposed, these algorithms have yet to be shown using solid-state quantum bits. Using a number of recent qubit control and hardware advances, here we demonstrate a nine-quantum-element solid-state quantum processor and show three experiments to highlight its capabilities. We begin by characterizing the device with spectroscopy. Next, we produce coherent interactions between five qubits and verify bi- and tripartite entanglement through quantum state tomography. In the final experiment, we run a three-qubit compiled version of Shor's algorithm to factor the number 15, and successfully find the prime factors 48% of the time. Improvements in the superconducting qubit coherence times and more complex circuits should provide the resources necessary to factor larger composite numbers and run more intricate quantum algorithms.

  12. Efficient one- and two-qubit pulsed gates for an oscillator-stabilized Josephson qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito, Frederico; DiVincenzo, David P; Koch, Roger H; Steffen, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    We present theoretical schemes for performing high-fidelity one- and two-qubit pulsed gates for a superconducting flux qubit. The 'IBM qubit' consists of three Josephson junctions, three loops and a superconducting transmission line. Assuming a fixed inductive qubit-qubit coupling, we show that the effective qubit-qubit interaction is tunable by changing the applied fluxes, and can be made negligible, allowing one to perform high-fidelity single qubit gates. Our schemes are tailored to alleviate errors due to 1/f noise; we find gates with only 1% loss of fidelity due to this source, for pulse times in the range of 20-30 ns for one-qubit gates (Z rotations, Hadamard) and 60 ns for a two-qubit gate (controlled-Z). Our relaxation and dephasing time estimates indicate a comparable loss of fidelity from this source. The control of leakage plays an important role in the design of our shaped pulses, preventing shorter pulse times. However, we have found that imprecision in the control of the quantum phase plays a major role in the limitation of the fidelity of our gates

  13. Geometric quantum discord and Berry phase between two charge qubits coupled by a quantum transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Han-Jie; Zhang Guo-Feng

    2014-01-01

    Geometric quantum discord (GQD) and Berry phase between two charge qubits coupled by a quantum transmission line are investigated. We show how GQDs evolve and investigate their dependencies on the parameters of the system. We also calculate the energy and the Berry phase and compare them with GQD, finding that there are close connections between them. (general)

  14. Disentanglement of two qubits coupled to an XY spin chain: Role of quantum phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Zigang; Li Shushen; Zhang Ping

    2007-01-01

    We study the disentanglement evolution of two spin qubits which interact with a general XY spin-chain environment. The dynamical process of the disentanglement is numerically and analytically investigated in the vicinity of a quantum phase transition (QPT) of the spin chain in both weak and strong coupling cases. We find that the disentanglement of the two spin qubits may be greatly enhanced by the quantum critical behavior of the environmental spin chain. We give a detailed analysis to facilitate the understanding of the QPT-enhanced decaying behavior of the coherence factor. Furthermore, the scaling behavior in the disentanglement dynamics is also revealed and analyzed

  15. Geometric phases and quantum correlations of superconducting two-qubit system with dissipative effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Liyuan; Yu, Yanxia; Cai, Xiaoya; Pan, Hui; Wang, Zisheng

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We find that the Pancharatnam phases include the information of quantum correlations. • We show that the sudden died and alive phenomena of quantum entanglement is original in the transition of Pancharatnam phase. • We find that the faster the Pancharatnam phases change, the slower the quantum correlations decay. • We find that a subspace of quantum entanglement can exist in the Y-state. • Our results provide a useful approach experimentally to implement the time-dependent geometric quantum computation. - Abstract: We investigate time-dependent Pancharatnam phases and the relations between such geometric phases and quantum correlations, i.e., quantum discord and concurrence, of superconducting two-qubit coupling system in dissipative environment with the mixture effects of four different eigenstates of density matrix. We find that the time-dependent Pancharatnam phases not only keep the motion memory of such a two-qubit system, but also include the information of quantum correlations. We show that the sudden died and alive phenomena of quantum entanglement are intrinsic in the transition of Pancharatnam phase in the X-state and the complex oscillations of Pancharatnam phase in the Y-state. The faster the Pancharatnam phases change, the slower the quantum correlations decay. In particular, we find that a subspace of quantum entanglement can exist in the Y-state by choosing suitable coupling parameters between two-qubit system and its environment, or initial conditions.

  16. Microwave phase locking of Josephson-junction fluxon oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salerno, M.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm; Filatrella, G.

    1990-01-01

    Application of the classic McLaughlin-Scott soliton perturbation theory to a Josephson-junction fluxon subjected to a microwave field that interacts with the fluxon only at the junction boundaries reduces the problem of phase locking of the fluxon oscillation to the study of a two-dimensional fun......Application of the classic McLaughlin-Scott soliton perturbation theory to a Josephson-junction fluxon subjected to a microwave field that interacts with the fluxon only at the junction boundaries reduces the problem of phase locking of the fluxon oscillation to the study of a two...

  17. Energy localization in maximally entangled two- and three-qubit phase space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashaev, Oktay K; Gurkan, Zeynep N

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the Möbius transformation for symmetric points under the generalized circle in the complex plane, the system of symmetric spin coherent states corresponding to antipodal qubit states is introduced. In terms of these states, we construct the maximally entangled complete set of two-qubit coherent states, which in the limiting cases reduces to the Bell basis. A specific property of our symmetric coherent states is that they never become unentangled for any value of ψ from the complex plane. Entanglement quantifications of our states are given by the reduced density matrix and the concurrence determinant, and it is shown that our basis is maximally entangled. Universal one- and two-qubit gates in these new coherent state basis are calculated. As an application, we find the Q symbol of the XY Z model Hamiltonian operator H as an average energy function in maximally entangled two- and three-qubit phase space. It shows regular finite-energy localized structure with specific local extremum points. The concurrence and fidelity of quantum evolution with dimerization of double periodic patterns are given. (paper)

  18. Computing prime factors using a Josephson phase-qubit architecture: 15 = 3 x 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Erik Anthony

    Josephson phase-quantum-bits, (“qubits”), together with superconducting resonators, comprise the essential quantum elements in a state-of-the-art quantum processor (QuP). A QuP can be used to exploit quantum mechanics to find the prime factors of composite numbers by running Shor's algorithm[57]. In this thesis, I describe the first solid-state demonstration of a compiled version of Shor's algorithm. To meet this challenge, I designed a QuP so that I could map the problem of factoring the number N = 15 onto a quantum circuit that is compatible with our technological capabilities. The QuP is composed of nine quantum elements: four phase qubits and five superconducting coplanar waveguide (CPW) resonators. Using this device, I ran a three-qubit complied version of Shor's algorithm and successfully found the prime factors 48% of the time (compared to the ideal success rate of 50 %). In addition, the QuP produced coherent interactions between five quantum elements, and bi- and tripartite entanglement, which was verified via quantum state tomography (QST). Scaling up to nine quantum elements and performing these experiments represent key milestones to realizing a quantum computer. Continued improvements in the superconducting qubit coherence times and more complex circuits should provide the resources necessary to factor larger composite numbers and run more intricate quantum algorithms in the near future.

  19. Ultrafast electric phase control of a single exciton qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widhalm, Alex; Mukherjee, Amlan; Krehs, Sebastian; Sharma, Nandlal; Kölling, Peter; Thiede, Andreas; Reuter, Dirk; Förstner, Jens; Zrenner, Artur

    2018-03-01

    We report on the coherent phase manipulation of quantum dot excitons by electric means. For our experiments, we use a low capacitance single quantum dot photodiode which is electrically controlled by a custom designed SiGe:C BiCMOS chip. The phase manipulation is performed and quantified in a Ramsey experiment, where ultrafast transient detuning of the exciton energy is performed synchronous to double pulse π/2 ps laser excitation. We are able to demonstrate electrically controlled phase manipulations with magnitudes up to 3π within 100 ps which is below the dephasing time of the quantum dot exciton.

  20. Experimental asymmetric phase-covariant quantum cloning of polarization qubits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soubusta, Jan; Bartůšková, L.; Černoch, Antonín; Dušek, M.; Fiurášek, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 78, č. 5 (2008), 052323/1-052323/7 ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Grant - others:GAMŠk(CZ) LC06007 Program:LC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : phase-covariant cloning * quantum information processing Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.908, year: 2008

  1. Environment-assisted error correction of single-qubit phase damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trendelkamp-Schroer, Benjamin; Helm, Julius; Strunz, Walter T.

    2011-01-01

    Open quantum system dynamics of random unitary type may in principle be fully undone. Closely following the scheme of environment-assisted error correction proposed by Gregoratti and Werner [J. Mod. Opt. 50, 915 (2003)], we explicitly carry out all steps needed to invert a phase-damping error on a single qubit. Furthermore, we extend the scheme to a mixed-state environment. Surprisingly, we find cases for which the uncorrected state is closer to the desired state than any of the corrected ones.

  2. Phase diagrams of particles with dissimilar patches: X-junctions and Y-junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, J M; Teixeira, P I C

    2012-01-01

    We use Wertheim’s first-order perturbation theory to investigate the phase behaviour and the structure of coexisting fluid phases for a model of patchy particles with dissimilar patches (two patches of type A and f B patches of type B). A patch of type α = {A,B} can bond to a patch of type β = {A,B} in a volume v αβ , thereby decreasing the internal energy by ε αβ . We analyse the range of model parameters where AB bonds, or Y-junctions, are energetically disfavoured (ε AB AA /2) but entropically favoured (v AB ≫ v αα ), and BB bonds, or X-junctions, are energetically favoured (ε BB > 0). We show that, for low values of ε BB /ε AA , the phase diagram has three different regions: (i) close to the critical temperature a low-density liquid composed of long chains and rich in Y-junctions coexists with a vapour of chains; (ii) at intermediate temperatures there is coexistence between a vapour of short chains and a liquid of very long chains with X- and Y-junctions; (iii) at low temperatures an ideal gas coexists with a high-density liquid with all possible AA and BB bonds formed. It is also shown that in region (i) the liquid binodal is reentrant (its density decreases with decreasing temperature) for the lower values of ε BB /ε AA . The existence of these three regions is a consequence of the competition between the formation of X- and Y-junctions: X-junctions are energetically favoured and thus dominate at low temperatures, whereas Y-junctions are entropically favoured and dominate at higher temperatures. (paper)

  3. Phase transition in a modified square Josephson-junction array

    CERN Document Server

    Han, J

    1999-01-01

    We study the phase transition in a modified square proximity-coupled Josephson-junction array with small superconducting islands at the center of each plaquette. We find that the modified square array undergoes a Kosterlitz-Thouless-Berezinskii-like phase transition, but at a lower temperature than the simple square array with the same single-junction critical current. The IV characteristics, as well as the phase transition, resemble qualitatively those of a disordered simple square array. The effects of the presence of the center islands in the modified square array are discussed.

  4. Dynamics of the Josephson multi-junction system with junctions characterized by non-sinusoidal current - phase relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abal'osheva, I.; Lewandowski, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that the inclusion of junctions characterized by non-sinusoidal current - phase relationship in the systems composed of multiple Josephson junctions - results in the appearance of additional system phase states. Numerical simulations and stability considerations confirm that those phase states can be realized in practice. Moreover, spontaneous formation of the grain boundary junctions in high-T c superconductors with non-trivial current-phase relations due to the d-wave symmetry of the order parameter is probable. Switching between the phase states of multiple grain boundary junction systems can lead to additional 1/f noise in high-T c superconductors. (author)

  5. Simulating a topological transition in a superconducting phase qubit by fast adiabatic trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tenghui; Zhang, Zhenxing; Xiang, Liang; Gong, Zhihao; Wu, Jianlan; Yin, Yi

    2018-04-01

    The significance of topological phases has been widely recognized in the community of condensed matter physics. The well controllable quantum systems provide an artificial platform to probe and engineer various topological phases. The adiabatic trajectory of a quantum state describes the change of the bulk Bloch eigenstates with the momentum, and this adiabatic simulation method is however practically limited due to quantum dissipation. Here we apply the "shortcut to adiabaticity" (STA) protocol to realize fast adiabatic evolutions in the system of a superconducting phase qubit. The resulting fast adiabatic trajectories illustrate the change of the bulk Bloch eigenstates in the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model. A sharp transition is experimentally determined for the topological invariant of a winding number. Our experiment helps identify the topological Chern number of a two-dimensional toy model, suggesting the applicability of the fast adiabatic simulation method for topological systems.

  6. Efficient controlled-phase gate for single-spin qubits in quantum dots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meunier, T.; Calado, V.E.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.

    2011-01-01

    Two-qubit interactions are at the heart of quantum information processing. For single-spin qubits in semiconductor quantum dots, the exchange gate has always been considered the natural two-qubit gate. The recent integration of a magnetic field or g-factor gradients in coupled quantum dot systems

  7. Relaxation towards phase-locked dynamics in long Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salerno, M.; Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1995-01-01

    We study the relaxation phenomenon towards phase-locked dynamics in long Josephson junctions. In particular the dependence of the relaxation frequency for the equal time of flight solution on the junction parameters is derived. The analysis is based on a phase-locked map and is compared with direct...... numerical experiments performed both on the map and on the perturbed sine-Gordon equation. As an interesting result we find that very close to a bifurcation the relaxation frequency is exactly equal to the half of the step frequency, i.e., the frequency characterizing the period-one solution....

  8. Influence of external fields and environment on the dynamics of a phase-qubit-resonator system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, G. P.; Chumak, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of a qubit-resonator system coupled with a thermal bath and external electromagnetic fields. Using the evolution equations for the set of Heisenberg operators that describe the whole system, we derive an expression for the resonator field, accounting for the resonator-drive, -bath, and -qubit interaction. The renormalization of the resonator frequency caused by the qubit-resonator interaction is accounted for. Using solutions for the resonator field, we derive the equation describing qubit dynamics. The influence of the qubit evolution during measurement time on the fidelity of a single-shot measurement is studied. The relation between fidelity and measurement time is shown explicitly. Also, an expression describing relaxation of the superposition qubit state toward its stationary value is derived. The possibility of controlling this state by varying the amplitude and frequency of drive is shown.

  9. Phase dynamics of low critical current density YBCO Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massarotti, D., E-mail: dmassarotti@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); CNR-SPIN UOS Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Stornaiuolo, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Rotoli, G. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell’Informazione, Seconda Università di Napoli, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (CE) (Italy); Carillo, F. [Nest, Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Galletti, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); CNR-SPIN UOS Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Longobardi, L. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell’Informazione, Seconda Università di Napoli, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (CE) (Italy); American Physical Society, 1 Research Road, Ridge, NY 11961 (United States); Beltram, F. [Nest, Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Tafuri, F. [CNR-SPIN UOS Napoli, Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant’Angelo, Via Cinthia, 80126 Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale e dell’Informazione, Seconda Università di Napoli, Via Roma 29, 81031 Aversa (CE) (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We study the phase dynamics of YBaCuO Josephson junctions using various tools. • We derive information on the dissipation in a wide range of transport parameters. • Dissipation in such devices can be described by a frequency dependent damping model. • The use of different substrates allows us to tune the shell circuit. - Abstract: High critical temperature superconductors (HTS) based devices can have impact in the study of the phase dynamics of Josephson junctions (JJs) thanks to the wide range of junction parameters they offer and to their unconventional properties. Measurements of current–voltage characteristics and of switching current distributions constitute a direct way to classify different regimes of the phase dynamics and of the transport, also in nontrivial case of the moderately damped regime (MDR). MDR is going to be more and more common in JJs with advances in nanopatterning superconductors and synthesizing novel hybrid systems. Distinctive signatures of macroscopic quantum tunneling and of thermal activation in presence of different tunable levels of dissipation have been detected in YBCO grain boundary JJs. Experimental data are supported by Monte Carlo simulations of the phase dynamics, in a wide range of temperatures and dissipation levels. This allows us to quantify dissipation in the MDR and partially reconstruct a phase diagram as guideline for a wide range of moderately damped systems.

  10. Nonlinearities in the quantum measurement process of superconducting qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serban, Ioana

    2008-05-01

    The work described in this thesis focuses on the investigation of decoherence and measurement backaction, on the theoretical description of measurement schemes and their improvement. The study presented here is centered around quantum computing implementations using superconducting devices and most important, the Josephson effect. The measured system is invariantly a qubit, i. e. a two-level system. The objective is to study detectors with increasing nonlinearity, e. g. coupling of the qubit to the frequency a driven oscillator, or to the bifurcation amplifier, to determine the performance and backaction of the detector on the measured system and to investigate the importance of a strong qubit-detector coupling for the achievement of a quantum non-demolition type of detection. The first part gives a very basic introduction to quantum information, briefly reviews some of the most promising physical implementations of a quantum computer before focusing on the superconducting devices. The second part presents a series of studies of different qubit measurements, describing the backaction of the measurement onto the measured system and the internal dynamics of the detector. Methodology adapted from quantum optics and chemical physics (master equations, phase-space analysis etc.) combined with the representation of a complex environment yielded a tool capable of describing a nonlinear, non-Markovian environment, which couples arbitrarily strongly to the measured system. This is described in chapter 3. Chapter 4 focuses on the backaction on the qubit and presents novel insights into the qubit dephasing in the strong coupling regime. Chapter 5 uses basically the same system and technical tools to explore the potential of a fast, strong, indirect measurement, and determine how close such a detection would ideally come to the quantum non-demolition regime. Chapter 6 focuses on the internal dynamics of a strongly driven Josephson junction. The analytical results are based on

  11. Nonlinearities in the quantum measurement process of superconducting qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serban, Ioana

    2008-05-15

    The work described in this thesis focuses on the investigation of decoherence and measurement backaction, on the theoretical description of measurement schemes and their improvement. The study presented here is centered around quantum computing implementations using superconducting devices and most important, the Josephson effect. The measured system is invariantly a qubit, i. e. a two-level system. The objective is to study detectors with increasing nonlinearity, e. g. coupling of the qubit to the frequency a driven oscillator, or to the bifurcation amplifier, to determine the performance and backaction of the detector on the measured system and to investigate the importance of a strong qubit-detector coupling for the achievement of a quantum non-demolition type of detection. The first part gives a very basic introduction to quantum information, briefly reviews some of the most promising physical implementations of a quantum computer before focusing on the superconducting devices. The second part presents a series of studies of different qubit measurements, describing the backaction of the measurement onto the measured system and the internal dynamics of the detector. Methodology adapted from quantum optics and chemical physics (master equations, phase-space analysis etc.) combined with the representation of a complex environment yielded a tool capable of describing a nonlinear, non-Markovian environment, which couples arbitrarily strongly to the measured system. This is described in chapter 3. Chapter 4 focuses on the backaction on the qubit and presents novel insights into the qubit dephasing in the strong coupling regime. Chapter 5 uses basically the same system and technical tools to explore the potential of a fast, strong, indirect measurement, and determine how close such a detection would ideally come to the quantum non-demolition regime. Chapter 6 focuses on the internal dynamics of a strongly driven Josephson junction. The analytical results are based on

  12. 0-π phase-controllable thermal Josephson junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornieri, Antonio; Timossi, Giuliano; Virtanen, Pauli; Solinas, Paolo; Giazotto, Francesco

    2017-05-01

    Two superconductors coupled by a weak link support an equilibrium Josephson electrical current that depends on the phase difference ϕ between the superconducting condensates. Yet, when a temperature gradient is imposed across the junction, the Josephson effect manifests itself through a coherent component of the heat current that flows opposite to the thermal gradient for |ϕ| heat currents can be inverted by adding a π shift to ϕ. In the static electrical case, this effect has been obtained in a few systems, for example via a ferromagnetic coupling or a non-equilibrium distribution in the weak link. These structures opened new possibilities for superconducting quantum logic and ultralow-power superconducting computers. Here, we report the first experimental realization of a thermal Josephson junction whose phase bias can be controlled from 0 to π. This is obtained thanks to a superconducting quantum interferometer that allows full control of the direction of the coherent energy transfer through the junction. This possibility, in conjunction with the completely superconducting nature of our system, provides temperature modulations with an unprecedented amplitude of ∼100 mK and transfer coefficients exceeding 1 K per flux quantum at 25 mK. Then, this quantum structure represents a fundamental step towards the realization of caloritronic logic components such as thermal transistors, switches and memory devices. These elements, combined with heat interferometers and diodes, would complete the thermal conversion of the most important phase-coherent electronic devices and benefit cryogenic microcircuits requiring energy management, such as quantum computing architectures and radiation sensors.

  13. Spectroscopy and coherent manipulation of single and coupled flux qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yu-Lin; Deng Hui; Huang Ke-Qiang; Tian Ye; Yu Hai-Feng; Xue Guang-Ming; Jin Yi-Rong; Li Jie; Zhao Shi-Ping; Zheng Dong-Ning

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of three-junction flux qubits, both single flux qubits and coupled flux qubits, using a coupled direct current superconducting quantum interference device (dc-SQUID) for readout are reported. The measurement procedure is described in detail. We performed spectroscopy measurements and coherent manipulations of the qubit states on a single flux qubit, demonstrating quantum energy levels and Rabi oscillations, with Rabi oscillation decay time T Rabi = 78 ns and energy relaxation time T 1 = 315 ns. We found that the value of T Rabi depends strongly on the mutual inductance between the qubit and the magnetic coil. We also performed spectroscopy measurements on inductively coupled flux qubits. (general)

  14. Mutual Phase Locking of Fluxons in Stacked Long Josephson Junctions: Simulations and Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carapella, Giovanni; Costabile, Giovanni; Filatrella, Giovanni

    1997-01-01

    We report on the experimental observation of reciprocal phase-locking in stacked $Nb-AlO_x-Nb$ Josephson junctions having overlap geometry. When the junctions are independently biased in zero external magnetic field, they each exhibit several Zero Field Steps. Biasing both the junctions on the Ze...

  15. Realization of quantum gates with multiple control qubits or multiple target qubits in a cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Muhammad; Irfan, Muhammad; Qamar, Shahid

    2015-06-01

    We propose a scheme to realize a three-qubit controlled phase gate and a multi-qubit controlled NOT gate of one qubit simultaneously controlling n-target qubits with a four-level quantum system in a cavity. The implementation time for multi-qubit controlled NOT gate is independent of the number of qubit. Three-qubit phase gate is generalized to n-qubit phase gate with multiple control qubits. The number of steps reduces linearly as compared to conventional gate decomposition method. Our scheme can be applied to various types of physical systems such as superconducting qubits coupled to a resonator and trapped atoms in a cavity. Our scheme does not require adjustment of level spacing during the gate implementation. We also show the implementation of Deutsch-Joza algorithm. Finally, we discuss the imperfections due to cavity decay and the possibility of physical implementation of our scheme.

  16. Experiments on phase retrapping in φ Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldobin, Edward; Menditto, Rosina; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold [University of Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Weides, Martin [KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    We experimentally study retrapping of the phase in φ Josephson junctions (JJs) based on superconductor-insulator-ferromagnet-superconductor (SIFS) 0-π heterostructures. Such φ JJs have a doubly degenerate ground state (two potential energy wells) with the phases ±φ (0 < φ < π). We study in which of these two wells the phase is trapped upon return of the JJ to the zero voltage state. We find that for T>T* ∼ 2.4 K (large damping) the phase is always trapped in the +φ state. However, for lower T (small damping) the trapping result is a statistical mixture of the +φ and the -φ states due to the presence of noise in the system. The probability for retrapping to the -φ state increases and oscillates as T is decreasing below T*, reaching a saturation value of ∝ 30% for T

  17. A supersymmetric phase transition in Josephson-tunnel-junction arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, O.

    1988-01-01

    The fully frustrated XY model in two dimensions exhibits a vortex-unbinding as well as an Ising transition. If the Ising transition overlaps with the critical line that ends on the vortex transition: T I ≤T V , then the model is equivalent, at the overlap temperature, to a free massless field theory of 1 boson and 1 Majorana fermion, which is a superconformal field theory, of central charge c=3/2. The model is experimentally realized in terms of an array of Josephson-tunnel junctions in a transverse magnetic field. The experiment reveals a phase transition consistent with T I =T V . Thus, at the critical temperature, the array provides a physical realization of a supersymmetric quantum field theory. (orig.)

  18. Supersymmetric phase transition in Josephson-tunnel-junction arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O.

    1988-08-31

    The fully frustrated XY model in two dimensions exhibits a vortex-unbinding as well as an Ising transition. If the Ising transition overlaps with the critical line that ends on the vortex transition: T/sub I/less than or equal toT/sub V/, then the model is equivalent, at the overlap temperature, to a free massless field theory of 1 boson and 1 Majorana fermion, which is a superconformal field theory, of central charge c=3/2. The model is experimentally realized in terms of an array of Josephson-tunnel junctions in a transverse magnetic field. The experiment reveals a phase transition consistent with T/sub I/=T/sub V/. Thus, at the critical temperature, the array provides a physical realization of a supersymmetric quantum field theory.

  19. Qubits in phase space: Wigner-function approach to quantum-error correction and the mean-king problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz, Juan Pablo; Roncaglia, Augusto Jose; Saraceno, Marcos

    2005-01-01

    We analyze and further develop a method to represent the quantum state of a system of n qubits in a phase-space grid of NxN points (where N=2 n ). The method, which was recently proposed by Wootters and co-workers (Gibbons et al., Phys. Rev. A 70, 062101 (2004).), is based on the use of the elements of the finite field GF(2 n ) to label the phase-space axes. We present a self-contained overview of the method, we give insights into some of its features, and we apply it to investigate problems which are of interest for quantum-information theory: We analyze the phase-space representation of stabilizer states and quantum error-correction codes and present a phase-space solution to the so-called mean king problem

  20. Detecting the multi-spin interaction of an XY spin chain by the geometric phase of a coupled qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiu-xing; Zhang, Ai-ping; Li, Fu-li

    2012-01-01

    We investigate geometric phase (GP) of a qubit symmetrically coupled to a XY spin chain with three-spin interaction in a transverse magnetic field. An analytical expression for the GP is found in the weak coupling limit. It is shown that the GP displays a sharp peak or dip around the quantum phase transition point of the spin chain. Without the three-spin interaction, the GP has a peak or dip around the critical point λ=1. If the three-spin interaction exists, the peak or dip position is obviously shifted away from the original position. This result reveals that the GP may be taken as an observable to detect both the existence and strength of multi-spin interaction in a spin chain. -- Highlights: ► Analytical expression for geometric phase (GP) of a qubit coupled to a spin chain is obtained. ► Relation between GP and multi-spin interaction is investigated. ► Detection of multi-spin interaction by means of GP is proposed.

  1. Final Report on DE-FG02-04ER46107: Glasses, Noise and Phase Transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Clare C. [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2011-12-31

    We showed that noise has distinct signatures at phase transitions in spin systems. We also studied charge noise, critical current noise, and flux noise in superconducting qubits and Josephson junctions.

  2. Superconducting Tunnel Junction Arrays for UV Photon Detection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An innovative method is described for the fabrication of superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector arrays offering true "three dimensional" imaging throughout...

  3. Inter-band phase fluctuations in macroscopic quantum tunneling of multi-gap superconducting Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, Hidehiro, E-mail: hd-asai@aist.go.jp [Electronics and Photonics Research Institute (ESPRIT), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Ota, Yukihiro [CCSE, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8587 (Japan); Kawabata, Shiro [Electronics and Photonics Research Institute (ESPRIT), National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8568 (Japan); Nori, Franco [CEMS, RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Physics Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • We study MQT in Josephson junctions composed of multi-gap superconductors. • We derive a formula of the MQT escape rate for multiple phase differences. • We investigate the effect of inter-band phase fluctuation on MQT. • The MQT escape rate is significantly enhanced by the inter-band phase fluctuation. - Abstract: We theoretically investigate macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) in a hetero Josephson junction formed by a conventional single-gap superconductor and a multi-gap superconductor. In such Josephson junctions, phase differences for each tunneling channel are defined, and the fluctuation of the relative phase differences appear which is referred to as Josephson–Leggett’s mode. We take into account the effect of the fluctuation in the tunneling process and calculate the MQT escape rate for various junction parameters. We show that the fluctuation of relative phase differences drastically enhances the escape rate.

  4. Inter-band phase fluctuations in macroscopic quantum tunneling of multi-gap superconducting Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, Hidehiro; Ota, Yukihiro; Kawabata, Shiro; Nori, Franco

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We study MQT in Josephson junctions composed of multi-gap superconductors. • We derive a formula of the MQT escape rate for multiple phase differences. • We investigate the effect of inter-band phase fluctuation on MQT. • The MQT escape rate is significantly enhanced by the inter-band phase fluctuation. - Abstract: We theoretically investigate macroscopic quantum tunneling (MQT) in a hetero Josephson junction formed by a conventional single-gap superconductor and a multi-gap superconductor. In such Josephson junctions, phase differences for each tunneling channel are defined, and the fluctuation of the relative phase differences appear which is referred to as Josephson–Leggett’s mode. We take into account the effect of the fluctuation in the tunneling process and calculate the MQT escape rate for various junction parameters. We show that the fluctuation of relative phase differences drastically enhances the escape rate

  5. The gatemon: a transmon with a voltage-variable superconductor-semiconductor junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Karl

    We have developed a superconducting transmon qubit with a semiconductor-based Josephson junction element. The junction is made from an InAs nanowire with in situ molecular beam epitaxy-grown superconducting Al contacts. This gate-controlled transmon, or gatemon, allows simple tuning of the qubit transition frequency using a gate voltage to vary the density of carriers in the semiconductor region. In the first generations of devices we have measured coherence times up to ~10 μs. These coherence times, combined with stable qubit operation, permit single qubit rotations with fidelities of ~99.5 % for all gates including voltage-controlled Z rotations. Towards multi-qubit operation we have also implemented a two qubit voltage-controlled cPhase gate. In contrast to flux-tuned transmons, voltage-tunable gatemons may simplify the task of scaling to multi-qubit circuits and enable new means of control for many qubit architectures. In collaboration with T.W. Larsen, L. Casparis, M.S. Olsen, F. Kuemmeth, T.S. Jespersen, P. Krogstrup, J. Nygard and C.M. Marcus. Research was supported by Microsoft Project Q, Danish National Research Foundation and a Marie Curie Fellowship.

  6. Phase-tunable Majorana bound states in a topological N-SNS junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Esben Bork; Danon, Jeroen; Flensberg, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    We theoretically study the differential conductance of a one-dimensional normal-superconductor-normal-superconductor (N-SNS) junction with a phase bias applied between the two superconductors. We consider specifically a junction formed by a spin-orbit coupled semiconducting nanowire with regions ...

  7. Precise single-qubit control of the reflection phase of a photon mediated by a strongly-coupled ancilla–cavity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motzoi, F.; Mølmer, K.

    2018-05-01

    We propose to use the interaction between a single qubit atom and a surrounding ensemble of three level atoms to control the phase of light reflected by an optical cavity. Our scheme employs an ensemble dark resonance that is perturbed by the qubit atom to yield a single-atom single photon gate. We show here that off-resonant excitation towards Rydberg states with strong dipolar interactions offers experimentally-viable regimes of operations with low errors (in the 10‑3 range) as required for fault-tolerant optical-photon, gate-based quantum computation. We also propose and analyze an implementation within microwave circuit-QED, where a strongly-coupled ancilla superconducting qubit can be used in the place of the atomic ensemble to provide high-fidelity coupling to microwave photons.

  8. Low-Cost Multi-Junction Photovoltaic Cells, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed SBIR project will provide a pathway to dramatically reduce the cost of multi-junction solar cells. The project leverages a TRL6 micropackaging process...

  9. Silicon Qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladd, Thaddeus D. [HRL Laboratories, LLC, Malibu, CA (United States); Carroll, Malcolm S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-02-28

    Silicon is a promising material candidate for qubits due to the combination of worldwide infrastructure in silicon microelectronics fabrication and the capability to drastically reduce decohering noise channels via chemical purification and isotopic enhancement. However, a variety of challenges in fabrication, control, and measurement leaves unclear the best strategy for fully realizing this material’s future potential. In this article, we survey three basic qubit types: those based on substitutional donors, on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures, and on Si/SiGe heterostructures. We also discuss the multiple schema used to define and control Si qubits, which may exploit the manipulation and detection of a single electron charge, the state of a single electron spin, or the collective states of multiple spins. Far from being comprehensive, this article provides a brief orientation to the rapidly evolving field of silicon qubit technology and is intended as an approachable entry point for a researcher new to this field.

  10. Implementation of a two-qubit controlled-rotation gate based on unconventional geometric phase with a constant gating time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yabu-uti, B.F.C.; Roversi, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    We propose an alternative scheme to implement a two-qubit controlled-R (rotation) gate in the hybrid atom-CCA (coupled cavities array) system. Our scheme results in a constant gating time and, with an adjustable qubit-bus coupling (atom-resonator), one can specify a particular rotation R on the target qubit. We believe that this proposal may open promising perspectives for networking quantum information processors and implementing distributed and scalable quantum computation. -- Highlights: → We propose an alternative two-qubit controlled-rotation gate implementation. → Our gate is realized in a constant gating time for any rotation. → A particular rotation on the target qubit can be specified by an adjustable qubit-bus coupling. → Our proposal may open promising perspectives for implementing distributed and scalable quantum computation.

  11. Phase Sensitive Measurements of Ferromagnetic Josephson Junctions for Cryogenic Memory Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzielski, Bethany Maria

    A Josephson junction is made up of two superconducting layers separated by a barrier. The original Josephson junctions, studied in the early 1960's, contained an insulating barrier. Soon thereafter, junctions with normal-metal barriers were also studied. Ferromagnetic materials were not even theoretically considered as a barrier layer until around 1980, due to the competing order between ferromagnetic and superconducting systems. However, many exciting physical phenomena arise in hybrid superconductor/ferromagnetic devices, including devices where the ground state phase difference between the two superconductors is shifted by pi. Since their experimental debut in 2001, so-called pi junctions have been demonstrated by many groups, including my own, in systems with a single ferromagnetic layer. In this type of system, the phase of the junction can be set to either 0 or pi depending on the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer. Of interest, however, is the ability to control the phase of a single junction between the 0 and pi states. This was theoretically shown to be possible in a system containing two ferromagnetic layers (spin-valve junctions). If the materials and their thicknesses are properly chosen to manipulate the electron pair correlation function, then the phase state of a spin-valve Josephson junction should be capable of switching between the 0 and ? phase states when the magnetization directions of the two ferromagnetic layers are oriented in the antiparallel and parallel configurations, respectively. Such a phase-controllable junction would have immediate applications in cryogenic memory, which is a necessary component to an ultra-low power superconducting computer. A fully superconducting computer is estimated to be orders of magnitude more energy-efficient than current semiconductor-based supercomputers. The goal of this work was to experimentally verify this prediction for a phase-controllable ferromagnetic Josephson junction. To address this

  12. Local parameters of air–water two-phase flow at a vertical T-junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monrós-Andreu, G., E-mail: gmonros@uji.es; Martínez-Cuenca, R., E-mail: rcuenca@uji.es; Torró, S., E-mail: torro@uji.es; Chiva, S., E-mail: schiva@uji.es

    2017-02-15

    Significant experimental work and modeling about vertical T-junction as a phase separator has been done for churn and annular flows, but a survey on the literature reveals a lack of experimental data regarding bubbly flow nor any phenomenological explanation to their behavior. The objective of this work is to extend the understanding of these junctions by obtaining complete datasets, i.e. of both gas and liquid, of the phase splitting process in bubbly flow conditions by means of conductivity needle probes, Laser Doppler anemometry and visual inspection. Measurements and observations of the phase split, as well as the vortex structure in a vertical T-junction with equal pipe diameters (52 mm inner diameter), are reported. Results suggest a relationship between the vortex structure and the efficiency of the junction as phase separator.

  13. Local parameters of air–water two-phase flow at a vertical T-junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monrós-Andreu, G.; Martínez-Cuenca, R.; Torró, S.; Chiva, S.

    2017-01-01

    Significant experimental work and modeling about vertical T-junction as a phase separator has been done for churn and annular flows, but a survey on the literature reveals a lack of experimental data regarding bubbly flow nor any phenomenological explanation to their behavior. The objective of this work is to extend the understanding of these junctions by obtaining complete datasets, i.e. of both gas and liquid, of the phase splitting process in bubbly flow conditions by means of conductivity needle probes, Laser Doppler anemometry and visual inspection. Measurements and observations of the phase split, as well as the vortex structure in a vertical T-junction with equal pipe diameters (52 mm inner diameter), are reported. Results suggest a relationship between the vortex structure and the efficiency of the junction as phase separator.

  14. Phase transition in one Josephson junction with a side-coupled magnetic impurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Li-Ming; Wang, Xiao-Qi; Jiang, Cui; Yi, Guang-Yu; Gong, Wei-Jiang

    2018-04-01

    This work focuses on one Josephson junction with a side-coupled magnetic impurity. And then, the Josephson phase transition is theoretically investigated, with the help of the exact diagonalization approach. It is found that even in the absence of intradot Coulomb interaction, the magnetic impurity can efficiently induce the phenomenon of Josephson phase transition, which is tightly related to the spin correlation manners (i.e., ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic) between the impurity and the junction. Moreover, the impurity plays different roles when it couples to the dot and superconductor, respectively. This work can be helpful in describing the influence of one magnetic impurity on the supercurrent through the Josephson junction.

  15. Bubble splitting under gas–liquid–liquid three-phase flow in a double T-junction microchannel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yanyan; Yue, Jun; Zhao, Shuainan; Yao, Chaoqun; Chen, Guangwen

    Gas–aqueous liquid–oil three-phase flow was generated in a microchannel with a double T-junction. Under the squeezing of the dispersed aqueous phase at the second T-junction (T2), the splitting of bubbles generated from the first T-junction (T1) was investigated. During the bubble splitting process,

  16. Non-local correlations via Wigner-Yanase skew information in two SC-qubit having mutual interaction under phase decoherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Abdel-Baset A.

    2017-10-01

    An analytical solution of the master equation that describes a superconducting cavity containing two coupled superconducting charge qubits is obtained. Quantum-mechanical correlations based on Wigner-Yanase skew information, as local quantum uncertainty and uncertainty-induced quantum non-locality, are compared to the concurrence under the effects of the phase decoherence. Local quantum uncertainty exhibits sudden changes during its time evolution and revival process. Sudden death and sudden birth occur only for entanglement, depending on the initial state of the two coupled charge qubits, while the correlations of skew information does not vanish. The quantum correlations of skew information are found to be sensitive to the dephasing rate, the photons number in the cavity, the interaction strength between the two qubits, and the qubit distribution angle of the initial state. With a proper initial state, the stationary correlation of the skew information has a non-zero stationary value for a long time interval under the phase decoherence, that it may be useful in quantum information and computation processes.

  17. Flipping qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini De, F.; Sciarrino, F.; Sias, C.; Buzek, V.

    2003-01-01

    On a classical level the information can be represented by bits, each of which can be either 0 or 1. Quantum information, on the other hand, consists of qubits which can be represented as two-level quantum systems with one level labeled |0> and the other |1>. Unlike bits, qubits cannot only be in one of the two levels, but in any superposition of them as well. This superposition principle makes quantum information fundamentally different from its classical counterpart. One of the most striking difference between the classical and quantum information is as follows: it is not a problem to flip a classical bit, i.e., to change the value of a bit, a 0 to a 1 and vice versa. This is accomplished by a NOT gate. Flipping a qubit, however, is another matter: there exists the fundamental bound which prohibits to flip a qubit prepared in an arbitrary state |Ψ>=α|0> and to obtain the state |Ψ T >=β*|0>-α*|1> which is orthogonal to it, i.e., T |Ψ>=0. We experimentally realize the best possible approximation of the qubit flipping that achieves bounds imposed by complete positivity of quantum mechanics

  18. Multi-qubit parity measurement in circuit quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiVincenzo, David P; Solgun, Firat

    2013-01-01

    We present a concept for performing direct parity measurements on three or more qubits in microwave structures with superconducting resonators coupled to Josephson-junction qubits. We write the quantum-eraser conditions that must be fulfilled for the parity measurements as requirements for the scattering phase shift of our microwave structure. We show that these conditions can be fulfilled with present-day devices. We present one particular scheme, implemented with two-dimensional cavity techniques, in which each qubit should be coupled equally to two different microwave cavities. The magnitudes of the couplings that are needed are in the range that has been achieved in current experiments. A quantum calculation indicates that the measurement is optimal if the scattering signal can be measured with near single-photon sensitivity. A comparison with an extension of a related proposal from cavity optics is presented. We present a second scheme, for which a scalable implementation of the four-qubit parities of the surface quantum error correction code can be envisioned. It uses three-dimensional cavity structures, using cavity symmetries to achieve the necessary multiple resonant modes within a single resonant structure. (paper)

  19. Theoretical modelling and experimental investigation of single-phase and two-phase flow division at a tee-junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemonnier, H.; Hervieu, E.

    1991-01-01

    Phase separation in a tee-junction is modelled in the particular case of bubbly-flow. The model is based on a two-dimensional approach and hence, uses local equations. The first step consists in modelling the single-phase flow in the tee-junction. The free streamline theory is used to predict the flow of the continuous phase. The two recirculation zones which are presented in this case are predicted by the model. The second step consists in predicting the gas bubble paths as a result of the actions of the single-phase flow. Finally, the trajectories of gas bubbles are used to predict the separation characteristics of the tee-junction. Each step of the modelling procedure has been carefully tested by an in-depth experimental investigation. Excellent quantitative agreement is obtained between experimental results and model predictions. Moreover, the phase separation phenomenon is found to be clearly described by the model. (orig.)

  20. Phase Locking and Chaos in a Josephson Junction Array Shunted by a Common Resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tie-Ge, Zhou; Jing, Mao; Ting-Shu, Liu; Yue, Lai; Shao-Lin, Yan

    2009-01-01

    The dynamics of a Josephson junction array shunted by a common resistance are investigated by using numerical methods. Coexistence of phase locking and chaos is observed in the system when the resistively and capacitively shunted junction model is adopted. The corresponding parameter ranges for phase locking and chaos are presented. When there are three resistively shunted junctions in the array, chaos is found for the first time and the parameter range for chaos is also presented. According to the theory of Chernikov and Schmidt, when there are four or more junctions in the array, the system exhibits chaotic behavior. Our results indicate that the theory of Chernikov and Schmidt is not exactly appropriate. (condensed matter: electronicstructure, electrical, magnetic, and opticalproperties)

  1. Thermally activated phase slippage in high-Tc grain-boundary Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, R.; Chaudhari, P.; Dimos, D.; Gupta, A.; Koren, G.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of thermally activated phase slippage (TAPS) in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 grain-boundary Josephson junctions has been studied. TAPS has been found to be responsible for the dc noise voltage superimposed on the dc Josephson current near the transition temperature. Because of the reduced Josephson coupling energy of the grain-boundary junctions, which is caused by a reduced superconducting order parameter at the grain-boundary interface, TAPS is present over a considerable temperature range. The implications of TAPS on the applicability of high-T c Josephson junctions are outlined

  2. Thermally activated phase slippage in high- T sub c grain-boundary Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, R.; Chaudhari, P.; Dimos, D.; Gupta, A.; Koren, G. (IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, P.O. Box 218, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (USA))

    1990-01-08

    The effect of thermally activated phase slippage (TAPS) in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} grain-boundary Josephson junctions has been studied. TAPS has been found to be responsible for the dc noise voltage superimposed on the dc Josephson current near the transition temperature. Because of the reduced Josephson coupling energy of the grain-boundary junctions, which is caused by a reduced superconducting order parameter at the grain-boundary interface, TAPS is present over a considerable temperature range. The implications of TAPS on the applicability of high-{ital T}{sub {ital c}} Josephson junctions are outlined.

  3. Qubit dephasing due to quasiparticle tunneling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanker, Sebastian; Marthaler, Michael; Schoen, Gerd [Institut fuer Theoretische Festkoerperphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    We study dephasing of a superconducting qubit due to quasiparticle tunneling through a Josephson junction. While qubit decay due to tunneling processes is well understood within a golden rule approximation, pure dephasing due to BCS quasiparticles gives rise to a divergent golden rule rate. We calculate qubit dephasing due to quasiparticle tunneling beyond lowest order approximation in coupling between qubit and quasiparticles. Summing up a certain class of diagrams we show that qubit dephasing due to purely longitudinal coupling to quasiparticles leads to dephasing ∝ exp(-x(t)) where x(t) ∝ t{sup 3/2} for short time scales and x(t) ∝ tlog(t) for long time scales.

  4. Non-Markovian effect on the geometric phase of a dissipative qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Juanjuan; Tong Qingjun; An Junhong; Luo Honggang; Oh, C. H.

    2010-01-01

    We studied the geometric phase of a two-level atom coupled to an environment with Lorentzian spectral density. The non-Markovian effect on the geometric phase is explored analytically and numerically. In the weak coupling limit, the lowest order correction to the geometric phase is derived analytically and the general case is calculated numerically. It was found that the correction to the geometric phase is significantly large if the spectral width is small, and in this case the non-Markovian dynamics has a significant impact on the geometric phase. When the spectral width increases, the correction to the geometric phase becomes negligible, which shows the robustness of the geometric phase to the environmental white noises. The result is significant to the quantum information processing based on the geometric phase.

  5. Quantum cloning machines for equatorial qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Heng; Matsumoto, Keiji; Wang Xiangbin; Wadati, Miki

    2002-01-01

    Quantum cloning machines for equatorial qubits are studied. For the case of a one to two phase-covariant quantum cloning machine, we present the networks consisting of quantum gates to realize the quantum cloning transformations. The copied equatorial qubits are shown to be separable by using Peres-Horodecki criterion. The optimal one to M phase-covariant quantum cloning transformations are given

  6. Search for the in-phase Flux Flow mode in stacked Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Madsen, Søren Peder

    2006-01-01

    Josephson vortex flux flow states in stacked Josephson junctions are investigated numerically. The aim of the work is to understand the mechanisms behind the formation of triangular (anti-phase) and square (in-phase) vortex lattices, and is motivated by recent experiments on layered BSCCO type high......-T-c superconductors in a magnetic field. In order to keep the problem as simple as possible we consider in detail only the case with two junctions in the stack. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  7. Phase-flip bifurcation in a coupled Josephson junction neuron system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segall, Kenneth, E-mail: ksegall@colgate.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY 13346 (United States); Guo, Siyang; Crotty, Patrick [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY 13346 (United States); Schult, Dan [Department of Mathematics, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY 13346 (United States); Miller, Max [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Colgate University, Hamilton, NY 13346 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Aiming to understand group behaviors and dynamics of neural networks, we have previously proposed the Josephson junction neuron (JJ neuron) as a fast analog model that mimics a biological neuron using superconducting Josephson junctions. In this study, we further analyze the dynamics of the JJ neuron numerically by coupling one JJ neuron to another. In this coupled system we observe a phase-flip bifurcation, where the neurons synchronize out-of-phase at weak coupling and in-phase at strong coupling. We verify this by simulation of the circuit equations and construct a bifurcation diagram for varying coupling strength using the phase response curve and spike phase difference map. The phase-flip bifurcation could be observed experimentally using standard digital superconducting circuitry.

  8. Phase-flip bifurcation in a coupled Josephson junction neuron system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segall, Kenneth; Guo, Siyang; Crotty, Patrick; Schult, Dan; Miller, Max

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to understand group behaviors and dynamics of neural networks, we have previously proposed the Josephson junction neuron (JJ neuron) as a fast analog model that mimics a biological neuron using superconducting Josephson junctions. In this study, we further analyze the dynamics of the JJ neuron numerically by coupling one JJ neuron to another. In this coupled system we observe a phase-flip bifurcation, where the neurons synchronize out-of-phase at weak coupling and in-phase at strong coupling. We verify this by simulation of the circuit equations and construct a bifurcation diagram for varying coupling strength using the phase response curve and spike phase difference map. The phase-flip bifurcation could be observed experimentally using standard digital superconducting circuitry

  9. Qubit authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curty, Marcos; Santos, David J.; Perez, Esther; Garcia-Fernandez, Priscila

    2002-01-01

    Secure communication requires message authentication. In this paper we address the problem of how to authenticate quantum information sent through a quantum channel between two communicating parties with the minimum amount of resources. Specifically, our objective is to determine whether one elementary quantum message (a qubit) can be authenticated with a key of minimum length. We show that, unlike the case of classical-message quantum authentication, this is not possible

  10. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Grand Junction site, Grand Junction, Colorado. Phase II, Title I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented range from millsite decontamination (Option I), to adding various depths of stabilization cover material (Options II and III), to removal of the tailings to long-term storage sites and decontamination of the present site (Options IV through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from $470,000 to $18,130,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery does not appear to be economically attractive at present.

  11. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Grand Junction site, Grand Junction, Colorado. Phase II, Title I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented range from millsite decontamination (Option I), to adding various depths of stabilization cover material (Options II and III), to removal of the tailings to long-term storage sites and decontamination of the present site (Options IV through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from $470,000 to $18,130,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery does not appear to be economically attractive at present

  12. Phase synchronisation in mutually coupled chaotic Josephson junctions: Effect of asymmetry and incommensurate frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Khawaja, S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, synchronising two coupled ratchet Josephson junctions subjected to a quasiperiodic field is achieved. In the limit of weak perturbation of irrational frequencies equal to the square root of the transcendental number π and for small damping parameters, phase locking occurs as the coupling between both junctions is increased. It turns out that the transition from non-synchronous to synchronous chaotic state does not involve attractors appearing and disappearing. The undertaken symmetry analysis of the system demonstrates the suppression of the massive phase fluctuations as the coupling rises, allowing chaos synchronisation between both junctions to take place. The calculations also reveal the persistence of the synchronous state for high coupling strengths, taking into consideration the symmetry particularity of the external drive and potential. (author)

  13. Phase Synchronisation in Mutually Coupled Chaotic Josephson Junctions: Effect of Asymmetry and Incommensurate Frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sameer Al-Khawaja

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, synchronising two coupled ratchet Josephson junctions subjected to a quasiperiodic field is achieved. In the limit of weak perturbation of irrational frequencies equal to the square root of the transcendental number π and for small damping parameters, phase locking occurs as the coupling between both junctions is increased. It turns out that the transition from non-synchronous to synchronous chaotic state does not involve attractors appearing and disappearing. The undertaken symmetry analysis of the system demonstrates the suppression of the massive phase fluctuations as the coupling rises, allowing chaos synchronisation between both junctions to take place. The calculations also reveal the persistence of the synchronous state for high coupling strengths, taking into consideration the symmetry particularity of the external drive and potential. (author)

  14. Model for an irreversible bias current in the superconducting qubit measurement process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, G. D.; Williams, D. A.; Holmes, C. A.; Stace, T. M.; Spiller, T. P.; Barrett, S. D.; Milburn, G. J.; Hasko, D. G.

    2006-01-01

    The superconducting charge-phase ''quantronium'' qubit is considered in order to develop a model for the measurement process used in the experiment of Vion et al. [Science 296, 886 (2002)]. For this model we propose a method for including the bias current in the readout process in a fundamentally irreversible way, which to first order is approximated by the Josephson junction tilted-washboard potential phenomenology. The decohering bias current is introduced in the form of a Lindblad operator and the Wigner function for the current-biased readout Josephson junction is derived and analyzed. During the readout current pulse used in the quantronium experiment we find that the coherence of the qubit initially prepared in a symmetric superposition state is lost at a time of 0.2 ns after the bias current pulse has been applied, a time scale that is much shorter than the experimental readout time. Additionally we look at the effect of Johnson-Nyquist noise with zero mean from the current source during the qubit manipulation and show that the decoherence due to the irreversible bias current description is an order of magnitude smaller than that found through adding noise to the reversible tilted-washboard potential model. Our irreversible bias current model is also applicable to persistent-current-based qubits where the state is measured according to its flux via a small-inductance direct-current superconducting quantum interference device

  15. Dissipative dynamics of superconducting hybrid qubit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, Enrique; Calero, Jesus M; Reina, John H

    2009-01-01

    We perform a theoretical study of composed superconducting qubit systems for the case of a coupled qubit configuration based on a hybrid qubit circuit made of both charge and phase qubits, which are coupled via a σ x x σ z interaction. We compute the system's eigen-energies in terms of the qubit transition frequencies and the strength of the inter-qubit coupling, and describe the sensitivity of the energy crossing/anti-crossing features to such coupling. We compute the hybrid system's dissipative dynamics for the cases of i) collective and ii) independent decoherence, whereby the system interacts with one common and two different baths of harmonic oscillators, respectively. The calculations have been performed within the Bloch-Redfield formalism and we report the solutions for the populations and the coherences of the system's reduced density matrix. The dephasing and relaxation rates are explicitly calculated as a function of the heat bath temperature.

  16. Focal junctions retard lateral movement and disrupt fluid phase connectivity in the plasma membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind-Kezunovic, D.; Wojewodzka, U.; Gniadecki, R.

    2008-01-01

    ,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI-C-18:0), which specifically partitions to the liquid-disordered (L-d), non-raft phase, was also enriched in focal junctions and its mobility was slightly retarded. Cross-linking of GM(1) by CTB or raft aggregation by methyl...

  17. Asymmetric current-phase relation due to spin-orbit interaction in semiconductor nanowire Josephson junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yokoyama, T.; Eto, M.; Nazarov, Y.V.

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically study the current-phase relation in semiconductor nanowire Josephson junction in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. In the nanowire, the impurity scattering with strong SO interaction is taken into account using the random matrix theory. In the absence of magnetic field, the

  18. Enhanced photoresponse of FeS2 films: the role of Marcasite-Pyrite phase junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, L.; Dzade, N.Y.; Gao, L.; Scanlon, D.O.; Öztürk, Z.; Hollingsworth, N.; Weckhuysen, B.M.; Hensen, E.J.M.; De Leeuw, N.H.; Hofmann, J.P.

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial role of marcasite in iron-sulfide-based photo-electrochemical applications is reported for the first time. A spectacular improvement of the photoresponse observed experimentally for mixed pyrite/marcasite-FeS2 films can be ascribed to the presence of p/m phase junctions at the

  19. Enhanced Photoresponse of FeS2 Films : The Role of Marcasite–Pyrite Phase Junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Longfei; Dzade, N.Y.; Gao, L.; Scanlon, D. O.; Özturk, Zafer; Hollingsworth, N.; Weckhuysen, B.M.; Hensen, E. J. M.; de Leeuw, Nora H.; Hofmann, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial role of marcasite in iron sulfide-based photo-electrochemical applications is reported for the first time. A spectacular improvement of the photoresponse observed experimentally for mixed pyrite/marcasite-FeS2 films can be ascribed to the presence of p/m phase junctions at the

  20. Probing the interaction of microscopic material defects with quasiparticles using a superconducting qubit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilmes, Alexander; Lisenfeld, Juergen; Weiss, Georg; Ustinov, Alexey V. [PI, Fakultaet fuer Physik, KIT, Wolfgang-Gaede-Strasse 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Heimes, Andreas; Zanker, Sebastian; Schoen, Gerd [TFP, Fakultaet fuer Physik, KIT, Wolfgang-Gaede-Strasse 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Two-Level-Systems (TLS) are one of the main sources of decoherence in superconducting nano-scale devices such as SQUIDs, photon detectors, resonators and quantum bits (qubits), although the TLS' microscopic nature remains unclear. We use a superconducting phase qubit to detect TLS contained within the tunnel barrier of the qubit's Josephson junction. We coherently operate individual TLS by resonant microwave pulses and access their quantum state by utilizing their strong coupling to the qubit. Our previous measurements of TLS coherence in dependence of the temperature indicate that quasiparticles may give rise to TLS energy loss and dephasing. Here, we probe the TLS-quasiparticle interaction using a reliable method of in-situ quasiparticle injection via an on-chip dc-SQUID that is pulse-biased beyond its critical current. The quasiparticle density is calibrated by measuring associated characteristic changes to the qubit's resonance frequency and energy relaxation rate. We will present experimental data that clearly show the influence of quasiparticles on TLS coherence.

  1. Quasiparticle-induced decoherence of microscopic two-level-systems in superconducting qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilmes, Alexander; Lisenfeld, Juergen; Zanker, Sebastian; Weiss, Georg; Ustinov, Alexey V. [PHI, KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Marthaler, Michael; Schoen, Gerd [TFP, KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Parasitic Two-Level-Systems (TLS) are one of the main sources of decoherence in superconducting nano-scale devices such as SQUIDs, resonators and quantum bits (qubits), although the TLS' microscopic nature remains unclear. We use a superconducting phase qubit to detect TLS contained within the tunnel barrier of the qubit's Al/AlOx/Al Josephson junction. If the TLS transition frequency lies within the 6-10 GHz range, we can coherently drive it by resonant microwave pulses and access its quantum state by utilizing the strong coupling to the qubit. Our previous measurements of TLS coherence in dependence of the temperature indicate that quasiparticles (QPs), which diffuse from the superconducting Al electrodes into the oxide layer, may give rise to TLS energy loss and dephasing. Here, we probe the TLS-QP interaction using a reliable method of in-situ QP injection via an on-chip dc-SQUID that is pulse-biased beyond its switching current. The QP density is calibrated by measuring associated characteristic changes to the qubit's energy relaxation rate. We will present experimental data which show the QP-induced TLS decoherence in good agreement to theoretical predictions.

  2. A CMOS silicon spin qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurand, R.; Jehl, X.; Kotekar-Patil, D.; Corna, A.; Bohuslavskyi, H.; Laviéville, R.; Hutin, L.; Barraud, S.; Vinet, M.; Sanquer, M.; de Franceschi, S.

    2016-11-01

    Silicon, the main constituent of microprocessor chips, is emerging as a promising material for the realization of future quantum processors. Leveraging its well-established complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology would be a clear asset to the development of scalable quantum computing architectures and to their co-integration with classical control hardware. Here we report a silicon quantum bit (qubit) device made with an industry-standard fabrication process. The device consists of a two-gate, p-type transistor with an undoped channel. At low temperature, the first gate defines a quantum dot encoding a hole spin qubit, the second one a quantum dot used for the qubit read-out. All electrical, two-axis control of the spin qubit is achieved by applying a phase-tunable microwave modulation to the first gate. The demonstrated qubit functionality in a basic transistor-like device constitutes a promising step towards the elaboration of scalable spin qubit geometries in a readily exploitable CMOS platform.

  3. Selection of Two-Phase Flow Patterns at a Simple Junction in Microfluidic Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engl, W.; Ohata, K.; Guillot, P.; Colin, A.; Panizza, P.

    2006-04-01

    We study the behavior of a confined stream made of two immiscible fluids when it reaches a T junction. Two flow patterns are witnessed: the stream is either directed in only one sidearm, yielding a preferential flow pathway for the dispersed phase, or splits between both. We show that the selection of these patterns is not triggered by the shape of the junction nor by capillary effects, but results from confinement. It can be anticipated in terms of the hydrodynamic properties of the flow. A simple model yielding universal behavior in terms of the relevant adimensional parameters of the problem is presented and discussed.

  4. Ultrafast geometric control of a single qubit using chirped pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, Patrick E; Malinovskaya, Svetlana A; Malinovsky, Vladimir S

    2012-01-01

    We propose a control strategy to perform arbitrary unitary operations on a single qubit based solely on the geometrical phase that the qubit state acquires after cyclic evolution in the parameter space. The scheme uses ultrafast linearly chirped pulses and provides the possibility of reducing the duration of a single-qubit operation to a few picoseconds.

  5. Topological Phases in Graphene Nanoribbons: Junction States, Spin Centers, and Quantum Spin Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ting; Zhao, Fangzhou; Louie, Steven G.

    2017-08-01

    We show that semiconducting graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) of different width, edge, and end termination (synthesizable from molecular precursors with atomic precision) belong to different electronic topological classes. The topological phase of GNRs is protected by spatial symmetries and dictated by the terminating unit cell. We have derived explicit formulas for their topological invariants and shown that localized junction states developed between two GNRs of distinct topology may be tuned by lateral junction geometry. The topology of a GNR can be further modified by dopants, such as a periodic array of boron atoms. In a superlattice consisting of segments of doped and pristine GNRs, the junction states are stable spin centers, forming a Heisenberg antiferromagnetic spin 1 /2 chain with tunable exchange interaction. The discoveries here not only are of scientific interest for studies of quasi-one-dimensional systems, but also open a new path for design principles of future GNR-based devices through their topological characters.

  6. Theory of coherent quantum phase slips in Josephson junction chains with periodic spatial modulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetogorov, Aleksandr E.; Taguchi, Masahiko; Tokura, Yasuhiro; Basko, Denis M.; Hekking, Frank W. J.

    2018-03-01

    We study coherent quantum phase slips which lift the ground state degeneracy in a Josephson junction ring, pierced by a magnetic flux of the magnitude equal to half of a flux quantum. The quantum phase-slip amplitude is sensitive to the normal mode structure of superconducting phase oscillations in the ring (Mooij-Schön modes). These, in turn, are affected by spatial inhomogeneities in the ring. We analyze the case of weak periodic modulations of the system parameters and calculate the corresponding modification of the quantum phase-slip amplitude.

  7. Phase dynamics of a Josephson junction ladder driven by modulated currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, T.

    2011-01-01

    Phase dynamics of disordered Josephson junction ladders (JJLs) driven by external currents which are spatially and temporally modulated is studied using a numerical simulation based on a random field XY model. This model is considered theoretically as an effective model of JJLs with structural disorder in a magnetic field. The spatiotemporal modulation of external currents causes peculiar dynamical effects of phases in the system under certain conditions, such as the directed motion of phases and the mode-locking in the absence of dc currents. We clarify the details of effects of the spatiotemporal modulation on the phase dynamics.

  8. rf SQUID system as tunable flux qubit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggiero, B. [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy)]. E-mail: b.ruggiero@cib.na.cnr.it; Granata, C. [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Vettoliere, A. [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Rombetto, S. [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Russo, R. [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Russo, M. [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Corato, V. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-81031 Aversa (Italy); Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy); Silvestrini, P. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-81031 Aversa (Italy); Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I-80078 Pozzuoli (Italy)

    2006-08-21

    We present a fully integrated rf SQUID-based system as flux qubit with a high control of the flux transfer function of the superconducting transformer modulating the coupling between the flux qubit and the readout system. The control of the system is possible by including into the superconducting flux transformer a vertical two-Josephson-junctions interferometer (VJI) in which the Josephson current is precisely modulated from a maximum to zero by a transversal magnetic field parallel to the flux transformer plane. The proposed system can be also used in a more general configuration to control the off-diagonal terms in the Hamiltonian of the flux qubit and to turn on and off the coupling between two or more qubits.

  9. Controlling the thermoelectric effect by mechanical manipulation of the electron's quantum phase in atomic junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiba, Akira; Demir, Firuz; Kaneko, Satoshi; Fujii, Shintaro; Nishino, Tomoaki; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Saffarzadeh, Alireza; Kirczenow, George; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2017-08-11

    The thermoelectric voltage developed across an atomic metal junction (i.e., a nanostructure in which one or a few atoms connect two metal electrodes) in response to a temperature difference between the electrodes, results from the quantum interference of electrons that pass through the junction multiple times after being scattered by the surrounding defects. Here we report successfully tuning this quantum interference and thus controlling the magnitude and sign of the thermoelectric voltage by applying a mechanical force that deforms the junction. The observed switching of the thermoelectric voltage is reversible and can be cycled many times. Our ab initio and semi-empirical calculations elucidate the detailed mechanism by which the quantum interference is tuned. We show that the applied strain alters the quantum phases of electrons passing through the narrowest part of the junction and hence modifies the electronic quantum interference in the device. Tuning the quantum interference causes the energies of electronic transport resonances to shift, which affects the thermoelectric voltage. These experimental and theoretical studies reveal that Au atomic junctions can be made to exhibit both positive and negative thermoelectric voltages on demand, and demonstrate the importance and tunability of the quantum interference effect in the atomic-scale metal nanostructures.

  10. 0 - π Quantum transition in a carbon nanotube Josephson junction: Universal phase dependence and orbital degeneracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delagrange, R.; Weil, R.; Kasumov, A.; Ferrier, M.; Bouchiat, H.; Deblock, R.

    2018-05-01

    In a quantum dot hybrid superconducting junction, the behavior of the supercurrent is dominated by Coulomb blockade physics, which determines the magnetic state of the dot. In particular, in a single level quantum dot singly occupied, the sign of the supercurrent can be reversed, giving rise to a π-junction. This 0 - π transition, corresponding to a singlet-doublet transition, is then driven by the gate voltage or by the superconducting phase in the case of strong competition between the superconducting proximity effect and Kondo correlations. In a two-level quantum dot, such as a clean carbon nanotube, 0- π transitions exist as well but, because more cotunneling processes are allowed, are not necessarily associated to a magnetic state transition of the dot. In this proceeding, after a review of 0- π transitions in Josephson junctions, we present measurements of current-phase relation in a clean carbon nanotube quantum dot, in the single and two-level regimes. In the single level regime, close to orbital degeneracy and in a regime of strong competition between local electronic correlations and superconducting proximity effect, we find that the phase diagram of the phase-dependent transition is a universal characteristic of a discontinuous level-crossing quantum transition at zero temperature. In the case where the two levels are involved, the nanotube Josephson current exhibits a continuous 0 - π transition, independent of the superconducting phase, revealing a different physical mechanism of the transition.

  11. Critical current anomaly at the topological quantum phase transition in a Majorana Josephson junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Hong [School of Physics, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Liang, Qi-Feng [Department of Physics, Shaoxing University, Shaoxing 312000 (China); Yao, Dao-Xin, E-mail: yaodaox@mail.sysu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Wang, Zhi, E-mail: physicswangzhi@gmail.com [School of Physics, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2017-06-28

    Majorana bound states in topological Josephson junctions induce a 4π period current-phase relation. Direct detection of the 4π periodicity is complicated by the quasiparticle poisoning. We reveal that Majorana bound states are also signaled by the anomalous enhancement on the critical current of the junction. We show the landscape of the critical current for a nanowire Josephson junction under a varying Zeeman field, and reveal a sharp step feature at the topological quantum phase transition point, which comes from the anomalous enhancement of the critical current at the topological regime. In multi-band wires, the anomalous enhancement disappears for an even number of bands, where the Majorana bound states fuse into Andreev bound states. This anomalous critical current enhancement directly signals the existence of the Majorana bound states, and also provides a valid signature for the topological quantum phase transition. - Highlights: • We introduce the critical current step as a signal for the topological quantum phase transition. • We study the quantum phase transition in the topological nanowire under a rotating Zeeman field. • We show that the critical current anomaly gradually disappears for systems with more sub-bands.

  12. Qubit lattice coherence induced by electromagnetic pulses in superconducting metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivić, Z; Lazarides, N; Tsironis, G P

    2016-07-12

    Quantum bits (qubits) are at the heart of quantum information processing schemes. Currently, solid-state qubits, and in particular the superconducting ones, seem to satisfy the requirements for being the building blocks of viable quantum computers, since they exhibit relatively long coherence times, extremely low dissipation, and scalability. The possibility of achieving quantum coherence in macroscopic circuits comprising Josephson junctions, envisioned by Legett in the 1980's, was demonstrated for the first time in a charge qubit; since then, the exploitation of macroscopic quantum effects in low-capacitance Josephson junction circuits allowed for the realization of several kinds of superconducting qubits. Furthermore, coupling between qubits has been successfully achieved that was followed by the construction of multiple-qubit logic gates and the implementation of several algorithms. Here it is demonstrated that induced qubit lattice coherence as well as two remarkable quantum coherent optical phenomena, i.e., self-induced transparency and Dicke-type superradiance, may occur during light-pulse propagation in quantum metamaterials comprising superconducting charge qubits. The generated qubit lattice pulse forms a compound "quantum breather" that propagates in synchrony with the electromagnetic pulse. The experimental confirmation of such effects in superconducting quantum metamaterials may open a new pathway to potentially powerful quantum computing.

  13. Superconducting qubits can be coupled and addressed as trapped ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. X.; Wei, L. F.; Johansson, J. R.; Tsai, J. S.; Nori, F.

    2009-03-01

    Exploiting the intrinsic nonlinearity of superconducting Josephson junctions, we propose a scalable circuit with superconducting qubits (SCQs) which is very similar to the successful one now being used for trapped ions. The SCQs are coupled to the ``vibrational'' mode provided by a superconducting LC circuit or its equivalent (e.g., a superconducting quantum interference device). Both single-qubit rotations and qubit-LC-circuit couplings and/or decouplings can be controlled by the frequencies of the time-dependent magnetic fluxes. The circuit is scalable since the qubit-qubit interactions, mediated by the LC circuit, can be selectively performed, and the information transfer can be realized in a controllable way. [4pt] Y.X. Liu, L.F. Wei, J.R. Johansson, J.S. Tsai, F. Nori, Superconducting qubits can be coupled and addressed as trapped ions, Phys. Rev. B 76, 144518 (2007). URL: http://link.aps.org/abstract/PRB/v76/e144518

  14. Scheme for implementing N-qubit controlled phase gate of photons assisted by quantum-dot-microcavity coupled system: optimal probability of success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Wen-Xue; Hu, Shi; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhu, Ai-Dong; Zhang, Shou

    2015-01-01

    The direct implementation of multiqubit controlled phase gate of photons is appealing and important for reducing the complexity of the physical realization of linear-optics-based practical quantum computer and quantum algorithms. In this letter we propose a nondestructive scheme for implementing an N-qubit controlled phase gate of photons with a high success probability. The gate can be directly implemented with the self-designed quantum encoder circuits, which are probabilistic optical quantum entangler devices and can be achieved using linear optical elements, single-photon superposition state, and quantum dot coupled to optical microcavity. The calculated results indicate that both the success probabilities of the quantum encoder circuit and the N-qubit controlled phase gate in our scheme are higher than those in the previous schemes. We also consider the effects of the side leakage and cavity loss on the success probability and the fidelity of the quantum encoder circuit for a realistic quantum-dot-microcavity coupled system. (letter)

  15. Photocatalytic overall water splitting promoted by an α-β phase junction on Ga2O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiang; Xu, Qian; Li, Mingrun; Shen, Shuai; Wang, Xiuli; Wang, Yaochuan; Feng, Zhaochi; Shi, Jingying; Han, Hongxian; Li, Can

    2012-12-21

    When Alpha met Beta: a tuneable α-β surface phase junction on Ga(2)O(3) can significantly improve photocatalytic overall water splitting into H(2) and O(2) over individual α-Ga(2)O(3) or β-Ga(2)O(3) surface phases. This enhanced photocatalytic performance is mainly attributed to the efficient charge separation and transfer across the α-β phase junction. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Liquid phase epitaxy of abrupt junctions in InAs and studies of injection radiative tunneling processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bull, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    The p-n junction in a InAs crystal, by liquid phase epitaxy is obtained. The processes of injection and tunneling radiative recombination by emitted radiation from active region of p-n junction for low injection current are studied. (M.C.K.) [pt

  17. Phase dynamics of single long Josephson junction in MgB2 superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimouriya, Shanker Pd.; Ghimire, Bal Ram; Kim, Ju H.

    2018-05-01

    A system of perturbed sine Gordon equations is derived to a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) long Joseph-son junction as an extension of the Ambegaokar-Baratoff relation, following the long route of path integral formalism. A computer simulation is performed by discretizing the equations using finite difference approximation and applied to the MgB2 superconductor with SiO2 as the junction material. The solution of unperturbed sG equation is taken as the initial profile for the simulation and observed how the perturbation terms play the role to modify it. It is found initial profile deformed as time goes on. The variation of total Josephson current has also been observed. It is found that, the perturbation terms play the role for phase frustration. The phase frustration achieves quicker for high tunneling current.

  18. Phase-locking in quantum and classical oscillators: polariton condensates, lasers, and arrays of Josephson junctions

    OpenAIRE

    EASTHAM, PAUL

    2003-01-01

    PUBLISHED We connect three phenomena in which a coherent electromagnetic field could be generated: polariton condensation, phase-locking in arrays of underdamped Josephson junctions, and lasing. All these phenomena have been described using Dicke-type models of spins coupled to a single photon mode. These descriptions may be distinguished by whether the spins are quantum or classical, and whether they are strongly or weakly damped.

  19. Four-junction superconducting circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yueyin; Xiong, Wei; He, Xiao-Ling; Li, Tie-Fu; You, J. Q.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a theory for the quantum circuit consisting of a superconducting loop interrupted by four Josephson junctions and pierced by a magnetic flux (either static or time-dependent). In addition to the similarity with the typical three-junction flux qubit in the double-well regime, we demonstrate the difference of the four-junction circuit from its three-junction analogue, including its advantages over the latter. Moreover, the four-junction circuit in the single-well regime is also investigated. Our theory provides a tool to explore the physical properties of this four-junction superconducting circuit. PMID:27356619

  20. Large-Area, Multi-Junction, Epitaxial Lift-Off Solar Cells with Backside Contacts, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase II program we propose to develop a manufacturable production process to introduce backside contacts to MicroLink Devices? large-area, multi-junction...

  1. Large-Area, Multi-Junction, Epitaxial Lift-Off Solar Cells with Backside Contacts, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this Phase I program we propose to develop an innovative fabrication process to introduce backside contacts to MicroLink Devices' large-area, multi-junction...

  2. Temperature dependence of coherence in transmon qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schloer, Steffen; Braumueller, Jochen; Lukashenko, Oleksandr; Rotzinger, Hannes; Weides, Martin; Ustinov, Alexey V. [Physikalisches Institut, KIT, Karlsruhe (Germany); Sandberg, Martin; Vissers, Michael R.; Pappas, David P. [NIST, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Superconducting qubits are a promising field of research, not only with respect to quantum computing but also as highly sensitive detectors and due to the possibility of using them to study fundamental implications of quantum mechanics. The requirements for qubits that can be used as building blocks in a potential quantum computer are challenging. Modern superconducting qubits like the transmon are strong candidates for achieving these goals. The main challenge here is to increase the coherence of prepared quantum states. Here, we experimentally investigate the influence of temperature variation on relaxation and dephasing of a transmon qubit. Our goal is to understand decoherence mechanisms in material optimized circuits. Aiming at longer coherence, in this case peaking over 50 μs for T{sub 1} and T{sub 2}, our samples are fabricated at NIST using two different materials. Low-loss TiN was used for the shunt capacitance as well as the resonator, combined with shadow evaporated ultra-small Al-AlO{sub x}-Al Josephson junctions. We will present temperature-dependent data on qubit relaxation and dephasing times as well as power spectra. Our data will be compared to previously obtained temperature dependent data for other types of qubits.

  3. Towards long lived tunable transmon qubit in microstrip geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braumueller, Jochen; Radtke, Lucas; Rotzinger, Hannes; Weides, Martin; Ustinov, Alexey V. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Physikalisches Institut, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Qubits constitute the main building blocks of a prospective quantum computer. One main challenge is given by short decoherence times. In this work we investigate a transmon qubit based on a superconducting charge qubit with reduced sensitivity to charge noise. This is achieved by operating the qubit at a Josephson to charging energy ratio of about 100. At the same time, a sufficiently large anharmonicity of the energy levels is preserved. The qubit is realized in a 2D geometry based on large capacitor pads being connected by two Josephson junctions in parallel. This split Josephson junction allows the qubit to be tunable in Josephson energy and therefore in resonance frequency. The large area capacitor pads mainly coupled through the substrate and a backside metalization reduce the surface loss contribution. Manipulation and readout of the qubit is mediated by a microstrip resonator coupled to a feedline. We present resonator and qubit designs together with respective microwave simulations. Preliminary results on circuit fabrication and low temperature measurements are also discussed.

  4. Surface Tension of Multi-phase Flow with Multiple Junctions Governed by the Variational Principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsutani, Shigeki; Nakano, Kota; Shinjo, Katsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    We explore a computational model of an incompressible fluid with a multi-phase field in three-dimensional Euclidean space. By investigating an incompressible fluid with a two-phase field geometrically, we reformulate the expression of the surface tension for the two-phase field found by Lafaurie et al. (J Comput Phys 113:134–147, 1994) as a variational problem related to an infinite dimensional Lie group, the volume-preserving diffeomorphism. The variational principle to the action integral with the surface energy reproduces their Euler equation of the two-phase field with the surface tension. Since the surface energy of multiple interfaces even with singularities is not difficult to be evaluated in general and the variational formulation works for every action integral, the new formulation enables us to extend their expression to that of a multi-phase (N-phase, N ≥ 2) flow and to obtain a novel Euler equation with the surface tension of the multi-phase field. The obtained Euler equation governs the equation for motion of the multi-phase field with different surface tension coefficients without any difficulties for the singularities at multiple junctions. In other words, we unify the theory of multi-phase fields which express low dimensional interface geometry and the theory of the incompressible fluid dynamics on the infinite dimensional geometry as a variational problem. We apply the equation to the contact angle problems at triple junctions. We computed the fluid dynamics for a two-phase field with a wall numerically and show the numerical computational results that for given surface tension coefficients, the contact angles are generated by the surface tension as results of balances of the kinematic energy and the surface energy.

  5. Two Superconducting Charge Qubits Coupled by a Josephson Inductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Michio; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Pashkin, Yuri A.; Astafiev, Oleg; Nakamura, Yasunobu; Tsai, Jaw-Shen

    2007-03-01

    When the quantum oscillations [Pashkin et al., Nature 421, 823 (2003)] and the conditional gate operation [Yamamoto et al., Nature 425, 941 (2003)] were demonstrated using superconducting charge qubits, the charge qubits were coupled capacitively, where the coupling was always on and the coupling strength was not tunable. This fixed coupling, however, is not ideal because for example, it makes unconditional gate operations difficult. In this work, we aimed to tunably couple two charge qubits. We fabricated circuits based on the theoretical proposal by You, Tsai, and Nori [PRB 68, 024510 (2003)], where the inductance of a Josephson junction, which has a much larger junction area than the qubit junctions, couples the qubits and the coupling strength is controlled by the external magnetic flux. We confirmed by spectroscopy that the large Josephson junction was indeed coupled to the qubits and that the coupling was turned on and off by the external magnetic flux. In the talk, we will also discuss the quantum oscillations in the circuits.

  6. Effects of the phase periodicity on the quantum dynamics of a resistively shunted Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwerger, W.; Dorsey, A.T.; Fisher, M.P.A.

    1986-01-01

    A phenomenological model is introduced for the dissipative quantum dynamics of the phase phi across a current-biased Josephson junction. The model is invariant under phi→phi+2π. This enables us to restrict phi to the interval 0 to 2π, equating phi+2π with phi, and study the role played by the resulting nontrivial topology. Using Feynman's influence functional theory it is shown that the dissipation suppresses interference between paths with different winding numbers. For Ohmic dissipation this interference is completely destroyed, and phi can effectively be treated as an extended coordinate. This justifies the use of the usual washboard potential description of a current-biased junction even in the quantum case, provided an Ohmic dissipation mechanism is present

  7. Air-water two-phase flow through a pipe junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suu, Tetsuo

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of the local void fraction across the section of the conduit was studied experimentally in air-water two-phase flow flowing through a pipe junction with the branching angle of 90deg and the area ratio of unity. As in the previous report, the main conduit of the junction was set up vertically and upward air-water bubbly and slug flows were arranged in the main upstream section. If the flow regime, the quality and the ratio of lateral mass flow discharge of water to total mass flow discharge of water are the same, the larger the Reynolds number is, the more violent the variety of the local void fraction distribution adjacent to the branching part in the lateral conduit is. However, the variety in the main downstream section is scarcely influenced by the Reynolds number. (author)

  8. Mixed-order phase transition of the contact process near multiple junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Róbert; Iglói, Ferenc

    2017-02-01

    We have studied the phase transition of the contact process near a multiple junction of M semi-infinite chains by Monte Carlo simulations. As opposed to the continuous transitions of the translationally invariant (M=2) and semi-infinite (M=1) system, the local order parameter is found to be discontinuous for M>2. Furthermore, the temporal correlation length diverges algebraically as the critical point is approached, but with different exponents on the two sides of the transition. In the active phase, the estimate is compatible with the bulk value, while in the inactive phase it exceeds the bulk value and increases with M. The unusual local critical behavior is explained by a scaling theory with an irrelevant variable, which becomes dangerous in the inactive phase. Quenched spatial disorder is found to make the transition continuous in agreement with earlier renormalization group results.

  9. Spin-orbit qubit in a semiconductor nanowire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadj-Perge, S; Frolov, S M; Bakkers, E P A M; Kouwenhoven, L P

    2010-12-23

    Motion of electrons can influence their spins through a fundamental effect called spin-orbit interaction. This interaction provides a way to control spins electrically and thus lies at the foundation of spintronics. Even at the level of single electrons, the spin-orbit interaction has proven promising for coherent spin rotations. Here we implement a spin-orbit quantum bit (qubit) in an indium arsenide nanowire, where the spin-orbit interaction is so strong that spin and motion can no longer be separated. In this regime, we realize fast qubit rotations and universal single-qubit control using only electric fields; the qubits are hosted in single-electron quantum dots that are individually addressable. We enhance coherence by dynamically decoupling the qubits from the environment. Nanowires offer various advantages for quantum computing: they can serve as one-dimensional templates for scalable qubit registers, and it is possible to vary the material even during wire growth. Such flexibility can be used to design wires with suppressed decoherence and to push semiconductor qubit fidelities towards error correction levels. Furthermore, electrical dots can be integrated with optical dots in p-n junction nanowires. The coherence times achieved here are sufficient for the conversion of an electronic qubit into a photon, which can serve as a flying qubit for long-distance quantum communication.

  10. Ruthenates: simple superconducting qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulian, Armen M.; Wood, Kent S.

    2004-01-01

    We propose triplet superconductors, such as ruthenates, as a prospective material for qubit construction. The vectorial nature of the order parameter in triplet superconductors makes it conceptually very easy to imagine the performance of the qubits. The Cooper condensate of pairs in triplet superconductors has all the attributes of the Bose-Einstein condensates and should facilitate long decoherence times of these qubits versus other 'vectorial' schemes for qubits, such as small ferromagnets. There are other benefits, which the superconducting state provides for a requirement like entanglement between qubits via the proximity effect

  11. Asymmetric current-phase relation due to spin-orbit interaction in semiconductor nanowire Josephson junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Tomohiro; Eto, Mikio [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Nazarov, Yuli V. [Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology, Lorentzweg 1, 2628 CJ Delft, The Netherlands (Netherlands)

    2013-12-04

    We theoretically study the current-phase relation in semiconductor nanowire Josephson junction in the presence of spin-orbit interaction. In the nanowire, the impurity scattering with strong SO interaction is taken into account using the random matrix theory. In the absence of magnetic field, the Josephson current I and phase difference φ between the superconductors satisfy the relation of I(φ) = –I(–φ). In the presence of magnetic field along the nanowire, the interplay between the SO interaction and Zeeman effect breaks the current-phase relation of I(φ) = –I(–φ). In this case, we show that the critical current depends on the current direction, which qualitatively agrees with recent experimental findings.

  12. How to implement a quantum algorithm on a large number of qubits by controlling one central qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagoskin, Alexander; Ashhab, Sahel; Johansson, J. R.; Nori, Franco

    2010-03-01

    It is desirable to minimize the number of control parameters needed to perform a quantum algorithm. We show that, under certain conditions, an entire quantum algorithm can be efficiently implemented by controlling a single central qubit in a quantum computer. We also show that the different system parameters do not need to be designed accurately during fabrication. They can be determined through the response of the central qubit to external driving. Our proposal is well suited for hybrid architectures that combine microscopic and macroscopic qubits. More details can be found in: A.M. Zagoskin, S. Ashhab, J.R. Johansson, F. Nori, Quantum two-level systems in Josephson junctions as naturally formed qubits, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 077001 (2006); and S. Ashhab, J.R. Johansson, F. Nori, Rabi oscillations in a qubit coupled to a quantum two-level system, New J. Phys. 8, 103 (2006).

  13. Numerical simulation of two-phase slug flow with liquid carryover in different diameter ratio T-junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, W.; Hon, L.; Saieed, A.; Ban, S.

    2017-10-01

    A smaller diameter conduit pointing at 12 o’clock position is typically hot-tapped to a horizontal laying production header in offshore platform to tap produced gas for downstream process train. This geometric feature is commonly known as T-junction. The nature of multiphase fluid splitting at the T-junction is a major operational challenge due to unpredictable production environment. Often, excessive liquid carryover occurs in the T-junction, leading to complete platform trip and halt production. This is because the downstream process train is not designed to handle excessive liquid. The objective of this research is to quantify the effect of different diameter ratio on phase separation efficiency in T-junction. The liquid carryover is modelled as two-phase air-water flow using Eulerian Mixture Model coupled with Volume of Fluid Method to mimic the slug flow in the main pipe. The focus in this paper is 0.0254 m (1 inch) diameter horizontal main arm and vertical branch arm with diameter ratio of 1.0, 0.5 and 0.3. The present research narrowed the investigation to only slug flow regime using Baker’s map as reference. The investigation found that, contrary to common believe, smaller diameter ratio T-junction perform worse than larger diameter ratio T-junction.

  14. Fabrication of Josephson Junction without shadow evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xian; Ku, Hsiangsheng; Long, Junling; Pappas, David

    We developed a new method of fabricating Josephson Junction (Al/AlOX/Al) without shadow evaporation. Statistics from room temperature junction resistance and measurement of qubits are presented. Unlike the traditional ``Dolan Bridge'' technique, this method requires two individual lithographies and straight evaporations of Al. Argon RF plasma is used to remove native AlOX after the first evaporation, followed by oxidation and second Al evaporation. Junction resistance measured at room temperature shows linear dependence on Pox (oxidation pressure), √{tox} (oxidation time), and inverse proportional to junction area. We have seen 100% yield of qubits made with this method. This method is promising because it eliminates angle dependence during Junction fabrication, facilitates large scale qubits fabrication.

  15. Global stability of phase lock near a chaotic crisis in the rf-biased Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kautz, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The global stability of phase lock in the rf-biased Josephson junction is studied through digital simulations. Global stability is determined by calculating the lifetime of the phase-locked state in the presence of thermal noise. This lifetime, the mean time required for thermal noise to induce a 2π phase slip, increases exponentially with inverse temperature in the limit of low temperatures, and the low-temperature asymptote can be parametrized in terms of an activation energy E-script and an attempt time tau 0 . The activation energy is a useful measure of global stability for both periodic and chaotic phase-locked states. The behavior of E-script and tau 0 is studied over a range of critical-current densities which take the system from a region of harmonic motion through a period-doubling cascade and into a region of phase-locked chaotic behavior which is ended by a chaotic crisis. At the crisis point, the activation energy goes to zero and the attempt time goes to infinity. The results are used to determine the optimum critical-current density for series-array voltage standards

  16. Localizing quantum phase slips in one-dimensional Josephson junction chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergül, Adem; Azizoğlu, Yağız; Schaeffer, David; Haviland, David B; Lidmar, Jack; Johansson, Jan

    2013-01-01

    We studied quantum phase-slip (QPS) phenomena in long one-dimensional Josephson junction series arrays with tunable Josephson coupling. These chains were fabricated with as many as 2888 junctions, where one sample had a separately tunable link in the middle of the chain. Measurements were made of the zero-bias resistance, R 0 , as well as current–voltage characteristics (IVC). The finite R 0 is explained by QPS and shows an exponential dependence on √(E J /E C ) with a distinct change in the exponent at R 0 = R Q = h/4e 2 . When R 0 > R Q , the IVC clearly shows a remnant of the Coulomb blockade, which evolves to a zero-current state with a sharp critical voltage as E J is tuned to a smaller value. The zero-current state below the critical voltage is due to coherent QPSs and we show that these are enhanced when the central link is weaker than all other links. Above the critical voltage, a negative, differential resistance is observed, which nearly restores the zero-current state. (paper)

  17. Traveling wave parametric amplifier with Josephson junctions using minimal resonator phase matching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, T. C.; Mutus, J. Y.; Hoi, I.-C.; Barends, R.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Yu; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Martinis, John M.; Megrant, A.; Chaudhuri, S.

    2015-01-01

    Josephson parametric amplifiers have become a critical tool in superconducting device physics due to their high gain and quantum-limited noise. Traveling wave parametric amplifiers (TWPAs) promise similar noise performance, while allowing for significant increases in both bandwidth and dynamic range. We present a TWPA device based on an LC-ladder transmission line of Josephson junctions and parallel plate capacitors using low-loss amorphous silicon dielectric. Crucially, we have inserted λ/4 resonators at regular intervals along the transmission line in order to maintain the phase matching condition between pump, signal, and idler and increase gain. We achieve an average gain of 12 dB across a 4 GHz span, along with an average saturation power of −92 dBm with noise approaching the quantum limit

  18. Memory coherence of a sympathetically cooled trapped-ion qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Home, J. P.; McDonnell, M. J.; Szwer, D. J.; Keitch, B. C.; Lucas, D. M.; Stacey, D. N.; Steane, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate sympathetic cooling of a 43 Ca + trapped-ion 'memory' qubit by a 40 Ca + 'coolant' ion sufficiently near the ground state of motion for fault-tolerant quantum logic, while maintaining coherence of the qubit. This is an essential ingredient in trapped-ion quantum computers. The isotope shifts are sufficient to suppress decoherence and phase shifts of the memory qubit due to the cooling light which illuminates both ions. We measure the qubit coherence during ten cycles of sideband cooling, finding a coherence loss of 3.3% per cooling cycle. The natural limit of the method is O(10 -4 ) infidelity per cooling cycle.

  19. Fabrication of a Schottky junction diode with direct growth graphene on silicon by a solid phase reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalita, Golap; Hirano, Ryo; Ayhan, Muhammed E; Tanemura, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate fabrication of a Schottky junction diode with direct growth graphene on n-Si by the solid phase reaction approach. Metal-assisted crystallization of a-C thin film was performed to synthesize transfer-free graphene directly on a SiO 2 patterned n-Si substrate. Graphene formation at the substrate and catalyst layer interface is achieved in presence of a Co catalytic and CoO carbon diffusion barrier layer. The as-synthesized material shows a linear current–voltage characteristic confirming the metallic behaviour of the graphene structure. The direct grown graphene on n-Si substrate creates a Schottky junction with a potential barrier of 0.44 eV and rectification diode characteristic. Our finding shows that the directly synthesized graphene on Si substrate by a solid phase reaction process can be a promising technique to fabricate an efficient Schottky junction device. (paper)

  20. Dissipative dynamics of superconducting hybrid qubit systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montes, Enrique; Calero, Jesus M; Reina, John H, E-mail: enriquem@univalle.edu.c, E-mail: j.reina-estupinan@physics.ox.ac.u [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad del Valle, A.A. 25360, Cali (Colombia)

    2009-05-01

    We perform a theoretical study of composed superconducting qubit systems for the case of a coupled qubit configuration based on a hybrid qubit circuit made of both charge and phase qubits, which are coupled via a sigma{sub x} x sigma{sub z} interaction. We compute the system's eigen-energies in terms of the qubit transition frequencies and the strength of the inter-qubit coupling, and describe the sensitivity of the energy crossing/anti-crossing features to such coupling. We compute the hybrid system's dissipative dynamics for the cases of i) collective and ii) independent decoherence, whereby the system interacts with one common and two different baths of harmonic oscillators, respectively. The calculations have been performed within the Bloch-Redfield formalism and we report the solutions for the populations and the coherences of the system's reduced density matrix. The dephasing and relaxation rates are explicitly calculated as a function of the heat bath temperature.

  1. Trapped Ion Qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maunz, Peter Lukas Wilhelm

    2017-04-01

    Qubits can be encoded in clock states of trapped ions. These states are well isolated from the environment resulting in long coherence times [1] while enabling efficient high-fidelity qubit interactions mediated by the Coulomb coupled motion of the ions in the trap. Quantum states can be prepared with high fidelity and measured efficiently using fluorescence detection. State preparation and detection with 99.93% fidelity have been realized in multiple systems [1,2]. Single qubit gates have been demonstrated below rigorous fault-tolerance thresholds [1,3]. Two qubit gates have been realized with more than 99.9% fidelity [4,5]. Quantum algorithms have been demonstrated on systems of 5 to 15 qubits [6–8].

  2. The investigation of the phase-locking stability in linear arrays of Josephson junctions and arrays closed into a superconducting loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darula, M.; Seidel, P.; Misanik, B.; Busse, F.; Heinz, E.; Benacka, S.

    1994-01-01

    The phase-locking stability is investigated theoretically in two structures: linear arrays of Josephson junctions shunted by resistive load and arrays closed into superconducting loop. In both cases the quasi-identical junctions are supposed to be in arrays. The stability as a function of spread in Josephson junction parameters as well as a function of other circuit parameters is investigated. Using Floquet theory it is shown that spread in critical currents of Josephson junction limit the stability of phase-locking state. From the simulations it follows that the phase-locking in arrays closed into superconducting loop is more stable against the spread in junction parameters than in the case of linear array of Josephson junctions. (orig.)

  3. Josephson tunnel junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weides, M.P.

    2006-01-01

    Superconductivity and ferromagnetism are well-known physical properties of solid states that have been widely studied and long thought about as antagonistic phenomena due to difference in spin ordering. It turns out that the combination of both superconductor and ferromagnet leads to a very rich and interesting physics. One particular example, the phase oscillations of the superconducting order parameter inside the ferromagnet, will play a major role for the devices discussed in this work. In this thesis, I present Josephson junctions with a thin Al 2 O 3 tunnel barrier and a ferromagnetic interlayer, i.e. superconductor-insulator-ferromagnet-superconductor (SIFS) stacks. The fabrication of junctions was optimized regarding the insulation of electrodes and the homogeneity of the current transport. The junctions were either in the 0 or π coupled ground state, depending on the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer and on temperature. The influence of ferromagnetic layer thickness on the transport properties and the coupling (0, π) of SIFS tunnel junctions was studied. Furthermore, using a stepped ferromagnetic layer with well-chosen thicknesses, I obtained the so-called 0-π Josephson junction. At a certain temperature this 0-π junction can be made perfectly symmetric. In this case the ground state corresponds to a vortex of supercurrent creating a magnetic flux which is a fraction of the magnetic flux quantum Φ 0 . Such structures allow to study the physics of fractional vortices and to build various electronic circuits based on them. The SIFS junctions presented here have an exponentially vanishing damping at T → 0. The SIFS technology developed within the framework of this work may be used to construct classical and quantum devices such as oscillators, memory cells and qubits. (orig.)

  4. Josephson tunnel junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weides, M.P.

    2006-07-01

    Superconductivity and ferromagnetism are well-known physical properties of solid states that have been widely studied and long thought about as antagonistic phenomena due to difference in spin ordering. It turns out that the combination of both superconductor and ferromagnet leads to a very rich and interesting physics. One particular example, the phase oscillations of the superconducting order parameter inside the ferromagnet, will play a major role for the devices discussed in this work. In this thesis, I present Josephson junctions with a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tunnel barrier and a ferromagnetic interlayer, i.e. superconductor-insulator-ferromagnet-superconductor (SIFS) stacks. The fabrication of junctions was optimized regarding the insulation of electrodes and the homogeneity of the current transport. The junctions were either in the 0 or {pi} coupled ground state, depending on the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer and on temperature. The influence of ferromagnetic layer thickness on the transport properties and the coupling (0, {pi}) of SIFS tunnel junctions was studied. Furthermore, using a stepped ferromagnetic layer with well-chosen thicknesses, I obtained the so-called 0-{pi} Josephson junction. At a certain temperature this 0-{pi} junction can be made perfectly symmetric. In this case the ground state corresponds to a vortex of supercurrent creating a magnetic flux which is a fraction of the magnetic flux quantum {phi}{sub 0}. Such structures allow to study the physics of fractional vortices and to build various electronic circuits based on them. The SIFS junctions presented here have an exponentially vanishing damping at T {yields} 0. The SIFS technology developed within the framework of this work may be used to construct classical and quantum devices such as oscillators, memory cells and qubits. (orig.)

  5. Experimental Evidence for Phase-Locked States in Stacked Long Josephson Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carapella, Giovanni; Costabile, Giovanni; Mancher, Martin

    1997-01-01

    We fabricated and tested samples consisteing of two long stacked Josephson junctions with direct access to the intermediate electrode, whose thickness is smaller than the London penetration depth $\\lambda _L$. The electrodes are patterned so that the junctions can be idependently biased in the ov...

  6. RELAP-7 Progress Report: A Mathematical Model for 1-D Compressible, Single-Phase Flow Through a Branching Junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, R. A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-08-14

    In the literature, the abundance of pipe network junction models, as well as inclusion of dissipative losses between connected pipes with loss coefficients, has been treated using the incompressible flow assumption of constant density. This approach is fundamentally, physically wrong for compressible flow with density change. This report introduces a mathematical modeling approach for general junctions in piping network systems for which the transient flows are compressible and single-phase. The junction could be as simple as a 1-pipe input and 1-pipe output with differing pipe cross-sectional areas for which a dissipative loss is necessary, or it could include an active component, between an inlet pipe and an outlet pipe, such as a pump or turbine. In this report, discussion will be limited to the former. A more general branching junction connecting an arbitrary number of pipes with transient, 1-D compressible single-phase flows is also presented. These models will be developed in a manner consistent with the use of a general equation of state like, for example, the recent Spline-Based Table Look-up method [1] for incorporating the IAPWS-95 formulation [2] to give accurate and efficient calculations for properties for water and steam with RELAP-7 [3].

  7. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Grand Junction site, Grand Junction, Colorado. A summary of the Phase II, Title I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology, and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented range from millsite decontamination (Option I), to adding various depths of stabilization cover material (Options II and III), to removal of the tailings to long-term storage sites and decontamination of the present site (Options IV through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from $470,000 to $18,130,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery does not appear to be economically attractive at present

  8. Genuine Four Tangle for Four Qubit States

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, S. Shelly; Sharma, N. K.

    2013-01-01

    We report a four qubit polynomial invariant that quantifies genuine four-body correlations. The four qubit invariants are obtained from transformation properties of three qubit invariants under a local unitary on the fourth qubit.

  9. Two-phase flow and pressure drop in T-junctions with horizontal run and vertical branch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsaounis, A.

    1987-01-01

    Visual observations of single- and two-phase dividing flow and pressure drop measurements were performed in T-junctions with horizontal run and vertical branch. Both tees used were geometrically similar, in a scale of 1:4. The measurements were performed for plug/slug and stratified flow pattern regime in horizontal tube. Based on the single-phase form-resistance pressure drop correlation of Gardel a corresponded calculation model was developed for the two-phase flow verified by the own measurements. (orig.) [de

  10. Phase locked 270-440 GHz local oscillator based on flux flow in long Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V.P.; Shitov, S.V.; Filippenko, L.V.

    2000-01-01

    The combination of narrow linewidth and wide band tunability makes the Josephson flux flow oscillator (FFO) a perfect on-chip local oscillator for integrated sub-mm wave receivers for, e.g., spectral radio astronomy. The feasibility of phase locking the FFO to an external reference oscillator......-running tunnel junction. The results of residual FFO phase noise measurements are also presented. Finally, we propose a single-chip fully superconductive receiver with two superconductor–insulator–superconductor mixers and an integrated phase-locked loop. ©2000 American Institute of Physics....

  11. Fisher information of a single qubit interacts with a spin-qubit in the presence of a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metwally, N.

    2018-06-01

    In this contribution, quantum Fisher information is utilized to estimate the parameters of a central qubit interacting with a single-spin qubit. The effect of the longitudinal, transverse and the rotating strengths of the magnetic field on the estimation degree is discussed. It is shown that, in the resonance case, the number of peaks and consequently the size of the estimation regions increase as the rotating magnetic field strength increases. The precision estimation of the central qubit parameters depends on the initial state settings of the central and the spin-qubit, either encode classical or quantum information. It is displayed that, the upper bounds of the estimation degree are large if the two qubits encode classical information. In the non-resonance case, the estimation degree depends on which of the longitudinal/transverse strength is larger. The coupling constant between the central qubit and the spin-qubit has a different effect on the estimation degree of the weight and the phase parameters, where the possibility of estimating the weight parameter decreases as the coupling constant increases, while it increases for the phase parameter. For large number of spin-particles, namely, we have a spin-bath particles, the upper bounds of the Fisher information with respect to the weight parameter of the central qubit decreases as the number of the spin particle increases. As the interaction time increases, the upper bounds appear at different initial values of the weight parameter.

  12. Quantum control and process tomography of a semiconductor quantum dot hybrid qubit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohun; Shi, Zhan; Simmons, C B; Ward, D R; Prance, J R; Koh, Teck Seng; Gamble, John King; Savage, D E; Lagally, M G; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S N; Eriksson, Mark A

    2014-07-03

    The similarities between gated quantum dots and the transistors in modern microelectronics--in fabrication methods, physical structure and voltage scales for manipulation--have led to great interest in the development of quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor quantum dots. Although quantum dot spin qubits have demonstrated long coherence times, their manipulation is often slower than desired for important future applications, such as factoring. Furthermore, scalability and manufacturability are enhanced when qubits are as simple as possible. Previous work has increased the speed of spin qubit rotations by making use of integrated micromagnets, dynamic pumping of nuclear spins or the addition of a third quantum dot. Here we demonstrate a qubit that is a hybrid of spin and charge. It is simple, requiring neither nuclear-state preparation nor micromagnets. Unlike previous double-dot qubits, the hybrid qubit enables fast rotations about two axes of the Bloch sphere. We demonstrate full control on the Bloch sphere with π-rotation times of less than 100 picoseconds in two orthogonal directions, which is more than an order of magnitude faster than any other double-dot qubit. The speed arises from the qubit's charge-like characteristics, and its spin-like features result in resistance to decoherence over a wide range of gate voltages. We achieve full process tomography in our electrically controlled semiconductor quantum dot qubit, extracting high fidelities of 85 per cent for X rotations (transitions between qubit states) and 94 per cent for Z rotations (phase accumulation between qubit states).

  13. Phase regeneration of DPSK signals in a silicon waveguide with reverse-biased p-i-n junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Ros, Francesco; Vukovic, Dragana; Gajda, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Phase regeneration of differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) signals is demonstrated using a silicon waveguide as nonlinear medium for the first time. A p-i-n junction across the waveguide enables decreasing the nonlinear losses introduced by free-carrier absorption (FCA), thus allowing phase......-sensitive extinction ratios as high as 20 dB to be reached under continuous-wave (CW) pumping operation. Furthermore the regeneration properties are investigated under dynamic operation for a 10-Gb/s DPSK signal degraded by phase noise, showing receiver sensitivity improvements above 14 dB. Different phase noise...... frequencies and amplitudes are examined, resulting in an improvement of the performance of the regenerated signal in all the considered cases....

  14. Tunnel currents produced by defects in p-n junctions of GaAs grown on vapor phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrales Guadarrama, V R; Rodríguez Rodriguez, E M; Barrales Guadarrama, R; Reyes Ayala, N

    2017-01-01

    With the purpose of assessing if the epitaxy on vapor phase technique “Close Space Vapor Deposition (CSVT)” is capable of produce thin films with adequate properties in order to manufacture p-n junctions, a study of invert and direct current was developed, in a temperature range of 94K to 293K, to junctions p-n of GaAs grown through the technique CSVT. It is shown that the dominant current, within the range 10 -7 to 10 -2 A, is consistent with a currents model of the type of internal emission form field, which shows these currents are due to the presence of localized states in the band gap. (paper)

  15. Bias voltage effect on electron tunneling across a junction with a ferroelectric–ferromagnetic two-phase composite barrier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jian; Ju Sheng; Li, Z.Y.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of bias voltage on electron tunneling across a junction with a ferroelectric–ferromagnetic composite barrier is investigated theoretically. Because of the inversion symmetry breaking of the spontaneous ferroelectric polarization, bias voltage dependence of the electron tunneling shows significant differences between the positive bias and the negative one. The differences of spin filtering or tunnel magnetoresistance increase with the increasing absolute value of bias voltage. Such direction preferred electron tunneling is found intimately related with the unusual asymmetry of the electrical potential profile in two-phase composite barrier and provides a unique change to realize rectifying functions in spintronics. - Highlights: ► Electron tunneling across a ferroelectric–ferromagnetic composite barrier junction. ► TMR effect is different under the same value but opposite direction bias voltage. ► This directionality of the electron tunneling enhances with increasing bias voltage.

  16. Decoherence in qubits due to low-frequency noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergli, J; Galperin, Y M; Altshuler, B L

    2009-01-01

    The efficiency of the future devices for quantum information processing will be limited mostly by the finite decoherence rates of the qubits. Recently, substantial progress was achieved in enhancing the time within which a solid-state qubit demonstrates coherent dynamics. This progress is based mostly on a successful isolation of the qubits from external decoherence sources. Under these conditions, the material-inherent sources of noise start to play a crucial role. In most cases, the noise that the quantum device demonstrates has a 1/f spectrum. This suggests that the environment that destroys the phase coherence of the qubit can be thought of as a system of two-state fluctuators, which experience random hops between their states. In this short review, the current state of the theory of the decoherence due to the qubit interaction with the fluctuators is discussed. The effect of such an environment on two different protocols of the qubit manipulations, free induction and echo signal, is described. It turns out that in many important cases the noise produced by the fluctuators is non-Gaussian. Consequently, the results of the interaction of the qubit with the fluctuators are not determined by the pair correlation function alone. We describe the effect of the fluctuators using the so-called spin-fluctuator model. Being quite realistic, this model allows one to exactly evaluate the qubit dynamics in the presence of one fluctuator. This solution is found, and its features, including non-Gaussian effects, are analyzed in detail. We extend this consideration to systems of large numbers of fluctuators, which interact with the qubit and lead to the 1/f noise. We discuss existing experiments on the Josephson qubit manipulation and try to identify non-Gaussian behavior.

  17. Circuit QED with transmon qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulschner, Karl Friedrich; Puertas, Javier; Baust, Alexander; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Haeberlein, Max; Schwarz, Manuel; Xie, Edwar; Zhong, Ling; Deppe, Frank; Fedorov, Kirill; Marx, Achim; Menzel, Edwin; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Huebl, Hans [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Weides, Martin [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Superconducting quantum bits are basic building blocks for circuit QED systems. Applications in the fields of quantum computation and quantum simulation require long coherence times. We have fabricated and characterized superconducting transmon qubits which are designed to operate at a high ratio of Josephson energy and charging energy. Due to their low sensitivity to charge noise transmon qubits show good coherence properties. We couple transmon qubits to coplanar waveguide resonators and coplanar slotline resonators and characterize the devices at mK-temperatures. From the experimental data we derive the qubit-resonator coupling strength, the qubit relaxation time and calibrate the photon number in the resonator via Stark shifts.

  18. Influence of the current-phase relation on the critical-current-applied-magnetic-flux dependence in parallel-connected Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsang, W.; Van Duzer, T.

    1976-01-01

    The form of the current-phase relations for the Josephson junctions is shown to have a significant influence on the relation I/sub c/(theta/sub a/) between critical current and applied flux for two junctions connected in parallel in a superconducting circuit. The observed one-flux-quantum periodicity and inversion symmetry of the I/sub c/(theta/sub a/) relation are shown to result from the fact that the current-phase, i-phi, relations of the junctions satisfy i (phi+2mπ) =i (phi) and i (-phi) =-i (phi), respectively. It is also shown that if the current-phase relations for the two junctions are different, an asymmetry appears in the I/sub c/(theta/sub a/)

  19. Rapid characterization of microscopic two-level systems using Landau-Zener transitions in a superconducting qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Xinsheng; Yu, Haifeng; Yu, Yang; Han, Siyuan

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a fast method to detect microscopic two-level systems in a superconducting phase qubit. By monitoring the population leak after sweeping the qubit bias flux, we are able to measure the two-level systems that are coupled with the qubit. Compared with the traditional method that detects two-level systems by energy spectroscopy, our method is faster and more sensitive. This method supplies a useful tool to investigate two-level systems in solid-state qubits

  20. Analysis and synthesis of multi-qubit, multi-mode quantum devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solgun, Firat

    2015-03-27

    In this thesis we propose new methods in multi-qubit multi-mode circuit quantum electrodynamics (circuit-QED) architectures. First we describe a direct parity measurement method for three qubits, which can be realized in 2D circuit-QED with a possible extension to four qubits in a 3D circuit-QED setup for the implementation of the surface code. In Chapter 3 we show how to derive Hamiltonians and compute relaxation rates of the multi-mode superconducting microwave circuits consisting of single Josephson junctions using an exact impedance synthesis technique (the Brune synthesis) and applying previous formalisms for lumped element circuit quantization. In the rest of the thesis we extend our method to multi-junction (multi-qubit) multi-mode circuits through the use of state-space descriptions which allows us to quantize any multiport microwave superconducting circuit with a reciprocal lossy impedance response.

  1. Three qubit entanglement within graphical Z/X-calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Coecke

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The compositional techniques of categorical quantum mechanics are applied to analyse 3-qubit quantum entanglement. In particular the graphical calculus of complementary observables and corresponding phases due to Duncan and one of the authors is used to construct representative members of the two genuinely tripartite SLOCC classes of 3-qubit entangled states, GHZ and W. This nicely illustrates the respectively pairwise and global tripartite entanglement found in the W- and GHZ-class states. A new concept of supplementarity allows us to characterise inhabitants of the W class within the abstract diagrammatic calculus; these method extends to more general multipartite qubit states.

  2. Discrete Wigner formalism for qubits and noncontextuality of Clifford gates on qubit stabilizer states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocia, Lucas; Love, Peter

    2017-12-01

    We show that qubit stabilizer states can be represented by non-negative quasiprobability distributions associated with a Wigner-Weyl-Moyal formalism where Clifford gates are positive state-independent maps. This is accomplished by generalizing the Wigner-Weyl-Moyal formalism to three generators instead of two—producing an exterior, or Grassmann, algebra—which results in Clifford group gates for qubits that act as a permutation on the finite Weyl phase space points naturally associated with stabilizer states. As a result, a non-negative probability distribution can be associated with each stabilizer state's three-generator Wigner function, and these distributions evolve deterministically to one another under Clifford gates. This corresponds to a hidden variable theory that is noncontextual and local for qubit Clifford gates while Clifford (Pauli) measurements have a context-dependent representation. Equivalently, we show that qubit Clifford gates can be expressed as propagators within the three-generator Wigner-Weyl-Moyal formalism whose semiclassical expansion is truncated at order ℏ0 with a finite number of terms. The T gate, which extends the Clifford gate set to one capable of universal quantum computation, requires a semiclassical expansion of the propagator to order ℏ1. We compare this approach to previous quasiprobability descriptions of qubits that relied on the two-generator Wigner-Weyl-Moyal formalism and find that the two-generator Weyl symbols of stabilizer states result in a description of evolution under Clifford gates that is state-dependent, in contrast to the three-generator formalism. We have thus extended Wigner non-negative quasiprobability distributions from the odd d -dimensional case to d =2 qubits, which describe the noncontextuality of Clifford gates and contextuality of Pauli measurements on qubit stabilizer states.

  3. 3D integrated superconducting qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, D.; Kim, D.; Das, R.; Yost, D.; Gustavsson, S.; Hover, D.; Krantz, P.; Melville, A.; Racz, L.; Samach, G. O.; Weber, S. J.; Yan, F.; Yoder, J. L.; Kerman, A. J.; Oliver, W. D.

    2017-10-01

    As the field of quantum computing advances from the few-qubit stage to larger-scale processors, qubit addressability and extensibility will necessitate the use of 3D integration and packaging. While 3D integration is well-developed for commercial electronics, relatively little work has been performed to determine its compatibility with high-coherence solid-state qubits. Of particular concern, qubit coherence times can be suppressed by the requisite processing steps and close proximity of another chip. In this work, we use a flip-chip process to bond a chip with superconducting flux qubits to another chip containing structures for qubit readout and control. We demonstrate that high qubit coherence (T1, T2,echo > 20 μs) is maintained in a flip-chip geometry in the presence of galvanic, capacitive, and inductive coupling between the chips.

  4. Multi-qubit compensation sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Y; Merrill, J T; Brown, K R

    2010-01-01

    The Hamiltonian control of n qubits requires precision control of both the strength and timing of interactions. Compensation pulses relax the precision requirements by reducing unknown but systematic errors. Using composite pulse techniques designed for single qubits, we show that systematic errors for n-qubit systems can be corrected to arbitrary accuracy given either two non-commuting control Hamiltonians with identical systematic errors or one error-free control Hamiltonian. We also examine composite pulses in the context of quantum computers controlled by two-qubit interactions. For quantum computers based on the XY interaction, single-qubit composite pulse sequences naturally correct systematic errors. For quantum computers based on the Heisenberg or exchange interaction, the composite pulse sequences reduce the logical single-qubit gate errors but increase the errors for logical two-qubit gates.

  5. Investigations on mixing phenomena in single-phase flow in a T-junction geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, C.; Simiano, M.; Zboray, R.; Prasser, H.-M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with T-junction mixing experiments carried out with wire-mesh sensors. The mixing of coolant streams of different temperature in pipe junctions leads to temperature fluctuations that may cause thermal fatigue in the pipe wall. This is practical background for an increased interest in measuring and predicting the transient flow field and the turbulent mixing pattern downstream of a T-junction. Experiments were carried out at a perpendicular connection of two pipes of 51 mm inner diameter. The straight and the side branches were supplied by water of different electrical conductivity, which replaced the temperature in the thermal mixing process. A set of three wire-mesh sensors with a grid of 16 x 16 measuring points each was used to record conductivity distributions downstream of the T-junction. Besides the measurement of profiles of the time averaged mixing scalar over extended measuring domains, the high resolution in time and space of the mesh sensors allow a statistic characterization of the stochastic fluctuations of the mixing scalar in a wide range of frequencies. Information on the scale of turbulent mixing patterns is obtained by cross-correlating the signal fluctuations recorded at different locations within the measuring plane of a sensor

  6. Strain-assisted current-induced magnetization reversal in magnetic tunnel junctions: A micromagnetic study with phase-field microelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H. B.; Hu, J. M.; Yang, T. N.; Chen, L. Q.; Ma, X. Q.

    2014-01-01

    Effect of substrate misfit strain on current-induced in-plane magnetization reversal in CoFeB-MgO based magnetic tunnel junctions is investigated by combining micromagnetic simulations with phase-field microelasticity theory. It is found that the critical current density for in-plane magnetization reversal decreases dramatically with an increasing substrate strain, since the effective elastic field can drag the magnetization to one of the four in-plane diagonal directions. A potential strain-assisted multilevel bit spin transfer magnetization switching device using substrate misfit strain is also proposed.

  7. Entanglement and Quantum Error Correction with Superconducting Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Matthew

    2015-03-01

    Quantum information science seeks to take advantage of the properties of quantum mechanics to manipulate information in ways that are not otherwise possible. Quantum computation, for example, promises to solve certain problems in days that would take a conventional supercomputer the age of the universe to decipher. This power does not come without a cost however, as quantum bits are inherently more susceptible to errors than their classical counterparts. Fortunately, it is possible to redundantly encode information in several entangled qubits, making it robust to decoherence and control imprecision with quantum error correction. I studied one possible physical implementation for quantum computing, employing the ground and first excited quantum states of a superconducting electrical circuit as a quantum bit. These ``transmon'' qubits are dispersively coupled to a superconducting resonator used for readout, control, and qubit-qubit coupling in the cavity quantum electrodynamics (cQED) architecture. In this talk I will give an general introduction to quantum computation and the superconducting technology that seeks to achieve it before explaining some of the specific results reported in my thesis. One major component is that of the first realization of three-qubit quantum error correction in a solid state device, where we encode one logical quantum bit in three entangled physical qubits and detect and correct phase- or bit-flip errors using a three-qubit Toffoli gate. My thesis is available at arXiv:1311.6759.

  8. Optical generation of matter qubit graph states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benjamin, S C; Eisert, J; Stace, T M

    2005-01-01

    We present a scheme for rapidly entangling matter qubits in order to create graph states for one-way quantum computing. The qubits can be simple three-level systems in separate cavities. Coupling involves only local fields and a static (unswitched) linear optics network. Fusion of graph-state sections occurs with, in principle, zero probability of damaging the nascent graph state. We avoid the finite thresholds of other schemes by operating on two entangled pairs, so that each generates exactly one photon. We do not require the relatively slow single qubit local flips to be applied during the growth phase: growth of the graph state can then become a purely optical process. The scheme naturally generates graph states with vertices of high degree and so is easily able to construct minimal graph states, with consequent resource savings. The most efficient approach will be to create new graph-state edges even as qubits elsewhere are measured, in a 'just in time' approach. An error analysis indicates that the scheme is relatively robust against imperfections in the apparatus

  9. Dynamic behavior of superconducting flux qubit excited by a series of electromagnetic pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyko, A.S.; Omelyanchouk, A.N.; Shevchenko, S.N.

    2007-01-01

    We study theoretically the behavior of the superconducting flux qubit subjected to a series of electromagnetic pulses. The possibility of controlling system state via changing the parameters of the pulse is studied. We calculated the phase shift in a tank circuit weakly coupled to the qubit which can be measured by the impedance measurement technique. For the flux qubit we consider the possibility of estimating the relaxation rate from the impedance measurements by varying the delay time between the pulses

  10. Optimization of Transmon Qubit Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Josephine; Rothwell, Mary; Keefe, George; IBM Quantum Computing Group Team

    2013-03-01

    Rapid advances in the field of superconducting transmon qubits have refined our understanding of the role that substrate and interfaces play in qubit decoherence. Here, we review strategies for enhancing coherence times in both 2D and 3D transmon qubits through substrate design, structural improvements, and process optimization. Results correlating processing techniques to decoherence times are presented, and some novel structures are proposed for further consideration. We acknowledge support from IARPA under contract W911NF-10-1-0324

  11. Modeling decoherence with qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusler, Stefan; Dür, Wolfgang

    2018-03-01

    Quantum effects like the superposition principle contradict our experience of daily life. Decoherence can be viewed as a possible explanation why we do not observe quantum superposition states in the macroscopic world. In this article, we use the qubit ansatz to discuss decoherence in the simplest possible model system and propose a visualization for the microscopic origin of decoherence, and the emergence of a so-called pointer basis. Finally, we discuss the possibility of ‘macroscopic’ quantum effects.

  12. Transverse phase-locking in fully frustrated Josephson junction arrays: A new type of fractional giant steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marconi, Veronica I.; Kolton, Alejandro B.; Dominguez, Daniel; Gronbech-Jensen, Niels

    2003-05-01

    We study, analytically and numerically, phase locking of driven vortex lattices in fully-frustrated Josephson junction arrays at zero temperature. We consider the case when an ac current is applied perpendicular to a dc current. We observe phase locking, steps in the current-voltage characteristics, with a dependence on external ac-drive amplitude and frequency qualitatively different from the Shapiro steps, observed when the ac and dc currents are applied in parallel. Further, the critical current increases with increasing transverse ac-drive amplitude, while it decreases for longitudinal ac-drive. The critical current and the phase-locked current step width, increase quadratically with (small) amplitudes of the ac-drive. For larger amplitudes of the transverse ac-signal, we find windows where the critical current is hysteretic, and windows where phase locking is suppressed due to dynamical instabilities. We characterize the dynamical states around the phase-locking interference condition in the IV curve with voltage noise, Lyapunov exponents and Poincare sections. We find that zero temperature phase-locking behavior in large fully frustrated arrays is well described by an effective four plaquette model. (author)

  13. Work plan for phase 1A paleochannel studies at the Cheney disposal cell, Grand Junction, Colorado: Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    This document will serve as a Work Plan for continuing paleochannel characterization activities at the Cheney disposal site near Grand Junction, Colorado. Elevated levels of nitrate were encountered in ground water from two monitor wells installed in alluvial paleochannels near the Cheney disposal cell in 1994. This triggered a series of investigations (Phase 1) designed to determine the source of nitrate and other chemical constituents in ground water at the site. A comprehensive summary of the Phase 1 field investigations (limited to passive monitoring and modeling studies) conducted by the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) and Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) to date is provided in Section 2.0 of this document. Results of Phase 1 were inconclusive regarding the potential interaction between the disposal cell and the paleochannels, so additional Phase 1A investigations are planned. Recommendations for Phase 1A tasks and possible future activities are discussed in Section 3.0. Detailed information on the implementation of the proposed Phase 1A tasks appears in Section 4.0 and will provide the basis for Statements of Work (SOW) for each of these tasks. A detailed sampling plan is provided to ensure quality and a consistency with previous data collection efforts

  14. Work plan for phase 1A paleochannel studies at the Cheney disposal cell, Grand Junction, Colorado: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This document will serve as a Work Plan for continuing paleochannel characterization activities at the Cheney disposal site near Grand Junction, Colorado. Elevated levels of nitrate were encountered in ground water from two monitor wells installed in alluvial paleochannels near the Cheney disposal cell in 1994. This triggered a series of investigations (Phase 1) designed to determine the source of nitrate and other chemical constituents in ground water at the site. A comprehensive summary of the Phase 1 field investigations (limited to passive monitoring and modeling studies) conducted by the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) and Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) to date is provided in Section 2.0 of this document. Results of Phase 1 were inconclusive regarding the potential interaction between the disposal cell and the paleochannels, so additional Phase 1A investigations are planned. Recommendations for Phase 1A tasks and possible future activities are discussed in Section 3.0. Detailed information on the implementation of the proposed Phase 1A tasks appears in Section 4.0 and will provide the basis for Statements of Work (SOW) for each of these tasks. A detailed sampling plan is provided to ensure quality and a consistency with previous data collection efforts.

  15. Ultrafast optical control of individual quantum dot spin qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Greve, Kristiaan; Press, David; McMahon, Peter L; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2013-09-01

    Single spins in semiconductor quantum dots form a promising platform for solid-state quantum information processing. The spin-up and spin-down states of a single electron or hole, trapped inside a quantum dot, can represent a single qubit with a reasonably long decoherence time. The spin qubit can be optically coupled to excited (charged exciton) states that are also trapped in the quantum dot, which provides a mechanism to quickly initialize, manipulate and measure the spin state with optical pulses, and to interface between a stationary matter qubit and a 'flying' photonic qubit for quantum communication and distributed quantum information processing. The interaction of the spin qubit with light may be enhanced by placing the quantum dot inside a monolithic microcavity. An entire system, consisting of a two-dimensional array of quantum dots and a planar microcavity, may plausibly be constructed by modern semiconductor nano-fabrication technology and could offer a path toward chip-sized scalable quantum repeaters and quantum computers. This article reviews the recent experimental developments in optical control of single quantum dot spins for quantum information processing. We highlight demonstrations of a complete set of all-optical single-qubit operations on a single quantum dot spin: initialization, an arbitrary SU(2) gate, and measurement. We review the decoherence and dephasing mechanisms due to hyperfine interaction with the nuclear-spin bath, and show how the single-qubit operations can be combined to perform spin echo sequences that extend the qubit decoherence from a few nanoseconds to several microseconds, more than 5 orders of magnitude longer than the single-qubit gate time. Two-qubit coupling is discussed, both within a single chip by means of exchange coupling of nearby spins and optically induced geometric phases, as well as over longer-distances. Long-distance spin-spin entanglement can be generated if each spin can emit a photon that is entangled

  16. Versatile multi-layer Josephson junction process for vortex molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meckbach, Johannes Maximilian; Buehler, Simon; Merker, Michael; Il' in, Konstantin; Siegel, Michael [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme, KIT (Germany); Buckenmaier, Kai; Gaber, Tobias; Kienzle, Uta; Neumaier, Benjamin; Goldobin, Edward; Kleiner, Reinhold; Koelle, Dieter [Physikalisches Institut - Experimentalphysik II, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    In long Josephson junctions magnetic flux may penetrate the barrier resulting in a so-called Josephson-Vortex carrying one flux quantum Φ{sub 0}. In recent years a new type of Josephson-Vortex became available, which carries any arbitrary fraction Φ = -Φ{sub 0}κ/2π of magnetic flux. These fractional vortices (p-vortices) spontaneously appear at discontinuities of the Josephson phase along the junction, which in turn are created using a pair of current injectors. We present a new Nb/Al-AlO{sub x}/Nb process for the fabrication of Josephson junctions of very high quality. Placing two injector pairs along the strongly underdamped long junctions allows the investigation of fractional vortex molecules. The topological charge of each vortex and their interaction can be altered even during experiment by changing the individual injector currents. Vortex molecule states have been measured using asymmetric DC-SQUIDs coupled to the vortices by overlying pick-up loops. To uphold the p-vortices we use persistent currents, which can be altered using heat switches. Fractional vortex molecules are promising candidates for a new type of qubits.

  17. Ultra-Shallow P+/N Junction Formation in Si Using Low Temperature Solid Phase Epitaxy Assisted with Laser Activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Shuhei; Tanaka, Yuki; Fukaya, Takumi; Matsumoto, Satoru; Suzuki, Toshiharu; Fuse, Genshu; Kudo, Toshio; Sakuragi, Susumu

    2008-01-01

    A combination of Ge pre-amorphization implantation (Ge-PAI), low-energy B implantation and laser annealing is a promising method to form highly-activated, abrupt and ultra-shallow junctions (USJ). In our previous report of IIT 2006, we succeeded in forming pn junctions less than 10 nm using non-melt double-pulsed green laser. However, a large leakage current under reverse bias was observed consequently due to residual defects in the implanted layer. In this study, a method to form USJ is proposed: a combination of low-temperature solid phase epitaxy and non-melt laser irradiation for B activation. Ge pre-amorphization implantation was performed at energy of 6 keV with a dose of 3x10 14 /cm 2 . Then B implantation was performed at energy of 0.2 keV with a dose of 1.2x10 15 /cm 2 . Samples were annealed at 400 deg. C for 10 h in nitrogen atmosphere. Subsequently, non-melt laser irradiation was performed at energy of 690 mJ/cm 2 and pulse duration of 100 ns with intervals of 300 ns. As a result, USJ around 10 nm with better crystallinity was successfully formed. And the leakage current of pn diodes was reduced significantly. Moreover, it is proven from secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis that transient enhanced diffusion (TED) of B is specifically suppressed.

  18. Josephson junction arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindslev Hansen, J.; Lindelof, P.E.

    1985-01-01

    In this review we intend to cover recent work involving arrays of Josephson junctions. The work on such arrays falls naturally into three main areas of interest: 1. Technical applications of Josephson junction arrays for high-frequency devices. 2. Experimental studies of 2-D model systems (Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition, commensurate-incommensurate transition in frustrated (flux) lattices). 3. Investigations of phenomena associated with non-equilibrium superconductivity in and around Josephson junctions (with high current density). (orig./BUD)

  19. Quantum Gate Operations in Decoherence-Free Subspace with Superconducting Charge Qubits inside a Cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi-Min, Wang; Yan-Li, Zhou; Lin-Mei, Liang; Cheng-Zu, Li

    2009-01-01

    We propose a feasible scheme to achieve universal quantum gate operations in decoherence-free subspace with superconducting charge qubits placed in a microwave cavity. Single-logic-qubit gates can be realized with cavity assisted interaction, which possesses the advantages of unconventional geometric gate operation. The two-logic-qubit controlled-phase gate between subsystems can be constructed with the help of a variable electrostatic transformer. The collective decoherence can be successfully avoided in our well-designed system. Moreover, GHZ state for logical qubits can also be easily produced in this system

  20. Critical current fluctuation in a microwave-driven Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Ning; Sun Guozhu; Wang Yiwen; Cao Junyu; Yu Yang; Chen Jian; Kang Lin; Xu Weiwei; Han Siyuan; Wu Peiheng

    2007-01-01

    Josephson junction devices are good candidates for quantum computation. A large energy splitting was observed in the spectroscopy of a superconducting Josephson junction. The presence of the critical current fluctuation near the energy splitting indicated coupling between the junction and a two-level system. Furthermore, we find that this fluctuation is microwave dependent. It only appears at certain microwave frequency. This relation suggested that the decoherence of qubits is influenced by the necessary computing operations

  1. Phase I vaccination trial of SYT-SSX junction peptide in patients with disseminated synovial sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asanuma Hiroko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synovial sarcoma is a high-grade malignant tumor of soft tissue, characterized by the specific chromosomal translocation t(X;18, and its resultant SYT-SSX fusion gene. Despite intensive multimodality therapy, the majority of metastatic or relapsed diseases still remain incurable, thus suggesting a need for new therapeutic options. We previously demonstrated the antigenicity of SYT-SSX gene-derived peptides by in vitro analyses. The present study was designed to evaluate in vivo immunological property of a SYT-SSX junction peptide in selected patients with synovial sarcoma. Methods A 9-mer peptide (SYT-SSX B: GYDQIMPKK spanning the SYT-SSX fusion region was synthesized. Eligible patients were those (i who have histologically and genetically confirmed, unresectable synovial sarcoma (SYT-SSX1 or SYT-SSX2 positive, (ii HLA-A*2402 positive, (iii between 20 and 70 years old, (iv ECOG performance status between 0 and 3, and (v who gave informed consent. Vaccinations with SYT-SSX B peptide (0.1 mg or 1.0 mg were given subcutaneously six times at 14-day intervals. These patients were evaluated for DTH skin test, adverse events, tumor size, tetramer staining, and peptide-specific CTL induction. Results A total of 16 vaccinations were carried out in six patients. The results were (i no serious adverse effects or DTH reactions, (ii suppression of tumor progression in one patient, (iii increases in the frequency of peptide-specific CTLs in three patients and a decrease in one patient, and (iv successful induction of peptide-specific CTLs from four patients. Conclusions Our findings indicate the safety of the SYT-SSX junction peptide in the use of vaccination and also give support to the property of the peptide to evoke in vivo immunological responses. Modification of both the peptide itself and the related protocol is required to further improve the therapeutic efficacy.

  2. Two-qubit logical operations in three quantum dots system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuczak, Jakub; Bułka, Bogdan R

    2018-06-06

    We consider a model of two interacting always-on, exchange-only qubits for which controlled phase (CPHASE), controlled NOT (CNOT), quantum Fourier transform (QFT) and SWAP operations can be implemented only in a few electrical pulses in a nanosecond time scale. Each qubit is built of three quantum dots (TQD) in a triangular geometry with three electron spins which are always kept coupled by exchange interactions only. The qubit states are encoded in a doublet subspace and are fully electrically controlled by a voltage applied to gate electrodes. The two qubit quantum gates are realized by short electrical pulses which change the triangular symmetry of TQD and switch on exchange interaction between the qubits. We found an optimal configuration to implement the CPHASE gate by a single pulse of the order 2.3 ns. Using this gate, in combination with single qubit operations, we searched for optimal conditions to perform the other gates: CNOT, QFT and SWAP. Our studies take into account environment effects and leakage processes as well. The results suggest that the system can be implemented for fault tolerant quantum computations.

  3. Quantum measurement of a rapidly rotating spin qubit in diamond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Alexander A; Lilette, Emmanuel; Fein, Yaakov Y; Tomek, Nikolas; McGuinness, Liam P; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L; Scholten, Robert E; Martin, Andy M

    2018-05-01

    A controlled qubit in a rotating frame opens new opportunities to probe fundamental quantum physics, such as geometric phases in physically rotating frames, and can potentially enhance detection of magnetic fields. Realizing a single qubit that can be measured and controlled during physical rotation is experimentally challenging. We demonstrate quantum control of a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center within a diamond rotated at 200,000 rpm, a rotational period comparable to the NV spin coherence time T 2 . We stroboscopically image individual NV centers that execute rapid circular motion in addition to rotation and demonstrate preparation, control, and readout of the qubit quantum state with lasers and microwaves. Using spin-echo interferometry of the rotating qubit, we are able to detect modulation of the NV Zeeman shift arising from the rotating NV axis and an external DC magnetic field. Our work establishes single NV qubits in diamond as quantum sensors in the physically rotating frame and paves the way for the realization of single-qubit diamond-based rotation sensors.

  4. Characterizing Ensembles of Superconducting Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sears, Adam; Birenbaum, Jeff; Hover, David; Rosenberg, Danna; Weber, Steven; Yoder, Jonilyn L.; Kerman, Jamie; Gustavsson, Simon; Kamal, Archana; Yan, Fei; Oliver, William

    We investigate ensembles of up to 48 superconducting qubits embedded within a superconducting cavity. Such arrays of qubits have been proposed for the experimental study of Ising Hamiltonians, and efficient methods to characterize and calibrate these types of systems are still under development. Here we leverage high qubit coherence (> 70 μs) to characterize individual devices as well as qubit-qubit interactions, utilizing the common resonator mode for a joint readout. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) under Air Force Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0002. The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of ODNI, IARPA, or the US Government.

  5. Use of p- and n-type vapor phase doping and sub-melt laser anneal for extension junctions in sub-32 nm CMOS technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, N.D., E-mail: Duy.Nguyen@imec.b [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Rosseel, E. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Takeuchi, S. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Physics and Astronomy, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Everaert, J.-L. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Yang, L. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Chemistry and INPAC Institute, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Goossens, J.; Moussa, A.; Clarysse, T.; Richard, O.; Bender, H. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Zaima, S. [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan); Sakai, A. [Department of System Innovation, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, 1-3 Machikaneyama-cho, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-8531 (Japan); Loo, R. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Lin, J.C. [TSMC, R and D, 8, Li-Hsin 6th Rd., Hsinchu Science-Based Park, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); TSMC assignee at IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Vandervorst, W. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Instituut voor Kern- en Stralingsfysika - IKS, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Caymax, M. [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the combination of vapor phase doping and sub-melt laser anneal as a novel doping strategy for the fabrication of source and drain extension junctions in sub-32 nm CMOS technology, aiming at both planar and non-planar device applications. High quality ultra shallow junctions with abrupt profiles in Si substrates were demonstrated on 300 mm Si substrates. The excellent results obtained for the sheet resistance and the junction depth with boron allowed us to fulfill the requirements for the 32 nm as well as for the 22 nm technology nodes in the PMOS case by choosing appropriate laser anneal conditions. For instance, using 3 laser scans at 1300 {sup o}C, we measured an active dopant concentration of about 2.1 x 10{sup 20} cm{sup -} {sup 3} and a junction depth of 12 nm. With arsenic for NMOS, ultra shallow junctions were achieved as well. However, as also seen for other junction fabrication schemes, low dopant activation level and active dose (in the range of 1-4 x 10{sup 13} cm{sup -} {sup 2}) were observed although dopant concentration versus depth profiles indicate that the dopant atoms were properly driven into the substrate during the anneal step. The electrical deactivation of a large part of the in-diffused dopants was responsible for the high sheet resistance values.

  6. Use of p- and n-type vapor phase doping and sub-melt laser anneal for extension junctions in sub-32 nm CMOS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, N.D.; Rosseel, E.; Takeuchi, S.; Everaert, J.-L.; Yang, L.; Goossens, J.; Moussa, A.; Clarysse, T.; Richard, O.; Bender, H.; Zaima, S.; Sakai, A.; Loo, R.; Lin, J.C.; Vandervorst, W.; Caymax, M.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the combination of vapor phase doping and sub-melt laser anneal as a novel doping strategy for the fabrication of source and drain extension junctions in sub-32 nm CMOS technology, aiming at both planar and non-planar device applications. High quality ultra shallow junctions with abrupt profiles in Si substrates were demonstrated on 300 mm Si substrates. The excellent results obtained for the sheet resistance and the junction depth with boron allowed us to fulfill the requirements for the 32 nm as well as for the 22 nm technology nodes in the PMOS case by choosing appropriate laser anneal conditions. For instance, using 3 laser scans at 1300 o C, we measured an active dopant concentration of about 2.1 x 10 20 cm - 3 and a junction depth of 12 nm. With arsenic for NMOS, ultra shallow junctions were achieved as well. However, as also seen for other junction fabrication schemes, low dopant activation level and active dose (in the range of 1-4 x 10 13 cm - 2 ) were observed although dopant concentration versus depth profiles indicate that the dopant atoms were properly driven into the substrate during the anneal step. The electrical deactivation of a large part of the in-diffused dopants was responsible for the high sheet resistance values.

  7. Entanglement dynamics of two-qubit systems in different quantum noises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Chang-Ning; Fang Jian-Shu; Li-Fei; Fang Mao-Fa

    2011-01-01

    The entanglement dynamics of two-qubit systems in different quantum noises are investigated by means of the operator-sum representation method. We find that, except for the amplitude damping and phase damping quantum noise, the sudden death of entanglement is always observed in different two-qubit systems with generalized amplitude damping and depolarizing quantum noise. (general)

  8. Three-electron spin qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Maximilian; Burkard, Guido

    2017-10-01

    The goal of this article is to review the progress of three-electron spin qubits from their inception to the state of the art. We direct the main focus towards the exchange-only qubit (Bacon et al 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 1758-61, DiVincenzo et al 2000 Nature 408 339) and its derived versions, e.g. the resonant exchange (RX) qubit, but we also discuss other qubit implementations using three electron spins. For each three-spin qubit we describe the qubit model, the envisioned physical realization, the implementations of single-qubit operations, as well as the read-out and initialization schemes. Two-qubit gates and decoherence properties are discussed for the RX qubit and the exchange-only qubit, thereby completing the list of requirements for quantum computation for a viable candidate qubit implementation. We start by describing the full system of three electrons in a triple quantum dot, then discuss the charge-stability diagram, restricting ourselves to the relevant subsystem, introduce the qubit states, and discuss important transitions to other charge states (Russ et al 2016 Phys. Rev. B 94 165411). Introducing the various qubit implementations, we begin with the exchange-only qubit (DiVincenzo et al 2000 Nature 408 339, Laird et al 2010 Phys. Rev. B 82 075403), followed by the RX qubit (Medford et al 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 050501, Taylor et al 2013 Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 050502), the spin-charge qubit (Kyriakidis and Burkard 2007 Phys. Rev. B 75 115324), and the hybrid qubit (Shi et al 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 108 140503, Koh et al 2012 Phys. Rev. Lett. 109 250503, Cao et al 2016 Phys. Rev. Lett. 116 086801, Thorgrimsson et al 2016 arXiv:1611.04945). The main focus will be on the exchange-only qubit and its modification, the RX qubit, whose single-qubit operations are realized by driving the qubit at its resonant frequency in the microwave range similar to electron spin resonance. Two different types of two-qubit operations are presented for the exchange

  9. Teleportation of M-Qubit Unitary Operations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑亦庄; 顾永建; 郭光灿

    2002-01-01

    We discuss teleportation of unitary operations on a two-qubit in detail, then generalize the bidirectional state teleportation scheme from one-qubit to M-qubit unitary operations. The resources required for the optimal implementation of teleportation of an M-qubit unitary operation using a bidirectional state teleportation scheme are given.

  10. Yu-Shiba-Rusinov states in phase-biased superconductor-quantum dot-superconductor junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsanskas, Gediminas; Goldstein, Moshe; Flensberg, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    supercurrent, and the differential conductance as measured by a normal-metal tunnel probe. In absence of a phase difference only one linear combination of the superconductor lead electrons couples to the spin, which gives a single YSR state. With finite phase difference, however, it is effectively a two...

  11. Majorana box qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plugge, Stephan; Rasmussen, Asbjørn; Flensberg, Karsten; Egger, Reinhold

    2017-01-01

    Quantum information protected by the topology of the storage medium is expected to exhibit long coherence times. Another feature is topologically protected gates generated through braiding of Majorana bound states (MBSs). However, braiding requires structures with branched topological segments which have inherent difficulties in the semiconductor–superconductor heterostructures now believed to host MBSs. In this paper, we construct quantum bits taking advantage of the topological protection and non-local properties of MBSs in a network of parallel wires, but without relying on braiding for quantum gates. The elementary unit is made from three topological wires, two wires coupled by a trivial superconductor and the third acting as an interference arm. Coulomb blockade of the combined wires spawns a fractionalized spin, non-locally addressable by quantum dots used for single-qubit readout, initialization, and manipulation. We describe how the same tools allow for measurement-based implementation of the Clifford gates, in total making the architecture universal. Proof-of-principle demonstration of topologically protected qubits using existing techniques is therefore within reach. (fast track communication)

  12. Measurements of quasiparticle tunneling dynamics in a band-gap-engineered transmon qubit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L; DiCarlo, L; Reed, M D; Catelani, G; Bishop, Lev S; Schuster, D I; Johnson, B R; Yang, Ge A; Frunzio, L; Glazman, L; Devoret, M H; Schoelkopf, R J

    2012-06-08

    We have engineered the band gap profile of transmon qubits by combining oxygen-doped Al for tunnel junction electrodes and clean Al as quasiparticle traps to investigate energy relaxation due to quasiparticle tunneling. The relaxation time T1 of the qubits is shown to be insensitive to this band gap engineering. Operating at relatively low-E(J)/E(C) makes the transmon transition frequency distinctly dependent on the charge parity, allowing us to detect the quasiparticles tunneling across the qubit junction. Quasiparticle kinetics have been studied by monitoring the frequency switching due to even-odd parity change in real time. It shows the switching time is faster than 10  μs, indicating quasiparticle-induced relaxation has to be reduced to achieve T1 much longer than 100  μs.

  13. Entanglement, purity, and energy: Two qubits versus two modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, Derek; Ziman, Mario; Buzek, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    We study the relationship between the entanglement, mixedness, and energy of two-qubit and two-mode Gaussian quantum states. We parametrize the set of allowed states of these two fundamentally different physical systems using measures of entanglement, mixedness, and energy that allow us to compare and contrast the two systems using a phase diagram. This phase diagram enables one to clearly identify not only the physically allowed states, but the set of states connected under an arbitrary quantum operation. We pay particular attention to the maximally entangled mixed states of each system. Following this we investigate how efficiently one may transfer entanglement from two-mode to two-qubit states

  14. Lightweight IMM Multi-Junction Photovoltaic Flexible Blanket Assembly, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DSS's recently completed successful NASA SBIR Phase 1 program has established a TRL 3/4 classification for an innovative IMM PV Integrated Modular Blanket Assembly...

  15. Framework for Flux Qubit Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fei; Kamal, Archana; Krantz, Philip; Campbell, Daniel; Kim, David; Yoder, Jonilyn; Orlando, Terry; Gustavsson, Simon; Oliver, William; Engineering Quantum Systems Team

    A qubit design for higher performance relies on the understanding of how various qubit properties are related to design parameters. We construct a framework for understanding the qubit design in the flux regime. We explore different parameter regimes, looking for features desirable for certain purpose in the context of quantum computing. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) via MIT Lincoln Laboratory under Air Force Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0002.

  16. Fabrication of TiO{sub 2} hierarchical architecture assembled by nanowires with anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions for efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Yong; Ouyang, Feng, E-mail: ouyangfh@hit.edu.cn

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • H-titanate nanowires hierarchical architectures (TNH) were prepared by a hydrothermal method. • Calcinations of TNH leads to the formation of anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions. • The hierarchical architecture offered enhanced light harvesting and large specific surface area. • The 1D nanowires and anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions both can enhance the separation of photoinduced electron-hole. • The products calcined at the optimum conditions (450 °C) exhibited a maximum hydrogenproduction rate of 7808 μmol g{sup −1} h{sup −1}. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} hierarchical architecture assembled by nanowires with anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions was prepared by a hydrothermal process followed by calcinations. The optimum calcination treatment (450 °C) not only led to the formation of anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions, but also kept the morphology of 1D nanowire and hierarchical architecture well. The T-450 load 0.5 wt% Pt cocatalysts showed the best photocatalytic hydrogen production activity, with a maximum hydrogen production rate of 7808 μmol g{sup −1} h{sup −1}. The high photocatalytic activity is ascribed to the combined effects of the following three factors: (1) the hierarchical architecture exhibits better light harvesting; (2) the larger specific surface area provides more surface active sites for the photocatalytic reaction; (3) the 1D nanowires and anatase/TiO{sub 2}(B) phase-junctions both can enhance the separation of photoinduced electron-hole pairs and inhibit their recombination.

  17. Negative inductance SQUID qubit operating in a quantum regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. Y.; Su, F. F.; Xu, H. K.; Li, Z. Y.; Tian, Ye; Zhu, X. B.; Lu, Li; Han, Siyuan; Zhao, S. P.

    2018-04-01

    Two-junction SQUIDs with negative mutual inductance between their two arms, called nSQUIDs, have been proposed for significantly improving quantum information transfer but their quantum nature has not been experimentally demonstrated. We have designed, fabricated, and characterized superconducting nSQUID qubits. Our results provide clear evidence of the quantum coherence of the device, whose properties are well described by theoretical calculations using parameters determined from spectroscopic measurement. In addition to their future application for fast quantum information transfer, the nSQUID qubits exhibit rich characteristics in their tunable two-dimensional (2D) potentials, energy levels, wave function symmetries, and dipole matrix elements, which are essential to the study of a wide variety of macroscopic quantum phenomena such as tunneling in 2D potential landscapes.

  18. Normal-metal quasiparticle traps for superconducting qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinkhani, Amin [Peter Grunberg Institute (PGI-2), Forschungszentrum Julich, D-52425 Julich (Germany); JARA-Institute for Quantum Information, RWTH Aachen University, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Superconducting qubits are promising candidates to implement quantum computation, and have been a subject of intensive research in the past decade. Excitations of a superconductor, known as quasiparticles, can reduce the qubit performance by causing relaxation; the relaxation rate is proportional to the density of quasiparticles tunneling through Josephson junction. Here, we consider engineering quasiparticle traps by covering parts of a superconducting device with normal-metal islands. We utilize a phenomenological quasiparticle diffusion model to study both the decay rate of excess quasiparticles and the steady-state profile of the quasiparticle density in the device. We apply the model to various realistic configurations to explore the role of geometry and location of the traps.

  19. Qubit Complexity of Continuous Problems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Papageorgiou, A; Traub, J. F

    2005-01-01

    .... The authors show how to obtain the classical query complexity for continuous problems. They then establish a simple formula for a lower bound on the qubit complexity in terms of the classical query complexity...

  20. Optimal cloning of qubits given by an arbitrary axisymmetric distribution on the Bloch sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartkiewicz, Karol; Miranowicz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    We find an optimal quantum cloning machine, which clones qubits of arbitrary symmetrical distribution around the Bloch vector with the highest fidelity. The process is referred to as phase-independent cloning in contrast to the standard phase-covariant cloning for which an input qubit state is a priori better known. We assume that the information about the input state is encoded in an arbitrary axisymmetric distribution (phase function) on the Bloch sphere of the cloned qubits. We find analytical expressions describing the optimal cloning transformation and fidelity of the clones. As an illustration, we analyze cloning of qubit state described by the von Mises-Fisher and Brosseau distributions. Moreover, we show that the optimal phase-independent cloning machine can be implemented by modifying the mirror phase-covariant cloning machine for which quantum circuits are known.

  1. Mesoscopic fluctuations in biharmonically driven flux qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrón, Alejandro; Domínguez, Daniel; Sánchez, María José

    2017-01-01

    We investigate flux qubits driven by a biharmonic magnetic signal, with a phase lag that acts as an effective time reversal broken parameter. The driving induced transition rate between the ground and the excited state of the flux qubit can be thought of as an effective transmittance, profiting from a direct analogy between interference effects at avoided level crossings and scattering events in disordered electronic systems. For time scales prior to full relaxation, but large compared to the decoherence time, this characteristic rate has been accessed experimentally by Gustavsson et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 016603 (2013)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.016603 and its sensitivity with both the phase lag and the dc flux detuning explored. In this way, signatures of universal conductance fluctuationslike effects have been analyzed and compared with predictions from a phenomenological model that only accounts for decoherence, as a classical noise. Here we go beyond the classical noise model and solve the full dynamics of the driven flux qubit in contact with a quantum bath employing the Floquet-Born-Markov master equation. Within this formalism, the computed relaxation and decoherence rates turn out to be strongly dependent on both the phase lag and the dc flux detuning. Consequently, the associated pattern of fluctuations in the characteristic rates display important differences with those obtained within the mentioned phenomenological model. In particular, we demonstrate the weak localizationlike effect in the average values of the relaxation rate. Our predictions can be tested for accessible but longer time scales than the current experimental times.

  2. Factoring 51 and 85 with 8 qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Michael R; Zhou, Zhongyuan

    2013-10-28

    We construct simplified quantum circuits for Shor's order-finding algorithm for composites N given by products of the Fermat primes 3, 5, 17, 257, and 65537. Such composites, including the previously studied case of 15, as well as 51, 85, 771, 1285, 4369, … have the simplifying property that the order of a modulo N for every base a coprime to N is a power of 2, significantly reducing the usual phase estimation precision requirement. Prime factorization of 51 and 85 can be demonstrated with only 8 qubits and a modular exponentiation circuit consisting of no more than four CNOT gates.

  3. Factoring 51 and 85 with 8 qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Michael R.; Zhou, Zhongyuan

    2013-10-01

    We construct simplified quantum circuits for Shor's order-finding algorithm for composites N given by products of the Fermat primes 3, 5, 17, 257, and 65537. Such composites, including the previously studied case of 15, as well as 51, 85, 771, 1285, 4369, … have the simplifying property that the order of a modulo N for every base a coprime to N is a power of 2, significantly reducing the usual phase estimation precision requirement. Prime factorization of 51 and 85 can be demonstrated with only 8 qubits and a modular exponentiation circuit consisting of no more than four CNOT gates.

  4. Quantum control of finite-time disentanglement in qubit-qubit and qubit-qutrit systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Mazhar

    2009-07-13

    This thesis is a theoretical study of entanglement dynamics and its control of qubit-qubit and qubit-qutrit systems. In particular, we focus on the decay of entanglement of quantum states interacting with dissipative environments. Qubit-qubit entanglement may vanish suddenly while interacting with statistically independent vacuum reservoirs. Such finite- time disentanglement is called sudden death of entanglement (ESD). We investigate entanglement sudden death of qubit-qubit and qubit-qutrit systems interacting with statistically independent reservoirs at zero- and finite-temperature. It is shown that for zero-temperature reservoirs, some entangled states exhibit sudden death while others lose their entanglement only after infinite time. Thus, there are two possible routes of entanglement decay, namely sudden death and asymptotic decay. We demonstrate that starting with an initial condition which leads to finite-time disentanglement, we can alter the future course of entanglement by local unitary actions. In other words, it is possible to put the quantum states on other track of decay once they are on a particular route of decay. We show that one can accelerate or delay sudden death. However, there is a critical time such that if local actions are taken before that critical time then sudden death can be delayed to infinity. Any local unitary action taken after that critical time can only accelerate or delay sudden death. In finite-temperature reservoirs, we demonstrate that a whole class of entangled states exhibit sudden death. This conclusion is valid if at least one of the reservoirs is at finite-temperature. However, we show that we can still hasten or delay sudden death by local unitary transformations up to some finite time. We also study sudden death for qubit-qutrit systems. Similar to qubit-qubit systems, some states exhibit sudden death while others do not. However, the process of disentanglement can be effected due to existence of quantum interference

  5. Quantum control of finite-time disentanglement in qubit-qubit and qubit-qutrit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Mazhar

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is a theoretical study of entanglement dynamics and its control of qubit-qubit and qubit-qutrit systems. In particular, we focus on the decay of entanglement of quantum states interacting with dissipative environments. Qubit-qubit entanglement may vanish suddenly while interacting with statistically independent vacuum reservoirs. Such finite- time disentanglement is called sudden death of entanglement (ESD). We investigate entanglement sudden death of qubit-qubit and qubit-qutrit systems interacting with statistically independent reservoirs at zero- and finite-temperature. It is shown that for zero-temperature reservoirs, some entangled states exhibit sudden death while others lose their entanglement only after infinite time. Thus, there are two possible routes of entanglement decay, namely sudden death and asymptotic decay. We demonstrate that starting with an initial condition which leads to finite-time disentanglement, we can alter the future course of entanglement by local unitary actions. In other words, it is possible to put the quantum states on other track of decay once they are on a particular route of decay. We show that one can accelerate or delay sudden death. However, there is a critical time such that if local actions are taken before that critical time then sudden death can be delayed to infinity. Any local unitary action taken after that critical time can only accelerate or delay sudden death. In finite-temperature reservoirs, we demonstrate that a whole class of entangled states exhibit sudden death. This conclusion is valid if at least one of the reservoirs is at finite-temperature. However, we show that we can still hasten or delay sudden death by local unitary transformations up to some finite time. We also study sudden death for qubit-qutrit systems. Similar to qubit-qubit systems, some states exhibit sudden death while others do not. However, the process of disentanglement can be effected due to existence of quantum interference

  6. Multi-Qubit Algorithms in Josephson Phase Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-15

    John M. Martinis. Scalable extraction of error models from the output of error detection circuits, Unknown (05 2014) J.M. Martinis, A. Megrant...however, all of these methods are error-prone. Paper burns, ink fades, rocks weather, and diamonds can be stolen. There is no known physical method...superconducting quantum interference device ( SQUID ) loop. The magnitude of the crosstalk drops off with distance between lines and the sign depends on the routing

  7. Symmetric discrete coherent states for n-qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñoz, C; Klimov, A B; Sánchez-Soto, L L

    2012-01-01

    We put forward a method of constructing discrete coherent states for n qubits. After establishing appropriate displacement operators, the coherent states appear as displaced versions of a fiducial vector that is fixed by imposing a number of natural symmetry requirements on its Q-function. Using these coherent states, we establish a partial order in the discrete phase space, which allows us to picture some n-qubit states as apparent distributions. We also analyze correlations in terms of sums of squared Q-functions. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’. (paper)

  8. Efficient amplification of photonic qubits by optimal quantum cloning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, A.; Lemr, K.; Soubusta, Jan; Stobińska, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 6 (2014), "062322-1"-"062322-10" ISSN 1050-2947 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : optimal quantum cloning * cryptography * qubit * phase-independent quantum amplifier Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.808, year: 2014

  9. Rate of tunneling nonequilibrium quasiparticles in superconducting qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, Mohammad H

    2015-01-01

    In superconducting qubits the lifetime of quantum states cannot be prolonged arbitrarily by decreasing temperature. At low temperature quasiparticles tunneling between the electromagnetic environment and superconducting islands takes the condensate state out of equilibrium due to charge imbalance. We obtain the tunneling rate from a phenomenological model of non-equilibrium, where nonequilibrium quasiparticle tunnelling stimulates a temperature-dependent chemical potential shift in the superconductor. As a result we obtain a non-monotonic behavior for relaxation rate as a function of temperature. Depending on the fabrication parameters for some qubits, the lowest tunneling rate of nonequilibrium quasiparticles can take place only near the onset temperature below which nonequilibrium quasiparticles dominate over equilibrium one. Our theory also indicates that such tunnelings can influence the probability of transitions in qubits through a coupling to the zero-point energy of phase fluctuations. (paper)

  10. Entanglement-assisted quantum parameter estimation from a noisy qubit pair: A Fisher information analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapeau-Blondeau, François, E-mail: chapeau@univ-angers.fr

    2017-04-25

    Benefit from entanglement in quantum parameter estimation in the presence of noise or decoherence is investigated, with the quantum Fisher information to asses the performance. When an input probe experiences any (noisy) transformation introducing the parameter dependence, the performance is always maximized by a pure probe. As a generic estimation task, for estimating the phase of a unitary transformation on a qubit affected by depolarizing noise, the optimal separable probe and its performance are characterized as a function of the level of noise. By entangling qubits in pairs, enhancements of performance over that of the optimal separable probe are quantified, in various settings of the entangled pair. In particular, in the presence of the noise, enhancement over the performance of the one-qubit optimal probe can always be obtained with a second entangled qubit although never interacting with the process to be estimated. Also, enhancement over the performance of the two-qubit optimal separable probe can always be achieved by a two-qubit entangled probe, either partially or maximally entangled depending on the level of the depolarizing noise. - Highlights: • Quantum parameter estimation from a noisy qubit pair is investigated. • The quantum Fisher information is used to assess the ultimate best performance. • Theoretical expressions are established and analyzed for the Fisher information. • Enhanced performances are quantified with various entanglements of the pair. • Enhancement is shown even with one entangled qubit noninteracting with the process.

  11. Coherence-enhanced phase-dependent dissipation in long SNS Josephson junctions: Revealing Andreev bound state dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dassonneville, B.; Murani, A.; Ferrier, M.; Guéron, S.; Bouchiat, H.

    2018-05-01

    One of the best known causes of dissipation in ac-driven quantum systems stems from photon absorption causing transitions between levels. Dissipation can also be caused by the retarded response to the time-dependent excitation, and in general gives insight into the system's relaxation times and mechanisms. Here we address the dissipation in a mesoscopic normal wire with superconducting contacts, that sustains a dissipationless supercurrent at zero frequency and that may therefore naively be expected to remain dissipationless at a frequency lower than the superconducting gap. We probe the high-frequency linear response of such a normal metal/superconductor (NS) ring to a time-dependent flux by coupling it to a highly sensitive multimode microwave resonator. Far from being the simple, dissipationless derivative of the supercurrent-versus-phase relation, the ring's ac susceptibility also displays a dissipative component whose phase dependence is a signature of the dynamical processes occurring within the Andreev spectrum. We show how dissipation is driven by the competition between two mechanisms. The first is the relaxation of the Andreev level distribution function, while the second corresponds to microwave-induced transitions within the spectrum. Depending on the relative strength of those contributions, dissipation can be maximal at π , a phase at which the proximity-induced minigap closes, or can be maximal near π /2 , a phase at which the dc supercurrent is maximal. We also find that the dissipative response paradoxically increases at low temperature and can even exceed the normal-state conductance. The results are successfully confronted with theoretical predictions of the Kubo linear response and time-dependent Usadel equations, derived from the Bogoliubov-de Gennes Hamiltonian describing the SNS junction. These experiments thus demonstrate the power of the ac susceptibility measurement of individual hybrid mesoscopic systems in probing in a controlled way

  12. Qubit-qubit entanglement dynamics control via external classical pumping and Kerr nonlinearity mediated by a single detuned cavity field powered by two-photon processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateto, M. S.

    2017-11-01

    The nonlinear time-dependent two-photon Hamiltonian of a couple of classically pumped independent qubits is analytically solved, and the corresponding time evolution unitary operator, in an exact form, is derived. Using the concurrence, entanglement dynamics between the qubits under the influence of a wide range of effective parameters are examined and, in detail, analyzed. Observations analysis is documented with aid of the field phase-space distribution Wigner function. A couple of initial qubit states is considered, namely similar excited states and a Bell-like pure state. It is demonstrated that an initial Bell-like pure state is as well typical initial qubits setting for robust, regular and a high degree of entanglement. Moreover, it is established that high-constant Kerr media represent an effective tool for generating periodical entanglement at fixed time cycles of maxima reach unity forever when qubits are initially in a Bell-like pure state. Further, it is showed that the medium strength of the classical pumping stimulates efficiently qubits entanglement, specially, when the interaction occurs off resonantly. However, the high-intensity pumping thermalizes the coherent distribution of photons, thus, the least photons number is used and, hence, the least minimum degree of qubits entanglement could be created. Furthermore, when the cavity field and external pumping are detuned, the external pumping acts like an auxiliary effective frequency for the cavity, as a result, the field Gaussian distribution acquires linear chirps, and consequently, more entanglement revivals appear in the same cycle during timescale.

  13. Designing quantum-information-processing superconducting qubit circuits that exhibit lasing and other atomic-physics-like phenomena on a chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nori, Franco

    2008-03-01

    Superconducting (SC) circuits can behave like atoms making transitions between a few energy levels. Such circuits can test quantum mechanics at macroscopic scales and be used to conduct atomic-physics experiments on a silicon chip. This talk overviews a few of our theoretical studies on SC circuits and quantum information processing (QIP) including: SC qubits for single photon generation and for lasing; controllable couplings among qubits; how to increase the coherence time of qubits using a capacitor in parallel to one of the qubit junctions; hybrid circuits involving both charge and flux qubits; testing Bell's inequality in SC circuits; generation of GHZ states; quantum tomography in SC circuits; preparation of macroscopic quantum superposition states of a cavity field via coupling to a SC qubit; generation of nonclassical photon states using a SC qubit in a microcavity; scalable quantum computing with SC qubits; and information processing with SC qubits in a microwave field. Controllable couplings between qubits can be achieved either directly or indirectly. This can be done with and without coupler circuits, and with and without data-buses like EM fields in cavities (e.g., we will describe both the variable-frequency magnetic flux approach and also a generalized double-resonance approach that we introduced). It is also possible to ``turn a quantum bug into a feature'' by using microscopic defects as qubits, and the macroscopic junction as a controller of it. We have also studied ways to implement radically different approaches to QIP by using ``cluster states'' in SC circuits. For a general overview of this field, see, J.Q. You and F. Nori, Phys. Today 58 (11), 42 (2005)

  14. Multi-qubit circuit quantum electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viehmann, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Circuit QED systems are macroscopic, man-made quantum systems in which superconducting artificial atoms, also called Josephson qubits, interact with a quantized electromagnetic field. These systems have been devised to mimic the physics of elementary quantum optical systems with real atoms in a scalable and more flexible framework. This opens up a variety of possible applications of circuit QED systems. For instance, they provide a promising platform for processing quantum information. Recent years have seen rapid experimental progress on these systems, and experiments with multi-component circuit QED architectures are currently starting to come within reach. In this thesis, circuit QED systems with multiple Josephson qubits are studied theoretically. We focus on simple and experimentally realistic extensions of the currently operated circuit QED setups and pursue investigations in two main directions. First, we consider the equilibrium behavior of circuit QED systems containing a large number of mutually noninteracting Josephson charge qubits. The currently accepted standard description of circuit QED predicts the possibility of superradiant phase transitions in such systems. However, a full microscopic treatment shows that a no-go theorem for superradiant phase transitions known from atomic physics applies to circuit QED systems as well. This reveals previously unknown limitations of the applicability of the standard theory of circuit QED to multi-qubit systems. Second, we explore the potential of circuit QED for quantum simulations of interacting quantum many-body systems. We propose and analyze a circuit QED architecture that implements the quantum Ising chain in a time-dependent transverse magnetic field. Our setup can be used to study quench dynamics, the propagation of localized excitations, and other non-equilibrium features in this paradigmatic model in the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics and quantumcritical phenomena. The setup is based on a

  15. Multi-qubit circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viehmann, Oliver

    2013-09-03

    Circuit QED systems are macroscopic, man-made quantum systems in which superconducting artificial atoms, also called Josephson qubits, interact with a quantized electromagnetic field. These systems have been devised to mimic the physics of elementary quantum optical systems with real atoms in a scalable and more flexible framework. This opens up a variety of possible applications of circuit QED systems. For instance, they provide a promising platform for processing quantum information. Recent years have seen rapid experimental progress on these systems, and experiments with multi-component circuit QED architectures are currently starting to come within reach. In this thesis, circuit QED systems with multiple Josephson qubits are studied theoretically. We focus on simple and experimentally realistic extensions of the currently operated circuit QED setups and pursue investigations in two main directions. First, we consider the equilibrium behavior of circuit QED systems containing a large number of mutually noninteracting Josephson charge qubits. The currently accepted standard description of circuit QED predicts the possibility of superradiant phase transitions in such systems. However, a full microscopic treatment shows that a no-go theorem for superradiant phase transitions known from atomic physics applies to circuit QED systems as well. This reveals previously unknown limitations of the applicability of the standard theory of circuit QED to multi-qubit systems. Second, we explore the potential of circuit QED for quantum simulations of interacting quantum many-body systems. We propose and analyze a circuit QED architecture that implements the quantum Ising chain in a time-dependent transverse magnetic field. Our setup can be used to study quench dynamics, the propagation of localized excitations, and other non-equilibrium features in this paradigmatic model in the theory of non-equilibrium thermodynamics and quantumcritical phenomena. The setup is based on a

  16. Repetition code of 15 qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wootton, James R.; Loss, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    The repetition code is an important primitive for the techniques of quantum error correction. Here we implement repetition codes of at most 15 qubits on the 16 qubit ibmqx3 device. Each experiment is run for a single round of syndrome measurements, achieved using the standard quantum technique of using ancilla qubits and controlled operations. The size of the final syndrome is small enough to allow for lookup table decoding using experimentally obtained data. The results show strong evidence that the logical error rate decays exponentially with code distance, as is expected and required for the development of fault-tolerant quantum computers. The results also give insight into the nature of noise in the device.

  17. Coupling spin qubits via superconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leijnse, Martin; Flensberg, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    We show how superconductors can be used to couple, initialize, and read out spatially separated spin qubits. When two single-electron quantum dots are tunnel coupled to the same superconductor, the singlet component of the two-electron state partially leaks into the superconductor via crossed...... Andreev reflection. This induces a gate-controlled singlet-triplet splitting which, with an appropriate superconductor geometry, remains large for dot separations within the superconducting coherence length. Furthermore, we show that when two double-dot singlet-triplet qubits are tunnel coupled...... to a superconductor with finite charging energy, crossed Andreev reflection enables a strong two-qubit coupling over distances much larger than the coherence length....

  18. Black holes, qubits and octonions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsten, L.; Dahanayake, D.; Duff, M.J.; Ebrahim, H.; Rubens, W.

    2009-01-01

    We review the recently established relationships between black hole entropy in string theory and the quantum entanglement of qubits and qutrits in quantum information theory. The first example is provided by the measure of the tripartite entanglement of three qubits (Alice, Bob and Charlie), known as the 3-tangle, and the entropy of the 8-charge STU black hole of N=2 supergravity, both of which are given by the [SL(2)] 3 invariant hyperdeterminant, a quantity first introduced by Cayley in 1845. Moreover the classification of three-qubit entanglements is related to the classification of N=2 supersymmetric STU black holes. There are further relationships between the attractor mechanism and local distillation protocols and between supersymmetry and the suppression of bit flip errors. At the microscopic level, the black holes are described by intersecting D3-branes whose wrapping around the six compact dimensions T 6 provides the string-theoretic interpretation of the charges and we associate the three-qubit basis vectors, |ABC>(A,B,C=0 or 1), with the corresponding 8 wrapping cycles. The black hole/qubit correspondence extends to the 56 charge N=8 black holes and the tripartite entanglement of seven qubits where the measure is provided by Cartan's E 7 contains [SL(2)] 7 invariant. The qubits are naturally described by the seven vertices ABCDEFG of the Fano plane, which provides the multiplication table of the seven imaginary octonions, reflecting the fact that E 7 has a natural structure of an O-graded algebra. This in turn provides a novel imaginary octonionic interpretation of the 56=7x8 charges of N=8: the 24=3x8 NS-NS charges correspond to the three imaginary quaternions and the 32=4x8 R-R to the four complementary imaginary octonions. We contrast this approach with that based on Jordan algebras and the Freudenthal triple system. N=8 black holes (or black strings) in five dimensions are also related to the bipartite entanglement of three qutrits (3-state systems

  19. Remote one-qubit information concentration and decoding of operator quantum error-correction codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu Liyi

    2007-01-01

    We propose the general scheme of remote one-qubit information concentration. To achieve the task, the Bell-correlated mixed states are exploited. In addition, the nonremote one-qubit information concentration is equivalent to the decoding of the quantum error-correction code. Here we propose how to decode the stabilizer codes. In particular, the proposed scheme can be used for the operator quantum error-correction codes. The encoded state can be recreated on the errorless qubit, regardless how many bit-flip errors and phase-flip errors have occurred

  20. Quantum beat and entanglement of multi-qubits interacting with a common reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Arata; Ishi-Hayase, Junko; Minami, Fujio; Sasaki, Masahide

    2006-01-01

    The qubits can be entangled when they interact with a common Ohmic reservoir. We analyze how the reservoir-induced entanglement of qubits can be observed as the beat signal in the decay curve of the macroscopic polarization. The origin of this effect is the Lamb phase shift on the qubit array. We quantify the amount of the reservoir-induced entanglement and show how to experimentally evaluate it from the decay curve of the macroscopic polarization. We discuss how the beat signal can be discriminated from the other kinds of beat signals. We also show that our analysis can be used to estimate the reservoir characteristics

  1. Hybrid quantum systems: Outsourcing superconducting qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Andrew

    Superconducting qubits offer excellent prospects for manipulating quantum information, with good qubit lifetimes, high fidelity single- and two-qubit gates, and straightforward scalability (admittedly with multi-dimensional interconnect challenges). One interesting route for experimental development is the exploration of hybrid systems, i.e. coupling superconducting qubits to other systems. I will report on our group's efforts to develop approaches that will allow interfacing superconducting qubits in a quantum-coherent fashion to spin defects in solids, to optomechanical devices, and to resonant nanomechanical structures. The longer term goals of these efforts include transferring quantum states between different qubit systems; generating and receiving ``flying'' acoustic phonon-based as well as optical photon-based qubits; and ultimately developing systems that can be used for quantum memory, quantum computation and quantum communication, the last in both the microwave and fiber telecommunications bands. Work is supported by Grants from AFOSR, ARO, DOE and NSF.

  2. Four-level and two-qubit systems, subalgebras, and unitary integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rau, A.R.P.; Selvaraj, G.; Uskov, D.

    2005-01-01

    Four-level systems in quantum optics, and for representing two qubits in quantum computing, are difficult to solve for general time-dependent Hamiltonians. A systematic procedure is presented which combines analytical handling of the algebraic operator aspects with simple solutions of classical, first-order differential equations. In particular, by exploiting su(2)+su(2) and su(2)+su(2)+u(1) subalgebras of the full SU(4) dynamical group of the system, the nontrivial part of the final calculation is reduced to a single Riccati (first-order, quadratically nonlinear) equation, itself simply solved. Examples are provided of two-qubit problems from the recent literature, including implementation of two-qubit gates with Josephson junctions

  3. Mesoscopic fluctuations of the population of a qubit in a strong alternating field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denisenko, M. V., E-mail: mar.denisenko@gmail.com; Satanin, A. M. [Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    Fluctuations of the population of a Josephson qubit in an alternating field, which is a superposition of electromagnetic pulses with large amplitudes, are studied. It is shown that the relative phase of pulses is responsible for the rate of Landau–Zener transitions and, correspondingly, for the frequency of transitions between adiabatic states. The durations of pulses incident on the qubit are controlled with an accuracy of the field period, which results in strong mesoscopic fluctuations of the population of the qubit. Similar to the magnetic field in mesoscopic physics, the relative phase of pulses can destroy the interference pattern of the population of the qubit. The influence of the duration of the pulse and noise on the revealed fluctuation effects is studied.

  4. Broken symmetry in a two-qubit quantum control landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukov, Marin; Day, Alexandre G. R.; Weinberg, Phillip; Polkovnikov, Anatoli; Mehta, Pankaj; Sels, Dries

    2018-05-01

    We analyze the physics of optimal protocols to prepare a target state with high fidelity in a symmetrically coupled two-qubit system. By varying the protocol duration, we find a discontinuous phase transition, which is characterized by a spontaneous breaking of a Z2 symmetry in the functional form of the optimal protocol, and occurs below the quantum speed limit. We study in detail this phase and demonstrate that even though high-fidelity protocols come degenerate with respect to their fidelity, they lead to final states of different entanglement entropy shared between the qubits. Consequently, while globally both optimal protocols are equally far away from the target state, one is locally closer than the other. An approximate variational mean-field theory which captures the physics of the different phases is developed.

  5. UV and visible light photocatalytic activity of Au/TiO2 nanoforests with Anatase/Rutile phase junctions and controlled Au locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Wen, Wei; Qian, Xin-Yue; Liu, Jia-Bin; Wu, Jin-Ming

    2017-01-24

    To magnify anatase/rutile phase junction effects through appropriate Au decorations, a facile solution-based approach was developed to synthesize Au/TiO 2 nanoforests with controlled Au locations. The nanoforests cons®isted of anatase nanowires surrounded by radially grown rutile branches, on which Au nanoparticles were deposited with preferred locations controlled by simply altering the order of the fabrication step. The Au-decoration increased the photocatalytic activity under the illumination of either UV or visible light, because of the beneficial effects of either electron trapping or localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Gold nanoparticles located preferably at the interface of anatase/rutile led to a further enhanced photocatalytic activity. The appropriate distributions of Au nanoparticles magnify the beneficial effects arising from the anatase/rutile phase junctions when illuminated by UV light. Under the visible light illumination, the LSPR effect followed by the consecutive electron transfer explains the enhanced photocatalysis. This study provides a facile route to control locations of gold nanoparticles in one-dimensional nanostructured arrays of multiple-phases semiconductors for achieving a further increased photocatalytic activity.

  6. Gap Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L.; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of gap junction activity is complex. The structure of the various connexins is known to some extent; and structural rearrangements and intramolecular interactions are important for regulation of channel function. Intercellular coupling is further regulated by the number and activity of channels present in gap junctional plaques. The number of connexins in cell-cell channels is regulated by controlling transcription, translation, trafficking, and degradation; and all of these processes are under strict control. Once in the membrane, channel activity is determined by the conductive properties of the connexin involved, which can be regulated by voltage and chemical gating, as well as a large number of posttranslational modifications. The aim of the present article is to review our current knowledge on the structure, regulation, function, and pharmacology of gap junctions. This will be supported by examples of how different connexins and their regulation act in concert to achieve appropriate physiological control, and how disturbances of connexin function can lead to disease. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1981-2035, 2012. PMID:23723031

  7. Ferromagnetic Josephson Junctions for Cryogenic Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzielski, Bethany M.; Gingrich, Eric C.; Khasawneh, Mazin A.; Loloee, Reza; Pratt, William P., Jr.; Birge, Norman O.

    2015-03-01

    Josephson junctions containing ferromagnetic materials are of interest for both scientific and technological purposes. In principle, either the amplitude of the critical current or superconducting phase shift across the junction can be controlled by the relative magnetization directions of the ferromagnetic layers in the junction. Our approach concentrates on phase control utilizing two junctions in a SQUID geometry. We will report on efforts to control the phase of junctions carrying either spin-singlet or spin-triplet supercurrent for cryogenic memory applications. Supported by Northorp Grumman Corporation and by IARPA under SPAWAR Contract N66001-12-C-2017.

  8. Double-well potential in annular Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaju, P.D.; Kuriakose, V.C.

    2004-01-01

    A double-well potential suitable for quantum-coherent vortex tunnelling can be created in an annular Josephson junction by inserting a microshort in the junction and by applying an in-plane dc magnetic field. Analysis shows that the intensity of the magnetic field determines the depth of the potential well and the strength of the microshort controls the potential barrier height while a dc bias across the junction tilts the potential well. At milli-Kelvin temperatures, the system is expected to behave as a quantum two-level system and may be useful in designing vortex qubits

  9. Quantum information storage using tunable flux qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Matthias; Brito, Frederico; DiVincenzo, David; Farinelli, Matthew; Keefe, George; Ketchen, Mark; Kumar, Shwetank; Milliken, Frank; Rothwell, Mary Beth; Rozen, Jim; Koch, Roger H, E-mail: msteffe@us.ibm.co [IBM Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States)

    2010-02-10

    We present details and results for a superconducting quantum bit (qubit) design in which a tunable flux qubit is coupled strongly to a transmission line. Quantum information storage in the transmission line is demonstrated with a dephasing time of T{sub 2}approx2.5 mus. However, energy lifetimes of the qubit are found to be short (approx10 ns) and not consistent with predictions. Several design and material changes do not affect qubit coherence times. In order to determine the cause of these short coherence times, we fabricated standard flux qubits based on a design which was previously successfully used by others. Initial results show significantly improved coherence times, possibly implicating losses associated with the large size of our qubit. (topical review)

  10. Flux qubit to a transmission line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haeberlein, Max; Baust, Alexander; Zhong, Ling; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Muenchen (Germany); Anderson, Gustav; Wang, Lujun; Eder, Peter; Fischer, Michael; Goetz, Jan; Xie, Edwar; Schwarz, Manuel; Wulschner, Karl Friedrich; Deppe, Frank; Fedorov, Kirill; Huebl, Hans; Menzel, Edwin [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Marx, Achim [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Garching (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Within the last decade, superconducting qubits coupled to microwave resonators have been extensively studied within the framework of quantum electrodynamics. Ultimately, quantum computing seems within reach in such architectures. However, error correction schemes are necessary to achieve the required fidelity in multi-qubit operations, drastically increasing the number of qubits involved. In this work, we couple a flux qubit to a transmission line where it interacts with itinerant microwave photons granting access to all-optical quantum computing. In this approach, travelling photons generate entanglement between two waveguides, containing the qubit information. In this presentation, we show experimental data on flux qubits coupled to transmission lines. Furthermore, we will discuss entanglement generation between two separate paths.

  11. Silicon based quantum dot hybrid qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohun

    2015-03-01

    The charge and spin degrees of freedom of an electron constitute natural bases for constructing quantum two level systems, or qubits, in semiconductor quantum dots. The quantum dot charge qubit offers a simple architecture and high-speed operation, but generally suffers from fast dephasing due to strong coupling of the environment to the electron's charge. On the other hand, quantum dot spin qubits have demonstrated long coherence times, but their manipulation is often slower than desired for important future applications. This talk will present experimental progress of a `hybrid' qubit, formed by three electrons in a Si/SiGe double quantum dot, which combines desirable characteristics (speed and coherence) in the past found separately in qubits based on either charge or spin degrees of freedom. Using resonant microwaves, we first discuss qubit operations near the `sweet spot' for charge qubit operation. Along with fast (>GHz) manipulation rates for any rotation axis on the Bloch sphere, we implement two independent tomographic characterization schemes in the charge qubit regime: traditional quantum process tomography (QPT) and gate set tomography (GST). We also present resonant qubit operations of the hybrid qubit performed on the same device, DC pulsed gate operations of which were recently demonstrated. We demonstrate three-axis control and the implementation of dynamic decoupling pulse sequences. Performing QPT on the hybrid qubit, we show that AC gating yields π rotation process fidelities higher than 93% for X-axis and 96% for Z-axis rotations, which demonstrates efficient quantum control of semiconductor qubits using resonant microwaves. We discuss a path forward for achieving fidelities better than the threshold for quantum error correction using surface codes. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-12-0607), NSF (PHY-1104660), DOE (DE-FG02-03ER46028), and by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories

  12. Quantum acoustics with superconducting qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yiwen

    2017-04-01

    The ability to engineer and manipulate different types of quantum mechanical objects allows us to take advantage of their unique properties and create useful hybrid technologies. Thus far, complex quantum states and exquisite quantum control have been demonstrated in systems ranging from trapped ions to superconducting resonators. Recently, there have been many efforts to extend these demonstrations to the motion of complex, macroscopic objects. These mechanical objects have important applications as quantum memories or transducers for measuring and connecting different types of quantum systems. In particular, there have been a few experiments that couple motion to nonlinear quantum objects such as superconducting qubits. This opens up the possibility of creating, storing, and manipulating non-Gaussian quantum states in mechanical degrees of freedom. However, before sophisticated quantum control of mechanical motion can be achieved, we must realize systems with long coherence times while maintaining a sufficient interaction strength. These systems should be implemented in a simple and robust manner that allows for increasing complexity and scalability in the future. In this talk, I will describe our recent experiments demonstrating a high frequency bulk acoustic wave resonator that is strongly coupled to a superconducting qubit using piezoelectric transduction. In contrast to previous experiments with qubit-mechanical systems, our device requires only simple fabrication methods, extends coherence times to many microseconds, and provides controllable access to a multitude of phonon modes. We use this system to demonstrate basic quantum operations on the coupled qubit-phonon system. Straightforward improvements to the current device will allow for advanced protocols analogous to what has been shown in optical and microwave resonators, resulting in a novel resource for implementing hybrid quantum technologies.

  13. Generating stationary entangled states in superconducting qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jing; Liu Yuxi; Li Chunwen; Tarn, T.-J.; Nori, Franco

    2009-01-01

    When a two-qubit system is initially maximally entangled, two independent decoherence channels, one per qubit, would greatly reduce the entanglement of the two-qubit system when it reaches its stationary state. We propose a method on how to minimize such a loss of entanglement in open quantum systems. We find that the quantum entanglement of general two-qubit systems with controllable parameters can be controlled by tuning both the single-qubit parameters and the two-qubit coupling strengths. Indeed, the maximum fidelity F max between the stationary entangled state, ρ ∞ , and the maximally entangled state, ρ m , can be about 2/3≅max(tr(ρ ∞ ρ m ))=F max , corresponding to a maximum stationary concurrence, C max , of about 1/3≅C(ρ ∞ )=C max . This is significant because the quantum entanglement of the two-qubit system can be produced and kept, even for a long time. We apply our proposal to several types of two-qubit superconducting circuits and show how the entanglement of these two-qubit circuits can be optimized by varying experimentally controllable parameters.

  14. Reduction of multipartite qubit density matrixes to bipartite qubit density matrixes and criteria of partial separability of multipartite qubit density matrixes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Zai-Zhe

    2004-01-01

    The partial separability of multipartite qubit density matrixes is strictly defined. We give a reduction way from N-partite qubit density matrixes to bipartite qubit density matrixes, and prove a necessary condition that a N-partite qubit density matrix to be partially separable is its reduced density matrix to satisfy PPT condition.

  15. Novel Approaches to Quantum Computation Using Solid State Qubits

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Averin, D. V; Han, S; Likharev, K. K; Lukens, J. E; Semenov, V. K

    2007-01-01

    ...: the design of sophisticated instrumentation for the control and measurements of superconductor flux qubits, the refinement of qubit fabrication technology, the demonstration of coherent operation...

  16. Detection of quantum critical points by a probe qubit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingfu; Peng, Xinhua; Rajendran, Nageswaran; Suter, Dieter

    2008-03-14

    Quantum phase transitions occur when the ground state of a quantum system undergoes a qualitative change when an external control parameter reaches a critical value. Here, we demonstrate a technique for studying quantum systems undergoing a phase transition by coupling the system to a probe qubit. It uses directly the increased sensibility of the quantum system to perturbations when it is close to a critical point. Using an NMR quantum simulator, we demonstrate this measurement technique for two different types of quantum phase transitions in an Ising spin chain.

  17. Coherent Coupled Qubits for Quantum Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Steven J.; Samach, Gabriel O.; Hover, David; Gustavsson, Simon; Kim, David K.; Melville, Alexander; Rosenberg, Danna; Sears, Adam P.; Yan, Fei; Yoder, Jonilyn L.; Oliver, William D.; Kerman, Andrew J.

    2017-07-01

    Quantum annealing is an optimization technique which potentially leverages quantum tunneling to enhance computational performance. Existing quantum annealers use superconducting flux qubits with short coherence times limited primarily by the use of large persistent currents Ip. Here, we examine an alternative approach using qubits with smaller Ip and longer coherence times. We demonstrate tunable coupling, a basic building block for quantum annealing, between two flux qubits with small (approximately 50-nA) persistent currents. Furthermore, we characterize qubit coherence as a function of coupler setting and investigate the effect of flux noise in the coupler loop on qubit coherence. Our results provide insight into the available design space for next-generation quantum annealers with improved coherence.

  18. Coupled Qubits for Next Generation Quantum Annealing: Novel Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samach, Gabriel; Weber, Steven; Hover, David; Rosenberg, Danna; Yoder, Jonilyn; Kim, David; Oliver, William D.; Kerman, Andrew J.

    While the first generation of quantum annealers based on Josephson junction technology have been successfully engineered to represent arrays of spins in the quantum transverse-field Ising model, no circuit architecture to date has succeeded in emulating the more complicated non-stoquastic Hamiltonians of interest for next generation quantum annealing. Here, we present our recent results for tunable ZZ- and XX-coupling between high coherence superconducting flux qubits. We discuss the larger architectures these coupled two-qubit building blocks will enable, as well as comment on the limitations of such architectures. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) and by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research & Engineering under Air Force Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0002. The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of ODNI, IARPA, or the US Government.

  19. Nonlocality and entanglement in qubit systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batle, J [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Casas, M, E-mail: vdfsjbv4@uib.es [Departament de Fisica and IFISC-CSIC, Universitat de les Illes Balears, 07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain)

    2011-11-04

    Nonlocality and quantum entanglement constitute two special aspects of the quantum correlations existing in quantum systems, which are of paramount importance in quantum-information theory. Traditionally, they have been regarded as identical (equivalent, in fact, for pure two qubit states, that is, Gisin's Theorem), yet they constitute different resources. Describing nonlocality by means of the violation of several Bell inequalities, we obtain by direct optimization those states of two qubits that maximally violate a Bell inequality, in terms of their degree of mixture as measured by either their participation ratio R = 1/Tr({rho}{sup 2}) or their maximum eigenvalue {lambda}{sub max}. This optimum value is obtained as well, which coincides with previous results. Comparison with entanglement is performed too. An example of an application is given in the XY model. In this novel approximation, we also concentrate on the nonlocality for linear combinations of pure states of two qubits, providing a closed form for their maximal nonlocality measure. The case of Bell diagonal mixed states of two qubits is also extensively studied. Special attention concerning the connection between nonlocality and entanglement for mixed states of two qubits is paid to the so-called maximally entangled mixed states. Additional aspects for the case of two qubits are also described in detail. Since we deal with qubit systems, we will perform an analogous study for three qubits, employing similar tools. Relation between distillability and nonlocality is explored quantitatively for the whole space of states of three qubits. We finally extend our analysis to four-qubit systems, where nonlocality for generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states of arbitrary number of parties is computed. (paper)

  20. Simple non-Markovian microscopic models for the depolarizing channel of a single qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Romero, K M; Lo Franco, R

    2012-01-01

    The archetypal one-qubit noisy channels - depolarizing, phase-damping and amplitude-damping channels - describe both Markovian and non-Markovian evolution. Simple microscopic models for the depolarizing channel, both classical and quantum, are considered. Microscopic models that describe phase-damping and amplitude-damping channels are briefly reviewed.

  1. A simple and rational numerical method of two-phase flow with volume-junction model. 2. The numerical method for general condition of two-phase flow in non-equilibrium states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Motoaki

    1997-11-01

    In the previous report, the usefulness of a new numerical method to achieve a rigorous numerical calculation using a simple explicit method with the volume-junction model was presented with the verification calculation for the depressurization of a saturated two-phase mixture. In this report, on the basis of solution method above, a numerical method for general condition of two-phase flow in non-equilibrium states is presented. In general condition of two-phase flow, the combinations of saturated and non-saturated conditions of each phase are considered in the each flow of volume and junction. Numerical evaluation programs are separately prepared for each combination of flow condition. Several numerical calculations of various kinds of non-equilibrium two-phase flow are made to examine the validity of the numerical method. Calculated results showed that the thermodynamic states obtained in different solution schemes were consistent with each other. In the first scheme, the states are determined by using the steam table as a function of pressure and specific enthalpy which are obtained as the solutions of simultaneous equations. In the second scheme, density and specific enthalpy of each phase are directly calculated by using conservation equations of mass and enthalpy of each phase, respectively. Further, no accumulation of error in mass and energy was found. As for the specific enthalpy, two cases of using energy equations for the volume are examined. The first case uses total energy conservation equation and the second case uses the type of the first law of thermodynamics. The results of both cases agreed well. (author)

  2. Two-phase flow patterns and size distribution of droplets in a microfluidic T-junction: Experimental observations in the squeezing regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Yassine; Daoud, Kamel; Tadrist, Lounès

    2017-04-01

    Generating micrometer sized droplets has been studied in a microfluidic system with T-junction geometry 250 μm in internal diameter and with PTFE capillary tubing. Several experiments were conducted by varying the flow rate of the dispersed phase from 2.78 ṡ10-11 m3 /s to 5.28 ṡ10-9 m3 /s and that of the continuous phase from 2.78 ṡ10-10 m3 /s to 1.94 ṡ10-9 m3 /s. The visualization of different flow regimes (drop, plug, and annular) was carried out for three configurations (not inverted in a horizontal position, inverted in a horizontal position, and inverted in a vertical position) for low capillary numbers. The model of Gauss was also chosen for a droplet size distribution in the dispersed phase, with the flow quality x varying from 0.016 to 0.44. The evolution of the drop size distribution as a function of the flow quality in the dispersed phase shows that the variation coefficient of the droplet's diameter is inversely proportional to the flow quality.

  3. Thermodynamics of a periodically driven qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donvil, Brecht

    2018-04-01

    We present a new approach to the open system dynamics of a periodically driven qubit in contact with a temperature bath. We are specifically interested in the thermodynamics of the qubit. It is well known that by combining the Markovian approximation with Floquet theory it is possible to derive a stochastic Schrödinger equation in for the state of the qubit. We follow here a different approach. We use Floquet theory to embed the time-non autonomous qubit dynamics into time-autonomous yet infinite dimensional dynamics. We refer to the resulting infinite dimensional system as the dressed-qubit. Using the Markovian approximation we derive the stochastic Schrödinger equation for the dressed-qubit. The advantage of our approach is that the jump operators are ladder operators of the Hamiltonian. This simplifies the formulation of the thermodynamics. We use the thermodynamics of the infinite dimensional system to recover the thermodynamical description for the driven qubit. We compare our results with the existing literature and recover the known results.

  4. Dynamics of Josephson junction arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, P.

    1989-01-01

    The dynamics of Josephson junction arrays is a topic that lies at the intersection of the fields of nonlinear dynamics and Josephson junction technology. The series arrays considered here consist of several rapidly oscillating Josephson junctions where each junction is coupled equally to every other junction. The purpose of this study is to understand phaselocking and other cooperative dynamics of this system. Previously, little was known about high dimensional nonlinear systems of this sort. Numerical simulations are used to study the dynamics of these arrays. Three distinct types of periodic solutions to the array equations were observed as well as period doubled and chaotic solutions. One of the periodic solutions is the symmetric, in-phase solution where all of the junctions oscillate identically. The other two periodic solutions are symmetry-broken solutions where all of the junction do not oscillate identically. The symmetry-broken solutions are highly degenerate. As many as (N - 1) stable solutions can coexist for an array of N junctions. Understanding the stability of these several solutions and the transitions among them is vital to the design of useful devices

  5. Entanglement polygon inequality in qubit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xiao-Feng; Alonso, Miguel A.; Eberly, J. H.

    2018-06-01

    We prove a set of tight entanglement inequalities for arbitrary N-qubit pure states. By focusing on all bi-partite marginal entanglements between each single qubit and its remaining partners, we show that the inequalities provide an upper bound for each marginal entanglement, while the known monogamy relation establishes the lower bound. The restrictions and sharing properties associated with the inequalities are further analyzed with a geometric polytope approach, and examples of three-qubit GHZ-class and W-class entangled states are presented to illustrate the results.

  6. Numerical Study on Bubble Dynamics and Two-Phase Frictional Pressure Drop of Slug Flow Regime in Adiabatic T-junction Square Microchannel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kishor

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bubble dynamics and frictional pressure drop associated with gas liquid two-phase slug flow regime in adiabatic T-junction square microchannel has been investigated using CFD. A comprehensive study on the mechanism of bubble formation via squeezing and shearing regime is performed. The randomness and recirculation profiles observed in the squeezing regime are significantly higher as compared to the shearing regime during formation of the slug. Further, effects of increasing gas velocity on bubble length are obtained at fixed liquid velocities and simulated data displayed good agreement with available correlations in literature. The frictional pressure drop for slug flow regime from simulations are also obtained and evaluated against existing separated flow models. A regression correlation has also been developed by modifying C-parameter using separated flow model, which improves the prediction of two-phase frictional pressure drop data within slug flow region, with mean absolute error of 10 %. The influences of fluid properties such as liquid viscosity and surface tension on the two-phase frictional pressure drop are also investigated and compared with developed correlation. The higher liquid viscosity and lower surface tension value resulted in bubble formation via shearing regime.

  7. Volume of the space of qubit-qubit channels and state transformations under random quantum channels

    OpenAIRE

    Lovas, Attila; Andai, Attila

    2017-01-01

    The simplest building blocks for quantum computations are the qubit-qubit quantum channels. In this paper, we analyze the structure of these channels via their Choi representation. The restriction of a quantum channel to the space of classical states (i.e. probability distributions) is called the underlying classical channel. The structure of quantum channels over a fixed classical channel is studied, the volume of general and unital qubit channels with respect to the Lebesgue measure is comp...

  8. Solid State Large Area Pulsed Solar Simulator for 3-, 4- and 6-Junction Solar Cell Arrays, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase I was successful in delivering a complete prototype of the proposed innovation, an LED-based, solid state, large area, pulsed, solar simulator (ssLAPSS)....

  9. Insufficiency of avoided crossings for witnessing large-scale quantum coherence in flux qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröwis, Florian; Yadin, Benjamin; Gisin, Nicolas

    2018-04-01

    Do experiments based on superconducting loops segmented with Josephson junctions (e.g., flux qubits) show macroscopic quantum behavior in the sense of Schrödinger's cat example? Various arguments based on microscopic and phenomenological models were recently adduced in this debate. We approach this problem by adapting (to flux qubits) the framework of large-scale quantum coherence, which was already successfully applied to spin ensembles and photonic systems. We show that contemporary experiments might show quantum coherence more than 100 times larger than experiments in the classical regime. However, we argue that the often-used demonstration of an avoided crossing in the energy spectrum is not sufficient to make a conclusion about the presence of large-scale quantum coherence. Alternative, rigorous witnesses are proposed.

  10. Multicenter phase II study of irinotecan, cisplatin, and bevacizumab in patients with metastatic gastric or gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Manish A; Ramanathan, Ramesh K; Ilson, David H; Levnor, Alissa; D'Adamo, David; O'Reilly, Eileen; Tse, Archie; Trocola, Robin; Schwartz, Lawrence; Capanu, Marinela; Schwartz, Gary K; Kelsen, David P

    2006-11-20

    Bevacizumab improves survival in several solid tumor malignancies when combined with chemotherapy. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of the addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy in the treatment of gastric and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) adenocarcinoma. Forty-seven patients with metastatic or unresectable gastric/GEJ adenocarcinoma were treated with bevacizumab 15 mg/kg on day 1, irinotecan 65 mg/m2, and cisplatin 30 mg/m2 on days 1 and 8, every 21 days. The primary end point was to demonstrate a 50% improvement in time to progression over historical values. Secondary end points included safety, response, and survival. Patient characteristics were as follows: median age 59 years (range, 25 to 75); Karnofsky performance status 90% (70% to 100%); male:female, 34:13; and gastric/GEJ, 24:23. With a median follow-up of 12.2 months, median time to progression was 8.3 months (95% CI, 5.5 to 9.9 months). In 34 patients with measurable disease, the overall response rate was 65% (95% CI, 46% to 80%). Median survival was 12.3 months (95% CI, 11.3 to 17.2 months). We observed no increase in chemotherapy related toxicity. Possible bevacizumab-related toxicity included a 28% incidence of grade 3 hypertension, two patients with a gastric perforation and one patient with a near perforation (6%), and one patient with a myocardial infarction (2%). Grade 3 to 4 thromboembolic events occurred in 25% of patients. Although the primary tumor was unresected in 40 patients, we observed only one patient with a significant upper gastrointestinal bleed. Bevacizumab can be safely given with chemotherapy even with primary gastric and GEJ tumors in place. The response rate, time to disease progression (TTP), and overall survival are encouraging, with TTP improved over historical controls by 75%. Further development of bevacizumab in gastric and GEJ cancers is warranted.

  11. Autonomous calibration of single spin qubit operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Florian; Unden, Thomas; Zoller, Jonathan; Said, Ressa S.; Calarco, Tommaso; Montangero, Simone; Naydenov, Boris; Jelezko, Fedor

    2017-12-01

    Fully autonomous precise control of qubits is crucial for quantum information processing, quantum communication, and quantum sensing applications. It requires minimal human intervention on the ability to model, to predict, and to anticipate the quantum dynamics, as well as to precisely control and calibrate single qubit operations. Here, we demonstrate single qubit autonomous calibrations via closed-loop optimisations of electron spin quantum operations in diamond. The operations are examined by quantum state and process tomographic measurements at room temperature, and their performances against systematic errors are iteratively rectified by an optimal pulse engineering algorithm. We achieve an autonomous calibrated fidelity up to 1.00 on a time scale of minutes for a spin population inversion and up to 0.98 on a time scale of hours for a single qubit π/2 -rotation within the experimental error of 2%. These results manifest a full potential for versatile quantum technologies.

  12. Subspace confinement: how good is your qubit?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devitt, Simon J; Schirmer, Sonia G; Oi, Daniel K L; Cole, Jared H; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L

    2007-01-01

    The basic operating element of standard quantum computation is the qubit, an isolated two-level system that can be accurately controlled, initialized and measured. However, the majority of proposed physical architectures for quantum computation are built from systems that contain much more complicated Hilbert space structures. Hence, defining a qubit requires the identification of an appropriate controllable two-dimensional sub-system. This prompts the obvious question of how well a qubit, thus defined, is confined to this subspace, and whether we can experimentally quantify the potential leakage into states outside the qubit subspace. We demonstrate how subspace leakage can be characterized using minimal theoretical assumptions by examining the Fourier spectrum of the oscillation experiment

  13. Fractional flux quanta in Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldobin, E.; Buckenmaier, K.; Gaber, T.; Kemmler, M.; Pfeiffer, J.; Koelle, D.; Kleiner, R. [Physikalisches Inst. - Experimentalphysik II, Univ. Tuebingen (Germany); Weides, M.; Kohlstedt, H. [Center of Nanoelectronic Systems for Information Technology (CNI), Research Centre Juelich (Germany); Siegel, M. [Inst. fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme, Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Fractional Josephson vortices may appear in the so-called 0-{kappa} Josephson junctions ({kappa} is an arbitrary number) and carry magnetic flux {phi}, which is a fraction of the magnetic flux quantum {phi}{sub 0}{approx}2.07 x 10{sup -15} Wb. Their properties are very different from the usual integer fluxons: they are pinned, and often represent the ground state of the system with spontaneous circulating supercurrent. They behave as well controlled macroscopic spins and can be used to construct bits, qubits, tunable photonic crystals and to study the (quantum) physics of spin systems. In this talk we discuss recent advances in 0-{pi} junction technology and present recent experimental results: evidence of the spontaneous flux in the ground state, spectroscopy of the fractional vortex eigenfrequencies and observation of dynamics effects related to the flipping of the fractional vortices. (orig.)

  14. Vertical Josephson Interferometer for Tunable Flux Qubit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granata, C [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Vettoliere, A [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Lisitskiy, M [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Rombetto, S [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Russo, M [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Ruggiero, B [Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, I- 80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Corato, V [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-8 1031, Aversa (Italy) and Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Russo, R [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-8 1031, Aversa (Italy) and Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy); Silvestrini, P [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione, Seconda Universita di Napoli, I-8 1031, Aversa (Italy) and Istituto di Cibernetica ' E. Caianiello' del CNR, I-80078, Pozzuoli (Italy)

    2006-06-01

    We present a niobium-based Josephson device as prototype for quantum computation with flux qubits. The most interesting feature of this device is the use of a Josephson vertical interferometer to tune the flux qubit allowing the control of the off-diagonal Hamiltonian terms of the system. In the vertical interferometer, the Josephson current is precisely modulated from a maximum to zero with fine control by a small transversal magnetic field parallel to the rf superconducting loop plane.

  15. PREFACE: Nobel Symposium 141: Qubits for Future Quantum Information Nobel Symposium 141: Qubits for Future Quantum Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claeson, Tord; Delsing, Per; Wendin, Göran

    2009-12-01

    correction, have yet to be solved. It has been predicted that quantum computers will be able to perform certain complicated computations or simulations in minutes or hours instead of years as with present computers. So far there exist very few useful quantum algorithms; however there is hope that the development of these will be stimulated once there is a breakthrough in hardware. Remarkable progress has been made in quantum engineering and quantum measurements, but a large scale quantum computer is still far off. Quantum communication and cryptography are much closer to the market than a quantum computer. The development of quantum information has meant a large push in the field of quantum physics, that previously could only be studied in the microscopic world. Artificial atoms, realized by circuit technology and mimicking the properties of 'natural' atoms, are one example of the new possibilities opened up by quantum engineering. Several different types of qubits have been suggested. Some are based upon microscopic entities, like atoms and ions in traps, or nuclear spins in molecules. They can have long coherence times (i.e. a long period allowing many operations, of the order of 10 000, to be performed before the state needs to be refreshed) but they are difficult to integrate into large systems. Other qubits are based upon solid state components that facilitate integration and coupling between qubits, but they suffer from interactions with the environment and their coherent states have a limited lifetime. Advanced experiments have been performed with superconducting Josephson junctions and many breakthroughs have been reported in the last few years. They have an advantage in the inherent coherence of superconducting Cooper pairs over macroscopic distances. We chose to focus the Nobel Symposium on Qubits for Future Quantum Information on superconducting qubits to allow for depth in discussions, but at the same time to allow comparison with other types of qubits that may

  16. Comparing Zeeman qubits to hyperfine qubits in the context of the surface code: +174Yb and +171Yb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Natalie C.; Brown, Kenneth R.

    2018-05-01

    Many systems used for quantum computing possess additional states beyond those defining the qubit. Leakage out of the qubit subspace must be considered when designing quantum error correction codes. Here we consider trapped ion qubits manipulated by Raman transitions. Zeeman qubits do not suffer from leakage errors but are sensitive to magnetic fields to first order. Hyperfine qubits can be encoded in clock states that are insensitive to magnetic fields to first order, but spontaneous scattering during the Raman transition can lead to leakage. Here we compare a Zeeman qubit (+174Yb) to a hyperfine qubit (+171Yb) in the context of the surface code. We find that the number of physical qubits required to reach a specific logical qubit error can be reduced by using +174Yb if the magnetic field can be stabilized with fluctuations smaller than 10 μ G .

  17. Curved Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrowolski, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    The constant curvature one and quasi-one dimensional Josephson junction is considered. On the base of Maxwell equations, the sine–Gordon equation that describes an influence of curvature on the kink motion was obtained. It is showed that the method of geometrical reduction of the sine–Gordon model from three to lower dimensional manifold leads to an identical form of the sine–Gordon equation. - Highlights: ► The research on dynamics of the phase in a curved Josephson junction is performed. ► The geometrical reduction is applied to the sine–Gordon model. ► The results of geometrical reduction and the fundamental research are compared.

  18. Rotations of a logical qubit using the quantum Zeno effect extended to a manifold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touzard, S.; Grimm, A.; Leghtas, Z.; Mundhada, S. O.; Reinhold, P.; Heeres, R.; Axline, C.; Reagor, M.; Chou, K.; Blumoff, J.; Sliwa, K. M.; Shankar, S.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Mirrahimi, M.; Devoret, M. H.

    Encoding Quantum Information in the large Hilbert space of a harmonic oscillator has proven to have advantages over encoding in a register of physical qubits, but has also provided new challenges. While recent experiments have demonstrated quantum error correction using such an encoding based on superpositions of coherent states, these codes are still susceptible to non-corrected errors and lack controllability: compared to physical qubits it is hard to make arbitrary states and to perform operations on them. Our approach is to engineer the dynamics and the dissipation of a microwave cavity to implement a continuous dissipative measurement yielding two degenerate outcomes. This extends the quantum Zeno effect to a manifold, which in our case is spanned by two coherent states of opposite phases. In this second talk we present the result and analysis of an experiment that performs rotations on a logical qubit encoded in this protected manifold. Work supported by: ARO, ONR, AFOSR and YINQE.

  19. Rotations of a logical qubit using the quantum Zeno effect extended to a manifold - Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, A.; Touzard, S.; Leghtas, Z.; Mundhada, S. O.; Reinhold, P.; Heeres, R.; Axline, C.; Reagor, M.; Chou, K.; Blumoff, J.; Sliwa, K. M.; Shankar, S.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Mirrahimi, M.; Devoret, M. H.

    Encoding Quantum Information in the large Hilbert space of a harmonic oscillator has proven to have advantages over encoding in a register of physical qubits, but has also provided new challenges. While recent experiments have demonstrated quantum error correction using such an encoding based on superpositions of coherent states, these codes are still susceptible to non-corrected errors and lack controllability: compared to physical qubits it is hard to make arbitrary states and to perform operations on them. Our approach is to engineer the dynamics and the dissipation of a microwave cavity to implement a continuous dissipative measurement yielding two degenerate outcomes. This extends the quantum Zeno effect to a manifold, which in our case is spanned by two coherent states of opposite phases. In this first talk we present the concept and architecture of an experiment that performs rotations on a logical qubit encoded in this protected manifold. Work supported by: ARO, ONR, AFOSR and YINQE.

  20. Two-qubit quantum computing in a projected subspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi Qiao; Ruda, H.E.; Zhan, M.S.

    2002-01-01

    A formulation for performing quantum computing in a projected subspace is presented, based on the subdynamical kinetic equation (SKE) for an open quantum system. The eigenvectors of the kinetic equation are shown to remain invariant before and after interaction with the environment. However, the eigenvalues in the projected subspace exhibit a type of phase shift to the evolutionary states. This phase shift does not destroy the decoherence-free (DF) property of the subspace because the associated fidelity is 1. This permits a universal formalism to be presented--the eigenprojectors of the free part of the Hamiltonian for the system and bath may be used to construct a DF projected subspace based on the SKE. To eliminate possible phase or unitary errors induced by the change in the eigenvalues, a cancellation technique is proposed, using the adjustment of the coupling time, and applied to a two-qubit computing system. A general criteria for constructing a DF-projected subspace from the SKE is discussed. Finally, a proposal for using triangulation to realize a decoherence-free subsystem based on SKE is presented. The concrete formulation for a two-qubit model is given exactly. Our approach is general and appears to be applicable to any type of decoherence

  1. Suppression of error in qubit rotations due to Bloch-Siegert oscillation via the use of off-resonant Raman excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradhan, Prabhakar; Cardoso, George C; Shahriar, M S

    2009-01-01

    The rotation of a quantum bit (qubit) is an important step in quantum computation. The rotation is generally performed using a Rabi oscillation. In a direct two-level qubit system, if the Rabi frequency is comparable to its resonance frequency, the rotating wave approximation is not valid, and the Rabi oscillation is accompanied by the so-called Bloch-Siegert oscillation (BSO) that occurs at twice the frequency of the driving field. One implication of the BSO is that for a given interaction time and Rabi frequency, the degree of rotation experienced by the qubit depends explicitly on the initial phase of the driving field. If this effect is not controlled, it leads to an apparent fluctuation in the rotation of the qubit. Here we show that when an off-resonant lambda system is used to realize a two-level qubit, the BSO is inherently negligible, thus eliminating this source of potential error.

  2. Multi-qubit controlled-NOT gates and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state generation using one qubit simultaneously controlling n qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Kehui, E-mail: hhkhsong@vip.sina.com [Department of Physics Science and Information Engineering, Huaihua University, Huaihua, Hunan 418008 (China); Shi Zhengang; Xiang Shaohua; Chen Xiongwen [Department of Physics Science and Information Engineering, Huaihua University, Huaihua, Hunan 418008 (China)

    2012-09-01

    Based on superconducting flux qubits coupled to a superconducting resonator. We propose a scheme for implementing multi-qubit controlled-NOT (C-NOT) gates and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state with one flux qubit simultaneously controlling on n qubits. It is shown that the resonator mode is initially in the vacuum state, a high fidelity for operation procedure can be obtained. In addition, the gate operation time is independent of the number of the qubits, and can be controlled by adjusting detuning and coupling strengths. We also analyze the experimental feasibility that the conditions of the large detuning can be achieved by adjusting frequencies of the resonator and pulses.

  3. Multi-qubit controlled-NOT gates and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state generation using one qubit simultaneously controlling n qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Kehui; Shi Zhengang; Xiang Shaohua; Chen Xiongwen

    2012-01-01

    Based on superconducting flux qubits coupled to a superconducting resonator. We propose a scheme for implementing multi-qubit controlled-NOT (C-NOT) gates and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state with one flux qubit simultaneously controlling on n qubits. It is shown that the resonator mode is initially in the vacuum state, a high fidelity for operation procedure can be obtained. In addition, the gate operation time is independent of the number of the qubits, and can be controlled by adjusting detuning and coupling strengths. We also analyze the experimental feasibility that the conditions of the large detuning can be achieved by adjusting frequencies of the resonator and pulses.

  4. Dissipation and entanglement dynamics for two interacting qubits coupled to independent reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, M [Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Fisica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 (Spain); Migliore, R [CNR-INFM, CNISM and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche ed Astronomiche dell' Universita di Palermo, via Archirafi 36, I-90123 Palermo (Italy); Messina, A [MIUR and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche ed Astronomiche dell' Universita di Palermo, via Archirafi 36, I-90123 Palermo (Italy)], E-mail: matteo.scala@fisica.unipa.it, E-mail: rosanna@fisica.unipa.it, E-mail: messina@fisica.unipa.it

    2008-10-31

    We derive the master equation of a system of two coupled qubits by taking into account their interaction with two independent bosonic baths. Important features of the dynamics are brought to light, such as the structure of the stationary state at general temperatures and the behaviour of the entanglement at zero temperature, showing the phenomena of sudden death and sudden birth as well as the presence of stationary entanglement for long times. The model presented here is quite versatile and can be of interest in the study of both Josephson junction architectures and cavity-QED.

  5. Faithful Pointer for Qubit Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Asmita; Pan, A. K.

    2018-02-01

    In the context of von Neumann projective measurement scenario for a qubit system, it is widely believed that the mutual orthogonality between the post-interaction pointer states is the sufficient condition for achieving the ideal measurement situation. However, for experimentally verifying the observable probabilities, the real space distinction between the pointer distributions corresponding to post-interaction pointer states play crucial role. It is implicitly assumed that mutual orthogonality ensures the support between the post-interaction pointer distributions to be disjoint. We point out that mutual orthogonality (formal idealness) does not necessarily imply the real space distinguishability (operational idealness), but converse is true. In fact, for the commonly referred Gaussian wavefunction, it is possible to obtain a measurement situation which is formally ideal but fully nonideal operationally. In this paper, we derive a class of pointer states, that we call faithful pointers, for which the degree of formal (non)idealness is equal to the operational (non)idealness. In other words, for the faithful pointers, if a measurement situation is formally ideal then it is operationally ideal and vice versa.

  6. Quantum dynamics of spin qubits in optically active quantum dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechtold, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    lead to a relatively fast but incomplete nonmonotonic relaxation of the qubit's spin polarization. This observation changes our understanding of spin qubit decoherence mechanisms, as quadrupolar effects were already known but as yet not associated to an additional source of decoherence. It is found that the strength of the quadrupolar coupling is approximately twice as large as the hyperfine coupling. At microsecond timescales and low external magnetic fields (<1.5 T), the combined effect of quadrupolar coherent nuclear spin dynamics and incoherent hyperfine interaction induce a stage with monotonic relaxation and with almost complete loss of coherence, in contrast to earlier theoretical predictions where quadrupolar effects were not taken into account. By applying an in-plane magnetic field we also implemented an optical phase gate that enabled the coherent control of the qubit's state. This is used to perform spin echo experiments in order to remove the inhomogeneous dephasing and uncover the electron spin's intrinsic coherence time T 2 . By performing such spin echo measurements, it is found that at low magnetic fields the intrinsic coherence time of the electron is drastically reduced due to combined effects of hyperfine and quadrupolar interactions, reducing T 2 to a value of √(T * 2 T Q ) corresponding to ∝40 ns. Only by applying a magnetic field exceeding the quadrupolar interaction strength in the quantum dot (>1.5 T) these effects could be removed and an increase of the coherence time to T 2 =1.3 μs is observed. A long spin echo lifetime T 2 , however, does not necessarily predicate the ability of quantum dot spin qubits to process quantum information. Spin echo is a classical effect in the sense that it can be fully explained in terms of a classical measurement and the behavior of classical spins changing the axis of precession under the action of a properly applied control pulse. How long such an electron spin qubit can store quantum

  7. Searching for highly entangled multi-qubit states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Iain D K; Stepney, Susan; Sudbery, Anthony; Braunstein, Samuel L

    2005-01-01

    We present a simple numerical optimization procedure to search for highly entangled states of 2, 3, 4 and 5 qubits. We develop a computationally tractable entanglement measure based on the negative partial transpose criterion, which can be applied to quantum systems of an arbitrary number of qubits. The search algorithm attempts to optimize this entanglement cost function to find the maximal entanglement in a quantum system. We present highly entangled 4-qubit and 5-qubit states discovered by this search. We show that the 4-qubit state is not quite as entangled, according to two separate measures, as the conjectured maximally entangled Higuchi-Sudbery state. Using this measure, these states are more highly entangled than the 4-qubit and 5-qubit GHZ states. We also present a conjecture about the NPT measure, inspired by some of our numerical results, that the single-qubit reduced states of maximally entangled states are all totally mixed

  8. Theory of the Quantum Dot Hybrid Qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Mark

    2015-03-01

    The quantum dot hybrid qubit, formed from three electrons in two quantum dots, combines the desirable features of charge qubits (fast manipulation) and spin qubits (long coherence times). The hybridized spin and charge states yield a unique energy spectrum with several useful properties, including two different operating regimes that are relatively immune to charge noise due to the presence of optimal working points or ``sweet spots.'' In this talk, I will describe dc and ac-driven gate operations of the quantum dot hybrid qubit. I will analyze improvements in the dephasing that are enabled by the sweet spots, and I will discuss the outlook for quantum hybrid qubits in terms of scalability. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-12-0607), NSF (PHY-1104660), the USDOD, and the Intelligence Community Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Program. The views and conclusions contained in this presentation are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of the US government.

  9. 3D Integration for Superconducting Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Danna; Kim, David; Yost, Donna-Ruth; Mallek, Justin; Yoder, Jonilyn; Das, Rabindra; Racz, Livia; Hover, David; Weber, Steven; Kerman, Andrew; Oliver, William

    Superconducting qubits are a prime candidate for constructing a large-scale quantum processor due to their lithographic scalability, speed, and relatively long coherence times. Moving beyond the few qubit level, however, requires the use of a three-dimensional approach for routing control and readout lines. 3D integration techniques can be used to construct a structure where the sensitive qubits are shielded from a potentially-lossy readout and interconnect chip by an intermediate chip with through-substrate vias, with indium bump bonds providing structural support and electrical conductivity. We will discuss our work developing 3D-integrated coupled qubits, focusing on the characterization of 3D integration components and the effects on qubit performance and design. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) via MIT Lincoln Laboratory under Air Force Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0002. The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of ODNI, IARPA, or the US Government.

  10. Circuit quantum electrodynamics with a spin qubit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, K D; McFaul, L W; Schroer, M D; Jung, M; Taylor, J M; Houck, A A; Petta, J R

    2012-10-18

    Electron spins trapped in quantum dots have been proposed as basic building blocks of a future quantum processor. Although fast, 180-picosecond, two-quantum-bit (two-qubit) operations can be realized using nearest-neighbour exchange coupling, a scalable, spin-based quantum computing architecture will almost certainly require long-range qubit interactions. Circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED) allows spatially separated superconducting qubits to interact via a superconducting microwave cavity that acts as a 'quantum bus', making possible two-qubit entanglement and the implementation of simple quantum algorithms. Here we combine the cQED architecture with spin qubits by coupling an indium arsenide nanowire double quantum dot to a superconducting cavity. The architecture allows us to achieve a charge-cavity coupling rate of about 30 megahertz, consistent with coupling rates obtained in gallium arsenide quantum dots. Furthermore, the strong spin-orbit interaction of indium arsenide allows us to drive spin rotations electrically with a local gate electrode, and the charge-cavity interaction provides a measurement of the resulting spin dynamics. Our results demonstrate how the cQED architecture can be used as a sensitive probe of single-spin physics and that a spin-cavity coupling rate of about one megahertz is feasible, presenting the possibility of long-range spin coupling via superconducting microwave cavities.

  11. Error-Transparent Quantum Gates for Small Logical Qubit Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapit, Eliot

    2018-02-01

    One of the largest obstacles to building a quantum computer is gate error, where the physical evolution of the state of a qubit or group of qubits during a gate operation does not match the intended unitary transformation. Gate error stems from a combination of control errors and random single qubit errors from interaction with the environment. While great strides have been made in mitigating control errors, intrinsic qubit error remains a serious problem that limits gate fidelity in modern qubit architectures. Simultaneously, recent developments of small error-corrected logical qubit devices promise significant increases in logical state lifetime, but translating those improvements into increases in gate fidelity is a complex challenge. In this Letter, we construct protocols for gates on and between small logical qubit devices which inherit the parent device's tolerance to single qubit errors which occur at any time before or during the gate. We consider two such devices, a passive implementation of the three-qubit bit flip code, and the author's own [E. Kapit, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 150501 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.150501] very small logical qubit (VSLQ) design, and propose error-tolerant gate sets for both. The effective logical gate error rate in these models displays superlinear error reduction with linear increases in single qubit lifetime, proving that passive error correction is capable of increasing gate fidelity. Using a standard phenomenological noise model for superconducting qubits, we demonstrate a realistic, universal one- and two-qubit gate set for the VSLQ, with error rates an order of magnitude lower than those for same-duration operations on single qubits or pairs of qubits. These developments further suggest that incorporating small logical qubits into a measurement based code could substantially improve code performance.

  12. Controlled Quantum Operations of a Semiconductor Three-Qubit System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Yu, Guo-Dong; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Jiang, Hong-Wen; Guo, Guo-Ping

    2018-02-01

    In a specially designed semiconductor device consisting of three capacitively coupled double quantum dots, we achieve strong and tunable coupling between a target qubit and two control qubits. We demonstrate how to completely switch on and off the target qubit's coherent rotations by presetting two control qubits' states. A Toffoli gate is, therefore, possible based on these control effects. This research paves a way for realizing full quantum-logic operations in semiconductor multiqubit systems.

  13. Fast quantum logic gates with trapped-ion qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, V. M.; Ballance, C. J.; Thirumalai, K.; Stephenson, L. J.; Ballance, T. G.; Steane, A. M.; Lucas, D. M.

    2018-03-01

    Quantum bits (qubits) based on individual trapped atomic ions are a promising technology for building a quantum computer. The elementary operations necessary to do so have been achieved with the required precision for some error-correction schemes. However, the essential two-qubit logic gate that is used to generate quantum entanglement has hitherto always been performed in an adiabatic regime (in which the gate is slow compared with the characteristic motional frequencies of the ions in the trap), resulting in logic speeds of the order of 10 kilohertz. There have been numerous proposals of methods for performing gates faster than this natural ‘speed limit’ of the trap. Here we implement one such method, which uses amplitude-shaped laser pulses to drive the motion of the ions along trajectories designed so that the gate operation is insensitive to the optical phase of the pulses. This enables fast (megahertz-rate) quantum logic that is robust to fluctuations in the optical phase, which would otherwise be an important source of experimental error. We demonstrate entanglement generation for gate times as short as 480 nanoseconds—less than a single oscillation period of an ion in the trap and eight orders of magnitude shorter than the memory coherence time measured in similar calcium-43 hyperfine qubits. The power of the method is most evident at intermediate timescales, at which it yields a gate error more than ten times lower than can be attained using conventional techniques; for example, we achieve a 1.6-microsecond-duration gate with a fidelity of 99.8 per cent. Faster and higher-fidelity gates are possible at the cost of greater laser intensity. The method requires only a single amplitude-shaped pulse and one pair of beams derived from a continuous-wave laser. It offers the prospect of combining the unrivalled coherence properties, operation fidelities and optical connectivity of trapped-ion qubits with the submicrosecond logic speeds that are usually

  14. Macroscopic quantum tunneling in Josephson tunnel junctions and Coulomb blockade in single small tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, A.N.

    1991-04-01

    Experiments investigating the process of macroscopic quantum tunneling in a moderately-damped, resistively shunted, Josephson junction are described, followed by a discussion of experiments performed on very small capacitance normal-metal tunnel junctions. The experiments on the resistively-shunted Josephson junction were designed to investigate a quantum process, that of the tunneling of the Josephson phase variable under a potential barrier, in a system in which dissipation plays a major role in the dynamics of motion. All the parameters of the junction were measured using the classical phenomena of thermal activation and resonant activation. Theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental results, showing good agreement with no adjustable parameters; the tunneling rate in the moderately damped (Q ∼ 1) junction is seen to be reduced by a factor of 300 from that predicted for an undamped junction. The phase is seen to be a good quantum-mechanical variable. The experiments on small capacitance tunnel junctions extend the measurements on the larger-area Josephson junctions from the region in which the phase variable has a fairly well-defined value, i.e. its wavefunction has a narrow width, to the region where its value is almost completely unknown. The charge on the junction becomes well-defined and is predicted to quantize the current through the junction, giving rise to the Coulomb blockade at low bias. I present the first clear observation of the Coulomb blockade in single junctions. The electrical environment of the tunnel junction, however, strongly affects the behavior of the junction: higher resistance leads are observed to greatly sharpen the Coulomb blockade over that seen with lower resistance leads. I present theoretical descriptions of how the environment influences the junctions; comparisons with the experimental results are in reasonable agreement

  15. State tomography for two qubits using reduced densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petz, D; Hangos, K M; Szanto, A; Szoellosi, F

    2006-01-01

    The optimal state determination (or tomography) is studied for a composite system of two qubits when measurements can be performed on one of the qubits and interactions of the two qubits can be implemented. The goal is to minimize the number of interactions to be implemented. The algebraic method used in the paper leads to an extension of the concept of mutually unbiased measurements

  16. A multicenter, phase II study of bortezomib (PS-341) in patients with unresectable or metastatic gastric and gastroesophageal junction adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Manish A; Power, Derek G; Kindler, Hedy L; Holen, Kyle D; Kemeny, Margaret M; Ilson, David H; Tang, Laura; Capanu, Marinela; Wright, John J; Kelsen, David P

    2011-12-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor-kB (NFkB) is implicated in gastric cancer carcinogenesis and survival, and its inhibition by proteosome inhibition is associated with preclinical gastric cancer anti-tumor activity. We examined the single agent efficacy of bortezomib, a selective proteasome inhibitor, in gastric adenocarcinoma. We performed a phase II trial of bortezomib in patients with advanced gastric adenocarcinoma. Bortezomib 1.3 mg/m(2) was administered on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 every 21 days. The primary endpoint was objective response rate(RR); the null hypothesis was RR <1% versus the alternative ≥15%. One response in the first stage(15 patients) was required before proceeding with an additional 18 patients. If at least 2 or more responses out of 33 were observed, further study with bortezomib was warranted. Correlative studies evaluated pre-treatment tumor expression of NFkB, IkB, p53, p21, and cyclin D1. We enrolled 16 patients (15 evaluable for response) from four institutions. No patients demonstrated an objective response(95% CI, 0-22%); one patient achieved stable disease. Fourteen out of 16 patients experienced ≥ grade 2 toxicity. The most common toxicity was fatigue in six patients (n = 4 grade 2, n = 2 grade 3). Seven patients experienced neuropathy (n = 5 grade 1, and 1 each grade 2 and 3). Seven (60%) had high cytoplasmic staining for NFkB. Single agent bortezomib is inactive in metastatic gastric adenocarcinoma and should not be pursued. Future study of proteasome inhibition in gastric adenocarcinoma should be considered in combination with targeted inhibition of other non-overlapping oncogenic pathways as a potential rational approach.

  17. A quantum-dot spin qubit with coherence limited by charge noise and fidelity higher than 99.9%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneda, Jun; Takeda, Kenta; Otsuka, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Delbecq, Matthieu R.; Allison, Giles; Honda, Takumu; Kodera, Tetsuo; Oda, Shunri; Hoshi, Yusuke; Usami, Noritaka; Itoh, Kohei M.; Tarucha, Seigo

    2018-02-01

    The isolation of qubits from noise sources, such as surrounding nuclear spins and spin-electric susceptibility1-4, has enabled extensions of quantum coherence times in recent pivotal advances towards the concrete implementation of spin-based quantum computation. In fact, the possibility of achieving enhanced quantum coherence has been substantially doubted for nanostructures due to the characteristic high degree of background charge fluctuations5-7. Still, a sizeable spin-electric coupling will be needed in realistic multiple-qubit systems to address single-spin and spin-spin manipulations8-10. Here, we realize a single-electron spin qubit with an isotopically enriched phase coherence time (20 μs)11,12 and fast electrical control speed (up to 30 MHz) mediated by extrinsic spin-electric coupling. Using rapid spin rotations, we reveal that the free-evolution dephasing is caused by charge noise—rather than conventional magnetic noise—as highlighted by a 1/f spectrum extended over seven decades of frequency. The qubit exhibits superior performance with single-qubit gate fidelities exceeding 99.9% on average, offering a promising route to large-scale spin-qubit systems with fault-tolerant controllability.

  18. Coupled qubits as a quantum heat switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, B.; Pekola, J. P.; Campisi, M.; Fazio, R.

    2017-12-01

    We present a quantum heat switch based on coupled superconducting qubits, connected to two LC resonators that are terminated by resistors providing two heat baths. To describe the system, we use a standard second order master equation with respect to coupling to the baths. We find that this system can act as an efficient heat switch controlled by the applied magnetic flux. The flux influences the energy level separations of the system, and under some conditions, the finite coupling of the qubits enhances the transmitted power between the two baths, by an order of magnitude under realistic conditions. At the same time, the bandwidth at maximum power of the switch formed of the coupled qubits is narrowed.

  19. Amplitude damping for single-qubit system with single-qubit mixed-state environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Eylee; Hwang, Mi-Ra; Ju, You Hwan; Park, D K; Kim, Hungsoo; Kim, Min-Soo; Son, Jin-Woo

    2008-01-01

    We study a generalized amplitude damping channel when environment is initially in the single-qubit mixed state. Representing the affine transformation of the generalized amplitude damping by a three-dimensional volume, we plot explicitly the volume occupied by the channels simulatable by a single-qubit mixed-state environment. As expected, this volume is embedded in the total volume by the channels which is simulated by a two-qubit enviroment. The volume ratio is approximately 0.08 which is much smaller than 3/8, the volume ratio for generalized depolarizing channels

  20. Microresonators for electron spin qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suter, D.; Stonies, R.; Voges, E.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The traditional high-Q EPR resonators are optimized for large samples. For small samples and individual qubits, it is possible to design different resonators that have much better power handling properties, create less interference with other peripheral lines and, if they are used for detection, have better sensitivity. Other parameters being equal, the sensitivity of the resonator can be increased by minimizing its size and thus increasing the filling factor. In contrast to cavity type resonators, microcoils can be made much smaller than the operation wavelength. For this type of resonator, it has been established theoretically and experimentally that the sensitivity varies inversely with its linear dimensions. Moreover, the planar coil geometry is ideal to be manufactured in a small size by means of standard microtechnology. It also offers advantages for the excitation of electron spins in prototype quantum computer systems. High microwave power to the magnetic field conversion factor of the microresonator allows to achieve 24 ns L/2 - pulses with less than 20 mW of incident power. Within the QIPDDF-ROSES project, we are using such resonators to measure the EPR parameters of monolayer molecular films of N at C60 and for excitation of the single electron spin in a defect center in diamond. The microresonator prototypes consisting of a 200 μm planar microcoil tuned and matched at 14 GHz with distributed elements have been fabricated on Si substrate. The sensitivity tests with a DPPH samples resulted in the sensitivity value 10E9 spins/G/Hz1/2 at 300 K. The designed layouts of the microresonator can be scaled down up to a tens of micrometers, and with a different microwave coupling approach hundreds of nanometers could be achieved, allowing the operation frequency up to 100 THz (author)

  1. Topological Qubits from Valence Bond Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dong-Sheng; Affleck, Ian; Raussendorf, Robert

    2018-05-01

    Topological qubits based on S U (N )-symmetric valence-bond solid models are constructed. A logical topological qubit is the ground subspace with twofold degeneracy, which is due to the spontaneous breaking of a global parity symmetry. A logical Z rotation by an angle 2 π /N , for any integer N >2 , is provided by a global twist operation, which is of a topological nature and protected by the energy gap. A general concatenation scheme with standard quantum error-correction codes is also proposed, which can lead to better codes. Generic error-correction properties of symmetry-protected topological order are also demonstrated.

  2. Frequency multiplexing for readout of spin qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornibrook, J. M.; Colless, J. I.; Mahoney, A. C.; Croot, X. G.; Blanvillain, S.; Reilly, D. J., E-mail: david.reilly@sydney.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Lu, H.; Gossard, A. C. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    We demonstrate a low loss, chip-level frequency multiplexing scheme for readout of scaled-up spin qubit devices. By integrating separate bias tees and resonator circuits on-chip for each readout channel, we realise dispersive gate-sensing in combination with charge detection based on two radio frequency quantum point contacts. We apply this approach to perform multiplexed readout of a double quantum dot in the few-electron regime and further demonstrate operation of a 10-channel multiplexing device. Limitations for scaling spin qubit readout to large numbers of multiplexed channels are discussed.

  3. Noisy teleportation of qubit states via the Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger state or the W state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan-Ling, Li; Mao-Fa, Fang; Xing, Xiao; Chao, Wu; Li-Zhen, Hou

    2010-01-01

    The effects of distributing entanglement through the amplitude damping channel or the phase damping channel on the teleportation of a single-qubit state via the Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger state and the W state are discussed. It is found that the average fidelity of teleportation depends on the type and rate of the damping in the channel. For the one-qubit affected case, the Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger state is as robust as the W state, i.e., the same quantum information is preserved through teleportation. For the two-qubit affected case, the W state is more robust when the entanglement is distributed via the amplitude damping channel; if the entanglement is distributed via the phase damping channel, the W state is more robust when the noisy parameter is small while the Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger state becomes more robust when it is large. For the three-qubit affected case, the Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger state is more robust than the W state. (general)

  4. Entanglement of flux qubits through a joint detection of photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurpas, Marcin; Zipper, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    We study the entanglement creation between two flux qubits interacting with electromagnetic field modes. No direct interaction between the qubits exists. Entanglement is reached using the entanglement swapping method by an interference measurement performed on photons. We discuss the influence of off-resonance and multi-photon initial states on the qubit-qubit entanglement. The presented scheme is able to drive an initially separable state of two qubits into an highly entangled state suitable for quantum information processing (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Single qubit manipulation in a microfabricated surface electrode ion trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Emily; Baek, So-Young; Blain, Matthew; Stick, Daniel; Gaultney, Daniel; Crain, Stephen; Noek, Rachel; Kim, Taehyun; Maunz, Peter; Kim, Jungsang

    2013-09-01

    We trap individual 171Yb+ ions in a surface trap microfabricated on a silicon substrate, and demonstrate a complete set of high fidelity single qubit operations for the hyperfine qubit. Trapping times exceeding 20 min without laser cooling, and heating rates as low as 0.8 quanta ms-1, indicate stable trapping conditions in these microtraps. A coherence time of more than 1 s, high fidelity qubit state detection and single qubit rotations are demonstrated. The observation of low heating rates and demonstration of high quality single qubit gates at room temperature are critical steps toward scalable quantum information processing in microfabricated surface traps.

  6. Single qubit manipulation in a microfabricated surface electrode ion trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mount, Emily; Baek, So-Young; Gaultney, Daniel; Crain, Stephen; Noek, Rachel; Kim, Taehyun; Maunz, Peter; Kim, Jungsang; Blain, Matthew; Stick, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We trap individual 171 Yb + ions in a surface trap microfabricated on a silicon substrate, and demonstrate a complete set of high fidelity single qubit operations for the hyperfine qubit. Trapping times exceeding 20 min without laser cooling, and heating rates as low as 0.8 quanta ms −1 , indicate stable trapping conditions in these microtraps. A coherence time of more than 1 s, high fidelity qubit state detection and single qubit rotations are demonstrated. The observation of low heating rates and demonstration of high quality single qubit gates at room temperature are critical steps toward scalable quantum information processing in microfabricated surface traps. (paper)

  7. Generation of cluster states with Josephson charge qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xiao-Hu; Dong, Ping; Xue, Zheng-Yuan; Cao, Zhuo-Liang

    2007-01-01

    A scheme for the generation of the cluster states based on the Josephson charge qubits is proposed. The two-qubit generation case is introduced first, and then generalized to multi-qubit case. The successful probability and fidelity of current multi-qubit cluster state are both 1.0. The scheme is simple and can be easily manipulated, because any two charge qubits can be selectively and effectively coupled by a common inductance. More manipulations can be realized before decoherence sets in. All the devices in the scheme are well within the current technology

  8. Photoreflectance study of strained GaAsN/GaAs T-junction quantum wires grown by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klangtakai, Pawinee; Sanorpim, Sakuntam; Onabe, Kentaro

    2011-12-01

    Strained GaAsN T-junction quantum wires (T-QWRs) with different N contents grown on GaAs by two steps metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy in [001] and [110] directions, namely QW1 and QW2 respectively, have been investigated by photoreflectance (PR) spectroscopy. Two GaAsN T-QWRs with different N contents were formed by T-intersection of (i) a 6.4-nm-thick GaAs0.89N0.011 QW1 and a 5.2-nm-thick GaAs0.968N0.032 QW2 and (ii) a 5.0-nm-thick GaAs0.985N0.015 QW1 and a 5.2-nm-thick GaAs0.968N0.032 QW2. An evidence of a one-dimensional structure at T-intersection of the two QWs on the (001) and (110) surfaces was established by PR resonances associated with extended states in all the QW and T-QWR samples. It is found that larger lateral confinement energy than 100 meV in both of [001] and [110] directions were achieved for GaAsN T-QWRs. With increasing temperature, the transition energy of GaAsN T-QWRs decreases with a faster shrinking rate compared to that of bulk GaAs. Optical quality of GaAsN T-QWRs is found to be affected by the N-induced band edge fluctuation, which is the unique characteristic of dilute III-V-nitrides.

  9. Phase II Trial of Preoperative Irinotecan-Cisplatin Followed by Concurrent Irinotecan-Cisplatin and Radiotherapy for Resectable Locally Advanced Gastric and Esophagogastric Junction Adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, Fernando; Galan, Maica; Tabernero, Josep; Cervantes, Andres; Vega-Villegas, M. Eugenia; Gallego, Javier; Laquente, Berta; Rodriguez, Edith; Carrato, Alfredo; Escudero, Pilar; Massuti, Bartomeu; Alonso-Orduna, Vicente; Cardenal, Adelaida; Saenz, Alberto; Giralt, Jordi; Yuste, Ana Lucia

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine in a Phase II trial whether preoperative irinotecan-cisplatin (IC) followed by concurrent IC therapy and radiotherapy (IC/RT) improved outcome in patients with resectable, locally advanced gastric adenocarcinoma (GC) or esophagogastric junction cancer (EGJC). Patients and Methods: Patients with resectable Stage II-IV, M0 GC or EGJC made up the study population. The primary endpoint was pathologic complete response (pCR). Two courses of IC (irinotecan, 65mg/m 2 ; cisplatin, 30mg/m 2 on Days 1 and 8 every 21 days) were given. Patients without progression then received IC/RT, consisting of daily radiotherapy (45Gy) with concurrent IC (irinotecan, 65mg/m 2 ; cisplatin, 30mg/m 2 on Days 1, 8, 15, and 22). Surgical resection was performed, if feasible, 5-8 weeks after the end of radiotherapy. Results: Twenty-three patients were included in the study: 10 with EGJC and 13 with GC. Two patients (9%) achieved pCR. The incidences of Grade 3-4 toxicities were as follows: IC: neutropenia 35% (febrile 13%), anemia 22%, diarrhea 22%, emesis 8%; IC/RT: neutropenia 52% (febrile 5%), asthenia 19%, anemia 9%, emesis 9%, diarrhea 5%, cardiotoxicity 5%. No patients died during IC or IC/RT. R0 resection was achieved in 15 patients (65%). Median survival was 14.5 months, and the actuarial 2-year survival rate was 35%. Conclusions: Preoperative IC followed by IC/RT resulted in moderate response and resection rates with mild toxicity in patients with GC and EGJC.

  10. Three-Party Quantum State Sharing of an Arbitrary Unknown Two-Qubit State Based on Entanglement Swapping and Bell-State Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Hao; Song Jun; Hou Kui; Hu Xiaoyuan; Shi Shouhua; Han Lianfang

    2009-01-01

    We propose a scheme for sharing an arbitrary unknown two-qubit state among three parties by using a four-qubit cluster-class state and a Bell state as a quantum channel. With a quantum controlled phase gate (QCPG) operation and a local unitary operation, any one of the two agents has the access to reconstruct the original state if he/she collaborates with the other one, whilst individual agent obtains no information. As all quantum resource can be used to carry the useful information, the intrinsic efficiency of qubits approaches the maximal value. Moreover, the present scheme is more feasible with present-day technique.

  11. Quantum synchronization effects in intrinsic Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, M.; Kano, T.; Yamada, S.; Okumura, M.; Imamura, T.; Koyama, T.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate quantum dynamics of the superconducting phase in intrinsic Josephson junctions of layered high-T c superconductors motivated by a recent experimental observation for the switching rate enhancement in the low temperature quantum regime. We pay attention to only the capacitive coupling between neighboring junctions and perform large-scale simulations for the Schroedinger equation derived from the Hamiltonian considering the capacitive coupling alone. The simulation focuses on an issue whether the switching of a junction induces those of the other junctions or not. The results reveal that the superconducting phase dynamics show synchronous behavior with increasing the quantum character, e.g., decreasing the junction plane area and effectively the temperature. This is qualitatively consistent with the experimental result

  12. Controlling bi-partite entanglement in multi-qubit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plesch, Martin; Novotny, Jaroslav; Dzurakova, Zuzana; Buzek, VladimIr

    2004-01-01

    Bi-partite entanglement in multi-qubit systems cannot be shared freely. The rules of quantum mechanics impose bounds on how multi-qubit systems can be correlated. In this paper, we utilize a concept of entangled graphs with weighted edges in order to analyse pure quantum states of multi-qubit systems. Here qubits are represented by vertexes of the graph, while the presence of bi-partite entanglement is represented by an edge between corresponding vertexes. The weight of each edge is defined to be the entanglement between the two qubits connected by the edge, as measured by the concurrence. We prove that each entangled graph with entanglement bounded by a specific value of the concurrence can be represented by a pure multi-qubit state. In addition, we present a logic network with O(N 2 ) elementary gates that can be used for preparation of the weighted entangled graphs of N qubits

  13. Controlling bi-partite entanglement in multi-qubit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plesch, Martin; Novotný, Jaroslav; Dzuráková, Zuzana; Buzek, Vladimír

    2004-02-01

    Bi-partite entanglement in multi-qubit systems cannot be shared freely. The rules of quantum mechanics impose bounds on how multi-qubit systems can be correlated. In this paper, we utilize a concept of entangled graphs with weighted edges in order to analyse pure quantum states of multi-qubit systems. Here qubits are represented by vertexes of the graph, while the presence of bi-partite entanglement is represented by an edge between corresponding vertexes. The weight of each edge is defined to be the entanglement between the two qubits connected by the edge, as measured by the concurrence. We prove that each entangled graph with entanglement bounded by a specific value of the concurrence can be represented by a pure multi-qubit state. In addition, we present a logic network with O(N2) elementary gates that can be used for preparation of the weighted entangled graphs of N qubits.

  14. Weak measurements with a qubit meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Shengjun; Mølmer, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    We derive schemes to measure the so-called weak values of quantum system observables by coupling of the system to a qubit meter system. We highlight, in particular, the meaning of the imaginary part of the weak values, and show how it can be measured directly on equal footing with the real part...

  15. A semiconductor nanowire Josephson junction microwave laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Maja; Uilhoorn, Willemijn; Kroll, James; de Jong, Damaz; van Woerkom, David; Nygard, Jesper; Krogstrup, Peter; Kouwenhoven, Leo

    We present measurements of microwave lasing from a single Al/InAs/Al nanowire Josephson junction strongly coupled to a high quality factor superconducting cavity. Application of a DC bias voltage to the Josephson junction results in photon emission into the cavity when the bias voltage is equal to a multiple of the cavity frequency. At large voltage biases, the strong non-linearity of the circuit allows for efficient down conversion of high frequency microwave photons down to multiple photons at the fundamental frequency of the cavity. In this regime, the emission linewidth narrows significantly below the bare cavity linewidth to 50%. The junction-cavity coupling and laser emission can be tuned rapidly via an external gate, making it suitable to be integrated into a scalable qubit architecture as a versatile source of coherent microwave radiation. This work has been supported by the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO/OCW), Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM), European Research Council (ERC), and Microsoft Corporation Station Q.

  16. Silicon based cryogenic platform for the integration of qubit and classical control chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, T.; Hollmann, A.; Jirovec, D.; Neumann, R.; Klemt, B.; Kindel, S.; Kucharski, M.; Fischer, G.; Bougeard, D.; Bluhm, H.; Schreiber, L. R.

    Electrostatically confined electron-spin-qubits proved viable for quantum information processing. Yet their up-scaling not only demands improvement of physical qubits, but also the development and cryogenic integration of classical control hardware. Therefore, we created a platform to integrate quantum chips and classical electronics. These multilayer interposer chips incorporate passive circuit elements, high bandwidth coplanar wave guides and interconnects for electron spin resonant qubit control as well as low impedance DC microstrips reducing EM-crosstalk from AC to DC lines. We used the interposer for measurements of a Si/SiGe quantum dot at 30 mK. We also characterized a commercial voltage controlled oszillator (VCO) based on hetero-bipolar transistors. Tunable about 30 GHz it is ideal for electron spin resonant qubit control. Cooled from 300 to 4 K it exhibits a slightly increased output power and frequency, while the phase noise level is constant. The device remains functional up to magnetic fields of 6 T.

  17. Feedback-tuned, noise resilient gates for encoded spin qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluhm, Hendrik

    Spin 1/2 particles form native two level systems and thus lend themselves as a natural qubit implementation. However, encoding a single qubit in several spins entails benefits, such as reducing the resources necessary for qubit control and protection from certain decoherence channels. While several varieties of such encoded spin qubits have been implemented, accurate control remains challenging, and leakage out of the subspace of valid qubit states is a potential issue. Optimal performance typically requires large pulse amplitudes for fast control, which is prone to systematic errors and prohibits standard control approaches based on Rabi flopping. Furthermore, the exchange interaction typically used to electrically manipulate encoded spin qubits is inherently sensitive to charge noise. I will discuss all-electrical, high-fidelity single qubit operations for a spin qubit encoded in two electrons in a GaAs double quantum dot. Starting from a set of numerically optimized control pulses, we employ an iterative tuning procedure based on measured error syndromes to remove systematic errors.Randomized benchmarking yields an average gate fidelity exceeding 98 % and a leakage rate into invalid states of 0.2 %. These gates exhibit a certain degree of resilience to both slow charge and nuclear spin fluctuations due to dynamical correction analogous to a spin echo. Furthermore, the numerical optimization minimizes the impact of fast charge noise. Both types of noise make relevant contributions to gate errors. The general approach is also adaptable to other qubit encodings and exchange based two-qubit gates.

  18. Josephson junction arrays and superconducting wire networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobb, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Techniques used to fabricate integrated circuits make it possible to construct superconducting networks containing as many as 10 6 wires or Josephson junctions. Such networks undergo phase transitions from resistive high-temperature states to ordered low-resistance low-temperature states. The nature of the phase transition depends strongly on controllable parameters such as the strength of the superconductivity in each wire or junction and the external magnetic field. This paper will review the physics of these phase transitions, starting with the simplest zero-magnetic field case. This leads to a Kosterlitz-Thouless transition when the junctions or wires are weak, and a simple mean-field fransition when the junctions or wires are strong. Rich behavior, resulting from frustration, occurs in the presence of a magnetic field. (orig.)

  19. Molecular electronic junction transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Gemma C.; Herrmann, Carmen; Ratner, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Whenasinglemolecule,oracollectionofmolecules,isplacedbetween two electrodes and voltage is applied, one has a molecular transport junction. We discuss such junctions, their properties, their description, and some of their applications. The discussion is qualitative rather than quantitative, and f...

  20. Threshold quantum secret sharing based on single qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Changbin; Miao, Fuyou; Meng, Keju; Yu, Yue

    2018-03-01

    Based on unitary phase shift operation on single qubit in association with Shamir's ( t, n) secret sharing, a ( t, n) threshold quantum secret sharing scheme (or ( t, n)-QSS) is proposed to share both classical information and quantum states. The scheme uses decoy photons to prevent eavesdropping and employs the secret in Shamir's scheme as the private value to guarantee the correctness of secret reconstruction. Analyses show it is resistant to typical intercept-and-resend attack, entangle-and-measure attack and participant attacks such as entanglement swapping attack. Moreover, it is easier to realize in physic and more practical in applications when compared with related ones. By the method in our scheme, new ( t, n)-QSS schemes can be easily constructed using other classical ( t, n) secret sharing.

  1. Multi-path interferometric Josephson directional amplifier for qubit readout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, Baleegh; Bronn, Nicholas T.; Jinka, Oblesh; Olivadese, Salvatore; Brink, Markus; Chow, Jerry M.

    2018-04-01

    We realize and characterize a quantum-limited, directional Josephson amplifier suitable for qubit readout. The device consists of two nondegenerate, three-wave-mixing amplifiers that are coupled together in an interferometric scheme, embedded in a printed circuit board. Nonreciprocity is generated by applying a phase gradient between the same-frequency pumps feeding the device, which plays the role of the magnetic field in a Faraday medium. Directional amplification and reflection-gain elimination are induced via wave interference between multiple paths in the system. We measure and discuss the main figures of merit of the device and show that the experimental results are in good agreement with theory. An improved version of this directional amplifier is expected to eliminate the need for bulky, off-chip isolation stages that generally separate quantum systems and preamplifiers in high-fidelity, quantum-nondemolition measurement setups.

  2. Ultracoherent operation of spin qubits with superexchange coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rančić, Marko J.; Burkard, Guido

    2017-11-01

    With the use of nuclear-spin-free materials such as silicon and germanium, spin-based quantum bits (qubits) have evolved to become among the most coherent systems for quantum information processing. The new frontier for spin qubits has therefore shifted to the ubiquitous charge noise and spin-orbit interaction, which are limiting the coherence times and gate fidelities of solid-state qubits. In this paper we investigate superexchange, as a means of indirect exchange interaction between two single electron spin qubits, each embedded in a single semiconductor quantum dot (QD), mediated by an intermediate, empty QD. Our results suggest the existence of "supersweet spots", in which the qubit operations implemented by superexchange interaction are simultaneously first-order-insensitive to charge noise and to errors due to spin-orbit interaction. The proposed spin-qubit architecture is scalable and within the manufacturing capabilities of semiconductor industry.

  3. Superconducting Qubits as Mechanical Quantum Engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachtleben, Kewin; Mazon, Kahio T; Rego, Luis G C

    2017-09-01

    We propose the equivalence of superconducting qubits with a pistonlike mechanical quantum engine. The work reports a study on the nature of the nonequilibrium work exchanged with the quantum-nonadiabatic working medium, which is modeled as a multilevel coupled quantum well system subject to an external control parameter. The quantum dynamics is solved for arbitrary control protocols. It is shown that the work output has two components: one that depends instantaneously on the level populations and another that is due to the quantum coherences built in the system. The nonadiabatic coherent dynamics of the quantum engine gives rise to a resistance (friction) force that decreases the work output. We consider the functional equivalence of such a device and a rf-SQUID flux qubit.

  4. Measurement strategy for spatially encoded photonic qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis-Prosser, M. A.; Neves, L.

    2010-01-01

    We propose a measurement strategy which can, probabilistically, reproduce the statistics of any observable for spatially encoded photonic qubits. It comprises the implementation of a two-outcome positive operator-valued measure followed by a detection in a fixed transverse position, making the displacement of the detection system unnecessary, unlike previous methods. This strategy generalizes a scheme recently demonstrated by one of us and co-workers, restricted to measurement of observables with equatorial eigenvectors only. The method presented here can be implemented with the current technology of programmable multipixel liquid-crystal displays. In addition, it can be straightforwardly extended to high-dimensional qudits and may be a valuable tool in optical implementations of quantum information protocols with spatial qubits and qudits.

  5. Scalable quantum computation via local control of only two qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgarth, Daniel; Maruyama, Koji; Murphy, Michael; Montangero, Simone; Calarco, Tommaso; Nori, Franco; Plenio, Martin B.

    2010-01-01

    We apply quantum control techniques to a long spin chain by acting only on two qubits at one of its ends, thereby implementing universal quantum computation by a combination of quantum gates on these qubits and indirect swap operations across the chain. It is shown that the control sequences can be computed and implemented efficiently. We discuss the application of these ideas to physical systems such as superconducting qubits in which full control of long chains is challenging.

  6. A Criterion to Identify Maximally Entangled Four-Qubit State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zha Xinwei; Song Haiyang; Feng Feng

    2011-01-01

    Paolo Facchi, et al. [Phys. Rev. A 77 (2008) 060304(R)] presented a maximally multipartite entangled state (MMES). Here, we give a criterion for the identification of maximally entangled four-qubit states. Using this criterion, we not only identify some existing maximally entangled four-qubit states in the literature, but also find several new maximally entangled four-qubit states as well. (general)

  7. Quantum Logical Operations on Encoded Qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zurek, W.H.; Laflamme, R.

    1996-01-01

    We show how to carry out quantum logical operations (controlled-not and Toffoli gates) on encoded qubits for several encodings which protect against various 1-bit errors. This improves the reliability of these operations by allowing one to correct for 1-bit errors which either preexisted or occurred in the course of operation. The logical operations we consider allow one to carry out the vast majority of the steps in the quantum factoring algorithm. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  8. Transformed composite sequences for improved qubit addressing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, J. True; Doret, S. Charles; Vittorini, Grahame; Addison, J. P.; Brown, Kenneth R.

    2014-10-01

    Selective laser addressing of a single atom or atomic ion qubit can be improved using narrow-band composite pulse sequences. We describe a Lie-algebraic technique to generalize known narrow-band sequences and introduce sequences related by dilation and rotation of sequence generators. Our method improves known narrow-band sequences by decreasing both the pulse time and the residual error. Finally, we experimentally demonstrate these composite sequences using 40Ca+ ions trapped in a surface-electrode ion trap.

  9. Coherence properties of the 0-π qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groszkowski, Peter; Di Paolo, A.; Grimsmo, A. L.; Blais, A.; Schuster, D. I.; Houck, A. A.; Koch, Jens

    2018-04-01

    Superconducting circuits rank among some of the most interesting architectures for the implementation of quantum information processing devices. The recently proposed 0-π qubit (Brooks et al 2013 Phys. Rev. A 87 52306) promises increased protection from spontaneous relaxation and dephasing. In this paper we present a detailed theoretical study of the coherence properties of the 0-π device, investigate relevant decoherence channels, and show estimates for achievable coherence times in multiple parameter regimes. In our analysis, we include disorder in circuit parameters, which results in the coupling of the qubit to a low-energy, spurious harmonic mode. We analyze the effects of such coupling on decoherence, in particular dephasing due to photon shot noise, and outline how such a noise channel can be mitigated by appropriate parameter choices. In the end we find that the 0-π qubit performs well and may become an attractive candidate for the implementation of the next-generation superconducting devices for uses in quantum computing and information.

  10. Characterization of two-qubit perfect entanglers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezakhani, A.T.

    2004-01-01

    Here we consider perfect entanglers from another perspective. It is shown that there are some special perfect entanglers which can maximally entangle a full product basis. We explicitly construct a one-parameter family of such entanglers together with the proper product basis that they maximally entangle. This special family of perfect entanglers contains some well-known operators such as controlled-NOT (CNOT) and double-CNOT, but not √(SWAP). In addition, it is shown that all perfect entanglers with entangling power equal to the maximal value (2/9) are also special perfect entanglers. It is proved that the one-parameter family is the only possible set of special perfect entanglers. Also we provide an analytic way to implement any arbitrary two-qubit gate, given a proper special perfect entangler supplemented with single-qubit gates. Such gates are shown to provide a minimum universal gate construction in that just two of them are necessary and sufficient in implementation of a generic two-qubit gate

  11. Electrically protected resonant exchange qubits in triple quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J M; Srinivasa, V; Medford, J

    2013-08-02

    We present a modulated microwave approach for quantum computing with qubits comprising three spins in a triple quantum dot. This approach includes single- and two-qubit gates that are protected against low-frequency electrical noise, due to an operating point with a narrowband response to high frequency electric fields. Furthermore, existing double quantum dot advances, including robust preparation and measurement via spin-to-charge conversion, are immediately applicable to the new qubit. Finally, the electric dipole terms implicit in the high frequency coupling enable strong coupling with superconducting microwave resonators, leading to more robust two-qubit gates.

  12. Controllable gaussian-qubit interface for extremal quantum state engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Campbell, Steve; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Paternostro, Mauro

    2010-06-18

    We study state engineering through bilinear interactions between two remote qubits and two-mode gaussian light fields. The attainable two-qubit states span the entire physically allowed region in the entanglement-versus-global-purity plane. Two-mode gaussian states with maximal entanglement at fixed global and marginal entropies produce maximally entangled two-qubit states in the corresponding entropic diagram. We show that a small set of parameters characterizing extremally entangled two-mode gaussian states is sufficient to control the engineering of extremally entangled two-qubit states, which can be realized in realistic matter-light scenarios.

  13. Quantum dynamics of a two-atom-qubit system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Hieu; Nguyen Bich Ha; Le Thi Ha Linh

    2009-01-01

    A physical model of the quantum information exchange between two qubits is studied theoretically. The qubits are two identical two-level atoms, the physical mechanism of the quantum information exchange is the mutual dependence of the reduced density matrices of two qubits generated by their couplings with a multimode radiation field. The Lehmberg-Agarwal master equation is exactly solved. The explicit form of the mutual dependence of two reduced density matrices is established. The application to study the entanglement of two qubits is discussed.

  14. High-fidelity gates in quantum dot spin qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Teck Seng; Coppersmith, S N; Friesen, Mark

    2013-12-03

    Several logical qubits and quantum gates have been proposed for semiconductor quantum dots controlled by voltages applied to top gates. The different schemes can be difficult to compare meaningfully. Here we develop a theoretical framework to evaluate disparate qubit-gating schemes on an equal footing. We apply the procedure to two types of double-dot qubits: the singlet-triplet and the semiconducting quantum dot hybrid qubit. We investigate three quantum gates that flip the qubit state: a DC pulsed gate, an AC gate based on logical qubit resonance, and a gate-like process known as stimulated Raman adiabatic passage. These gates are all mediated by an exchange interaction that is controlled experimentally using the interdot tunnel coupling g and the detuning [Symbol: see text], which sets the energy difference between the dots. Our procedure has two steps. First, we optimize the gate fidelity (f) for fixed g as a function of the other control parameters; this yields an f(opt)(g) that is universal for different types of gates. Next, we identify physical constraints on the control parameters; this yields an upper bound f(max) that is specific to the qubit-gate combination. We show that similar gate fidelities (~99:5%) should be attainable for singlet-triplet qubits in isotopically purified Si, and for hybrid qubits in natural Si. Considerably lower fidelities are obtained for GaAs devices, due to the fluctuating magnetic fields ΔB produced by nuclear spins.

  15. A programmable two-qubit quantum processor in silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, T F; Philips, S G J; Kawakami, E; Ward, D R; Scarlino, P; Veldhorst, M; Savage, D E; Lagally, M G; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S N; Eriksson, M A; Vandersypen, L M K

    2018-03-29

    Now that it is possible to achieve measurement and control fidelities for individual quantum bits (qubits) above the threshold for fault tolerance, attention is moving towards the difficult task of scaling up the number of physical qubits to the large numbers that are needed for fault-tolerant quantum computing. In this context, quantum-dot-based spin qubits could have substantial advantages over other types of qubit owing to their potential for all-electrical operation and ability to be integrated at high density onto an industrial platform. Initialization, readout and single- and two-qubit gates have been demonstrated in various quantum-dot-based qubit representations. However, as seen with small-scale demonstrations of quantum computers using other types of qubit, combining these elements leads to challenges related to qubit crosstalk, state leakage, calibration and control hardware. Here we overcome these challenges by using carefully designed control techniques to demonstrate a programmable two-qubit quantum processor in a silicon device that can perform the Deutsch-Josza algorithm and the Grover search algorithm-canonical examples of quantum algorithms that outperform their classical analogues. We characterize the entanglement in our processor by using quantum-state tomography of Bell states, measuring state fidelities of 85-89 per cent and concurrences of 73-82 per cent. These results pave the way for larger-scale quantum computers that use spins confined to quantum dots.

  16. Logical operations realized on the Ising chain of N qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Masanari; Tateda, Norihiro; Ishii, Chikara

    2004-01-01

    Multiqubit logical gates are proposed as implementations of logical operations on N qubits realized physically by the local manipulation of qubits before and after the one-time evolution of an Ising chain. This construction avoids complicated tuning of the interactions between qubits. The general rules of the action of multiqubit logical gates are derived by decomposing the process into the product of two-qubit logical operations. The formalism is demonstrated by the construction of a special type of multiqubit logical gate that is simulated by a quantum circuit composed of controlled-NOT gates

  17. The Quantum Socket: Wiring for Superconducting Qubits - Part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariantoni, M.; Bejianin, J. H.; McConkey, T. G.; Rinehart, J. R.; Bateman, J. D.; Earnest, C. T.; McRae, C. H.; Rohanizadegan, Y.; Shiri, D.; Penava, B.; Breul, P.; Royak, S.; Zapatka, M.; Fowler, A. G.

    The implementation of a quantum computer requires quantum error correction codes, which allow to correct errors occurring on physical quantum bits (qubits). Ensemble of physical qubits will be grouped to form a logical qubit with a lower error rate. Reaching low error rates will necessitate a large number of physical qubits. Thus, a scalable qubit architecture must be developed. Superconducting qubits have been used to realize error correction. However, a truly scalable qubit architecture has yet to be demonstrated. A critical step towards scalability is the realization of a wiring method that allows to address qubits densely and accurately. A quantum socket that serves this purpose has been designed and tested at microwave frequencies. In this talk, we show results where the socket is used at millikelvin temperatures to measure an on-chip superconducting resonator. The control electronics is another fundamental element for scalability. We will present a proposal based on the quantum socket to interconnect a classical control hardware to a superconducting qubit hardware, where both are operated at millikelvin temperatures.

  18. Multiplexing Superconducting Qubit Circuit for Single Microwave Photon Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, R. E.; Senior, J.; Saira, O.-P.; Pekola, J. P.; de Graaf, S. E.; Lindström, T.; Pashkin, Yu A.

    2017-10-01

    We report on a device that integrates eight superconducting transmon qubits in λ /4 superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators fed from a common feedline. Using this multiplexing architecture, each resonator and qubit can be addressed individually, thus reducing the required hardware resources and allowing their individual characterisation by spectroscopic methods. The measured device parameters agree with the designed values, and the resonators and qubits exhibit excellent coherence properties and strong coupling, with the qubit relaxation rate dominated by the Purcell effect when brought in resonance with the resonator. Our analysis shows that the circuit is suitable for generation of single microwave photons on demand with an efficiency exceeding 80%.

  19. Entanglement and Metrology with Singlet-Triplet Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Michael Dean

    Electron spins confined in semiconductor quantum dots are emerging as a promising system to study quantum information science and to perform sensitive metrology. Their weak interaction with the environment leads to long coherence times and robust storage for quantum information, and the intrinsic tunability of semiconductors allows for controllable operations, initialization, and readout of their quantum state. These spin qubits are also promising candidates for the building block for a scalable quantum information processor due to their prospects for scalability and miniaturization. However, several obstacles limit the performance of quantum information experiments in these systems. For example, the weak coupling to the environment makes inter-qubit operations challenging, and a fluctuating nuclear magnetic field limits the performance of single-qubit operations. The focus of this thesis will be several experiments which address some of the outstanding problems in semiconductor spin qubits, in particular, singlet-triplet (S-T0) qubits. We use these qubits to probe both the electric field and magnetic field noise that limit the performance of these qubits. The magnetic noise bath is probed with high bandwidth and precision using novel techniques borrowed from the field of Hamiltonian learning, which are effective due to the rapid control and readout available in S-T 0 qubits. These findings allow us to effectively undo the undesired effects of the fluctuating nuclear magnetic field by tracking them in real-time, and we demonstrate a 30-fold improvement in the coherence time T2*. We probe the voltage noise environment of the qubit using coherent qubit oscillations, which is partially enabled by control of the nuclear magnetic field. We find that the voltage noise bath is frequency-dependent, even at frequencies as high as 1MHz, and it shows surprising and, as of yet, unexplained temperature dependence. We leverage this knowledge of the voltage noise environment, the

  20. Spin-orbit mediated control of spin qubits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flindt, Christian; Sørensen, A.S; Flensberg, Karsten

    2006-01-01

    We propose to use the spin-orbit interaction as a means to control electron spins in quantum dots, enabling both single-qubit and two-qubit operations. Very fast single-qubit operations may be achieved by temporarily displacing the electrons. For two-qubit operations the coupling mechanism is bas...... on a combination of the spin-orbit coupling and the mutual long-ranged Coulomb interaction. Compared to existing schemes using the exchange coupling, the spin-orbit induced coupling is less sensitive to random electrical fluctuations in the electrodes defining the quantum dots....

  1. A programmable two-qubit quantum processor in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, T. F.; Philips, S. G. J.; Kawakami, E.; Ward, D. R.; Scarlino, P.; Veldhorst, M.; Savage, D. E.; Lagally, M. G.; Friesen, Mark; Coppersmith, S. N.; Eriksson, M. A.; Vandersypen, L. M. K.

    2018-03-01

    Now that it is possible to achieve measurement and control fidelities for individual quantum bits (qubits) above the threshold for fault tolerance, attention is moving towards the difficult task of scaling up the number of physical qubits to the large numbers that are needed for fault-tolerant quantum computing. In this context, quantum-dot-based spin qubits could have substantial advantages over other types of qubit owing to their potential for all-electrical operation and ability to be integrated at high density onto an industrial platform. Initialization, readout and single- and two-qubit gates have been demonstrated in various quantum-dot-based qubit representations. However, as seen with small-scale demonstrations of quantum computers using other types of qubit, combining these elements leads to challenges related to qubit crosstalk, state leakage, calibration and control hardware. Here we overcome these challenges by using carefully designed control techniques to demonstrate a programmable two-qubit quantum processor in a silicon device that can perform the Deutsch–Josza algorithm and the Grover search algorithm—canonical examples of quantum algorithms that outperform their classical analogues. We characterize the entanglement in our processor by using quantum-state tomography of Bell states, measuring state fidelities of 85–89 per cent and concurrences of 73–82 per cent. These results pave the way for larger-scale quantum computers that use spins confined to quantum dots.

  2. Crosstalk error correction through dynamical decoupling of single-qubit gates in capacitively coupled singlet-triplet semiconductor spin qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buterakos, Donovan; Throckmorton, Robert E.; Das Sarma, S.

    2018-01-01

    In addition to magnetic field and electric charge noise adversely affecting spin-qubit operations, performing single-qubit gates on one of multiple coupled singlet-triplet qubits presents a new challenge: crosstalk, which is inevitable (and must be minimized) in any multiqubit quantum computing architecture. We develop a set of dynamically corrected pulse sequences that are designed to cancel the effects of both types of noise (i.e., field and charge) as well as crosstalk to leading order, and provide parameters for these corrected sequences for all 24 of the single-qubit Clifford gates. We then provide an estimate of the error as a function of the noise and capacitive coupling to compare the fidelity of our corrected gates to their uncorrected versions. Dynamical error correction protocols presented in this work are important for the next generation of singlet-triplet qubit devices where coupling among many qubits will become relevant.

  3. Quantum discord for a central two-qubit system coupled to an XY-spin-chain environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Benqiong; Shao Bin; Zou Jian

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the dynamic behaviors of quantum discord for a central two-qubit system coupled to an XY-spin-chain environment. In the weak-coupling regime, we show that the quantum discord for the two central qubits can become minimized rapidly close to the critical point of a quantum phase transition. By considering the two qubits that are initially prepared in the Werner state, we study the evolution of the quantum discord and that of entanglement under the same conditions. Our results imply that entanglement can disappear completely after a finite time, while the quantum discord decreases and tends to be a stable value according to the initial-state parameter for a very-long-time interval. In this sense, the quantum discord is more robust than entanglement for the quantum system exposed to the environment. The relation between the quantum correlations and the classical correlation is also shown for two particular cases.

  4. Junction and circuit fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackel, L.D.

    1980-01-01

    Great strides have been made in Josephson junction fabrication in the four years since the first IC SQUID meeting. Advances in lithography have allowed the production of devices with planar dimensions as small as a few hundred angstroms. Improved technology has provided ultra-high sensitivity SQUIDS, high-efficiency low-noise mixers, and complex integrated circuits. This review highlights some of the new fabrication procedures. The review consists of three parts. Part 1 is a short summary of the requirements on junctions for various applications. Part 2 reviews intergrated circuit fabrication, including tunnel junction logic circuits made at IBM and Bell Labs, and microbridge radiation sources made at SUNY at Stony Brook. Part 3 describes new junction fabrication techniques, the major emphasis of this review. This part includes a discussion of small oxide-barrier tunnel junctions, semiconductor barrier junctions, and microbridge junctions. Part 3 concludes by considering very fine lithography and limitations to miniaturization. (orig.)

  5. Parametric frequency conversion in long Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irie, F.; Ashihara, S.; Yoshida, K.

    1976-01-01

    Current steps at voltages corresponding to the parametric coupling between an applied r.f. field and junction resonant modes have been observed in long Josephson tunnel junctions in the flux-flow state. The observed periodic variations of the step height due to the applied magnetic field are explained quantitatively by a perturbational analysis using Josephson phase equations. The present study demonstrates that the moving vortex array can serve as a coherent pump wave for signal waves propagating in the barrier region, which indicates, as a result, the possibility of traveling-wave parametric devices with long Josephson tunnel junctions. (author)

  6. Josephson junctions and circle maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bak, P; Bohr, T; Jensen, M H; Christiansen, P V

    1984-01-01

    The return map of a differential equation for the current driven Josephson junction, or the damped driven pendulum, is shown numerically to be a circle map. Phase locking, noise and hysteresis, can thus be understood in a simple and coherent way. The transition to chaos is related to the development of a cubic inflection point. Recent theoretical results on universal behavior at the transition to chaos can readily be checked experimentally by studying I-V characteristics. 17 references, 1 figure.

  7. The qubit rotation in QHE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, D.

    2007-12-01

    In Quantum Hall effect the ground state wave function at ν = 1 is the building block of all other states at different filling factors. It is formed by the entanglement of two spinors forming a singlet state. The inherent frustration visualized by the non-abelian matrix Berry phase is responsible for the quantum pumped charge to flow in the Hall surface. In the light of topological quantum computation the Physics behind Quantum Hall states is studied. (author)

  8. Inversion of Qubit Energy Levels in Qubit-Oscillator Circuits in the Deep-Strong-Coupling Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, F.; Fuse, T.; Ao, Z.; Ashhab, S.; Kakuyanagi, K.; Saito, S.; Aoki, T.; Koshino, K.; Semba, K.

    2018-05-01

    We report on experimentally measured light shifts of superconducting flux qubits deep-strongly coupled to L C oscillators, where the coupling constants are comparable to the qubit and oscillator resonance frequencies. By using two-tone spectroscopy, the energies of the six lowest levels of each circuit are determined. We find huge Lamb shifts that exceed 90% of the bare qubit frequencies and inversions of the qubits' ground and excited states when there are a finite number of photons in the oscillator. Our experimental results agree with theoretical predictions based on the quantum Rabi model.

  9. Experiments on a Quantum Gate Based on Charge-Current Superconducting Qubit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Devoret, Michel H

    2005-01-01

    .... When the amplitude of the RF drive is in the vicinity of the bifurcation points a small change in the effective critical current of the junction is amplified into a large phase change in the reflected signal...

  10. Macroscopic quantum tunneling in Josephson tunnel junctions and Coulomb blockade in single small tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, A.N.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments investigated the process of macroscopic quantum tunneling in a moderately-damped, resistively shunted, Josephson junction are described, followed by a discussion of experiments performed on very-small-capacitance normal-metal tunnel junctions. The experiments on the resistively-shunted Josephson junction were designed to investigate a quantum process, that of the tunneling of the Josephson-phase variable under a potential barrier, in a system in which dissipation plays a major role in the dynamics of motion. All the parameters of the junction were measured using the classical phenomena of thermal activation and resonant activation. Theoretical predictions are compared with the experimental results, showing good agreement with no adjustable parameters. The experiments on small-capacitance tunnel junctions extend the measurements on the large-area Josephson junctions from the region in which the phase variable has a fairly well-defined value, i.e. its wave function has a narrow width, to the region where its value is almost completely unknown. The charge on the junction becomes well-defined and is predicted to quantize the current through the junction, giving rise to the Coulomb blockade at low bias

  11. Electrical analog of a Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    It is noted that a mathematical description of the phase-coupling of two oscillators synchronized by a phase-lock-loop under the influence of thermal white noise is analogous to that of the phase coupling of two superconductors in a Josephson junction also under the influence of noise. This analogy may be useful in studying threshold instabilities of the Josephson junction in regimes not restricted to the case of large damping. This is of interest because the behavior of the mean voltage near the threshold current can be characterized by critical exponents which resemble those exhibited by an order parameter of a continuous phase transition. As it is possible to couple a collection of oscillators together in a chain, the oscillator analogy may also be useful in exploring the dynamics and statistical mechanics of coupled junctions

  12. Atomic scale 0-π transition and pairing symmetry in a Josephson junction with a ferromagnetic insulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, S.; Kashiwaya, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Golubov, A. A.; Asano, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: A superconducting ring with a π-junction made from superconductor (S) / ferromagnetic- metal (FM) / superconductor (S) exhibits a spontaneous current without an external magnetic field and the corresponding magnetic flux is half a flux quantum in the ground state. Such a π-ring provides so-called 'quiet qubit' that can be efficiently decoupled from the fluctuation of the external field. However, the usage of FM gives rise to strong Ohmic dissipation. Therefore, the realization of π-junctions without FM is highly desired for qubit applications. We theoretically consider the possibility of the π-junction formation in the mesoscopic Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic insulators (FI) by taking into account the band structure of such materials explicitly. In the case of the fully polarized FIs, e.g., La 2 BaCuO 5 (LBCO) and K 2 CuF 4 , we found the formation of a π-junction and a novel atomic-scale 0-π transition induced by increasing the FI thickness LF. In this talk, I will discuss a thermal stability and material-parameter dependences of the atomic-scale 0-π transition as well as possibility of the odd-frequency pairing in such systems. (author)

  13. Decoherence patterns of topological qubits from Majorana modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Shih-Hao; Chao, Sung-Po; Chou, Chung-Hsien; Lin, Feng-Li

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the decoherence patterns of topological qubits in contact with the environment using a novel way of deriving the open system dynamics, rather than using the Feynman–Vernon approach. Each topological qubit is made up of two Majorana modes of a 1D Kitaev chain. These two Majorana modes interact with the environment in an incoherent way which yields peculiar decoherence patterns of the topological qubit. More specifically, we consider the open system dynamics of topological qubits which are weakly coupled to fermionic/bosonic Ohmic-like environments. We find atypical patterns of quantum decoherence. In contrast to the case for non-topological qubits—which always decohere completely in all Ohmic-like environments—topological qubits decohere completely in Ohmic and sub-Ohmic environments but not in super-Ohmic ones. Moreover, we find that the fermion parities of the topological qubits, though they cannot prevent the qubit states from exhibiting decoherence in sub-Ohmic environments, can prevent thermalization turning the state into a Gibbs state. We also study the cases in which each Majorana mode can couple to different Ohmic-like environments, and the time dependence of concurrence for two topological qubits. (paper)

  14. Tunable coupling between fixed-frequency superconducting transmon qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filipp, Stefan [IBM Research Zurich, 8803 Rueschlikon (Switzerland); McKay, David C.; Magesan, Easwar; Mezzacapo, Antonio; Chow, Jerry M.; Gambetta, Jay M. [IBM TJ Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The controlled realization of qubit-qubit interactions is essential for both the physical implementation of quantum error-correction codes and for reliable quantum simulations. Ideally, the fidelity and speed of corresponding two-qubit gate operations is comparable to those of single qubit operations. In particular, in a scalable superconducting qubit architecture coherence must not be compromised by the presence of additional coupling elements mediating the interaction between qubits. Here we present a coupling method between fixed-frequency transmon qubits based on the frequency modulation of an auxiliary circuit coupling to the individual transmons. Since the coupler remains in its ground state at all times, its coherence does not significantly influence the fidelity of consequent entangling operations. Moreover, with the possibility to create interactions along different directions, our method is suited to engineer Hamiltonians with adjustable coupling terms. This property can be utilized for quantum simulations of spins or fermions in transmon arrays, in which pairwise couplings between adjacent qubits can be activated on demand.

  15. Quantum-dot cluster-state computing with encoded qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, Yaakov S.; Hellberg, C. Stephen; Levy, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    A class of architectures is advanced for cluster-state quantum computation using quantum dots. These architectures include using single and multiple dots as logical qubits. Special attention is given to supercoherent qubits introduced by Bacon et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 247902 (2001)] for which we discuss the effects of various errors and present a means of error protection

  16. Decoherence of Flux Qubits Coupled to Electronic Circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilhelm, F.K.; Storcz, M.J.; van der Wal, C.H.; Harmans, C.J.P.M.; Mooij, J.E.

    2003-01-01

    On the way to solid-state quantum computing, overcoming decoherence is the central issue. In this contribution, we discuss the modeling of decoherence of a superonducting flux qubit coupled to dissipative electronic circuitry. We discuss its impact on single qubit decoherence rates and on the

  17. Entanglement-based linear-optical qubit amplifier

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Meyer-Scott, E.; Bula, M.; Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Soubusta, Jan; Jennewein, T.; Lemr, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 1 (2013), "012327-1"-"012327-7" ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : quantum physics * photonics qubits * qubit amplifier Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.991, year: 2013

  18. Restless Tuneup of High-Fidelity Qubit Gates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rol, M.A.; Bultink, C.C.; O'Brien, T.E.; Jong, S.R. de; Theis, L.S.; Fu, X.; Luthi, F.; Vermeulen, R.F.L.; Sterke, J.C. de; Bruno, A.; Deurloo, D.; Schouten, R.N.; Wilhelm, F.K.; Dicarlo, L.

    2017-01-01

    We present a tuneup protocol for qubit gates with tenfold speedup over traditional methods reliant on qubit initialization by energy relaxation. This speedup is achieved by constructing a cost function for Nelder-Mead optimization from real-time correlation of nondemolition measurements interleaving

  19. Restless Tuneup of High-Fidelity Qubit Gates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rol, M.A.; Bultink, C.C.; O'Brien, T.E.; De Jong, S. R.; Theis, L. S.; Fu, X.; Lüthi, F.; Vermeulen, R.F.L.; de Sterke, J.C.; Bruno, A.; Deurloo, D.; Schouten, R.N.; Wilhelm, FK; Di Carlo, L.

    2017-01-01

    We present a tuneup protocol for qubit gates with tenfold speedup over traditional methods reliant on qubit initialization by energy relaxation. This speedup is achieved by constructing a cost function for Nelder-Mead optimization from real-time correlation of nondemolition measurements

  20. Two forms for 3-uniform states of eight-qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Xinwei; Da, Zhang; Ahmed, Irfan; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we study the relations between average bipartite entanglement and the n-tangle of eight-qubits. We have derived two forms for 3-uniform states of eight-qubits. One form has the n-tangle equal to zero; the other form has the n-tangle equal to unity.

  1. Generalized qubits of the vibrational motion of a trapped ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arevalo Aguilar, L.M.; Moya-Cessa, H.

    2002-01-01

    We present a method to generate qubits of the vibrational motion of an ion. The method is developed in the non-rotating-wave-approximation regime, therefore we consider regimes where the dynamics has not been studied. Because the solutions are valid for a more extended range of parameters we call them generalized qubits

  2. Flying spin-qubit gates implemented through Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, S.J.; Yang, Z.Q.

    2007-01-01

    A theoretical scheme is proposed to implement flying spin-qubit gates based on two semiconductor wires with Dresselhaus and Rashba spin-orbit couplings (SOCs), respectively. It is found that under the manipulation of the Dresselhaus/Rashba SOC, spin rotates around x/y axis in the three-dimensional spin space. By combining the two kinds of manipulations, i.e. connecting the two kinds of semiconductor wires in series, we obtain a universal set of losses flying single-qubit gates including Hadamard, phase, and π/8 gates. A ballistic switching effect of electronic flow is also found in the investigation. Our results may be useful in future spin or nanoscale electronics

  3. QUANTUM INFORMATION. Coherent coupling between a ferromagnetic magnon and a superconducting qubit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Yutaka; Ishino, Seiichiro; Noguchi, Atsushi; Ishikawa, Toyofumi; Yamazaki, Rekishu; Usami, Koji; Nakamura, Yasunobu

    2015-07-24

    Rigidity of an ordered phase in condensed matter results in collective excitation modes spatially extending to macroscopic dimensions. A magnon is a quantum of such collective excitation modes in ordered spin systems. Here, we demonstrate the coherent coupling between a single-magnon excitation in a millimeter-sized ferromagnetic sphere and a superconducting qubit, with the interaction mediated by the virtual photon excitation in a microwave cavity. We obtain the coupling strength far exceeding the damping rates, thus bringing the hybrid system into the strong coupling regime. Furthermore, we use a parametric drive to realize a tunable magnon-qubit coupling scheme. Our approach provides a versatile tool for quantum control and measurement of the magnon excitations and may lead to advances in quantum information processing. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Fully connected network of superconducting qubits in a cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsomokos, Dimitris I; Ashhab, Sahel; Nori, Franco

    2008-01-01

    A fully connected qubit network is considered, where every qubit interacts with every other one. When the interactions between the qubits are homogeneous, the system is a special case of the finite Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model. We propose a natural implementation of this model using superconducting qubits in state-of-the-art circuit QED. The ground state, the low-lying energy spectrum and the dynamical evolution are investigated. We find that, under realistic conditions, highly entangled states of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and W types can be generated. We also comment on the influence of disorder on the system and discuss the possibility of simulating complex quantum systems, such as Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) spin glasses, with superconducting qubit networks.

  5. On a formulation of qubits in quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmet, Jacques, E-mail: calmet@ira.uka.de [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Cryptography and Security, Am Fasanengarten 5, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Calmet, Xavier, E-mail: x.calmet@sussex.ac.uk [Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Falmer, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-30

    Qubits have been designed in the framework of quantum mechanics. Attempts to formulate the problem in the language of quantum field theory have been proposed already. In this short Letter we refine the meaning of qubits within the framework of quantum field theory. We show that the notion of gauge invariance naturally leads to a generalization of qubits to QFTbits which are then the fundamental carriers of information from the quantum field theoretical point of view. The goal of this Letter is to stress the availability of such a generalized concept of QFTbits. -- Highlights: ► Gauge invariant qubits are proposed. ► Non-linear QFT effects are discussed. ► Entanglement of qubits in QFT.

  6. Tuning decoherence in superconducting transmon qubits by mechanical strain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brehm, Jan; Bilmes, Alexander; Weiss, Georg; Ustinov, Alexey; Lisenfeld, Juergen [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Two-level tunneling systems (TLS) are formed by structural defects in disordered materials. They gained recent attention as an important decoherence source in superconducting qubits, where they appear on surface oxides and at film interfaces. Although the most advanced qubits do not show avoided level crossings arising from a strong coupling to individual TLS, they commonly display a pronounced frequency dependence of relaxation rates, with distinguishable peaks that may point towards weak resonant coupling to single TLS. Previously, we have shown that TLS are tunable via an applied mechanical strain. Here, we employ this method to test whether the characteristic decoherence spectrum of a transmon qubit sample responds to changes in the applied strain, as it can be expected when the decohering bath is formed of atomic TLS. In our experiment, we will employ a highly coherent X-mon qubit sample and tune the strain by bending the qubit chip via a piezo actuator. Our latest results will be presented.

  7. Quantum Privacy Amplification for a Sequence of Single Qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Fuguo; Long Guilu

    2006-01-01

    We present a scheme for quantum privacy amplification (QPA) for a sequence of single qubits. The QPA procedure uses a unitary operation with two controlled-not gates and a Hadamard gate. Every two qubits are performed with the unitary gate operation, and a measurement is made on one photon and the other one is retained. The retained qubit carries the state information of the discarded one. In this way, the information leakage is reduced. The procedure can be performed repeatedly so that the information leakage is reduced to any arbitrarily low level. With this QPA scheme, the quantum secure direct communication with single qubits can be implemented with arbitrarily high security. We also exploit this scheme to do privacy amplification on the single qubits in quantum information sharing for long-distance communication with quantum repeaters.

  8. Quantum gambling using mesoscopic ring qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakula, Ireneusz

    2007-01-01

    Quantum Game Theory provides us with new tools for practising games and some other risk related enterprices like, for example, gambling. The two party gambling protocol presented by Goldenberg et al. is one of the simplest yet still hard to implementapplications of Quantum Game Theory. We propose potential physical realisation of the quantum gambling protocol with use of three mesoscopic ring qubits. We point out problems in implementation of such game. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Protocol for counterfactually transporting an unknown qubit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatim eSalih

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum teleportation circumvents the uncertainty principle using dual channels: a quantum one consisting of previously-shared entanglement, and a classical one, together allowing the disembodied transport of an unknown quantum state over distance. It has recently been shown that a classical bit can be counterfactually communicated between two parties in empty space, Alice and Bob. Here, by using our dual version of the chained quantum Zeno effect to achieve a counterfactual CNOT gate, we propose a protocol for transporting an unknown qubit counterfactually, that is without any physical particles travelling between Alice and Bob—no classical channel and no previously-shared entanglement.

  10. Flux qubits on semiconducting quantum ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szopa, M; Zipper, E

    2010-01-01

    The ability to control the quantum state of a single electrons in a quantum ring made of a semiconductor is at the heart of recent developments towards a scalable quantum computer. A peculiar dispersion relation of quantum rings allows to steer the ground state properties by the magnetic flux and offers spin and orbital degrees of freedom for quantum manipulations. We show that such ring can be effectively reduced to the two-state system forming a qubit on orbital or spin degrees of freedom.

  11. Quantum gambling using mesoscopic ring qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakula, Ireneusz [University of Silesia, Institute of Physics, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)

    2007-07-15

    Quantum Game Theory provides us with new tools for practising games and some other risk related enterprices like, for example, gambling. The two party gambling protocol presented by Goldenberg et al. is one of the simplest yet still hard to implementapplications of Quantum Game Theory. We propose potential physical realisation of the quantum gambling protocol with use of three mesoscopic ring qubits. We point out problems in implementation of such game. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. Optimal entanglement witnesses for qubits and qutrits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertlmann, Reinhold A.; Durstberger, Katharina; Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Krammer, Philipp

    2005-11-01

    We study the connection between the Hilbert-Schmidt measure of entanglement (that is the minimal distance of an entangled state to the set of separable states) and entanglement witness in terms of a generalized Bell inequality which distinguishes between entangled and separable states. A method for checking the nearest separable state to a given entangled one is presented. We illustrate the general results by considering isotropic states, in particular two-qubit and two-qutrit states—and their generalizations to arbitrary dimensions—where we calculate the optimal entanglement witnesses explicitly.

  13. Optimal entanglement witnesses for qubits and qutrits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertlmann, Reinhold A.; Durstberger, Katharina; Hiesmayr, Beatrix C.; Krammer, Philipp

    2005-01-01

    We study the connection between the Hilbert-Schmidt measure of entanglement (that is the minimal distance of an entangled state to the set of separable states) and entanglement witness in terms of a generalized Bell inequality which distinguishes between entangled and separable states. A method for checking the nearest separable state to a given entangled one is presented. We illustrate the general results by considering isotropic states, in particular two-qubit and two-qutrit states--and their generalizations to arbitrary dimensions--where we calculate the optimal entanglement witnesses explicitly

  14. Trichromatic Open Digraphs for Understanding Qubits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Lang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a trichromatic graphical calculus for quantum computing. The generators represent three complementary observables that are treated on equal footing, hence reflecting the symmetries of the Bloch sphere. We derive the Euler angle decomposition of the Hadamard gate within it as well as the so-called supplementary relationships, which are valid equations for qubits that were not derivable within Z/X-calculus of Coecke and Duncan. More specifically, we have: dichromatic Z/X-calculus + Euler angle decomposition of the Hadamard gate = trichromatic calculus.

  15. Equivalent Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyadzhiev, T.L.; ); Semerdzhieva, E.G.; Shukrinov, Yu.M.; Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst., Dushanbe

    2008-01-01

    The magnetic field dependences of critical current are numerically constructed for a long Josephson junction with a shunt- or resistor-type microscopic inhomogeneities and compared to the critical curve of a junction with exponentially varying width. The numerical results show that it is possible to replace the distributed inhomogeneity of a long Josephson junction by an inhomogeneity localized at one of its ends, which has certain technological advantages. It is also shown that the critical curves of junctions with exponentially varying width and inhomogeneities localized at the ends are unaffected by the mixed fluxon-antifluxon distributions of the magnetic flux [ru

  16. Electromagnetic waves in single- and multi-Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Hideki; Koyama, Tomio; Machida, Masahiko

    2008-01-01

    The terahertz wave emission from the intrinsic Josephson junctions is one of recent topics in high T c superconductors. We investigate, by numerical simulation, properties of the electromagnetic waves excited by a constant bias current in the single- and multi-Josephson junctions. Nonlinear equations of phase-differences are solved numerically by treating the effects of the outside electromagnetic fields as dynamical boundary conditions. It is shown that the emitted power of the electromagnetic wave can become large near certain retrapping points of the I-V characteristics. An instability of the inside phase oscillation is related to large amplitude of the oscillatory waves. In the single- (or homogeneous mutli-) Josephson junctions, electromagnetic oscillations can occur either in a form of standing waves (shorter junctions) or by formation of vortex-antivortex pairs (longer junctions). How these two effects affects the behavior of electromagnetic waves in the intrinsic Josephson junctions is discussed

  17. Electrical Manipulation of Donor Spin Qubits in Silicon and Germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigillito, Anthony James

    Many proposals for quantum information devices rely on electronic or nuclear spins in semiconductors because of their long coherence times and compatibility with industrial fabrication processes. One of the most notable qubits is the electron spin bound to phosphorus donors in silicon, which offers coherence times exceeding seconds at low temperatures. These donors are naturally isolated from their environments to the extent that silicon has been coined a "semiconductor vacuum". While this makes for ultra-coherent qubits, it is difficult to couple two remote donors so quantum information proposals rely on high density arrays of qubits. Here, single qubit addressability becomes an issue. Ideally one would address individual qubits using electric fields which can be easily confined. Typically these schemes rely on tuning a donor spin qubit onto and off of resonance with a magnetic driving field. In this thesis, we measure the electrical tunability of phosphorus donors in silicon and use the extracted parameters to estimate the effects of electric-field noise on qubit coherence times. Our measurements show that donor ionization may set in before electron spins can be sufficiently tuned. We therefore explore two alternative options for qubit addressability. First, we demonstrate that nuclear spin qubits can be directly driven using electric fields instead of magnetic fields and show that this approach offers several advantages over magnetically driven spin resonance. In particular, spin transitions can occur at half the spin resonance frequency and double quantum transitions (magnetic-dipole forbidden) can occur. In a second approach to realizing tunable qubits in semiconductors, we explore the option of replacing silicon with germanium. We first measure the coherence and relaxation times for shallow donor spin qubits in natural and isotopically enriched germanium. We find that in isotopically enriched material, coherence times can exceed 1 ms and are limited by a

  18. Remote state preparation of spatial qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solis-Prosser, M. A.; Neves, L. [Center for Optics and Photonics, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 4016, Concepcion (Chile) and Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Concepcion, Casilla 160-C, Concepcion (Chile)

    2011-07-15

    We study the quantum communication protocol of remote state preparation (RSP) for pure states of qubits encoded in single photons transmitted through a double slit, the so-called spatial qubits. Two measurement strategies that one can adopt to remotely prepare the states are discussed. The first strategy is the well-known spatial postselection, where a single-pixel detector measures the transverse position of the photon between the focal and the image plane of a lens. The second strategy, proposed by ourselves, is a generalized measurement divided into two steps: the implementation of a two-outcome positive operator-valued measurement (POVM) followed by the spatial postselection at the focal plane of the lens by a two-pixel detector in each output of the POVM. In both cases we analyze the effects of the finite spatial resolution of the detectors over three figures of merit of the protocol, namely, the probability of preparation, the fidelity, and purity of the remotely prepared states. It is shown that our strategy improves these figures compared with spatial postselection, at the expense of increasing the classical communication cost as well as the required experimental resources. In addition, we present a modified version of our strategy for RSP of spatial qudits which is able to prepare arbitrary pure states, unlike spatial postselection alone. We expect that our study may also be extended for RSP of the angular spectrum of a single-photon field as an alternative for quantum teleportation which requires very inefficient nonlinear interactions.

  19. Remote state preparation of spatial qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis-Prosser, M. A.; Neves, L.

    2011-01-01

    We study the quantum communication protocol of remote state preparation (RSP) for pure states of qubits encoded in single photons transmitted through a double slit, the so-called spatial qubits. Two measurement strategies that one can adopt to remotely prepare the states are discussed. The first strategy is the well-known spatial postselection, where a single-pixel detector measures the transverse position of the photon between the focal and the image plane of a lens. The second strategy, proposed by ourselves, is a generalized measurement divided into two steps: the implementation of a two-outcome positive operator-valued measurement (POVM) followed by the spatial postselection at the focal plane of the lens by a two-pixel detector in each output of the POVM. In both cases we analyze the effects of the finite spatial resolution of the detectors over three figures of merit of the protocol, namely, the probability of preparation, the fidelity, and purity of the remotely prepared states. It is shown that our strategy improves these figures compared with spatial postselection, at the expense of increasing the classical communication cost as well as the required experimental resources. In addition, we present a modified version of our strategy for RSP of spatial qudits which is able to prepare arbitrary pure states, unlike spatial postselection alone. We expect that our study may also be extended for RSP of the angular spectrum of a single-photon field as an alternative for quantum teleportation which requires very inefficient nonlinear interactions.

  20. Qubit absorption refrigerator at strong coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Anqi; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar; Schaller, Gernot; Segal, Dvira

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate that a quantum absorption refrigerator (QAR) can be realized from the smallest quantum system, a qubit, by coupling it in a non-additive (strong) manner to three heat baths. This function is un-attainable for the qubit model under the weak system-bath coupling limit, when the dissipation is additive. In an optimal design, the reservoirs are engineered and characterized by a single frequency component. We then obtain closed expressions for the cooling window and refrigeration efficiency, as well as bounds for the maximal cooling efficiency and the efficiency at maximal power. Our results agree with macroscopic designs and with three-level models for QARs, which are based on the weak system-bath coupling assumption. Beyond the optimal limit, we show with analytical calculations and numerical simulations that the cooling efficiency varies in a non-universal manner with model parameters. Our work demonstrates that strongly-coupled quantum machines can exhibit function that is un-attainable under the weak system-bath coupling assumption.

  1. Verification of Many-Qubit States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Takeuchi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Verification is a task to check whether a given quantum state is close to an ideal state or not. In this paper, we show that a variety of many-qubit quantum states can be verified with only sequential single-qubit measurements of Pauli operators. First, we introduce a protocol for verifying ground states of Hamiltonians. We next explain how to verify quantum states generated by a certain class of quantum circuits. We finally propose an adaptive test of stabilizers that enables the verification of all polynomial-time-generated hypergraph states, which include output states of the Bremner-Montanaro-Shepherd-type instantaneous quantum polynomial time (IQP circuits. Importantly, we do not make any assumption that the identically and independently distributed copies of the same states are given: Our protocols work even if some highly complicated entanglement is created among copies in any artificial way. As applications, we consider the verification of the quantum computational supremacy demonstration with IQP models, and verifiable blind quantum computing.

  2. Dynamics of Entanglement in Qubit-Qutrit with x-Component of DM Interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Kapil K.; Pandey, S.N.

    2016-01-01

    In this present paper, we study the entanglement dynamics in qubit A-qutrit B pair under x component of Dzyaloshinshkii–Moriya interaction (D x ) by taking an auxiliary qubit C. Here, we consider an entangled qubit-qutrit pair initially prepared in two parameter qubit-qutrit states and one auxiliary qubit prepared in pure state interacts with the qutrit of the pair through DM interaction. We trace away the auxiliary qubit and calculate the reduced dynamics in qubit A-qutrit B pair to study the influence of the state of auxiliary qubit C and D x on entanglement. We find that the state (probability amplitude) of auxiliary qubit does not influence the entanglement, only D x influences the same. The phenomenon of entanglement sudden death (ESD) induced by D x has also been observed. We also present the affected and unaffected two parameter qubit-qutrit states by D x . (paper)

  3. Shunted-Josephson-junction model. I. The autonomous case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belykh, V. N.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sørensen, O. H.

    1977-01-01

    The shunted-Josephson-junction model: the parallel combination of a capacitance, a phase-dependent conductance, and an ideal junction element biased by a constant current, is discussed for arbitrary values of the junction parameters. The main objective is to provide a qualitative understanding...... current-voltage curves are presented. The case with a time-dependent monochromatic bias current is treated in a similar fashion in the companion paper....

  4. Supramolecular tunneling junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wimbush, K.S.

    2012-01-01

    In this study a variety of supramolecular tunneling junctions were created. The basis of these junctions was a self-assembled monolayer of heptathioether functionalized ß-cyclodextrin (ßCD) formed on an ultra-flat Au surface, i.e., the bottom electrode. This gave a well-defined hexagonally packed

  5. The Design of Control Pulses for Heisenberg Always-On Qubit Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magyar, Rudolph

    2015-03-01

    One model for a universal quantum computer is a spin array with constant nearest neighbor interactions and a controlled unidirectional site-specific magnetic field to generate unitary transformations. This system can be described by a Heisenberg spin Hamiltonian and can be simulated for on the order of 50 spins. It has recently been shown that time-dependent density functional inspired methods may be used to relate various spin models of qubits to ones that may be easier to compute numerically allowing potentially the efficient simulation of greater numbers of spins. One of the challenges of such an agenda is the identification of control pulses that produce desired gate operations (CNOT and single qubit phase gates). We apply control theory to design a universal set of pulses for a Heisenberg always-on model Hamiltonian for a few qubits and compare to known pulses when available. We suggest how this approach may be useful to design control pulses in other realistic designs. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  6. Integrated devices for quantum information and quantum simulation with polarization encoded qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansoni, Linda; Sciarrino, Fabio; Mataloni, Paolo; Crespi, Andrea; Ramponi, Roberta; Osellame, Roberto

    2012-06-01

    The ability to manipulate quantum states of light by integrated devices may open new perspectives both for fundamental tests of quantum mechanics and for novel technological applications. The technology for handling polarization-encoded qubits, the most commonly adopted approach, was still missing in quantum optical circuits until the ultrafast laser writing (ULW) technique was adopted for the first time to realize integrated devices able to support and manipulate polarization encoded qubits.1 Thanks to this method, polarization dependent and independent devices can be realized. In particular the maintenance of polarization entanglement was demonstrated in a balanced polarization independent integrated beam splitter1 and an integrated CNOT gate for polarization qubits was realized and carachterized.2 We also exploited integrated optics for quantum simulation tasks: by adopting the ULW technique an integrated quantum walk circuit was realized3 and, for the first time, we investigate how the particle statistics, either bosonic or fermionic, influences a two-particle discrete quantum walk. Such experiment has been realized by adopting two-photon entangled states and an array of integrated symmetric directional couplers. The polarization entanglement was exploited to simulate the bunching-antibunching feature of non interacting bosons and fermions. To this scope a novel three-dimensional geometry for the waveguide circuit is introduced, which allows accurate polarization independent behaviour, maintaining a remarkable control on both phase and balancement of the directional couplers.

  7. Generalized Remote Preparation of Arbitrary m-qubit Entangled States via Genuine Entanglements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we present a feasible, general protocol for quantum communication within a network via generalized remote preparation of an arbitrary m-qubit entangled state designed with genuine tripartite Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger-type entangled resources. During the implementations, we construct novel collective unitary operations; these operations are tasked with performing the necessary phase transfers during remote state preparations. We have distilled our implementation methods into a five-step procedure, which can be used to faithfully recover the desired state during transfer. Compared to previous existing schemes, our methodology features a greatly increased success probability. After the consumption of auxiliary qubits and the performance of collective unitary operations, the probability of successful state transfer is increased four-fold and eight-fold for arbitrary two- and three-qubit entanglements when compared to other methods within the literature, respectively. We conclude this paper with a discussion of the presented scheme for state preparation, including: success probabilities, reducibility and generalizability.

  8. Implementation of the Grover search algorithm with Josephson charge qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Xiaohu; Dong Ping; Xue Zhengyuan; Cao Zhuoliang

    2007-01-01

    A scheme of implementing the Grover search algorithm based on Josephson charge qubits has been proposed, which would be a key step to scale more complex quantum algorithms and very important for constructing a real quantum computer via Josephson charge qubits. The present scheme is simple but fairly efficient, and easily manipulated because any two-charge-qubit can be selectively and effectively coupled by a common inductance. More manipulations can be carried out before decoherence sets in. Our scheme can be realized within the current technology

  9. Long-Distance Entanglement of Spin Qubits via Ferromagnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luka Trifunovic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose a mechanism of coherent coupling between distant spin qubits interacting dipolarly with a ferromagnet. We derive an effective two-spin interaction Hamiltonian and find a regime where the dynamics is coherent. Finally, we present a sequence for the implementation of the entangling controlled-not gate and estimate the corresponding operation time to be a few tens of nanoseconds. A particularly promising application of our proposal is to atomistic spin qubits such as silicon-based qubits and nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond to which existing coupling schemes do not apply.

  10. Geometric steering criterion for two-qubit states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bai-Chu; Jia, Zhih-Ahn; Wu, Yu-Chun; Guo, Guang-Can

    2018-01-01

    According to the geometric characterization of measurement assemblages and local hidden state (LHS) models, we propose a steering criterion which is both necessary and sufficient for two-qubit states under arbitrary measurement sets. A quantity is introduced to describe the required local resources to reconstruct a measurement assemblage for two-qubit states. We show that the quantity can be regarded as a quantification of steerability and be used to find out optimal LHS models. Finally we propose a method to generate unsteerable states, and construct some two-qubit states which are entangled but unsteerable under all projective measurements.

  11. Measurement and Quantum State Transfer in Superconducting Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlinar, Eric

    The potential of superconducting qubits as the medium for a scalable quantum computer has motivated the pursuit of improved interactions within this system. Two challenges for the field of superconducting qubits are measurement fidelity, to accurately determine the state of the qubit, and the efficient transfer of quantum states. In measurement, the current state-of-the-art method employs dispersive readout, by coupling the qubit to a cavity and reading the resulting shift in cavity frequency to infer the qubit's state; however, this is vulnerable to Purcell relaxation, as well as being modeled off a simplified two-level abstraction of the qubit. In state transfer, the existing proposal for moving quantum states is mostly untested against non-idealities that will likely be present in an experiment. In this dissertation, we examine three problems within these two areas. We first describe a new scheme for fast and high-fidelity dispersive measurement specifically designed to circumvent the Purcell Effect. To do this, the qubit-resonator interaction is turned on only when the resonator is decoupled from the environment; then, after the resonator state has shifted enough to infer the qubit state, the qubit-resonator interaction is turned off before the resonator and environment are recoupled. We also show that the effectiveness of this "Catch-Disperse-Release'' procedure partly originates from quadrature squeezing of the resonator state induced by the Jaynes-Cummings nonlinearity. The Catch-Disperse-Release measurement scheme treats the qubit as a two-level system, which is a common simplification used in theoretical works. However, the most promising physical candidate for a superconducting qubit, the transmon, is a multi-level system. In the second work, we examine the effects of including the higher energy levels of the transmon. Specifically, we expand the eigenstate picture developed in the first work to encompass multiple qubit levels, and examine the resulting

  12. Experimental quantum multimeter and one-qubit fingerprinting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Jiangfeng; Zou Ping; Peng Xinhua; Oi, Daniel K. L.; Ekert, Artur; Kwek, L. C.; Oh, C. H.

    2006-01-01

    There has been much recent effort to realize quantum devices in many different physical systems. Among them, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) has been the first to demonstrate nontrivial quantum algorithms with small numbers of qubits and hence is a prototype for the key ingredients needed to build quantum computers. An important building block in many quantum applications is the scattering circuit, which can be used as a quantum multimeter to perform various quantum information processing tasks directly without recourse to quantum tomography. We implement in NMR a three-qubit version of the multimeter and also demonstrate a single-qubit fingerprinting

  13. Separability of three qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger diagonal states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyung Hoon; Kye, Seung-Hyeok

    2017-04-01

    We characterize the separability of three qubit GHZ diagonal states in terms of entries. This enables us to check separability of GHZ diagonal states without decomposition into the sum of pure product states. In the course of discussion, we show that the necessary criterion of Gühne (2011 Entanglement criteria and full separability of multi-qubit quantum states Phys. Lett. A 375 406-10) for (full) separability of three qubit GHZ diagonal states is sufficient with a simpler formula. The main tool is to use entanglement witnesses which are tri-partite Choi matrices of positive bi-linear maps.

  14. Squeezed States in Josephson Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X.; Nori, F.

    1996-03-01

    We have studied quantum fluctuation properties of Josephson junctions in the limit of large Josephson coupling energy and small charging energy, when the eigenstates of the system can be treated as being nearly localized. We have considered(X. Hu and F. Nori, preprints.) a Josephson junction in a variety of situations, e.g., coupled to one or several of the following elements: a capacitor, an inductor (in a superconducting ring), and an applied current source. By solving an effective Shrödinger equation, we have obtained squeezed vacuum (coherent) states as the ground states of a ``free-oscillating'' (linearly-driven) Josephson junction, and calculated the uncertainties of its canonical momentum, charge, and coordinate, phase. We have also shown that the excited states of the various systems we consider are similar to the number states of a simple harmonic oscillator but with different fluctuation properties. Furthermore, we have obtained the time-evolution operators for these systems. These operators can make it easier to calculate the time-dependence of the expectation values and fluctuations of various quantities starting from an arbitrary initial state.

  15. Normal-state conductance used to probe superconducting tunnel junctions for quantum computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaparro, Carlos; Bavier, Richard; Kim, Yong-Seung; Kim, Eunyoung; Oh, Seongshik [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Kline, Jeffrey S; Pappas, David P, E-mail: carlosch@physics.rutgers.ed, E-mail: ohsean@physics.rutgers.ed [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Here we report normal-state conductance measurements of three different types of superconducting tunnel junctions that are being used or proposed for quantum computing applications: p-Al/a-AlO/p-Al, e-Re/e-AlO/p-Al, and e-V/e-MgO/p-V, where p stands for polycrystalline, e for epitaxial, and a for amorphous. All three junctions exhibited significant deviations from the parabolic behavior predicted by the WKB approximation models. In the p-Al/a-AlO/p-Al junction, we observed enhancement of tunneling conductances at voltages matching harmonics of Al-O stretching modes. On the other hand, such Al-O vibration modes were missing in the epitaxial e-Re/e-AlO/p-Al junction. This suggests that absence or existence of the Al-O stretching mode might be related to the crystallinity of the AlO tunnel barrier and the interface between the electrode and the barrier. In the e-V/e-MgO/p-V junction, which is one of the candidate systems for future superconducting qubits, we observed suppression of the density of states at zero bias. This implies that the interface is electronically disordered, presumably due to oxidation of the vanadium surface underneath the MgO barrier, even if the interface was structurally well ordered, suggesting that the e-V/e-MgO/p-V junction will not be suitable for qubit applications in its present form. This also demonstrates that the normal-state conductance measurement can be effectively used to screen out low quality samples in the search for better superconducting tunnel junctions.

  16. Shunted-Josephson-junction model. II. The nonautonomous case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belykh, V. N.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sørensen, O. H.

    1977-01-01

    The shunted-Josephson-junction model with a monochromatic ac current drive is discussed employing the qualitative methods of the theory of nonlinear oscillations. As in the preceding paper dealing with the autonomous junction, the model includes a phase-dependent conductance and a shunt capacitance....... The mathematical discussion makes use of the phase-space representation of the solutions to the differential equation. The behavior of the trajectories in phase space is described for different characteristic regions in parameter space and the associated features of the junction IV curve to be expected are pointed...... out. The main objective is to provide a qualitative understanding of the junction behavior, to clarify which kinds of properties may be derived from the shunted-junction model, and to specify the relative arrangement of the important domains in the parameter-space decomposition....

  17. Preparation of n-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entangled states in cavity QED: An approach with tolerance to nonidentical qubit-cavity coupling constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chuiping

    2011-01-01

    We propose a way for generating n-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled states with a three-level qubit system and (n-1) four-level qubit systems in a cavity. This proposal does not require identical qubit-cavity coupling constants and thus is tolerant to qubit-system parameter nonuniformity and nonexact placement of qubits in a cavity. The proposal does not require adjustment of the qubit-system level spacings during the entire operation. Moreover, it is shown that entanglement can be deterministically generated using this method and the operation time is independent of the number of qubits. The present proposal is quite general, which can be applied to physical systems such as various types of superconducting devices coupled to a resonator or atoms trapped in a cavity.

  18. Shapiro and parametric resonances in coupled Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaafar, Ma A; Shukrinov, Yu M; Foda, A

    2012-01-01

    The effect of microwave irradiation on the phase dynamics of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high temperature superconductors is investigated. We compare the current-voltage characteristics for a stack of coupled Josephson junctions under external irradiation calculated in the framework of CCJJ and CCJJ+DC models.

  19. One-Step Generation of Multi-Qubit GHZ and W States in Superconducting Transmon Qubit System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Guilong; Huang Shousheng; Wang Mingfeng; Jiang Nianquan; Cai Genchang

    2012-01-01

    We propose a one-step method to prepare multi-qubit GHZ and W states with transmon qubits capacitively coupled to a superconducting transmission line resonator (TLR). Compared with the scheme firstly introduced by Wang et al. [Phys. Rev. B 81 (2010) 104524], our schemes have longer dephasing time and much shorter operation time because the transmon qubits we used are not only more robust to the decoherence and the unavoidable parameter variations, but also have much stronger coupling constant with TLR. Based on the favourable properties of transmons and TLR, our method is more feasible in experiment. (general)

  20. Spectroscopy of a Synthetic Trapped Ion Qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hucul, David; Christensen, Justin E.; Hudson, Eric R.; Campbell, Wesley C.

    2017-09-01

    133Ba+ has been identified as an attractive ion for quantum information processing due to the unique combination of its spin-1 /2 nucleus and visible wavelength electronic transitions. Using a microgram source of radioactive material, we trap and laser cool the synthetic A =133 radioisotope of barium II in a radio-frequency ion trap. Using the same, single trapped atom, we measure the isotope shifts and hyperfine structure of the 62P1 /2↔62S1 /2 and 62P1 /2↔52D3 /2 electronic transitions that are needed for laser cooling, state preparation, and state detection of the clock-state hyperfine and optical qubits. We also report the 62P1 /2↔52D3 /2 electronic transition isotope shift for the rare A =130 and 132 barium nuclides, completing the spectroscopic characterization necessary for laser cooling all long-lived barium II isotopes.

  1. Quantum control on entangled bipartite qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Ising interactions between qubits can produce distortion on entangled pairs generated for engineering purposes (e.g., for quantum computation or quantum cryptography). The presence of parasite magnetic fields destroys or alters the expected behavior for which it was intended. In addition, these pairs are generated with some dispersion in their original configuration, so their discrimination is necessary for applications. Nevertheless, discrimination should be made after Ising distortion. Quantum control helps in both problems; making some projective measurements upon the pair to decide the original state to replace it, or just trying to reconstruct it using some procedures which do not alter their quantum nature. Results about the performance of these procedures are reported. First, we will work with pure systems studying restrictions and advantages. Then, we will extend these operations for mixed states generated with uncertainty in the time of distortion, correcting them by assuming the control prescriptions for the most probable one.

  2. Optimal Entanglement Witnesses for Qubits and Qutrits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertlmann, R.A.; Durstberger, K.; Hiesmayr, B.C.; Krammer, P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We give a review of the connection between an optimal entanglement witness and the Hilbert-Schmidt measure of entanglement (that is the minimal distance of an entangled state to the set of separable states): a generalized Bell inequality is derived within the concept of entanglement witnesses, in the sense that a violation of the inequality detects entanglement and not non-locality liKEX usual Bell inequalities do. It can be seen that the maximal violation equals the Hilbert-Schmidt measure. Furthermore, since finding the nearest separable state to a given entangled state is rather difficult, a method for checking an estimated nearest separable state is presented. This is illustrated with isotropic qubit and qutrit states; the Hilbert-Schmidt measure, the optimal entanglement witness and the maximal violation of the GBI are calculated for those cases. Possible generalizations for arbitrary dimensions are discussed. (author)

  3. Teleportation of a two-qubit arbitrary unknown state using a four-qubit genuine entangled state with the combination of bell-state measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Li; Xiu, Xiao-Ming, E-mail: xiuxiaomingdl@126.com [Dalian University of Technology, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology (China); Ren, Yuan-Peng [Bohai University, Higher Professional Technical Institute (China); Gao, Ya-Jun [Bohai University, College of Mathematics and Physics (China); Yi, X. X. [Dalian University of Technology, School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology (China)

    2013-01-15

    We propose a protocol transferring an arbitrary unknown two-qubit state using the quantum channel of a four-qubit genuine entangled state. Simplifying the four-qubit joint measurement to the combination of Bell-state measurements, it can be realized more easily with currently available technologies.

  4. Single flux pulses affecting the ensemble of superconducting qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisenko, M. V.; Klenov, N. V.; Satanin, A. M.

    2018-02-01

    The present study is devoted to development of a technique for numerical simulation of the wave function dynamics the single Josephson qubits and arrays of noninteracting qubits controlled by ultra-short pulses. We wish to demonstrate the feasibility of a new principle of basic logical operations on the picosecond timescale. The influence of the unipolar pulse ("fluxon") form on the evolution of the state during the execution of the quantum one-qubit operations - "NOT", "READ" and " √{N O T } " - is investigated in the presence of decoherence. In the array of non interacting qubits, the question of the influence of the spread of their energy parameters (tunnel constants) is studied. It is shown that a single unipolar pulse can control a huge array of artificial atoms with 10% spread of geometric parameters in the array.

  5. A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, C; Roushan, P; Kechedzhi, K; Boixo, S; Isakov, S V; Smelyanskiy, V; Megrant, A; Chiaro, B; Dunsworth, A; Arya, K; Barends, R; Burkett, B; Chen, Y; Chen, Z; Fowler, A; Foxen, B; Giustina, M; Graff, R; Jeffrey, E; Huang, T; Kelly, J; Klimov, P; Lucero, E; Mutus, J; Neeley, M; Quintana, C; Sank, D; Vainsencher, A; Wenner, J; White, T C; Neven, H; Martinis, J M

    2018-04-13

    A key step toward demonstrating a quantum system that can address difficult problems in physics and chemistry will be performing a computation beyond the capabilities of any classical computer, thus achieving so-called quantum supremacy. In this study, we used nine superconducting qubits to demonstrate a promising path toward quantum supremacy. By individually tuning the qubit parameters, we were able to generate thousands of distinct Hamiltonian evolutions and probe the output probabilities. The measured probabilities obey a universal distribution, consistent with uniformly sampling the full Hilbert space. As the number of qubits increases, the system continues to explore the exponentially growing number of states. Extending these results to a system of 50 qubits has the potential to address scientific questions that are beyond the capabilities of any classical computer. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  6. Equation of motion for estimation fidelity of monitored oscillating qubits

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bassa, H

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We study the convergence properties of state estimates of an oscillating qubit being monitored by a sequence of discrete, unsharp measurements. Our method derives a differential equation determining the evolution of the estimation fidelity from a...

  7. Qubit transport model for unitary black hole evaporation without firewalls*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuga, Kento; Page, Don N.

    2018-03-01

    We give an explicit toy qubit transport model for transferring information from the gravitational field of a black hole to the Hawking radiation by a continuous unitary transformation of the outgoing radiation and the black hole gravitational field. The model has no firewalls or other drama at the event horizon, and it avoids a counterargument that has been raised for subsystem transfer models as resolutions of the firewall paradox. Furthermore, it fits the set of six physical constraints that Giddings has proposed for models of black hole evaporation. It does utilize nonlocal qubits for the gravitational field but assumes that the radiation interacts locally with these nonlocal qubits, so in some sense the nonlocality is confined to the gravitational sector. Although the qubit model is too crude to be quantitatively correct for the detailed spectrum of Hawking radiation, it fits qualitatively with what is expected.

  8. Restless Tuneup of High-Fidelity Qubit Gates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rol, M. A.; Bultink, C. C.; O'Brien, T. E.; de Jong, S. R.; Theis, L. S.; Fu, X.; Luthi, F.; Vermeulen, R. F. L.; de Sterke, J. C.; Bruno, A.; Deurloo, D.; Schouten, R. N.; Wilhelm, F. K.; DiCarlo, L.

    2017-04-01

    We present a tuneup protocol for qubit gates with tenfold speedup over traditional methods reliant on qubit initialization by energy relaxation. This speedup is achieved by constructing a cost function for Nelder-Mead optimization from real-time correlation of nondemolition measurements interleaving gate operations without pause. Applying the protocol on a transmon qubit achieves 0.999 average Clifford fidelity in one minute, as independently verified using randomized benchmarking and gate-set tomography. The adjustable sensitivity of the cost function allows the detection of fractional changes in the gate error with a nearly constant signal-to-noise ratio. The restless concept demonstrated can be readily extended to the tuneup of two-qubit gates and measurement operations.

  9. Entangling distant resonant exchange qubits via circuit quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, V.; Taylor, J. M.; Tahan, Charles

    2016-11-01

    We investigate a hybrid quantum system consisting of spatially separated resonant exchange qubits, defined in three-electron semiconductor triple quantum dots, that are coupled via a superconducting transmission line resonator. Drawing on methods from circuit quantum electrodynamics and Hartmann-Hahn double resonance techniques, we analyze three specific approaches for implementing resonator-mediated two-qubit entangling gates in both dispersive and resonant regimes of interaction. We calculate entangling gate fidelities as well as the rate of relaxation via phonons for resonant exchange qubits in silicon triple dots and show that such an implementation is particularly well suited to achieving the strong coupling regime. Our approach combines the favorable coherence properties of encoded spin qubits in silicon with the rapid and robust long-range entanglement provided by circuit QED systems.

  10. A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, C.; Roushan, P.; Kechedzhi, K.; Boixo, S.; Isakov, S. V.; Smelyanskiy, V.; Megrant, A.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Arya, K.; Barends, R.; Burkett, B.; Chen, Y.; Chen, Z.; Fowler, A.; Foxen, B.; Giustina, M.; Graff, R.; Jeffrey, E.; Huang, T.; Kelly, J.; Klimov, P.; Lucero, E.; Mutus, J.; Neeley, M.; Quintana, C.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T. C.; Neven, H.; Martinis, J. M.

    2018-04-01

    A key step toward demonstrating a quantum system that can address difficult problems in physics and chemistry will be performing a computation beyond the capabilities of any classical computer, thus achieving so-called quantum supremacy. In this study, we used nine superconducting qubits to demonstrate a promising path toward quantum supremacy. By individually tuning the qubit parameters, we were able to generate thousands of distinct Hamiltonian evolutions and probe the output probabilities. The measured probabilities obey a universal distribution, consistent with uniformly sampling the full Hilbert space. As the number of qubits increases, the system continues to explore the exponentially growing number of states. Extending these results to a system of 50 qubits has the potential to address scientific questions that are beyond the capabilities of any classical computer.

  11. Experimental demonstration of a Hadamard gate for coherent state qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipsmark, Anders; Laghaout, Amine; Andersen, Ulrik L. [Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Fysikvej, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Dong, Ruifang [Quantum Frequency Standards Division, National Time Service Center (NTSC), Chinese Academy of Sciences, 710600 Lintong, Shaanxi (China); Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Fysikvej, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Marek, Petr [Department of Optics, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 12, CZ-77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Jezek, Miroslav [Department of Optics, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 12, CZ-77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Fysikvej, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2011-11-15

    We discuss and make an experimental test of a probabilistic Hadamard gate for coherent state qubits. The scheme is based on linear optical components, nonclassical resources, and the joint projective action of a photon counter and a homodyne detector. We experimentally characterize the gate for the coherent states of the computational basis by full tomographic reconstruction of the transformed output states. Based on the parameters of the experiment, we simulate the fidelity for all coherent state qubits on the Bloch sphere.

  12. Experimental demonstration of a Hadamard gate for coherent state qubits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Anders; Dong, Ruifang; Laghaout, Amine

    2011-01-01

    We discuss and make an experimental test of a probabilistic Hadamard gate for coherent state qubits. The scheme is based on linear optical components, nonclassical resources, and the joint projective action of a photon counter and a homodyne detector. We experimentally characterize the gate for t...... for the coherent states of the computational basis by full tomographic reconstruction of the transformed output states. Based on the parameters of the experiment, we simulate the fidelity for all coherent state qubits on the Bloch sphere....

  13. Quantum Fisher and skew information for Unruh accelerated Dirac qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, Subhashish; Alok, Ashutosh Kumar; Omkar, S.

    2016-01-01

    We develop a Bloch vector representation of the Unruh channel for a Dirac field mode. This is used to provide a unified, analytical treatment of quantum Fisher and skew information for a qubit subjected to the Unruh channel, both in its pure form as well as in the presence of experimentally relevant external noise channels. The time evolution of Fisher and skew information is studied along with the impact of external environment parameters such as temperature and squeezing. The external noises are modelled by both purely dephasing phase damping and the squeezed generalised amplitude damping channels. An interesting interplay between the external reservoir temperature and squeezing on the Fisher and skew information is observed, in particular, for the action of the squeezed generalised amplitude damping channel. It is seen that for some regimes, squeezing can enhance the quantum information against the deteriorating influence of the ambient environment. Similar features are also observed for the analogous study of skew information, highlighting a similar origin of the Fisher and skew information. (orig.)

  14. Quantum Fisher and skew information for Unruh accelerated Dirac qubit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Subhashish; Alok, Ashutosh Kumar [Indian Institute of Technology Jodhpur, Jodhpur (India); Omkar, S. [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Thiruvananthapuram (India)

    2016-08-15

    We develop a Bloch vector representation of the Unruh channel for a Dirac field mode. This is used to provide a unified, analytical treatment of quantum Fisher and skew information for a qubit subjected to the Unruh channel, both in its pure form as well as in the presence of experimentally relevant external noise channels. The time evolution of Fisher and skew information is studied along with the impact of external environment parameters such as temperature and squeezing. The external noises are modelled by both purely dephasing phase damping and the squeezed generalised amplitude damping channels. An interesting interplay between the external reservoir temperature and squeezing on the Fisher and skew information is observed, in particular, for the action of the squeezed generalised amplitude damping channel. It is seen that for some regimes, squeezing can enhance the quantum information against the deteriorating influence of the ambient environment. Similar features are also observed for the analogous study of skew information, highlighting a similar origin of the Fisher and skew information. (orig.)

  15. Simulations of defect spin qubits in piezoelectric semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hosung

    In recent years, remarkable advances have been reported in the development of defect spin qubits in semiconductors for solid-state quantum information science and quantum metrology. Promising spin qubits include the nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond, dopants in silicon, and the silicon vacancy and divacancy spins in silicon carbide. In this talk, I will highlight some of our recent efforts devoted to defect spin qubits in piezoelectric wide-gap semiconductors for potential applications in mechanical hybrid quantum systems. In particular, I will describe our recent combined theoretical and experimental study on remarkably robust quantum coherence found in the divancancy qubits in silicon carbide. We used a quantum bath model combined with a cluster expansion method to identify the microscopic mechanisms behind the unusually long coherence times of the divacancy spins in SiC. Our study indicates that developing spin qubits in complex crystals with multiple types of atom is a promising route to realize strongly coherent hybrid quantum systems. I will also discuss progress and challenges in computational design of new spin defects for use as qubits in piezoelectric crystals such as AlN and SiC, including a new defect design concept using large metal ion - vacancy complexes. Our first principles calculations include DFT computations using recently developed self-consistent hybrid density functional theory and large-scale many-body GW theory. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) through the University of Chicago MRSEC under Award Number DMR-1420709.

  16. Electromagnetically induced interference in a superconducting flux qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du lingjie; Yu Yang; Lan Dong

    2013-01-01

    Interaction between quantum two-level systems (qubits) and electromagnetic fields can provide additional coupling channels to qubit states. In particular, the interwell relaxation or Rabi oscillations, resulting, respectively, from the multi- or single-mode interaction, can produce effective crossovers, leading to electromagnetically induced interference in microwave driven qubits. The environment is modeled by a multimode thermal bath, generating the interwell relaxation. Relaxation induced interference, independent of the tunnel coupling, provides deeper understanding to the interaction between the qubits and their environment. It also supplies a useful tool to characterize the relaxation strength as well as the characteristic frequency of the bath. In addition, we demonstrate the relaxation can generate population inversion in a strongly driving two-level system. On the other hand, different from Rabi oscillations, Rabi-oscillation-induced interference involves more complicated and modulated photon exchange thus offers an alternative means to manipulate the qubit, with more controllable parameters including the strength and position of the tunnel coupling. It also provides a testing ground for exploring nonlinear quantum phenomena and quantum state manipulation in qubits either with or without crossover structure.

  17. Primary Tunnel Junction Thermometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekola, Jukka P.; Holmqvist, Tommy; Meschke, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    We describe the concept and experimental demonstration of primary thermometry based on a four-probe measurement of a single tunnel junction embedded within four arrays of junctions. We show that in this configuration random sample specific and environment-related errors can be avoided. This method relates temperature directly to Boltzmann constant, which will form the basis of the definition of temperature and realization of official temperature scales in the future

  18. Deterministic Assisted Clone of an Arbitrary Two- and Three-qubit States via Multi-qubit Brown State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Kui; Zhu, Cheng-Jie; Yang, Ya-Ping

    2017-08-01

    We present two schemes for deterministic assisted clone(DAC) of an unknown two- and three-qubit entangled states with assistance via muti-qubit Brown state. In the schemes, the sender wish to teleport an unknown original entangled state which from the state preparer, and then create a perfect copy of the unknown state at her place. The DAC schemes include two stages. The first stage requires teleportation with Bell-state measurements via a five-qubit Brown state(or seven-qubit Brown state) as the quantum channel. In the second stage, to help the sender realize the quantum cloning, the state preparer performs projective measurements on their own particles which from the sender, then the sender can acquire a perfect copy of the unknown state by means of some appropriate unitary operations. Furthermore, the total success probability for assisted cloning a perfect copy of the unknown state can reach 1 in our schemes.

  19. Quantum Junction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Jiang

    2012-09-12

    Colloidal quantum dot solids combine convenient solution-processing with quantum size effect tuning, offering avenues to high-efficiency multijunction cells based on a single materials synthesis and processing platform. The highest-performing colloidal quantum dot rectifying devices reported to date have relied on a junction between a quantum-tuned absorber and a bulk material (e.g., TiO 2); however, quantum tuning of the absorber then requires complete redesign of the bulk acceptor, compromising the benefits of facile quantum tuning. Here we report rectifying junctions constructed entirely using inherently band-aligned quantum-tuned materials. Realizing these quantum junction diodes relied upon the creation of an n-type quantum dot solid having a clean bandgap. We combine stable, chemically compatible, high-performance n-type and p-type materials to create the first quantum junction solar cells. We present a family of photovoltaic devices having widely tuned bandgaps of 0.6-1.6 eV that excel where conventional quantum-to-bulk devices fail to perform. Devices having optimal single-junction bandgaps exhibit certified AM1.5 solar power conversion efficiencies of 5.4%. Control over doping in quantum solids, and the successful integration of these materials to form stable quantum junctions, offers a powerful new degree of freedom to colloidal quantum dot optoelectronics. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  20. 10-Qubit Entanglement and Parallel Logic Operations with a Superconducting Circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chao; Xu, Kai; Liu, Wuxin; Yang, Chui-ping; Zheng, Shi-Biao; Deng, Hui; Xie, Qiwei; Huang, Keqiang; Guo, Qiujiang; Zhang, Libo; Zhang, Pengfei; Xu, Da; Zheng, Dongning; Zhu, Xiaobo; Wang, H.; Chen, Y.-A.; Lu, C.-Y.; Han, Siyuan; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-11-01

    Here we report on the production and tomography of genuinely entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states with up to ten qubits connecting to a bus resonator in a superconducting circuit, where the resonator-mediated qubit-qubit interactions are used to controllably entangle multiple qubits and to operate on different pairs of qubits in parallel. The resulting 10-qubit density matrix is probed by quantum state tomography, with a fidelity of 0.668 ±0.025 . Our results demonstrate the largest entanglement created so far in solid-state architectures and pave the way to large-scale quantum computation.

  1. Preparation of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entangled states with multiple superconducting quantum-interference device qubits or atoms in cavity QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chuiping; Han Siyuan

    2004-01-01

    A scheme is proposed for generating Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled states of multiple superconducting quantum-interference device (SQUID) qubits by the use of a microwave cavity. The scheme operates essentially by creating a single photon through an auxiliary SQUID built in the cavity and performing a joint multiqubit phase shift with assistance of the cavity photon. It is shown that entanglement can be generated using this method, deterministic and independent of the number of SQUID qubits. In addition, we show that the present method can be applied to preparing many atoms in a GHZ entangled state, with tolerance to energy relaxation during the operation

  2. Fluctuation of heat current in Josephson junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Virtanen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the statistics of heat current between two superconductors at different temperatures connected by a generic weak link. As the electronic heat in superconductors is carried by Bogoliubov quasiparticles, the heat transport fluctuations follow the Levitov–Lesovik relation. We identify the energy-dependent quasiparticle transmission probabilities and discuss the resulting probability density and fluctuation relations of the heat current. We consider multichannel junctions, and find that heat transport in diffusive junctions is unique in that its statistics is independent of the phase difference between the superconductors.

  3. Fractional Solitons in Excitonic Josephson Junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Ya-Fen; Su, Jung-Jung

    2015-01-01

    The Josephson effect is especially appealing to physicists because it reveals macroscopically the quantum order and phase. In excitonic bilayers the effect is even subtler due to the counterflow of supercurrent as well as the tunneling between layers (interlayer tunneling). Here we study, in a quantum Hall bilayer, the excitonic Josephson junction: a conjunct of two exciton condensates with a relative phase ? 0 applied. The system is mapped into a pseudospin ferromagnet then described numeric...

  4. A SiGe Quadrature Pulse Modulator for Superconducting Qubit State Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwende, Randy; Bardin, Joseph

    Manipulation of the quantum states of microwave superconducting qubits typically requires the generation of coherent modulated microwave pulses. While many off-the-shelf instruments are capable of generating such pulses, a more integrated approach is likely required if fault-tolerant quantum computing architectures are to be implemented. In this work, we present progress towards a pulse generator specifically designed to drive superconducing qubits. The device is implemented in a commercial silicon process and has been designed with energy-efficiency and scalability in mind. Pulse generation is carried out using a unique approach in which modulation is applied directly to the in-phase and quadrature components of a carrier signal in the 1-10 GHz frequency range through a unique digital-analog conversion process designed specifically for this application. The prototype pulse generator can be digitally programmed and supports sequencing of pulses with independent amplitude and phase waveforms. These amplitude and phase waveforms can be digitally programmed through a serial programming interface. Detailed performance of the pulse generator at room temperature and 4 K will be presented.

  5. Implementation of single qubit in QD ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alegre, T.P. Mayer

    2004-01-01

    Full text: During the last decades the semiconductor industry has achieved the production of exponentially shrinking components. This fact points to fundamental limits of integration, making computation with single atoms or particles like an electron an ultimate goal. To get to this limit, quantum systems in solid state have to be manipulated in a controllable fashion. The assessment of quantum degrees of freedom for information processing may allow exponentially faster performance for certain classes of problems. The essential aspect to be explored in quantum information processing resides in the superposition of states that allows resources such as entangled states to be envisaged. The quest for the optimal system to host a quantum variable that is sufficiently isolated from the environment encompasses implementations spanning optical, atomic, molecular and solid state systems. In the solid state, a variety of proposals have come forth, each one having its own advantages and disadvantages. The main conclusion from these e efforts is that there is no decisive technology upon which quantum information devices will be built. Self-assembled quantum dots (SAQDs or QDs), can be grown with size uniformity that enables the observation of single electron loading events. They can in turn be used to controllably trap single electrons into discrete levels, atom-like, with their corresponding shells. Hund's rules and Pauli exclusion principle are observed in these nanostructures and are key in allowing and preserving a particular quantum state. Provided that one can trap one electron in a QD ensemble, the corresponding spin can be manipulated by an external magnetic field by either conventional Electron Spin Resonance (ESR) techniques or g-tensor modulation resonance (g-TMR). By analogy with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, single qubit operations are proposed, which at some point in time should be scaled, provided that spin-spin interactions can be controlled. Read out can be

  6. Fractional Solitons in Excitonic Josephson Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jung-Jung; Hsu, Ya-Fen

    The Josephson effect is especially appealing because it reveals macroscopically the quantum order and phase. Here we study this effect in an excitonic Josephson junction: a conjunct of two exciton condensates with a relative phase ϕ0 applied. Such a junction is proposed to take place in the quantum Hall bilayer (QHB) that makes it subtler than in superconductor because of the counterflow of excitonic supercurrent and the interlayer tunneling in QHB. We treat the system theoretically by first mapping it into a pseudospin ferromagnet then describing it by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. In the presence of interlayer tunneling, the excitonic Josephson junction can possess a family of fractional sine-Gordon solitons that resemble the static fractional Josephson vortices in the extended superconducting Josephson junctions. Interestingly, each fractional soliton carries a topological charge Q which is not necessarily a half/full integer but can vary continuously. The resultant current-phase relation (CPR) shows that solitons with Q =ϕ0 / 2 π are the lowest energy states for small ϕ0. When ϕ0 > π , solitons with Q =ϕ0 / 2 π - 1 take place - the polarity of CPR is then switched.

  7. Superconducting proximity effect in mesoscopic superconductor/normal-metal junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Takayanagi, H; Toyoda, E

    1999-01-01

    The superconducting proximity effect is discussed in mesoscopic superconductor/normal-metal junctions. The newly-developed theory shows long-range phase-coherent effect which explaines early experimental results of giant magnetoresistance oscillations in an Andreev interferometer. The theory also shows that the proximity correction to the conductance (PCC) has a reentrant behavior as a function of energy. The reentrant behavior is systematically studied in a gated superconductor-semiconductor junction. A negative PCC is observed in the case of a weak coupling between the normal metal and the external reservoir. Phase coherent ac effect is also observed when rf is irradiated to the junction.

  8. Magnetic qubits as hardware for quantum computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejada, J.; Chudnovsky, E.; Barco, E. del

    2000-01-01

    We propose two potential realisations for quantum bits based on nanometre scale magnetic particles of large spin S and high anisotropy molecular clusters. In case (1) the bit-value basis states vertical bar-0> and vertical bar-1> are the ground and first excited spin states S z = S and S-1, separated by an energy gap given by the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) frequency. In case (2), when there is significant tunnelling through the anisotropy barrier, the qubit states correspond to the symmetric, vertical bar-0>, and antisymmetric, vertical bar-1>, combinations of the two-fold degenerate ground state S z = ± S. In each case the temperature of operation must be low compared to the energy gap, Δ, between the states vertical bar-0> and vertical bar-1>. The gap Δ in case (2) can be controlled with an external magnetic field perpendicular to the easy axis of the molecular cluster. The states of different molecular clusters and magnetic particles may be entangled by connecting them by superconducting lines with Josephson switches, leading to the potential for quantum computing hardware. (author)

  9. Magnetic qubits as hardware for quantum computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejada, J.; Chudnovsky, E.; Barco, E. del [and others

    2000-07-01

    We propose two potential realisations for quantum bits based on nanometre scale magnetic particles of large spin S and high anisotropy molecular clusters. In case (1) the bit-value basis states vertical bar-0> and vertical bar-1> are the ground and first excited spin states S{sub z} = S and S-1, separated by an energy gap given by the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) frequency. In case (2), when there is significant tunnelling through the anisotropy barrier, the qubit states correspond to the symmetric, vertical bar-0>, and antisymmetric, vertical bar-1>, combinations of the two-fold degenerate ground state S{sub z} = {+-} S. In each case the temperature of operation must be low compared to the energy gap, {delta}, between the states vertical bar-0> and vertical bar-1>. The gap {delta} in case (2) can be controlled with an external magnetic field perpendicular to the easy axis of the molecular cluster. The states of different molecular clusters and magnetic particles may be entangled by connecting them by superconducting lines with Josephson switches, leading to the potential for quantum computing hardware. (author)

  10. Fault-tolerant architectures for superconducting qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DiVincenzo, David P

    2009-01-01

    In this short review, I draw attention to new developments in the theory of fault tolerance in quantum computation that may give concrete direction to future work in the development of superconducting qubit systems. The basics of quantum error-correction codes, which I will briefly review, have not significantly changed since their introduction 15 years ago. But an interesting picture has emerged of an efficient use of these codes that may put fault-tolerant operation within reach. It is now understood that two-dimensional surface codes, close relatives of the original toric code of Kitaev, can be adapted as shown by Raussendorf and Harrington to effectively perform logical gate operations in a very simple planar architecture, with error thresholds for fault-tolerant operation simulated to be 0.75%. This architecture uses topological ideas in its functioning, but it is not 'topological quantum computation'-there are no non-abelian anyons in sight. I offer some speculations on the crucial pieces of superconducting hardware that could be demonstrated in the next couple of years that would be clear stepping stones towards this surface-code architecture.

  11. Protecting entanglement by adjusting the velocities of moving qubits inside non-Markovian environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortezapour, Ali; Ahmadi Borji, Mahdi; Lo Franco, Rosario

    2017-05-01

    Efficient entanglement preservation in open quantum systems is a crucial scope towards a reliable exploitation of quantum resources. We address this issue by studying how two-qubit entanglement dynamically behaves when two atom qubits move inside two separated identical cavities. The moving qubits independently interact with their respective cavity. As a main general result, we find that under resonant qubit-cavity interaction the initial entanglement between two moving qubits remains closer to its initial value as time passes compared to the case of stationary qubits. In particular, we show that the initial entanglement can be strongly protected from decay by suitably adjusting the velocities of the qubits according to the non-Markovian features of the cavities. Our results supply a further way of preserving quantum correlations against noise with a natural implementation in cavity-QED scenarios and are straightforwardly extendable to many qubits for scalability.

  12. Weight-4 Parity Checks on a Surface Code Sublattice with Superconducting Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takita, Maika; Corcoles, Antonio; Magesan, Easwar; Bronn, Nicholas; Hertzberg, Jared; Gambetta, Jay; Steffen, Matthias; Chow, Jerry

    We present a superconducting qubit quantum processor design amenable to the surface code architecture. In such architecture, parity checks on the data qubits, performed by measuring their X- and Z- syndrome qubits, constitute a critical aspect. Here we show fidelities and outcomes of X- and Z-parity measurements done on a syndrome qubit in a full plaquette consisting of one syndrome qubit coupled via bus resonators to four code qubits. Parities are measured after four code qubits are prepared into sixteen initial states in each basis. Results show strong dependence on ZZ between qubits on the same bus resonators. This work is supported by IARPA under Contract W911NF-10-1-0324.

  13. Two-qubit gate operations in superconducting circuits with strong coupling and weak anharmonicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lü Xinyou; Ashhab, S; Cui Wei; Wu Rebing; Nori, Franco

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically study the implementation of two-qubit gates in a system of two coupled superconducting qubits. In particular, we analyze two-qubit gate operations under the condition that the coupling strength is comparable with or even larger than the anharmonicity of the qubits. By numerically solving the time-dependent Schrödinger equation under the assumption of negligible decoherence, we obtain the dependence of the two-qubit gate fidelity on the system parameters in the case of both direct and indirect qubit-qubit coupling. Our numerical results can be used to identify the ‘safe’ parameter regime for experimentally implementing two-qubit gates with high fidelity in these systems. (paper)

  14. Using qubits to reveal quantum signatures of an oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shantanu

    In this thesis, we seek to study the qubit-oscillator system with the aim to identify and quantify inherent quantum features of the oscillator. We show that the quantum signatures of the oscillator get imprinted on the dynamics of the joint system. The two key features which we explore are the quantized energy spectrum of the oscillator and the non-classicality of the oscillator's wave function. To investigate the consequences of the oscillator's discrete energy spectrum, we consider the qubit to be coupled to the oscillator through the Rabi Hamiltonian. Recent developments in fabrication technology have opened up the possibility to explore parameter regimes which were conventionally inaccessible. Motivated by these advancements, we investigate in this thesis a parameter space where the qubit frequency is much smaller than the oscillator frequency and the Rabi frequency is allowed to be an appreciable fraction of the bare frequency of the oscillator. We use the adiabatic approximation to understand the dynamics in this quasi-degenerate qubit regime. By deriving a dressed master equation, we systematically investigate the effects of the environment on the system dynamics. We develop a spectroscopic technique, using which one can probe the steady state response of the driven and damped system. The spectroscopic signal clearly reveals the quantized nature of the oscillator's energy spectrum. We extend the adiabatic approximation, earlier developed only for the single qubit case, to a scenario where multiple qubits interact with the oscillator. Using the extended adiabatic approximation, we study the collapse and revival of multi-qubit observables. We develop analytic expressions for the revival signals which are in good agreement with the numerically evaluated results. Within the quantum restriction imposed by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, the uncertainty in the position and momentum of an oscillator is minimum and shared equally when the oscillator is prepared

  15. Coupled Qubits for Next Generation Quantum Annealing: Improving Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Steven; Samach, Gabriel; Hover, David; Rosenberg, Danna; Yoder, Jonilyn; Kim, David K.; Kerman, Andrew; Oliver, William D.

    Quantum annealing is an optimization technique which potentially leverages quantum tunneling to enhance computational performance. Existing quantum annealers use superconducting flux qubits with short coherence times, limited primarily by the use of large persistent currents. Here, we examine an alternative approach, using flux qubits with smaller persistent currents and longer coherence times. We demonstrate tunable coupling, a basic building-block for quantum annealing, between two such qubits. Furthermore, we characterize qubit coherence as a function of coupler setting and investigate the effect of flux noise in the coupler loop on qubit coherence. Our results provide insight into the available design space for next-generation quantum annealers with improved coherence. This research was funded by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence (ODNI), Intelligence Advanced Research Projects Activity (IARPA) and by the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research & Engineering under Air Force Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0002. The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of ODNI, IARPA, or the US Government.

  16. Logical Qubit in a Linear Array of Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody Jones

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We design a logical qubit consisting of a linear array of quantum dots, we analyze error correction for this linear architecture, and we propose a sequence of experiments to demonstrate components of the logical qubit on near-term devices. To avoid the difficulty of fully controlling a two-dimensional array of dots, we adapt spin control and error correction to a one-dimensional line of silicon quantum dots. Control speed and efficiency are maintained via a scheme in which electron spin states are controlled globally using broadband microwave pulses for magnetic resonance, while two-qubit gates are provided by local electrical control of the exchange interaction between neighboring dots. Error correction with two-, three-, and four-qubit codes is adapted to a linear chain of qubits with nearest-neighbor gates. We estimate an error correction threshold of 10^{-4}. Furthermore, we describe a sequence of experiments to validate the methods on near-term devices starting from four coupled dots.

  17. The two-qubit quantum Rabi model: inhomogeneous coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Lijun; Huai, Sainan; Zhang, Yunbo

    2015-01-01

    We revisit the analytic solution of the two-qubit quantum Rabi model with inhomogeneous coupling and transition frequencies using a displaced oscillator basis. This approach enables us to apply the same truncation rules and techniques adopted in the Rabi model to the two qubits system. The derived analytical spectra match perfectly with the numerical solutions in the parameter regime where the qubits’ transition frequencies are far off-resonance with the field frequency and the interaction strengths reach the ultrastrong coupling regime. We further explore the dynamical behavior of the two qubits as well as the evolution of entanglement. The analytical methods provide unexpectedly accurate results in describing the dynamics of the two qubits in the present experimentally accessible coupling regime. The time evolutions of the probability for the qubits show that the collapse-revival phenomena emerge, survive and finally disappear when one coupling strength increases from weak to strong coupling regimes and the other coupling strength is well into the ultrastrong coupling regime. The inhomogeneous coupling system exhibits new dynamics, which are different from the homogeneous coupling case. (paper)

  18. Tunable Nitride Josephson Junctions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missert, Nancy A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Henry, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lewis, Rupert M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Howell, Stephen W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wolfley, Steven L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brunke, Lyle Brent [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wolak, Matthaeus [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-12-01

    We have developed an ambient temperature, SiO2/Si wafer - scale process for Josephson junctions based on Nb electrodes and Ta x N barriers with tunable electronic properties. The films are fabricated by magnetron sputtering. The electronic properties of the TaxN barriers are controlled by adjusting the nitrogen flow during sputtering. This technology offers a scalable alternative to the more traditional junctions based on AlOx barriers for low - power, high - performance computing.

  19. Realization of Arbitrary Positive-Operator-Value Measurement of Single Atomic Qubit via Cavity QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Han; Wei, Wu; Chun-Wang, Wu; Hong-Yi, Dai; Cheng-Zu, Li

    2008-01-01

    Positive-operator-value measurement (POVM) is the most general class of quantum measurement. We propose a scheme to deterministically implement arbitrary POVMs of single atomic qubit via cavity QED catalysed by only one ancilla atomic qubit. By appropriately entangling two atomic qubits and sequentially measuring the ancilla qubit, any POVM can be implemented step by step. As an application of our scheme, the realization of a specific POVM for optimal unambiguous discrimination (OUD) between two nonorthogonal states is given

  20. Realization of arbitrary positive-operator-value measurement of single atomic qubit via cavity QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Yang; Wu Wei; Wu Chunwang; Dai Hongyi; Li Chengzu

    2008-01-01

    Positive-operator-value measurement (POVM) is the most general class of quantum measurement. We propose a scheme to deterministically implement arbitrary POVMs of single atomic qubit via cavity QED catalysed by only one ancilla atomic qubit. By appropriately entangling two atomic qubits and sequentially measuring the ancilla qubit, any POVM can be implemented step by step. As an application of our scheme, the realization of a specific POVM for optimal unambiguous discrimination (OUD) between two nonorthogonal states is given. (authors)

  1. Realization of Arbitrary Positive-Operator-Value Measurement of Single Atomic Qubit via Cavity QED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yang; Wu, Wei; Wu, Chun-Wang; Dai, Hong-Yi; Li, Cheng-Zu

    2008-12-01

    Positive-operator-value measurement (POVM) is the most general class of quantum measurement. We propose a scheme to deterministically implement arbitrary POVMs of single atomic qubit via cavity QED catalysed by only one ancilla atomic qubit. By appropriately entangling two atomic qubits and sequentially measuring the ancilla qubit, any POVM can be implemented step by step. As an application of our scheme, the realization of a specific POVM for optimal unambiguous discrimination (OUD) between two nonorthogonal states is given.

  2. Faithful qubit transmission in a quantum communication network with heterogeneous channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Na; Zhang, Lin Xi; Pei, Chang Xing

    2018-04-01

    Quantum communication networks enable long-distance qubit transmission and distributed quantum computation. In this paper, a quantum communication network with heterogeneous quantum channels is constructed. A faithful qubit transmission scheme is presented. Detailed calculations and performance analyses show that even in a low-quality quantum channel with serious decoherence, only modest number of locally prepared target qubits are required to achieve near-deterministic qubit transmission.

  3. Experimental entanglement and nonlocality of a two-photon six-qubit cluster state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccarelli, Raino; Vallone, Giuseppe; De Martini, Francesco; Mataloni, Paolo; Cabello, Adán

    2009-10-16

    We create a six-qubit linear cluster state by transforming a two-photon hyperentangled state in which three qubits are encoded in each particle, one in the polarization and two in the linear momentum degrees of freedom. For this state, we demonstrate genuine six-qubit entanglement, persistency of entanglement against the loss of qubits, and higher violation than in previous experiments on Bell inequalities of the Mermin type.

  4. Fault-tolerant computing with biased-noise superconducting qubits: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliferis, P; Brito, F; DiVincenzo, D P; Steffen, M; Terhal, B M; Preskill, J

    2009-01-01

    We present a universal scheme of pulsed operations suitable for the IBM oscillator-stabilized flux qubit comprising the controlled-σ z (cphase) gate, single-qubit preparations and measurements. Based on numerical simulations, we argue that the error rates for these operations can be as low as about 0.5% and that noise is highly biased, with phase errors being stronger than all other types of errors by a factor of nearly 10 3 . In contrast, the design of a controlled-σ x (cnot) gate for this system with an error rate of less than about 1.2% seems extremely challenging. We propose a special encoding that exploits the noise bias allowing us to implement a logicalcnot gate where phase errors and all other types of errors have nearly balanced rates of about 0.4%. Our results illustrate how the design of an encoding scheme can be adjusted and optimized according to the available physical operations and the particular noise characteristics of experimental devices.

  5. Fungible dynamics: There are only two types of entangling multiple-qubit interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremner, Michael J.; Dodd, Jennifer L.; Nielsen, Michael A.; Bacon, Dave

    2004-01-01

    What interactions are sufficient to simulate arbitrary quantum dynamics in a composite quantum system? It has been shown that all two-body Hamiltonian evolutions can be simulated using any fixed two-body entangling n-qubit Hamiltonian and fast local unitaries. By entangling we mean that every qubit is coupled to every other qubit, if not directly, then indirectly via intermediate qubits. We extend this study to the case where interactions may involve more than two qubits at a time. We find necessary and sufficient conditions for an arbitrary n-qubit Hamiltonian to be dynamically universal, that is, able to simulate any other Hamiltonian acting on n qubits, possibly in an inefficient manner. We prove that an entangling Hamiltonian is dynamically universal if and only if it contains at least one coupling term involving an even number of interacting qubits. For odd entangling Hamiltonians, i.e., Hamiltonians with couplings that involve only an odd number of qubits, we prove that dynamic universality is possible on an encoded set of n-1 logical qubits. We further prove that an odd entangling Hamiltonian can simulate any other odd Hamiltonian and classify the algebras that such Hamiltonians generate. Thus, our results show that up to local unitary operations, there are only two fundamentally different types of entangling Hamiltonian on n qubits. We also demonstrate that, provided the number of qubits directly coupled by the Hamiltonian is bounded above by a constant, our techniques can be made efficient

  6. Nonlocality proof without inequalities for N-qubit W and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jian; Guo Guangcan

    2003-01-01

    The proof of nonlocality without inequalities for three-qubit W and Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states is generalized to N-qubit states. The violations for quantum mechanics against local realism is found near to 100% for W states with the increasement of qubits, while to 0 for GHZ states

  7. Quantum correlations dynamics of three-qubit states coupled to an XY spin chain: Role of coupling strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Shao-Ying; Song Jie; Xu Xue-Xin; Zhou Ke-Ya; Liu Shu-Tian; Liu Qing-Xin

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the prominent impacts of coupling strengths on the evolution of entanglement and quantum discord for a three-qubit system coupled to an XY spin-chain environment. In the case of a pure W state, more robust, even larger nonzero quantum correlations can be obtained by tailoring the coupling strengths between the qubits and the environment. For a mixed state consisting of the GHZ and W states, the dynamics of entanglement and quantum discord can characterize the critical point of quantum phase transition. Remarkably, a large nonzero quantum discord is generally retained, while the nonzero entanglement can only be obtained as the system-environment coupling satisfies certain conditions. We also find that the impact of each qubit’s coupling strength on the quantum correlation dynamics strongly depends on the variation schemes of the system-environment couplings. (paper)

  8. Demonstration of analyzers for multimode photonic time-bin qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jeongwan; Agne, Sascha; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Zhang, Yanbao; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Jennewein, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate two approaches for unbalanced interferometers as time-bin qubit analyzers for quantum communication, robust against mode distortions and polarization effects as expected from free-space quantum communication systems including wavefront deformations, path fluctuations, pointing errors, and optical elements. Despite strong spatial and temporal distortions of the optical mode of a time-bin qubit, entangled with a separate polarization qubit, we verify entanglement using the Negative Partial Transpose, with the measured visibility of up to 0.85 ±0.01 . The robustness of the analyzers is further demonstrated for various angles of incidence up to 0 .2∘ . The output of the interferometers is coupled into multimode fiber yielding a high system throughput of 0.74. Therefore, these analyzers are suitable and efficient for quantum communication over multimode optical channels.

  9. Room Temperature Memory for Few Photon Polarization Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupchak, Connor; Mittiga, Thomas; Jordan, Bertus; Nazami, Mehdi; Nolleke, Christian; Figueroa, Eden

    2014-05-01

    We have developed a room temperature quantum memory device based on Electromagnetically Induced Transparency capable of reliably storing and retrieving polarization qubits on the few photon level. Our system is realized in a vapor of 87Rb atoms utilizing a Λ-type energy level scheme. We create a dual-rail storage scheme mediated by an intense control field to allow storage and retrieval of any arbitrary polarization state. Upon retrieval, we employ a filtering system to sufficiently remove the strong pump field, and subject retrieved light states to polarization tomography. To date, our system has produced signal-to-noise ratios near unity with a memory fidelity of >80 % using coherent state qubits containing four photons on average. Our results thus demonstrate the feasibility of room temperature systems for the storage of single-photon-level photonic qubits. Such room temperature systems will be attractive for future long distance quantum communication schemes.

  10. Characterization of classical static noise via qubit as probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Muhammad; Khan, Salman; Ullah, Sayed Arif

    2018-03-01

    The dynamics of quantum Fisher information (QFI) of a single qubit coupled to classical static noise is investigated. The analytical relation for QFI fixes the optimal initial state of the qubit that maximizes it. An approximate limit for the time of coupling that leads to physically useful results is identified. Moreover, using the approach of quantum estimation theory and the analytical relation for QFI, the qubit is used as a probe to precisely estimate the disordered parameter of the environment. Relation for optimal interaction time with the environment is obtained, and condition for the optimal measurement of the noise parameter of the environment is given. It is shown that all values, in the mentioned range, of the noise parameter are estimable with equal precision. A comparison of our results with the previous studies in different classical environments is made.

  11. Topological networks for quantum communication between distant qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Nicolai; Büchler, Hans Peter

    2017-11-01

    Efficient communication between qubits relies on robust networks, which allow for fast and coherent transfer of quantum information. It seems natural to harvest the remarkable properties of systems characterized by topological invariants to perform this task. Here, we show that a linear network of coupled bosonic degrees of freedom, characterized by topological bands, can be employed for the efficient exchange of quantum information over large distances. Important features of our setup are that it is robust against quenched disorder, all relevant operations can be performed by global variations of parameters, and the time required for communication between distant qubits approaches linear scaling with their distance. We demonstrate that our concept can be extended to an ensemble of qubits embedded in a two-dimensional network to allow for communication between all of them.

  12. Suppressing relaxation in superconducting qubits by quasiparticle pumping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Simon; Yan, Fei; Catelani, Gianluigi; Bylander, Jonas; Kamal, Archana; Birenbaum, Jeffrey; Hover, David; Rosenberg, Danna; Samach, Gabriel; Sears, Adam P; Weber, Steven J; Yoder, Jonilyn L; Clarke, John; Kerman, Andrew J; Yoshihara, Fumiki; Nakamura, Yasunobu; Orlando, Terry P; Oliver, William D

    2016-12-23

    Dynamical error suppression techniques are commonly used to improve coherence in quantum systems. They reduce dephasing errors by applying control pulses designed to reverse erroneous coherent evolution driven by environmental noise. However, such methods cannot correct for irreversible processes such as energy relaxation. We investigate a complementary, stochastic approach to reducing errors: Instead of deterministically reversing the unwanted qubit evolution, we use control pulses to shape the noise environment dynamically. In the context of superconducting qubits, we implement a pumping sequence to reduce the number of unpaired electrons (quasiparticles) in close proximity to the device. A 70% reduction in the quasiparticle density results in a threefold enhancement in qubit relaxation times and a comparable reduction in coherence variability. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. High coherence plane breaking packaging for superconducting qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronn, Nicholas T.; Adiga, Vivekananda P.; Olivadese, Salvatore B.; Wu, Xian; Chow, Jerry M.; Pappas, David P.

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate a pogo pin package for a superconducting quantum processor specifically designed with a nontrivial layout topology (e.g., a center qubit that cannot be accessed from the sides of the chip). Two experiments on two nominally identical superconducting quantum processors in pogo packages, which use commercially available parts and require modest machining tolerances, are performed at low temperature (10 mK) in a dilution refrigerator and both found to behave comparably to processors in standard planar packages with wirebonds where control and readout signals come in from the edges. Single- and two-qubit gate errors are also characterized via randomized benchmarking, exhibiting similar error rates as in standard packages, opening the possibility of integrating pogo pin packaging with extensible qubit architectures.

  14. Atomic Evolution and Entanglement of Two Qubits in Photon Superfluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Miao; Zhang, Xiongfeng; Deng, Yunlong; Deng, Huaqiu

    2018-03-01

    By using reservoir theory, we investigate the evolution of an atom placed in photon superfluid and study the entanglement properties of two qubits interacting with photon superfluid. It is found that the atomic decay rate in photon superfluid changes periodically with position of the atom and the decay rate can be inhibited compared to that in usual electromagnetic environment without photon superfluid. It is also found that when two atoms are separately immersed in their own local photon-superfluid reservoir, the entanglement sudden death or birth occurs or not only depends on the initial state of the qubits. What is more, we find a possible case that the concurrence between two qubits can remain a constant value by choosing proper values of parameters of the system, which may provide a new way to preserve quantum entanglement.

  15. Synthetic Topological Qubits in Conventional Bilayer Quantum Hall Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maissam Barkeshli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The idea of topological quantum computation is to build powerful and robust quantum computers with certain macroscopic quantum states of matter called topologically ordered states. These systems have degenerate ground states that can be used as robust “topological qubits” to store and process quantum information. In this paper, we propose a new experimental setup that can realize topological qubits in a simple bilayer fractional quantum Hall system with proper electric gate configurations. Our proposal is accessible with current experimental techniques, involves well-established topological states, and, moreover, can realize a large class of topological qubits, generalizing the Majorana zero modes studied in recent literature to more computationally powerful possibilities. We propose three tunneling and interferometry experiments to detect the existence and nonlocal topological properties of the topological qubits.

  16. Weak coupling polaron and Landau-Zener scenario: Qubits modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jipdi, M. N.; Tchoffo, M.; Fokou, I. F.; Fai, L. C.; Ateuafack, M. E.

    2017-06-01

    The paper presents a weak coupling polaron in a spherical dot with magnetic impurities and investigates conditions for which the system mimics a qubit. Particularly, the work focuses on the Landau-Zener (LZ) scenario undergone by the polaron and derives transition coefficients (transition probabilities) as well as selection rules for polaron's transitions. It is proven that, the magnetic impurities drive the polaron to a two-state superposition leading to a qubit structure. We also showed that the symmetry deficiency induced by the magnetic impurities (strong magnetic field) yields to the banishment of transition coefficients with non-stacking states. However, the transition coefficients revived for large confinement frequency (or weak magnetic field) with the orbital quantum numbers escorting transitions. The polaron is then shown to map a qubit independently of the number of relevant states with the transition coefficients lifted as LZ probabilities and given as a function of the electron-phonon coupling constant (Fröhlich constant).

  17. Entanglement of polar symmetric top molecules as candidate qubits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Qi; Kais, Sabre; Friedrich, Bretislav; Herschbach, Dudley

    2011-10-21

    Proposals for quantum computing using rotational states of polar molecules as qubits have previously considered only diatomic molecules. For these the Stark effect is second-order, so a sizable external electric field is required to produce the requisite dipole moments in the laboratory frame. Here we consider use of polar symmetric top molecules. These offer advantages resulting from a first-order Stark effect, which renders the effective dipole moments nearly independent of the field strength. That permits use of much lower external field strengths for addressing sites. Moreover, for a particular choice of qubits, the electric dipole interactions become isomorphous with NMR systems for which many techniques enhancing logic gate operations have been developed. Also inviting is the wider chemical scope, since many symmetric top organic molecules provide options for auxiliary storage qubits in spin and hyperfine structure or in internal rotation states. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  18. Encoding qubits into oscillators with atomic ensembles and squeezed light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motes, Keith R.; Baragiola, Ben Q.; Gilchrist, Alexei; Menicucci, Nicolas C.

    2017-05-01

    The Gottesman-Kitaev-Preskill (GKP) encoding of a qubit within an oscillator provides a number of advantages when used in a fault-tolerant architecture for quantum computing, most notably that Gaussian operations suffice to implement all single- and two-qubit Clifford gates. The main drawback of the encoding is that the logical states themselves are challenging to produce. Here we present a method for generating optical GKP-encoded qubits by coupling an atomic ensemble to a squeezed state of light. Particular outcomes of a subsequent spin measurement of the ensemble herald successful generation of the resource state in the optical mode. We analyze the method in terms of the resources required (total spin and amount of squeezing) and the probability of success. We propose a physical implementation using a Faraday-based quantum nondemolition interaction.

  19. Two coupled Josephson junctions: dc voltage controlled by biharmonic current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machura, L; Spiechowicz, J; Kostur, M; Łuczka, J

    2012-01-01

    We study transport properties of two Josephson junctions coupled by an external shunt resistance. One of the junctions (say, the first) is driven by an unbiased ac current consisting of two harmonics. The device can rectify the ac current yielding a dc voltage across the first junction. For some values of coupling strength, controlled by an external shunt resistance, a dc voltage across the second junction can be generated. By variation of system parameters such as the relative phase or frequency of two harmonics, one can conveniently manipulate both voltages with high efficiency, e.g. changing the dc voltages across the first and second junctions from positive to negative values and vice versa. (paper)

  20. Visualizing supercurrents in 0-{pi} ferromagnetic Josephson tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldobin, Edward; Guerlich, Christian; Gaber, Tobias; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold [Physikalisches Institut and Center for Collective Quantum Phenomena, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Weides, Martin; Kohlstedt, Hermann [Institute of Solid State Physics, Reserch Center Juelich (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    So-called 0 and {pi} Josephson junctions can be treated as having positive and negative critical currents. This implies that the same phase shift applied to a Josephson junction causes counterflow of supercurrents in 0 and in {pi} junctions connected in parallel provided they are short in comparison with Josephson penetration depth {lambda}{sub J}. We have fabricated several 0, {pi}, 0-{pi}, 0-{pi}-0 and 20 x (0-{pi}-) planar superconductor-insulator-ferromagnet-superconductor Josephson junctions and studied the spatial supercurrent density distribution j{sub s}(x,y) across the junction area using low temperature scanning electron microscopy. At zero magnetic field we clearly see counterflow of the supercurrents in 0 and {pi} regions. The picture also changes consistently in the applied magnetic field.

  1. Quantum Junction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Jiang; Liu, Huan; Zhitomirsky, David; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Wang, Xihua; Furukawa, Melissa; Levina, Larissa; Sargent, Edward H.

    2012-01-01

    -performing colloidal quantum dot rectifying devices reported to date have relied on a junction between a quantum-tuned absorber and a bulk material (e.g., TiO 2); however, quantum tuning of the absorber then requires complete redesign of the bulk acceptor, compromising

  2. Vapor phase epitaxial growth of FeS sub 2 pyrite and evaluation of the carrier collection in liquid-junction solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ennaoui, A.; Schlichthoerl, G.; Fiechter, S.; Tributsch, H. (Hahn-Meitner-Inst., Abt. Solare Energetik und Materialforschung, Berlin (Germany))

    1992-01-01

    Photoactive epitaxial layers of FeS{sub 2} were grown using bromine as a transport agent and a simple closed ampoule technique. The substrates used were (100)-oriented slices of natural pyrite 1 mm thick. A vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism was elucidated by means of optical microscopy. Macrosteps, terrace surfaces and protuberances are often accompanied with the presence of liquid FeBr{sub 3} droplets. In the absence of a liquid phase growth hillocks are found. Localized photovoltaic response for the evaluation of carrier collection using a scanning laser spot system has been used to effectively locate and characterize non-uniformities present in the epitaxial thin films. (orig.).

  3. Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic alloy interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himmel, Nico

    2015-07-23

    Josephson junctions are used as active devices in superconducting electronics and quantum information technology. Outstanding properties are their distinct non-linear electrical characteristics and a usually sinusoidal relation between the current and the superconducting phase difference across the junction. In general the insertion of ferromagnetic material in the barrier of a Josephson junction is associated with a suppression of superconducting correlations. But also new phenomena can arise which may allow new circuit layouts and enhance the performance of applications. This thesis presents a systematic investigation for two concepts to fabricate Josephson junctions with a rather uncommon negative critical current. Such devices exhibit an intrinsic phase slip of π between the electrodes, so they are also known as π junctions. Both studies go well beyond existing experiments and in one system a π junction is shown for the first time. All the thin film junctions are based on superconducting Nb electrodes. In a first approach, barriers made from Si and Fe were investigated with respect to the realisation of π junctions by spin-flip processes. The distribution of Fe in the Si matrix was varied from pure layers to disperse compounds. The systematic fabrication of alloy barriers was facilitated by the development of a novel timing-based combinatorial sputtering technique for planetary deposition systems. An orthogonal gradient approach allowed to create binary layer libraries with independent variations of thickness and composition. Second, Nb vertical stroke AlO{sub x} vertical stroke Nb vertical stroke Ni{sub 60}Cu{sub 40} vertical stroke Nb (SIsFS) double barrier junctions were experimentally studied for the occurrence of proximity effect induced order parameter oscillations. Detailed dependencies of the critical current density on the thickness of s-layer and F-layer were acquired and show a remarkable agreement to existing theoretical predictions. Especially

  4. Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic alloy interlayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himmel, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Josephson junctions are used as active devices in superconducting electronics and quantum information technology. Outstanding properties are their distinct non-linear electrical characteristics and a usually sinusoidal relation between the current and the superconducting phase difference across the junction. In general the insertion of ferromagnetic material in the barrier of a Josephson junction is associated with a suppression of superconducting correlations. But also new phenomena can arise which may allow new circuit layouts and enhance the performance of applications. This thesis presents a systematic investigation for two concepts to fabricate Josephson junctions with a rather uncommon negative critical current. Such devices exhibit an intrinsic phase slip of π between the electrodes, so they are also known as π junctions. Both studies go well beyond existing experiments and in one system a π junction is shown for the first time. All the thin film junctions are based on superconducting Nb electrodes. In a first approach, barriers made from Si and Fe were investigated with respect to the realisation of π junctions by spin-flip processes. The distribution of Fe in the Si matrix was varied from pure layers to disperse compounds. The systematic fabrication of alloy barriers was facilitated by the development of a novel timing-based combinatorial sputtering technique for planetary deposition systems. An orthogonal gradient approach allowed to create binary layer libraries with independent variations of thickness and composition. Second, Nb vertical stroke AlO x vertical stroke Nb vertical stroke Ni 60 Cu 40 vertical stroke Nb (SIsFS) double barrier junctions were experimentally studied for the occurrence of proximity effect induced order parameter oscillations. Detailed dependencies of the critical current density on the thickness of s-layer and F-layer were acquired and show a remarkable agreement to existing theoretical predictions. Especially a variation of

  5. Genetic algorithm based on qubits and quantum gates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Joao Batista Rosa; Ramos, Rubens Viana

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Genetic algorithm, a computational technique based on the evolution of the species, in which a possible solution of the problem is coded in a binary string, called chromosome, has been used successfully in several kinds of problems, where the search of a minimal or a maximal value is necessary, even when local minima are present. A natural generalization of a binary string is a qubit string. Hence, it is possible to use the structure of a genetic algorithm having a sequence of qubits as a chromosome and using quantum operations in the reproduction in order to find the best solution in some problems of quantum information. For example, given a unitary matrix U what is the pair of qubits that, when applied at the input, provides the output state with maximal entanglement? In order to solve this problem, a population of chromosomes of two qubits was created. The crossover was performed applying the quantum gates CNOT and SWAP at the pair of qubits, while the mutation was performed applying the quantum gates Hadamard, Z and Not in a single qubit. The result was compared with a classical genetic algorithm used to solve the same problem. A hundred simulations using the same U matrix was performed. Both algorithms, hereafter named by CGA (classical) and QGA (using qu bits), reached good results close to 1 however, the number of generations needed to find the best result was lower for the QGA. Another problem where the QGA can be useful is in the calculation of the relative entropy of entanglement. We have tested our algorithm using 100 pure states chosen randomly. The stop criterion used was the error lower than 0.01. The main advantages of QGA are its good precision, robustness and very easy implementation. The main disadvantage is its low velocity, as happen for all kind of genetic algorithms. (author)

  6. Adiabatic quantum computing with spin qubits hosted by molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Satoru; Nakazawa, Shigeaki; Sugisaki, Kenji; Sato, Kazunobu; Toyota, Kazuo; Shiomi, Daisuke; Takui, Takeji

    2015-01-28

    A molecular spin quantum computer (MSQC) requires electron spin qubits, which pulse-based electron spin/magnetic resonance (ESR/MR) techniques can afford to manipulate for implementing quantum gate operations in open shell molecular entities. Importantly, nuclear spins, which are topologically connected, particularly in organic molecular spin systems, are client qubits, while electron spins play a role of bus qubits. Here, we introduce the implementation for an adiabatic quantum algorithm, suggesting the possible utilization of molecular spins with optimized spin structures for MSQCs. We exemplify the utilization of an adiabatic factorization problem of 21, compared with the corresponding nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) case. Two molecular spins are selected: one is a molecular spin composed of three exchange-coupled electrons as electron-only qubits and the other an electron-bus qubit with two client nuclear spin qubits. Their electronic spin structures are well characterized in terms of the quantum mechanical behaviour in the spin Hamiltonian. The implementation of adiabatic quantum computing/computation (AQC) has, for the first time, been achieved by establishing ESR/MR pulse sequences for effective spin Hamiltonians in a fully controlled manner of spin manipulation. The conquered pulse sequences have been compared with the NMR experiments and shown much faster CPU times corresponding to the interaction strength between the spins. Significant differences are shown in rotational operations and pulse intervals for ESR/MR operations. As a result, we suggest the advantages and possible utilization of the time-evolution based AQC approach for molecular spin quantum computers and molecular spin quantum simulators underlain by sophisticated ESR/MR pulsed spin technology.

  7. Tunable Hybrid Qubit in a Triple Quantum Dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bao-Chuan; Cao, Gang; Li, Hai-Ou; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Hu, Xuedong; Jiang, Hong-Wen; Guo, Guo-Ping

    2017-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate quantum-coherent dynamics of a triple-dot-based multielectron hybrid qubit. Pulsed experiments show that this system can be conveniently initialized, controlled, measured electrically, and has a good ratio Q ˜29 between the coherence time and gate time. Furthermore, the current multielectron hybrid qubit has an operation frequency that is tunable in a wide range, from 2 to about 15 GHz. We also provide a qualitative understanding of the experimental observations by mapping them onto a three-electron system. The demonstration of the high tunability in a triple dot system could be potentially useful for future quantum control.

  8. Toward nano-fabrication of superconducting ruthenate qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Kent S.; Horwitz, James S.; Wu, H.-D.; Bounnak, Sommy S.; Yaguchi, Hiroshi; Maeno, Yoshiteru; Gulian, Armen M.

    2004-01-01

    The lack of thin films is one of the major obstacles in exploring the intriguing quantum properties specific to triplet superconductors. To have a single-domain chiral structure the sample should be made out of thin film, but crystalline imperfections until now have not allowed anybody to succeed in deposition of superconducting thin films of ruthenates. This stops not only general progress in investigating their properties, but in particular forbids practical realization of triplet superconductor qubits. Using the material properties of ruthenates, we have elaborated a method to overcome this problem. This report contains experimental aspects of our recent progress towards triplet superconductor qubits

  9. State determination for composite systems of two spatial qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, G; Torres-Ruiz, F A; Neves, L; Delgado, A; Saavedra, C; Padua, S

    2007-01-01

    In a recent letter [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 100501 (2005)], we presented a scheme for generating pure entangled states of spatial qudits using transverse correlations of parametric down-converted photons. Here we show how the modication of this scheme can be used to generate mixed states and we investigate the state determination for composite systems of two spatial qubits, motivated by the fact that quantum information protocols may be easier to be implemented for this case. By means of local operations on the twin photons we were able to perform the quantum tomography process to reconstruct the density matrix of a mixed state of two spatial qubits

  10. Generation of three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states of superconducting qubits by using dressed states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Chen, Ye-Hong; Shi, Zhi-Cheng; Shan, Wu-Jiang; Song, Jie; Xia, Yan

    2017-12-01

    Combining the advantages of the dressed states and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) qubits, we propose an efficient scheme to generate Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states for three SQUID qubits. Firstly, we elaborate how to generate GHZ states of three SQUID qubits by choosing a set of dressed states suitably. Then, we compare the scheme by using dressed states with that via the adiabatic passage. Lastly, the influence of various decoherence factors, such as cavity decay, spontaneous emission and dephasing, is analyzed numerically. All of the results show that the GHZ state can be obtained fast and with high fidelity and that the present scheme is robust against the cavity decay and spontaneous emission. In addition, our scheme is more stable against the dephasing than the adiabatic scheme.

  11. Repulsive fluxons in a stack of Josephson junctions perturbed by a cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2008-01-01

    The BSCCO type intrinsic Josephson junction has been modeled as a stack of inductively coupled long Josephson junctions, which were described by a system of coupled sine-Gordon equations. In a system of 10 long Josephson junctions coupled to a linear cavity, we numerically investigate how...... of the inductive coupling strength, we investigate the cavity current, fluxon phase difference, and current–voltage characteristic. The stack-cavity system with in-phase fluxon motion may be utilized as a THz oscillator....

  12. Quantum logic gates generated by SC-charge qubits coupled to a resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obada, A-S F; Hessian, H A; Mohamed, A-B A; Homid, Ali H

    2012-01-01

    We propose some quantum logic gates by using SC-charge qubits coupled to a resonator to study two types of quantum operation. By applying a classical magnetic field with the flux, a simple rotation on the target qubit is generated. Single and two-qubit gates of quantum logic gates are realized. Two-qubit joint operations are firstly generated by applying a classical magnetic field with the flux, and secondly by applying a classical magnetic field with the flux when qubits are placed a quarter of the distance along the resonator. A short discussion of fidelity is given to prove the success of the operations in implementing these gates. (paper)

  13. Theory of control of the dynamics of the interface between stationary and flying qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Wang; Liu Renbao; Sham, L J

    2005-01-01

    We present a scheme of control for the arbitrary interplay between a stationary qubit and a flying qubit (carried by a single-photon wavepacket) at a quantum interface composed of a three-level system coupled to a continuum through a cavity. It can be used for generation or reception of an arbitrarily shaped single-photon wavepacket. The generation process can also be controlled to create entanglement between the stationary qubit and flying qubit. The generation and reception operation can be combined to perform quantum network operations such as transfer, swap and entanglement creation for qubits at distant nodes

  14. Dissipation, dephasing and quantum Darwinism in qubit systems with random unitary interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaneskovic, Nenad; Mendler, Marc

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the influence of dissipation and decoherence on quantum Darwinism by generalizing Zurek's original qubit model of decoherence and the establishment of pointer states [W.H. Zurek, Nat. Phys. 5, 181 (2009); see also arXiv: quant-ph/0707.2832v1, pp. 14-19.]. Our model allows for repeated multiple qubit-qubit couplings between system and environment which are described by randomly applied two-qubit quantum operations inducing entanglement, dissipation and dephasing. The resulting stationary qubit states of system and environment are investigated. They exhibit the intricate influence of entanglement generation, dissipation and dephasing on this characteristic quantum phenomenon.

  15. Non-Bell-pair quantum channel for teleporting an arbitrary two-qubit state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zha Xinwei; Song Haiyang

    2007-01-01

    Recently, Yeo and Chua [Y. Yeo, W.K. Chua, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 (2006) 060502] gave a protocol for faithfully teleporting an arbitrary two-qubit state via a genuine four-qubit entangled state, which is not reducible to a pair of Bell state. Here, we present a 'transformation operator' to give a criterion for faithful teleportation of an arbitrary two-qubit state via a four-qubit entangled state. The theoretical explanations of some quantum channels are given in term of transformation operators. The relation between the transformation operators and the Bell base measurement is also obtained. Furthermore, a new four-qubit entangled state quantum channel is presented

  16. Holographic s-wave and p-wave Josephson junction with backreaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yong-Qiang; Liu, Shuai [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lanzhou University,Lanzhou 730000, People’s Republic of (China)

    2016-11-22

    In this paper, we study the holographic models of s-wave and p-wave Josephoson junction away from probe limit in (3+1)-dimensional spacetime, respectively. With the backreaction of the matter, we obtained the anisotropic black hole solution with the condensation of matter fields. We observe that the critical temperature of Josephoson junction decreases with increasing backreaction. In addition to this, the tunneling current and condenstion of Josephoson junction become smaller as backreaction grows larger, but the relationship between current and phase difference still holds for sine function. Moreover, condenstion of Josephoson junction deceases with increasing width of junction exponentially.

  17. Majorana splitting from critical currents in Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayao, Jorge; San-Jose, Pablo; Black-Schaffer, Annica M.; Aguado, Ramón; Prada, Elsa

    2017-11-01

    A semiconducting nanowire with strong Rashba spin-orbit coupling and coupled to a superconductor can be tuned by an external Zeeman field into a topological phase with Majorana zero modes. Here we theoretically investigate how this exotic topological superconductor phase manifests in Josephson junctions based on such proximitized nanowires. In particular, we focus on critical currents in the short junction limit (LN≪ξ , where LN is the junction length and ξ is the superconducting coherence length) and show that they contain important information about nontrivial topology and Majoranas. This includes signatures of the gap inversion at the topological transition and a unique oscillatory pattern that originates from Majorana interference. Interestingly, this pattern can be modified by tuning the transmission across the junction, thus providing complementary evidence of Majoranas and their energy splittings beyond standard tunnel spectroscopy experiments, while offering further tunability by virtue of the Josephson effect.

  18. Towards quantum signatures in a swept-bias Josephson junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losert, Harald; Vogel, Karl; Schleich, Wolfgang P. [Institut fuer Quantenphysik and Center for Integrated Quantum Science and Technology (IQST), Universitaet Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Josephson junctions are one of the best examples for the observation of macroscopic quantum tunneling. The phase difference in a current-biased Josephson junction behaves like the position of a particle in a tilted washboard potential. The escape of this phase-particle corresponds to the voltage switching of the associated junction. Quantum mechanically, the escape from the washboard potential can be explained as tunneling from the ground state, or an excited state. However, it has been shown, that in the case of periodic driving the experimental data for quantum mechanical key features, e.g. Rabi oscillations or energy level quantization, can be reproduced by a completely classical description. Motivated by this discussion, we investigate a swept-bias Josephson junction in the case of a large critical current. In particular, we contrast the switching current distributions resulting from a quantum mechanical and classical description of the time evolution.

  19. Steady-state properties of Josephson junctions with direct conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubkov, A.A.; Kupriyanov, M.Y.; Semenov, V.K.

    1981-01-01

    A new criterion for determining the kinetic inductance of Josephson junctions is introduced. The effects of temperature T, the critical temperatures of the superconducting electrodes T/sub c/1 and T/sub c/2, and the weak-link length on the kinetic inductance of ''dirty'' junctions with direct conductivity are analyzed within the framework of the Usadel equations. Numerical calculations show that both a large characteristic voltage and a nearly harmonic dependence of the current on the phase difference of the superconducting-electrode wave functions cannot be obtained by varying the junction parameters

  20. Steady-state entanglement and thermalization of coupled qubits in two common heat baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li-Zhen; Man, Zhong-Xiao; Xia, Yun-Jie

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we study the steady-state entanglement and thermalization of two coupled qubits embedded in two common baths with different temperatures. The common bath is relevant when the two qubits are difficult to be isolated to only contact with their local baths. With the quantum master equation constructed in the eigenstate representation of the coupled qubits, we have demonstrated the variations of steady-state entanglement with respect to various parameters of the qubits' system in both equilibrium and nonequilibrium cases of the baths. The coupling strength and energy detuning of the qubits as well as the temperature gradient of the baths are found to be beneficial to the enhancement of the entanglement. We note a dark state of the qubits that is free from time-evolution and its initial population can greatly influence the steady-state entanglement. By virtues of effective temperatures, we also study the thermalization of the coupled qubits and their variations with energy detuning.

  1. Experimental investigation of a four-qubit linear-optical quantum logic circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stárek, R; Mičuda, M; Miková, M; Straka, I; Dušek, M; Ježek, M; Fiurášek, J

    2016-09-20

    We experimentally demonstrate and characterize a four-qubit linear-optical quantum logic circuit. Our robust and versatile scheme exploits encoding of two qubits into polarization and path degrees of single photons and involves two crossed inherently stable interferometers. This approach allows us to design a complex quantum logic circuit that combines a genuine four-qubit C(3)Z gate and several two-qubit and single-qubit gates. The C(3)Z gate introduces a sign flip if and only if all four qubits are in the computational state |1〉. We verify high-fidelity performance of this central four-qubit gate using Hofmann bounds on quantum gate fidelity and Monte Carlo fidelity sampling. We also experimentally demonstrate that the quantum logic circuit can generate genuine multipartite entanglement and we certify the entanglement with the use of suitably tailored entanglement witnesses.

  2. Preparation and tomographic reconstruction of an arbitrary single-photon path qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, So-Young; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2011-01-01

    We report methods for preparation and tomographic reconstruction of an arbitrary single-photon path qubit. The arbitrary single-photon path qubit is prepared losslessly by passing the heralded single-photon state from spontaneous parametric down-conversion through variable beam splitter. Quantum state tomography of the single-photon path qubit is implemented by introducing path-projection measurements based on the first-order single-photon quantum interference. Using the state preparation and path-projection measurements methods for the single-photon path qubit, we demonstrate preparation and complete tomographic reconstruction of the single-photon path qubit with arbitrary purity. -- Highlights: → We report methods for preparation and tomographic reconstruction of an arbitrary single-photon path qubit. → We implement path-projection measurements based on the first-order single-photon quantum interference. → We demonstrate preparation and complete tomographic reconstruction of the single-photon path qubit with arbitrary purity.

  3. Josephson junctions array resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gargiulo, Oscar; Muppalla, Phani; Mirzaei, Iman; Kirchmair, Gerhard [Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, Innsbruck (Austria)

    2016-07-01

    We present an experimental analysis of the self- and cross-Kerr effect of extended plasma resonances in Josephson junction chains. The chain consists of 1600 individual junctions and we can measure quality factors in excess of 10000. The Kerr effect manifests itself as a frequency shift that depends linearly on the number of photons in a resonant mode. By changing the input power we are able to measure this frequency shift on a single mode (self-kerr). By changing the input power on another mode while measuring the same one, we are able to evaluate the cross-kerr effect. We can measure the cross-Kerr effect by probing the resonance frequency of one mode while exciting another mode of the array with a microwave drive.

  4. Entangling capabilities of symmetric two-qubit gates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Com- putational investigation of entanglement of such ensembles is therefore impractical for ... the computational complexity. Pairs of spin-1 ... tensor operators which can also provide different symmetric logic gates for quantum pro- ... that five of the eight, two-qubit symmetric quantum gates expressed in terms of our newly.

  5. Controlling electron quantum dot qubits by spin-orbit interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stano, P.

    2007-01-01

    Single electron confined in a quantum dot is studied. A special emphasis is laid on the spin properties and the influence of spin-orbit interactions on the system. The study is motivated by a perspective exploitation of the spin of the confined electron as a qubit, a basic building block of in a foreseen quantum computer. The electron is described using the single band effective mass approximation, with parameters typical for a lateral electrostatically defined quantum dot in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The stemming data for the analysis are obtained by numerical methods of exact diagonalization, however, all important conclusions are explained analytically. The work focuses on three main areas -- electron spectrum, phonon induced relaxation and electrically and magnetically induced Rabi oscillations. It is shown, how spin-orbit interactions influence the energy spectrum, cause finite spin relaxation and allow for all-electrical manipulation of the spin qubit. Among the main results is the discovery of easy passages, where the spin relaxation is unusually slow and the qubit is protected against parasitic electrical fields connected with manipulation by resonant electromagnetic fields. The results provide direct guide for manufacturing quantum dots with much improved properties, suitable for realizing single electron spin qubits. (orig.)

  6. Local ontology for a dual-rail qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasiak, Pawel

    2016-01-01

    We show that quantum predictions for the dual-rail realisation of a qubit can be faithfully simulated with classical stochastic gates and particles which interact entirely in a local manner. In the presented model 'non-locality' appears only on the epistemic level of description. (paper)

  7. The Quantum Socket: Wiring for Superconducting Qubits - Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejanin, J. H.; McConkey, T. G.; Rinehart, J. R.; Bateman, J. D.; Earnest, C. T.; McRae, C. H.; Rohanizadegan, Y.; Shiri, D.; Mariantoni, M.; Penava, B.; Breul, P.; Royak, S.; Zapatka, M.; Fowler, A. G.

    Quantum computing research has reached a level of maturity where quantum error correction (QEC) codes can be executed on linear arrays of superconducting quantum bits (qubits). A truly scalable quantum computing architecture, however, based on practical QEC algorithms, requires nearest neighbor interaction between qubits on a two-dimensional array. Such an arrangement is not possible with techniques that rely on wire bonding. To address this issue, we have developed the quantum socket, a device based on three-dimensional wires that enables the control of superconducting qubits on a two-dimensional grid. In this talk, we present experimental results characterizing this type of wiring. We will show that the quantum socket performs exceptionally well for the transmission and reflection of microwave signals up to 10 GHz, while minimizing crosstalk between adjacent wires. Under realistic conditions, we measured an S21 of -5 dB at 6 GHz and an average crosstalk of -60 dB. We also describe time domain reflectometry results and arbitrary pulse transmission tests, showing that the quantum socket can be used to control superconducting qubits.

  8. Coherent Operations and Screening in Multielectron Spin Qubits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Higginbotham, Andrew Patrick; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand; Hanson, M.P.

    2014-01-01

    Multielectron spin qubits are demonstrated, and performance examined by comparing coherent exchange oscillations in coupled single-electron and multielectron quantum dots, measured in the same device. Fast (>1 GHz) exchange oscillations with a quality factor Q ∼ 15 are found for the multielectron...

  9. Quantum Key Distribution Using Four-Qubit W State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Haijing; Song Heshan

    2006-01-01

    A new theoretical quantum key distribution scheme based on entanglement swapping is proposed, where four-qubit symmetric W state functions as quantum channel. It is shown that two legitimate users can secretly share a series of key bits by using Bell-state measurements and classical communication.

  10. Full reconstruction of a 14-qubit state within four hours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Zhibo; Zhong, Han-Sen; Tian, Ye; Xiang, Guo-Yong; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can; Dong, Daoyi; Wang, Yuanlong; Qi, Bo; Li, Li; Nori, Franco

    2016-01-01

    Full quantum state tomography (FQST) plays a unique role in the estimation of the state of a quantum system without a priori knowledge or assumptions. Unfortunately, since FQST requires informationally (over)complete measurements, both the number of measurement bases and the computational complexity of data processing suffer an exponential growth with the size of the quantum system. A 14-qubit entangled state has already been experimentally prepared in an ion trap, and the data processing capability for FQST of a 14-qubit state seems to be far away from practical applications. In this paper, the computational capability of FQST is pushed forward to reconstruct a 14-qubit state with a run time of only 3.35 hours using the linear regression estimation (LRE) algorithm, even when informationally overcomplete Pauli measurements are employed. The computational complexity of the LRE algorithm is first reduced from ∼10 19 to ∼10 15 for a 14-qubit state, by dropping all the zero elements, and its computational efficiency is further sped up by fully exploiting the parallelism of the LRE algorithm with parallel Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) programming. Our result demonstrates the effectiveness of using parallel computation to speed up the postprocessing for FQST, and can play an important role in quantum information technologies with large quantum systems. (paper)

  11. State-dependent linear-optical qubit amplifier

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bartkiewicz, K.; Černoch, Antonín; Lemr, K.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 6 (2013), "062304-1"-"062304-7" ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : linear-optical qubit amplifier * quantum cloning * quantum cryptography Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.991, year: 2013

  12. Building logical qubits in a superconducting quantum computing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambetta, Jay M.; Chow, Jerry M.; Steffen, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    The technological world is in the midst of a quantum computing and quantum information revolution. Since Richard Feynman's famous `plenty of room at the bottom' lecture (Feynman, Engineering and Science23, 22 (1960)), hinting at the notion of novel devices employing quantum mechanics, the quantum information community has taken gigantic strides in understanding the potential applications of a quantum computer and laid the foundational requirements for building one. We believe that the next significant step will be to demonstrate a quantum memory, in which a system of interacting qubits stores an encoded logical qubit state longer than the incorporated parts. Here, we describe the important route towards a logical memory with superconducting qubits, employing a rotated version of the surface code. The current status of technology with regards to interconnected superconducting-qubit networks will be described and near-term areas of focus to improve devices will be identified. Overall, the progress in this exciting field has been astounding, but we are at an important turning point, where it will be critical to incorporate engineering solutions with quantum architectural considerations, laying the foundation towards scalable fault-tolerant quantum computers in the near future.

  13. Controlling electron quantum dot qubits by spin-orbit interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stano, P.

    2007-01-15

    Single electron confined in a quantum dot is studied. A special emphasis is laid on the spin properties and the influence of spin-orbit interactions on the system. The study is motivated by a perspective exploitation of the spin of the confined electron as a qubit, a basic building block of in a foreseen quantum computer. The electron is described using the single band effective mass approximation, with parameters typical for a lateral electrostatically defined quantum dot in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The stemming data for the analysis are obtained by numerical methods of exact diagonalization, however, all important conclusions are explained analytically. The work focuses on three main areas -- electron spectrum, phonon induced relaxation and electrically and magnetically induced Rabi oscillations. It is shown, how spin-orbit interactions influence the energy spectrum, cause finite spin relaxation and allow for all-electrical manipulation of the spin qubit. Among the main results is the discovery of easy passages, where the spin relaxation is unusually slow and the qubit is protected against parasitic electrical fields connected with manipulation by resonant electromagnetic fields. The results provide direct guide for manufacturing quantum dots with much improved properties, suitable for realizing single electron spin qubits. (orig.)

  14. Synthetic Elucidation of Design Principles for Molecular Qubits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Michael James

    Quantum information processing (QIP) is an emerging computational paradigm with the potential to enable a vast increase in computational power, fundamentally transforming fields from structural biology to finance. QIP employs qubits, or quantum bits, as its fundamental units of information, which can exist in not just the classical states of 0 or 1, but in a superposition of the two. In order to successfully perform QIP, this superposition state must be sufficiently long-lived. One promising paradigm for the implementation of QIP involves employing unpaired electrons in coordination complexes as qubits. This architecture is highly tunable and scalable, however coordination complexes frequently suffer from short superposition lifetimes, or T2. In order to capitalize on the promise of molecular qubits, it is necessary to develop a set of design principles that allow the rational synthesis of complexes with sufficiently long values of T2. In this dissertation, I report efforts to use the synthesis of series of complexes to elucidate design principles for molecular qubits. Chapter 1 details previous work by our group and others in the field. Chapter 2 details the first efforts of our group to determine the impact of varying spin and spin-orbit coupling on T2. Chapter 3 examines the effect of removing nuclear spins on coherence time, and reports a series of vanadyl bis(dithiolene) complexes which exhibit extremely long coherence lifetimes, in excess of the 100 mus threshold for qubit viability. Chapters 4 and 5 form two complimentary halves of a study to determine the exact relationship between electronic spin-nuclear spin distance and the effect of the nuclear spins on T2. Finally, chapter 6 suggests next directions for the field as a whole, including the potential for work in this field to impact the development of other technologies as diverse as quantum sensors and magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents.

  15. Biomarker analysis of cetuximab plus oxaliplatin/leucovorin/5-fluorouracil in first-line metastatic gastric and oesophago-gastric junction cancer: results from a phase II trial of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Internistische Onkologie (AIO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luber, Birgit; Folprecht, Gunnar; Wöll, Ewald; Decker, Thomas; Endlicher, Esther; Lorenzen, Sylvie; Fend, Falko; Peschel, Christian; Lordick, Florian; Deplazes, Joëlle; Keller, Gisela; Walch, Axel; Rauser, Sandra; Eichmann, Martin; Langer, Rupert; Höfler, Heinz; Hegewisch-Becker, Susanna

    2011-01-01

    The activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-directed monoclonal antibody cetuximab combined with oxaliplatin/leucovorin/5-fluorouracil (FUFOX) was assessed in first-line metastatic gastric and oesophago-gastric junction (OGJ) cancer in a prospective phase II study showing a promising objective tumour response rate of 65% and a low mutation frequency of KRAS (3%). The aim of the correlative tumour tissue studies was to investigate the relationship between EGFR gene copy numbers, activation of the EGFR pathway, expression and mutation of E-cadherin, V600E BRAF mutation and clinical outcome of patients with gastric and OGJ cancer treated with cetuximab combined with FUFOX. Patients included in this correlative study (n = 39) were a subset of patients from the clinical phase II study. The association between EGFR gene copy number, activation of the EGFR pathway, abundance and mutation of E-cadherin which plays an important role in these disorders, BRAF mutation and clinical outcome of patients was studied. EGFR gene copy number was assessed by FISH. Expression of the phosphorylated forms of EGFR and its downstream effectors Akt and MAPK, in addition to E-cadherin was analysed by immunohistochemistry. The frequency of mutant V600E BRAF was evaluated by allele-specific PCR and the mutation profile of the E-cadherin gene CDH1 was examined by DHPLC followed by direct sequence analysis. Correlations with overall survival (OS), time to progression (TTP) and overall response rate (ORR) were assessed. Our study showed a significant association between increased EGFR gene copy number (≥ 4.0) and OS in gastric and OGJ cancer, indicating the possibility that patients may be selected for treatment on a genetic basis. Furthermore, a significant correlation was shown between activated EGFR and shorter TTP and ORR, but not between activated EGFR and OS. No V600E BRAF mutations were identified. On the other hand, an interesting trend between high E

  16. Biomarker analysis of cetuximab plus oxaliplatin/leucovorin/5-fluorouracil in first-line metastatic gastric and oesophago-gastric junction cancer: results from a phase II trial of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Internistische Onkologie (AIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luber Birgit

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR-directed monoclonal antibody cetuximab combined with oxaliplatin/leucovorin/5-fluorouracil (FUFOX was assessed in first-line metastatic gastric and oesophago-gastric junction (OGJ cancer in a prospective phase II study showing a promising objective tumour response rate of 65% and a low mutation frequency of KRAS (3%. The aim of the correlative tumour tissue studies was to investigate the relationship between EGFR gene copy numbers, activation of the EGFR pathway, expression and mutation of E-cadherin, V600E BRAF mutation and clinical outcome of patients with gastric and OGJ cancer treated with cetuximab combined with FUFOX. Methods Patients included in this correlative study (n = 39 were a subset of patients from the clinical phase II study. The association between EGFR gene copy number, activation of the EGFR pathway, abundance and mutation of E-cadherin which plays an important role in these disorders, BRAF mutation and clinical outcome of patients was studied. EGFR gene copy number was assessed by FISH. Expression of the phosphorylated forms of EGFR and its downstream effectors Akt and MAPK, in addition to E-cadherin was analysed by immunohistochemistry. The frequency of mutant V600E BRAF was evaluated by allele-specific PCR and the mutation profile of the E-cadherin gene CDH1 was examined by DHPLC followed by direct sequence analysis. Correlations with overall survival (OS, time to progression (TTP and overall response rate (ORR were assessed. Results Our study showed a significant association between increased EGFR gene copy number (≥ 4.0 and OS in gastric and OGJ cancer, indicating the possibility that patients may be selected for treatment on a genetic basis. Furthermore, a significant correlation was shown between activated EGFR and shorter TTP and ORR, but not between activated EGFR and OS. No V600E BRAF mutations were identified. On the other hand, an

  17. Single-photon three-qubit quantum logic using spatial light modulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagalwala, Kumel H; Di Giuseppe, Giovanni; Abouraddy, Ayman F; Saleh, Bahaa E A

    2017-09-29

    The information-carrying capacity of a single photon can be vastly expanded by exploiting its multiple degrees of freedom: spatial, temporal, and polarization. Although multiple qubits can be encoded per photon, to date only two-qubit single-photon quantum operations have been realized. Here, we report an experimental demonstration of three-qubit single-photon, linear, deterministic quantum gates that exploit photon polarization and the two-dimensional spatial-parity-symmetry of the transverse single-photon field. These gates are implemented using a polarization-sensitive spatial light modulator that provides a robust, non-interferometric, versatile platform for implementing controlled unitary gates. Polarization here represents the control qubit for either separable or entangling unitary operations on the two spatial-parity target qubits. Such gates help generate maximally entangled three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger and W states, which is confirmed by tomographical reconstruction of single-photon density matrices. This strategy provides access to a wide range of three-qubit states and operations for use in few-qubit quantum information processing protocols.Photons are essential for quantum information processing, but to date only two-qubit single-photon operations have been realized. Here the authors demonstrate experimentally a three-qubit single-photon linear deterministic quantum gate by exploiting polarization along with spatial-parity symmetry.

  18. Multiqubit nonlocality in families of 3- and 4-qubit entangled states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghose, S; Debnath, S; Sinclair, N; Kabra, A [Department of Physics and Computer Science, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3C5 (Canada); Stock, R, E-mail: sghose@wlu.c [Department of Physics, University of Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A7 (Canada)

    2010-11-07

    We investigate genuine multiqubit nonlocality in families of entangled 3- and 4-qubit pure states by analyzing a Bell-type inequality that is violated only if all qubits are nonlocally correlated. We present detailed numerical studies of the relationship between entanglement and violation of the Svetlichny Bell-type inequality in an experimentally accessible set of 3-qubit pure states, and identify the special nonlocality property of the maximal slice states in the space of all 3-qubit pure states. We also analyze nonlocal correlations in 3-qubit generalized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states and extend our analysis to the case of 4-qubit generalized GHZ states. We show that like the 3-qubit case, some 4-qubit generalized GHZ states do not violate a Bell inequality that tests for genuine 4-qubit nonlocality. Furthermore, the location of the boundary between the states that do violate the inequality and those that do not is the same for the 3- and 4-qubit generalized GHZ states.

  19. Dilute Nitrides For 4-And 6- Junction Space Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essig, S.; Stammler, E.; Ronsch, S.; Oliva, E.; Schachtner, M.; Siefer, G.; Bett, A. W.; Dimroth, F.

    2011-10-01

    According to simulations the efficiency of conventional, lattice-matched GaInP/GaInAs/Ge triple-junction space solar cells can be strongly increased by the incorporation of additional junctions. In this way the existing excess current of the Germanium bottom cell can be reduced and the voltage of the stack can be increased. In particular, the use of 1.0 eV materials like GaInNAs opens the door for solar cells with significantly improved conversion efficiency. We have investigated the material properties of GaInNAs grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy (MOVPE) and its impact on the quantum efficiency of solar cells. Furthermore we have developed a GaInNAs subcell with a bandgap energy of 1.0 eV and integrated it into a GaInP/GaInAs/GaInNAs/Ge 4-junction and a AlGaInP/GaInP/AlGaInAs/GaInAs/GaInNAs/Ge 6- junction space solar cell. The material quality of the dilute nitride junction limits the current density of these devices to 9.3 mA/cm2 (AM0). This is not sufficient for a 4-junction cell but may lead to current matched 6- junction devices in the future.

  20. Multiqubit quantum phase gate using four-level superconducting quantum interference devices coupled to superconducting resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waseem, Muhammad; Irfan, Muhammad [Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Qamar, Shahid, E-mail: shahid_qamar@pieas.edu.pk [Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan)

    2012-07-15

    In this paper, we propose a scheme to realize three-qubit quantum phase gate of one qubit simultaneously controlling two target qubits using four-level superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) coupled to a superconducting resonator. The two lowest levels Divides 0 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket and Divides 1 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket of each SQUID are used to represent logical states while the higher energy levels Divides 2 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket and Divides 3 Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket are utilized for gate realization. Our scheme does not require adiabatic passage, second order detuning, and the adjustment of the level spacing during gate operation which reduce the gate time significantly. The scheme is generalized for an arbitrary n-qubit quantum phase gate. We also apply the scheme to implement three-qubit quantum Fourier transform.

  1. The human myotendinous junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, A B; Larsen, M; Mackey, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    The myotendinous junction (MTJ) is a specialized structure in the musculotendinous system, where force is transmitted from muscle to tendon. Animal models have shown that the MTJ takes form of tendon finger-like processes merging with muscle tissue. The human MTJ is largely unknown and has never...... been described in three dimensions (3D). The aim of this study was to describe the ultrastructure of the human MTJ and render 3D reconstructions. Fourteen subjects (age 25 ± 3 years) with isolated injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), scheduled for reconstruction with a semitendinosus...

  2. Tight junctions and human diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Norimasa; Murata, Masaki; Kikuchi, Keisuke; Osanai, Makoto; Tobioka, Hirotoshi; Kojima, Takashi; Chiba, Hideki

    2003-09-01

    Tight junctions are intercellular junctions adjacent to the apical end of the lateral membrane surface. They have two functions, the barrier (or gate) function and the fence function. The barrier function of tight junctions regulates the passage of ions, water, and various macromolecules, even of cancer cells, through paracellular spaces. The barrier function is thus relevant to edema, jaundice, diarrhea, and blood-borne metastasis. On the other hand, the fence function maintains cell polarity. In other words, tight junctions work as a fence to prevent intermixing of molecules in the apical membrane with those in the lateral membrane. This function is deeply involved in cancer cell biology, in terms of loss of cell polarity. Of the proteins comprising tight junctions, integral membrane proteins occludin, claudins, and JAMs have been recently discovered. Of these molecules, claudins are exclusively responsible for the formation of tight-junction strands and are connected with the actin cytoskeleton mediated by ZO-1. Thus, both functions of tight junctions are dependent on the integrity of the actin cytoskeleton as well as ATP. Mutations in the claudin14 and the claudin16 genes result in hereditary deafness and hereditary hypomagnesemia, respectively. Some pathogenic bacteria and viruses target and affect the tight-junction function, leading to diseases. In this review, the relationship between tight junctions and human diseases is summarized.

  3. Gap junctions and motor behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiehn, Ole; Tresch, Matthew C.

    2002-01-01

    The production of any motor behavior requires coordinated activity in motor neurons and premotor networks. In vertebrates, this coordination is often assumed to take place through chemical synapses. Here we review recent data suggesting that electrical gap-junction coupling plays an important role...... in coordinating and generating motor outputs in embryonic and early postnatal life. Considering the recent demonstration of a prevalent expression of gap-junction proteins and gap-junction structures in the adult mammalian spinal cord, we suggest that neuronal gap-junction coupling might also contribute...... to the production of motor behavior in adult mammals....

  4. Dynamics of fractional vortices in long Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaber, Tobias

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis static and dynamic properties of fractional vortices in long Josephson junctions are investigated. Fractional vortices are circulating supercurrents similar to the well-known Josephson fluxons. Yet, they show the distinguishing property of carrying only a fraction of the magnetic flux quantum. Fractional vortices are interesting non-linear objects. They spontaneously appear and are pinned at the phase discontinuity points of so called 0-κ junctions but can be bend or flipped by external forces like bias currents or magnetic fields. 0-κ junctions and fractional vortices are generalizations of the well-known 0-π junctions and semifluxons, where not only phase jumps of pi but arbitrary values denoted by kappa are considered. By using so-called artificial 0-κ junctions that are based on standard Nb-AlO x -Nb technology the classical dynamics of fractional vortices has been investigated experimentally for the very first time. Here, half-integer zero field steps could be observed. These voltage steps on the junction's current-voltage characteristics correspond to the periodic flipping/hopping of fractional vortices. In addition, the oscillatory eigenmodes of fractional vortices were investigated. In contrast to fluxons fractional vortices have an oscillatory eigenmode with a frequency within the plasma gap. Using resonance spectroscopy the dependence of the eigenmode frequency on the flux carried by the vortex and an applied bias current was determined. (orig.)

  5. Heat Transport in Graphene Ferromagnet-Insulator-Superconductor Junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-Wei

    2011-01-01

    We study heat transport in a graphene ferromagnet-insulator-superconducting junction. It is found that the thermal conductance of the graphene ferromagnet-insulator-superconductor (FIS) junction is an oscillatory function of the barrier strength x in the thin-barrier limit. The gate potential U0 decreases the amplitude of thermal conductance oscillation. Both the amplitude and phase of the thermal conductance oscillation varies with the exchange energy Eh. The thermal conductance of a graphene FIS junction displays the usual exponential dependence on temperature, reflecting the s-wave symmetry of superconducting graphene.%@@ We study heat transport in a graphene ferromagnet-insulator-superconducting junction.It is found that the thermal conductance of the graphene ferromagnet-insulator-superconductor(FIS)junction is an oscillatory function of the barrier strength X in the thin-barrier limit.The gate potential Uo decreases the amplitude of thermal conductance oscillation.Both the amplitude and phase of the thermal conductance oscillation varies with the exchange energy Eh.The thermal conductance of a graphene FIS junction displays the usual exponential dependence on temperature, reflecting the s-wave symmetry of superconducting graphene.

  6. High-efficiency thermal switch based on topological Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sothmann, Björn; Giazotto, Francesco; Hankiewicz, Ewelina M.

    2017-02-01

    We propose theoretically a thermal switch operating by the magnetic-flux controlled diffraction of phase-coherent heat currents in a thermally biased Josephson junction based on a two-dimensional topological insulator. For short junctions, the system shows a sharp switching behavior while for long junctions the switching is smooth. Physically, the switching arises from the Doppler shift of the superconducting condensate due to screening currents induced by a magnetic flux. We suggest a possible experimental realization that exhibits a relative temperature change of 40% between the on and off state for realistic parameters. This is a factor of two larger than in recently realized thermal modulators based on conventional superconducting tunnel junctions.

  7. Simultaneous deterministic control of distant qubits in two semiconductor quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamouras, A; Mathew, R; Freisem, S; Deppe, D G; Hall, K C

    2013-10-09

    In optimal quantum control (OQC), a target quantum state of matter is achieved by tailoring the phase and amplitude of the control Hamiltonian through femtosecond pulse-shaping techniques and powerful adaptive feedback algorithms. Motivated by recent applications of OQC in quantum information science as an approach to optimizing quantum gates in atomic and molecular systems, here we report the experimental implementation of OQC in a solid-state system consisting of distinguishable semiconductor quantum dots. We demonstrate simultaneous high-fidelity π and 2π single qubit gates in two different quantum dots using a single engineered infrared femtosecond pulse. These experiments enhance the scalability of semiconductor-based quantum hardware and lay the foundation for applications of pulse shaping to optimize quantum gates in other solid-state systems.

  8. Photonic qubits, qutrits and ququads accurately prepared and delivered on demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisbet-Jones, Peter B R; Dilley, Jerome; Holleczek, Annemarie; Barter, Oliver; Kuhn, Axel

    2013-01-01

    Reliable encoding of information in quantum systems is crucial to all approaches to quantum information processing or communication. This applies in particular to photons used in linear optics quantum computing, which is scalable provided a deterministic single-photon emission and preparation is available. Here, we show that narrowband photons deterministically emitted from an atom–cavity system fulfil these requirements. Within their 500 ns coherence time, we demonstrate a subdivision into d time bins of various amplitudes and phases, which we use for encoding arbitrary qu-d-its. The latter is done deterministically with a fidelity >95% for qubits, verified using a newly developed time-resolved quantum-homodyne method. (paper)

  9. Single-shot readout of accumulation mode Si/SiGe spin qubits using RF reflectometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Christian; Martins, Frederico; Malinowski, Filip; Marcus, Charles M.; Kuemmeth, Ferdinand

    Spin qubits based on gate-defined quantum dots are promising systems for realizing quantum computation. Due to their low concentration of nuclear-spin-carrying isotopes, Si/SiGe heterostructures are of particular interest. While high fidelities have been reported for single-qubit and two-qubit gate operations, qubit initialization and measurement times are relatively slow. In order to develop fast read-out techniques compatible with the operation of spin qubits, we characterize double and triple quantum dots confined in undoped Si/Si0.7Ge0.3 heterostructures using accumulation and depletion gates and a nearby RF charge sensor dot. We implement a RF reflectometry technique that allows single-shot charge read-out at integration times on the order of a few μs. We show our recent advancement towards implementing spin qubits in these structures, including spin-selective single-shot read-out.

  10. Controllable conditional quantum oscillations and quantum gate operations in superconducting flux qubits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Aimin; Cho Samyoung

    2011-01-01

    Conditional quantum oscillations are investigated for quantum gate operations in superconducting flux qubits. We present an effective Hamiltonian which describes a conditional quantum oscillation in two-qubit systems. Rabi-type quantum oscillations are discussed in implementing conditional quantum oscillations to quantum gate operations. Two conditional quantum oscillations depending on the states of control qubit can be synchronized to perform controlled-gate operations by varying system parameters. It is shown that the conditional quantum oscillations with their frequency synchronization make it possible to operate the controlled-NOT and -U gates with a very accurate gate performance rate in interacting qubit systems. Further, this scheme can be applicable to realize a controlled multi-qubit operation in various solid-state qubit systems. (author)

  11. dc properties of series-parallel arrays of Josephson junctions in an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed dc theory of superconducting multijunction interferometers has previously been developed by several authors for the case of parallel junction arrays. The theory is now extended to cover the case of a loop containing several junctions connected in series. The problem is closely associated with high-T c superconductors and their clusters of intrinsic Josephson junctions. These materials exhibit spontaneous interferometric effects, and there is no reason to assume that the intrinsic junctions form only parallel arrays. A simple formalism of phase states is developed in order to express the superconducting phase differences across the junctions forming a series array as functions of the phase difference across the weakest junction of the system, and to relate the differences in critical currents of the junctions to gaps in the allowed ranges of their phase functions. This formalism is used to investigate the energy states of the array, which in the case of different junctions are split and separated by energy barriers of height depending on the phase gaps. Modifications of the washboard model of a single junction are shown. Next a superconducting inductive loop containing a series array of two junctions is considered, and this model is used to demonstrate the transitions between phase states and the associated instabilities. Finally, the critical current of a parallel connection of two series arrays is analyzed and shown to be a multivalued function of the externally applied magnetic flux. The instabilities caused by the presence of intrinsic serial junctions in granular high-T c materials are pointed out as a potential source of additional noise

  12. Quantum logic as superbraids of entangled qubit world lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yepez, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Presented is a topological representation of quantum logic that views entangled qubit spacetime histories (or qubit world lines) as a generalized braid, referred to as a superbraid. The crossing of world lines can be quantum-mechanical in nature, most conveniently expressed analytically with ladder-operator-based quantum gates. At a crossing, independent world lines can become entangled. Complicated superbraids are systematically reduced by recursively applying quantum skein relations. If the superbraid is closed (e.g., representing quantum circuits with closed-loop feedback, quantum lattice gas algorithms, loop or vacuum diagrams in quantum field theory), then one can decompose the resulting superlink into an entangled superposition of classical links. Thus, one can compute a superlink invariant, for example, the Jones polynomial for the square root of a classical knot.

  13. Optimal estimation of entanglement in optical qubit systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brida, Giorgio; Degiovanni, Ivo P.; Florio, Angela; Genovese, Marco; Meda, Alice; Shurupov, Alexander P.; Giorda, Paolo; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2011-01-01

    We address the experimental determination of entanglement for systems made of a pair of polarization qubits. We exploit quantum estimation theory to derive optimal estimators, which are then implemented to achieve ultimate bound to precision. In particular, we present a set of experiments aimed at measuring the amount of entanglement for states belonging to different families of pure and mixed two-qubit two-photon states. Our scheme is based on visibility measurements of quantum correlations and achieves the ultimate precision allowed by quantum mechanics in the limit of Poissonian distribution of coincidence counts. Although optimal estimation of entanglement does not require the full tomography of the states we have also performed state reconstruction using two different sets of tomographic projectors and explicitly shown that they provide a less precise determination of entanglement. The use of optimal estimators also allows us to compare and statistically assess the different noise models used to describe decoherence effects occurring in the generation of entanglement.

  14. Entanglement dynamics of three-qubit states in noisy channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siomau, Michael [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Fritzsche, Stephan [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Oulu (Finland); Institute for Advanced Studies, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The implementation of schemes for quantum teleportation requires the quantification of entanglement for states that, in general, are mixed due to the interaction with the environment. We study the entanglement dynamics of three-qubit GHZ and W states under the influence of the environment. As noise models for the influence of the environment we use {sigma}{sub z}, {sigma}{sub x} and {sigma}{sub y} Pauli as well as the depolarizing channel. The entanglement of the states is quantified with the lower bound to the three-qubit concurrence. We show that the GHZ state preserves more entanglement than the W state in transmission through {sigma}{sub x} and {sigma}{sub y} Pauli and the depolarizing channels. For {sigma}{sub z} Pauli channel, in contrast, the W state preserves more entanglement than the GHZ state.

  15. Qubit Coupled Mechanical Resonator in an Electromechanical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yu

    This thesis describes the development of a hybrid quantum electromechanical system. In this system the mechanical resonator is capacitively coupled to a superconducting transmon which is embedded in a superconducting coplanar waveguide (CPW) cavity. The difficulty of achieving high quality of superconducting qubit in a high-quality voltage-biased cavity is overcome by integrating a superconducting reflective T-filter to the cavity. Further spectroscopic and pulsed measurements of the hybrid system demonstrate interactions between the ultra-high frequency mechanical resonator and transmon qubit. The noise of mechanical resonator close to ground state is measured by looking at the spectroscopy of the transmon. At last, fabrication and tests of membrane resonators are discussed.

  16. Device-Independent Certification of a Nonprojective Qubit Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Esteban S.; Gómez, Santiago; González, Pablo; Cañas, Gustavo; Barra, Johanna F.; Delgado, Aldo; Xavier, Guilherme B.; Cabello, Adán; Kleinmann, Matthias; Vértesi, Tamás; Lima, Gustavo

    2016-12-01

    Quantum measurements on a two-level system can have more than two independent outcomes, and in this case, the measurement cannot be projective. Measurements of this general type are essential to an operational approach to quantum theory, but so far, the nonprojective character of a measurement can only be verified experimentally by already assuming a specific quantum model of parts of the experimental setup. Here, we overcome this restriction by using a device-independent approach. In an experiment on pairs of polarization-entangled photonic qubits we violate by more than 8 standard deviations a Bell-like correlation inequality that is valid for all sets of two-outcome measurements in any dimension. We combine this with a device-independent verification that the system is best described by two qubits, which therefore constitutes the first device-independent certification of a nonprojective quantum measurement.

  17. Modular cryogenic interconnects for multi-qubit devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colless, J. I.; Reilly, D. J., E-mail: david.reilly@sydney.edu.au [ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2014-11-15

    We have developed a modular interconnect platform for the control and readout of multiple solid-state qubits at cryogenic temperatures. The setup provides 74 filtered dc-bias connections, 32 control and readout connections with −3 dB frequency above 5 GHz, and 4 microwave feed lines that allow low loss (less than 3 dB) transmission 10 GHz. The incorporation of a radio-frequency interposer enables the platform to be separated into two printed circuit boards, decoupling the simple board that is bonded to the qubit chip from the multilayer board that incorporates expensive connectors and components. This modular approach lifts the burden of duplicating complex interconnect circuits for every prototype device. We report the performance of this platform at milli-Kelvin temperatures, including signal transmission and crosstalk measurements.

  18. Interface effects on acceptor qubits in silicon and germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abadillo-Uriel, J C; Calderón, M J

    2016-01-01

    Dopant-based quantum computing implementations often require the dopants to be situated close to an interface to facilitate qubit manipulation with local gates. Interfaces not only modify the energies of the bound states but also affect their symmetry. Making use of the successful effective mass theory we study the energy spectra of acceptors in Si or Ge taking into account the quantum confinement, the dielectric mismatch and the central cell effects. The presence of an interface puts constraints to the allowed symmetries and leads to the splitting of the ground state in two Kramers doublets (Mol et al 2015 Appl. Phys. Lett. 106 203110). Inversion symmetry breaking also implies parity mixing which affects the allowed optical transitions. Consequences for acceptor qubits are discussed. (paper)

  19. Thermal microwave states acting on a superconducting qubit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetz, Jan; Mueting, Miriam; Haeberlein, Max; Wulschner, Friedrich; Fischer, Michael; Deppe, Frank; Fedorov, Kirill; Huebl, Hans [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Xie, Edwar; Eder, Peter; Deppe, Frank; Gross, Rudolf [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany); Physik-Department, TU Muenchen, 85748 Garching (Germany); Nanosystems Initiative Munich (NIM), Schellingstrasse 4, 80799 Muenchen (Germany); Marx, Achim [Walther-Meissner-Institut, Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the influence of broadband thermal states in the microwave regime on the coherence properties of a superconducting (transmon) qubit coupled to a transmission line resonator. We generate the thermal states inside the resonator by heating a 30 dB attenuator to emit blackbody radiation into a transmission line. In the absence of thermal fluctuations, the qubit coherence time is limited by relaxation. We find that the relaxation rate is almost unaffected by the presence of a thermal field inside the resonator. However, such states induce significant dephasing which increases quadratically with the number of thermal photons, whereas for a coherent population of the resonator, the increase shows a linear behavior. These results confirm the different photon statistics, being Poissonian for a coherent population and super-Poissonian for a thermal population of the resonator.

  20. Measurement and control of quasiparticle dynamics in a superconducting qubit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Gao, Y Y; Pop, I M; Vool, U; Axline, C; Brecht, T; Heeres, R W; Frunzio, L; Devoret, M H; Catelani, G; Glazman, L I; Schoelkopf, R J

    2014-12-18

    Superconducting circuits have attracted growing interest in recent years as a promising candidate for fault-tolerant quantum information processing. Extensive efforts have always been taken to completely shield these circuits from external magnetic fields to protect the integrity of the superconductivity. Here we show vortices can improve the performance of superconducting qubits by reducing the lifetimes of detrimental single-electron-like excitations known as quasiparticles. Using a contactless injection technique with unprecedented dynamic range, we quantitatively distinguish between recombination and trapping mechanisms in controlling the dynamics of residual quasiparticle, and show quantized changes in quasiparticle trapping rate because of individual vortices. These results highlight the prominent role of quasiparticle trapping in future development of superconducting qubits, and provide a powerful characterization tool along the way.