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Sample records for junction hj resolvases

  1. Holliday junction resolvases.

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    Wyatt, Haley D M; West, Stephen C

    2014-09-02

    Four-way DNA intermediates, called Holliday junctions (HJs), can form during meiotic and mitotic recombination, and their removal is crucial for chromosome segregation. A group of ubiquitous and highly specialized structure-selective endonucleases catalyze the cleavage of HJs into two disconnected DNA duplexes in a reaction called HJ resolution. These enzymes, called HJ resolvases, have been identified in bacteria and their bacteriophages, archaea, and eukaryotes. In this review, we discuss fundamental aspects of the HJ structure and their interaction with junction-resolving enzymes. This is followed by a brief discussion of the eubacterial RuvABC enzymes, which provide the paradigm for HJ resolvases in other organisms. Finally, we review the biochemical and structural properties of some well-characterized resolvases from archaea, bacteriophage, and eukaryotes. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  2. Crystal structure of RuvC resolvase in complex with Holliday junction substrate.

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    Górecka, Karolina M; Komorowska, Weronika; Nowotny, Marcin

    2013-11-01

    The key intermediate in genetic recombination is the Holliday junction (HJ), a four-way DNA structure. At the end of recombination, HJs are cleaved by specific nucleases called resolvases. In Gram-negative bacteria, this cleavage is performed by RuvC, a dimeric endonuclease that belongs to the retroviral integrase superfamily. Here, we report the first crystal structure of RuvC in complex with a synthetic HJ solved at 3.75 Å resolution. The junction in the complex is in an unfolded 2-fold symmetrical conformation, in which the four arms point toward the vertices of a tetrahedron. The two scissile phosphates are located one nucleotide from the strand exchange point, and RuvC approaches them from the minor groove side. The key protein-DNA contacts observed in the structure were verified using a thiol-based site-specific cross-linking approach. Compared with known complex structures of the phage resolvases endonuclease I and endonuclease VII, the RuvC structure exhibits striking differences in the mode of substrate binding and location of the cleavage site.

  3. AtGEN1 and AtSEND1, two paralogs in Arabidopsis, possess holliday junction resolvase activity.

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    Bauknecht, Markus; Kobbe, Daniela

    2014-09-01

    Holliday junctions (HJs) are physical links between homologous DNA molecules that arise as central intermediary structures during homologous recombination and repair in meiotic and somatic cells. It is necessary for these structures to be resolved to ensure correct chromosome segregation and other functions. In eukaryotes, including plants, homologs of a gene called XPG-like endonuclease1 (GEN1) have been identified that process HJs in a manner analogous to the HJ resolvases of phages, archaea, and bacteria. Here, we report that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), a eukaryotic organism, has two functional GEN1 homologs instead of one. Like all known eukaryotic resolvases, AtGEN1 and Arabidopsis single-strand DNA endonuclease1 both belong to class IV of the Rad2/XPG family of nucleases. Their resolvase activity shares the characteristics of the Escherichia coli radiation and UV sensitive C paradigm for resolvases, which involves resolving HJs by symmetrically oriented incisions in two opposing strands. This leads to ligatable products without the need for further processing. The observation that the sequence context influences the cleavage by the enzymes can be interpreted as a hint for the existence of sequence specificity. The two Arabidopsis paralogs differ in their preferred sequences. The precise cleavage positions observed for the resolution of mobile nicked HJs suggest that these cleavage positions are determined by both the substrate structure and the sequence context at the junction point. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. The RecU Holliday junction resolvase acts at early stages of homologous recombination.

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    Cañas, Cristina; Carrasco, Begoña; Ayora, Silvia; Alonso, Juan C

    2008-09-01

    Homologous recombination is essential for DNA repair and generation of genetic diversity in all organisms. It occurs through a series of presynaptic steps where the substrate is presented to the recombinase (RecA in bacteria). Then, the recombinase nucleoprotein filament mediates synapsis by first promoting the formation of a D-loop and later of a Holliday junction (HJ) that is subsequently cleaved by the HJ resolvase. The coordination of the synaptic step with the late resolution step is poorly understood. Bacillus subtilis RecU catalyzes resolution of HJs, and biochemical evidence suggests that it might modulate RecA. We report here the isolation and characterization of two mutants of RecU (recU56 and recU71), which promote resolution of HJs, but do not promote RecA modulation. In vitro, the RecU mutant proteins (RecUK56A or RecUR71A) bind and cleave HJs and interact with RuvB. RecU interacts with RecA and inhibits its single-stranded DNA-dependent dATP hydrolysis, but RecUK56A and RecUR71A do not exert a negative effect on the RecA dATPase and fail to interact with it. Both activities are important in vivo since RecU mutants impaired only in RecA interaction are as sensitive to DNA damaging agents as a deletion mutant.

  5. The role of Holliday junction resolvases in the repair of spontaneous and induced DNA damage.

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    Agmon, Neta; Yovel, Moran; Harari, Yaniv; Liefshitz, Batia; Kupiec, Martin

    2011-09-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and other lesions occur frequently during cell growth and in meiosis. These are often repaired by homologous recombination (HR). HR may result in the formation of DNA structures called Holliday junctions (HJs), which need to be resolved to allow chromosome segregation. Whereas HJs are present in most HR events in meiosis, it has been proposed that in vegetative cells most HR events occur through intermediates lacking HJs. A recent screen in yeast has shown HJ resolution activity for a protein called Yen1, in addition to the previously known Mus81/Mms4 complex. Yeast strains deleted for both YEN1 and MMS4 show a reduction in growth rate, and are very sensitive to DNA-damaging agents. In addition, we investigate the genetic interaction of yen1 and mms4 with mutants defective in different repair pathways. We find that in the absence of Yen1 and Mms4 deletion of RAD1 or RAD52 have no further effect, whereas additional sensitivity is seen if RAD51 is deleted. Finally, we show that yeast cells are unable to carry out meiosis in the absence of both resolvases. Our results show that both Yen1 and Mms4/Mus81 play important (although not identical) roles during vegetative growth and in meiosis.

  6. Human Holliday junction resolvase GEN1 uses a chromodomain for efficient DNA recognition and cleavage.

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    Lee, Shun-Hsiao; Princz, Lissa Nicola; Klügel, Maren Felizitas; Habermann, Bianca; Pfander, Boris; Biertümpfel, Christian

    2015-12-18

    Holliday junctions (HJs) are key DNA intermediates in homologous recombination. They link homologous DNA strands and have to be faithfully removed for proper DNA segregation and genome integrity. Here, we present the crystal structure of human HJ resolvase GEN1 complexed with DNA at 3.0 Å resolution. The GEN1 core is similar to other Rad2/XPG nucleases. However, unlike other members of the superfamily, GEN1 contains a chromodomain as an additional DNA interaction site. Chromodomains are known for their chromatin-targeting function in chromatin remodelers and histone(de)acetylases but they have not previously been found in nucleases. The GEN1 chromodomain directly contacts DNA and its truncation severely hampers GEN1's catalytic activity. Structure-guided mutations in vitro and in vivo in yeast validated our mechanistic findings. Our study provides the missing structure in the Rad2/XPG family and insights how a well-conserved nuclease core acquires versatility in recognizing diverse substrates for DNA repair and maintenance.

  7. Mammalian BTBD12/SLX4 assembles a Holliday junction resolvase and is required for DNA repair

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    Svendsen, Jennifer M.; Smogorzewska, Agata; Sowa, Mathew E.; O’Connell, Brenda C.; Gygi, Steven P.; Elledge, Stephen J.; Harper, J. Wade

    2009-01-01

    Summary Structure-specific endonucleases mediate repair of DNA structures formed from replication fork collapse or during double-strand break (DSB) repair. Here we identify BTBD12 as the human ortholog of the budding yeast DNA repair factor Slx4p and D. melanogaster MUS312. Human SLX4 forms a multiprotein complex with the ERCC4(XPF)-ERCC1, MUS81-EME1, and SLX1 endonucleases, and also associates with MSH2/MSH3 mismatch repair complex, telomere binding complex TERF2(TRF2)-TERF2IP(RAP1), the protein kinase PLK1 and the uncharacterized protein C20orf94. Depletion of SLX4 causes sensitivity to mitomycin C and camptothecin, and reduces the efficiency of DSB repair in vivo. SLX4 complexes cleave 3’-flap, 5’-flap and replication fork structures; yet unlike other endonucleases associated with SLX4, the SLX1-SLX4 module promotes symmetrical cleavage of static and migrating Holliday junctions (HJs), identifying SLX1-SLX4 as a HJ resolvase. Thus, SLX4 assembles a modular tool-kit for repair of specific types of DNA lesions and is critical for cellular responses to replication fork failure. PMID:19596235

  8. A novel role of human holliday junction resolvase GEN1 in the maintenance of centrosome integrity.

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    Min Gao

    Full Text Available The maintenance of genomic stability requires accurate genome replication, repair of DNA damage, and the precise segregation of chromosomes in mitosis. GEN1 possesses Holliday junction resolvase activity in vitro and presumably functions in homology driven repair of DNA double strand breaks. However, little is currently known about the cellular functions of human GEN1. In the present study we demonstrate that GEN1 is a novel centrosome associated protein and we characterize the various phenotypes associated with GEN1 deficiency. We identify an N-terminal centrosome localization signal in GEN1, which is required and sufficient for centrosome localization. We report that GEN1 depletion results in aberrant centrosome numbers associated with the formation of multiple spindle poles in mitosis, an increased number of cells with multi-nuclei, increased apoptosis and an elevated level of spontaneous DNA damage. We find homologous recombination severely impaired in GEN1 deficient cells, suggesting that GEN1 functions as a Holliday junction resolvase in vivo as well as in vitro. Complementation of GEN1 depleted cells with various GEN1 constructs revealed that centrosome association but not catalytic activity of GEN1 is required for preventing centrosome hyper-amplification, formation of multiple mitotic spindles, and multi-nucleation. Our findings provide novel insight into the biological functions of GEN1 by uncovering an important role of GEN1 in the regulation of centrosome integrity.

  9. Human SLX4 is a Holliday junction resolvase subunit that binds multiple DNA repair/recombination endonucleases.

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    Fekairi, Samira; Scaglione, Sarah; Chahwan, Charly; Taylor, Ewan R; Tissier, Agnès; Coulon, Stéphane; Dong, Meng-Qiu; Ruse, Cristian; Yates, John R; Russell, Paul; Fuchs, Robert P; McGowan, Clare H; Gaillard, Pierre-Henri L

    2009-07-10

    Structure-specific endonucleases resolve DNA secondary structures generated during DNA repair and recombination. The yeast 5' flap endonuclease Slx1-Slx4 has received particular attention with the finding that Slx4 has Slx1-independent key functions in genome maintenance. Although Slx1 is a highly conserved protein in eukaryotes, no orthologs of Slx4 were reported other than in fungi. Here we report the identification of Slx4 orthologs in metazoa, including fly MUS312, essential for meiotic recombination, and human BTBD12, an ATM/ATR checkpoint kinase substrate. Human SLX1-SLX4 displays robust Holliday junction resolvase activity in addition to 5' flap endonuclease activity. Depletion of SLX1 and SLX4 results in 53BP1 foci accumulation and H2AX phosphorylation as well as cellular hypersensitivity to MMS. Furthermore, we show that SLX4 binds the XPF(ERCC4) and MUS81 subunits of the XPF-ERCC1 and MUS81-EME1 endonucleases and is required for DNA interstrand crosslink repair. We propose that SLX4 acts as a docking platform for multiple structure-specific endonucleases.

  10. The stalk region of the RecU resolvase is essential for Holliday junction recognition and distortion.

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    Cañas, Cristina; Carrasco, Begoña; García-Tirado, Esther; Rafferty, John B; Alonso, Juan C; Ayora, Silvia

    2011-07-01

    The Bacillus subtilis RecU protein has two activities: to recognize, distort, and cleave four-stranded recombination intermediates and to modulate RecA activities. The RecU structure shows a mushroom-like appearance, with a cap and a stalk region. The RuvB interaction and the catalytic residues are located in the cap region of dimeric RecU. We report here that the stalk region is essential not only for RecA modulation but also for Holliday junction (HJ) recognition. Two recU mutants, which map in the stalk region, were isolated and characterized. In vivo, a RecU variant with a Phe81-to-Ala substitution (F81A) was as sensitive to DNA-damaging agents as a null recU strain, and a similar substitution at tyrosine 80 (Y80A) showed an intermediate phenotype. RecUY80A and RecUF81A poorly recognize and distort HJs. RecUY80A cleaves HJs with low efficiency, and RuvB modulates cleavage. At high concentrations, RecUF81A binds to HJs but fails to cleave them. Unlike wild-type RecU, RecUY80A and RecUF81A do not inhibit RecA dATPase and strand-exchange activities. The RecU stalk region is involved in RecA interaction, but once an HJ is bound, RecU fails to modulate RecA activities. Our biochemical study provides a mechanistic basis for the connections between these two mutually exclusive stages (i.e., RecA modulation and HJ resolution) of the recombination reaction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The N-terminal region of the RecU holliday junction resolvase is essential for homologous recombination.

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    Carrasco, Begoña; Cañas, Cristina; Sharples, Gary J; Alonso, Juan C; Ayora, Silvia

    2009-07-03

    The RecU Holliday junction (HJ)-resolving enzyme is highly conserved in the Firmicutes phylum of bacteria. In Bacillus subtilis, the recU gene has two putative initiation codons, at positions 1 and 33. In rec(+) cells, only the full-length RecU polypeptide (206 residues, 23.9 kDa) was detected even after different stress treatments. To address the relevance of the flexible N-terminus, we constructed mutant variants. Experiments in vivo revealed that recUDelta1-32 (which initiates at Met33 and encodes RecUDelta1-32) and recU31 (the conserved Arg31 residue was substituted with alanine to give RecUR31A) are genuine RecU mutants, rendering cells impaired in DNA repair and chromosomal segregation. RecU has three activities: It (i) cleaves HJs, (ii) anneals complementary strands and (iii) modulates RecA activities. RecUR31A binds and cleaves HJ DNA in vitro as efficiently as wild-type RecU, but RuvB.ATPgammaS.Mg(2+) fails to stimulate the RecUR31A cleavage reaction. In contrast, RecUDelta1-32 forms unstable complexes with DNA and fails to cleave HJs. RecU and its variants are capable of promoting DNA strand annealing and exert a negative effect on deoxy-ATP-dependent RecA-mediated DNA strand exchange. This study shows that the flexible N-terminus of RecU is essential for protein activity.

  12. Structural asymmetry in the Thermus thermophilus RuvC dimer suggests a basis for sequential strand cleavages during Holliday junction resolution.

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    Chen, Luan; Shi, Ke; Yin, Zhiqi; Aihara, Hideki

    2013-01-07

    Holliday junction (HJ) resolvases are structure-specific endonucleases that cleave four-way DNA junctions (HJs) generated during DNA recombination and repair. Bacterial RuvC, a prototypical HJ resolvase, functions as homodimer and nicks DNA strands precisely across the junction point. To gain insights into the mechanisms underlying symmetrical strand cleavages by RuvC, we performed crystallographic and biochemical analyses of RuvC from Thermus thermophilus (T.th. RuvC). The crystal structure of T.th. RuvC shows an overall protein fold similar to that of Escherichia coli RuvC, but T.th. RuvC has a more tightly associated dimer interface possibly reflecting its thermostability. The binding mode of a HJ-DNA substrate can be inferred from the shape/charge complementarity between the T.th. RuvC dimer and HJ-DNA, as well as positions of sulfate ions bound on the protein surface. Unexpectedly, the structure of T.th. RuvC homodimer refined at 1.28 Å resolution shows distinct asymmetry near the dimer interface, in the region harboring catalytically important aromatic residues. The observation suggests that the T.th. RuvC homodimer interconverts between two asymmetric conformations, with alternating subunits switched on for DNA strand cleavage. This model provides a structural basis for the 'nick-counter-nick' mechanism in HJ resolution, a mode of HJ processing shared by prokaryotic and eukaryotic HJ resolvases.

  13. Piv site-specific invertase requires a DEDD motif analogous to the catalytic center of the RuvC Holliday junction resolvases.

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    Buchner, John M; Robertson, Anne E; Poynter, David J; Denniston, Shelby S; Karls, Anna C

    2005-05-01

    Piv, a unique prokaryotic site-specific DNA invertase, is related to transposases of the insertion elements from the IS110/IS492 family and shows no similarity to the site-specific recombinases of the tyrosine- or serine-recombinase families. Piv tertiary structure is predicted to include the RNase H-like fold that typically encompasses the catalytic site of the recombinases or nucleases of the retroviral integrase superfamily, including transposases and RuvC-like Holliday junction resolvases. Analogous to the DDE and DEDD catalytic motifs of transposases and RuvC, respectively, four Piv acidic residues D9, E59, D101, and D104 appear to be positioned appropriately within the RNase H fold to coordinate two divalent metal cations. This suggests mechanistic similarity between site-specific inversion mediated by Piv and transposition or endonucleolytic reactions catalyzed by enzymes of the retroviral integrase superfamily. The role of the DEDD motif in Piv catalytic activity was addressed using Piv variants that are substituted individually or multiply at these acidic residues and assaying for in vivo inversion, intermolecular recombination, and DNA binding activities. The results indicate that all four residues of the DEDD motif are required for Piv catalytic activity. The DEDD residues are not essential for inv recombination site recognition and binding, but this acidic tetrad does appear to contribute to the stability of Piv-inv interactions. On the basis of these results, a working model for Piv-mediated inversion that includes resolution of a Holliday junction is presented.

  14. Mus81 cleavage of Holliday junctions: a failsafe for processing meiotic recombination intermediates?

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    Gaskell, Louise J; Osman, Fekret; Gilbert, Robert J C; Whitby, Matthew C

    2007-04-04

    The Holliday junction (HJ) is a central intermediate of homologous recombination. Its cleavage is critical for the formation of crossover recombinants during meiosis, which in turn helps to establish chiasmata and promote genetic diversity. Enzymes that cleave HJs, called HJ resolvases, have been identified in all domains of life except eukaryotic nuclei. Controversially, the Mus81-Eme1 endonuclease has been proposed to be an example of a eukaryotic nuclear resolvase. However, hitherto little or no HJ cleavage has been detected in recombinant preparations of Mus81-Eme1. Here, we report the purification of active forms of recombinant Schizosaccharomyces pombe Mus81-Eme1 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mus81-Mms4, which display robust HJ cleavage in vitro, which, in the case of Mus81-Eme1, is as good as the archetypal HJ resolvase RuvC in single turnover kinetic analysis. We also present genetic evidence that suggests that this activity might be utilised as a back-up to Mus81-Eme1's main activity of cleaving nicked HJs during meiosis in S. pombe.

  15. GEN1 promotes Holliday junction resolution by a coordinated nick and counter-nick mechanism.

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    Chan, Ying Wai; West, Stephen

    2015-12-15

    Holliday junctions (HJs) that physically link sister chromatids or homologous chromosomes are formed as intermediates during DNA repair by homologous recombination. Persistent recombination intermediates are acted upon by structure-selective endonucleases that are required for proper chromosome segregation at mitosis. Here, we have purified full-length human GEN1 protein and show that it promotes Holliday junction resolution by a mechanism that is analogous to that exhibited by the prototypic HJ resolvase E. coli RuvC. We find that GEN1 cleaves HJs by a nick and counter-nick mechanism involving dual co-ordinated incisions that lead to the formation of ligatable nicked duplex products. As observed with RuvC, cleavage of the first strand is rate limiting, while second strand cleavage is rapid. In contrast to RuvC, however, GEN1 is largely monomeric in solution, but dimerizes on the HJ. Using HJs containing non-cleavable phosphorothioate-containing linkages in one strand, we show that the two incisions can be uncoupled and that the first nick occurs upon GEN1 dimerization at the junction. These results indicate that the mechanism of HJ resolution is largely conserved from bacteria to man, despite a lack of sequence homology between the resolvases. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. The Caenorhabditis elegans homolog of Gen1/Yen1 resolvases links DNA damage signaling to DNA double-strand break repair.

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    Aymeric P Bailly

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs can be repaired by homologous recombination (HR, which can involve Holliday junction (HJ intermediates that are ultimately resolved by nucleolytic enzymes. An N-terminal fragment of human GEN1 has recently been shown to act as a Holliday junction resolvase, but little is known about the role of GEN-1 in vivo. Holliday junction resolution signifies the completion of DNA repair, a step that may be coupled to signaling proteins that regulate cell cycle progression in response to DNA damage. Using forward genetic approaches, we identified a Caenorhabditis elegans dual function DNA double-strand break repair and DNA damage signaling protein orthologous to the human GEN1 Holliday junction resolving enzyme. GEN-1 has biochemical activities related to the human enzyme and facilitates repair of DNA double-strand breaks, but is not essential for DNA double-strand break repair during meiotic recombination. Mutational analysis reveals that the DNA damage-signaling function of GEN-1 is separable from its role in DNA repair. GEN-1 promotes germ cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via a pathway that acts in parallel to the canonical DNA damage response pathway mediated by RPA loading, CHK1 activation, and CEP-1/p53-mediated apoptosis induction. Furthermore, GEN-1 acts redundantly with the 9-1-1 complex to ensure genome stability. Our study suggests that GEN-1 might act as a dual function Holliday junction resolvase that may coordinate DNA damage signaling with a late step in DNA double-strand break repair.

  17. Interaction of Branch Migration Translocases with the Holliday Junction-resolving Enzyme and Their Implications in Holliday Junction Resolution*

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    Cañas, Cristina; Suzuki, Yuki; Marchisone, Chiara; Carrasco, Begoña; Freire-Benéitez, Verónica; Takeyasu, Kunio; Alonso, Juan C.; Ayora, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Double-strand break repair involves the formation of Holliday junction (HJ) structures that need to be resolved to promote correct replication and chromosomal segregation. The molecular mechanisms of HJ branch migration and/or resolution are poorly characterized in Firmicutes. Genetic evidence suggested that the absence of the RuvAB branch migration translocase and the RecU HJ resolvase is synthetically lethal in Bacillus subtilis, whereas a recU recG mutant was viable. In vitro RecU, which is restricted to bacteria of the Firmicutes phylum, binds HJs with high affinity. In this work we found that RecU does not bind simultaneously with RecG to a HJ. RuvB by interacting with RecU bound to the central region of HJ DNA, loses its nonspecific association with DNA, and re-localizes with RecU to form a ternary complex. RecU cannot stimulate the ATPase or branch migration activity of RuvB. The presence of RuvB·ATPγS greatly stimulates RecU-mediated HJ resolution, but the addition of ATP or RuvA abolishes this stimulatory effect. A RecU·HJ·RuvAB complex might be formed. RecU does not increase the RuvAB activities but slightly inhibits them. PMID:24770420

  18. Interaction of branch migration translocases with the Holliday junction-resolving enzyme and their implications in Holliday junction resolution.

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    Cañas, Cristina; Suzuki, Yuki; Marchisone, Chiara; Carrasco, Begoña; Freire-Benéitez, Verónica; Takeyasu, Kunio; Alonso, Juan C; Ayora, Silvia

    2014-06-20

    Double-strand break repair involves the formation of Holliday junction (HJ) structures that need to be resolved to promote correct replication and chromosomal segregation. The molecular mechanisms of HJ branch migration and/or resolution are poorly characterized in Firmicutes. Genetic evidence suggested that the absence of the RuvAB branch migration translocase and the RecU HJ resolvase is synthetically lethal in Bacillus subtilis, whereas a recU recG mutant was viable. In vitro RecU, which is restricted to bacteria of the Firmicutes phylum, binds HJs with high affinity. In this work we found that RecU does not bind simultaneously with RecG to a HJ. RuvB by interacting with RecU bound to the central region of HJ DNA, loses its nonspecific association with DNA, and re-localizes with RecU to form a ternary complex. RecU cannot stimulate the ATPase or branch migration activity of RuvB. The presence of RuvB·ATPγS greatly stimulates RecU-mediated HJ resolution, but the addition of ATP or RuvA abolishes this stimulatory effect. A RecU·HJ·RuvAB complex might be formed. RecU does not increase the RuvAB activities but slightly inhibits them. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Mechanism of Holliday junction resolution by the human GEN1 protein.

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    Rass, Ulrich; Compton, Sarah A; Matos, Joao; Singleton, Martin R; Ip, Stephen C Y; Blanco, Miguel G; Griffith, Jack D; West, Stephen C

    2010-07-15

    Holliday junction (HJ) resolution is essential for chromosome segregation at meiosis and the repair of stalled/collapsed replication forks in mitotic cells. All organisms possess nucleases that promote HJ resolution by the introduction of symmetrically related nicks in two strands at, or close to, the junction point. GEN1, a member of the Rad2/XPG nuclease family, was isolated recently from human cells and shown to promote HJ resolution in vitro and in vivo. Here, we provide the first biochemical/structural characterization of GEN1, showing that, like the Escherichia coli HJ resolvase RuvC, it binds specifically to HJs and resolves them by a dual incision mechanism in which nicks are introduced in the pair of continuous (noncrossing) strands within the lifetime of the GEN1-HJ complex. In contrast to RuvC, but like other Rad2/XPG family members such as FEN1, GEN1 is a monomeric 5'-flap endonuclease. However, the unique feature of GEN1 that distinguishes it from other Rad2/XPG nucleases is its ability to dimerize on HJs. This functional adaptation provides the two symmetrically aligned active sites required for HJ resolution.

  20. Metal cofactors in the structure and activity of the fowlpox resolvase.

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    Culyba, Matthew J; Hwang, Young; Hu, Jimmy Yan; Minkah, Nana; Ocwieja, Karen E; Bushman, Frederic D

    2010-05-28

    Poxvirus DNA replication generates linear concatemers containing many copies of the viral genome with inverted repeat sequences at the junctions between monomers. The inverted repeats refold to generate Holliday junctions, which are cleaved by the virus-encoded resolvase enzyme to form unit-length genomes. Here we report studies of the influence of metal cofactors on the activity and structure of the resolvase of fowlpox virus, which provides a tractable model for in vitro studies. Small-molecule inhibitors of related enzymes bind simultaneously to metal cofactors and nearby surface amino acid residues, so understanding enzyme-cofactor interactions is important for the design of antiviral agents. Analysis of inferred active-site residues (D7, E60, K102, D132, and D135) by mutagenesis and metal rescue experiments specified residues that contribute to binding metal ions and that multiple binding sites are probably involved. Differential electrophoretic analysis was used to map the conformation of the DNA junction when bound by resolvase. For the wild-type complex in the presence of EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) or Ca(2+), migration was consistent with the DNA arms arranged in near-tetrahedral geometry. However, the D7N active-site mutant resolvase held the arms in a more planar arrangement in EDTA, Ca(2+), or Mg(2+) conditions, implicating metal-dependent contacts at the active site in the larger architecture of the complex. These data show how divalent metals dictate the conformation of FPV resolvase-DNA complexes and subsequent DNA cleavage.

  1. Resolution of single and double Holliday junction recombination intermediates by GEN1.

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    Shah Punatar, Rajvee; Martin, Maria Jose; Wyatt, Haley D M; Chan, Ying Wai; West, Stephen C

    2017-01-17

    Genetic recombination provides an important mechanism for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Homologous pairing and strand exchange lead to the formation of DNA intermediates, in which sister chromatids or homologous chromosomes are covalently linked by four-way Holliday junctions (HJs). Depending on the type of recombination reaction that takes place, intermediates may have single or double HJs, and their resolution is essential for proper chromosome segregation. In mitotic cells, double HJs are primarily dissolved by the BLM helicase-TopoisomeraseIIIα-RMI1-RMI2 (BTR) complex, whereas single HJs (and double HJs that have escaped the attention of BTR) are resolved by structure-selective endonucleases known as HJ resolvases. These enzymes are ubiquitous in nature, because they are present in bacteriophage, bacteria, archaea, and simple and complex eukaryotes. The human HJ resolvase GEN1 is a member of the XPG/Rad2 family of 5'-flap endonucleases. Biochemical studies of GEN1 revealed that it cleaves synthetic DNA substrates containing a single HJ by a mechanism similar to that shown by the prototypic HJ resolvase, Escherichia coli RuvC protein, but it is unclear whether these substrates fully recapitulate the properties of recombination intermediates that arise within a physiological context. Here, we show that GEN1 efficiently cleaves both single and double HJs contained within large recombination intermediates. Moreover, we find that GEN1 exhibits a weak sequence preference for incision between two G residues that reside in a T-rich region of DNA. These results contrast with those obtained with RuvC, which exhibits a strict requirement for the consensus sequence 5'-(A)/TTT(G)/C-3'.

  2. Telomeric protein TRF2 protects Holliday junctions with telomeric arms from displacement by the Werner syndrome helicase.

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    Nora, Gerald J; Buncher, Noah A; Opresko, Patricia L

    2010-07-01

    WRN protein loss causes Werner syndrome (WS), which is characterized by premature aging as well as genomic and telomeric instability. WRN prevents telomere loss, but the telomeric protein complex must regulate WRN activities to prevent aberrant telomere processing. Telomere-binding TRF2 protein inhibits telomere t-loop deletion by blocking Holliday junction (HJ) resolvase cleavage activity, but whether TRF2 also modulates HJ displacement at t-loops is unknown. In this study, we used multiplex fluorophore imaging to track the fate of individual strands of HJ substrates. We report the novel finding that TRF2 inhibits WRN helicase strand displacement of HJs with telomeric repeats in duplex arms, but unwinding of HJs with a telomeric center or lacking telomeric sequence is unaffected. These data, together with results using TRF2 fragments and TRF2 HJ binding assays, indicate that both the TRF2 B- and Myb domains are required to inhibit WRN HJ activity. We propose a novel model whereby simultaneous binding of the TRF2 B-domain to the HJ core and the Myb domain to telomeric arms promote and stabilize HJs in a stacked arm conformation that is unfavorable for unwinding. Our biochemical study provides a mechanistic basis for the cellular findings that TRF2 regulates WRN activity at telomeres.

  3. GEN1/Yen1 and the SLX4 complex: solutions to the problem of Holliday junction resolution

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    Svendsen, Jennifer M.; Harper, J. Wade

    2010-01-01

    Chromosomal double-strand breaks (DSBs) are considered to be among the most deleterious DNA lesions found in eukaryotic cells due to their propensity to promote genome instability. DSBs occur as a result of exogenous or endogenous DNA damage, and also occur during meiotic recombination. DSBs are often repaired through a process called homologous recombination (HR), which employs the sister chromatid in mitotic cells or the homologous chromosome in meiotic cells, as a template for repair. HR frequently involves the formation and resolution of four-way DNA structures referred to as the Holliday junction (HJ). Despite extensive study, the machinery and mechanisms used to process these structures in eukaryotes have remained poorly understood. Recent work has identified XPG and UvrC/GIY domain-containing structure-specific endonucleases that can symmetrically cleave HJs in vitro in a manner that allows for religation without additional processing, properties that are reminiscent of the classical RuvC HJ resolvase in bacteria. Genetic studies reveal potential roles for these HJ resolvases in repair after DNA damage and during meiosis. The stage is now set for a more comprehensive understanding of the specific roles these enzymes play in the response of cells to DSBs, collapsed replication forks, telomere dysfunction, and meiotic recombination. PMID:20203129

  4. Topoisomerase IIIalpha and Bloom's helicase can resolve a mobile double Holliday junction substrate through convergent branch migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Jody L; Wu, Jianhong; Hsieh, Tao-Shih

    2006-07-25

    It has long been suspected that a double Holliday junction (dHJ) could be resolved by a topoisomerase partnered with a helicase by convergent branch migration of the HJs. Genetic analysis of yeast TOP3 and SGS1 has lent considerable evidence to the notion that the protein products of these genes are involved in just such a process, although biochemical analysis of the metabolism of a dHJ has been hindered by the lack of a substrate that adequately replicates the endogenous structure. We have synthesized a dHJ substrate that recapitulates many of the features of an endogenous dHJ and represents a much earlier intermediate in the resolution pathway. Here, we show that Drosophila topoisomerase IIIalpha (Topo IIIalpha) and Blm (a homolog of Sgs1) are capable of resolving this substrate to non-cross-over products and that this activity is stimulated by replication protein A (RPA). We investigated the ability of other Drosophila topoisomerases to perform this reaction in concert with Blm and RPA and discovered that this resolution activity is unique to Topo IIIalpha. Examination of the mechanism of resolution reveals that Topo IIIalpha, Blm, and RPA resolve this substrate by convergent migration of the two HJs toward each other, collapsing the dHJ. This mechanism stands in contrast to classic resolvase activities that use a structure-specific endonuclease to cleave the HJs.

  5. Topoisomerase IIIα and Bloom’s helicase can resolve a mobile double Holliday junction substrate through convergent branch migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Jody L.; Wu, Jianhong; Hsieh, Tao-shih

    2006-01-01

    It has long been suspected that a double Holliday junction (dHJ) could be resolved by a topoisomerase partnered with a helicase by convergent branch migration of the HJs. Genetic analysis of yeast TOP3 and SGS1 has lent considerable evidence to the notion that the protein products of these genes are involved in just such a process, although biochemical analysis of the metabolism of a dHJ has been hindered by the lack of a substrate that adequately replicates the endogenous structure. We have synthesized a dHJ substrate that recapitulates many of the features of an endogenous dHJ and represents a much earlier intermediate in the resolution pathway. Here, we show that Drosophila topoisomerase IIIα (Topo IIIα) and Blm (a homolog of Sgs1) are capable of resolving this substrate to non-cross-over products and that this activity is stimulated by replication protein A (RPA). We investigated the ability of other Drosophila topoisomerases to perform this reaction in concert with Blm and RPA and discovered that this resolution activity is unique to Topo IIIα. Examination of the mechanism of resolution reveals that Topo IIIα, Blm, and RPA resolve this substrate by convergent migration of the two HJs toward each other, collapsing the dHJ. This mechanism stands in contrast to classic resolvase activities that use a structure-specific endonuclease to cleave the HJs. PMID:16849422

  6. Holliday junction processing enzymes as guardians of genome stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarbajna, Shriparna; West, Stephen C

    2014-09-01

    Holliday junctions (HJs) are four-stranded DNA intermediates that arise during the recombinational repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Their timely removal is crucial for faithful chromosome segregation and genome stability. In mammalian cells, HJs are processed by the BTR (BLM-topoisomerase IIIα-RMI1-RMI2) complex, the SLX-MUS (SLX1-SLX4-MUS81-EME1) complex, and the GEN1 resolvase. Recent studies have linked the deficiency of one or more of these enzymes to perturbed DNA replication, impaired crosslink repair, chromosomal instability, and defective mitoses, coupled with the transmission of widespread DNA damage and high levels of mortality. We review these key advances and how they have cemented the status of HJ-processing enzymes as guardians of genome integrity and viability in mammalian cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Holliday junction-containing DNA structures persist in cells lacking Sgs1 or Top3 following exposure to DNA damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mankouri, Hocine W; Ashton, Thomas M; Hickson, Ian D

    2011-01-01

    The Sgs1-Rmi1-Top3 "dissolvasome" is required for the maintenance of genome stability and has been implicated in the processing of various types of DNA structures arising during DNA replication. Previous investigations have revealed that unprocessed (X-shaped) homologous recombination repair (HRR......) intermediates persist when S-phase is perturbed by using methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells with impaired Sgs1 or Top3. However, the precise nature of these persistent DNA structures remains poorly characterized. Here, we report that ectopic expression of either of two heterologous...... and structurally unrelated Holliday junction (HJ) resolvases, Escherichia coli RusA or human GEN1(1-527), promotes the removal of these X-structures in vivo. Moreover, other types of DNA replication intermediates, including stalled replication forks and non-HRR-dependent X-structures, are refractory to RusA or GEN...

  8. Combinatorial regulation of meiotic holliday junction resolution in C. elegans by HIM-6 (BLM helicase, SLX-4, and the SLX-1, MUS-81 and XPF-1 nucleases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Agostinho

    Full Text Available Holliday junctions (HJs are cruciform DNA structures that are created during recombination events. It is a matter of considerable importance to determine the resolvase(s that promote resolution of these structures. We previously reported that C. elegans GEN-1 is a symmetrically cleaving HJ resolving enzyme required for recombinational repair, but we could not find an overt role in meiotic recombination. Here we identify C. elegans proteins involved in resolving meiotic HJs. We found no evidence for a redundant meiotic function of GEN-1. In contrast, we discovered two redundant HJ resolution pathways likely coordinated by the SLX-4 scaffold protein and also involving the HIM-6/BLM helicase. SLX-4 associates with the SLX-1, MUS-81 and XPF-1 nucleases and has been implicated in meiotic recombination in C. elegans. We found that C. elegans [mus-81; xpf-1], [slx-1; xpf-1], [mus-81; him-6] and [slx-1; him-6] double mutants showed a similar reduction in survival rates as slx-4. Analysis of meiotic diakinesis chromosomes revealed a distinct phenotype in these double mutants. Instead of wild-type bivalent chromosomes, pairs of "univalents" linked by chromatin bridges occur. These linkages depend on the conserved meiosis-specific transesterase SPO-11 and can be restored by ionizing radiation, suggesting that they represent unresolved meiotic HJs. This suggests the existence of two major resolvase activities, one provided by XPF-1 and HIM-6, the other by SLX-1 and MUS-81. In all double mutants crossover (CO recombination is reduced but not abolished, indicative of further redundancy in meiotic HJ resolution. Real time imaging revealed extensive chromatin bridges during the first meiotic division that appear to be eventually resolved in meiosis II, suggesting back-up resolution activities acting at or after anaphase I. We also show that in HJ resolution mutants, the restructuring of chromosome arms distal and proximal to the CO still occurs, suggesting that

  9. Combinatorial regulation of meiotic holliday junction resolution in C. elegans by HIM-6 (BLM) helicase, SLX-4, and the SLX-1, MUS-81 and XPF-1 nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinho, Ana; Meier, Bettina; Sonneville, Remi; Jagut, Marlène; Woglar, Alexander; Blow, Julian; Jantsch, Verena; Gartner, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Holliday junctions (HJs) are cruciform DNA structures that are created during recombination events. It is a matter of considerable importance to determine the resolvase(s) that promote resolution of these structures. We previously reported that C. elegans GEN-1 is a symmetrically cleaving HJ resolving enzyme required for recombinational repair, but we could not find an overt role in meiotic recombination. Here we identify C. elegans proteins involved in resolving meiotic HJs. We found no evidence for a redundant meiotic function of GEN-1. In contrast, we discovered two redundant HJ resolution pathways likely coordinated by the SLX-4 scaffold protein and also involving the HIM-6/BLM helicase. SLX-4 associates with the SLX-1, MUS-81 and XPF-1 nucleases and has been implicated in meiotic recombination in C. elegans. We found that C. elegans [mus-81; xpf-1], [slx-1; xpf-1], [mus-81; him-6] and [slx-1; him-6] double mutants showed a similar reduction in survival rates as slx-4. Analysis of meiotic diakinesis chromosomes revealed a distinct phenotype in these double mutants. Instead of wild-type bivalent chromosomes, pairs of "univalents" linked by chromatin bridges occur. These linkages depend on the conserved meiosis-specific transesterase SPO-11 and can be restored by ionizing radiation, suggesting that they represent unresolved meiotic HJs. This suggests the existence of two major resolvase activities, one provided by XPF-1 and HIM-6, the other by SLX-1 and MUS-81. In all double mutants crossover (CO) recombination is reduced but not abolished, indicative of further redundancy in meiotic HJ resolution. Real time imaging revealed extensive chromatin bridges during the first meiotic division that appear to be eventually resolved in meiosis II, suggesting back-up resolution activities acting at or after anaphase I. We also show that in HJ resolution mutants, the restructuring of chromosome arms distal and proximal to the CO still occurs, suggesting that CO initiation

  10. Coordinated actions of SLX1-SLX4 and MUS81-EME1 for Holliday junction resolution in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Haley D M; Sarbajna, Shriparna; Matos, Joao; West, Stephen C

    2013-10-24

    Holliday junctions (HJs) are four-way DNA intermediates that form during homologous recombination, and their efficient resolution is essential for chromosome segregation. Here, we show that three structure-selective endonucleases, namely SLX1-SLX4, MUS81-EME1, and GEN1, define two pathways of HJ resolution in human cells. One pathway is mediated by GEN1, whereas SLX1-SLX4 and MUS81-EME1 provide a second and genetically distinct pathway (SLX-MUS). Cells depleted for SLX-MUS or GEN1 pathway proteins exhibit severe defects in chromosome segregation and reduced survival. In response to CDK-mediated phosphorylation, SLX1-SLX4 and MUS81-EME1 associate at the G2/M transition to form a stable SLX-MUS holoenzyme, which can be reconstituted in vitro. Biochemical studies show that SLX-MUS is a HJ resolvase that coordinates the active sites of two distinct endonucleases during HJ resolution. This cleavage reaction is more efficient and orchestrated than that mediated by SLX1-SLX4 alone, which exhibits a potent nickase activity that acts promiscuously upon DNA secondary structures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Human GEN1 and the SLX4-associated nucleases MUS81 and SLX1 are essential for the resolution of replication-induced Holliday junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Elizabeth; Kim, Yonghwan; Lach, Francis P; Kottemann, Molly C; Smogorzewska, Agata

    2013-10-17

    Holliday junctions (HJs), the DNA intermediates of homologous recombination, need to be faithfully processed in order to preserve genome integrity. In human cells, the BLM helicase complex promotes nonnucleolytic dissolution of double HJs. In vitro, HJs may be nucleolytically processed by MUS81-EME1, GEN1, and SLX4-SLX1. Here, we exploit human SLX4-null cells to examine the requirements for HJ resolution in vivo. Lack of BLM and SLX4 or GEN1 and SLX4 is synthetically lethal in the absence of exogenous DNA damage, and lethality is a consequence of dysfunctional mitosis proceeding in the presence of unprocessed HJs. Thus, GEN1 activity cannot be substituted for the SLX4-associated nucleases, and one of the HJ resolvase activities, either of those associated with SLX4 or with GEN1, is required for cell viability, even in the presence of BLM. In vivo HJ resolution depends on both SLX4-associated MUS81-EME1 and SLX1, suggesting that they are acting in concert in the context of SLX4. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Human GEN1 and the SLX4-Associated Nucleases MUS81 and SLX1 Are Essential for the Resolution of Replication-Induced Holliday Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Garner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Holliday junctions (HJs, the DNA intermediates of homologous recombination, need to be faithfully processed in order to preserve genome integrity. In human cells, the BLM helicase complex promotes nonnucleolytic dissolution of double HJs. In vitro, HJs may be nucleolytically processed by MUS81-EME1, GEN1, and SLX4-SLX1. Here, we exploit human SLX4-null cells to examine the requirements for HJ resolution in vivo. Lack of BLM and SLX4 or GEN1 and SLX4 is synthetically lethal in the absence of exogenous DNA damage, and lethality is a consequence of dysfunctional mitosis proceeding in the presence of unprocessed HJs. Thus, GEN1 activity cannot be substituted for the SLX4-associated nucleases, and one of the HJ resolvase activities, either of those associated with SLX4 or with GEN1, is required for cell viability, even in the presence of BLM. In vivo HJ resolution depends on both SLX4-associated MUS81-EME1 and SLX1, suggesting that they are acting in concert in the context of SLX4.

  13. Sonarteknik hjælper muslingeavlerne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, Kurt

    2006-01-01

    Sonar teknik kan hjælpe muslingefarmere med at holde styr på de undersøiske produktionssystemer......Sonar teknik kan hjælpe muslingefarmere med at holde styr på de undersøiske produktionssystemer...

  14. The pronunciation of hj- in Modern Faroese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrieland, Seán D

    2014-01-01

    Faroese dispalys two different pronunciations of hj- in anlaut: [j] before the voiceless approximates [l̥] and [r̥] as in hjálpa ‘to help’, hjarta ‘heart’; [tʃ] elsewhere as in hjá ‘by, with’. This development from Old Norse [hj] comes via the intermediate stage [j̥], which later undergoes...

  15. "Verdens bedste hjælperordning?"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk-Madsen, Eva

    2006-01-01

    I løbet af 70’erne opstod der en lokal forvaltningspraksis i Århus kommune, der gjorde det økonomisk muligt for fysisk handicappede at ansætte private personlige hjælpere, som et alternativ til at bo på institution eller have kommunal hjemmehjælp. Århus-ordningen, der siden blev landsdækkende, bl...

  16. A Novel Role of Human Holliday Junction Resolvase GEN1 in the Maintenance of Centrosome Integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, M.; Danielsen, Jannie Michaela Rendtlew; Wei, L.-Z.;

    2012-01-01

    but not catalytic activity of GEN1 is required for preventing centrosome hyper-amplification, formation of multiple mitotic spindles, and multi-nucleation. Our findings provide novel insight into the biological functions of GEN1 by uncovering an important role of GEN1 in the regulation of centrosome integrity...

  17. Differential Telomere Processing by Borrelia Telomere Resolvases In Vitro but Not In Vivo▿

    OpenAIRE

    Tourand, Yvonne; Bankhead, Troy; Wilson, Sandra L.; Putteet-Driver, Adrienne D.; Barbour, Alan G.; Byram, Rebecca; Rosa, Patricia A.; Chaconas, George

    2006-01-01

    Causative agents of Lyme disease and relapsing fever, including Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia hermsii, respectively, are unusual among bacteria in that they possess a segmented genome with linear DNA molecules terminated by hairpin ends, known as telomeres. During replication, these telomeres are processed by the essential telomere resolvase, ResT, in a unique biochemical reaction known as telomere resolution. In this study, we report the identification of the B. hermsii resT gene through...

  18. Mixing active-site components: A recipe for the unique enzymatic activity of a telomere resolvase

    OpenAIRE

    Bankhead, Troy; Chaconas, George

    2004-01-01

    The ResT protein, a telomere resolvase from Borrelia burgdorferi, processes replication intermediates into linear replicons with hairpin ends by using a catalytic mechanism similar to that for tyrosine recombinases and type IB topoisomerases. We have identified in ResT a hairpin binding region typically found in cut-and-paste transposases. We show that substitution of residues within this region results in a decreased ability of these mutants to catalyze telomere resolution. However, the muta...

  19. HJ-1A And HJ-1B Small Satellite Constellation For Environment And Disaster Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Zhaoguang

    2009-01-01

    @@ HJ-1A and HJ-1B small satellites were launched atop a LM-2C/SMA on September 6, 2008 from Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center. The satellites began to transmit back images from September 8 and the constellation formed on October 13. After 5 months of orbit testing and operationevaluation, China's first optical satelliteconstellation passed its performancereview and was delivered to the Ministryof Civil Affairs and the Ministry ofEnvironmental Protection by ChinaAerospace Science and Technology Corporation and China Satellite Launch6 Tracking Control General.

  20. Characterization and comparison of synthetic immobile and mobile Holliday junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shida, T; Iwasaki, H; Shinagawa, H; Kyogoku, Y

    1996-04-01

    Eight synthetic Holliday junction (HJ) oligonucleotides containing an immobile or a mobile junction were characterized by gel electrophoresis, ultraviolet absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Four 24-mer deoxyribonucleotides formed stable immobile and mobile HJs in 0.1 M NaCl at 5 muM strand concentration at room temperature. However, the immobile HJ constructed from four 18-mers was less stable, and four 12-mers did not form the HJ structure under the conditions used. A comparison of the melting profiles of the HJs with those of the duplexes corresponding to the arms of four-way junctions indicated that the thermal stability of the HJ was similar to that of the individual arm and the cooperativity of the melting behavior of the HJ was relatively higher than that of the individual arm duplex. The Tms of the mobile HJs containing 4, 6, 8, and 10 base-pair homologous cores at junctions were essentially identical with that of the immobile HJ of the same size. There is a tendency that the HJ containing a larger homologous core region becomes more resistant to thermal denaturation. The addition of divalent metal cations, Mg2+ and Ca2+, to the solutions of the HJs raised their melting temperatures. The difference found for the CD spectra of the HJs which differ only in the arrangement of the HJ depended primarily upon the DNA sequence flanking the junction. The RuvC protein binds to the immobile and mobile HJs, regardless of the presence and the size of the homologous core at the junction.

  1. Chinese HJ-1A/B satellites and data characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    From the viewpoint of environmental remote-sensing applications,this article explains the overall technical characteristics of the Chinese HJ-1A and HJ-1B satellites.It also investigates the spectral characteristics and potential applications of charge-coupled devices,and the infrared and hyperspectral data obtained by the satellites.Examples of applications,such as the remote-sensing monitoring of algal bloom in Taihu Lake,straw burning in southern China,and aerosol optical depth in the area around Bohai sea are presented.These examples illustrate the application characteristics of the HJ-1A and HJ-1B satellite data.

  2. Rmi1 stimulates decatenation of double Holliday junctions during dissolution by Sgs1-Top3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cejka, Petr; Plank, Jody L; Bachrati, Csanad Z;

    2010-01-01

    3 proteins are sufficient to migrate and disentangle a dHJ to produce exclusively non-crossover recombination products, in a reaction termed "dissolution." We show that Rmi1 stimulates dHJ dissolution at low Sgs1-Top3 protein concentrations, although it has no effect on the initial rate of Holliday...... junction (HJ) migration. Rmi1 serves to stimulate DNA decatenation, removing the last linkages between the repaired and template DNA molecules. Dissolution of a dHJ is a highly efficient and concerted alternative to nucleolytic resolution that prevents crossing over of chromosomes during recombinational...

  3. Mixing active-site components: a recipe for the unique enzymatic activity of a telomere resolvase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankhead, Troy; Chaconas, George

    2004-09-21

    The ResT protein, a telomere resolvase from Borrelia burgdorferi, processes replication intermediates into linear replicons with hairpin ends by using a catalytic mechanism similar to that for tyrosine recombinases and type IB topoisomerases. We have identified in ResT a hairpin binding region typically found in cut-and-paste transposases. We show that substitution of residues within this region results in a decreased ability of these mutants to catalyze telomere resolution. However, the mutants are capable of resolving heteroduplex DNA substrates designed to allow spontaneous destabilization and prehairpin formation. These findings support the existence of a hairpin binding region in ResT, the only known occurrence outside a transposase. The combination of transposase-like and tyrosine-recombinase-like domains found in ResT indicates the use of a composite active site and helps explain the unique breakage-and-reunion reaction observed with this protein. Comparison of the ResT sequence with other known telomere resolvases suggests that a hairpin binding motif is a common feature in this class of enzyme; the sequence motif also appears in the RAG recombinases. Finally, our data support a mechanism of action whereby ResT induces prehairpin formation before the DNA cleavage step.

  4. Differential telomere processing by Borrelia telomere resolvases in vitro but not in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourand, Yvonne; Bankhead, Troy; Wilson, Sandra L; Putteet-Driver, Adrienne D; Barbour, Alan G; Byram, Rebecca; Rosa, Patricia A; Chaconas, George

    2006-11-01

    Causative agents of Lyme disease and relapsing fever, including Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia hermsii, respectively, are unusual among bacteria in that they possess a segmented genome with linear DNA molecules terminated by hairpin ends, known as telomeres. During replication, these telomeres are processed by the essential telomere resolvase, ResT, in a unique biochemical reaction known as telomere resolution. In this study, we report the identification of the B. hermsii resT gene through cross-species hybridization. Sequence comparison of the B. hermsii protein with the B. burgdorferi orthologue revealed 67% identity, including all the regions currently known to be crucial for telomere resolution. In vitro studies, however, indicated that B. hermsii ResT was unable to process a replicated B. burgdorferi type 2 telomere substrate. In contrast, in vivo cross-species complementation in which the native resT gene of B. burgdorferi was replaced with B. hermsii resT had no discernible effect, even though B. burgdorferi strain B31 carries at least two type 2 telomere ends. The B. burgdorferi ResT protein was also able to process two telomere spacing mutants in vivo that were unresolvable in vitro. The unexpected differential telomere processing in vivo versus in vitro by the two telomere resolvases suggests the presence of one or more accessory factors in vivo that are normally involved in the reaction. Our current results are also expected to facilitate further studies into ResT structure and function, including possible interaction with other Borrelia proteins.

  5. Tasseled cap transformation for HJ multispectral remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ling; Han, Xiaoyong

    2015-12-01

    The tasseled cap transformation of remote sensing data has been widely used in environment, agriculture, forest and ecology. Tasseled cap transformation coefficients matrix of HJ multi-spectrum data has been established through Givens rotation matrix to rotate principal component transform vector to whiteness, greenness and blueness direction of ground object basing on 24 scenes year-round HJ multispectral remote sensing data. The whiteness component enhances the brightness difference of ground object, and the greenness component preserves more detailed information of vegetation change while enhances the vegetation characteristic, and the blueness component significantly enhances factory with blue plastic house roof around the town and also can enhance brightness of water. Tasseled cap transformation coefficients matrix of HJ will enhance the application effect of HJ multispectral remote sensing data in their application fields.

  6. Differential Telomere Processing by Borrelia Telomere Resolvases In Vitro but Not In Vivo▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tourand, Yvonne; Bankhead, Troy; Wilson, Sandra L.; Putteet-Driver, Adrienne D.; Barbour, Alan G.; Byram, Rebecca; Rosa, Patricia A.; Chaconas, George

    2006-01-01

    Causative agents of Lyme disease and relapsing fever, including Borrelia burgdorferi and Borrelia hermsii, respectively, are unusual among bacteria in that they possess a segmented genome with linear DNA molecules terminated by hairpin ends, known as telomeres. During replication, these telomeres are processed by the essential telomere resolvase, ResT, in a unique biochemical reaction known as telomere resolution. In this study, we report the identification of the B. hermsii resT gene through cross-species hybridization. Sequence comparison of the B. hermsii protein with the B. burgdorferi orthologue revealed 67% identity, including all the regions currently known to be crucial for telomere resolution. In vitro studies, however, indicated that B. hermsii ResT was unable to process a replicated B. burgdorferi type 2 telomere substrate. In contrast, in vivo cross-species complementation in which the native resT gene of B. burgdorferi was replaced with B. hermsii resT had no discernible effect, even though B. burgdorferi strain B31 carries at least two type 2 telomere ends. The B. burgdorferi ResT protein was also able to process two telomere spacing mutants in vivo that were unresolvable in vitro. The unexpected differential telomere processing in vivo versus in vitro by the two telomere resolvases suggests the presence of one or more accessory factors in vivo that are normally involved in the reaction. Our current results are also expected to facilitate further studies into ResT structure and function, including possible interaction with other Borrelia proteins. PMID:16936037

  7. Autoregulation of lantibiotic bovicin HJ50 biosynthesis by the BovK-BovR two-component signal transduction system in Streptococcus bovis HJ50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jianqiang; Teng, Kunling; Liu, Gang; Qiao, Caixia; Huan, Liandong; Zhong, Jin

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus bovis HJ50 produces a lacticin 481-like 33-amino-acid-residue lantibiotic, designated bovicin HJ50. bovK-bovR in the bovicin HJ50 biosynthetic gene cluster is predicted to be a two-component signal transduction system involved in sensing signals and regulating gene expression. Disruption of bovK or bovR resulted in the abrogation of bovicin HJ50 production, suggesting both genes play important roles in bovicin HJ50 biosynthesis. Addition of exogenous bovicin HJ50 peptide to cultures of a bovM mutant that lost the capability for bovicin HJ50 production and structural gene bovA transcription in S. bovis HJ50 induced dose-dependent transcription of the bovA gene, demonstrating that bovicin HJ50 production was normally autoregulated. The transcription of bovA was no longer induced by bovicin HJ50 in bovK and bovR disruption mutants, suggesting that BovK-BovR plays an essential role in the signal transduction regulating bovicin HJ50 biosynthesis. A phosphorylation assay indicated that BovK has the ability to autophosphorylate and subsequently transfer the phosphoryl group to the downstream BovR protein to carry on signal transduction. Electromobility shift assays (EMSA) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene expression assays showed the specific binding of BovR to the bovA promoter, indicating that BovR regulates bovA expression by direct binding between them. Taken together, bovicin HJ50 biosynthesis is induced by bovicin HJ50 itself and regulated via the two-component signal transduction system BovK-BovR.

  8. Effect of Single-Strand Break on Branch Migration and Folding Dynamics of Holliday Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palets, Dmytro; Lushnikov, Alexander Y.; Karymov, Mikhail A.; Lyubchenko, Yuri L.

    2010-01-01

    The Holliday junction (HJ), or four-way junction, is a central intermediate state of DNA for homologous genetic recombination and other genetic processes such as replication and repair. Branch migration is the process by which the exchange of homologous DNA regions occurs, and it can be spontaneous or driven by proteins. Unfolding of the HJ is required for branch migration. Our previous single-molecule fluorescence studies led to a model according to which branch migration is a stepwise process consisting of consecutive migration and folding steps. Folding of the HJ in one of the folded conformations terminates the branch migration phase. At the same time, in the unfolded state HJ rapidly migrates over entire homology region of the HJ in one hop. This process can be affected by irregularities in the DNA double helical structure, so mismatches almost terminate a spontaneous branch migration. Single-stranded breaks or nicks are the most ubiquitous defects in the DNA helix; however, to date, their effect on the HJ branch migration has not been studied. In addition, although nicked HJs are specific substrates for a number of enzymes involved in DNA recombination and repair, the role of this substrate specificity remains unclear. Our main goal in this work was to study the effect of nicks on the efficiency of HJ branch migration and the dynamics of the HJ. To accomplish this goal, we applied two single-molecule methods: atomic force microscopy and fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The atomic force microscopy data show that the nick does not prevent branch migration, but it does decrease the probability that the HJ will pass the DNA lesion. The single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer approaches were instrumental in detailing the effects of nicks. These studies reveal a dramatic change of the HJ dynamics. The nick changes the structure and conformational dynamics of the junctions, leading to conformations with geometries that are different from those

  9. Design and Analysis of HJ-1-C Satellite SAR Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Shi-kun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With truss deployable mesh parabolic reflector, the HJ-1-C SAR antenna has complex structure and multiple steps during the deployed processing. The design of the antenna is difficult in terms of deployed reliability and electrical performance. This paper makes intensive research on system, structure and electrical design, and the analysis of mechanical and thermal performance in the actual space conditions is also presented. The successful deploying in orbit and high image quality of the HJ-1-C satellite indicate that the mechanical, electronic, thermal and reliability design of the antenna satisfy the project requirement, and these research provides valuable experience for the design of the centralized mesh parabolic SAR antenna.

  10. Self-filtering oscillations in carbon nanotube hetero-junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarpa, F; Narojczyk, J W; Wojciechowski, K W; Inman, D J

    2011-11-18

    We evaluate the vibrational properties of single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) hetero-junction (HJ) oscillators using a hybrid atomistic-continuum approach validated by molecular mechanics/molecular dynamics simulations. The SWCNT-HJs show a broken symmetry topology of their mode shapes, with striction effects caused on the bending and radial modes by the combined effect of the HJ and the tube with the thinner radius. The single-wall nanotube HJs also show selective mass sensing properties based solely on the geometry and type of the boundary conditions of the specific nanostructure. This unusual behaviour has not been observed so far in classical SWCNT systems.

  11. Effect of GEN1 interference on the chemosensitivity of the breast cancer MCF-7 and SKBR3 cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Yunlu; Qian,Ying; ZHOU, GUOZHONG; Lv, Juan; Yan, Qiuyue; Dong, Xuejun

    2016-01-01

    Chemotherapy is a notable method for the treatment of breast cancer. Numerous genes associated with the sensitivity of cancer to chemotherapy have been found. In recent years, evidence has suggested that a particular structure termed Holliday junction (HJ) plays a crucial role in cancer chemosensitivity. Targeting HJ resolvases, such as structure-specific endonuclease subunit SLX4 (Slx4) and MUS81 structure-specific endonuclease subunit (Mus81), significantly increases the chemosensitivity of...

  12. Research on HJ-1A/B satellite data automatic geometric precision correction design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiong Wencheng; Shen Wenming; Wang Qiao; Shi Yuanli; Xiao Rulin; Fu Zhuo

    2014-01-01

    Developed independently by China,HJ-1A/B satellites have operated well on-orbit for five years and acquired a large number of high-quality observation data. The realization of the observation data geometric precision correction is of great significance for macro and dynamic ecological environment monitoring. The pa-per analyzed the parameter characteristics of HJ-1 satellite and geometric features of HJ-1 satellite level 2 data (systematic geo-corrected data). Based on this,the overall HJ-1 multi-sensor geometric correction flow and charge-coupled device (CCD) automatic geometric precision correction method were designed. Actual operating data showed that the method could achieve good result for automatic geometric precision correction of HJ-1 sat-ellite data,automatic HJ-1 CCD image geometric precision correction accuracy could be achieved within two pixels and automatic matching accuracy between the images of same satellite could be obtained less than one pixel.

  13. Applications of Environmental Remote Sensing by HJ-1C SAR Imageries

    OpenAIRE

    Tian Wei; Xu Xu; Bian Xiao-lin; Chai Xun; Wang Shi-ang; Gong Hua-ze; Xiong Wen-cheng; Shao Yun

    2014-01-01

    The HJ-1C satellite was successfully launched in November 19, 2012. The HJ-1C and HJ-1A/1B satellites, which were launched in September 06, 2008, constitute the “2+1” small satellite constellation for environmental and disaster monitoring. This study focuses on the analysis and evaluation of the satellite performance with respect to environmental remote sensing, including land use interpretation, land cover classification, oil spill identification, retrieval of sea waves, and monitoring of...

  14. The pronunciation of hj- in Modern Faroese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrieland, Seán D

    2014-01-01

    Faroese dispalys two different pronunciations of hj- in anlaut: [j] before the voiceless approximates [l̥] and [r̥] as in hjálpa ‘to help’, hjarta ‘heart’; [tʃ] elsewhere as in hjá ‘by, with’. This development from Old Norse [hj] comes via the intermediate stage [j̥], which later undergoes dissim...... dissimilation of voice to [j] before voiceless approximates. A parallel development occurs in the Norn language of Orkney and Shetland, providing further evidence for a Faroese-Norn subgrouping of Insular Norse....

  15. Nintendo Wii hjælper patienter i Esbjerg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis Brooks, Anthony (aka Tony)

    2010-01-01

    En forsker med fokus på leg og interaktive teknologier og en speciallæge, der vil hjælpe smerteramte fibromyalgi-patienter til en bedre hverdag – det er det makkerpar, der i disse dage søger nye deltagere til et projekt med spændende perspektiver. Deres indledende undersøgelser med tre forsøgsper...... og hans makker lektor Tony Brooks fra Aalborg Universitet Esbjerg, benytte sig af denne uges Health & Rehab-messe i Bella Center til at komme i kontakt med potentielle deltagere i næste del af projektet....

  16. Internal Calibration of HJ-1-C Satellite SAR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The HJ-1-C satellite is a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR satellite of a small constellation for environmental and disaster monitoring. At present, it is in orbit and working well. The SAR system uses a mesh reflector antenna and centralized power amplifier, and has an internal calibration function in orbit. This study introduces the internal calibration modes and signal paths. The design and realization of the internal calibrator are discussed in detail. Finally, the internal calibration data acquired in orbit are also analyzed.

  17. Validity of the Omron HJ-112 pedometer during treadmill walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Rebecca E; Haller, Jeannie; Pober, David M; Staudenmayer, John; Freedson, Patty S

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the validity of step counts measured with the Omron HJ-112 pedometer and to assess the effect of pedometer placement. Ninety-two subjects (44 males and 48 females; 71 with body mass index [BMI] or=30 kg.m) completed three, 12-min bouts of treadmill walking at speeds of 1.12, 1.34, and 1.56 mxs. A subset (21 males and 23 females; 38 BMI or=30 kg.m) completed a variable walking condition. For all conditions, participants wore an Omron HJ-112 pedometer on the hip, in the pants pocket, in the chest shirt pocket, and around the neck. Hip pedometer placement was alternated between right and left sides with the Yamax Digiwalker SW-701. During each walk, an investigator recorded actual steps with a manual hand counter. There was no substantial bias with the Omron in any speed condition (-0.1% to 0.5%). Bias was larger with the Yamax (-3.6% to 2.0%). The largest random error for the Omron was 3.7% in the variable-speed condition for the BMI variable-speed walking; other than that in the pants pocket, placement of the pedometer has little effect on validity.

  18. Applications of Environmental Remote Sensing by HJ-1C SAR Imageries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Wei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The HJ-1C satellite was successfully launched in November 19, 2012. The HJ-1C and HJ-1A/1B satellites, which were launched in September 06, 2008, constitute the “2+1” small satellite constellation for environmental and disaster monitoring. This study focuses on the analysis and evaluation of the satellite performance with respect to environmental remote sensing, including land use interpretation, land cover classification, oil spill identification, retrieval of sea waves, and monitoring of coastal mariculture. The data used in this study cover the city of Beijing and the sea of the Fujian Province. Nine HJ-1C satellite images (level-2, S band, VV Pol, strip mode, 5 m resolution from December 2012 to January 2013 are used. The conclusions are as follows: (1 the HJ-1C SAR images can be used to manually identify farmland, woodland, roads, rivers, urban construction, and rural residential areas; (2 the accuracy of the automatic land cover classification increased significantly when the HJ-1C SAR and HJ-1B CCD fusion images are used; (3 the HJ-1C satellite can be used to identify oil spills, to invert wave parameters, and to extract information regarding inshore aquaculture.

  19. Hjólför í íslensku malbiki. Slit og deigar formbreytingar

    OpenAIRE

    Birkir Hrafn Jóakimsson 1981

    2014-01-01

    Hjólfaramyndun er umtalsvert vandamál vegum og götum hér á landi. Hjólför myndast vegna slits annars vegar og deigra formbreytinga hins vegar. Slit má rekja til umferðar bifreiða búnum negldum hjólbörðum og formbreytingar, skrið aðallega, má tengja við umferð þungra ökutækja. Þetta verkefni fjallar um hvernig hægt er að spá fyrir um hjólfaramyndun í malbiki bæði vegna slits og deigra formbreytinga. Á Íslandi hefur hingað til ekki verið hægt að spá fyrir um hjólfaramyndun vegna nagldekkja. ...

  20. Identification of RecQL1 as a Holliday junction processing enzyme in human cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeRoy, Gary; Carroll, Robert; Kyin, Saw; Seki, Masayuki; Cole, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    Homologous recombination provides an effective way to repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and is required for genetic recombination. During the process of homologous recombination, a heteroduplex DNA structure, or a ‘Holliday junction’ (HJ), is formed. The movement, or branch migration, of this junction is necessary for recombination to proceed correctly. In prokaryotes, the RecQ protein or the RuvA/RuvB protein complex can promote ATP-dependent branch migration of Holliday junctions. Much less is known about the processing of Holliday junctions in eukaryotes. Here, we identify RecQL1 as a predominant ATP-dependent, HJ branch migrator present in human nuclear extracts. A reduction in the level of RecQL1 induced by RNA interference in HeLa cells leads to an increase in sister chromatid exchange. We propose that RecQL1 is involved in the processing of Holliday junctions in human cells. PMID:16260474

  1. Efficient second strand cleavage during Holliday junction resolution by RuvC requires both increased junction flexibility and an exposed 5' phosphate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fekret Osman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Holliday junction (HJ resolution is a critical step during homologous recombination. In Escherichia coli this job is performed by a member of the RNase H/Integrase superfamily called RuvC, whereas in Schizosaccharomyces pombe it has been attributed to the XPF family member Mus81-Eme1. HJ resolution is achieved through the sequential cleavage of two strands of like polarity at or close to the junction crossover point. RuvC functions as a dimer, whereas Mus81-Eme1 is thought to function as a dimer of heterodimers. However, in both cases the multimer contains two catalytic sites, which act independently and sequentially during the resolution reaction. To ensure that both strands are cleaved before the nuclease dissociates from the junction, the rate of second strand cleavage is greatly enhanced compared to that of the first. The enhancement of second strand cleavage has been attributed to the increased flexibility of the nicked HJ, which would facilitate rapid engagement of the second active site and scissile bond. Here we have investigated whether other properties of the nicked HJ are important for enhancing second strand cleavage. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A comparison of the efficiency of cleavage of nicked HJs with and without a 5' phosphate at the nick site shows that a 5' phosphate is required for most of the enhancement of second strand cleavage by RuvC. In contrast Mus81-Eme1 cleaves nicked HJs with and without a 5' phosphate with equal efficiency, albeit there are differences in cleavage site selection. CONCLUSIONS: Our data show that efficient HJ resolution by RuvC depends on the 5' phosphate revealed by incision of the first strand. This is a hitherto unappreciated factor in promoting accelerated second strand cleavage. However, a 5' phosphate is not a universal requirement since efficient cleavage by Mus81-Eme1 appears to depend solely on the increased junction flexibility that is developed by the first incision.

  2. Efficient second strand cleavage during Holliday junction resolution by RuvC requires both increased junction flexibility and an exposed 5' phosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Fekret; Gaskell, Louise; Whitby, Matthew C

    2009-01-01

    Holliday junction (HJ) resolution is a critical step during homologous recombination. In Escherichia coli this job is performed by a member of the RNase H/Integrase superfamily called RuvC, whereas in Schizosaccharomyces pombe it has been attributed to the XPF family member Mus81-Eme1. HJ resolution is achieved through the sequential cleavage of two strands of like polarity at or close to the junction crossover point. RuvC functions as a dimer, whereas Mus81-Eme1 is thought to function as a dimer of heterodimers. However, in both cases the multimer contains two catalytic sites, which act independently and sequentially during the resolution reaction. To ensure that both strands are cleaved before the nuclease dissociates from the junction, the rate of second strand cleavage is greatly enhanced compared to that of the first. The enhancement of second strand cleavage has been attributed to the increased flexibility of the nicked HJ, which would facilitate rapid engagement of the second active site and scissile bond. Here we have investigated whether other properties of the nicked HJ are important for enhancing second strand cleavage. A comparison of the efficiency of cleavage of nicked HJs with and without a 5' phosphate at the nick site shows that a 5' phosphate is required for most of the enhancement of second strand cleavage by RuvC. In contrast Mus81-Eme1 cleaves nicked HJs with and without a 5' phosphate with equal efficiency, albeit there are differences in cleavage site selection. Our data show that efficient HJ resolution by RuvC depends on the 5' phosphate revealed by incision of the first strand. This is a hitherto unappreciated factor in promoting accelerated second strand cleavage. However, a 5' phosphate is not a universal requirement since efficient cleavage by Mus81-Eme1 appears to depend solely on the increased junction flexibility that is developed by the first incision.

  3. Detection of the urban heat island in Beijing using HJ-1B satellite imagery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Satellite images are used extensively in studying the urban heat island(UHI) phenomenon.We evaluated the suitability of thermal infrared(TIR) data from the HJ-1B satellite for detecting UHI using a case study in Beijing.Two modified algorithms for retrieving the land surface temperature(LST) from HJ-1B data were tested.The results were compared with LST images derived from a Landsat TM thermal band and the MODIS LST output.The spatial pattern of UHI generated using HJ-1B data matched well with that produced using TM and MODIS data.Of the two algorithms,the mono-window algorithm performed better but further tests are necessary.With more frequent coverage than TM and higher spatial resolution than MODIS,the HJ-1B TIR data present a unique opportunity to study thermal environments in cities in China and neighboring countries.

  4. System Design and In-orbit Verification of the HJ-1-C SAR Satellite

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Run-ning; Jiang Xiu-peng

    2014-01-01

    HJ-1-C is a SAR satellite owned by the Chinese Environment and Natural Disaster Monitoring constellation, and works together with the optical satellites HJ-1-A/B for monitoring environment and natural disasters. In this paper, the system design and characteristics of the first Chinese civil SAR satellite are described. In addition, the interface relation between SAR payload and platform is studied. Meanwhile, the data transmission capability, attitude, power, and temperature control that supp...

  5. Crop classification using HJ satellite multispectral data in the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Kun; Wu, Bingfang; Li, Qiangzi

    2013-01-01

    The HJ satellite constellation is designed for environment and disaster monitoring by the Chinese government. This paper investigates the performance of multitemporal multispectral charge-coupled device (CCD) data on board HJ-1-A and HJ-1-B for crop classification in the North China Plain. Support vector machine classifier is selected for the classification using different combinations of multitemporal HJ multispectral data. The results indicate that multitemporal HJ CCD data could effectively identify wheat fields with an overall classification accuracy of 91.7%. Considering only single temporal data, 88.2% is the best classification accuracy achieved using the data acquired at the flowering time of wheat. The performance of the combination of two temporal data acquired at the jointing and flowering times of wheat is almost as well as using all three temporal data, indicating that two appropriate temporal data are enough for wheat classification, and much more data have little effect on improving the classification accuracy. Moreover, two temporal data acquired over a larger time interval achieves better results than that over a smaller interval. However, the field borders and smaller cotton fields cannot be identified effectively by HJ multispectral data, and misclassification phenomenon exists because of the relatively coarse spatial resolution.

  6. A Contextual Fire Detection Algorithm for Simulated HJ-1B Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangsheng Kong

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The HJ-1B satellite, which was launched on September 6, 2008, is one of the small ones placed in the constellation for disaster prediction and monitoring. HJ-1B imagery was simulated in this paper, which contains fires of various sizes and temperatures in a wide range of terrestrial biomes and climates, including RED, NIR, MIR and TIR channels. Based on the MODIS version 4 contextual algorithm and the characteristics of HJ-1B sensor, a contextual fire detection algorithm was proposed and tested using simulated HJ-1B data. It was evaluated by the probability of fire detection and false alarm as functions of fire temperature and fire area. Results indicate that when the simulated fire area is larger than 45 m2 and the simulated fire temperature is larger than 800 K, the algorithm has a higher probability of detection. But if the simulated fire area is smaller than 10 m2, only when the simulated fire temperature is larger than 900 K, may the fire be detected. For fire areas about 100 m2, the proposed algorithm has a higher detection probability than that of the MODIS product. Finally, the omission and commission error were evaluated which are important factors to affect the performance of this algorithm. It has been demonstrated that HJ-1B satellite data are much sensitive to smaller and cooler fires than MODIS or AVHRR data and the improved capabilities of HJ-1B data will offer a fine opportunity for the fire detection.

  7. Gap Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L.; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of gap junction activity is complex. The structure of the various connexins is known to some extent; and structural rearrangements and intramolecular interactions are important for regulation of channel function. Intercellular coupling is further regulated by the number and activity of channels present in gap junctional plaques. The number of connexins in cell-cell channels is regulated by controlling transcription, translation, trafficking, and degradation; and all of these processes are under strict control. Once in the membrane, channel activity is determined by the conductive properties of the connexin involved, which can be regulated by voltage and chemical gating, as well as a large number of posttranslational modifications. The aim of the present article is to review our current knowledge on the structure, regulation, function, and pharmacology of gap junctions. This will be supported by examples of how different connexins and their regulation act in concert to achieve appropriate physiological control, and how disturbances of connexin function can lead to disease. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1981-2035, 2012. PMID:23723031

  8. Gap junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2012-07-01

    Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of gap junction activity is complex. The structure of the various connexins is known to some extent; and structural rearrangements and intramolecular interactions are important for regulation of channel function. Intercellular coupling is further regulated by the number and activity of channels present in gap junctional plaques. The number of connexins in cell-cell channels is regulated by controlling transcription, translation, trafficking, and degradation; and all of these processes are under strict control. Once in the membrane, channel activity is determined by the conductive properties of the connexin involved, which can be regulated by voltage and chemical gating, as well as a large number of posttranslational modifications. The aim of the present article is to review our current knowledge on the structure, regulation, function, and pharmacology of gap junctions. This will be supported by examples of how different connexins and their regulation act in concert to achieve appropriate physiological control, and how disturbances of connexin function can lead to disease. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1853-1872, 2012.

  9. Resolution of Mismatched Overlap Holliday Junction Intermediates by the Tyrosine Recombinase IntDOT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringwald, Kenneth; Yoneji, Sumiko; Gardner, Jeffrey

    2017-05-15

    CTnDOT is an integrated conjugative element found in Bacteroides species. CTnDOT contains and transfers antibiotic resistance genes. The element integrates into and excises from the host chromosome via a Holliday junction (HJ) intermediate as part of a site-specific recombination mechanism. The CTnDOT integrase, IntDOT, is a tyrosine recombinase with core-binding, catalytic, and amino-terminal (N) domains. Unlike well-studied tyrosine recombinases, such as lambda integrase (Int), IntDOT is able to resolve Holliday junctions containing heterology (mismatched bases) between the sites of strand exchange. All known natural isolates of CTnDOT contain mismatches in the overlap region between the sites of strand exchange. Previous work showed that IntDOT was unable to resolve synthetic Holliday junctions containing mismatched bases to products in the absence of the arm-type sites and a DNA-bending protein. We constructed synthetic HJs with the arm-type sites and tested them with the Bacteroides host factor (BHFa). We found that the addition of BHFa stimulated resolution of HJ intermediates with mismatched overlap regions to products. In addition, the L1 site is required for directionality of the reaction, particularly when the HJ contains mismatches. BHFa is required for product formation when the overlap region contains mismatches, and it stimulates resolution to products when the overlap region is identical. Without this DNA bending, the N domain of IntDOT is likely unable to bind the L1 arm-type site. These findings suggest that BHFa bends DNA into the necessary conformation for the higher-order complexes, including the L1 site, that are required for product formation.IMPORTANCE CTnDOT is a mobile element that carries antibiotic resistance genes and moves by site-selective recombination and subsequent conjugation. The recombination reaction is catalyzed by an integrase IntDOT that is a member of the tyrosine recombinase family. The reaction proceeds through ordered

  10. Targeting Holliday junctions by origin DNA-binding protein of herpes simplex virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseeva, E D; Bazhulina, N P; Gursky, Y G; Grokhovsky, S L; Surovaya, A N; Gursky, G V

    2017-03-01

    In the present paper, the interactions of the origin binding protein (OBP) of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) with synthetic four-way Holliday junctions (HJs) were studied using electrophoresis mobility shift assay and the FRET method and compared with the interactions of the protein with duplex and single-stranded DNAs. It has been found that OBP exhibits a strong preference for binding to four-way and three-way DNA junctions and possesses much lower affinities to duplex and single-stranded DNAs. The protein forms three types of complexes with HJs. It forms complexes I and II which are reminiscent of the tetramer and octamer complexes with four-way junction of HJ-specific protein RuvA of Escherichia coli. The binding approaches saturation level when two OBP dimers are bound per junction. In the presence of Mg(2+) ions (≥2 mM) OBP also interacts with HJ in the stacked arm form (complex III). In the presence of 5 mM ATP and 10 mM Mg(2+) ions OBP catalyzes processing of the HJ in which one of the annealed oligonucleotides has a 3'-terminal tail containing 20 unpaired thymine residues. The observed preference of OBP for binding to the four-way DNA junctions provides a basis for suggestion that OBP induces large DNA structural changes upon binding to Box I and Box II sites in OriS. These changes involve the bending and partial melting of the DNA at A+T-rich spacer and also include the formation of HJ containing Box I and Box II inverted repeats and flanking DNA sequences.

  11. The Problem of Probability: An Examination and Refutation of Hjørland’s Relevance Equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Jeppe

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. The paper presents a critical examination of Professor Birger Hjørland’s relevance equation: Something (A) is relevant to a task (T) if it increases the likelihood of accomplishing the goal (G), which is implied by T. Method. Two theories of probability logic (the logical theory...... and the intersubjective theory) are briefly reviewed and then applied to Hjørland’s equation. Analysis. Focusing on how these theories warrant the probability assumption makes it possible to detect deficiencies in Hjørland’s equation, based as it is on probability logic. Results. Regardless of the kind of logic applied...... to anything (including documents, ideas, meanings, texts, theories, and things), it is found at best to have very limited generalisability....

  12. Transcriptional Profiling of the Trichoderma reesei Recombinant Strain HJ48 by RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Wu, Renzhi; Chen, Dong; Wang, Qingyan; Huang, Ribo

    2016-07-28

    The ethanol production of Trichoderma reesei was improved by genome shuffling in our previous work. Using RNA-Seq, the transcriptomes of T. reesei wild-type CICC40360 and recombinant strain HJ48 were compared under fermentation conditions. Based on this analysis, we defined a set of T. reesei genes involved in ethanol production. Further expression analysis identified a series of glycolysis enzymes, which are upregulated in the recombinant strain HJ48 under fermentation conditions. The differentially expressed genes were further validated by qPCR. The present study will be helpful for future studies on ethanol fermentation as well as the roles of the involved genes. This research reveals several major differences in metabolic pathways between recombinant strain HJ48 and wild-type CICC40360, which relates to the higher ethanol production on the former, and their further research could promote the development of techniques for increasing ethanol production.

  13. A novel, topologically constrained DNA molecule containing a double Holliday junction: design, synthesis, and initial biochemical characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Jody L; Hsieh, Tao-shih

    2006-06-23

    The double Holliday junction (dHJ) is a central intermediate to homologous recombination, but biochemical analysis of the metabolism of this structure has been hindered by the lack of a substrate that adequately replicates the endogenous structure. We have synthesized a novel dHJ substrate that consists of two small, double stranded DNA circles conjoined by two Holliday junctions (HJs). Its biochemical synthesis is based on the production of two pairs of single stranded circles from phagemids, followed by their sequential annealing with reverse gyrase. The sequence between the two HJs is identical on both strands, allowing the HJs to migrate without the generation of unpaired regions of DNA, whereas the distance between the HJs is on the order of gene conversion tracts thus far measured in Drosophila and mouse model systems. The structure of this substrate also provides similar topological constraint as would occur in an endogenous dHJ. Digestion of the dHJ substrate by T7 endonuclease I resolves the substrate into crossover and non-crossover products, as predicted by the Szostak model of double strand break repair. This substrate will greatly facilitate the examination of the mechanism of resolution of double Holliday junctions.

  14. Design and Implementation of the HJ-1-C Satellite SAR Full-power Radiation Test

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Hua-chun; Tao Xin; Ni Jiang; Yu Wei-dong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the HJ-1-C SAR full-power radiation test design is presented. For the new problems caused by SAR high-power concentrated emissions, the radar-receiving channel-leakage power test is proposed to ensure the safety of the radar-receiving path, and the transceiver channel closed-loop radar system test is discussed. The experimental results show that the proposed HJ-1-C SAR full-power radiation test scheme is reasonable and feasible, with the desired outcome.

  15. The Load Design and Implementation of HJ-1-C Space-borne SAR

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Wei-dong; Yang Ru-liang; Deng Yun-kai; Zhao Feng-jun; Lei Hong

    2014-01-01

    HJ-1-C is a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite in the Constellation of “2+1” for China environment and disaster monitoring. It works at S-band with a resolution of 5 m. SAR payload uses a reflector antenna and a high-power concentrated transmitter. Its light weight and high efficiency is very suitable for a small satellite platform. Now HJ-1-C satellite has been launched into orbit and has acquired Chinese first S-band SAR images from space, which demonstrate excellent quality and rich ...

  16. System Design and In-orbit Verification of the HJ-1-C SAR Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Run-ning

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available HJ-1-C is a SAR satellite owned by the Chinese Environment and Natural Disaster Monitoring constellation, and works together with the optical satellites HJ-1-A/B for monitoring environment and natural disasters. In this paper, the system design and characteristics of the first Chinese civil SAR satellite are described. In addition, the interface relation between SAR payload and platform is studied. Meanwhile, the data transmission capability, attitude, power, and temperature control that support SAR imaging are reviewed. Finally, the corresponding in-orbit verification results are presented.

  17. Design and Implementation of the HJ-1-C Satellite SAR Full-power Radiation Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hua-chun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the HJ-1-C SAR full-power radiation test design is presented. For the new problems caused by SAR high-power concentrated emissions, the radar-receiving channel-leakage power test is proposed to ensure the safety of the radar-receiving path, and the transceiver channel closed-loop radar system test is discussed. The experimental results show that the proposed HJ-1-C SAR full-power radiation test scheme is reasonable and feasible, with the desired outcome.

  18. Feature Fusion Based Road Extraction for HJ-1-C SAR Image

    OpenAIRE

    Lu Ping-ping; Du Kang-ning; Yu Wei-dong; Wang Yu; Deng Yun-kai

    2014-01-01

    Road network extraction in SAR images is one of the key tasks of military and civilian technologies. To solve the issues of road extraction of HJ-1-C SAR images, a road extraction algorithm is proposed based on the integration of ratio and directional information. Due to the characteristic narrow dynamic range and low signal to noise ratio of HJ-1-C SAR images, a nonlinear quantization and an image filtering method based on a multi-scale autoregressive model are proposed here. A road extracti...

  19. Research and Realization of the HJ-1C Real-time Software Frame Synchronization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Yang-shuan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Conventional software frame synchronization methods are inefficient in processing huge continuous data without synchronization words. To improve the processing speed, a real-time synchronization algorithm is proposed based on reverse searching. Satellite data are grouped and searched in the reverse direction to avoid searching for synchronization words in huge continuous invalid data; thus, the frame synchronization speed is improved enormously. The fastest processing speed is up to 15445.9 Mbps when HJ-1C data are tested. This method is presently applied to the HJ-1C quick-look system in remote sensing satellite ground stations.

  20. Bacillus subtilis HJ18-4 from traditional fermented soybean food inhibits Bacillus cereus growth and toxin-related genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jeong Seon; Lee, Sun Young; Choi, Hye Sun

    2014-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis HJ18-4 isolated from buckwheat sokseongjang, a traditional Korean fermented soybean food, exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against foodborne pathogens, including Bacillus cereus. In this study, we investigated the antibacterial efficacy and regulation of toxin gene expression in B. cereus by B. subtilis HJ18-4. Expression of B. cereus toxin-related genes (groEL, nheA, nheC, and entFM) was downregulated by B. subtilis HJ18-4, which also exhibited strong antibacterial activity against B. cereus. We also found that water extracts of soy product fermented with B. subtilis HJ18-4 significantly inhibited the growth of B. cereus and toxin expression. These results indicate that B. subtilis HJ18-4 could be used as an antimicrobial agent to control B. cereus in the fermented soybean food industry. Our findings also provide an opportunity to develop an efficient biological control agent against B. cereus.

  1. Making school closures a success in Hjørring Municipality: Samling og Sammenhold

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunvor Riber

    villages, Hjørring Municipality has, immediately after the school closure, reached out to the local community in order to help them establish a substitute meeting place that replaces the school as the social hot spot in the village and local community. The project, named Samling og Sammenhold, has been...... not mean the closing of a village social hot spot....

  2. The Load Design and Implementation of HJ-1-C Space-borne SAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Wei-dong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available HJ-1-C is a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR satellite in the Constellation of “2+1” for China environment and disaster monitoring. It works at S-band with a resolution of 5 m. SAR payload uses a reflector antenna and a high-power concentrated transmitter. Its light weight and high efficiency is very suitable for a small satellite platform. Now HJ-1-C satellite has been launched into orbit and has acquired Chinese first S-band SAR images from space, which demonstrate excellent quality and rich information about scenes imaged. This success verifies our design, testing and experiment work on the payload. With its following operation, HJ-1-C satellite is expected to make a great contribution to the applications of environment protection and disaster monitoring in China. This paper introduces the design and development of HJ-1-C SAR payload, present its main parameters and performance, describes its device details and its manufacture, testing and experiment process. Some images acquired in the orbit are showed.

  3. Photometric and polarimetric observations of fast declining Type II supernovae 2013hj and 2014G

    CERN Document Server

    Bose, Subhash; Misra, Kuntal; Matsumoto, Katsura; Kumar, Brajesh; Singh, Mridweeka; Fukushima, Daiki; Kawabata, Miho

    2015-01-01

    We present broadband photometric and polarimetric observations of two type II supernovae (SNe) 2013hj and 2014G. SN 2014G is a spectroscopically classified type IIL event, which we also confirm photometrically as its light curve show characteristic features (plateau slope of 2.55 mag (100 d)$ ^{-1} $ in V-band and duration of $ \\sim77 $d) of a generic IIL SN. On the other hand SN 2013hj also shows high plateau decline rate of $ 1.5 $ mag (100 d)$ ^{-1} $ in V-band, similar to SNe IIL, but marginally lower than SNe IIL template light curves. Our high cadence photometric observations of SNe 2013hj and 2014G enables us to cover all characteristic phases up to radioactive tail of optical light curves. Broadband polarimetric observations reveal some polarization in SN 2013hj with subtle enhancement as SN evolves towards plateau end, however the polarization angle remains constant throughout the evolution. This characteristic is consistent with the idea that the evolving SN with recombining hydrogen envelope is slo...

  4. Genome Sequence of the Electrogenic Petroleum-Degrading Thalassospira sp. Strain HJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiseleva, Larisa; Garushyants, Sofya K.; Briliute, Justina; Simpson, David J. W.; Goryanin, Igor

    2015-01-01

    We present the draft genome of the petroleum-degrading Thalassospira sp. strain HJ, isolated from tidal marine sediment. Knowledge of this genomic information will inform studies on electrogenesis and means to degrade environmental organic contaminants, including compounds found in petroleum. PMID:25977412

  5. Midteradskillelse på landevej 447, Vestbjerg-Hjørring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael; Madsen, Jens Chr. Overgaard; Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk;

    2005-01-01

    I 2003-2004 blev der på Aalborgvej, landevej 447, mellem Harken og Hjørring foretaget et forsøgsprojekt af Nordjyllands Amt. Projektet omfatter forsøg med alternativ vejafmærkning samt overhalingsforbud, ændring af hastighedsgrænse, ændring af krydsudformning samt etablering bremseheller ved Hark...

  6. Retrieval of aerosol optical depth for Chongqing using the HJ-1 satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zengwu; Yang, Shiqi; Zeng, Qiaolin; Wang, Yongqian

    2017-06-01

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) is a common indicator applied in monitoring aerosols in the atmosphere. The hilly landscape and rapid economic growth of the megacity Chongqing have facilitated increased aerosol concentration, and it is meaningful to accurately retrieve AOD over Chongqing. The HJ-1A/B satellite of China carries a sensor/camera called the Charge Coupled Device (CCD), the spatial resolution of which meets the requirement for retrieving high resolution AOD. In this paper, analysis of the AOD retrievals from different methods using the HJ-1 satellite data revealed the most suitable algorithm. Through comparison with the AOD product of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), the AOD retrieval results using enhanced vegetation index (EVI) to estimate dark pixels showed the highest correlation. The continental aerosol model was used to build a lookup table that was able to facilitate a good AOD retrieval for both city and rural areas. Finally, the algorithm that combined dark pixels, buffer areas, and the deep blue algorithm was found to be most suitable for AOD retrieval. The AOD retrieval results based on the HJ-1 data were consistent with MODIS products, and our algorithm yields reasonable results in most cases. The results were also compared with ground-based PM10 measurements synchronized with the overpass time of the HJ-1 satellite, and high correlation was found. The findings are relevant to other Chinese satellite data used for retrieving AOD on the same channels.

  7. Rad54 protein promotes branch migration of Holliday junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugreev, Dmitry V; Mazina, Olga M; Mazin, Alexander V

    2006-08-03

    Homologous recombination has a crucial function in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks and in faithful chromosome segregation. The mechanism of homologous recombination involves the search for homology and invasion of the ends of a broken DNA molecule into homologous duplex DNA to form a cross-stranded structure, a Holliday junction (HJ). A HJ is able to undergo branch migration along DNA, generating increasing or decreasing lengths of heteroduplex. In both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, the physical evidence for HJs, the key intermediate in homologous recombination, was provided by electron microscopy. In bacteria there are specialized enzymes that promote branch migration of HJs. However, in eukaryotes the identity of homologous recombination branch-migration protein(s) has remained elusive. Here we show that Rad54, a Swi2/Snf2 protein, binds HJ-like structures with high specificity and promotes their bidirectional branch migration in an ATPase-dependent manner. The activity seemed to be conserved in human and yeast Rad54 orthologues. In vitro, Rad54 has been shown to stimulate DNA pairing of Rad51, a key homologous recombination protein. However, genetic data indicate that Rad54 protein might also act at later stages of homologous recombination, after Rad51 (ref. 13). Novel DNA branch-migration activity is fully consistent with this late homologous recombination function of Rad54 protein.

  8. Holliday junction resolution: regulation in space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Joao; West, Stephen C

    2014-07-01

    Holliday junctions (HJs) can be formed between sister chromatids or homologous chromosomes during the recombinational repair of DNA lesions. A variety of pathways act upon HJs to remove them from DNA, in events that are critical for appropriate chromosome segregation. Despite the identification and characterization of multiple enzymes involved in HJ processing, the cellular mechanisms that regulate and implement pathway usage have only just started to be delineated. A conserved network of core cell-cycle kinases and phosphatases modulate HJ metabolism by exerting spatial and temporal control over the activities of two structure-selective nucleases: yeast Mus81-Mms4 (human MUS81-EME1) and Yen1 (human GEN1). These regulatory cycles operate to establish the sequential activation of HJ processing enzymes, implementing a hierarchy in pathway usage that ensure the elimination of chromosomal interactions which would otherwise interfere with chromosome segregation. Mus81-Mms4/EME1 and Yen1/GEN1 emerge to define a special class of enzymes, evolved to satisfy the cellular need of safeguarding the completion of DNA repair when on the verge of chromosome segregation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Classification of Forest Land Information Using Environment Satellite (HJ-1 Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanxia Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available For researching properties of HJ-1A CCD camera multi-spectral data in performance on extraction of land features information, this paper selected the east area of NiLeke forest farm in the western Tianshan mountain as the study area, and analyzed different accuracies for HJ-1A CCD data in identifying forest land categories using various classification methods. Firstly, maximum-likelihood classifier, Mahalanobis distance classifier, minimum distance classifier and K-means classifier were used to category land use types with two different scales on HJ-1A CCD1 and Landsat5 TM images, and analyzed separately with confusion matrix. Secondly, forest land types were distinguished by texture information and the smallest polygon size using K-NN method based on clustering algorithm. The comparing results show: at first, different classification system have different accuracy. In the first land use classification system, the accuracy of HJ-1A CCD1 images are lower than TM images, but higher in the second land use classification system. Secondly, accuracy result of maximum-likelihood classification is the best method to classify land use types. In the first land use classification system, TM total accuracy is up to 85.1% and Kappa coefficient is 0.8. In the second land use classification system, the result is up to 85.4% and kappa coefficient is 0.74.Thirdly, judgment both from the view of visual interpretation and quantitative accuracy testes, non-supervised method with K-means classifier has low qualities where many land features have characters of scattered distribution and small different spectrum information. Finally, the experiment proved that there were good vector results on HJ-1A remote sensing image in the view of visual judgment, and extracted deferent forest land by the overall accuracy 87% with the supports by those variables’ distribution knowledge, such as conifer, mixed forest, broadleaf, shrubby.

  10. Estimation of evapotranspiration over heterogeneous surfaces based on HJ1B satellite data in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiaozhou; Jiao, Jingjun

    2014-05-01

    The HJ1B satellite of China is equipped with two CCD cameras with 30m resolution and one infrared multispectral camera with 300m resolution. And the revisit period of HJ1B satellite is 4 days. Compared to MODIS or TM, HJ1B data has the advantage of high spatial-temporal resolution. Methodology based on the one-source energy balance model was developed for net radiation (Rn), soil heat flux (G), sensible heat flux (H) and latent heat flux (LE) estimation from HI1B data. The core procedure is a scheme that was designed for correcting the spatial scale error over heterogeneous surfaces by taking advantage of the HJ1B data characteristics, i.e., high resolution CCD data (30m) along with thermal data (300m). First of all, a regression relationship between Ts and NDVI was built up at 300m resolution based on the data of Ts and NDVI of the selected "pure" pixels. And then the relationship function was applied at 30m resolution to derive Ts at high resolution, i.e., at the subpixel level. Furthermore, the 30m land class data was also used in the parameterization of surface energy balance and surface aerodynamic transfer, which is important since significant error may be resulted by using one land class type to represent the whole mixed pixel. By using high resolution NDVI and land class data, we are able to mitigate the spatial scale error of the mixed pixels at 300m resolution. At last, the 300m surface energy fluxes were obtained by aggregation of the 30m estimation. HJ1B data at Hai river basin in north China in 2010 were used to verify this method. The eddy-correlation system data were used as validation. The results of the method were compared with the results of a simple method that estimates the fluxes at 300m by aggregating all of the input parameters to 300m. It is shown that the method proposed in this study shows higher agreement with in-suit measurement, and the fluxes maps also show much more details of the spatial variation. By using this method, it can be

  11. Snow Cover Mapping Algorithm Based on HJ-1B Satellite Data%基于HJ-1B卫星数据的积雪面积制图算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何咏琪; 黄晓东; 方金; 王玮; 郝晓华; 梁天刚

    2013-01-01

    Snow cover is an important factor affecting climate. Using the HJ satellite with higher spatial and temporal resolution for snow cover mapping has a great significance to promoting China's own remote sensing satellites in the field of snow monitoring. In this paper, the normalized difference snow index (NDSI) method based on HJ-1B satellite data is used to study the snow cover mapping algorithm in Darlag County, Qinghai Province. The accuracies of MODIS daily snow cover map and the HJ-1B snow cover map are compared. It is found that: 1) the suitable NDSI threshold of HJ-1B snow cover mapping algorithm is 0.37 and the total classification accuracy is 97.97%. 2) Compared with the MODIS daily snow cover map, the HJ-1B snow cover map has higher coherence with "true value" snow cover image with Khat coefficient of 0. 911, more than that of MODIS daily snow cover map, 0. 817. The accuracy of snow cover mapping algorithm based on HJ-1B is established in this study, which is reliable for snow cover dynamic monitoring in the study area. The HJ-1B with higher spatial and temporal resolution can improve the accuracy of snow cover area monitoring. However, the terrain is an important factor for snow cover monitoring accuracy when using HJ-1B data. The snow classification error increases with slope, especially the commission error.%积雪是影响气候变化的重要因子,采用更高时空分辨率的环境减灾卫星遥感数据进行积雪制图算法的研究,对推进我国自主遥感卫星在积雪监测领域的应用具有重要意义.采用环境减灾HJ-1B卫星数据,以青海省果洛藏族自治州达日县为研究区,应用归一化差值积雪指数(NDSI)法建立了基于HJ-1B卫星数据的积雪面积制图算法,并比较MODIS与HJ-1B积雪图精度.结果表明:研究区HJ-1B积雪制图合理的NDSI阈值为0.37,总分类精度达到97.97%;与“真值”影像比较,HJ-1B积雪图Khat系数为0.911,高于MODIS的0.817.说明该研究建立的基于HJ

  12. Geo-correction Algorithm Based on Equivalent RD Model for ScanSAR of HJ-1-C Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jia-yin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available HJ-1-C satellite is the first Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR satellite for civilian use in China, and it has a strip and scan mode. According to the characteristics of the ScanSAR of the HJ-1-C satellite, a geo-correction algorithm based on an equivalent RD model has been outlined in this paper on the basis of an ECS image processing algorithm and a traditional Range-Doppler location method. An azimuth mosaic was presented by a time series relationship, then the different burst was stitched by range, and the equivalent parameters were fitted to locations on the RD model. Finally, the ScanSAR image was geo-corrected. The HJ-1-C satellite data results showed that the location accuracy of ScanSAR for the HJ-1-C satellite was less than 100 m, and the geo-correction algorithm was realized in 10 s in fewer than 24 parallel cores.

  13. Crop classification using multi-temporal HJ satellite images: case study in Kashgar, Xinjiang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Pengyu; Niu, Zheng; Wang, Li

    2014-11-01

    The HJ satellite constellation, characterized as high temporal resolution (4 day revisit frequency), has high potential to obtain cloud-free images covering all cruel periods for crop classification during growing season. In this paper, three HJ images (in May, July and September) were acquired, the performances of different multi-spectral HJ CCD data combinations for crop classification in Kashgar, Xinjiang were estimated using library for Support Vector Machine (LIBSVM), and ground reference data obtained in 2011 field work were used as training and validation samples. The result showed that multi-temporal HJ data has a potential to classify crops with an overall classification accuracy of 93.77%. Among the three time periods utilized in this research, the image acquired in July achieved the highest overall accuracy (86.98%) because all summer crops were under dense canopy closure. Cotton could be accurately extracted in May image (both user and produce accuracy are above 90%) because of its lower canopy closure compared with spring, the rotate crop (wheat_maize) and winter crop (wheat) at the time period. Then, the July and September combination performed as good as that of all threetime- period combination, which indicated that images obtained at cruel time periods are enough to identify crops, and the additional images improve little on classification accuracy. In addition, multi-temporal NDVI in cruel time periods of the growing season is testified efficient to classify crops with significant phenonlogical variances since they achieved similar overall accuracy to that of multi-temporal multi-spectral combination.

  14. Holliday junction trap shows how cells use recombination and a junction-guardian role of RecQ helicase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun; Chen, Li-Tzu; Mei, Qian; Ma, Chien-Hui; Halliday, Jennifer A; Lin, Hsin-Yu; Magnan, David; Pribis, John P; Fitzgerald, Devon M; Hamilton, Holly M; Richters, Megan; Nehring, Ralf B; Shen, Xi; Li, Lei; Bates, David; Hastings, P J; Herman, Christophe; Jayaram, Makkuni; Rosenberg, Susan M

    2016-11-01

    DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR) underpins cell survival and fuels genome instability, cancer, and evolution. However, the main kinds and sources of DNA damage repaired by HR in somatic cells and the roles of important HR proteins remain elusive. We present engineered proteins that trap, map, and quantify Holliday junctions (HJs), a central DNA intermediate in HR, based on catalytically deficient mutant RuvC protein of Escherichia coli. We use RuvCDefGFP (RDG) to map genomic footprints of HR at defined DNA breaks in E. coli and demonstrate genome-scale directionality of double-strand break (DSB) repair along the chromosome. Unexpectedly, most spontaneous HR-HJ foci are instigated, not by DSBs, but rather by single-stranded DNA damage generated by replication. We show that RecQ, the E. coli ortholog of five human cancer proteins, nonredundantly promotes HR-HJ formation in single cells and, in a novel junction-guardian role, also prevents apparent non-HR-HJs promoted by RecA overproduction. We propose that one or more human RecQ orthologs may act similarly in human cancers overexpressing the RecA ortholog RAD51 and find that cancer genome expression data implicate the orthologs BLM and RECQL4 in conjunction with EME1 and GEN1 as probable HJ reducers in such cancers. Our results support RecA-overproducing E. coli as a model of the many human tumors with up-regulated RAD51 and provide the first glimpses of important, previously elusive reaction intermediates in DNA replication and repair in single living cells.

  15. Ultrafast exciton migration in an HJ-aggregate: Potential surfaces and quantum dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Robert; Polkehn, Matthias; Ma, Tianji; Burghardt, Irene

    2017-01-01

    Quantum dynamical and electronic structure calculations are combined to investigate the mechanism of exciton migration in an oligothiophene HJ aggregate, i.e., a combination of oligomer chains (J-type aggregates) and stacked aggregates of such chains (H-type aggregates). To this end, a Frenkel exciton model is parametrized by a recently introduced procedure [Binder et al., J. Chem. Phys. 141, 014101 (2014)] which uses oligomer excited-state calculations to perform an exact, point-wise mapping of coupled potential energy surfaces to an effective Frenkel model. Based upon this parametrization, the Multi-Layer Multi-Configuration Time-Dependent Hartree (ML-MCTDH) method is employed to investigate ultrafast dynamics of exciton transfer in a small, asymmetric HJ aggregate model composed of 30 sites and 30 active modes. For a partially delocalized initial condition, it is shown that a torsional defect confines the trapped initial exciton, and planarization induces an ultrafast resonant transition between an HJ-aggregated segment and a covalently bound "dangling chain" end. This model is a minimal realization of experimentally investigated mixed systems exhibiting ultrafast exciton transfer between aggregated, highly planarized chains and neighboring disordered segments.

  16. [Validation of HJ-1B thermal infrared channels onboard radiometric calibration based on spectral response differences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Fu, Qiao-yan; Shi, Ting-ting; Wang, Ai-chun; Zhang, Xue-wen

    2014-08-01

    Since HJ-1B was launched, 7 sets of blackbody data have been used to calculate onboard calibration coefficients, but the research work on the validation of coefficients is rare. According to the onboard calibration principle, calibration coefficients of HJ-1B thermal infrared channel on Sep 14th, 2009 were calculated with the half-width, moments and look-up table methods. MODIS was selected for the reference sensor, and algorithms of spectral match were improved between the HJ-1B thermal infrared channel and MODIS 31, 32 channels based on the spectral response divergence. The relationship of top of atmosphere (TOA) radiance between the remote sensors was calculated, based on which the surface leaving brightness temperature was calculated by Planck function to validate the brightness temperature calculated through the onboard calibration coefficients. The equivalent brightness temperature calculated by spectral response divergence method is 285.97 K, and the inversion brightness temperature calculated by half-width, moments and look-up table methods is 288.77, 274.52 and 285.97 K respectively. The difference between the inversion brightness temperature and the equivalent brightness temperature is 2.8, -11.46 and 0.02 K, respectively, which demonstrate that onboard calibration coefficients calculated by the look-up table method has better precision and feasibility.

  17. Dynamic Mapping of Rice Growth Parameters Using HJ-1 CCD Time Series Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The high temporal resolution (4-day charge-coupled device (CCD cameras onboard small environment and disaster monitoring and forecasting satellites (HJ-1A/B with 30 m spatial resolution and large swath (700 km have substantially increased the availability of regional clear sky optical remote sensing data. For the application of dynamic mapping of rice growth parameters, leaf area index (LAI and aboveground biomass (AGB were considered as plant growth indicators. The HJ-1 CCD-derived vegetation indices (VIs showed robust relationships with rice growth parameters. Cumulative VIs showed strong performance for the estimation of total dry AGB. The cross-validation coefficient of determination ( R C V 2 was increased by using two machine learning methods, i.e., a back propagation neural network (BPNN and a support vector machine (SVM compared with traditional regression equations of LAI retrieval. The LAI inversion accuracy was further improved by dividing the rice growth period into before and after heading stages. This study demonstrated that continuous rice growth monitoring over time and space at field level can be implemented effectively with HJ-1 CCD 10-day composite data using a combination of proper VIs and regression models.

  18. Feature Fusion Based Road Extraction for HJ-1-C SAR Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Ping-ping

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Road network extraction in SAR images is one of the key tasks of military and civilian technologies. To solve the issues of road extraction of HJ-1-C SAR images, a road extraction algorithm is proposed based on the integration of ratio and directional information. Due to the characteristic narrow dynamic range and low signal to noise ratio of HJ-1-C SAR images, a nonlinear quantization and an image filtering method based on a multi-scale autoregressive model are proposed here. A road extraction algorithm based on information fusion, which considers ratio and direction information, is also proposed. By processing Radon transformation, main road directions can be extracted. Cross interferences can be suppressed, and the road continuity can then be improved by the main direction alignment and secondary road extraction. The HJ-1-C SAR image acquired in Wuhan, China was used to evaluate the proposed method. The experimental results show good performance with correctness (80.5% and quality (70.1% when applied to a SAR image with complex content.

  19. Coherent Performance Analysis of the HJ-1-C Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hai-ying

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR is a coherent imaging radar. Hence, coherence is critical in SAR imaging. In a coherent system, several sources can degrade performance. Based on the HJ-1-C SAR system implementation and sensor characteristics, this study evaluates the effect of frequency stability and pulse-to-pulse timing jitter on the SAR coherent performance. A stable crystal oscillator with short-term stability of 10×1.0−10 / 5 ms is used to generate the reference frequency by using a direct multiplier and divider. Azimuth ISLR degradation owing to the crystal oscillator phase noise is negligible. The standard deviation of the pulse-to-pulse timing jitter of HJ-1-C SAR is lower than 2ns (rms and the azimuth random phase error in the synthetic aperture time slightly degrades the side lobe of the azimuth impulse response. The mathematical expressions and simulation results are presented and suggest that the coherent performance of the HJ-1-C SAR system meets the requirements of synthetic aperture radar imaging.

  20. Estimating forest aboveground biomass using HJ-1 Satellite CCD and ICESat GLAS waveform data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The ecosystem in northeastern China and the Russian Far East is a hotspot of scientific research into the global carbon balance.Forest aboveground biomass(AGB) is an important component in the land surface carbon cycle.In this study,using forest inventory data and forest distribution data,the AGB was estimated for forest in Daxinganlin in northeastern China by combining charge-coupled device(CCD) data from the Small Satellite for Disaster and Environment Monitoring and Forecast(HJ-1) and Geoscience Laser Altimeter System(GLAS) waveform data from the Ice,Cloud and land Elevation Satellite(ICESat).The forest AGB prediction models were separately developed for different forest types in the research area at GLAS footprint level from GLAS waveform parameters and field survey plot biomass in the Changqing(CQ) Forest Center,which was calculated from forest inventory data.The resulted statistical regression models have a R2=0.68 for conifer and R2=0.71 for broadleaf forests.These models were used to estimate biomass for all GLAS footprints of forest located in the study area.All GLAS footprint biomass coupled with various spectral reflectivity parameters and vegetation indices derived from HJ-1 satellite CCD data were used in multiple regression analyses to establish biomass prediction models(R2=0.55 and R2=0.52 for needle and broadleaf respectively).Then the models were used to produce a forest AGB map for the whole study area using the HJ-1 data.Biomass data obtained from forest inventory data of the Zhuanglin(ZL) Forest Center were used as independent field measurements to validate the AGB estimated from HJ-1 CCD data(R2=0.71).About 80% of biomass samples had an error less than 20 t ha-1,and the mean error of all validation samples is 5.74 t ha-1.The pixel-level biomass map was then stratified into different biomass levels to illustrate the AGB spatial distribution pattern in this area.It was found that HJ-1 wide-swath data and GLAS waveform data can be combined to

  1. Radiometric Cross-Calibration of the HJ-1B IRS in the Thermal Infrared Spectral Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, K.

    2012-12-01

    The natural calamities occur continually, environment pollution and destruction in a severe position on the earth presently, which restricts societal and economic development. The satellite remote sensing technology has an important effect on improving surveillance ability of environment pollution and natural calamities. The radiometric calibration is precondition of quantitative remote sensing; which accuracy decides quality of the retrieval parameters. Since the China Environment Satellite (HJ-1A/B) has been launched successfully on September 6th, 2008, it has made an important role in the economic development of China. The satellite has four infrared bands; and one of it is thermal infrared. With application fields of quantitative remote sensing in china, finding appropriate calibration method becomes more and more important. Many kinds of independent methods can be used to do the absolute radiometric calibration. In this paper, according to the characteristic of thermal infrared channel of HJ-1B thermal infrared multi-spectral camera, the thermal infrared spectral band of HJ-1B IRS was calibrated using cross-calibration methods based on MODIS data. Firstly, the corresponding bands of the two sensors were obtained. Secondly, the MONDTRAN was run to analyze the influences of different spectral response, satellite view zenith angle, atmosphere condition and temperature on the match factor. In the end, their band match factor was calculated in different temperature, considering the dissimilar band response of the match bands. Seven images of Lake Qinghai in different time were chosen as the calibration data. On the basis of radiance of MODIS and match factor, the IRS radiance was calculated. And then the calibration coefficients were obtained by linearly regressing the radiance and the DN value. We compared the result of this cross-calibration with that of the onboard blackbody calibration, which consistency was good.The maximum difference of brightness temperature

  2. Characterization of the Holliday junction resolving enzyme encoded by the Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SPP1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Zecchi

    Full Text Available Recombination-dependent DNA replication, which is a central component of viral replication restart, is poorly understood in Firmicutes bacteriophages. Phage SPP1 initiates unidirectional theta DNA replication from a discrete replication origin (oriL, and when replication progresses, the fork might stall by the binding of the origin binding protein G38P to the late replication origin (oriR. Replication restart is dependent on viral recombination proteins to synthesize a linear head-to-tail concatemer, which is the substrate for viral DNA packaging. To identify new functions involved in this process, uncharacterized genes from phage SPP1 were analyzed. Immediately after infection, SPP1 transcribes a number of genes involved in recombination and replication from P(E2 and P(E3 promoters. Resequencing the region corresponding to the last two hypothetical genes transcribed from the P(E2 operon (genes 44 and 45 showed that they are in fact a single gene, re-annotated here as gene 44, that encodes a single polypeptide, named gene 44 product (G44P, 27.5 kDa. G44P shares a low but significant degree of identity in its C-terminal region with virus-encoded RusA-like resolvases. The data presented here demonstrate that G44P, which is a dimer in solution, binds with high affinity but without sequence specificity to several double-stranded DNA recombination intermediates. G44P preferentially cleaves Holliday junctions, but also, with lower efficiency, replicated D-loops. It also partially complemented the loss of RecU resolvase activity in B. subtilis cells. These in vitro and in vivo data suggest a role for G44P in replication restart during the transition to concatemeric viral replication.

  3. Fusion of HJ1B and ALOS PALSAR data for land cover classification using machine learning methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. Y.; Guo, Y. G.; He, J.; Du, L. T.

    2016-10-01

    Image classification from remote sensing is becoming increasingly urgent for monitoring environmental changes. Exploring effective algorithms to increase classification accuracy is critical. This paper explores the use of multispectral HJ1B and ALOS (Advanced Land Observing Satellite) PALSAR L-band (Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar) for land cover classification using learning-based algorithms. Pixel-based and object-based image analysis approaches for classifying HJ1B data and the HJ1B and ALOS/PALSAR fused-images were compared using two machine learning algorithms, support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF), to test which algorithm can achieve the best classification accuracy in arid and semiarid regions. The overall accuracies of the pixel-based (Fused data: 79.0%; HJ1B data: 81.46%) and object-based classifications (Fused data: 80.0%; HJ1B data: 76.9%) were relatively close when using the SVM classifier. The pixel-based classification achieved a high overall accuracy (85.5%) using the RF algorithm for classifying the fused data, whereas the RF classifier using the object-based image analysis produced a lower overall accuracy (70.2%). The study demonstrates that the pixel-based classification utilized fewer variables and performed relatively better than the object-based classification using HJ1B imagery and the fused data. Generally, the integration of the HJ1B and ALOS/PALSAR imagery can improve the overall accuracy of 5.7% using the pixel-based image analysis and RF classifier.

  4. Photosynthetically active radiation retrieval based on HJ-1A/B satellite data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Photosynthetically active radiation(PAR) is essential for plant photosynthesis and carbon cycle,and is also important for meteorological and environmental monitoring.To advance China’s disaster and environmental monitoring capabilities,the HJ-1A/B satellites have been placed in Earth orbit.One of their environmental monitoring objectives is the study of PAR.We simulated direct solar,scattered and environment radiation between 400 and 700 nm under different atmospheric parameters(solar zenith angle,atmospheric water vapor,atmospheric ozone,aerosol optical thickness,surface elevation and surface albedo),and then established a look-up table between these input parameters and PAR.Based on the look-up table,we used HJ-1A/B aerosol and surface albedo outputs to derive the corresponding PAR.Validation of inversed instantaneous and observed PAR values using HJ-1 Heihe experimental data had a root mean square error of 25.2 W m-2,with a relative error of 5.9%.The root mean square error for accumulated daily PAR and observed values was 0.49 MJ m-2,with a relative error of 3.5%.Our approach improved significantly the computational efficiency,compared with using directly radiation transfer equations.We also studied the sensitivity of various input parameters to photosynthetically active radiation,and found that solar zenith angle and atmospheric aerosols were sensitive PAR parameters.Surface albedo had some effect on PAR,but water vapor and ozone had minimal impact on PAR.

  5. Coherent Performance Analysis of the HJ-1-C Synthetic Aperture Radar

    OpenAIRE

    Li Hai-ying; Zhang Shan-shan; Li Shi-qiang; Zhang Hua-chun

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a coherent imaging radar. Hence, coherence is critical in SAR imaging. In a coherent system, several sources can degrade performance. Based on the HJ-1-C SAR system implementation and sensor characteristics, this study evaluates the effect of frequency stability and pulse-to-pulse timing jitter on the SAR coherent performance. A stable crystal oscillator with short-term stability of 10×1.0−10 / 5 ms is used to generate the reference frequency by using a direc...

  6. Eksistensiale verstaan van die Ou Testament: Die teologiese arbeid van Antonius HJ Gunneweg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Boshoff

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Existential understanding of the Old Testament: The theological work of Antonius HJ Gunneweg Gunneweg applies Bultmann's concept of existential understanding to the Old Testament. Existential interpretation means that the text must be laid out in terms of the possibilities of the human existence. The author shows how Gunneweg worked it out under the following headings: Israel; The beginning; Moses; One kingdom or two kingdoms; Paul; Sola scriptura instead of salvation history; Word. The result is that Gunneweg comes to a unique understanding of the relationship between the Old and New Testaments.

  7. Una alternativa de representación simultánea: HJ-Biplot

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo Villardon, Ma. Purificación

    1986-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se hace una revisión del método BIPLOT propuesto por GABRIEL y se propone una nueva forma de representación simultánea para matrices de datos que denominamos HJ-BIPLOT, en la cual las coordenadas para las columnas coinciden con los marcadores para las columnas en el GHT-biplot y las coordenadas para las filas coinciden con los marcadores para las filas en el JKT-biplot de GABRIEL. Estas coordenadas pueden ser representadas en un mismo sistema de referencia: el sistema d...

  8. Feeding the masses: H.J. Heinz and the creation of industrial food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, Gabriella M

    2009-03-01

    The H.J. Heinz Company's commitment to the purity and quality of its products in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century helped usher in an era of industrial food. While canning had been around for decades, it was not until both scientist and technologists innovations solved problems like bacterial contamination and mass-produced cans that Americans began to eat canned food on a regular basis. In addition to money-back guarantees, Heinz pioneered product tastings as a marketing tool in an attempt to convince skeptical housewives that his products were not only delicious, but were also safe to eat.

  9. Sgs1's roles in DNA end resection, HJ dissolution, and crossover suppression require a two-step SUMO regulation dependent on Smc5/6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-López, Marcelino; Villoria, María Teresa; Esteras, Miguel; Jarmuz, Adam; Torres-Rosell, Jordi; Clemente-Blanco, Andres; Aragon, Luis

    2016-06-01

    The RecQ helicase Sgs1 plays critical roles during DNA repair by homologous recombination, from end resection to Holliday junction (HJ) dissolution. Sgs1 has both pro- and anti-recombinogenic roles, and therefore its activity must be tightly regulated. However, the controls involved in recruitment and activation of Sgs1 at damaged sites are unknown. Here we show a two-step role for Smc5/6 in recruiting and activating Sgs1 through SUMOylation. First, auto-SUMOylation of Smc5/6 subunits leads to recruitment of Sgs1 as part of the STR (Sgs1-Top3-Rmi1) complex, mediated by two SUMO-interacting motifs (SIMs) on Sgs1 that specifically recognize SUMOylated Smc5/6. Second, Smc5/6-dependent SUMOylation of Sgs1 and Top3 is required for the efficient function of STR. Sgs1 mutants impaired in recognition of SUMOylated Smc5/6 (sgs1-SIMΔ) or SUMO-dead alleles (sgs1-KR) exhibit unprocessed HJs at damaged replication forks, increased crossover frequencies during double-strand break repair, and severe impairment in DNA end resection. Smc5/6 is a key regulator of Sgs1's recombination functions.

  10. Object-oriented land cover classification using HJ-1 remote sensing imagery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The object-oriented information extraction technique was used to improve classification accuracy,and addressed the problem that HJ-1 CCD remote sensing images have only four spectral bands with moderate spatial resolution.We used two key techniques:the selection of optimum image segmentation scale and the development of an appropriate object-oriented information extraction strategy.With the principle of minimizing merge cost of merging neighboring pixels/objects,we used spatial autocorrelation index Moran’s I and the variance index to select the optimum segmentation scale.The Nearest Neighborhood(NN) classifier based on sampling and a knowledge-based fuzzy classifier were used in the object-oriented information extraction strategy.In this classification step,feature optimization was used to improve information extraction accuracy using reduced data dimension.These two techniques were applied to land cover information extraction for Shanghai city using a HJ-1 CCD image.Results indicate that the information extraction accuracy of the object-oriented method was much higher than that of the pixel-based method.

  11. Validity and reliability of the Omron HJ-303 tri-axial accelerometer-based pedometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steeves, Jeremy A; Tyo, Brian M; Connolly, Christopher P; Gregory, Douglas A; Stark, Nyle A; Bassett, David R

    2011-09-01

    This study compared the validity of a new Omron HJ-303 piezoelectric pedometer and 2 other pedometers (Sportline Traq and Yamax SW200). To examine the effect of speed, 60 subjects walked on a treadmill at 2, 3, and 4 mph. Twenty subjects also ran at 6, 7, and 8 mph. To test lifestyle activities, 60 subjects performed front-back-side-side stepping, elliptical machine and stair climbing/descending. Twenty others performed ballroom dancing. Sixty participants completed 5 100-step trials while wearing 5 different sets of the devices tested device reliability. Actual steps were determined using a hand tally counter. Significant differences existed among pedometers (P walking, the Omron pedometers were the most valid. The Sportline overestimated and the Yamax underestimated steps (P stairs). The Sportline overestimated all of these activities, and Yamax was only valid for descending stairs. The Omron andYamax were both valid and reliable in the 100-step trials. The Omron HJ-303, worn on the waist, appeared to be the most valid of the 3 pedometers.

  12. Clustering Disjoint HJ-Biplot: A new tool for identifying pollution patterns in geochemical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Librero, A B; Sierra, C; Vicente-Galindo, M P; Ruíz-Barzola, O; Galindo-Villardón, M P

    2017-06-01

    This paper introduces a new mathematical algorithm termed Clustering Disjoint HJ-Biplot (CDBiplot), which searches for the underlying data structure in order to find the best classification of the object groups in a reduced space. To this end, disjoint factorial axes are generated, in which each variable only contributes to the formation of one factorial axis. A graphical representation of the individuals and variables is performed using the HJ-Biplot method. In order to facilitate the use of this new method within any practical context, a function in the language R has been developed. This work applies the CDBiplot to study an environmental geochemistry case involving environmental pollution in river surface sediments. The study focuses on an area close to an important mining and metallurgical site, where sediments share a similar geological origin and chemical composition. The algorithm permitted a detailed study of the geochemical interactions and performed an excellent separation of the samples. Thus, the groups obtained were formed according to a similar geological origin, location, and nature of the anthropogenic inputs based only on chemical composition data. These results allowed clear identification of the sources of pollution and the delimitation of the polluted zones. All things considered, we conclude that the proposed algorithm is a powerful tool for studying environmental geochemistry data sets, and suggest that the application of this methodology be extended to other research fields.

  13. Molecular electronic junction transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Gemma C.; Herrmann, Carmen; Ratner, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Whenasinglemolecule,oracollectionofmolecules,isplacedbetween two electrodes and voltage is applied, one has a molecular transport junction. We discuss such junctions, their properties, their description, and some of their applications. The discussion is qualitative rather than quantitative, and f...

  14. Geo-correction Algorithm Based on Equivalent RD Model for ScanSAR of HJ-1-C Satellite

    OpenAIRE

    Liu Jia-yin; Wen Shuang-yan; Zhang Hong-yi; Hong Wen

    2014-01-01

    HJ-1-C satellite is the first Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite for civilian use in China, and it has a strip and scan mode. According to the characteristics of the ScanSAR of the HJ-1-C satellite, a geo-correction algorithm based on an equivalent RD model has been outlined in this paper on the basis of an ECS image processing algorithm and a traditional Range-Doppler location method. An azimuth mosaic was presented by a time series relationship, then the different burst was stitched b...

  15. The endogenous Mus81-Eme1 complex resolves Holliday junctions by a nick and counternick mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Pierre-Henri L; Noguchi, Eishi; Shanahan, Paul; Russell, Paul

    2003-09-01

    Functional studies strongly suggest that the Mus81-Eme1 complex resolves Holliday junctions (HJs) in fission yeast, but in vitro it preferentially cleaves flexible three-way branched structures that model replication forks or 3' flaps. Here we report that a nicked HJ is the preferred substrate of endogenous and recombinant Mus81-Eme1. Cleavage occurs specifically on the strand that opposes the nick, resulting in resolution of the structure into linear duplex products. Resolving cuts made by the endogenous Mus81-Eme1 complex on an intact HJ are quasi-simultaneous, indicating that Mus81-Eme1 resolves HJs by a nick and counternick mechanism, with a large rate enhancement of the second cut arising from the flexible nature of the nicked HJ intermediate. Recombinant Mus81-Eme1 is ineffective at making the first cut. We also report that HJs accumulate in a DNA polymerase alpha mutant that lacks Mus81, providing further evidence that the Mus81-Eme1 complex targets HJs in vivo.

  16. Formation and branch migration of Holliday junctions mediated by eukaryotic recombinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Yasuto; Kurokawa, Yumiko; Mayanagi, Kouta; Iwasaki, Hiroshi

    2008-02-21

    Holliday junctions (HJs) are key intermediates in homologous recombination and are especially important for the production of crossover recombinants. Bacterial RecA family proteins promote the formation and branch migration of HJs in vitro by catalysing a reciprocal DNA-strand exchange reaction between two duplex DNA molecules, one of which contains a single-stranded DNA region that is essential for initial nucleoprotein filament formation. This activity has been reported only for prokaryotic RecA family recombinases, although eukaryotic homologues are also essential for HJ production in vivo. Here we show that fission yeast (Rhp51) and human (hRad51) RecA homologues promote duplex-duplex DNA-strand exchange in vitro. As with RecA, a HJ is formed between the two duplex DNA molecules, and reciprocal strand exchange proceeds through branch migration of the HJ. In contrast to RecA, however, strand exchange mediated by eukaryotic recombinases proceeds in the 3'-->5' direction relative to the single-stranded DNA region of the substrate DNA. The opposite polarity of Rhp51 makes it especially suitable for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks, whose repair is initiated at the processed ends of breaks that have protruding 3' termini.

  17. Research on Algorithm of Cloud Detection for HJ - 1B Image Based on Dynamical Thresholding%基于动态阈值的HJ-1B图像云检测算法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩杰; 杨磊库; 李慧芳; 梁洪有; 马晓红; 谢玉娟

    2012-01-01

    Through analyzing the annual volatility of cloud detection thresholds and integrating the band characteristics of HJ - 1B, the authors proposed a new algorithm of cloud detection for HJ - 1B image based on dynamical thresholding according to the spectral standard deviation anomaly. Using image registration, band math, linear regression and error analysis, the authors acquired the cloud abnormal regions which could be used to remove cloud pixels from the image. The results show that this approach can detect cloud pixels over different periods and in different scenes successfully,thus promoting the use of HJ -1B data and improving the precision of image classification.%针对环境与灾害监测预报小卫星星座1B星(HJ-1B)的传感器波段特征,通过对云检测阈值的年度波动性分析,提出了一种基于波谱标准差异常的“动态阈值云检测算法”.该算法的实现主要是采用图像配准、波段运算、线性回归和误差分析等方法,获取云异常区域,进而剔除图像中的云像元.研究结果表明,该算法可以很好地检测出不同时相、不同类型下垫面上空的云像元,为有效利用HJ-1B数据并提高其图像分类精度发挥作用.

  18. Flood monitoring and damage assessment in Thailand using multi-temporal HJ-1A/1B and MODIS images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, S. L.; Zhang, W. C.

    2017-02-01

    Flood is one of the most serious natural disasters in South Asia. How to monitor floods and assess damage caused is the most urgent problem for the government and disaster experts. With the advances of remote sensing, images acquired before the beginning of disaster to the very end or after the disaster from Earth-observing satellites benefit the decision making for reduction and protection of disaster dramatically. By using multi-temporal HJ-1A/1B and MODIS remote sensing data, applicability of different algorithms for flood monitoring and damage assessing was investigated in 2011 Thailand floods. Three different algorithms were adopted to monitor flood disaster events with water indices. Comparisons on the flood disaster monitoring and damage assessing by means of HJ-1A/1B and MODIS images suggested that multi-temporal HJ-1A/1B is much useful for the purpose, which demonstrated with the analysis of the thresholds estimated and problems in data post-processing. The variations of the inundated areas in the process of 2011 Thailand floods revealed were presented in this paper, and the damage caused by flooding was evaluated in three aspects, the population in the inundated region, the inundated information of different provinces and land use areas. Compared with MODIS, HJ-1A/1B images can provide more rapid and accurate flood extent and damage assessment for the disaster prevention, damage mitigation and disaster relief.

  19. Inversion of Aerosol Optical Depth Based on the CCD and IRS Sensors on the HJ-1 Satellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To perform a high-resolution aerosol optical depth (AOD inversion from the HJ-1 satellites, a dark pixel algorithm utilizing the HJ-1 satellite data was developed based on the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS algorithm. By analyzing the relationship between the apparent reflectance from the 1.65 μm and 2.1 μm channels of MODIS, a method for estimating albedo using the 1.65 μm channel data of the HJ-1 satellites was established, and a high-resolution AOD inversion in the Chengdu region based on the HJ-1 satellite was completed. A comparison of the inversion results with CE318 measured data produced a correlation of 0.957, respectively, with an absolute error of 0.106. An analysis of the AOD inversion results from different aerosol models showed that the rural aerosol model was suitable as a general model for establishing an aerosol inversion look-up table for the Chengdu region.

  20. Cotton Area and Yield Estimation at Zhanhua County of China Using HJ-1 EVI Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Qing-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is a significant cash crop of China. Timely and accurate cotton area and yield estimation is useful for management decisions related to the cotton procurement and sales. This study is a first research on cotton area and yield estimation based on remote sensing at Zhanhua County which is one of the high-quality cotton production demonstration bases of China. After normalization of Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI time series derived from Huanjin 1 A/B satellite (HJ-1 A/B, decision tree classifier was used to identify the cotton, and then K-Means classifier was applied to estimate cotton yield. The results indicated an overall accuracy of 95% for the cotton area estimation and 91% for the cotton yield classification. With further validation, it suggests that this method can be used to timely achieve the cotton area and growth information of this region.

  1. Design Optimization of Expansion Driven Components for the HJ-1-C Satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zhi-rong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Expansion-driven HJ-1-C satellite components are prone to fatigue and fracture; thus, a reliability study on the optimal design is performed. According to the Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA of the components, the main failure modes are stress relaxation and impact breakage of the torsion and scroll springs. On the basis of the failure modes, a prototype spring is tested, and the relative reliabilities are calculated. Then, reliability measures are proposed, and the design optimization of the springs is carried out. The improvements introduced by the prototype spring are indicative of the effectiveness and reliability of the design optimization process, which can help design and analyze similar antenna reflectors in the future.

  2. Application Capacity Evaluation of HJ-1-C towards Ice Disaster during On-orbit Test Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available On November 19, 2012, HJ-1-C was launched successfully, which is the first civil Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR satellite in China and is also the only S-band SAR on-orbit satellite in the world. During the on-orbit period, National Disaster Reduction Center of China (NDRCC preliminarily evaluated the application capacity towards the ice disaster, and also evaluated the relative precision by using multispectral images of ZY-3 satellite. The result shows that, the S-band SAR satellite has super response towards ice. Entirely freeze-up area, non entirely freeze-up area and drift ice area can be effectively identified, and the S-band SAR satellite has better disaster reduction application capacity. The S-band SAR satellite data will fill up the band’s blank of SAR satellite in China and even the world, and its disaster reduction potentiality remains to be excavated further more.

  3. HJ-1A HSI on-orbit radiometric calibration and validation research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The calibration experiment data at Dunhuang radiometric calibration site in October, 2008 were used to achieve the on-orbit radiometric calibration for HJ-1A hyper spectral imager (HSI). Two other field experiments data were used to validate the Dunhuang calibration results. One field experiment took place in Inner-Mongolia, China in September, 2008, and the other field experiment took place in Lake Frome, Australia in February, 2009. Finally, the ‘confidence interval of calibration error’ concept was put forward for quantitatively computing the calibration coefficient error confidence interval. The results showed that the Dunhuang calibration results in 2008 had high reliability. The confidence intervals of calibration error for all HSI channels were between 2% to 12%, which could satisfy the requirement of the HSI quantitative applications.

  4. TRF2 binds branched DNA to safeguard telomere integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Isabelle; Timashev, Leonid; Xie, Wei; Patel, Dinshaw J; de Lange, Titia

    2017-09-01

    Although t-loops protect telomeres, they are at risk of cleavage by Holliday junction (HJ) resolvases if branch migration converts the three-way t-loop junction into four-way HJs. T-loop cleavage is repressed by the TRF2 basic domain, which binds three- and four-way junctions and protects HJs in vitro. By replacing the basic domain with bacterial-protein domains binding three- and four-way junctions, we demonstrated the in vivo relevance of branched-DNA binding. Branched-DNA binding also repressed PARP1, presumably by masking the PARP1 site in the t-loop junction. Although PARP1 recruits HJ resolvases and promotes t-loop cleavage, PARP1 activation alone did not result in t-loop cleavage, thus suggesting that the basic domain also prevents formation of HJs. Concordantly, removal of HJs by BLM helicase mitigated t-loop cleavage in response to loss of the basic domain. We propose that TRF2 masks and stabilizes the t-loop three-way junction, thereby protecting telomeres from detrimental deletions and PARP1 activation.

  5. Small molecule functional analogs of peptides that inhibit lambda site-specific recombination and bind Holliday junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjit, Dev K; Rideout, Marc C; Nefzi, Adel; Ostresh, John M; Pinilla, Clemencia; Segall, Anca M

    2010-08-01

    Our lab has isolated hexameric peptides that are structure-selective ligands of Holliday junctions (HJ), central intermediates of several DNA recombination reactions. One of the most potent of these inhibitors, WRWYCR, has shown antibacterial activity in part due to its inhibition of DNA repair proteins. To increase the therapeutic potential of these inhibitors, we searched for small molecule inhibitors with similar activities. We screened 11 small molecule libraries comprising over nine million individual compounds and identified a potent N-methyl aminocyclic thiourea inhibitor that also traps HJs formed during site-specific recombination reactions in vitro. This inhibitor binds specifically to protein-free HJs and can inhibit HJ resolution by RecG helicase, but only showed modest growth inhibition of bacterial with a hyperpermeable outer membrane; nonetheless, this is an important step in developing a functional analog of the peptide inhibitors. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Atmospheric correction of HJ-1A/B CCD images over Chinese coastal waters using MODIS-Terra aerosol data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper demonstrates an atmospheric correction method to process HJ-1A/B CCD images over Chinese coastal waters with the aid of MODIS-Terra aerosol information.Based on the assumption of zero water-leaving radiance at the two near-infrared (NIR)bands or the shortwave infrared(SWIR)bands,the atmospheric aerosol optical depth(AOD)is firstly retrieved from MODIS-Terra with a simple extension of the NIR-SWIR combined atmospheric correction approach embedded in SeaDAS (SeaWiFS data analysis system).Then the"turbid"and"non-turbid"waters are separated by the turbid water index.Maximum probability of AOD at 551 nm band is derived based on the NIR information over"non-turbid"waters and FLAASH model is selected to do the atmospheric correction of the HJ-1A/B CCD imagery using the AOD values of highest probabilities as input.Similarly,according to the histogram of the AOD distribution at 551 nm band,the studied turbid water area is divided into several blocks and HJ-1A/B CCD imagery is corrected with the corresponding AOD values displayed with the highest frequency in each block.This method has been applied to several HJ-1A/B images over Chinese coastal waters and validated by synchronous in-situ data.The results have shown that this method is effective in the atmospheric correction process of HJ-1A/B CCD images for ocean color remote sensing study and application in the coastal waters.

  7. Preparation of Biodiesel Produced from Microbial Oil of Black Walnut Endophyte HJ1%黑核桃内生真菌HJ1油脂制备生物柴油的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛光瑞; 翟梅枝; 陈汀汀; 史冠昭; 王丹

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the key technique of preparing biodiesel from endophyte HJ1 oil.Single factor experiment and verification test were adopted to evaluate the reaction conditions.The constituents of the HJ1 oil were identified by the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS).Methanol was used to extract extra acid in endophyte HJ1 oil,and the acid value was determined.The base-catalyzed transesterification reaction was used in the biodiesel preparation.The composition and content of fatty acid methyl esters from biodiesel prepared by HJ1 oil were measured by gas chromatography internal standard method.The results showed that under the conditions of molar ratio of methanol to oil 8:1,the concentration of catalyst 1%,the reaction temperature 60 ℃,the reaction time 2 h,the yield of biodiesel and the fatty acid methyl esters were over 66% and over 98%,respectively.%对黑核桃内生真菌HJ1油脂制备生物柴油的关键技术进行研究.利用单因素试验和验证试验优化反应条件.用气相色谱-质谱联用仪(Thermo Finnigan Trace DSQ)对油脂的成分进行分析.选择甲醇为萃取剂进行降酸处理,根据植物油脂酸值测定法GB/T5530-1985进行酸值测定.采用均相碱催化酯交换法制备生物柴油,并用气相色谱内标法对所制备生物柴油的脂肪酸甲酯的组成和含量进行测定.较好的工艺条件是:醇-油摩尔比8∶1,催化剂浓度1%,反应温度60℃,反应时间2h.在此条件下,甲酯含量超过98%,生物柴油得率超过66%.结果表明,HJ1油脂制备的生物柴油可以被发展为石化柴油代替品之一.

  8. Assessment of suspended sediment concentration at the Hangzhou Bay using HJ CCD imagery%杭州湾HJ CCD影像悬浮泥沙遥感定量反演

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘王兵; 于之锋; 周斌; 蒋锦刚; 潘玉良; 凌在盈

    2013-01-01

    This research explored the potential of the use of the CCD image of the HJ satellite to derive Suspended Sediment Concentrations (SSC) of dynamic water bodies at Hangzhou Bay,which is a typical turbid water body in China.Through the analysis on the correlation between Remote Sensing Reflectance (RTS) and SSC,two apparent reflectance peaks at approximately 690 and 830 nm have been found in the third and fourth bands,respectively.The result also shows that a good correlation exists between Rrs and SSC when the wavelength is more than 700 nm.Based on the measured correlation between SSC and Rrs,the retrieval model is established using the ratio of band4 and band3 as remote sensing factor,and the model determination coefficient of 0.90 is reached.Through the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-derived Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) data,which are calculated from the Near Infrared-Short Wave Infrared (NIR-SWIR) atmospheric correction,the atmospheric correction of HJ CCD imagery is realized.The correction-relative errors of the third and fourth bands are 5.54% and 6.97%,respectively.The result demonstrates that the relative error of SSC derived from HJ CCD imagery is 7.12%,and SSC at Hangzhou Bay,which also has significant internal diversity,is much higher than that in the entrance of the Yangtze River.This research demonstrated that HJ CCD imagery can be used to evaluate SSC at Hangzhou Bay,if the appropriate atmospheric correction method and retrieval algorithm are used.%利用环境小卫星CCD(HJ CCD)影像对杭州湾悬浮泥沙浓度(SSC)进行了反演研究.通过对杭州湾水体遥感反射率(Rrs)与SSC进行相关性分析发现,在690nm和830nm左右出现显著的反射峰,分别位于HJCCD影像的第3和第4波段范围内;大于700nm波长处的Rrs与SSC相关性较好.基于实测Rrs和SSC之间的相关关系,利用第4和第3波段比值作为遥感因子建立SSC反演模型,模型决定系数达到0.90.借鉴近红外-短

  9. Magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We review the giant tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in ferromagnetic-insulator-ferromagnetic junctions discovered in recent years, which is the magnetoresistance (MR) associated with the spin-dependent tunneling between two ferromagnetic metal films separated by an insulating thin tunnel barrier. The theoretical and experimental results including junction conductance, magnetoresistance and their temperature and bias dependences are described.

  10. Stacked Josephson Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Find; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2010-01-01

    Long Josephson junctions have for some time been considered as a source of THz radiation. Solitons moving coherently in the junctions is a possible source for this radiation. Analytical computations of the bunched state and bunching-inducing methods are reviewed. Experiments showing THz radiation...

  11. ORTHO-RECTIFICATION OF HJ-1A/1B MULTI-SPECTRAL IMAGE BASED ON THE GCP IMAGE DATABASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Li

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available HJ satellite is the abbreviation of the Small Satellite Constellation of Environment and Disaster Monitoring and Forecasting in China, which plays a very important role in forecasting and monitoring the environment problems and natural disasters. The ortho-rectification of HJ images aided by GCP (Ground Control Point image database is presented in this paper. The GCP image database is constructed from historical LandSat-TM images and the GCP chip consists of image and geographic attribute information. Then auto-searching and matching algorithm is introduced and mis-matching elimination method is presented. The imaging model based on collinearity equation and the polynomial description of the attitude and position of scanning line is utilized for ortho-rectification. Four scene images are experimented and compared, and the result demonstrated the feasibility and high efficiency of the whole work flow.

  12. Direct Ethanol Production from Lignocellulosic Sugars and Sugarcane Bagasse by a Recombinant Trichoderma reesei Strain HJ48

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Trichoderma reesei can be considered as a candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP microorganism. However, its ethanol yield needs to be improved significantly. Here the ethanol production of T. reesei CICC 40360 was improved by genome shuffling while simultaneously enhancing the ethanol resistance. The initial mutant population was generated by nitrosoguanidine treatment of the spores, and an improved population producing more than fivefold ethanol than wild type was obtained by genome shuffling. The results show that the shuffled strain HJ48 can efficiently convert lignocellulosic sugars to ethanol under aerobic conditions. Furthermore, it was able to produce ethanol directly from sugarcane bagasse, demonstrating that the shuffled strain HJ48 is a suitable microorganism for consolidated bioprocessing.

  13. [NDVI difference rate recognition model of deciduous broad-leaved forest based on HJ-CCD remote sensing data].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Tian, Qing-Jiu; Huang, Yan; Wei, Hong-Wei

    2013-04-01

    The present paper takes Chuzhou in Anhui Province as the research area, and deciduous broad-leaved forest as the research object. Then it constructs the recognition model about deciduous broad-leaved forest was constructed using NDVI difference rate between leaf expansion and flowering and fruit-bearing, and the model was applied to HJ-CCD remote sensing image on April 1, 2012 and May 4, 2012. At last, the spatial distribution map of deciduous broad-leaved forest was extracted effectively, and the results of extraction were verified and evaluated. The result shows the validity of NDVI difference rate extraction method proposed in this paper and also verifies the applicability of using HJ-CCD data for vegetation classification and recognition.

  14. Fartrekord på vandet skal sættes med Risøs hjælp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryde, M.V.

    2005-01-01

    Kan man designe en sejlbåd, som er i stand til at skyde en fart på 50 knob eller 92 km i timen? Det mener firmaet Speednauts, og de får nu Risøs hjælp til at føre drømmen ud i virkeligheden.......Kan man designe en sejlbåd, som er i stand til at skyde en fart på 50 knob eller 92 km i timen? Det mener firmaet Speednauts, og de får nu Risøs hjælp til at føre drømmen ud i virkeligheden....

  15. The study of bacterioplankton dynamics in the Berlengas Archipelago (West coast of Portugal by applying the HJ-biplot method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Mendes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between bacterioplankton and environmental forcing in the Berlengas Archipelago (Western Coast of Portugal were studied between February 2006 and February 2007 in two sampling stations: Berlenga and Canal, using an HJ-biplot. The HJ-biplot showed a simultaneous display of the three main metabolic groups of bacteria involved in carbon cycling (aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, sulphate-reducing bacteria and nitrate-reducing bacteria and environmental parameters, in low dimensions. Our results indicated thatbacterial dynamics are mainly affected by temporal gradients (seasonal gradients with a clear winter versus summer opposition, and less by the spatial structure (Berlenga and Canal. The yearly variation in the abundance of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were positively correlated with those in chlorophyll a concentration, whereas ammonium concentration and temperature decreased with increasing phosphates and nitrites concentration. The relationship between aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, chlorophyll a and ammonium reveals that phytoplankton is an important source of organic substrates for bacteria.

  16. Object-based approach to national land cover mapping using HJ satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Li, Xiaosong; Yuan, Quanzhi; Liu, Yu

    2014-01-01

    To meet the carbon storage estimate in ecosystems for a national carbon strategy, we introduce a consistent database of China land cover. The Chinese Huan Jing (HJ) satellite is proven efficient in the cloud-free acquisition of seasonal image series in a monsoon region and in vegetation identification for mesoscale land cover mapping. Thirty-eight classes of level II land cover are generated based on the Land Cover Classification System of the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization that follows a standard and quantitative definition. Twenty-four layers of derivative spectral, environmental, and spatial features compose the classification database. Object-based approach characterizing additional nonspectral features is conducted through mapping, and multiscale segmentations are applied on object boundary match to target real-world conditions. This method sufficiently employs spatial information, in addition to spectral characteristics, to improve classification accuracy. The algorithm of hierarchical classification is employed to follow step-by-step procedures that effectively control classification quality. This algorithm divides the dual structures of universal and local trees. Consistent universal trees suitable to most regions are performed first, followed by local trees that depend on specific features of nine climate stratifications. The independent validation indicates the overall accuracy reaches 86%.

  17. A Spatio-Temporal Model for Forest Fire Detection Using HJ-IRS Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Lin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fire detection based on multi-temporal remote sensing data is an active research field. However, multi-temporal detection processes are usually complicated because of the spatial and temporal variability of remote sensing imagery. This paper presents a spatio-temporal model (STM based forest fire detection method that uses multiple images of the inspected scene. In STM, the strong correlation between an inspected pixel and its neighboring pixels is considered, which can mitigate adverse impacts of spatial heterogeneity on background intensity predictions. The integration of spatial contextual information and temporal information makes it a more robust model for anomaly detection. The proposed algorithm was applied to a forest fire in 2009 in the Yinanhe forest, Heilongjiang province, China, using two-month HJ-1B infrared camera sensor (IRS images. A comparison of detection results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm described in this paper are useful to represent the spatio-temporal information contained in multi-temporal remotely sensed data, and the STM detection method can be used to obtain a higher detection accuracy than the optimized contextual algorithm.

  18. [Study on the Geochemical Anomalies Identification of REE Based on HJ-1A-HSI].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yong-gan; Wang, Mei-juan; Li, Peng

    2015-11-01

    The characteristic spectral bands of REE do not vary with the occurrence state, cannot be used to identify mineral species, but can prove the existence of its own. Here we report the spectrum characteristics of REE and their compounds by remote sensing wave band from visible light-near infrared, with the quantitative relationship between the contents of REE and absorption index of characteristic spectral bands. The experimental study was carried out in Bayan Obo area, Inner Mongolia. Spectrums and Nd contents of typical rock and ore samples were gathered and analyzed. There is positive correlation between the Nd content, the absorption depth and absorption index of different spectrum characteristics (correlation coefficient > 0.778). Moreover, the correlation between absorption index of 726-772 nm band and Nd content is the best, at 0. 937. As mentioned above, the quantitative model and the inversion information remote sensing geochemical anomaly of Nd were built by the band of HJ-1A-HIS hyperspectral remote sensing data. Our results consistent with 1:200,000 stream sediment geochemical anomalies of Nd. The model provides a new means for rapid extract regional geochemical anomalies of REE.

  19. Object-oriented industrial solid waste identification using HJ satellite imagery: a case study of phosphogypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhuo; Shen, Wenming; Xiao, Rulin; Xiong, Wencheng; Shi, Yuanli; Chen, Baisong

    2012-10-01

    The increasing volume of industrial solid wastes presents a critical problem for the global environment. In the detection and monitoring of these industrial solid wastes, the traditional field methods are generally expensive and time consuming. With the advantages of quick observations taken at a large area, remote sensing provides an effective means for detecting and monitoring the industrial solid wastes in a large scale. In this paper, we employ an object-oriented method for detecting the industrial solid waste from HJ satellite imagery. We select phosphogypsum which is a typical industrial solid waste as our target. Our study area is located in Fuquan in Guizhou province of China. The object oriented method we adopted consists of the following steps: 1) Multiresolution segmentation method is adopted to segment the remote sensing images for obtaining the object-based images. 2) Build the feature knowledge set of the object types. 3) Detect the industrial solid wastes based on the object-oriented decision tree rule set. We analyze the heterogeneity in features of different objects. According to the feature heterogeneity, an object-oriented decision tree rule set is then built for aiding the identification of industrial solid waste. Then, based on this decision tree rule set, the industrial solid waste can be identified automatically from remote sensing images. Finally, the identified results are validated using ground survey data. Experiments and results indicate that the object-oriented method provides an effective method for detecting industrial solid wastes.

  20. The Hd, Hj, and Hz66 flagella variants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi modify host responses and cellular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Fernanda; Kay, Sally; Frankel, Gad; Clare, Simon; Goulding, David; van de Vosse, Esther; van Dissel, Jaap T; Strugnell, Richard; Thwaites, Guy; Kingsley, Robert A; Dougan, Gordon; Baker, Stephen

    2015-01-22

    Salmonella Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid fever, is a monophyletic, human-restricted bacterium that exhibits limited phenotypic variation. S. Typhi from Indonesia are a notable exception, with circulating strains expressing diverse flagella antigens including Hj, Hd and Hz66. Hypothesizing that S. Typhi flagella plays a key role during infection, we constructed an S. Typhi fliC mutant and otherwise isogenic S. Typhi strains expressing the Hj, Hd, Hz66 flagella antigens. Phenotyping revealed differences in flagellum structure, strain motility and immunogenicity, but not in the ability of flagellated isolates to induce TLR5 activity. Invasion assays using epithelial and macrophage cell lines revealed differences in the ability of these S. Typhi derivatives to invade cells or induce cellular restructuring in the form of ruffles. Notably, the Hj variant induced substantial ruffles that were not fully dependent on the GTPases that contribute to this process. These data highlight important differences in the phenotypic properties of S. Typhi flagella variation and how they impact on the pathogenesis of S. Typhi.

  1. Mus81-Mms4 and Yen1 resolve a novel anaphase bridge formed by noncanonical Holliday junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Luis, Jonay; Machín, Félix

    2014-12-03

    Downregulation of separase, condensin, Smc5/6, topoisomerase II and Cdc14 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae yields anaphase bridges formed by unresolved sister chromatids (SCBs). Here we report that the overlapping actions of the structure-selective endonucleases (SSEs) Mus81-Mms4/EME1 and Yen1/GEN1, but not Slx1-Slx4, are also essential to prevent the formation of spontaneous SCBs that depend on the homologous recombination pathway. We further show that the frequency of SCBs is boosted after mild replication stress and that they contain joint molecules enriched in non-canonical forms of the Holliday junction (HJ), including nicked-HJ (nHJ). We show that SCBs are mostly reversible upon activation of either Mus81-Mms4 or Yen1 in late anaphase, which is concomitant with the disappearance of non-canonical HJs and restoration of viable progeny. On the basis of these findings, we propose a model where unresolved recombination intermediates are a source of mitotic SCBs, and Mus81-Mms4 and Yen1 play a central role in their resolution in vivo.

  2. Holliday junction affinity of the base excision repair factor Endo III contributes to cholera toxin phage integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischerour, Julien; Spangenberg, Claudia; Barre, François-Xavier

    2012-09-12

    Toxigenic conversion of Vibrio cholerae bacteria results from the integration of a filamentous phage, CTX phage. Integration is driven by the bacterial Xer recombinases, which catalyse the exchange of a single pair of strands between the phage single-stranded DNA and the host double-stranded DNA genomes; replication is thought to convert the resulting pseudo-Holliday junction (HJ) intermediate into the final recombination product. The natural tendency of the Xer recombinases to recycle HJ intermediates back into substrate should thwart this integration strategy, which prompted a search for additional co-factors aiding directionality of the process. Here, we show that Endo III, a ubiquitous base excision repair enzyme, facilitates CTX phage-integration in vivo. In vitro, we show that it prevents futile Xer recombination cycles by impeding new rounds of strand exchanges once the pseudo-HJ is formed. We further demonstrate that this activity relies on the unexpected ability of Endo III to bind to HJs even in the absence of the recombinases. These results explain how tandem copies of the phage genome can be created, which is crucial for subsequent virion production.

  3. Cooperative control of holliday junction resolution and DNA repair by the SLX1 and MUS81-EME1 nucleases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor, Dennis; Nair, Nidhi; Déclais, Anne-Cécile; Lachaud, Christophe; Toth, Rachel; Macartney, Thomas J; Lilley, David M J; Arthur, J Simon C; Rouse, John

    2013-10-24

    Holliday junctions (HJs) are X-shaped DNA structures that arise during homologous recombination, which must be removed to enable chromosome segregation. The SLX1 and MUS81-EME1 nucleases can both process HJs in vitro, and they bind in close proximity on the SLX4 scaffold, hinting at possible cooperation. However, the cellular roles of mammalian SLX1 are not yet known. Here, we use mouse genetics and structure function analysis to investigate SLX1 function. Disrupting the murine Slx1 and Slx4 genes revealed that they are essential for HJ resolution in mitotic cells. Moreover, SLX1 and MUS81-EME1 act together to resolve HJs in a manner that requires tethering to SLX4. We also show that SLX1, like MUS81-EME1, is required for repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks, but this role appears to be independent of HJ cleavage, at least in mouse cells. These findings shed light on HJ resolution in mammals and on maintenance of genome stability. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Equivalent Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyadjiev, T. L.; Semerdjieva, E. G.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.

    2008-01-01

    The magnetic field dependences of critical current are numerically constructed for a long Josephson junction with a shunt-or resistor-type microscopic inhomogeneities and compared to the critical curve of a junction with exponentially varying width. The numerical results show that it is adequate to replace the distributed inhomogeneity of a long Josephson junction by an inhomogeneity localized at one of its ends, which has certain technological advantages. It is also shown that the critical curves of junctions with exponentially varying width and inhomogeneities localized at the ends are unaffected by the mixed fluxon-antifluxon distributions of the magnetic flow. This fact may explain the improvement of the spectra of microwave radiation noted in the literature.

  5. A thermo-halo-tolerant and proteinase-resistant endoxylanase from Bacillus sp. HJ14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junpei; Wu, Qian; Zhang, Rui; Mo, Minghe; Tang, Xianghua; Li, Junjun; Xu, Bo; Ding, Junmei; Lu, Qian; Huang, Zunxi

    2014-09-01

    A glycosyl hydrolase family 10 endoxylanase from Bacillus sp. HJ14 was grouped in a separated cluster with another six Bacillus endoxylanases which have not been characterized. These Bacillus endoxylanases showed less than 52% amino acid sequence identity with other endoxylanases and far distance with endoxylanases from most microorganisms. Signal peptide was not detected in the endoxylanase. The endoxylanase was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), and the purified recombinant enzyme (rXynAHJ14) was characterized. rXynAHJ14 was apparent optimal at 62.5 °C and pH 6.5 and retained more than 55% of the maximum activity when assayed at 40-75 °C, 23% at 20 °C, 16% at 85 °C, and even 8% at 0 °C. Half-lives of the enzyme were more than 60 min, approximately 25 and 4 min at 70, 75, and 80 °C, respectively. The enzyme exhibited more than 62% xylanase activity and stability at the concentration of 3-30% (w/v) NaCl. No xylanase activity was lost after incubation of the purified rXynAHJ14 with trypsin and proteinase K at 37 °C for 60 min. Different components of oligosaccharides were detected in the time-course hydrolysis of beechwood xylan by the enzyme. During the simulated intestinal digestion phase in vitro, 11.5-19.0, 15.3-19.0, 21.9-27.7, and 28.2-31.2 μmol/mL reducing sugar were released by the purified rXynAHJ14 from soybean meal, wheat bran, beechwood xylan, and rapeseed meal, respectively. The endoxylanase might be an alternative for potential applications in the processing of sea food and saline food and in aquaculture as agastric fish feed additive.

  6. State transition analysis of spontaneous branch migration of the Holliday junction by photon-based single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kenji; Sako, Yasushi

    2016-02-01

    Branch migration of Holliday junction (HJ) DNA in solution is a spontaneous conformational change between multiple discrete states. We applied single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) measurement to three-state branch migration. The photon-based variational Bayes-hidden Markov model (VB-HMM) method was applied to fluorescence signals to reproduce the state transition trajectories and evaluate the transition parameters, such as transition rate. The upper limit of time resolution suggested in simulation was nearly achieved for the state dynamics with relatively small FRET changes, and the distinctions in the populations of different states were successfully retrieved. We also discuss the suitability of the HJ as a standard sample for smFRET dynamics measurements and data analysis.

  7. Quantum Junction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Jiang

    2012-09-12

    Colloidal quantum dot solids combine convenient solution-processing with quantum size effect tuning, offering avenues to high-efficiency multijunction cells based on a single materials synthesis and processing platform. The highest-performing colloidal quantum dot rectifying devices reported to date have relied on a junction between a quantum-tuned absorber and a bulk material (e.g., TiO 2); however, quantum tuning of the absorber then requires complete redesign of the bulk acceptor, compromising the benefits of facile quantum tuning. Here we report rectifying junctions constructed entirely using inherently band-aligned quantum-tuned materials. Realizing these quantum junction diodes relied upon the creation of an n-type quantum dot solid having a clean bandgap. We combine stable, chemically compatible, high-performance n-type and p-type materials to create the first quantum junction solar cells. We present a family of photovoltaic devices having widely tuned bandgaps of 0.6-1.6 eV that excel where conventional quantum-to-bulk devices fail to perform. Devices having optimal single-junction bandgaps exhibit certified AM1.5 solar power conversion efficiencies of 5.4%. Control over doping in quantum solids, and the successful integration of these materials to form stable quantum junctions, offers a powerful new degree of freedom to colloidal quantum dot optoelectronics. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  8. 认知无线网络中基于 HJ-DQPSO 优化的频谱分配机制%Spectrum allocation mechanism based on HJ-DQPSO for cognitive radio networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱江; 熊加毫; 陈红翠

    2016-01-01

    在认知用户和授权用户共存的认知无线网络模型中,为了解决认知无线网络中最大化网络效益和用户间接入网络的公平性联合最优化的多目标频谱分配难题,提出了一种新的基于 hooke jeeves(HJ)计算和量子粒子群(quantum particle swarm optimization,QPSO)理论的离散多目标组合优化机制,即 HJ-DQPSO 优化机制。该机制中,提出了采用 HJ 算法进行局部搜索,防止陷入局部最优,并对 QPSO 算法进行离散化处理以便更匹配离散的频谱分配模型。与现有的频谱分配算法进行仿真性能比较,实验结果表明,该机制具有逼近最优解、快速收敛、不易陷入局部最优、参数设置少的特点。在不同的优化目标情况下,能够较好地逼近频谱分配最优解而且可以实现快速收敛,在满足多个优化目标的情况下可以获得更合理的频谱分配方案。%In cognitive radio network model consisting of secondary users and primary users,in order to solve the difficult multi-objective spectrum allocation issue about maximizing network efficiency and users’fairness to access network,this paper proposes a new discrete multi-objective combinatorial optimization mechanism—HJ-DQPSO based on hooke jeeves (HJ)calculation and quantum particle swarm optimization (QPSO)algorithm.The mechanism adopts HJ algorithm to local search to prevent falling into the local optimum,and proposes a discrete QPSO algorithm to match the discrete spectrum as-signment model.The mechanism has the advantages of approximating optimal solution,rapid convergence,setting less pa-rameters,avoiding falling into local optimum.Compared with existing spectrum assignment algorithms by spectrum assign-ment algorithm performance simulation,the simulation results show that according to different optimization objectives,the HJ-DQPSO optimization mechanism for multi-objective optimization can better approximate the optimal

  9. Monitoring Oil Spill in Gulf of Mexico by Adopting MODIS and HJ-1 Satellite Data%利用MODIS和HJ-1卫星数据监测墨西哥湾溢油事件

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈亮; 苏玮; 付东洋; 王华接

    2010-01-01

    通过对比不同时段的MODIS和HJ-1卫星数据,监测墨西哥湾漏油面积变化与走向趋势,结果显示该法监测大面积溢油比较有效,可为漏油清理提供参考,并建议利用遥感手段对我省及南海海域类似海洋灾害进行实时监测.

  10. Retrieval of Land Surface Temperature over the Heihe River Basin Using HJ-1B Thermal Infrared Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoying Ouyang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The reliable estimation of spatially distributed Land Surface Temperature (LST is useful for monitoring regional land surface heat fluxes. A single-channel method is developed to derive the LST over the Heihe River Basin in China using data from the infrared sensor (IRS onboard the Chinese “Environmental and Disaster Monitoring and Forecasting with a Small Satellite Constellation” (HJ-1B for short for one of the satellites, with ancillary water vapor information from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS products (MOD05 and in situ automatic sun tracking photometer CE318 data for the first time. In situ LST data for the period from mid-June to mid-September 2012 were acquired from automatic meteorological stations (AMS that are part of Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER project. MOD05-based LST and CE318-based LST are compared with in situ measurements at 16 AMS sites with land cover types of vegetable, maize and orchards. The results show that the use of the MOD05 product could achieve a comparable accuracy in LST retrieval with that achieved using the CE318 data. The largest difference between the MOD05-based LST and CE318-based LST is 0.84 K throughout the study period over the Heihe River Basin. The standard deviation (STD, root mean square error (RMSE, and correlation coefficient (R of HJ-1B/IRS vs. the in situ measurements are 2.45 K, 2.78 K, and 0.67, respectively, whereas those for the MODIS 1 km LST product vs. the in situ measurements are 4.07 K, 2.98 K, and 0.79, respectively. The spatial pattern of the HJ-1B/LST over the study area in the Heihe River Basin generally agreed well with the MODIS 1 km LST product and contained more detailed spatial textures.

  11. Salt marsh mapping based on a short-time interval NDVI time-series from HJ-1 CCD imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    SUN, C.

    2015-12-01

    Salt marshes are regard as one of the most dynamic and valuable ecosystems in coastal zone. It is crucial to obtain accurate information on the species composition and spatial distribution of salt marshes in time since they are experiencing tremendous replacement and disappearance. However, discriminating various types of salt marshes is a rather difficult task because of the strong spectral similarities. In previous studies, salt marsh mappings were mainly focused on high-spatial and hyperspectral resolution imageries combined with auxiliary information but this method can hardly extend to a large region. With high temporal and moderate spatial resolutions, Chinese HJ-1 CCD imagery would not only allow monitoring phenological changes of salt marsh vegetation in short-time intervals, but also cover large areas of salt marshes. Taking the middle coast of Jiangsu (east China) as an example, our study first constructed a monthly NDVI time-series to classify various types of salt marshes. Then, we tested the idea of compressed time-series continuously to broaden the applicability and portability of this particular approach. The results showed that (1) the overall accuracy of salt marsh mapping based on the monthly NDVI time-series reached 90.3%, which increased approximately 16.0% in contrast with a single-phase classification strategy; (2) a compressed time-series, including NDVI from six key months (April, June to September, and November) demonstrated very little decline (2.3%) in overall accuracy but led to obvious improvements in unstable regions; (3) Spartina alterniflora identification could be achieved with only a scene NDVI image from November, which could provide an effective way to regularly monitor its distribution. Besides, by comparing the calibrated performance between HJ-1 CCD and other sensors (i.e., Landsat TM/ETM+, OLI), we certified the reliability of HJ-1 CCD imagery, which is expected to pave the way for laws expansibility from this imagery.

  12. Quantitative estimation of the shrub canopy LAI from atmosphere-corrected HJ-1 CCD data in Mu Us Sandland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The leaf area index(LAI) is an important ecological parameter that characterizes the interface between vegetation canopy and the atmosphere.In addition,it is used by most process-oriented ecosystem models.This paper investigates the potential of HJ-1 CCD data combined with linear spectral unmixing and an inverted geometric-optical model for the retrieval of the shrub LAI in Wushen Banner of Inner Mongolia in the Mu Us Sandland.MODTRAN(Moderate Resolution Atmospheric Radiance and Transmittance Model) was used for atmospheric correction.Shrubland was extracted using the threshold of the normalized difference vegetation index,with which water bodies and farmland were separated,in combination with a vegetation map of the People’s Republic of China(1:1000000).Using the geometric-optical model,we derive the per-pixel reflectance as a simple linear combination of two components,namely sunlit background and other.The fraction of sunlit background is related to the shrub LAI.With the support of HJ-1 CCD data,we employ linear spectral unmixing to obtain the fraction of sunlit background in an atmospherically corrected HJ image.In addition,we use the measured shrub canopy structural parameters for shrub communities to invert the geometric-optical model and retrieve the pixel-based shrub LAI.In total,18 sample plots collected in Wushen Banner of Inner Mongolia are used for validation.The results of the shrub LAI show good agreement with R2 of 0.817 and a root-mean-squared error of 0.173.

  13. When transcription goes on Holliday: Double Holliday junctions block RNA polymerase II transcription in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipathsouk, Anne; Belotserkovskii, Boris P; Hanawalt, Philip C

    2017-02-01

    Non-canonical DNA structures can obstruct transcription. This transcription blockage could have various biological consequences, including genomic instability and gratuitous transcription-coupled repair. Among potential structures causing transcription blockage are Holliday junctions (HJs), which can be generated as intermediates in homologous recombination or during processing of stalled replication forks. Of particular interest is the double Holliday junction (DHJ), which contains two HJs. Topological considerations impose the constraint that the total number of helical turns in the DNA duplexes between the junctions cannot be altered as long as the flanking DNA duplexes are intact. Thus, the DHJ structure should strongly resist transient unwinding during transcription; consequently, it is predicted to cause significantly stronger blockage than single HJ structures. The patterns of transcription blockage obtained for RNA polymerase II transcription in HeLa cell nuclear extracts were in accordance with this prediction. However, we did not detect transcription blockage with purified T7 phage RNA polymerase; we discuss a possible explanation for this difference. In general, our findings implicate naturally occurring Holliday junctions in transcription arrest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Understøttelse af studerendes personlige studieaktiviteter udenfor campus ved hjælp af IT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Jensen, Louise Bach; Falk, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Der er mange begreber, der knytter sig til, hvordan studerendes studieaktiviteter kan støttes ved hjælp af teknologi og udenfor mere formelle institutionelle rammer. Denne artikel sætter fokus på disse kernebegreber ud fra eksisterende forskning indenfor området. Hensigten er, at udforske hvad der...... begge disse uddannelser hvad angår studerendes studieaktiviteter udenfor campus. Det er dog en problematik, som også er generelle indenfor uddannelsesfelter i dag, da en større og større del af studerendes studietid forgår udenfor de formelle uddannelsesinstitutioner. På baggrund af de skitserede...

  15. Holliday Junctions Are Associated with Transposable Element Sequences in the Human Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladias, Paris; Markopoulos, Georgios; Lazaros, Leandros; Markoula, Sofia; Tzavaras, Theodore; Georgiou, Ioannis

    2016-02-13

    Holliday junctions (HJs) constitute important intermediate structures for many cell functions such as DNA recombination and DNA repair. They derive from a 10-nt degenerate sequence, with a 3-nt core motif. In this study, we explored the human genome whether the HJ degenerate sequence associates with transposable elements (TEs) and mainly with those of the active and inactive ALU, LINE, SVA and HERV families. We identified six different forms of the HJ sequence motif, and we located the genomic coordinates of sequences containing both HJs and TEs. From 2982 total HJs, a significant number of 1319 TE-associated HJs were found, with a median distribution of 1 per 2.4 Mb. The HJs with higher GC content were observed more frequently at the genome. A high percentage of HJs were associated with all main TE families, with specificity for particular active or inactive elements: DNA elements and the retroelements ALUs, LINEs and HERVs up to 41.94%, 72.72%, 42.94% and 84.5%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that HJs occur in both active and inactive TEs. Furthermore, the TE-associated HJs were almost exclusively found within a distance less than 1 Mb from human genes, while only 23 were not associated with any genes. This is the first report associating human HJs, with mobile elements. Our data pinpoint that particular HJ forms show preference for specific active retrotransposon families of ALUs and LINEs, suggesting that retrotransposon-incorporated HJs may relocate or replicate in the genome through retrotransposition, contributing to recombination, genome plasticity and DNA repair. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. HJ-1 terrestrial aerosol data retrieval using deep blue algorithm%利用深蓝算法从HJ-1数据反演陆地气溶胶

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王中挺; 厉青; 王桥; 李莘莘; 陈良富; 周春艳; 张丽娟; 徐拥军

    2012-01-01

    大气气溶胶是环境空气污染监测的重要指标,在利用环境一号卫星CCD相机进行气溶胶监测时,暗目标法和结构函数法都有相应的不足.本文从Hsu等人(2004)提出的深蓝算法出发,以MODIS的地表反射率产品为基础建立反射率库,并利用地面观测数据分析了各种典型地物在CCD相机与MODIS蓝波段反射率之间关系,提出了将MODIS地表反射率修正到CCD相机的方法,进而实现地气解耦,反演气溶胶光学厚度.选择北京地区为实验区,进行了算法实验,并用AERONET/PHOTONS北京站的数据进行了验证,结果表明,(1)光学厚度较大时(>0.5),深蓝算法精度能够较好的满足环境一号卫星CCD相机对气溶胶日常监测的要求;(2)气溶胶模式会对结果产生较大的影响,尤其是城市型气溶胶.%Aerosol is an important index in atmosphere monitoring. Disadvantages exist when monitoring aerosol from HJ-1 data by dark dense vegetation (DDV) or contrast reduction algorithm. In this paper, based on the algorithm which was developed by Hsu, et al.(2004), the deep blue algorithm is applied to CCD/HJ-1. First, the database of land surface reflectance is built from MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) spectral reflectance product. Second, after analyzing relationship between CCD camera reflectance and MODIS, the reflectance of MODIS are corrected to CCD camera of HJ-1. Third, aerosol optical depth (AOD) is retrieved from apparent reflectance in the first band of CCD/HJ-1. Finally, AODs over Beijing area are retrieved from December 2008 to October 2009, and the results are validated by ground-based measurement of Beijing station in the PHOtometrie pour le Traitement Operational de Normalisation Satellitaire (PHOTONS) network included in the worldwide Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET). The validation and discussions show that, when AODs are greater than 0.5, the accuracy of deep blue algorithm can satisfy the aerosol monitoring

  17. Monitoring urban impervious surface area change using China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellites and HJ-1 remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Peijun; Xia, Junshi; Feng, Li

    2015-01-01

    Impervious surface area (ISA) plays an important role in monitoring urbanization and related environmental changes, and has become a hotspot in urban and environmental studies. Xuzhou City, located in northwest Jiangsu Province, China, is chosen as the study area, and two scenes of China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellites images and one scene of HJ-1 image are employed to estimate ISA percentage and analyze the change trend from 2001 to 2009. Using a linear spectral mixture model (LSMM) and nonlinear backpropagation neural network (BPNN) method, all pixels are decomposed to derive four fraction images representing the abundance of four endmembers: vegetation, high-albedo objects, low-albedo objects, and soil. The ISA percentage is then derived by the combination of high- and low-albedo fraction images after removing the influence of water. Some high spatial resolution images are selected to validate the ISA estimation results, and the experimental results indicate that the accuracy of BPNN is higher than LSMM. By comparing the urban ISA abundances derived by BPNN from three dates, it is found that the ISA of Xuzhou City has increased rapidly from 2001 to 2009, especially in the northeast and southeast regions, corresponding to the urban planning scheme and fast urbanization. Compared to other medium remote sensing images, the revisit cycle of HJ-1 multispectral image is only two days, demonstrating the potential of such data for ISA extraction in urbanization, disaster, and other related applications.

  18. Rice Fields Mapping in Fragmented Area Using Multi-Temporal HJ-1A/B CCD Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most important crops in the world; meanwhile, the rice field is also an important contributor to greenhouse gas methane emission. Therefore, it is important to get an accurate estimation of rice acreage for both food production and climate change related studies. The eastern plain region is one of the major single-cropped rice (SCR growing areas in China. Subjected to the topography and intensified human activities, the rice fields are generally fragmented and irregular. How remote sensing can meet this challenge to accurately estimate the acreage of the rice in this region using medium-resolution imagery is the topic of this study. In this study, the applicability of the Chinese HJ-1A/B satellites and a two-band enhanced vegetation index (EVI2 was investigated. Field campaigns were carried out during the rice growing season and ground-truth data were collected for classification accuracy assessments in 2012. A stepwise classification strategy utilizing the EVI2 signatures during key phenology stages, i.e., the transplanting and the vegetative to reproductive transition phases, of the SCR was proposed, and the overall classification accuracy was 91.7%. The influence of the mixed pixel and boundary effects to classification accuracy was also investigated. This work demonstrates that the Chinese HJ-1A/B data are suitable data source to estimating SCR cropping area under complex land cover composition.

  19. Spatial prediction and analysis of Himalayan marmot plague natural epidemic foci in China based on HJ-1 satellite data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Plague,caused by the gram-negative bacterium Yersinia pestis,is a serious and rapidly progressing illness in humans that can be fatal if not treated effectively.The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the largest area of natural Himalayan marmot(Marmota himalayana) plague foci in China and covers more than 630000 km2.Akesai County in Gansu Province is a part of this natural focus of plague and was chosen as a study area.Our study used an ecological niche modeling(ENM) approach to predict the potential distribution of the Himalayan marmot.Environment and Disaster Monitor Satellite(HJ-1) data was used to investigate environment factors that affect plague host animal activity.Host animal point data from active surveillance was combined with environmental variables from the HJ-1 satellite and other databases,and the models of the potential distribution of Himalayan marmot were produced with the Genetic Algorithm for Rule-Set Production(GARP).The probability of marmot presence was divided into 0-5%,5%-20%,20%-40%,40%-80%,and 80%-100% subgroups.Areas with 80%-100% probability exhibited the greatest potential for the presence of Himalayan marmot.According to the predicted potential distribution of Himalayan marmot in the study area,active surveillance of plague hosts and plague control and prevention could be more efficient.

  20. The human myotendinous junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, A B; Larsen, M; Mackey, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    The myotendinous junction (MTJ) is a specialized structure in the musculotendinous system, where force is transmitted from muscle to tendon. Animal models have shown that the MTJ takes form of tendon finger-like processes merging with muscle tissue. The human MTJ is largely unknown and has never ...

  1. Doped semiconductor nanocrystal junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borowik, Ł.; Mélin, T., E-mail: thierry.melin@isen.iemn.univ-lille1.fr [Institut d’Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie, CNRS-UMR8520, Avenue Poincaré, F-59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Nguyen-Tran, T.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P. [Laboratoire de Physique des Interfaces et des Couches Minces, CNRS-UMR7647, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2013-11-28

    Semiconductor junctions are the basis of electronic and photovoltaic devices. Here, we investigate junctions formed from highly doped (N{sub D}≈10{sup 20}−10{sup 21}cm{sup −3}) silicon nanocrystals (NCs) in the 2–50 nm size range, using Kelvin probe force microscopy experiments with single charge sensitivity. We show that the charge transfer from doped NCs towards a two-dimensional layer experimentally follows a simple phenomenological law, corresponding to formation of an interface dipole linearly increasing with the NC diameter. This feature leads to analytically predictable junction properties down to quantum size regimes: NC depletion width independent of the NC size and varying as N{sub D}{sup −1/3}, and depleted charge linearly increasing with the NC diameter and varying as N{sub D}{sup 1/3}. We thus establish a “nanocrystal counterpart” of conventional semiconductor planar junctions, here however valid in regimes of strong electrostatic and quantum confinements.

  2. HJ-Biplot como herramienta de inspección de matrices de datos bibliométricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz-Faes, Adrián A.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of the HJ-Biplot in bibliometric studies. It is a simple and intuitive display, similar to a scatterplot, but capturing the multivariate covariance structures between bibliometric indicators. Their interpretation does not require specialized statistical knowledge, but merely to know how to interpret the length of a vector, the angle between two vectors and the distance between two points. With this aim, an analysis has been performed of the scientific output of CSIC's own centres as well as of joint centres during the period 2006-2009, in relation to a series of indicators based on impact and collaboration. Biplot methods are graphical representations of multivariate data. Using HJ-Biplot it is possible to interpret simultaneously the position of the centres, represented by dots; indicators, represented by vectors; and the relationships between them. The position of the centres in the context of their area as well as within the overall CSIC is analysed and those centres with a unique behaviour are identified. We conclude that the Humanities and Social Sciences, and Food Science and Technology are the areas with a greater homogeneous pattern in the performance of their centres, while Physics and Agriculture, are more heterogeneous.

    El objetivo de este trabajo es poner de manifiesto la utilidad del HJ-Biplot en los estudios bibliométricos. El HJ-Biplot es una representación intuitiva y sencilla, similar a un diagrama de dispersión, pero que captura las estructuras de covariación multivariantes entre los indicadores bibliométricos. Su interpretación no requiere conocimientos estadísticos especializados, basta con saber interpretar la longitud de un vector, el ángulo entre dos vectores y la distancia entre dos puntos. Con este fin, se analiza la actividad científica de los centros propios y mixtos del CSIC durante el período 2006-2009 mediante una serie de indicadores de

  3. Junction trees of general graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofei WANG; Jianhua GUO

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we study the maximal prime subgraphs and their corresponding structure for any undirected graph.We introduce the notion of junction trees and investigate their structural characteristics,including junction properties,induced-subtree properties,running-intersection properties and maximum-weight spanning tree properties.Furthermore,the characters of leaves and edges on junction trees are discussed.

  4. 辣椒根腐病内生拮抗细菌筛选及菌株Hj33-7的鉴定和抗菌活性%Screening of Pepper Endophytic Bacterial Antagonists against Fusarium oxysporum and Identification and Antagonistic Activities of Strain Hj33-7

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁之秋; 李兴海; 王英姿; 谷祖敏; 纪明山

    2011-01-01

    从采自黑龙江和辽宁辣椒根腐病区的健康辣椒植株体内分离到141株内生细菌.对峙培养发现10株内生细菌对辣椒根腐病菌Fusarium oxysporum有较强的抑制作用,各菌株抑菌带宽均在7mm以上.10株拮抗细菌对辣椒根腐病的防治效果从25%到75%,其中,菌株Hj33-7、Hj33-6、Hj33-4及Hgu23-2对辣椒根腐病的防治效果分别达到75%、75%、66.6%和66.6%.经形态、生理生化特征和分子生物学等测定分析,将菌株Hj33-7初步鉴定为地衣芽孢杆菌Bacillus licheniformis.Hj33-7发酵滤液对辣椒根腐病菌菌丝生长与形态、孢子萌发均有较强的抑制活性.%141 strains of endophytic bacteria were isolated from healthy pepper plants in severely infested plots in Heihongjiang and Liaoning Provinces. Their antagonistic activities to Fusarium oxysporum were tested by dual-culture tests. The results showed that 10 strains from root, stem and fruit showed strong antagonistic activities to F. oxysporum with the width of inhibition zones bigger than 7mm. The efficacy of 10 strains of the endophytic bacteria to pepper root rot disease ranged from 25% to 75%, and the control efficiency of Hj33-7、Hj33-6、Hj33-4 and Hgu23-2 were 75% 、75%、 66.6% and 66.6%, respectively. Based on the morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequences analysis, strain Hj33-7 was identified as Bacillus licheniformis. The fermentation filtrate of Hj33-7 showed strong antagonistic activities to the hyphal growth, hyphal morphology and spore germination of F. oxysporum.

  5. 基于HJ-1B/IRS的重庆市热岛效应监测应用%Application Research on Monitor of Heat Island Effect in Chongqing Based on HJ-1B/IRS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗小波; 陈丹; 刘明皓; 刘强

    2011-01-01

    Urban heat island effect in Chongqing is in rising trend with the gradual expansion of urban construction land. And this trend increases hot weather of Chongqing, known as a 'stove', so analyzing and understanding the spatial distribution of Chongqing' urban heat island has great significance. In this paper, we referenced single-window algorithm to inverse surface temperature using Environmental Satellite image (HJ-1B) as the main data source, made a preliminary validation on retrieval result using MODIS temperature products, and used thermal field variability index to further analyze Chongqing' spatial distribution feature of urban heat island. First, atmospheric water vapor content and atmospheric transmissivi-ty was inversed from MODIS' second band and 19th band, and land surface' emissivity was obtained after classification by HJ-1B/CCD. On this basis, land surface temperature was inversed based on single-window algorithm, further, spatial distribution of Chongqing's heat islands and their relationship with NDVI and NDBI and the heat island effect were analyzed. The results showed that; (1) Chongqing's urban heat islands are roughly northeast and southwest distribution along Liangshan and Tongluoshan; (2) The center of Chongqing's urban heat island is not in the downtown area, I. E. Jiefangbei, of which buildings are dense, but in the Dadukou industrial park and Jiangbei airport, of which energy is consumed largely and population is dense, the heat island intensity is between 7. 7℃; (3) The heat island effect is not clear in dense building land area, the typical region such as the Yuzhong District is close to the Yangtze River and Jialing River waters; And (4) NDVI and surface temperature are negatively correlated, NDBI and the surface temperature show a more obvious positive correlation, NDVI and NDBI have a significant impact on surface temperature, and NDBI, I. E. The proportion of building land and building density, has a greater impact.%本文利

  6. Wireless Josephson Junction Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Laura

    2015-03-01

    We report low temperature, microwave transmission measurements on a wireless two- dimensional network of Josephson junction arrays composed of superconductor-insulator -superconductor tunnel junctions. Unlike their biased counterparts, by removing all electrical contacts to the arrays and superfluous microwave components and interconnects in the transmission line, we observe new collective behavior in the transmission spectra. In particular we will show emergent behavior that systematically responds to changes in microwave power at fixed temperature. Likewise we will show the dynamic and collective response of the arrays while tuning the temperature at fixed microwave power. We discuss these spectra in terms of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition and Shapiro steps. We gratefully acknowledge the support Prof. Steven Anlage at the University of Maryland and Prof. Allen Goldman at the University of Minnesota. Physics and School of Engineering and Applied Sciences.

  7. HJ505-2009法测定生化需氧量[BOD_5]不确定度评定%Evaluation of Uncertainty in Determination of by HJ505-2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    门朝荣

    2011-01-01

    测量不确定度(uncertainty of measurement)是表征合理地赋予被测量之值的分散性,与测量结果相联系的参数。不确定度一词指可疑程度,广义而言,测量不确定度是对测量结果正确性的可疑程度。如何对测量结果的不确定度进行合理评定,一直是困扰检测实验室的一个难题。依据HJ505—2009标准的方法,测定了水样的生化需氧量BOD5,估算了测试过程中的随机效应和系统效应所产生的不确定度分量,最终评定了生化需氧量浓度的测量不确定度。%Uncertainty of measurement signifies for the dispersive of the value measured rationally,with measuring the parameter and interrelated result.The mean of uncertainty is suspicious intensity,Uncertainty of measurement fruit suspicious intensity of exactness measuring in broad sense.How to rationally assess the uncertainty of measure results disturb the laboratories all the time,The paper aims to determine the BOD5 in water sample in accordance with HJ505—2009.The uncertainty produced by random effect and system effect is estimated and the uncertainty of the determination of BOD5 is evaluated.

  8. Starfsumhverfi og líðan hjúkrunarfræðinga og ljósmæðra á Landspítala

    OpenAIRE

    Jana Katrín Knútsdóttir 1986

    2016-01-01

    Nýlegar rannsóknir gefa hlutverki hjúkrunarfræðinga aukið vægi þegar kemur að gæðum þjónustu, öryggi sjúklinga og dánartíðni. Hjúkrunarfræðingar eru lykilstarfsmenn í árangursríku heilbrigðiskerfi en á Landspítala eru þeir jafnframt fjölmennasta starfsstéttin. Þættir í starfsumhverfi eins og viðeigandi mönnun og styðjandi stjórnun eru forsenda starfsánægju og að hjúkrunarfræðingar geti mætt þörfum skjólstæðinga sinna. Rannsóknir benda til að vinnuálag hjúkrunarfræðinga sé sífellt að aukast og...

  9. The N276 glycosylation site is required for HIV-1 neutralization by the CD4 binding site specific HJ16 monoclonal antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunita S Balla-Jhagjhoorsingh

    Full Text Available Immunogen design for HIV-1 vaccines could be based on epitope identification of naturally occurring neutralizing antibodies in infected patients. A tier 2 neutralizing monoclonal antibody (mAb, HJ16 recognizes a new epitope in the CD4 binding site (CD4bs region that only partially overlaps with the b12 epitope. We aimed to identify the critical binding site by resistance induction in a sensitive primary CRF02_AG strain. In four independent dose-escalation studies, the N276D mutation was consistently the only alteration found and it was confirmed to be responsible for resistance to HJ16 by site-directed mutagenesis in envelopes (envs of the homologous CRF02_AG, as well as of a subtype A and a subtype C primary isolate. This mutation removes an N-linked glycosylation site. The effect of N276D was very selective, as it failed to confer resistance to a range of other entry inhibitors. Remarkably, sensitivity to the CD4bs VRC01 and VRC03 mAbs was increased in the N276D mutated viruses. These data indicate that binding of the CD4bs specific HJ16 mAb critically depends on the interaction with the N276-glycan, thus indicating that HJ16 is the first glycan dependent CD4bs-specific mAb.

  10. Combining HJ CCD, GF-1 WFV and MODIS Data to Generate Daily High Spatial Resolution Synthetic Data for Environmental Process Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mingquan; Huang, Wenjiang; Niu, Zheng; Wang, Changyao

    2015-08-20

    The limitations of satellite data acquisition mean that there is a lack of satellite data with high spatial and temporal resolutions for environmental process monitoring. In this study, we address this problem by applying the Enhanced Spatial and Temporal Adaptive Reflectance Fusion Model (ESTARFM) and the Spatial and Temporal Data Fusion Approach (STDFA) to combine Huanjing satellite charge coupled device (HJ CCD), Gaofen satellite no. 1 wide field of view camera (GF-1 WFV) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to generate daily high spatial resolution synthetic data for land surface process monitoring. Actual HJ CCD and GF-1 WFV data were used to evaluate the precision of the synthetic images using the correlation analysis method. Our method was tested and validated for two study areas in Xinjiang Province, China. The results show that both the ESTARFM and STDFA can be applied to combine HJ CCD and MODIS reflectance data, and GF-1 WFV and MODIS reflectance data, to generate synthetic HJ CCD data and synthetic GF-1 WFV data that closely match actual data with correlation coefficients (r) greater than 0.8989 and 0.8643, respectively. Synthetic red- and near infrared (NIR)-band data generated by ESTARFM are more suitable for the calculation of Normalized Different Vegetation Index (NDVI) than the data generated by STDFA.

  11. HIGH-ACCURACY BAND TO BAND REGISTRATION METHOD FOR MULTI-SPECTRAL IMAGES OF HJ-1A/B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Hao; Liu Tuanjie; Zhao Haiqing

    2012-01-01

    Band-to-band registration accuracy is an important parameter of multispectral data.A novel band-to-band registration approach with high precision is proposed for the multi-spectral images of HJ-1A/B.Firstly,the main causes resulted in misregistration are analyzed,and a high-order polynomial model is proposed.Secondly,a phase fringe filtering technique is employed to Phase Correlation Method based on Singular Value Decomposition (SVD-PCM) for reducing the noise in phase difference matrix.Then,experiments are carried out to build nonlinear registration models,and images of green band and red band are aligned to blue band with an accuracy of 0.1 pixels,while near infrared band with an accuracy of 0.2 pixels.

  12. Remote sensing monitoring of thermal discharge in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station based on HJ-1 infrared camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Li; Yin, Shoujing; Wu, Chuanqing; Ma, Wandong; Hou, Haiqian; Xu, Jing

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, the method of monitoring coastal areas affected by thermal discharge of nuclear plant by using remote sensing techniques was introduced. The proposed approach was demonstrated in Daya Bay nuclear plant based on HJ-B IRS data. A single channel water temperature inversion algorithm was detailed, considering the satellite zenith angle and water vapor. Moreover the reference background temperature was obtained using the average environmental temperature method. In the case study of Daya Bay nuclear plant, the spatial distribution of thermal pollution was analyzed by taking into account the influence of tidal, wind and so on. According to the findings of this study, the speed and direction of the ebb tide, is not conducive to the diffusion of thermal discharge of DNNP. The vertically thermal diffusion was limited by the shallow water depth near the outlet.

  13. Agriculture drought risk assessment of the irrigated agriculture zone in North Henan Plain using HJ-1 and MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Haixia; Huang, He; Wang, Ping; Sun, Yinxiang

    2011-12-01

    This paper analyzed the evolution of drought and the spectral response of the crop at different growing seasons focuses on the irrigated agricultural areas of northen Henan using the HJ-1 data and MODIS data,associated with relevant meteologic data, regional geographical data and the social economic data.The Spatial and temporal distribution of the risk of disaster-causing factors and the fragility of the disaster-affected body was conducted and the comprehensive index of agricultral drought risk was built up.Then, trend of the agricultural drought was analyzed and the irrigated agricultural drought risk class was performed and the possible hazard and influence of agricultural drought and the performance of appropriate strategy to reduce agricultral drought have been estimated.At last,verification of the results and improvement of the model have been carried out supported by the historic cases, expert system and the on-site investigation data.

  14. Engineered holliday junctions as single-molecule reporters for protein-DNA interactions with application to a MerR-family regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Susanta K; Andoy, Nesha May; Benítez, Jaime J; Chen, Peng R; Kong, Jason S; He, Chuan; Chen, Peng

    2007-10-17

    Protein-DNA interactions are essential for gene maintenance, replication, and expression. Characterizing how proteins interact with and change the structure of DNA is crucial in elucidating the mechanisms of protein function. Here, we present a novel and generalizable method of using engineered DNA Holliday junctions (HJs) that contain specific protein-recognition sequences to report protein-DNA interactions in single-molecule FRET measurements, utilizing the intrinsic structural dynamics of HJs. Because the effects of protein binding are converted to the changes in the structure and dynamics of HJs, protein-DNA interactions that involve small structural changes of DNA can be studied. We apply this method to investigate how the MerR-family regulator PbrR691 interacts with DNA for transcriptional regulation. Both apo- and holo-PbrR691 bind the stacked conformers of the engineered HJ, change their structures, constrain their conformational distributions, alter the kinetics, and shift the equilibrium of their structural dynamics. The information obtained maps the potential energy surfaces of HJ before and after PbrR691 binding and reveals the protein actions that force DNA structural changes for transcriptional regulation. The ability of PbrR691 to bind both HJ conformers and still allow HJ structural dynamics also informs about its conformational flexibility that may have significance for its regulatory function. This method of using engineered HJs offers quantification of the changes both in structure and in dynamics of DNA upon protein binding and thus provides a new tool to elucidate the correlation of structure, dynamics, and function of DNA-binding proteins.

  15. Analysis of Plain Afforestation in Henan Province Using HJ-1A/B CCD%基于HJ-1A/B CCD数据的河南省平原绿化分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁慧娟; 王正兴; 于信芳

    2014-01-01

    The term“afforestation”in this paper generally represents all kinds of non-crop vegetation in crop-dominated plain area, including but not limited to the vegetation in crop land (e.g., orchard, herb, nursery garden, fast-growing and high-yielding timber, farmland shelterbelt, and artificial turf), residential green, urban vegeta-tion landscapes, trees planted alongside the roads and rivers, and the wind break and sand fixation forest. Accu-rate and timely information about afforestation in the plain region is useful because it can reflect the degree of ag-ricultural diversity and the environmental health. However, getting the information about afforestation using re-mote sensing is hindered by some factors: afforestation are spatially scattered, temporally and spectrally over-lapped with some crop lands. In addition, as a land use type, afforestation in plains often shares common spaces with other types of land use, such as croplands and roads. As a result, there is little, if any, data about afforesta-tion in plains, let alone the afforestation change monitoring. As a follow-up to UN Millennium Ecosystem As-sessment, the Chinese government is currently conducting a similar assessment at the provincial level, covering years of 2000-2005-2010, and using the traditional (FAO) land cover/land use system. It is beyond the expecta-tion that the“forest”-as the major indicator of a good environment, in the province such as Henan, has only ex-perienced a negligible increase. This is simply because the recent afforestation in plains was classified as other land cover types. With the advent of Chinese satellite HJ-1 A/B in September 2008, there may be a chance to ex-tract information about afforestation in plains since its CCD sensor has Red and NIR channels, with a 30m spa-tial resolution and a 4-day temporal resolution. To test this potentiality, three steps were taken to extract afforesta-tion in this study:(1) extract the plain information using 2010 Land Cover

  16. An induced junction photovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Silicon solar cells operating with induced junctions rather than diffused junctions have been fabricated and tested. Induced junctions were created by forming an inversion layer near the surface of the silicon by supplying a sheet of positive charge above the surface. Measurements of the response of the inversion layer cell to light of different wavelengths indicated it to be more sensitive to the shorter wavelengths of the sun's spectrum than conventional cells. The greater sensitivity occurs because of the shallow junction and the strong electric field at the surface.

  17. Retrieval and Validation of the Surface Reflectance Using HJ-1-CCD Data%基于HJ-1-CCD数据的地表反射率反演与验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李莘莘; 陈良富; 陶金花; 韩冬; 王中挺; 贺宝华

    2011-01-01

    环境一号卫星OCD相机(HJ-1-CCD)30m的空间分辨率在地物识别中具有潜在优势,然而由于缺少短波红外通道,利用暗像元法反演地表反射率较为困难.基于北京与珠三角地区的地物光谱试验,获得暗像元的植被指数与红、蓝波段反射率比值,构建基于辐射传输模型的大气校正算法.为了验证算法精度,将北京地区卫星反演值与实测的草坪、水体、沥青、水泥等光谱数据,以及居民区、建筑物等模拟数据进行对比分析,表明红、蓝波段反演的相对误差分别控制在38.7%和37.2%以内.通过与MODIS地表反射率标准产品对比,当反射率较小时红、蓝波段的相关性R2分别达到0.809 4和0.723 9;环境星CCD数据能有效减弱混合像元影响,对水泥、建筑物等亮目标的反演精度高于MODIS产品.%The potentiality of the retrieval of surface reflectance using CCD camera aboard HJ-1A/B satellite was studied. It is very difficult to use dark targets in atmospheric correction due to the lack of near infrared band. The alternative normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the red/blue reflectance ratio are detected from the spectral experiment in Beijing and the Pearl River Delta. Ground-based spectral data including grass, dense vegetation, water body, soil, residential roof and bright building etc. were used to validate the surface reflectance in Beijing, and the relative error in red, blue band is under 38. 7% and 37. 2% respectively. Uncertainties of the surface reflectance retrievals were analyzed. The comparison of MODIS surface reflectance product showed that there is a good agreement in the dense targets, and the correlation coefficient (R2) in red, blue band is as high as 0. 809 4 and 0. 723 9 respectively. HJ-l-CCD data can effectively reduce pixel-mixed impact on the cement roof and bright buildings, and the inversion accuracy is higher than MODIS products.

  18. HJ-1A/B的 FLAASH大气校正及对东湖蓝藻监测效果分析%The Atmospheric Correction of HJ1-A/B Images and the Effects in Remote Sensing Dynamic Monitoring of Cyanobacteria Bloom in East Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鸿旭; 郭生练; 洪兴骏; 周研来

    2015-01-01

    HJ-1A/B satellite offers free images with high spatial and temporal resolution ,which is effective to dynamically monitor cyanobacteria bloom .However ,HJ-1A/B satellite also receives distorted signals due to the influence of atmosphere .To acquire ac‐curate information of cyanobacteria bloom ,atmospheric correction is needed .In this paper ,HJ-1A/B images are corrected atmos‐pherically by using FLAASH atmosphere correction model .Considering quantum effect within a certain wavelength range ,spectral response function is introduced into the process .Then the model is used to process HJ-1A/B images ,and the NDVI after atmospher‐ic correction is compared with that before correction .Standard deviation improves from 0 .13 to 0 .158 with 21 .5% .Results indicate that atmospheric correction has reduced the distorted signals effectively .In the end ,NDVI is used to monitor cyanobacteria bloom in Donghu Lake .The accuracy has been enhanced compared with that before correction .%环境一号卫星(HJ1-1A/B)提供免费的高空间、高时间分辨率的遥感图像,是用于蓝藻监测的重要数据。然而,HJ-1A/B卫星由于地球大气及太阳辐射的影响会导致信号失真。为了提高绿藻监测的精度,大气纠正就变得极其重要。使用FLAASH大气校正模型对 HJ-1A/B数据进行大气纠正,考虑了一定波长范围内量子效应的影像,引入了波谱响应函数进行校正。然后对纠正前后的NDVI指数进行对比,标准差由校正前的0.13提升到校正后的0.158,提升了21.5%。结果表明,FLAASH大气校正模型对HJ-1A/B数据有极好的校正效果。最后,利用NDVI数据对东湖蓝藻进行监测,进一步证明,使用FLAASH大气校正模型纠正后的数据可以更加精确地识别蓝藻信息。

  19. Diagnosis of oil spills in Shanghai coastal area based on multi-source satellite MODIS and HJ-1%基于MODIS与HJ-1多源卫星的上海海域溢油事故诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨红; 杭君

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of shipping and oil industry chain of Shanghai Port, the risk of marine oil spills is increasing. In this paper, the information of the two major oil spill accidents, occurred near Wusong and Jiuduansha of Shanghai sea area in 2012, was analyzed by using the multi-satellite data based on the medium resolution MODIS of ESA and HJ-1 domestic environment satellite. By applying ratio operation between oil-water sensitive channel bands, the difference between spectral reflectance of film and background water was emphasized. Then, threshold determination method based on image segmentation was used, combined with the spectrum characteristic of heavy diesel oil, and the oil spills information was effectively extracted from the suspected oil films area. Taken together, the oil spills location, area and quantity were diagnosed to provide the fundamental analysis data for emergency response work.%随着上海港海上运输业和石油产业链的日趋发达,海上溢油事故风险也随之加剧。本文就2012年发生在上海海域吴淞口和九段沙附近的2起重大溢油事故,基于美国 NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration)中等分辨率MODIS (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer)与国产“环境一号”卫星HJ-1的多源卫星数据,对溢油信息进行对比,通过对油水敏感通道进行波段比值运算,突出油膜与背景海水的光谱反射率差异,再结合重柴油光谱特征,利用图像分割的阈值确定法,从疑似溢油区域中有效提取溢油信息,实现溢油区域定位、溢油面积和溢油量的诊断,为事发后海域应急响应工作提供基础性分析依据。

  20. Mixing in T-junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Jacobus B.W.; van der Wal, S.

    1996-01-01

    The transport processes that are involved in the mixing of two gases in a T-junction mixer are investigated. The turbulent flow field is calculated for the T-junction with the k- turbulence model by FLOW3D. In the mathematical model the transport of species is described with a mixture fraction

  1. wrwyrggrywrw is a single-chain functional analog of the Holliday junction-binding homodimer, (wrwycr)2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Marc C; Naili, Ilham; Boldt, Jeffrey L; Flores-Fujimoto, America; Patra, Sukanya; Rostron, Jason E; Segall, Anca M

    2013-02-01

    DNA repair pathways in bacteria that use homologous recombination involve the formation and subsequent resolution of Holliday junction (HJ) intermediates. We have previously identified several hexameric peptides that bind to HJs and interfere with HJ processing enzymes in vitro. The peptide WRWYCR and its D-amino acid stereoisomer wrwycr, are potent antibacterial agents. These hexapeptides must form homodimers in order to interact stably with HJs, and inhibit bacterial growth, and this represents a potential limitation. Herein we describe a disulfide bond-independent inhibitor, WRWYRGGRYWRW and its D-stereoisomer wrwyrggrywrw. We have characterized these single-chain, linear analogs of the hexapeptides, and show that in addition to effectively binding to HJs, and inhibiting the activity of DNA repair enzymes that process HJs, they have equal or greater potency against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial growth. The analogs were also shown to cause DNA damage in bacteria, and disrupt the integrity of the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. Finally, we found that they have little toxicity toward several eukaryotic cell types at concentrations needed to inhibit bacterial growth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Non-traditional wearing positions of pedometers: validity and reliability of the Omron HJ-203-ED pedometer under controlled and free-living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cocker, Katrien A; De Meyer, Jotie; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M; Cardon, Greet M

    2012-09-01

    To test the validity and intra-instrument reliability of the HJ-203 Omron pedometer when worn in different positions, under controlled and free-living conditions. Cross-sectional. Forty healthy adults (20 men, 29.5±7.7 years) participated in three controlled tests, i.e. 20 step test, stair climbing (up and down), and treadmill walking (five bouts at different speeds). All participants wore a HJ-203 pedometer in the pants pocket, in a carrier bag, and around the neck. Fifty-four adults (23 men, 33.9±11.1 years) participated in a free-living conditions test, wearing a HJ-203 in the pants pocket and around the neck during one day. During controlled tests, absolute percentage error ranged between 0.1% and 14.0%. Accuracy was influenced by wearing position (pwalking speed (pwalking speed (p=0.001). Accuracy was poor for pedometers worn in the pants pocket, especially at slower speeds; and best when worn around the neck. During free-living conditions, APE ranged between 30.7% and 36.9% and did not differ statistically between pants pocket and neck position. Intra-instrument reliability varied for controlled tests (ICC=0.14-0.96) and was acceptable during free-living conditions (ICC=0.94). The HJ-203 Omron pedometer showed acceptable accuracy for all wearing positions during stairs walking and treadmill walking at higher speeds; but limited accuracy during free-living conditions when worn at non-traditional wearing positions (necklace and pants pocket). Reliability was acceptable during treadmill walking at higher speeds and free-living conditions. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of Total Suspended Sediment Distribution under Varying Tidal Conditions in Deep Bay: Initial Results from HJ-1A/1B Satellite CCD Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqiao Tian

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Using Deep Bay in China as an example, an effective method for the retrieval of total suspended sediment (TSS concentration using HJ-1A/1B satellite images is proposed. The factors driving the variation of the TSS spatial distribution are also discussed. Two field surveys, conducted on August 29 and October 26, 2012, showed that there was a strong linear relationship (R2 = 0.9623 between field-surveyed OBS (optical backscatter measurements (5-31NTU and laboratory-analyzed TSS concentrations (9.89–35.58 mg/L. The COST image-based atmospheric correction procedure and the pseudo-invariant features (PIF method were combined to remove the atmospheric effects from the total radiance measurements obtained with different CCDs onboard the HJ-1A/1B satellites. Then, a simple and practical retrieval model was established based on the relationship between the satellite-corrected reflectance band ratio of band 3 and band 2 (Rrs3/Rrs2 and in-situ TSS measurements. The R2 of the regression relationship was 0.807, and the mean relative error (MRE was 12.78%, as determined through in-situ data validation. Finally, the influences of tide cycles, wind factors (direction and speed and other factors on the variation of the TSS spatial pattern observed from HJ-1A/1B satellite images from September through November of 2008 are discussed. The results show that HJ-1A/1B satellite CCD images can be used to estimate TSS concentrations under different tides in the study area over synoptic scales without using simultaneous in-situ atmospheric parameters and spectrum data. These findings provide strong informational support for numerical simulation studies on the combined influence of tide cycles and other associated hydrologic elements in Deep Bay.

  4. The forgotten dispute: A.I. Oparin and H.J. Muller on the origin of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Raphael; Lazcano, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The debate between A.I. Oparin's heterotrophic proposal of the origin of life and H.J. Muller's suggestion that what may be considered a posteriori the beginning of life, was an autocatalytic, replicative gene, is analyzed. Although both recognized that what was needed was an interacting system contiguous in space and time, it is now rarely mentioned that this scientific confrontation went on for several decades against the background of intense ideological issues, political tensions, and scientific developments that include the rise and demise of Lysenkoism, on the one hand, and, on the other, the establishment of neoDarwinism and the birth of molecular biology. Whereas for Oparin life was the outcome of the step-wise slow process of precellular evolution in which membrane-bounded polymolecular systems played a key role, Muller argued that life started with the appearance of the first nucleic-acid (DNA) molecule in the primitive oceans. Oparin and Muller came from different scientific backgrounds and almost opposite intellectual traditions, so their common interest in the origin of life did nothing to assuage their opposing views, which as argued soon became part of the debates that took place within the framework of intense ideological confrontations.

  5. Estimation of rice phenology date using integrated HJ-1 CCD and Landsat-8 OLI vegetation indices time-series images*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Huang, Jing-Feng; Wang, Xiu-Zhen; Jin, Meng-Ting; Zhou, Zhen; Guo, Qiao-Ying; Zhao, Zhe-Wen; Huang, Wei-Jiao; Zhang, Yao; Song, Xiao-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Accurate estimation of rice phenology is of critical importance for agricultural practices and studies. However, the accuracy of phenological parameters extracted by remote sensing data cannot be guaranteed because of the influence of climate, e.g. the monsoon season, and limited available remote sensing data. In this study, we integrate the data of HJ-1 CCD and Landsat-8 operational land imager (OLI) by using the ordinary least-squares (OLS), and construct higher temporal resolution vegetation indices (VIs) time-series data to extract the phenological parameters of single-cropped rice. Two widely used VIs, namely the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and 2-band enhanced vegetation index (EVI2), were adopted to minimize the influence of environmental factors and the intrinsic difference between the two sensors. Savitzky-Golay (S-G) filters were applied to construct continuous VI profiles per pixel. The results showed that, compared with NDVI, EVI2 was more stable and comparable between the two sensors. Compared with the observed phenological data of the single-cropped rice, the integrated VI time-series had a relatively low root mean square error (RMSE), and EVI2 showed higher accuracy compared with NDVI. We also demonstrate the application of phenology extraction of the single-cropped rice in a spatial scale in the study area. While the work is of general value, it can also be extrapolated to other regions where qualified remote sensing data are the bottleneck but where complementary data are occasionally available. PMID:26465131

  6. Evaluation of crop yield loss of floods based on water turbidity index with multi-temporal HJ-CCD images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaohe; Xu, Peng; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xiuhui

    2015-12-01

    Paddy is one of the most important food crops in China. Due to the intensive planting in the surrounding of rivers and lakes, paddy is vulnerable to flooding stress. The research on predicting crop yield loss derived from flooding stress will help the adjustment of crop planting structure and the claims of agricultural insurance. The paper aimed to develop a method of estimating yield loss of paddy derived from flooding by multi-temporal HJ CCD images. At first, the water pixels after flooding were extracted, from which the water line (WL) of turbid water pixels was generated. Secondly, the water turbidity index (WTI) and perpendicular vegetation index (PVI) was defined and calculated. By analyzing the relation among WTI, PVI and paddy yield, the model of evaluating yield loss of flooding was developed. Based on this model, the spatial distribution of paddy yield loss derived from flooding was mapped in the study area. Results showed that the water turbidity index (WTI) could be used to monitor the sediment content of flood, which was closely related to the plant physiology and per unit area yield of paddy. The PVI was the good indicator of paddy yield with significant correlation (0.965). So the PVI could be used to estimate the per unit area yield before harvesting. The PVI and WTI had good linear relation, which could provide an effective, practical and feasible method for monitoring yield loss of waterlogged paddy.

  7. [Inversion of the lake total nitrogen concentration by multiple regression kriging model based on hyperspectral data of HJ-1A].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bang-long; Yi, Wei-ning; Wang, Xian-hua; Qin, Hui-ping; Wang, Jia-cheng; Qiao, Yan-li

    2011-07-01

    The content of total nitrogen in the waters is an important index to measure lake water quality, and the technique of remote sensing plays a large role in quantitatively monitoring the dynamic change and timely grasping the status of lake pollution. Taking Chaohu as an example, quantitative inversion models of total nitrogen were established by multivariable regression Kriging under analyzing of an correlation between total nitrogen and chlorophyll-a or suspended solids by HIS hyperspectral remote sensing data of HJ-1A satellite. The result shows that the correlation of 0.76 was discovered between total nitrogen and the multiple combination with band 72, band 79 and band 97, while the correlation could be increased to 0.83 by applying combined model of multiple linear regression and ordinary Kriging. The optimization of the residuals of the conventional regression model can improve the accuracy of the inversion effectively. These results also provide useful exploration for further establishing a common model of quantitative inversion of lake total nitrogen concentration.

  8. Estimation of rice phenology date using integrated HJ-1 CCD and Landsat-8 OLI vegetation indices time-series images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Huang, Jing-feng; Wang, Xiu-zhen; Jin, Meng-ting; Zhou, Zhen; Guo, Qiao-ying; Zhao, Zhe-wen; Huang, Wei-jiao; Zhang, Yao; Song, Xiao-dong

    2015-10-01

    Accurate estimation of rice phenology is of critical importance for agricultural practices and studies. However, the accuracy of phenological parameters extracted by remote sensing data cannot be guaranteed because of the influence of climate, e.g. the monsoon season, and limited available remote sensing data. In this study, we integrate the data of HJ-1 CCD and Landsat-8 operational land imager (OLI) by using the ordinary least-squares (OLS), and construct higher temporal resolution vegetation indices (VIs) time-series data to extract the phenological parameters of single-cropped rice. Two widely used VIs, namely the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and 2-band enhanced vegetation index (EVI2), were adopted to minimize the influence of environmental factors and the intrinsic difference between the two sensors. Savitzky-Golay (S-G) filters were applied to construct continuous VI profiles per pixel. The results showed that, compared with NDVI, EVI2 was more stable and comparable between the two sensors. Compared with the observed phenological data of the single-cropped rice, the integrated VI time-series had a relatively low root mean square error (RMSE), and EVI2 showed higher accuracy compared with NDVI. We also demonstrate the application of phenology extraction of the single-cropped rice in a spatial scale in the study area. While the work is of general value, it can also be extrapolated to other regions where qualified remote sensing data are the bottleneck but where complementary data are occasionally available.

  9. The Compositional HJ-Biplot-A New Approach to Identifying the Links among Bioactive Compounds of Tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Suárez, Marcos; Molina Pérez, Daniel; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena M; Díaz Romero, Carlos; Espinosa Borreguero, Francisco; Galindo-Villardón, Purificación

    2016-11-02

    Tomatoes have been described as a functional food because of their particular composition of different bioactive compounds. In this study, the proximate composition, minerals and trace elements, and antioxidant compounds were determined in two tomato cultivars (Mariana and Dunkan) that were grown in Gran Canaria (Spain) either conventionally or hydroponically. Although compositional data of this type require being subjected to the specific statistical techniques of compositional analysis, this approach has not usually been considered in this context. In the present case, a compositional Mann-Whitney U test of the data showed significant differences for each factor (cultivar and cultivation system) in several of the compositional variables studied. For the differences between cultivars, these parameters were the protein, Mg, lycopene, ascorbic acid, citric acid, and fumaric acid contents. For the differences between cultivation systems, they were mainly those of the mineral and trace elements group. Although one-year data are insufficient to make clear relationship among compounds because more repetitions in several localities and years are necessary, the compositional HJ-biplot (in which the links provide estimates of the linear relationship among variables) results agreed with other scientific results about linear relationship among some compounds analyzed.

  10. Identifying Local Scale Climate Zones of Urban Heat Island from HJ-1B Satellite Data Using Self-Organizing Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, C. Z.; Blaschke, T.

    2016-10-01

    With the increasing acceleration of urbanization, the degeneration of the environment and the Urban Heat Island (UHI) has attracted more and more attention. Quantitative delineation of UHI has become crucial for a better understanding of the interregional interaction between urbanization processes and the urban environment system. First of all, our study used medium resolution Chinese satellite data-HJ-1B as the Earth Observation data source to derive parameters, including the percentage of Impervious Surface Areas, Land Surface Temperature, Land Surface Albedo, Normalized Differential Vegetation Index, and object edge detector indicators (Mean of Inner Border, Mean of Outer border) in the city of Guangzhou, China. Secondly, in order to establish a model to delineate the local climate zones of UHI, we used the Principal Component Analysis to explore the correlations between all these parameters, and estimate their contributions to the principal components of UHI zones. Finally, depending on the results of the PCA, we chose the most suitable parameters to classify the urban climate zones based on a Self-Organization Map (SOM). The results show that all six parameters are closely correlated with each other and have a high percentage of cumulative (95%) in the first two principal components. Therefore, the SOM algorithm automatically categorized the city of Guangzhou into five classes of UHI zones using these six spectral, structural and climate parameters as inputs. UHI zones have distinguishable physical characteristics, and could potentially help to provide the basis and decision support for further sustainable urban planning.

  11. The Compositional HJ-Biplot—A New Approach to Identifying the Links among Bioactive Compounds of Tomatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Suárez, Marcos; Molina Pérez, Daniel; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena M.; Díaz Romero, Carlos; Espinosa Borreguero, Francisco; Galindo-Villardón, Purificación

    2016-01-01

    Tomatoes have been described as a functional food because of their particular composition of different bioactive compounds. In this study, the proximate composition, minerals and trace elements, and antioxidant compounds were determined in two tomato cultivars (Mariana and Dunkan) that were grown in Gran Canaria (Spain) either conventionally or hydroponically. Although compositional data of this type require being subjected to the specific statistical techniques of compositional analysis, this approach has not usually been considered in this context. In the present case, a compositional Mann–Whitney U test of the data showed significant differences for each factor (cultivar and cultivation system) in several of the compositional variables studied. For the differences between cultivars, these parameters were the protein, Mg, lycopene, ascorbic acid, citric acid, and fumaric acid contents. For the differences between cultivation systems, they were mainly those of the mineral and trace elements group. Although one-year data are insufficient to make clear relationship among compounds because more repetitions in several localities and years are necessary, the compositional HJ-biplot (in which the links provide estimates of the linear relationship among variables) results agreed with other scientific results about linear relationship among some compounds analyzed. PMID:27827839

  12. Leaf Area Index Retrieval Combining HJ1/CCD and Landsat8/OLI Data in the Heihe River Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary restriction on high resolution remote sensing data is the limit observation frequency. Using a network of multiple sensors is an efficient approach to increase the observations in a specific period. This study explores a leaf area index (LAI inversion method based on a 30 m multi-sensor dataset generated from HJ1/CCD and Landsat8/OLI, from June to August 2013 in the middle reach of the Heihe River Basin, China. The characteristics of the multi-sensor dataset, including the percentage of valid observations, the distribution of observation angles and the variation between different sensor observations, were analyzed. To reduce the possible discrepancy between different satellite sensors on LAI inversion, a quality control system for the observations was designed. LAI is retrieved from the high quality of single-sensor observations based on a look-up table constructed by a unified model. The averaged LAI inversion over a 10-day period is set as the synthetic LAI value. The percentage of valid LAI inversions increases significantly from 6.4% to 49.7% for single-sensors to 75.9% for multi-sensors. LAI retrieved from the multi-sensor dataset show good agreement with the field measurements. The correlation coefficient (R2 is 0.90, and the average root mean square error (RMSE is 0.42. The network of multiple sensors with 30 m spatial resolution can generate LAI products with reasonable accuracy and meaningful temporal resolution.

  13. The Compositional HJ-Biplot—A New Approach to Identifying the Links among Bioactive Compounds of Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Hernández Suárez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes have been described as a functional food because of their particular composition of different bioactive compounds. In this study, the proximate composition, minerals and trace elements, and antioxidant compounds were determined in two tomato cultivars (Mariana and Dunkan that were grown in Gran Canaria (Spain either conventionally or hydroponically. Although compositional data of this type require being subjected to the specific statistical techniques of compositional analysis, this approach has not usually been considered in this context. In the present case, a compositional Mann–Whitney U test of the data showed significant differences for each factor (cultivar and cultivation system in several of the compositional variables studied. For the differences between cultivars, these parameters were the protein, Mg, lycopene, ascorbic acid, citric acid, and fumaric acid contents. For the differences between cultivation systems, they were mainly those of the mineral and trace elements group. Although one-year data are insufficient to make clear relationship among compounds because more repetitions in several localities and years are necessary, the compositional HJ-biplot (in which the links provide estimates of the linear relationship among variables results agreed with other scientific results about linear relationship among some compounds analyzed.

  14. Metallic Junction Thermoelectric Device Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duzik, Adam J.; Choi, Sang H.

    2017-01-01

    Thermoelectric junctions made of semiconductors have existed in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) for deep space missions, but are currently being adapted for terrestrial energy harvesting. Unfortunately, these devices are inefficient, operating at only 7% efficiency. This low efficiency has driven efforts to make high-figure-of-merit thermoelectric devices, which require a high electrical conductivity but a low thermal conductivity, a combination that is difficult to achieve. Lowered thermal conductivity has increased efficiency, but at the cost of power output. An alternative setup is to use metallic junctions rather than semiconductors as thermoelectric devices. Metals have orders of magnitude more electrons and electronic conductivities higher than semiconductors, but thermal conductivity is higher as well. To evaluate the viability of metallic junction thermoelectrics, a two dimensional heat transfer MATLAB simulation was constructed to calculate efficiency and power output. High Seebeck coefficient alloys, Chromel (90%Ni-10%Cr) and Constantan (55%Cu-45%Ni), produced efficiencies of around 20-30%. Parameters such as the number of layers of junctions, lateral junction density, and junction sizes for both series- and parallel-connected junctions were explored.

  15. Imaging of cervicothoracic junction trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongwaisayawan S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sirote Wongwaisayawan,1 Ruedeekorn Suwannanon,2 Rathachai Kaewlai11Department of Radiology, Ramathibodi Hospital and Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, ThailandAbstract: Cervicothoracic junction trauma is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in trauma patients. Imaging has played an important role in identifying injuries and guiding appropriate, timely therapy. Computed tomography is currently a method of choice for diagnosing cervicothoracic junction trauma, in which the pattern of injuries often suggests possible mechanisms and potential injuries. In this article, the authors describe and illustrate common and uncommon injuries that can occur in the cervicothoracic junction.Keywords: cervicothoracic junction, cervical spine, trauma, imaging, radiology

  16. Demonstrated Anomalous Pancreaticobiliary Ductal Junction

    OpenAIRE

    Koçkar, Cem; ?ENOL, Altu?; BA?TÜRK, Abdulkadir; AYDIN, Bünyamin; Cüre, Erkan

    2015-01-01

    Anomalies of the pancreaticobiliary junction are rare. Clinically anomalies of the pancreaticobiliary junction are uncommonly symptomatic but may present themselves with associated conditions ranging from benign acute abdominal pain to carcinomas. A 52 years old man was admitted to gastroenterology service with complaints of fever, nausea, vomiting and recurrent epigastric pain. He was diagnosed with biliary pancreatitis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreato-graphy was performed. Papilla ...

  17. Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, Georg Hermann

    2012-03-04

    We report on the fabrication of superconductor/insulator/ferromagnetic metal/superconductor (Nb/AlO{sub x}/Pd{sub 0.82}Ni{sub 0.18}/Nb) Josephson junctions (SIFS JJs) with high critical current densities, large normal resistance times area products, and high quality factors. For these junctions, a transition from 0- to {pi}-coupling is observed for a thickness d{sub F}=6 nm of the ferromagnetic Pd{sub 0.82}Ni{sub 0.18} interlayer. The magnetic field dependence of the critical current of the junctions demonstrates good spatial homogeneity of the tunneling barrier and ferromagnetic interlayer. Magnetic characterization shows that the Pd{sub 0.82}Ni{sub 0.18} has an out-of-plane anisotropy and large saturation magnetization indicating negligible dead layers at the interfaces. A careful analysis of Fiske modes up to about 400 GHz provides valuable information on the junction quality factor and the relevant damping mechanisms. Whereas losses due to quasiparticle tunneling dominate at low frequencies, at high frequencies the damping is explained by the finite surface resistance of the junction electrodes. High quality factors of up to 30 around 200 GHz have been achieved. They allow to study the junction dynamics, in particular the switching probability from the zero-voltage into the voltage state with and without microwave irradiation. The experiments with microwave irradiation are well explained within semi-classical models and numerical simulations. In contrast, at mK temperature the switching dynamics without applied microwaves clearly shows secondary quantum effects. Here, we could observe for the first time macroscopic quantum tunneling in Josephson junctions with a ferromagnetic interlayer. This observation excludes fluctuations of the critical current as a consequence of an unstable magnetic domain structure of the ferromagnetic interlayer and affirms the suitability of SIFS Josephson junctions for quantum information processing.

  18. Electronic thermometry in tunable tunnel junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksymovych, Petro

    2016-03-15

    A tunable tunnel junction thermometry circuit includes a variable width tunnel junction between a test object and a probe. The junction width is varied and a change in thermovoltage across the junction with respect to the change in distance across the junction is determined. Also, a change in biased current with respect to a change in distance across the junction is determined. A temperature gradient across the junction is determined based on a mathematical relationship between the temperature gradient, the change in thermovoltage with respect to distance and the change in biased current with respect to distance. Thermovoltage may be measured by nullifying a thermoelectric tunneling current with an applied voltage supply level. A piezoelectric actuator may modulate the probe, and thus the junction width, to vary thermovoltage and biased current across the junction. Lock-in amplifiers measure the derivatives of the thermovoltage and biased current modulated by varying junction width.

  19. Confocal Annular Josephson Tunnel Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    The physics of Josephson tunnel junctions drastically depends on their geometrical configurations and here we show that also tiny geometrical details play a determinant role. More specifically, we develop the theory of short and long annular Josephson tunnel junctions delimited by two confocal ellipses. The behavior of a circular annular Josephson tunnel junction is then seen to be simply a special case of the above result. For junctions having a normalized perimeter less than one, the threshold curves in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field of arbitrary orientations are derived and computed even in the case with trapped Josephson vortices. For longer junctions, a numerical analysis is carried out after the derivation of the appropriate motion equation for the Josephson phase. We found that the system is modeled by a modified and perturbed sine-Gordon equation with a space-dependent effective Josephson penetration length inversely proportional to the local junction width. Both the fluxon statics and dynamics are deeply affected by the non-uniform annulus width. Static zero-field multiple-fluxon solutions exist even in the presence of a large bias current. The tangential velocity of a traveling fluxon is not determined by the balance between the driving and drag forces due to the dissipative losses. Furthermore, the fluxon motion is characterized by a strong radial inward acceleration which causes electromagnetic radiation concentrated at the ellipse equatorial points.

  20. Octagonal Defects at Carbon Nanotube Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskólski, W.; Pelc, M.; Chico, Leonor; Ayuela, A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate knee-shaped junctions of semiconductor zigzag carbon nanotubes. Two dissimilar octagons appear at such junctions; one of them can reconstruct into a pair of pentagons. The junction with two octagons presents two degenerate localized states at Fermi energy (EF). The reconstructed junction has only one state near EF, indicating that these localized states are related to the octagonal defects. The inclusion of Coulomb interaction splits the localized states in the junction with two octagons, yielding an antiferromagnetic system. PMID:24089604

  1. Exploring the effects of landscape structure on aerosol optical depth (AOD) patterns using GIS and HJ-1B images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Luping; Fang, Linchuan; Tan, Wenfeng; Wang, Yunqiang; Huang, Yu

    2016-02-01

    A GIS approach and HJ-1B images were employed to determine the effect of landscape structure on aerosol optical depth (AOD) patterns. Landscape metrics, fractal analysis and contribution analysis were proposed to quantitatively illustrate the impact of land use on AOD patterns. The high correlation between the mean AOD and landscape metrics indicates that both the landscape composition and spatial structure affect the AOD pattern. Additionally, the fractal analysis demonstrated that the densities of built-up areas and bare land decreased from the high AOD centers to the outer boundary, but those of water and forest increased. These results reveal that the built-up area is the main positive contributor to air pollution, followed by bare land. Although bare land had a high AOD, it made a limited contribution to regional air pollution due to its small spatial extent. The contribution analysis further elucidated that built-up areas and bare land can increase air pollution more strongly in spring than in autumn, whereas forest and water have a completely opposite effect. Based on fractal and contribution analyses, the different effects of cropland are ascribed to the greater vegetation coverage from farming activity in spring than in autumn. The opposite effect of cropland on air pollution reveals that green coverage and human activity also influence AOD patterns. Given that serious concerns have been raised regarding the effects of built-up areas, bare land and agricultural air pollutant emissions, this study will add fundamental knowledge of the understanding of the key factors influencing urban air quality.

  2. Dynamic monitoring of landscape patterns and ecological processes using HJ-1 and SPOT satellite data over Hulunbeier grassland, China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Feng Zhang; Ying Li; Sihan Liu; Shaohua Zhao; Yanting Wu

    2014-03-01

    Landscape patterns and ecological processes have been in long-term research focus in the field of landscape ecology, but how to measure their quantitative relations is still open. This work chooses the Hulunbeier grassland as the study area where ecosystem shows high vulnerability, frequent evolvement of landscape patterns and ecological processes. With remote sensing technology, the relationships between landscape patterns and ecological processes were analyzed quantitatively from multi-scale, multitemporal and time series perspective. Firstly, the information about the current situation and change of landscape patterns and ecological processes are obtained from HJ-1 (Environmental and Disaster Small Satellite) and LANDSAT TM (Thermal Mapper) data. Secondly, SPOT NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data during 2000–2008 are used to analyze the dynamic changes of ecological processes, and to simulate its inter-annual variety at pixel scale. Finally, the dynamic change trends of ecological processes of grassland vegetation are described. The results indicate that the unchanged ecosystem types account for most of the study area, unused land in the central part expands continuously which results in the increase of desertification, and most ecosystem types in the eastern part are changed to grassland and woodland. Furthermore, the vegetation vulnerability is the highest in the grassland-dominated region, the second in grassland–farmland–woodland transition, and the smallest in the woodland-dominated region, where the stability is enhanced in turn. Due to the dynamic change of vegetation, it can be concluded that the study area underwent ecological processes of vegetation cover with a negative trend and a changed phenology.

  3. Reconstruction of Daily 30 m Data from HJ CCD, GF-1 WFV, Landsat, and MODIS Data for Crop Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingquan Wu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the recent launch of new satellites and the developments of spatiotemporal data fusion methods, we are entering an era of high spatiotemporal resolution remote-sensing analysis. This study proposed a method to reconstruct daily 30 m remote-sensing data for monitoring crop types and phenology in two study areas located in Xinjiang Province, China. First, the Spatial and Temporal Data Fusion Approach (STDFA was used to reconstruct the time series high spatiotemporal resolution data from the Huanjing satellite charge coupled device (HJ CCD, Gaofen satellite no. 1 wide field-of-view camera (GF-1 WFV, Landsat, and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data. Then, the reconstructed time series were applied to extract crop phenology using a Hybrid Piecewise Logistic Model (HPLM. In addition, the onset date of greenness increase (OGI and greenness decrease (OGD were also calculated using the simulated phenology. Finally, crop types were mapped using the phenology information. The results show that the reconstructed high spatiotemporal data had a high quality with a proportion of good observations (PGQ higher than 0.95 and the HPLM approach can simulate time series Normalized Different Vegetation Index (NDVI very well with R2 ranging from 0.635 to 0.952 in Luntai and 0.719 to 0.991 in Bole, respectively. The reconstructed high spatiotemporal data were able to extract crop phenology in single crop fields, which provided a very detailed pattern relative to that from time series MODIS data. Moreover, the crop types can be classified using the reconstructed time series high spatiotemporal data with overall accuracy equal to 0.91 in Luntai and 0.95 in Bole, which is 0.028 and 0.046 higher than those obtained by using multi-temporal Landsat NDVI data.

  4. Methods of extracting snow cover information based on HJ- 1B data: a case of the Juntanghu watershed%基于HJ-1B数据的雪盖提取方法研究——以军塘湖流域为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志群; 刘志辉; 邱冬梅

    2012-01-01

    HJ-1A、1B卫星具有较高的时间和空间分辨率,适合小流域尺度的积雪动态监测研究。本文基于HJ-1B数据,选取军塘湖流域,针对同时具有HJ-1B/CCD、IRS数据和只有HJ-1B/CCD数据两种情况展开雪盖提取方法研究。对于第一种情况,因研究区南端有大面积森林覆盖,会影响雪像元识别,选用NDSI和田两种雪盖指数,并利用NDVI或TM影像反演的林区辅助判识积雪。结果表明:当有植被信息辅助分类时,两种雪盖指数均能较好提取出森林覆盖区的积雪,且提取结果基本一致,精度较高。对于第二种情况,因无法计算雪盖指数,采用光谱与纹理信息结合的SVM法提取雪盖,提取的面积和精度与上述方法相比略低,但很接近,说明在缺少IRS数据的情况下,仅利用CCD仍可提取出较为准确的雪盖,满足实际应用需求。%In mid-to high-latitudes and alpine regions snow cover plays a vital role in regional climate. Area and spatial distribution of snow cover in alpine regions varies significantly over time, due to seasonal and interannual variations in climate. Therefore, there is a need for monitoring the area and spatial distribution of snow cover. Re- cently, remote sensing data become the most popular source for acquiring the snow cover information. There are many optical remote sensing data sources are used for extracting snow cover information, such as NOAA/AVHRR, EOS/MODIS, LandsatTM/ETM + and so on. Compared to these data sources, HJ -1A and HJ -1B satellites both have comparatively higher temporal and spatial resolution and it is more conducive to monitor the variations of snow cover at small watershed. At present, the study on the methods of extracting snow cover information based on HJ - 1 A and HJ - 1B data is less. In this paper we exploited the methods for extraction of snow cover information in two cases, both HJ - 1B/CCD and HJ - 1B/IRS data and just HJ - 1B

  5. Meiotic DNA joint molecule resolution depends on Nse5-Nse6 of the Smc5-Smc6 holocomplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrkamp-Richter, Sophie; Hyppa, Randy W; Prudden, John; Smith, Gerald R; Boddy, Michael N

    2012-10-01

    Faithful chromosome segregation in meiosis is crucial to form viable, healthy offspring and in most species, it requires programmed recombination between homologous chromosomes. In fission yeast, meiotic recombination is initiated by Rec12 (Spo11 homolog) and generates single Holliday junction (HJ) intermediates, which are resolved by the Mus81-Eme1 endonuclease to generate crossovers and thereby allow proper chromosome segregation. Although Mus81 contains the active site for HJ resolution, the regulation of Mus81-Eme1 is unclear. In cells lacking Nse5-Nse6 of the Smc5-Smc6 genome stability complex, we observe persistent meiotic recombination intermediates (DNA joint molecules) resembling HJs that accumulate in mus81Δ cells. Elimination of Rec12 nearly completely rescues the meiotic defects of nse6Δ and mus81Δ single mutants and partially rescues nse6Δ mus81Δ double mutants, indicating that these factors act after DNA double-strand break formation. Likewise, expression of the bacterial HJ resolvase RusA partially rescues the defects of nse6Δ, mus81Δ and nse6Δ mus81Δ mitotic cells, as well as the meiotic defects of nse6Δ and mus81Δ cells. Partial rescue likely reflects the accumulation of structures other than HJs, such as hemicatenanes, and an additional role for Nse5-Nse6 most prominent during mitotic growth. Our results indicate a regulatory role for the Smc5-Smc6 complex in HJ resolution via Mus81-Eme1.

  6. Modelling of Dual-Junction Solar Cells including Tunnel Junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz Amine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monolithically stacked multijunction solar cells based on III–V semiconductors materials are the state-of-art of approach for high efficiency photovoltaic energy conversion, in particular for space applications. The individual subcells of the multi-junction structure are interconnected via tunnel diodes which must be optically transparent and connect the component cells with a minimum electrical resistance. The quality of these diodes determines the output performance of the solar cell. The purpose of this work is to contribute to the investigation of the tunnel electrical resistance of such a multi-junction cell through the analysis of the current-voltage (J-V characteristics under illumination. Our approach is based on an equivalent circuit model of a diode for each subcell. We examine the effect of tunnel resistance on the performance of a multi-junction cell using minimization of the least squares technique.

  7. Monitoring drought condition based on HJ-1A/1B data in natural rubber plantation%基于HJ-1A/1B数据的天然橡胶干旱监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海亮; 戴声佩; 陈帮乾; 李世池; 田光辉

    2016-01-01

    Crop drought monitoring is one of the main tasks of agricultural monitoring, and the monitoring and quantitative assessment of natural rubber drought has vital practical significance to disaster control, resource safety and the ecology and environment protection of rubber plantations. Yangjiang Farm (109º38′-109º49′E, 19º16′-19º25′N), one of the largest farms in the Hainan State Farms, is located in the north-central Hainan Island. The land area and natural rubber plant area of the farm are 14 367 and 5 190 hm2, respectively. It was chosen for this study. In order to improve the accuracy and real-time performance of natural rubber drought monitoring, a comprehensive model was established based on the relationship among the standardizedvegetation supply water index (VSWIS), compound index (CI) and the synchronous soil moisture data measured in the study area using HJ-1A/1B-CCD data, HJ-1B-IRS data and meteorological data. The VSWIS was suitable for monitoring drought at the high density vegetation area, and the CI was suitable for real-time meteorological drought monitoring. A total of 100 sampling points in 4 sample areas was designed and the distance was 30 m between 2 adjacent points. In addition, another 25 points were randomly selected for model validation. Soil moisture of these points was measured from May 11 to May 20 in 2013. The drought was quantitatively characterized by drought index (DI). The DI value was numerically equal to the soil moisture value. By the multiple linear regression, an equation was built to estimate soil moisture based on VSWIS and CI. The model had determination coefficient of 0.67 (P<0.05). Thus, the DI value was also obtained. Then, the drought was quantitatively classified by DI values: wet with DI of 0.45-1, normal with DI of 0.30-0.45, light drought with DI of 0.20-0.30, moderate drought with DI of 0.05-0.2, and severe drought with DI of 0-0.05. The smaller DI value suggested more severe drought condition. The model

  8. Monitoring Spatio-Temporal Changes of Heat Island Effect in Beijing Based on HJ-1B%北京市热岛效应时空变化的HJ-1B监测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛晓娟; 孟庆岩; 王春梅; 郑利娟; 王靓; 张瀛

    2012-01-01

    .%本文利用2008 -2011年HJ- 1B/CCD可见光-近红外数据,以及HJ- 1B/IRS热红外数据,采用遥感算法反演北京市地表温度,并用MODIS地表温度产品对反演结果进行了初步验证.同时分析了北京市热岛效应的年际、年内变化趋势.另利用热场变异指数分析其空间分布特征,以及NDVLNDBI与城市下垫面对热岛效应的影响.结果表明:(1)2008 - 2010年北京市热岛强度总体呈上升趋势,2011年有所缓解,4年热岛强度分别为:5.2℃、5.2℃、9.2℃、8.2℃:(2)北京市2010年四季存在明显热岛现象,夏季最强,春、秋次之,冬季最弱,四季热岛强度分别为8.2℃、9.4℃、9.2℃、4.3℃;(3)2008- 2011年北京市热岛空间分布特征表明,房山区和大兴区的南部热岛效应逐年缓解,2011年昌平区热岛效应比前3年明显,植被和水体形成城市冷岛;(4)地表温度与NDVI呈明显负相关,与ND-BI呈正相关,城市热岛效应与下垫面类型存在明显相关性.

  9. Gap junctions - guards of excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroemlund, Line Waring; Jensen, Christa Funch; Qvortrup, Klaus; Delmar, Mario; Nielsen, Morten Schak

    2015-06-01

    Cardiomyocytes are connected by mechanical and electrical junctions located at the intercalated discs (IDs). Although these structures have long been known, it is becoming increasingly clear that their components interact. This review describes the involvement of the ID in electrical disturbances of the heart and focuses on the role of the gap junctional protein connexin 43 (Cx43). Current evidence shows that Cx43 plays a crucial role in organizing microtubules at the intercalated disc and thereby regulating the trafficking of the cardiac sodium channel NaV1.5 to the membrane.

  10. Control over Rectification in Supramolecular Tunneling Junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wimbush, K.S.; Wimbush, Kim S.; Reus, William F.; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; Reinhoudt, David; Whitesides, George M.; Nijhuis, C.A.; Velders, Aldrik

    2010-01-01

    In complete control: The magnitude of current rectification in well-defined supramolecular tunneling junctions can be controlled by changing the terminal functionality (red spheres) of dendrimers (gray spheres) immobilized on a supramolecular platform (see picture). Junctions containing biferrocene

  11. Nano-Molecular Junctions on STM Tips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Huang∗; Jianshu Yang

    2011-01-01

    We present a technique for building metal-organic-metal junctions, which contain ten or fewer conjugated molecules between each of such junction, and the investigations of the I-V response of these junctions. The junctions are made by self assembling thiolated molecules onto gold coated tips for use in scanning tunneling microscopy. We show that this easy technique probes the qualitative properties of the molecules. Current-voltage characteristics of a Tour wire and a new molecular rectifier are presented.

  12. Nano-Molecular Junctions on STM Tips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Huang; Jianshu Yang

    2011-01-01

    We present a technique for building metal-organic-metal junctions, which contain ten or fewer conjugated molecules between each of such junction, and the investigations of the I-V response of these junctions.The junctions are made by self assembling thiolated molecules onto gold coated tips for use in scanning tunneling microscopy. We show that this easy technique probes the qualitative properties of the molecules. Currentvoltage characteristics of a Tour wire and a new molecular rectifier are presented.

  13. Current noise in tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, Moritz; Grabert, Hermann [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 3, 79104, Freiburg (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    We study current fluctuations in tunnel junctions driven by a voltage source. The voltage is applied to the tunneling element via an impedance providing an electromagnetic environment of the junction. We use circuit theory to relate the fluctuations of the current flowing in the leads of the junction with the voltage fluctuations generated by the environmental impedance and the fluctuations of the tunneling current. The spectrum of current fluctuations is found to consist of three parts: a term arising from the environmental Johnson-Nyquist noise, a term due to the shot noise of the tunneling current and a third term describing the cross-correlation between these two noise sources. Our phenomenological theory reproduces previous results based on the Hamiltonian model for the dynamical Coulomb blockade and provides a simple understanding of the current fluctuation spectrum in terms of circuit theory and properties of the average current. Specific results are given for a tunnel junction driven through a resonator. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Josephson tunnel junction microwave attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V. P.; Shitov, S. V.; Shchukin, A. V.

    1993-01-01

    A new element for superconducting electronic circuitry-a variable attenuator-has been proposed, designed, and successfully tested. The principle of operation is based on the change in the microwave impedance of a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson tunnel junction when dc bias...

  15. Retrieving leaf area index of winter wheat using HJ-1-A/B CCD2 data%利用HJ-1-A/B CCD2数据反演冬小麦叶面积指数

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵虎; 裴志远; 马尚杰; 王连林; 马志平

    2012-01-01

    叶面积指数是十分重要的作物生理生态参数,为提高利用国产环境减灾小卫星CCD数据反演冬小麦叶面积指数的精度,该文以5种常用的植被指数(归一化差值植被指数(normalized difference vegetation index,NDVI),增强植被指数(enhanced vegetation index,EVI),双波段增强植被指数(2-bands enhanced vegetation index,EVI2),比值植被指数(ratio vegetation index,RVI),土壤调节植被指数(soil-adjusted vegetation index,SAVI)为基础,结合3种常用的回归模型,按生长阶段比较分析了不同植被指数和回归模型反演叶面积指数的精度.结果表明,除生殖生长阶段外,叶面积指数和5种植被指数之间均有较强的相关关系:指数模型和一元线性模型分别为全生育期和营养生长阶段的最佳拟合模型;EVI在全生育期拟合时的表现好于其他4个指数(R2=0.9348),SAVI则是营养生长阶段表现最佳的指数(R2=0.9404).该研究为进一步利用植被指数反演叶面积指数提供了参考.%Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the most important biophysical parameters of crop and other land surface vegetation. In order to improve the accuracy of retrieving leaf area index of winter wheat using HJ CCD data, the accuracy of different vegetation indices and regression models were compared and analyzed from the aspects of growth stages on the basis of five common vegetation indices including NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index), EV1 (enhanced vegetation index), EVI2 (two-bands enhanced vegetation index), RVI (ratio vegetation index) and SAVI (soil adjusted vegetation index) and three common regression models. The results showed that LAI and all five vegetation indices had good correlative relationship except at reproductive growth stage. Exponential and linear regression model were the best regression models for the whole growth stage and the vegetative stage, respectively. EVI performed better than other four indices when simulated at the

  16. Stability of large-area molecular junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Hylke B.; Kronemeijer, Auke J.; Harkema, Jan; van Hal, Paul A.; Smits, Edsger C. P.; de Leeuw, Dago M.; Blom, Paul W. M.

    The stability of molecular junctions is crucial for any application of molecular electronics. Degradation of molecular junctions when exposed to ambient conditions is regularly observed. In this report the stability of large-area molecular junctions under ambient conditions for more than two years

  17. Soliton bunching in annular Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernik, I.V; Lazarides, Nickos; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    1996-01-01

    By studying soliton (fluxon) motion in long annular Josephson junctions it is possible to avoid the influence of the boundaries and soliton-soliton collisions present in linear junctions. A new experimental design consisting of a niobium coil placed on top of an annular junction has been used...

  18. Long Range Magnetic Interaction between Josephson Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1995-01-01

    A new model for magnetic coupling between long Josephson junctions is proposed. The coupling mechanism is a result of the magnetic fields outside the junctions and is consequently effective over long distances between junctions. We give specific expressions for the form and magnitude of the inter...

  19. Dynamics of pi-junction interferometer circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornkev, V.K.; Mozhaev, P.B.; Borisenko, I.V.;

    2002-01-01

    The pi-junction superconducting circuit dynamics was studied by means of numerical simulation technique. Parallel arrays consisting of Josephson junctions of both 0- and pi-type were studied as a model of high-T-c grain-boundary Josephson junction. The array dynamics and the critical current...

  20. Dynamics of pi-junction interferometer circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornkev, V.K.; Mozhaev, P.B.; Borisenko, I.V.

    2002-01-01

    The pi-junction superconducting circuit dynamics was studied by means of numerical simulation technique. Parallel arrays consisting of Josephson junctions of both 0- and pi-type were studied as a model of high-T-c grain-boundary Josephson junction. The array dynamics and the critical current...

  1. Quantitative estimation of Secchi disk depth using the HJ-1B CCD image and in situ observations in Sishili Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dingfeng; Zhou, Bin; Fan, Yanguo; Li, Tantan; Liang, Shouzhen; Sun, Xiaoling

    2014-11-01

    Secchi disk depth (SDD) is an important optical property of water related to water quality and primary production. The traditional sampling method is not only time-consuming and labor-intensive but also limited in terms of temporal and spatial coverage, while remote sensing technology can deal with these limitations. In this study, models estimating SDD have been proposed based on the regression analysis between the HJ-1 satellite CCD image and synchronous in situ water quality measurements. The results illustrate the band ratio model of B3/B1 of CCD could be used to estimate Secchi depth in this region, with the mean relative error (MRE) of 8.6% and root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.1 m, respectively. This model has been applied to one image of HJ-1 satellite CCD, generating water transparency on June 23, 2009, which will be of immense value for environmental monitoring. In addition, SDD was deeper in offshore waters than in inshore waters. River runoffs, hydrodynamic environments, and marine aquaculture are the main factors influencing SDD in this area.

  2. Octagonal Defects at Carbon Nanotube Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jaskólski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate knee-shaped junctions of semiconductor zigzag carbon nanotubes. Two dissimilar octagons appear at such junctions; one of them can reconstruct into a pair of pentagons. The junction with two octagons presents two degenerate localized states at Fermi energy (EF. The reconstructed junction has only one state near EF, indicating that these localized states are related to the octagonal defects. The inclusion of Coulomb interaction splits the localized states in the junction with two octagons, yielding an antiferromagnetic system.

  3. Fabrication of high quality ferromagnetic Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weides, M. [Institute for Solid State Research, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany) and CNI-Center of Nanoelectronic Systems for Information Technology, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)]. E-mail: m.weides@fz-juelich.de; Tillmann, K. [Institute for Solid State Research, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Kohlstedt, H. [Institute for Solid State Research, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); CNI-Center of Nanoelectronic Systems for Information Technology, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Department of Material Science and Engineering and Department of Physics, University of Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    We present ferromagnetic Nb/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ni{sub 60}Cu{sub 40}/Nb Josephson junctions (SIFS) with an ultrathin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tunnel barrier. The junction fabrication was optimized regarding junction insulation and homogeneity of current transport. Using ion-beam-etching and anodic oxidation we defined and insulated the junction mesas. The additional 2 nm thin Cu-layer below the ferromagnetic NiCu (SINFS) lowered interface roughness and ensured very homogeneous current transport. A high yield of junctional devices with j {sub c} spreads less than 2% was obtained.

  4. Selective permeability of gap junction channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Gary S; Valiunas, Virginijus; Brink, Peter R

    2004-03-23

    Gap junctions mediate the transfer of small cytoplasmic molecules between adjacent cells. A family of gap junction proteins exist that form channels with unique properties, and differ in their ability to mediate the transfer of specific molecules. Mutations in a number of individual gap junction proteins, called connexins, cause specific human diseases. Therefore, it is important to understand how gap junctions selectively move molecules between cells. Rules that dictate the ability of a molecule to travel through gap junction channels are complex. In addition to molecular weight and size, the ability of a solute to transverse these channels depends on its net charge, shape, and interactions with specific connexins that constitute gap junctions in particular cells. This review presents some data and interpretations pertaining to mechanisms that govern the differential transfer of signals through gap junction channels.

  5. Seebeck effect in molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbovskaya, Natalya A.

    2016-05-01

    Advances in the fabrication and characterization of nanoscale systems presently allow for a better understanding of their thermoelectric properties. As is known, the building blocks of thermoelectricity are the Peltier and Seebeck effects. In the present work we review results of theoretical studies of the Seebeck effect in single-molecule junctions and similar systems. The behavior of thermovoltage and thermopower in these systems is controlled by several factors including the geometry of molecular bridges, the characteristics of contacts between the bridge and the electrodes, the strength of the Coulomb interactions between electrons on the bridge, and of electron-phonon interactions. We describe the impact of these factors on the thermopower. Also, we discuss a nonlinear Seebeck effect in molecular junctions.

  6. Electron transport in molecular junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Chengjun

    This thesis addresses the electron transport in molecular junctions, focusing on the energy level alignment and correlation effects. Various levels of theory have been applied to study the structural and electronic effects in different molecular junctions, starting from the single particle density...... charge position are in quantitative agreement with the experiments, while pure DFT is not. This is the consequence of the accurate energy level alignment, where the DFT+∑ method corrects the self-interaction error in the standard DFT functional and uses a static image charge model to include the image...... charge effect on the energy level renormalization. Additionally, the gating of the 4,4’-bipyridine (44BP) molecule contacted to either Ni or Au electrodes has been investigated. Here it is found that the gating mechanism is conceptually different between two cases. In the case of Ni contacts where...

  7. How coherent are Josephson junctions?

    CERN Document Server

    Paik, Hanhee; Bishop, Lev S; Kirchmair, G; Catelani, G; Sears, A P; Johnson, B R; Reagor, M J; Frunzio, L; Glazman, L; Schoelkopf, R J

    2011-01-01

    Attaining sufficient coherence is a requirement for realizing a large-scale quantum computer. We present a new implementation of a superconducting transmon qubit that is strongly coupled to a three-dimensional superconducting cavity. We observe a reproducible increase in the coherence times of qubit (both $T_1$ and $T_2$ > 10 microseconds) and cavity ($T_{cav}$ ~ 50 microseconds) by more than an order of magnitude compared to the current state-of-art superconducting qubits. This enables the study of the stability and quality of Josephson junctions at precisions exceeding one part per million. Surprisingly, we see no evidence for $1/f$ critical current noise. At elevated temperatures, we observe the dissipation due to a small density (< 1 - 10 ppm) of thermally-excited quasiparticles. The results suggest that the overall quality of Josephson junctions will allow error rates of a few $10^{-4}$, approaching the error correction threshold.

  8. Morphogenesis of rat myotendinous junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzi, Davide; Ambrogini, Patrizia; Falcieri, Elisabetta; Burattini, Sabrina

    2013-10-01

    Myotendinous junction (MTJ) is the highly specialized complex which connects the skeletal muscle to the tendon for transmitting the contractile force between the two tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the MTJ development and rat EDL was chosen as a model. 1, 15, 30 day animals were considered and the junctions were analyzed by light and electron microscopy. The MTJ interface architecture increased during the development, extending the interaction between muscle and tendon. 1-day-old rats showed disorganized myofibril bundles, spread cytosol and incomplete rough endoplasmic reticulum, features partially improved in 15-day-old rats, and completely developed in 30-day-old animals. These findings indicate that muscle-tendon interface displays, during rat lifetime, numerically increased and longer tendon interdigitations, correlated with an improved organization of both tissues and with a progressive acquirement of full functionality.

  9. Thermoelectric efficiency of molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perroni, C. A.; Ninno, D.; Cataudella, V.

    2016-09-01

    Focus of the review is on experimental set-ups and theoretical proposals aimed to enhance thermoelectric performances of molecular junctions. In addition to charge conductance, the thermoelectric parameter commonly measured in these systems is the thermopower, which is typically rather low. We review recent experimental outcomes relative to several junction configurations used to optimize the thermopower. On the other hand, theoretical calculations provide estimations of all the thermoelectric parameters in the linear and non-linear regime, in particular of the thermoelectric figure of merit and efficiency, completing our knowledge of molecular thermoelectricity. For this reason, the review will mainly focus on theoretical studies analyzing the role of not only electronic, but also of the vibrational degrees of freedom. Theoretical results about thermoelectric phenomena in the coherent regime are reviewed focusing on interference effects which play a significant role in enhancing the figure of merit. Moreover, we review theoretical studies including the effects of molecular many-body interactions, such as electron-vibration couplings, which typically tend to reduce the efficiency. Since a fine tuning of many parameters and coupling strengths is required to optimize the thermoelectric conversion in molecular junctions, new theoretically proposed set-ups are discussed in the conclusions.

  10. The RecA/RAD51 protein drives migration of Holliday junctions via polymerization on DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Matthew J; Mazina, Olga M; Bugreev, Dmitry V; Mazin, Alexander V

    2011-04-19

    The Holliday junction (HJ), a cross-shaped structure that physically links the two DNA helices, is a key intermediate in homologous recombination, DNA repair, and replication. Several helicase-like proteins are known to bind HJs and promote their branch migration (BM) by translocating along DNA at the expense of ATP hydrolysis. Surprisingly, the bacterial recombinase protein RecA and its eukaryotic homologue Rad51 also promote BM of HJs despite the fact they do not bind HJs preferentially and do not translocate along DNA. RecA/Rad51 plays a key role in DNA double-stranded break repair and homologous recombination. RecA/Rad51 binds to ssDNA and forms contiguous filaments that promote the search for homologous DNA sequences and DNA strand exchange. The mechanism of BM promoted by RecA/RAD51 is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that cycles of RecA/Rad51 polymerization and dissociation coupled with ATP hydrolysis drives the BM of HJs.

  11. The N-terminus of IntDOT forms hydrophobic interactions during Holliday Junction resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolakowski, Adam J; Gardner, Jeffrey F

    DOT Integrase (IntDOT) is a member of the tyrosine recombinase family. It catalyzes the integration and excision reactions of an integrative and conjugative element (ICE) called CTnDOT. Like other tyrosine recombinases, the integration reaction proceeds by two sets of strand exchanges between the attDOT site on CTnDOT and an attB site in the host chromosome. The strand exchanges occur seven bases apart and define an overlap region. After the first strand exchanges a Holliday Junction (HJ) intermediate is formed. Previous work showed that a valine (V95) in a predicted alpha helix in the N-terminus of IntDOT is required for resolution of HJs to substrates and products. We have identified two additional hydrophobic residues in the helix (A92 and F99) that are involved in resolution of HJs. IntDOT proteins with substitutions at these residues form aberrant complexes in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. We propose that these three residues participate in hydrophobic interactions that are involved in forming higher-order complexes and resolution of HJs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Potent antimicrobial small molecules screened as inhibitors of tyrosine recombinases and Holliday junction-resolving enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, Marc C; Boldt, Jeffrey L; Vahi-Ferguson, Gabriel; Salamon, Peter; Nefzi, Adel; Ostresh, John M; Giulianotti, Marc; Pinilla, Clemencia; Segall, Anca M

    2011-11-01

    Holliday junctions (HJs) are critical intermediates in many recombination-dependent DNA repair pathways. Our lab has previously identified several hexameric peptides that target HJ intermediates formed in DNA recombination reactions. One of the most potent peptides, WRWYCR, is active as a homodimer and has shown bactericidal activity partly because of its ability to interfere with DNA repair proteins that act upon HJs. To increase the possibility of developing a therapeutic targeting DNA repair, we searched for small molecule inhibitors that were functional surrogates of the peptides. Initial screens of heterocyclic small molecule libraries resulted in the identification of several N-methyl aminocyclic thiourea inhibitors. Like the peptides, these inhibitors trapped HJs formed during recombination reactions in vitro, but were less potent than the peptides in biochemical assays and had little antibacterial activity. In this study, we describe the screening of a second set of libraries containing somewhat larger and more symmetrical scaffolds in an effort to mimic the symmetry of a WRWYCR homodimer and its target. From this screen, we identified several pyrrolidine bis-cyclic guanidine inhibitors that also interfere with processing of HJs in vitro and are potent inhibitors of Gram-negative and especially Gram-positive bacterial growth. These molecules are proof-of-principle of a class of compounds with novel activities, which may in the future be developed into a new class of antibiotics that will expand the available choices for therapy against drug-resistant bacteria.

  13. Chaos induced by coupling between Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Azemtsa-Donfack, H.; Botha, A. E.

    2015-02-01

    It is found that, in a stack of intrinsic Josephson junctions in layered high temperature superconductors under external electromagnetic radiation, the chaotic features are triggered by interjunction coupling, i.e., the coupling between different junctions in the stack. While the radiation is well known to produce chaotic effects in the single junction, the effect of interjunction coupling is fundamentally different and it can lead to the onset of chaos via a different route to that of the single junction. A precise numerical study of the phase dynamics of intrinsic Josephson junctions, as described by the CCJJ+DC model, is performed. We demonstrate the charging of superconducting layers, in a bias current interval corresponding to a Shapiro step subharmonic, due to the creation of a longitudinal plasma wave along the stack of junctions. With increase in radiation amplitude chaotic behavior sets in. The chaotic features of the coupled Josephson junctions are analyzed by calculations of the Lyapunov exponents. We compare results for a stack of junctions to the case of a single junction and prove that the observed chaos is induced by the coupling between the junctions. The use of Shapiro step subharmonics may allow longitudinal plasma waves to be excited at low radiation power.

  14. [Remodeling of cardiac gap junctions and arrhythmias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhi-Bin; Sheng, Juan-Juan

    2011-12-25

    In the heart, gap junctions mediate electrical and chemical coupling between adjacent cardiomyocytes, forming the cell-to-cell pathways for orderly spread of the wave of electrical excitation responsible for a functional syncytium. Three principal connexins are expressed in cardiomyocytes, connexin 43 (CX43), CX40, and CX45. CX43 predominates in ventricular muscle cells. Most of the gap junctions, assembled from CX43, are located at the intercalated discs, often with larger junctional plaques at the disc periphery. The gap junctions are rarely distributed to the sides of the cardiomyocyte. The ischemia-reperfusion, cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus induce gap junction remodeling. The gap junction remodeling induced by above-mentioned diseases shows similar characteristics, including down-regulation of CX43, reduction in gap junction plaque size, increased heterogeneity and lateralization of gap junction distribution, and dephosphorylation of CX43. The elevated angiotensin II concentration in local myocardium may play an important role in the gap junction remodeling. The down-regulation of CX43 and lateralization of gap junction distribution alter anisotropic spread of the impulse of ventricular myocardium. The dephosphorylation of CX43 not only reduces electrical conductance, but also decreases permeability of chemicals between cardiomyocytes. The lateralization of gap junctions may increase the number of hemichannels formed by CX43. The opening of hemichannels induces ATP efflux and Na(+) influx, which forms a delayed after-depolarization. The gap junction remodeling in pathological condition produces arrhythmia substrate in the ventricles. In this review, the current knowledge on the relationship between the remodeling of cardiac gap junctions and arrhythmias were summarized.

  15. Oil spill information extraction combined with texture features from HJ-CCD Sensors-A case study in PL19-3 oil spill incident%辅以纹理特征的HJ-CCD海上溢油信息提取——以PL19-3溢油为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖; 兰国新; 刘丙新

    2012-01-01

    Traditional information extraction technique of optical satellite remote sensing constitutes an important component of oil spills monitoring system, but it subjects to monitoring accuracy and ability dependence on spectral features. Based on CCD (30m spatial resolution) data from operational HJ instruments, we taking Penglai 19-3 oil spill incident was took as an example to discuss the method of combining spectrum with directional textural information to improve the accuracy of extracted information. A principal components-based algorithm first extracted all spectrum information of oil-on-water. Then a directional gradient algorithm acquired the edge distribution of oil-contaminated area. Finally, the proposal method were tested with 8 scenes of HJ-CCD data and compared with conventional method based on singe spectrum using Jefrries-Matusita separability index. The results show that the introduction of the directional texture analysis is effective to the edge detection of contaminated zone and the identification of thick-thin oil distribution, which is feasible in the oil spill monitoring based on HJ-CCD data.%鉴于依赖光谱特征的传统溢油信息提取方法面临信息提取精度低的困境,提出采用光谱特征与纹理分析结合的方法应用于溢油监测.选择位于渤海的蓬莱19-3油田溢油事故为研究对象,基于覆盖溢油事故阶段的8景30m分辨率HJ-CCD数据,在溢油目标提取过程中,引入了方向性纹理特征分析,将主成分光谱降维、方向梯度边缘检测等技术相结合,形成了基于光谱与纹理特征的溢油信息提取技术.所述方法经8组数据检验后,用类间分歧度方法进行了对比评价.结果表明:将纹理分析方法应用于溢油信息提取,类间分歧度提高到1.9999,提高了油膜影响边界和油膜厚度分区识别能力.

  16. Le savoir-faire local dans la valorisation alimentaire des fruits du safoutier (Dacryodes edulis (G. Don H.J. Lam au Cameroun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noumi, GB.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Local Know-how in the Valorisation of (Dacryodes edulis (G. Don H.J. Lam Fruits in Cameroon. Dacryodes edulis (G. Don H.J. Lam (Burseraceae is an oleaginous plant highly appreciated in the forest zone of Cameroon. This tree yields fruits called african pear or safou, highly consumed by local populations and even abroad. African pear is at the centre of a great economic activity in the Central Africa subregion as its trade generates cash for local traders during the production period. However, the valorisation of african pear is hindered by its high perishable nature responsible for important post-harvest losses due to lack of proper post-harvest handling. Some studies addressed the problem, unfortunately, nothing was done on the local know-how which has still to be investigated. The present paper sheds light on african pear local harvesting, handling and marketing practices in Cameroon. Field surveys were carried out in different production zones in Cameroon savannah and humid forest lowlands: Adamawa, centre, east, littoral and west provinces. Results showed that african pear occupies an important place in the population daily life. This multipurpose tree specie appears to be a source of foodstuffs, cash income, drugs and wood. If, on one hand diverse strategies are developed by the population for a proper conservation of fruits, on the other hand there is not a real fruits transformation activity. Results of this study highlight the traditional know-how and bring out prospects for future works on african pear valorisation.

  17. Classification mapping and species identification of salt marshes based on a short-time interval NDVI time-series from HJ-1 optical imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chao; Liu, Yongxue; Zhao, Saishuai; Zhou, Minxi; Yang, Yuhao; Li, Feixue

    2016-03-01

    Salt marshes are seen as the most dynamic and valuable ecosystems in coastal zones, and in these areas, it is crucial to obtain accurate remote sensing information on the spatial distributions of species over time. However, discriminating various types of salt marsh is rather difficult because of their strong spectral similarities. Previous salt marsh mapping studies have focused mainly on high spatial and spectral (i.e., hyperspectral) resolution images combined with auxiliary information; however, the results are often limited to small regions. With a high temporal and moderate spatial resolution, the Chinese HuanJing-1 (HJ-1) satellite optical imagery can be used not only to monitor phenological changes of salt marsh vegetation over short-time intervals, but also to obtain coverage of large areas. Here, we apply HJ-1 satellite imagery to the middle coast of Jiangsu in east China to monitor changes in saltmarsh vegetation cover. First, we constructed a monthly NDVI time-series to classify various types of salt marsh and then we tested the possibility of using compressed time-series continuously, to broaden the applicability of this particular approach. Our principal findings are as follows: (1) the overall accuracy of salt marsh mapping based on the monthly NDVI time-series was 90.3%, which was ∼16.0% higher than the single-phase classification strategy; (2) a compressed time-series, including NDVI from six key months (April, June-September, and November), demonstrated very little reduction (2.3%) in overall accuracy but led to obvious improvements in unstable regions; and (3) a simple rule for Spartina alterniflora identification was established using a scene solely from November, which may provide an effective way for regularly monitoring its distribution.

  18. Derivation of Land Surface Albedo at High Resolution by Combining HJ-1A/B Reflectance Observations with MODIS BRDF Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Gao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Land surface albedo is an essential parameter for monitoring global/regional climate and land surface energy balance. Although many studies have been conducted on global or regional land surface albedo using various remote sensing data over the past few decades, land surface albedo product with a high spatio–temporal resolution is currently very scarce. This paper proposes a method for deriving land surface albedo with a high spatio–temporal resolution (space: 30 m and time: 2–4 days. The proposed method works by combining the land surface reflectance data at 30 m spatial resolution obtained from the charge-coupled devices in the Huanjing-1A and -1B (HJ-1A/B satellites with the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS land surface bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF parameters product (MCD43A1, which is at a spatial resolution of 500 m. First, the land surface BRDF parameters for HJ-1A/B land surface reflectance with a spatial–temporal resolutions of 30 m and 2–4 day are calculated on the basis of the prior knowledge from the MODIS BRDF product; then, the calculated high resolution BRDF parameters are integrated over the illuminating/viewing hemisphere to produce the white- and black-sky albedos at 30 m resolution. These results form the basis for the final land surface albedo derivation by accounting for the proportion of direct and diffuse solar radiation arriving at the ground. The albedo retrieved by this novel method is compared with MODIS land surface albedo products, as well as with ground measurements. The results show that the derived land surface albedo during the growing season of 2012 generally achieved a mean absolute accuracy of ±0.044, and a root mean square error of 0.039, confirming the effectiveness of the newly proposed method.

  19. Physics and Applications of NIS Junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullom, J N

    2001-08-24

    This paper reviews the physics and applications of Normal-Insulator-Superconductor (NIS) tunnel junctions. The current-voltage properties of NIS junctions are diode-like with a strong temperature dependence. Hence, these structures can be used as sensitive thermometers at temperatures well below the energy gap, {Delta}, of the superconducting electrode. For junction voltages comparable to {Delta}/q, current flow removes energy from the normal electrode. This property has been exploited to build refrigerators capable of cooling thin-film circuits from 0.3 K to 0.1 K. Calorimeters and bolometers for the detection of X-rays and millimeter-wave radiation, respectively, have successfully been built from NIS junctions. NIS junctions have also been used to probe the superconducting state. Finally, recent ideas for the use of NIS junctions as simple circuit elements are described.

  20. Algorithms for Junctions in Directed Acyclic Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Carlos Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Given a pair of distinct vertices u, v in a graph G, we say that s is a junction of u, v if there are in G internally vertex disjoint directed paths from s to u and from s to v. We show how to characterize junctions in directed acyclic graphs. We also consider the two problems in the following and derive efficient algorithms to solve them. Given a directed acyclic graph G and a vertex s in G, how can we find all pairs of vertices of G such that s is a junction of them? And given a directed acyclic graph G and k pairs of vertices of G, how can we preprocess G such that all junctions of k given pairs of vertices could be listed quickly? All junctions of k pairs problem arises in an application in Anthropology and we apply our algorithm to find such junctions on kinship networks of some brazilian indian ethnic groups.

  1. Quantitative Analysis of Relationship Between HJ-1 NDVI and MODIS NDVI%环境一号卫星与 MODIS NDVI 的定量关系分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈星; 刘智华

    2015-01-01

    不同遥感器由于波段设置和光谱响应函数差异导致其在红光和近红外波段所接收的地物反射信号不同,产生了 NDVI 的不一致性问题,针对这一问题,该文研究了 HJ-1 NDVI 和 MODIS NDVI 的定量关系。采用高光谱 Hyperion 数据进行光谱卷积和空间卷积,模拟 HJ-1与 MODIS 两遥感器波段反射率数据。通过计算 NDVI,进行回归分析求出两者之间的定量关系。分别基于单一覆盖类型和混合覆盖类型建立 HJ-1与 MODIS 的转换方程,排除其定量关系可能受不同土地覆盖类型的影响。定量分析与精度验证表明:HJ-1 NDVI 与 MODIS NDVI有很高的线性正相关性(R 2>0.99);单一覆盖类型转换精度高于混合覆盖类型转换精度,均能满足定量应用要求,但单一覆盖类型转换在实际应用中较为复杂,可采用混合覆盖类型转换方程进行 HJ-1 NDVI 与 MODIS NDVI 的转换。%Quantitative relationship between NDVI of HJ-1 and MODIS was acquired using Hyperion hyperspectral data. Hyperion scenes were processed to simulate NDVI of the two sensors.To study the effect of land cover on the relationship of NDVI of HJ-1 and MODIS,regression models were derived both for land cover-dependent and land cover-independent situation. The conversion models were directly validated by comparison of HJ-1 and MODIS image data.The result indicated that HJ-1 NDVI was highly correlated with MODIS NDVI (R2 >0.99);Regression models under both situations worked well.The land cover-dependent model worked slightly better than the land cover-independent,but it was more complicated when used.So it was suggested to use a single equation to convert HJ-1 NDVI to MODIS NDVI.

  2. Molecular junctions: can pulling influence optical controllability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Shane M; Smeu, Manuel; Franco, Ignacio; Ratner, Mark A; Seideman, Tamar

    2014-08-13

    We suggest the combination of single molecule pulling and optical control as a way to enhance control over the electron transport characteristics of a molecular junction. We demonstrate using a model junction consisting of biphenyl-dithiol coupled to gold contacts. The junction is pulled while optically manipulating the dihedral angle between the two rings. Quantum dynamics simulations show that molecular pulling enhances the degree of control over the dihedral angle and hence over the transport properties.

  3. Loss models for long Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O. H.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1984-01-01

    A general model for loss mechanisms in long Josephson junctions is presented. An expression for the zero-field step is found for a junction of overlap type by means of a perturbation method. Comparison between analytic solution and perturbation result shows good agreement.......A general model for loss mechanisms in long Josephson junctions is presented. An expression for the zero-field step is found for a junction of overlap type by means of a perturbation method. Comparison between analytic solution and perturbation result shows good agreement....

  4. The RuvA homologues from Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma pneumoniae exhibit unique functional characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Sluijter

    Full Text Available The DNA recombination and repair machineries of Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma pneumoniae differ considerably from those of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Most notably, M. pneumoniae is unable to express a functional RecU Holliday junction (HJ resolvase. In addition, the RuvB homologues from both M. pneumoniae and M. genitalium only exhibit DNA helicase activity but not HJ branch migration activity in vitro. To identify a putative role of the RuvA homologues of these mycoplasmas in DNA recombination, both proteins (RuvA(Mpn and RuvA(Mge, respectively were studied for their ability to bind DNA and to interact with RuvB and RecU. In spite of a high level of sequence conservation between RuvA(Mpn and RuvA(Mge (68.8% identity, substantial differences were found between these proteins in their activities. First, RuvA(Mge was found to preferentially bind to HJs, whereas RuvA(Mpn displayed similar affinities for both HJs and single-stranded DNA. Second, while RuvA(Mpn is able to form two distinct complexes with HJs, RuvA(Mge only produced a single HJ complex. Third, RuvA(Mge stimulated the DNA helicase and ATPase activities of RuvB(Mge, whereas RuvA(Mpn did not augment RuvB activity. Finally, while both RuvA(Mge and RecU(Mge efficiently bind to HJs, they did not compete with each other for HJ binding, but formed stable complexes with HJs over a wide protein concentration range. This interaction, however, resulted in inhibition of the HJ resolution activity of RecU(Mge.

  5. The RuvA homologues from Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma pneumoniae exhibit unique functional characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluijter, Marcel; Estevão, Silvia; Hoogenboezem, Theo; Hartwig, Nico G; van Rossum, Annemarie M C; Vink, Cornelis

    2012-01-01

    The DNA recombination and repair machineries of Mycoplasma genitalium and Mycoplasma pneumoniae differ considerably from those of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Most notably, M. pneumoniae is unable to express a functional RecU Holliday junction (HJ) resolvase. In addition, the RuvB homologues from both M. pneumoniae and M. genitalium only exhibit DNA helicase activity but not HJ branch migration activity in vitro. To identify a putative role of the RuvA homologues of these mycoplasmas in DNA recombination, both proteins (RuvA(Mpn) and RuvA(Mge), respectively) were studied for their ability to bind DNA and to interact with RuvB and RecU. In spite of a high level of sequence conservation between RuvA(Mpn) and RuvA(Mge) (68.8% identity), substantial differences were found between these proteins in their activities. First, RuvA(Mge) was found to preferentially bind to HJs, whereas RuvA(Mpn) displayed similar affinities for both HJs and single-stranded DNA. Second, while RuvA(Mpn) is able to form two distinct complexes with HJs, RuvA(Mge) only produced a single HJ complex. Third, RuvA(Mge) stimulated the DNA helicase and ATPase activities of RuvB(Mge), whereas RuvA(Mpn) did not augment RuvB activity. Finally, while both RuvA(Mge) and RecU(Mge) efficiently bind to HJs, they did not compete with each other for HJ binding, but formed stable complexes with HJs over a wide protein concentration range. This interaction, however, resulted in inhibition of the HJ resolution activity of RecU(Mge).

  6. Gap junctions and connexin-interacting proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giepmans, Ben N G

    2004-01-01

    Gap junctions form channels between adjacent cells. The core proteins of these channels are the connexins. Regulation of gap junction communication (GJC) can be modulated by connexin-associating proteins, such as regulatory protein phosphatases and protein kinases, of which c-Src is the best-studied

  7. Gap junctions and connexin-interacting proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giepmans, Ben N G

    2004-01-01

    Gap junctions form channels between adjacent cells. The core proteins of these channels are the connexins. Regulation of gap junction communication (GJC) can be modulated by connexin-associating proteins, such as regulatory protein phosphatases and protein kinases, of which c-Src is the

  8. Gap junctions and connexin-interacting proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giepmans, Ben N G

    2004-01-01

    Gap junctions form channels between adjacent cells. The core proteins of these channels are the connexins. Regulation of gap junction communication (GJC) can be modulated by connexin-associating proteins, such as regulatory protein phosphatases and protein kinases, of which c-Src is the best-studied

  9. Shot noise in YBCO bicrystal Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantinian, K.Y.; Ovsyannikov, G.A.; Borisenko, I.V.;

    2003-01-01

    We measured spectral noise density in YBCO symmetric bicrystal Josephson junctions on sapphire substrates at bias voltages up to 100 mV and T 4.2 K. Normal state resistance of the Josephson junctions, R-N = 20-90 Omega and ICRN up to 2.2 mV have been observed in the experimental samples. Noise...

  10. Shear zone junctions: Of zippers and freeways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passchier, Cees W.; Platt, John P.

    2017-02-01

    Ductile shear zones are commonly treated as straight high-strain domains with uniform shear sense and characteristic curved foliation trails, bounded by non-deforming wall rock. Many shear zones, however, are branched, and if movement on such branches is contemporaneous, the resulting shape can be complicated and lead to unusual shear sense arrangement and foliation geometries in the wall rock. For Y-shaped shear zone triple junctions with three joining branches and transport direction at a high angle to the branchline, only eight basic types of junction are thought to be stable and to produce significant displacement. The simplest type, called freeway junctions, have similar shear sense in all three branches. The other types show joining or separating behaviour of shear zone branches similar to the action of a zipper. Such junctions may have shear zone branches that join to form a single branch (closing zipper junction), or a single shear zone that splits to form two branches, (opening zipper junction). All categories of shear zone junctions show characteristic foliation patterns and deflection of markers in the wall rock. Closing zipper junctions are unusual, since they form a non-active zone with opposite deflection of foliations in the wall rock known as an extraction fault or wake. Shear zipper junctions can form domains of overprinting shear sense along their flanks. A small and large field example are given from NE Spain and Eastern Anatolia. The geometry of more complex, 3D shear zone junctions with slip parallel and oblique to the branchline is briefly discussed.

  11. The optimal fermentation conditions of H J5 for high production of antimicrobial substance%一株拮抗细菌HJ5高产抗菌物质发酵条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    辛媛媛; 侯美玲; 郝志敏; 董金皋

    2012-01-01

    Setosphaeria turcica was inhibited by HJ5 which was an endophytic bacterium isolated from the stem of Flaveria bidentis. The optimum medium were 1% of glucose, 1% of soy peptone, 0. 01% of MnCl2 and primary pH was 8. 0 via single factor tests and orthogonal test. The rotating speed of rocking incubator was 180 r/min. The inoculum and liquid volume in flask were 2% and 50 mL/250 mL, respectively. The cultivating temperature was 28℃through optimizing the fermentation technological parameter. After the optimization, antagonistic activity of HJ5 enhances nearly doubled.%从黄顶菊茎中分离得到的内生细菌H J5,是一株具有拮抗玉米大斑病菌活性的枯草芽孢杆菌.研究发现,H J5菌株通过产生并分泌某种胞外物质发挥拮抗活性.为了增强HJ5菌株发酵产拮抗物质的能力,对HJ5菌株发酵条件进行单因子试验以及正交试验,从而确定了H J5菌株发酵产抗菌活性物质的最佳培养基配方为1%葡萄糖作为碳源、1%大豆蛋白胨作为氮源、0.01% MnC12作为添加无机盐,初始pH为8.对HJ5菌株发酵工艺参数优化结果为:50/250mL的装液量、2%的接种量、28℃180 r/min振荡培养66h.经发酵条件优化后较基础培养基,HJ5菌株拮抗活性增强了近1倍.

  12. Junction conditions of cosmological perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Tomita, K

    2004-01-01

    The behavior of perturbations is studied in cosmological models which consist of two different homogeneous regions connected in a spherical shell boundary. The junction conditions for the metric perturbations and the displacements of the shell boundary are analyzed and the surface densities of the perturbed energy and momentum in the shell are derived, using Mukohyama's gauge-invariant formalism and the Israel discontinuity condition. In both homogeneous regions the perturbations of scalar, vector and tensor types are expanded using the 3-dimensional harmonic functions, but the model coupling among them is caused in the shell by the inhomogeneity. By treating the perturbations with odd and even parities separately, it is found, however, that we can have consistent displacements and surface densities for given metric parturbations

  13. Spatio-temporal prediction of leaf area index of rubber plantation using HJ-1A/1B CCD images and recurrent neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bangqian; Wu, Zhixiang; Wang, Jikun; Dong, Jinwei; Guan, Liming; Chen, Junming; Yang, Kai; Xie, Guishui

    2015-04-01

    Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations are one of the most important economic forest in tropical area. Retrieving leaf area index (LAI) and its dynamics by remote sensing is of great significance in ecological study and production management, such as yield prediction and post-hurricane damage evaluation. Thirteen HJ-1A/1B CCD images, which possess the spatial advantage of Landsat TM/ETM+ and 2-days temporal resolution of MODIS, were introduced to predict the spatial-temporal LAI of rubber plantation on Hainan Island by Nonlinear AutoRegressive networks with eXogenous inputs (NARX) model. Monthly measured LAIs at 30 stands by LAI-2000 between 2012 and 2013 were used to explore the LAI dynamics and their relationship with spectral bands and seven vegetation indices, and to develop and validate model. The NARX model, which was built base on input variables of day of year (DOY), four spectral bands and weight difference vegetation index (WDVI), possessed good accuracies during the model building for the data set of training (N = 202, R2 = 0.98, RMSE = 0.13), validation (N = 43, R2 = 0.93, RMSE = 0.24) and testing (N = 43, R2 = 0.87, RMSE = 0.31), respectively. The model performed well during field validation (N = 24, R2 = 0.88, RMSE = 0.24) and most of its mapping results showed better agreement (R2 = 0.54-0.58, RMSE = 0.47-0.71) with the field data than the results of corresponding stepwise regression models (R2 = 0.43-0.51, RMSE = 0.52-0.82). Besides, the LAI statistical values from the spatio-temporal LAI maps and their dynamics, which increased dramatically from late March (2.36 ± 0.59) to early May (3.22 ± 0.64) and then gradually slow down until reached the maximum value in early October (4.21 ± 0.87), were quite consistent with the statistical results of the field data. The study demonstrates the feasibility and reliability of retrieving spatio-temporal LAI of rubber plantations by an artificial neural network (ANN) approach, and provides some insight on the

  14. Coordinate transformation in the model of long Josephson junctions: geometrically equivalent Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semerdzhieva, E. G.; Boyadzhiev, T. L.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.

    2005-10-01

    The transition from the model of a long Josephson junction of variable width to the model of a junction with a coordinate-dependent Josephson current amplitude is effected through a coordinate transformation. This establishes the correspondence between the classes of Josephson junctions of variable width and quasi-one-dimensional junctions with a variable thickness of the barrier layer. It is shown that for a junction of exponentially varying width the barrier layer of the equivalent quasi-one-dimensional junction has a distributed resistive inhomogeneity that acts as an attractor for magnetic flux vortices. The curve of the critical current versus magnetic field for a Josephson junction with a resistive microinhomogeneity is constructed with the aid of a numerical simulation, and a comparison is made with the critical curve of a junction of exponentially varying width. The possibility of replacing a distributed inhomogeneity in a Josephson junction by a local inhomogeneity at the end of the junction is thereby demonstrated; this can have certain advantages from a technological point of view.

  15. Atomically Abrupt Topological p-n Junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Hwan; Jin, Kyung-Hwan; Kho, Byung Woo; Park, Byeong-Gyu; Liu, Feng; Kim, Jun Sung; Yeom, Han Woong

    2017-08-24

    Topological insulators (TI's) are a new class of quantum matter with extraordinary surface electronic states, which bear great potential for spintronics and error-tolerant quantum computing. In order to put a TI into any practical use, these materials need to be fabricated into devices whose basic units are often p-n junctions. Interesting electronic properties of a 'topological' p-n junction were proposed theoretically such as the junction electronic state and the spin rectification. However, the fabrication of a lateral topological p-n junction has been challenging because of materials, process, and fundamental reasons. Here, we demonstrate an innovative approach to realize a p-n junction of topological surface states (TSS's) of a three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator (TI) with an atomically abrupt interface. When a ultrathin Sb film is grown on a 3D TI of Bi2Se3 with a typical n-type TSS, the surface develops a strongly p-type TSS through the substantial hybridization between the 2D Sb film and the Bi2Se3 surface. Thus, the Bi2Se3 surface covered partially with Sb films bifurcates into areas of n- and p-type TSS's as separated by atomic step edges with a lateral electronic junction of as short as 2 nm. This approach opens a different avenue toward various electronic and spintronic devices based on well-defined topological p-n junctions with the scalability down to atomic dimensions.

  16. Gap junction communication in myelinating glia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nualart-Marti, Anna; Solsona, Carles; Fields, R Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Gap junction communication is crucial for myelination and axonal survival in both the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS). This review examines the different types of gap junctions in myelinating glia of the PNS and CNS (Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes respectively), including their functions and involvement in neurological disorders. Gap junctions mediate intercellular communication among Schwann cells in the PNS, and among oligodendrocytes and between oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in the CNS. Reflexive gap junctions mediating transfer between different regions of the same cell promote communication between cellular compartments of myelinating glia that are separated by layers of compact myelin. Gap junctions in myelinating glia regulate physiological processes such as cell growth, proliferation, calcium signaling, and participate in extracellular signaling via release of neurotransmitters from hemijunctions. In the CNS, gap junctions form a glial network between oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. This transcellular communication is hypothesized to maintain homeostasis by facilitating restoration of membrane potential after axonal activity via electrical coupling and the re-distribution of potassium ions released from axons. The generation of transgenic mice for different subsets of connexins has revealed the contribution of different connexins in gap junction formation and illuminated new subcellular mechanisms underlying demyelination and cognitive defects. Alterations in metabolic coupling have been reported in animal models of X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX) and Pelizaeus-Merzbarcher-like disease (PMLD), which are caused by mutations in the genes encoding for connexin 32 and connexin 47 respectively. Future research identifying the expression and regulation of gap junctions in myelinating glia is likely to provide a better understanding of myelinating glia in nervous system function, plasticity, and disease. This

  17. Fluxon dynamics in three stacked Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorria, Carlos; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich

    2002-01-01

    /sub -/, the coupling between junctions leads to a repulsion of the fluxons with the same polarity. Above this critical velocity a fluxon will induce radiation in the neighboring junctions, leading to a bunching of the fluxons in the stacked junctions. Using the Sakai-Bodin-Pedersen model, three coupled perturbed sine......-Gordon equations are numerically studied for different values of coupling, damping, and bias parameters. In a narrow range of velocities bunching occurs. Outside this interval the fluxons split and new fluxons may be created. I-V characteristics are presented...

  18. Temperature dependence of thermopower in molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsang; Lenert, Andrej; Meyhofer, Edgar; Reddy, Pramod

    2016-07-01

    The thermoelectric properties of molecular junctions are of considerable interest due to their promise for efficient energy conversion. While the dependence of thermoelectric properties of junctions on molecular structure has been recently studied, their temperature dependence remains unexplored. Using a custom built variable temperature scanning tunneling microscope, we measured the thermopower and electrical conductance of individual benzenedithiol junctions over a range of temperatures (100 K-300 K). We find that while the electrical conductance is independent of temperature, the thermopower increases linearly with temperature, confirming the predictions of the Landauer theory.

  19. Phase qubits fabricated with trilayer junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weides, M; Bialczak, R C; Lenander, M; Lucero, E; Mariantoni, Matteo; Neeley, M; O' Connell, A D; Sank, D; Wang, H; Wenner, J; Yamamoto, T; Yin, Y; Cleland, A N; Martinis, J, E-mail: martin.weides@nist.gov, E-mail: martinis@physics.ucsb.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    We have developed a novel Josephson junction geometry with minimal volume of lossy isolation dielectric, suitable for higher quality trilayer junctions implemented in qubits. The junctions are based on in situ deposited trilayers with thermal tunnel oxide, have micron-sized areas and a low subgap current. In qubit spectroscopy only a few avoided level crossings are observed, and the measured relaxation time of T{sub 1{approx}}400 ns is in good agreement with the usual phase qubit decay time, indicating low loss due to the additional isolation dielectric.

  20. Evaluation of the polyphenol composition and antioxidant activity of African variety of Dacryodes edulis (G.Don) H.J Lam fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atawodi, S E; Atawodi, J C; Idakwo, P; Pfundstein, B; Haubner, R; Wurtele, G; Spiegelhalder, B; Bartsch, H; Owen, R W

    2009-12-01

    Polyphenols are abundant micronutrients in our diet that have been credited with chemoprevention of diseases associated with oxidative stress. In this study, we investigated the whole ripened fruit of Dacryodes edulis (G.Don) H.J Lam, a multipurpose tree growing in West and Central Africa and other countries bordering the Gulf of Guinea, for polyphenol content as well as its antioxidant/radical scavenging capacity. Analysis of the methanol extract of the fruit by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to an ultraviolet dual-array detector and mass-selective detector revealed the presence of catechol (9.27 mg/kg), gallate (10.40 mg/kg), methylgallate (0.88 mg/kg), ellagic acid (3.10 mg/kg), quercetin (0.21 mg/kg), and quercetin rhamnoside (0.76 mg/kg). The extract showed very high antioxidant potential (50% inhibitory concentration [IC(50)] = 14 microL), but a rather weak radical scavenging activity (IC(50) = 357 microL), when tested in vitro with the xanthine oxidase and 2-deoxyguanosine assay model systems, respectively. These results suggest that consumption of D. edulis could contribute to prevention of diseases that are related to oxidative stress.

  1. Small-scale variations of climate change in mountainous forested terrain - a regional study from H.J. Andrews Long Term Ecological Research site in Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honzakova, Katerina; Hoffmann, Peter; Jones, Julia; Thomas, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    There has been conflicting evidence as to whether high elevations are experiencing more pronounced climate warming than lower elevations in mountainous regions. In this study we analyze temperature records from H.J. Andrews Long Term Ecological Research, Oregon, USA and several nearby areas, comprising together 28 stations located in Cascade Mountains. The data, starting in 1958, are first checked for quality and homogenized using the Standard Normal Homogeneity Test. As a reference, composite climate time series based on the Global Historic Climate Network is created and together with cross-referencing against station records used to correct breaks and shifts in the data. In the next step, we investigate temperature patterns of the study site from 1958 to 2016 and compare them for valley and hill stations. In particular, we explore seasonality and inter-annual variability of the records and trends of the last day of frost. Additionally, 'cold' sums (positive and negative) are calculated to obtain a link between temperature and ecosystems' responses (such as budbreaks). So far, valley stations seem to be more prone to climate change than ridge or summit stations, contrary to current thinking. Building on previous knowledge, we attempt to provide physical explanations for the temperature records, focusing on wind patterns and associated phenomena such as cold air drainage and pooling. To aid this we analyze wind speed and direction data available for some of the stations since 1996, including seasonality and inter-annual variability of the observed flows.

  2. Biochemical and structural characterization of quinoprotein aldose sugar dehydrogenase from Thermus thermophilus HJ6: Mutational analysis of Tyr156 in the substrate-binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Han-Woo; Wang, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Park, Ae-Kyung; Park, Hyun; Jeon, Sung-Jong

    2016-10-15

    The gene encoding a quinoprotein aldose sugar dehydrogenase (ASD) from Thermus thermophilus HJ6 (Tt_ASD) was cloned and sequenced; it comprised 1059 nucleotides encoding a protein containing 352 amino acids that had a predicted molecular mass of 38.9 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence showed 42.9% and 33.9% identities to the ASD proteins from Pyrobaculum aerophilum and Escherichia coli, respectively. The biochemical properties of Tt_ASD were characterized. The optimum pH for the oxidation of glucose was 7.0-7.5 and the optimum temperature was 70 °C. The half-life of heat inactivation for the apoenzyme was about 25 min at 85 °C. The enzyme was highly thermostable, and the activity of the pyrroloquinoline quinone-bound holoenzyme was not lost after incubation at 85 °C for 100 min. Tt_ASD could oxidize various sugars, including hexoses, pentoses, disaccharides, and polysaccharides, in addition to alcohols. Structural analysis suggested that Tyr156 would be the substrate-binding residue. Two mutants, Y156A and Y156K, had impaired activities and affinities for all substrates and completely lost their activities for alcohols. This structural and mutational analysis of Tt_ASD demonstrates the crucial role of Tyr156 in determining substrate specificity.

  3. Increasing gap junctional coupling: a tool for dissecting the role of gap junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Haugan, Ketil; Stahlhut, Martin; Kjølbye, Anne-Louise; Hennan, James K; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Petersen, Jørgen Søberg; Nielsen, Morten Schak

    2007-03-01

    Much of our current knowledge about the physiological and pathophysiological role of gap junctions is based on experiments where coupling has been reduced by either chemical agents or genetic modification. This has brought evidence that gap junctions are important in many physiological processes. In a number of cases, gap junctions have been implicated in the initiation and progress of disease, and experimental uncoupling has been used to investigate the exact role of coupling. The inverse approach, i.e., to increase coupling, has become possible in recent years and represents a new way of testing the role of gap junctions. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge obtained with agents that selectively increase gap junctional intercellular coupling. Two approaches will be reviewed: increasing coupling by the use of antiarrhythmic peptide and its synthetic analogs and by interfering with the gating of gap junctional channels.

  4. Afregningsproblematikken mellem såkaldte »ægte« hjælpe- og supportafdelinger og »ægte« fællesafdelinger og videre til virksomhedens hovedafdelinger- når det analytiske ligger til grund for kontrollen og styringen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen

    2006-01-01

    markedsvilkår og indgå både i out- og insourcing beslutninger. Samtidig med det forøgede antal hjælpeafdelinger er der også kommet nye it-hjælpeværktøjer til, som man bliver nødt til at anvende for at kunne løse disse problemer. Løsninger er dermed også blevet langt mere tilgængelige. SPSS, SYSTAT, Chystal...

  5. Afregningsproblematikken mellem såkaldte »ægte« hjælpe- og supportafdelinger og »ægte« fællesafdelinger og videre til virksomhedens hovedafdelinger- når det analytiske ligger til grund for kontrollen og styringen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen

    2006-01-01

    markedsvilkår og indgå både i out- og insourcing beslutninger. Samtidig med det forøgede antal hjælpeafdelinger er der også kommet nye it-hjælpeværktøjer til, som man bliver nødt til at anvende for at kunne løse disse problemer. Løsninger er dermed også blevet langt mere tilgængelige. SPSS, SYSTAT, Chystal...

  6. Presynaptic spike broadening reduces junctional potential amplitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, A N; Przysiezniak, J; Acosta-Urquidi, J; Basarsky, T A

    1989-08-24

    Presynaptic modulation of action potential duration may regulate synaptic transmission in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Such synaptic plasticity is brought about by modifications to membrane currents at presynaptic release sites, which, in turn, lead to changes in the concentration of cytosolic calcium available for mediating transmitter release. The 'primitive' neuromuscular junction of the jellyfish Polyorchis penicillatus is a useful model of presynaptic modulation. In this study, we show that the durations of action potentials in the motor neurons of this jellyfish are negatively correlated with the amplitude of excitatory junctional potentials. We present data from in vitro voltage-clamp experiments showing that short duration voltage spikes, which elicit large excitatory junctional potentials in vivo, produce larger and briefer calcium currents than do long duration action potentials, which elicit small excitatory junctional potentials.

  7. Laparoscopically assisted pyeloplasty for ureteropelvic junction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    junction obstruction: a transperitoneal versus a retroperitoneal approach ... laparoscopic-assisted dismembered pyeloplasty (TLADP) ... to an open technique for two patients of the TLADP group; ... Annals of Pediatric Surgery 2012, 8:29–31.

  8. Tight Junctions in Salivary Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga J. Baker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial cell tight junctions (TJs consist of a narrow belt-like structure in the apical region of the lateral plasma membrane that circumferentially binds each cell to its neighbor. TJs are found in tissues that are involved in polarized secretions, absorption functions, and maintaining barriers between blood and interstitial fluids. The morphology, permeability, and ion selectivity of TJ vary among different types of tissues and species. TJs are very dynamic structures that assemble, grow, reorganize, and disassemble during physiological or pathological events. Several studies have indicated the active role of TJ in intestinal, renal, and airway epithelial function; however, the functional significance of TJ in salivary gland epithelium is poorly understood. Interactions between different combinations of the TJ family (each with their own unique regulatory proteins define tissue specificity and functions during physiopathological processes; however, these interaction patterns have not been studied in salivary glands. The purpose of this review is to analyze some of the current data regarding the regulatory components of the TJ that could potentially affect cellular functions of the salivary epithelium.

  9. Androgen-Dependent Sertoli Cell Tight Junction Remodeling Is Mediated by Multiple Tight Junction Components

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chakraborty, Papia; William Buaas, F; Sharma, Manju; Smith, Benjamin E; Greenlee, Anne R; Eacker, Stephen M; Braun, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    Sertoli cell tight junctions (SCTJs) of the seminiferous epithelium create a specialized microenvironment in the testis to aid differentiation of spermatocytes and spermatids from spermatogonial stem cells...

  10. Junction Plasmon-Induced Molecular Reorientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hu, Dehong; Hess, Wayne P.

    2013-10-17

    Time and frequency dependent intensity variations in sequences of Raman spectra recorded at plasmonic junctions can be assigned to molecular reorientation. This is revealed through Raman trajectories recorded at a nanojunction formed between a silver AFM tip and a corrugated silver surface coated with biphenyl-4,4’-dithiol. Molecular motion is not observed when the tip is retracted and only surface enhancement is operative. In effect, junction plasmon induced molecular reorientation is tracked.

  11. [Clinical anatomy of the esophagogastric junction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tănase, M; Aldea, A S

    2012-01-01

    The esophagogastric junction is a controversial anatomical area, due to its sphincteric mechanism which does not show an obvious anatomical basis. The aim of this study is to investigate the anatomical components that endoscopically indicate the mucosal esophagogastric junction in hiatal hernia patients. The esophagogastric junction was investigated in 27 hiatal hernia patients undergoing surgery. Hiatal hernia is an extension of the stomach situated between the esophagogastric junction and the diaphragmatic indentation. The following types of hiatal hernia were found: sliding hiatal hernia (type I) in 4 patients (14.81%), rolling hiatal hernia (type II) in 2 (7.4%), mixed hiatal hernia (type III) in 12 (44.44%), type IV hiatal hernia in 4 (14.81%) and recurrent hiatal hernia in 5 (18.51%). Of the 27 hiatal hernia patients, 8 (29.6%) were operated using classical procedures: laparotomy--6 (75%) and laparoscopic surgery--2 (25%). The angle of His cannot be used for marking the mucosal esophagogastric junction due to the severe damage of the lower esophageal sphincter in hiatal hernia patients. The squamocolumnar junction is displaced in hiatal hernia patients and was not an option for the study group. The distal end of the esophageal longitudinal palisading vessels needs medication (proton pump inhibitors that reduce the gastric acid production), in order to enhance the visibility of these vessels. The proximal end of gastric longitudinal mucosal folds proved to be the most reliable site to identify endoscopically the mucosal esophagogastric junction. The anatomical structure of the esophagogastric junction differs in hiatal hernia patients and these peculiarities are very important in surgery.

  12. The Dissolution of Double Holliday Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizard, Anna H; Hickson, Ian D

    2014-01-01

    as "double Holliday junction dissolution." This reaction requires the cooperative action of a so-called "dissolvasome" comprising a Holliday junction branch migration enzyme (Sgs1/BLM RecQ helicase) and a type IA topoisomerase (Top3/TopoIIIα) in complex with its OB (oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding......) fold containing accessory factor (Rmi1). This review details our current knowledge of the dissolution process and the players involved in catalyzing this mechanistically complex means of completing homologous recombination reactions....

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis RecG binds and unwinds model DNA substrates with a preference for Holliday junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegeye, Ephrem Debebe; Balasingham, Seetha V; Laerdahl, Jon K; Homberset, Håvard; Tønjum, Tone

    2012-08-01

    The RecG enzyme, a superfamily 2 helicase, is present in nearly all bacteria. Here we report for the first time that the recG gene is also present in the genomes of most vascular plants as well as in green algae, but is not found in other eukaryotes or archaea. The precise function of RecG is poorly understood, although ample evidence shows that it plays critical roles in DNA repair, recombination and replication. We further demonstrate that Mycobacterium tuberculosis RecG (RecG(Mtb)) DNA binding activity had a broad substrate specificity, whereas it only unwound branched-DNA substrates such as Holliday junctions (HJs), replication forks, D-loops and R-loops, with a strong preference for the HJ as a helicase substrate. In addition, RecG(Mtb) preferentially bound relatively long (≥40 nt) ssDNA, exhibiting a higher affinity for the homopolymeric nucleotides poly(dT), poly(dG) and poly(dC) than for poly(dA). RecG(Mtb) helicase activity was supported by hydrolysis of ATP or dATP in the presence of Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Cu(2+) or Fe(2+). Like its Escherichia coli orthologue, RecG(Mtb) is also a strictly DNA-dependent ATPase.

  14. Gap junction intercellular communication and benzene toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivedal, Edgar; Witz, Gisela; Leithe, Edward

    2010-03-19

    Aberrant regulation of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) has been linked to several human diseases, including cancer and abnormal hematopoietic development. Benzene exposure has been shown to cause hematotoxicity and leukemia, but the underlying mechanisms involved remain unclear. We have observed that several metabolites of benzene have the ability to block gap junction intercellular communication. The ring-opened trans,trans-muconaldehyde (MUC) was found to be the most potent inhibitor of gap junction channels. MUC was found to induce cross-linking of the gap junction protein connexin43, which seemed to be responsible for the induced inhibition of GJIC. Glutaraldehyde, which has a similar molecular structure as MUC, was found to possess similar effects on gap junctions as MUC, while the mono-aldehyde formaldehyde shows lower potency, both as a connexin cross-linker, and as an inhibitor of GJIC. Both glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde have previously been associated with induction of leukemia and disturbance of hematopoiesis. Taken together, the data support a possible link between the effect of MUC on gap junctions, and the toxic effects of benzene. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Gap junctions: structure and function (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Howard; Martin, Patricia E M

    2002-01-01

    Gap junctions are plasma membrane spatial microdomains constructed of assemblies of channel proteins called connexins in vertebrates and innexins in invertebrates. The channels provide direct intercellular communication pathways allowing rapid exchange of ions and metabolites up to approximately 1 kD in size. Approximately 20 connexins are identified in the human or mouse genome, and orthologues are increasingly characterized in other vertebrates. Most cell types express multiple connexin isoforms, making likely the construction of a spectrum of heteromeric hemichannels and heterotypic gap junctions that could provide a structural basis for the charge and size selectivity of these intercellular channels. The precise nature of the potential signalling information traversing junctions in physiologically defined situations remains elusive, but extensive progress has been made in elucidating how connexins are assembled into gap junctions. Also, participation of gap junction hemichannels in the propagation of calcium waves via an extracellular purinergic pathway is emerging. Connexin mutations have been identified in a number of genetically inherited channel communication-opathies. These are detected in connexin 32 in Charcot Marie Tooth-X linked disease, in connexins 26 and 30 in deafness and skin diseases, and in connexins 46 and 50 in hereditary cataracts. Biochemical approaches indicate that many of the mutated connexins are mistargeted to gap junctions and/or fail to oligomerize correctly into hemichannels. Genetic ablation approaches are helping to map out a connexin code and point to specific connexins being required for cell growth and differentiation as well as underwriting basic intercellular communication.

  16. Predictive modelling of ferroelectric tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, Julian P.; Burton, John D.; Zhuravlev, Mikhail Ye; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.

    2016-05-01

    Ferroelectric tunnel junctions combine the phenomena of quantum-mechanical tunnelling and switchable spontaneous polarisation of a nanometre-thick ferroelectric film into novel device functionality. Switching the ferroelectric barrier polarisation direction produces a sizable change in resistance of the junction—a phenomenon known as the tunnelling electroresistance effect. From a fundamental perspective, ferroelectric tunnel junctions and their version with ferromagnetic electrodes, i.e., multiferroic tunnel junctions, are testbeds for studying the underlying mechanisms of tunnelling electroresistance as well as the interplay between electric and magnetic degrees of freedom and their effect on transport. From a practical perspective, ferroelectric tunnel junctions hold promise for disruptive device applications. In a very short time, they have traversed the path from basic model predictions to prototypes for novel non-volatile ferroelectric random access memories with non-destructive readout. This remarkable progress is to a large extent driven by a productive cycle of predictive modelling and innovative experimental effort. In this review article, we outline the development of the ferroelectric tunnel junction concept and the role of theoretical modelling in guiding experimental work. We discuss a wide range of physical phenomena that control the functional properties of ferroelectric tunnel junctions and summarise the state-of-the-art achievements in the field.

  17. Charge transport in nanoscale junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Tim; Kornyshev, Alexei; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2008-09-03

    many particle excitations, new surface states in semiconductor electrodes, various mechanisms for single molecule rectification of the current, inelastic electron spectra and SERS spectroscopy. Three terminal architectures allowing (electrochemical) gating and transistor effects. Electrochemical nanojunctions and gating: intermolecular electron transfer in multi-redox metalloproteins, contact force modulation, characteristic current-noise patterns due to conformational fluctuations, resonance effects and electrocatalysis. Novel architectures: linear coupled quantum-dot-bridged junctions, electrochemical redox mediated transfer in two center systems leading to double maxima current-voltage plots and negative differential resistance, molecular-nanoparticle hybrid junctions and unexpected mesoscopic effects in polymeric wires. Device integration: techniques for creating stable metal/molecule/metal junctions using 'nano-alligator clips' and integration with 'traditional' silicon-based technology. The Guest Editors would like to thank all of the authors and referees of this special issue for their meticulous work in making each paper a valuable contribution to this research area, the early-bird authors for their patience, and Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter editorial staff in Bristol for their continuous support.

  18. Josephson tunnel junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weides, M.P.

    2006-07-01

    Superconductivity and ferromagnetism are well-known physical properties of solid states that have been widely studied and long thought about as antagonistic phenomena due to difference in spin ordering. It turns out that the combination of both superconductor and ferromagnet leads to a very rich and interesting physics. One particular example, the phase oscillations of the superconducting order parameter inside the ferromagnet, will play a major role for the devices discussed in this work. In this thesis, I present Josephson junctions with a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tunnel barrier and a ferromagnetic interlayer, i.e. superconductor-insulator-ferromagnet-superconductor (SIFS) stacks. The fabrication of junctions was optimized regarding the insulation of electrodes and the homogeneity of the current transport. The junctions were either in the 0 or {pi} coupled ground state, depending on the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer and on temperature. The influence of ferromagnetic layer thickness on the transport properties and the coupling (0, {pi}) of SIFS tunnel junctions was studied. Furthermore, using a stepped ferromagnetic layer with well-chosen thicknesses, I obtained the so-called 0-{pi} Josephson junction. At a certain temperature this 0-{pi} junction can be made perfectly symmetric. In this case the ground state corresponds to a vortex of supercurrent creating a magnetic flux which is a fraction of the magnetic flux quantum {phi}{sub 0}. Such structures allow to study the physics of fractional vortices and to build various electronic circuits based on them. The SIFS junctions presented here have an exponentially vanishing damping at T {yields} 0. The SIFS technology developed within the framework of this work may be used to construct classical and quantum devices such as oscillators, memory cells and qubits. (orig.)

  19. Model Building to Facilitate Understanding of Holliday Junction and Heteroduplex Formation, and Holliday Junction Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajah, Geeta; Selvarajah, Susila

    2016-01-01

    Students frequently expressed difficulty in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in chromosomal recombination. Therefore, we explored alternative methods for presenting the two concepts of the double-strand break model: Holliday junction and heteroduplex formation, and Holliday junction resolution. In addition to a lecture and…

  20. Hyporheic Geophysics: D.C. Resistivity Imaging of Valley-bottom Alluvium in a 3rd-order Mountain Stream, HJ Andrews Experimental Forest, Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarnetske, J. P.; Haggerty, R.; Crook, N.; Robinson, D. A.

    2006-12-01

    The hyporheic zone (HZ) can serve as either a source or a sink for nutrients (e.g., nitrogen) and moderates biogeochemical and temperature signals in stream ecosystems. Understanding of the HZ is hampered by lack of subsurface images, particularly ones that are non-invasive and fast. Geophysical imaging, combined with extant empirical methods and hydrodynamic models provides an opportunity to improve precision in modeling HZ transport and nutrient retention. With the aid of CUAHSI HMF, we completed a d.c. resistivity survey of an existing stream denitrification study site (Mack Creek, H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, OR, a Long-term Ecological Research site) to quantify the geometry of the valley bottom alluvial aquifer and HZ. The non- invasive d.c. resistivity survey successfully produced a quantitative 3-dimensional image of the variable alluvial aquifer thickness below and adjacent to the stream channel. We extensively imaged one area, 50 m x 28 m with 10 transects, in an old growth Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) stand which incorporated a large woody debris log jam, to determine that alluvial thickness averages 4.1 m and varies between 0 m and 8 m. We completed a single 50 m longitudinal section in an adjacent downstream logged block (harvested 1964-65) to determine that alluvial thickness averages 0.3 m and varies between 0 m and 1 m. The presence of valley- bottom bedrock exposures at the study site helped to constrain and verify the d.c. resistivity interpretation of the bedrock-alluvium interface. Some d.c. survey challenges were encountered, including the confinement of electrode lines to the channel or near channel because dry organic layers or fallen trees across much of the forest floor prevented good electrode contact with the ground. Ultimately, this geophysics-enhanced knowledge of the stream-adjacent aquifer will allow for more accurate interpretation of hyporheic observations and parameterization of hyporheic hydraulic and denitrification

  1. Efficient Maize and Sunflower Multi-year Mapping with NDVI Time Series of HJ-1A/1B in Hetao Irrigation District of Inner Mongolia, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, B.; Shang, S.

    2016-12-01

    Food shortage is one of the major challenges that human beings are facing. It is urgent to improve the monitoring of the plantation and distribution of the main crops to solve the following economic and social issues. Recently, with the extensive use of remote sensing satellite data, it has provided favorable conditions for crop identification in large irrigation district with complex planting structure. Difference of different crop phenology is the main basis for crop identification, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) time-series could better delineate crop phenology cycle. Therefore, the key of crop identification is to obtain high quality NDVI time-series. MODIS and Landsat TM satellite images are the most frequently used, however, neither of them could guarantee high temporal and spatial resolutions at once. Accordingly, this paper makes use of NDVI time-series extracted from China Environment Satellites data, which has two-day-repeat temporal and 30m spatial resolutions. The NDVI time-series are fitted with an asymmetric logistic curve, the fitting effect is good and the correlation coefficient is greater than 0.9. The phonological parameters are derived from NDVI fitting curves, and crop identification is carried out by different relation ellipses between NDVI and its phonological parameters of different crops. This paper takes Hetao Irrigation District of Inner Mongolia as an example, to identify multi-year maize and sunflower in the district, and the identification result is good. Compared with the official statistics, the relative errors are both lower than 5%. The results show that the NDVI time-series dataset derived from HJ-1A/1B CCD could delineate the crop phenology cycle accurately and demonstrate its application in crop identification in irrigated district.

  2. How accurate are Omron X-HJ-304-E and Yamax SW-700/701 pedometers at different speeds and various inclinations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallmann-Sperlich, B; Froboese, I; Reed, J L; Mathes, S; Sperlich, B

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate step count and energy expenditure accuracy of the piezoelectric Omron (Walking Style X-HJ-304-E) and spring-levered Yamax (Digi-Walker-SW-700/701) pedometers at different speeds and various inclinations. Thirty subjects (15 females, aged: 24 ± 3 years) completed eleven 5-min trials at different treadmill speeds and inclinations (3.24 km∙h⁻¹ [inclination: 0, 9, 20%], 4.68 km∙h⁻¹ [0, 9, 20%], 6.48 km∙h⁻¹ [0, 9%], 9 km∙h⁻¹ [0%], 10.8 km∙h⁻¹ [0%], 12.6 km∙h⁻¹ [0%]). During each trial, an investigator recorded actual steps with a hand tally counter. Actual energy expenditure was measured using a portable indirect calorimeter. The Omron pedometer revealed high step count accuracy for all speeds and inclinations when worn on the hip or a backpack (Mean % of actual steps: 99.6%; Range: 95.8-101.3%). The Yamax pedometer revealed high step count accuracy (Mean % of actual steps: 99.8%; Range: 96.2-103.3%) when worn on the left hip at 6.48-12.6 km∙h⁻¹ (0%), 4.68 km∙h⁻¹ (9%, 20%), 6.48 km∙h⁻¹ (9%) and on the right hip at 10.8 km∙h⁻¹ (0%) and 6.48 km∙h⁻¹ (9%). The accuracy of the Omron and Yamax determined energy expenditure was poor (57.9-59.7%) when compared to indirect calorimetry. The Omron pedometer provides accurate step counts when worn on the hip and backpack at all tested speeds and inclinations. We therefore suggest an accurate application of this device for walking, hiking and running at moderate speeds. Both pedometers underestimated energy expenditure.

  3. Increasing gap junctional coupling: a tool for dissecting the role of gap junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Haugan, Ketil; Stahlhut, Martin;

    2007-01-01

    . In a number of cases, gap junctions have been implicated in the initiation and progress of disease, and experimental uncoupling has been used to investigate the exact role of coupling. The inverse approach, i.e., to increase coupling, has become possible in recent years and represents a new way of testing......Much of our current knowledge about the physiological and pathophysiological role of gap junctions is based on experiments where coupling has been reduced by either chemical agents or genetic modification. This has brought evidence that gap junctions are important in many physiological processes...... the role of gap junctions. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge obtained with agents that selectively increase gap junctional intercellular coupling. Two approaches will be reviewed: increasing coupling by the use of antiarrhythmic peptide and its synthetic analogs...

  4. Dislocation Multi-junctions and Strain Hardening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulatov, V; Hsiung, L; Tang, M; Arsenlis, A; Bartelt, M; Cai, W; Florando, J; Hiratani, M; Rhee, M; Hommes, G; Pierce, T; Diaz de la Rubia, T

    2006-06-20

    At the microscopic scale, the strength of a crystal derives from the motion, multiplication and interaction of distinctive line defects--dislocations. First theorized in 1934 to explain low magnitudes of crystal strength observed experimentally, the existence of dislocations was confirmed only two decades later. Much of the research in dislocation physics has since focused on dislocation interactions and their role in strain hardening: a common phenomenon in which continued deformation increases a crystal's strength. The existing theory relates strain hardening to pair-wise dislocation reactions in which two intersecting dislocations form junctions tying dislocations together. Here we report that interactions among three dislocations result in the formation of unusual elements of dislocation network topology, termed hereafter multi-junctions. The existence of multi-junctions is first predicted by Dislocation Dynamics (DD) and atomistic simulations and then confirmed by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments in single crystal molybdenum. In large-scale Dislocation Dynamics simulations, multi-junctions present very strong, nearly indestructible, obstacles to dislocation motion and furnish new sources for dislocation multiplication thereby playing an essential role in the evolution of dislocation microstructure and strength of deforming crystals. Simulation analyses conclude that multi-junctions are responsible for the strong orientation dependence of strain hardening in BCC crystals.

  5. Meiotic DNA joint molecule resolution depends on Nse5–Nse6 of the Smc5–Smc6 holocomplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehrkamp-Richter, Sophie; Hyppa, Randy W.; Prudden, John; Smith, Gerald R.; Boddy, Michael N.

    2012-01-01

    Faithful chromosome segregation in meiosis is crucial to form viable, healthy offspring and in most species, it requires programmed recombination between homologous chromosomes. In fission yeast, meiotic recombination is initiated by Rec12 (Spo11 homolog) and generates single Holliday junction (HJ) intermediates, which are resolved by the Mus81–Eme1 endonuclease to generate crossovers and thereby allow proper chromosome segregation. Although Mus81 contains the active site for HJ resolution, the regulation of Mus81–Eme1 is unclear. In cells lacking Nse5–Nse6 of the Smc5–Smc6 genome stability complex, we observe persistent meiotic recombination intermediates (DNA joint molecules) resembling HJs that accumulate in mus81Δ cells. Elimination of Rec12 nearly completely rescues the meiotic defects of nse6Δ and mus81Δ single mutants and partially rescues nse6Δ mus81Δ double mutants, indicating that these factors act after DNA double-strand break formation. Likewise, expression of the bacterial HJ resolvase RusA partially rescues the defects of nse6Δ, mus81Δ and nse6Δ mus81Δ mitotic cells, as well as the meiotic defects of nse6Δ and mus81Δ cells. Partial rescue likely reflects the accumulation of structures other than HJs, such as hemicatenanes, and an additional role for Nse5–Nse6 most prominent during mitotic growth. Our results indicate a regulatory role for the Smc5–Smc6 complex in HJ resolution via Mus81–Eme1. PMID:22855558

  6. Created-by-current states in long Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyadjiev, T. L.; Andreeva, O. Yu.; Semerdjieva, E. G.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.

    2008-08-01

    Critical curves "critical current-external magnetic field" of long Josephson junctions with inhomogeneity and variable width are studied. We demonstrate the existence of regions of magnetic field where some fluxon states are stable only if the external current through the junction is different from zero. Position and size of such regions depend on the length of the junction, its geometry, parameters of inhomogeneity and form of the junction. The noncentral (left and right) pure fluxon states appear in the inhomogeneous Josephson junction with the increase in the junction length. We demonstrate new bifurcation points with change in width of the inhomogeneity and amplitude of the Josephson current through the inhomogeneity.

  7. Thermionic refrigeration at CNT-CNT junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Pipe, K. P.

    2016-10-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is used to study carrier energy relaxation following thermionic emission at the junction of two van der Waals bonded single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). An energy-dependent transmission probability gives rise to energy filtering at the junction, which is predicted to increase the average electron transport energy by as much as 0.115 eV, leading to an effective Seebeck coefficient of 386 μV/K. MC results predict a long energy relaxation length (˜8 μm) for hot electrons crossing the junction into the barrier SWCNT. For SWCNTs of optimal length, an analytical transport model is used to show that thermionic cooling can outweigh parasitic heat conduction due to high SWCNT thermal conductivity, leading to a significant cooling capacity (2.4 × 106 W/cm2).

  8. Silicon fiber with p-n junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homa, D.; Cito, A.; Pickrell, G.; Hill, C.; Scott, B. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 312 Holden Hall, Blacksburg, Virginia 24060 (United States)

    2014-09-22

    In this study, we fabricated a p-n junction in a fiber with a phosphorous doped silicon core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a hybrid process of the core-suction and melt-draw techniques and maintained overall diameters ranging from 200 to 900 μm and core diameters of 20–800 μm. The p-n junction was formed by doping the fiber with boron and confirmed via the current-voltage characteristic. The demonstration of a p-n junction in a melt-drawn silicon core fiber paves the way for the seamless integration of optical and electronic devices in fibers.

  9. Vortex structures in exponentially shaped Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Semerdjieva, E. G.; Boyadjiev, T. L.

    2005-04-01

    We report the numerical calculations of the static vortex structure and critical curves in exponentially shaped long Josephson junctions for in-line and overlap geometries. Stability of the static solutions is investigated by checking the sign of the smallest eigenvalue of the associated Sturm-Liouville problem. The change in the junction width leads to the renormalization of the magnetic flux in comparison with the case of a linear one-dimensional model. We study the influence of the model's parameters, and particularly, the shape parameter on the stability of the states of the magnetic flux. We compare the vortex structure and critical curves for the in-line and overlap geometries. Our numerically constructed critical curve of the Josephson junction matches well with the experimental one.

  10. Holographic Josephson Junction from Massive Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Ya-Peng; Zeng, Hua-Bi; Zhang, Hai-Qing

    2015-01-01

    We study the holographic superconductor-normal metal-superconductor (SNS) Josephon junction in the massive gravity. In the homogeneous case of the chemical potential, we find that the graviton mass will make the normal metal-superconductor phase transition harder to take place. In the holographic model of Josephson junction, it is found that the maximal tunneling current will decrease according to the graviton mass. Besides, the coherence length of the junction decreases as well with respect to the graviton mass. If one interprets the graviton mass as the effect of momentum dissipation in the boundary field theory, it indicates that the stronger the momentum dissipation is, the smaller the coherence length is.

  11. Characterization of magnetic tunnel junction test pads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Kjær, Daniel; Nielsen, Peter Folmer

    2015-01-01

    We show experimentally as well as theoretically that patterned magnetic tunnel junctions can be characterized using the current-in-plane tunneling (CIPT) method, and the key parameters, the resistance-area product (RA) and the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR), can be determined. The CIPT method...... on square tunnel junction pads with varying sizes and analyze the measured data using both the original and the modified CIPT model. Thus, we determine in which sample size range the modified CIPT model is needed to ensure validity of the extracted sample parameters, RA and TMR. In addition, measurements...... as a function of position on a square tunnel junction pad are used to investigate the sensitivity of the measurement results to probe misalignment....

  12. Gap junction diseases of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steensel, M A M

    2004-11-15

    Gap junctions are intercellular channels that allow the passage of water, ions, and small molecules. They are involved in quick, short-range messaging between cells and are found in skin, nervous tissue, heart, and muscle. An increasing number of hereditary skin disorders appear to be caused by mutations in one of the genes coding for the constituent proteins of gap junctions, known as connexins. In this review, the currently known connexin disorders that feature skin abnormalities are described: keratitis-ichthyosis deafness syndrome, erythrokeratoderma variabilis, Vohwinkel's syndrome, and a novel disorder called hypotrichosis-deafness syndrome. What is known about the pathogenesis of these disorders is discussed and related to gap junction physiology. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Vegetation information extraction based on HJ-1 satellite time-series images by pixel unmixing%基于混合像元分解的 HJ-1卫星时间序列影像城市植被信息提取

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄银友; 冯莉; 朱榴骏; 刘寒; 李成蹊

    2015-01-01

    Aiming at the case that single remotely sensed image cannot gain phenological character and the problem of mixed pixels among the image during urban vegetation information extraction,this paper tried to obtain the distribution information of urban vegetation based on HJ-1 NDVI time-series data,which can be regarded as simulated hyperspectral data.This information can be got by unmixing the S-Gfiltered NDVI time-series data using unconstrained,semi-constrained and fully constrained linear spectral mixture pixels unmixing algorithm.Taking the downtown and suburbs of Nanjing City as study area,we come to the conclusion that unmixing algorithm of uncon-strained linear spectral mixture model can finely extract the five kinds of vegetation information,including shrub,grassland,coniferous forest,broadleaved deciduous forest,evergreen and deciduous broad-leaved mixed forest.The RMS error is minimum among the three methods,and it is considered to be the best.%针对城市植被信息提取中单时相遥感影像无法获得物候特征及影像中的混合像元问题,本研究以南京市区及近郊作为研究区,将2013年77景环境星(HJ-1)归一化植被指数(Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI)时间序列数据看成“类高光谱”数据,利用非限定性分解法、半限定性分解法和全限定性分解法对滤波后的数据进行分解,结果表明:使用非限定的线性光谱混合模型分解算法对研究区草地、灌木丛、针叶林、落叶阔叶林、常绿与落叶阔叶混交林5种植被信息提取的均方根误差(Root Mean Square,RMS)最小,此方法效果最好。

  14. Overdamped Josephson junctions for digital applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Febvre, P., E-mail: Pascal.Febvre@univ-savoie.fr [University of Savoie, IMEP-LAHC – CNRS UMR5130, 73376 Le Bourget du Lac (France); De Leo, N.; Fretto, M.; Sosso, A. [I.N.Ri.M., Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Belogolovskii, M. [Donetsk Institute for Physics and Engineering, 72 R. Luxemburg str., 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Collot, R. [University of Savoie, IMEP-LAHC – CNRS UMR5130, 73376 Le Bourget du Lac (France); Lacquaniti, V. [I.N.Ri.M., Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► Properties of self-shunted sub-micron Nb/Al–AlO{sub x}/Nb SNIS junctions are studied. ► 1–100 kA/cm{sup 2} current densities and 0.1–0.7 mV critical voltages are obtained. ► The critical voltage-vs-temperature behavior of SNIS junctions is discussed. ► Numerical results showing an effect of the aluminum film thickness are presented. ► A Josephson balanced comparator is studied for different temperatures of operation. -- Abstract: An interesting feature of Superconductor–Normal metal–Superconductor Josephson junctions for digital applications is due to their non-hysteretic current–voltage characteristics in a broad temperature range below T{sub c}. This allows to design Single-Flux-Quantum (SFQ) cells without the need of external shunts. Two advantages can be drawn from this property: first the SFQ cells can be more compact which leads to a more integrated solution towards nano-devices and more complex circuits; second the absence of electrical parasitic elements associated with the wiring of resistors external to the Josephson junctions increases the performance of SFQ circuits, in particular regarding the ultimate speed of operation. For this purpose Superconductor–Normal metal–Insulator–Superconductor Nb/Al–AlO{sub x}/Nb Josephson junctions have been recently developed at INRiM with aluminum layer thicknesses between 30 and 100 nm. They exhibit non-hysteretic current–voltage characteristics with I{sub c}R{sub n} values higher than 0.5 mV in a broad temperature range and optimal Stewart McCumber parameters at 4.2 K for RSFQ applications. The main features of obtained SNIS junctions regarding digital applications are presented.

  15. Multiplication in Silicon p-n Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moll, John L.

    1965-01-01

    Multiplication values were measured in the collector junctions of silicon p-n-p and n-p-n transistors before and after bombardment by 1016 neutrons/cm2. Within experimental error there was no change either in junction fields, as deduced from capacitance measurements, or in multiplication values...... in any of the transistors. The implication is that the electron and hole ionization rates did not change as a result of the addition of extra scattering centers. This result is in direct contradiction to observations of Lee et al. The most likely explanation for the discrepancy is erroneous determination...

  16. Fast transient response of novel Peltier junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyos, G.E.; Rao, K.R.; Jerger, D.

    1977-01-01

    The fast transient response of a thermoelectric (TE) cooler with novel geometry is discussed. This geometry involves conical semiconductor legs whose hot to cold junction cross-sectional area ratios can be varied. The novel TE junctions are fabricated such that the thermal capacitance and electrical conductance are decreased while simultaneously increasing the thermal resistance. The experimental apparatus which includes the vacuum system, power supplies, pulse and control circuitry, sensing and measuring instrumentation etc. is described. With narrow pulse width and large amplitudes, additional cooling of the order of 45/sup 0/C below the steady-state maximum with recovery times in the range of 1 to 3 sec is obtained.

  17. The Geometric Field at a Josephson Junction

    CERN Document Server

    Atanasov, Victor

    2016-01-01

    A geometric potential from the kinetic term of a constrained to a curved hyper-plane of space-time quantum superconducting condensate is derived. An energy conservation relation involving the geometric field at every material point in the superconductor is demonstrated. At a Josephson junction the energy conservation relation implies the possibility to transform electric energy into geometric field energy, that is curvature of space-time. Experimental procedures to verify that the Josephson junction can act as a voltage-to-curvature converter are discussed.

  18. Microscopic tunneling theory of long Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, N.; Hattel, Søren A.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1992-01-01

    We present a numerical scheme for solving a nonlinear partial integro-differential equation with nonlocal time dependence. The equation describes the dynamics in a long Josephson junction modeled by use of the microscopic theory for tunneling between superconductors. We demonstrate that the detai......We present a numerical scheme for solving a nonlinear partial integro-differential equation with nonlocal time dependence. The equation describes the dynamics in a long Josephson junction modeled by use of the microscopic theory for tunneling between superconductors. We demonstrate...

  19. Rectangular-to-circular groove waveguide junction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI; Licheng; (崔立成); YANG; Hongsheng; (杨鸿生)

    2003-01-01

    Mode matching method is used to analyze the scattering characteristics of the rectangular-to-circular groove waveguide junction. Firstly, the scattering matrix equation is obtained by matching the electromagnetic fields at the boundary of the junction. The scattering coefficients can be obtained from the equation. Secondly the scattering characteristics of the iris with rectangular window positioned in circular groove waveguide are briefly analyzed. Thirdly, the convergent problem is discussed and the numerical results are given. At last experiment is made and good agreement is found between the calculated results and the measured results.

  20. Electroplated Ni on the PN Junction Semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Kim, Jong Bum; Choi, Sang Moo; Park, Jong Han; Hong, Jintae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Nickel (Ni) electroplating was implemented by using a metal Ni powder in order to establish a Ni-63 plating condition on the PN junction semiconductor needed for production of betavoltaic battery. PN junction semiconductors with a Ni seed layer of 500 and 1000 A were coated with Ni at current density from 10 to 50 mA cm{sup 2}. The surface roughness and average grain size of Ni deposits were investigated by XRD and SEM techniques. The roughness of Ni deposit was increased as the current density was increased, and decreased as the thickness of Ni seed layer was increased.

  1. Common features of a vortex structure in long exponentially shaped Josephson junctions and Josephson junctions with inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyadjiev, T. L.; Semerdjieva, E. G.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.

    2007-09-01

    We study the vortex structure in three different models of the long Josephson junction: the exponentially shaped Josephson junction and the Josephson junctions with the resistor and the shunt inhomogeneities in the barrier layer. For these three models the critical curves “critical current-magnetic field” are numerically constructed. We develop the idea of the equivalence of the exponentially shaped Josephson junction and the rectangular junction with the distributed inhomogeneity and demonstrate that at some parameters of the shunt and the resistor inhomogeneities in the ends of the junction the corresponding critical curves are very close to the exponentially shaped one.

  2. Common features of a vortex structure in long exponentially shaped Josephson junctions and Josephson junctions with inhomogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyadjiev, T.L. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Semerdjieva, E.G. [Plovdiv University, 24 Tzar Asen Str., Plovdiv 4000 (Bulgaria); Shukrinov, Yu.M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)], E-mail: shukrinv@theor.jinr.ru

    2007-09-01

    We study the vortex structure in three different models of the long Josephson junction: the exponentially shaped Josephson junction and the Josephson junctions with the resistor and the shunt inhomogeneities in the barrier layer. For these three models the critical curves 'critical current-magnetic field' are numerically constructed. We develop the idea of the equivalence of the exponentially shaped Josephson junction and the rectangular junction with the distributed inhomogeneity and demonstrate that at some parameters of the shunt and the resistor inhomogeneities in the ends of the junction the corresponding critical curves are very close to the exponentially shaped one.

  3. Applications of HJ Satellites in Monitoring “Dalian Xingang” Oil Spill Incident%环境小卫星在大连新港溢油事故监测中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰国新; 马龙; 陈冠文

    2011-01-01

    Dalian "7 · 16" pipeline explosion is the worst-ever oil spill accident in Dalian since the establishment of the People's Republic of China. After the accident happening, the Government utilized actively remote sensing technology to monitor oil spill and evaluate clean-up effectiveness. HJ Satellites, developed independently by China, has high temporal and spatial resolutions, which meet the requirements of oil pollution cleaning. During the oil spill e-mergency, HJ Satellites has acquired six frames of the polluted area image and provided oil spill distribution and clean-up status despite of the bad weather. The completion of HJ Satellite Constellation will make great contribution to environment monitoring and emergency actions.%“7.16”大连新港溢油事故是建国以来大连市最严重的溢油事件.事故发生后,政府积极利用遥感技术对油污信息和清污效果进行了监测.环境小卫星是我国自主研制的卫星星座,具有较高的时间和空间分辨率,能够基本满足油污清除需求.在溢油应急期间,尽管天气条件比较恶劣,环境小卫星依然获取了6景影像数据,有效地掌握了油污分布和清污情况.随着环境小卫星星座的最终建成,完全可以胜任包括溢油监测在内的众多环境灾害监测任务.

  4. Design and Implementation of a Real-time Processing System of Full Resolution Quick-look Image of HJ-1 Environmental Satellite C SAR Based on High Performance Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing-shan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the design and implementation of a real-time processing system of full resolution quick-look image of HJ-1 environmental satellite C SAR based on high-performance clusters. The system processes the first quick-look SAR image on December 9, 2012. The results show that the design and implementation of the quick-look processing system satisfies the real-time SAR image processing performance requirements at full resolution. Moreover, this system is the first real-time business system of full-resolution quick-look spaceborne SAR images in China.

  5. Transcriptional mechanisms coordinating tight junction assembly during epithelial differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Felix J; Schmidt-Ott, Kai M

    2017-06-01

    Epithelial tissues form a selective barrier via direct cell-cell interactions to separate and establish concentration gradients between the different compartments of the body. Proper function and formation of this barrier rely on the establishment of distinct intercellular junction complexes. These complexes include tight junctions, adherens junctions, desmosomes, and gap junctions. The tight junction is by far the most diverse junctional complex in the epithelial barrier. Its composition varies greatly across different epithelial tissues to confer various barrier properties. Thus, epithelial cells rely on tightly regulated transcriptional mechanisms to ensure proper formation of the epithelial barrier and to achieve tight junction diversity. Here, we review different transcriptional mechanisms utilized during embryogenesis and disease development to promote tight junction assembly and maintenance of intercellular barrier integrity. We focus particularly on the Grainyhead-like transcription factors and ligand-activated nuclear hormone receptors, two central families of proteins in epithelialization. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Ballistic transport in InSb Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasco, John Jeffrey; Gill, Stephen; Car, Diana; Bakkers, Erik; Mason, Nadya

    We present transport measurements on Josephson junctions consisting of InSb nanowires contacted by Al at various junction lengths. Junction behavior as a function of gate voltage, electric field, and magnetic field is discussed. We show that short junctions behave as 1D quantum wires, exhibiting quantized conductance steps. In addition, we show how Josephson behavior changes as transport evolves from ballistic to diffusive as a function of contact spacing.

  7. Dynamics near Resonance Junctions in Hamiltonian Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Goto, S; Goto, Shin-itiro; Nozaki, Kazuhiro

    1999-01-01

    An approximate Poincare map near equally strong multiple resonances is reduced by means the method of averaging. Near the resonance junction of three degrees of freedom, we find that some homoclinic orbits ``whiskers'' in single resonance lines survive and form nearly periodic orbits, each of which looks like a pair of homoclinic orbits.

  8. Cooling of suspended nanostructures with tunnel junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Koppinen, P. J.; Maasilta, I. J.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated electronic cooling of suspended nanowires with SINIS tunnel junction coolers. The suspended samples consist of a free standing nanowire suspended by four narrow ($\\sim$ 200 nm) bridges. We have compared two different cooler designs for cooling the suspended nanowire. We demonstrate that cooling of the nanowire is possible with a proper SINIS cooler design.

  9. Polyphosphonium-based ion bipolar junction transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielsson, Erik O; Tybrandt, Klas; Berggren, Magnus

    2014-11-01

    Advancements in the field of electronics during the past few decades have inspired the use of transistors in a diversity of research fields, including biology and medicine. However, signals in living organisms are not only carried by electrons but also through fluxes of ions and biomolecules. Thus, in order to implement the transistor functionality to control biological signals, devices that can modulate currents of ions and biomolecules, i.e., ionic transistors and diodes, are needed. One successful approach for modulation of ionic currents is to use oppositely charged ion-selective membranes to form so called ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs). Unfortunately, overall IBJT device performance has been hindered due to the typical low mobility of ions, large geometries of the ion bipolar junction materials, and the possibility of electric field enhanced (EFE) water dissociation in the junction. Here, we introduce a novel polyphosphonium-based anion-selective material into npn-type IBJTs. The new material does not show EFE water dissociation and therefore allows for a reduction of junction length down to 2 μm, which significantly improves the switching performance of the ion transistor to 2 s. The presented improvement in speed as well the simplified design will be useful for future development of advanced iontronic circuits employing IBJTs, for example, addressable drug-delivery devices.

  10. Flux interactions on stacked Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Alwyn C.; A., Petraglia

    1996-01-01

    Perturbation methods are used to study the dynamics of locked fluxon modes on stacked Josephson junctions and single crystals of certain high-T-c, superconductors. Two limiting cases are considered: (i) The nonlinear diffusion regime in which fluxon dynamics are dominated by energy exchange betwe...

  11. Defect formation in long Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordeeva, Anna; Pankratov, Andrey

    2010-01-01

    We study numerically a mechanism of vortex formation in a long Josephson junction within the framework of the one-dimensional sine-Gordon model. This mechanism is switched on below the critical temperature. It is shown that the number of fluxons versus velocity of cooling roughly scales according...

  12. Gap junction diseases of the skin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steensel, M.A.M. van

    2004-01-01

    Gap junctions are intercellular channels that allow the passage of water, ions, and small molecules. They are involved in quick, short-range messaging between cells and are found in skin, nervous tissue, heart, and muscle. An increasing number of hereditary skin disorders appear to be caused by muta

  13. Gap junctions-guards of excitability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroemlund, Line Waring; Jensen, Christa Funch; Qvortrup, Klaus;

    2015-01-01

    Cardiomyocytes are connected by mechanical and electrical junctions located at the intercalated discs (IDs). Although these structures have long been known, it is becoming increasingly clear that their components interact. This review describes the involvement of the ID in electrical disturbances...

  14. Fluxon density waves in long Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O. H.; Ustinov, A. V.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1993-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the multiple fluxon dynamics stimulated by an external oscillating force applied at a boundary of a long Josephson junction are presented. The calculated IV characteristics agree well with a recent experimental observation of rf-induced satellite flux-flow steps. The volt...... density waves....

  15. Transmembrane potentials of canine AV junctional tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, W W

    1986-06-01

    The atrioventricular (AV) junction comprises the AV node, His bundle (HB), and specialized tissues proximal to the node called paranodal fibers (PNF). In the present study, an in vitro, dissection-exposed canine right atrial (RA), transitional fiber (TF), AV junctional preparation was used. The TF and PNF formed a pathway running along the base of the septal cusp of the tricuspid valve (SCTV). In the first experiment, impulses elicited at the RA were monitored to propagate sequentially through the TF, PNF, AV node, and then the HB. This functional evidence supports the concept that a conduction pathway connecting the RA and the AV node exists along the base of the SCTV. This internodal pathway is referred to as the septal cusp pathway. In another experiment, transmembrane potentials and Vmax were determined on each of the AV junctional tissues. Results showed that PNF had the lowest Vmax (2.5 V/sec), followed by AV node (7.0 V/sec) and HB (33 V/sec). This finding showed that PNF, and not the AV node, has the lowest Vmax, suggesting that the PNF has the lowest conductivity among the AV junctional tissues, and this study advances our understanding on the mechanism of AV conduction delay in dog hearts.

  16. Lateral junction dynamics lead the way out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrndt, Martin; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

    2014-02-01

    Epithelial cell layers need to be tightly regulated to maintain their integrity and correct function. Cell integration into epithelial sheets is now shown to depend on the N-WASP-regulated stabilization of cortical F-actin, which generates distinct patterns of apical-lateral contractility at E-cadherin-based cell-cell junctions.

  17. Soliton excitations in Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomdahl, P. S.; Sørensen, O. H.; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1982-01-01

    on the Nth ZFS yields the frequency Nf1 Coexistence of two adjacent frequencies is found on the third ZFS of the longer junction (L / λJ=6) in a narrow range of bias current as also found in the experiments. Small asymmetries in the experimental environment, a weak magnetic field, e.g., is introduced via...

  18. Gap junction diseases of the skin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steensel, M.A.M. van

    2004-01-01

    Gap junctions are intercellular channels that allow the passage of water, ions, and small molecules. They are involved in quick, short-range messaging between cells and are found in skin, nervous tissue, heart, and muscle. An increasing number of hereditary skin disorders appear to be caused by muta

  19. Fluxon Dynamics in Elliptic Annular Josephson Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, Roberto; Mygind, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of a magnetic flux quantum (current vortex) trapped in a current-biased long planar elliptic annular Josephson tunnel junction. The system is modeled by a perturbed sine-Gordon equation that determines the spatial and temporal behavior of the phase difference across the tu...

  20. Intercellular junctions in nerve-free hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDowall, A W; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1980-01-01

    with particles in an "enplaque conformation appearing as a raised plateau on the E-face or as a depression on the P-face; (ii) structures morphologically similar to gap junctions in rat liver, containing particles on the P-face and corresponding pits on the E-face, both having hexagonal packing with a lattice...

  1. All-carbon molecular tunnel junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haijun; Bergren, Adam Johan; McCreery, Richard L

    2011-11-30

    This Article explores the idea of using nonmetallic contacts for molecular electronics. Metal-free, all-carbon molecular electronic junctions were fabricated by orienting a layer of organic molecules between two carbon conductors with high yield (>90%) and good reproducibility (rsd of current density at 0.5 V carbon devices exhibit current density-voltage (J-V) behavior similar to those with metallic Cu top contacts. However, the all-carbon devices display enhanced stability to bias extremes and greatly improved thermal stability. Completed carbon/nitroazobenzene(NAB)/carbon junctions can sustain temperatures up to 300 °C in vacuum for 30 min and can be scanned at ±1 V for at least 1.2 × 10(9) cycles in air at 100 °C without a significant change in J-V characteristics. Furthermore, these all-carbon devices can withstand much higher voltages and current densities than can Cu-containing junctions, which fail upon oxidation and/or electromigration of the copper. The advantages of carbon contacts stem mainly from the strong covalent bonding in the disordered carbon materials, which resists electromigration or penetration into the molecular layer, and provides enhanced stability. These results highlight the significance of nonmetallic contacts for molecular electronics and the potential for integration of all-carbon molecular junctions with conventional microelectronics.

  2. Mesh Currents and Josephson Junction Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    A simple but accurate mesh current analysis is performed on a XY model and on a SIMF model to derive the equations for a Josephson junction array. The equations obtained here turn out to be different from other equations already existing in the literature. Moreover, it is shown that the two models come from an unique hidden structure

  3. Zero-voltage nondegenerate parametric mode in Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1976-01-01

    A new parametric mode in a Josephson tunnel junction biased in the zero-voltage mode is suggested. It is a nondegenerate parametric excitation where the junction plasma resonance represents the input circuit, and a junction geometrical resonance represents the idler circuit. This nondegenerate mo...... for such a coupling. Journal of Applied Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  4. Systematic study of shallow junction formation on germanium substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellings, Geert; Rosseel, Erik; Clarysse, Trudo

    2011-01-01

    Published results on Ge junctions are benchmarked systematically using RS–XJ plots. The electrical activation level required to meet the ITRS targets is calculated. Additionally, new results are presented on shallow furnace-annealed B junctions and shallow laser-annealed As junctions. Co-implanti...

  5. Long Josephson Junction Stack Coupled to a Cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Peder; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Groenbech-Jensen, N.

    2007-01-01

    A stack of inductively coupled long Josephson junctions are modeled as a system of coupled sine-Gordon equations. One boundary of the stack is coupled electrically to a resonant cavity. With one fluxon in each Josephson junction, the inter-junction fluxon forces are repulsive. We look at a possible...

  6. Structure Stability of Ⅰ-Type Carbon Nanotube Junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏丹; 袁喆; 李家明

    2002-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes with junctions may play an important role in future ‘nanoelectronics' and future ‘nano devices'.In particular, junctions constructed with metal and semiconducting nanotubes have potential applications. Basedon the orthogonal tight-binding molecular dynamics method, we present our study of the structure stability ofI-type carbon nanotube junctions.

  7. Vacuum Tight Threaded Junctions (VTTJ): A new solution for reliable heterogeneous junctions in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostinetti, P., E-mail: piero.agostinetti@igi.cnr.it; Palma, M. Dalla; Agostini, F. Degli; Marcuzzi, D.; Rizzolo, A.; Rossetto, F.; Sonato, P.; Zaccaria, P.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Heterogeneous junctions represent a critical issue in Nuclear Fusion experiments. • We have developed a new technique for heterogeneous junctions, called VTTJ, whose main advantages are low cost, high reliability and easiness of construction. • The VTTJ junctions have passed all the tests required by ITER for the heterogeneous junctions of the divertor. • Further tests have demonstrated wide margins for operation (up to 700 °C and 500 bar). - Abstract: A new technique, called Vacuum Tight Threaded Junction (VTTJ), has been developed and patented by Consorzio RFX, permitting to obtain low-cost and reliable non-welded junctions, able to maintain vacuum tightness also in heavy loading conditions (high temperature and high mechanical loads). The technique can be applied also if the materials to be joint are not weldable and for heterogeneous junctions (for example, between steel and copper) and has been tested up to 500 bar internal pressure and up to 700 °C, showing excellent leak tightness in vacuum conditions and high mechanical resistance. The main advantages with respect to existing technologies (for example, friction welding and electron beam welding) are an easy construction, a low cost, a precise positioning of the junction and a high repeatability of the process. Due to these advantages, the new technique has been adopted for several components of the SPIDER experiment and it is proposed for ITER, in particular for the ITER Heat and Current Drive Neutral Beam Injector and for its prototype, the MITICA experiment, to be tested at Consorzio RFX. This paper gives a detailed description of the VTTJ technique, of the samples manufactured and of the qualification tests that have been carried out so far.

  8. Graphene junction field-effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Tzu-Min; Borsa, Tomoko; van Zeghbroeck, Bart

    2014-03-01

    We have demonstrated for the first time a novel graphene transistor gated by a graphene/semiconductor junction rather than an insulating gate. The transistor operates much like a semiconductor junction Field Effect Transistor (jFET) where the depletion layer charge in the semiconductor modulates the mobile charge in the channel. The channel in our case is the graphene rather than another semiconductor layer. An increased reverse bias of the graphene/n-silicon junction increases the positive charge in the depletion region and thereby reduces the total charge in the graphene. We fabricated individual graphene/silicon junctions as well as graphene jFETs (GjFETs) on n-type (4.5x1015 cm-3) silicon with Cr/Au electrodes and 3 μm gate length. As a control device, we also fabricated back-gated graphene MOSFETs using a 90nm SiO2 on a p-type silicon substrate (1019 cm-3) . The graphene was grown by APCVD on copper foil and transferred with PMMA onto the silicon substrate. The GjFET exhibited an on-off ratio of 3.75, an intrinsic graphene doping of 1.75x1012 cm-2, compared to 1.17x1013 cm-2 in the MOSFET, and reached the Dirac point at 13.5V. Characteristics of the junctions and transistors were measured as a function of temperature and in response to light. Experimental data and a comparison with simulations will be presented.

  9. 厚荚相思树根瘤菌HJ06菌株的16S rDNA全序列和nifA基因片段分析%16S rDNA and nifA Gene Sequence Analysis of Rhizobium Strain H J06 Isolated from Acacia crassicarpa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕成群; 黄宝灵; 庄培亮; 武波

    2006-01-01

    对厚荚相思(Acacia crassicarpa)根瘤菌HJ06菌株的16S rDNA全序列和nifA基因片段进行了测定.结果表明,HJ06菌株在以16SrDNA序列构建的系统发育树状图中位于根瘤菌属(Rhizobium)分支中,与根瘤菌属各个种的相似性达95%以上;从HJ06菌株克隆出的585 bp nifA基因片段与Klebsiella pneumoniae的同源性达到99.3%,与Klebsiella oxytoca的NifF,NifL,NifA,NifB蛋白基因的同源性为97.8%.

  10. Planar Josephson tunnel junctions in a transverse magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monacoa, R.; Aarøe, Morten; Mygind, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, since the discovery of the Josephson effect in 1962, the magnetic diffraction pattern of planar Josephson tunnel junctions has been recorded with the field applied in the plane of the junction. Here we discuss the static junction properties in a transverse magnetic field where...... demagnetization effects imposed by the tunnel barrier and electrodes geometry are important. Measurements of the junction critical current versus magnetic field in planar Nb-based high-quality junctions with different geometry, size, and critical current density show that it is advantageous to use a transverse...

  11. The computation of first order moments on junction trees

    CERN Document Server

    Djuric, Milos B; Stankovic, Miomir S

    2012-01-01

    We review some existing methods for the computation of first order moments on junction trees using Shafer-Shenoy algorithm. First, we consider the problem of first order moments computation as vertices problem in junction trees. In this way, the problem is solved using the memory space of an order of the junction tree edge-set cardinality. After that, we consider two algorithms, Lauritzen-Nilsson algorithm, and Mau\\'a et al. algorithm, which computes the first order moments as the normalization problem in junction tree, using the memory space of an order of the junction tree leaf-set cardinality.

  12. Difference in Leaf Area Index in Forests Retrieved from HJ-1 CCD and TM Data of Maoershan Mountain,Heilongjiang Province%HJ-ICCD与Landsat-5TM在森林叶面积指数反演中的比较分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱高龙; 李明泽; 居为民; 陈镜明; 吴中忠

    2011-01-01

    Leaf area index ( LAI ) for 23 typical plots with various vegetation types was measured using Li-Cor LAI2000 in Maoershan Experimental Forest Farm of Heilongjiang Province in July 2009. The empirical models for retrieving LAI for the study area were established based on these measurements of LAI and simple Ratio Vegetation Index ( RVI ) calculated from CCD data of HJ-1 satellite acquired on 24 th June 2009 and Landsat-5 TM data acquired on 26 th June 2009 , respectively.Then, the characteristics of CCD and TM data in red and near infrared bands were comparatively analyzed. The differences in LAI values retrieved from CCD and TM data of the study area were quantitatively assessed. Results show that the quality of CCD data is lower than that of TM data in the red band. The CCD data in the near infrared band contains abundant information. The LAI retrieved from CCD data is in good agreement with LAI retrieved from TM data( R2 = 0. 7364, n=180 339 ). LAI retrieved from CCD is 4. 5 percent larger than LAI retrieved from TM data. CCD data is applicable for retrieving forest LAI at larger scales effectively owing to the consistency between CCD data and TM data in spatial resolution, radiometric resolution and band settlement as well as the higher temporal resolution ( 2 days ) of CCD data.%利用LAI2000测量了帽儿山实验林场23个不同类型森林样区的叶面积指数(leaf area index,LA.),根据LA.1观测数据和由环境一号卫星HJ-1CCD数据及Landsat-5TM数据计算的比植被指数(SR),分别建立了研究区森林LA.的估算模型.在此基础上,对比分析了CCD和TM数据在红光和近红外波段的特征,评价了利用这两种遥感数据提取的研究区LA.1的差别.结果表明,CCD数据在红光波段的质量比TM-3稍偏低,CCD数据在近红外波段的信息量丰富;利用CCD与TM数据提取的LA,1具有很好的相关性(R2=0.736 4.n=180339).但前者提取的LA,比后者平均偏高0.23(4.5%);CCD数据在空间分辫率、辐

  13. HJ-CCD影像为基础的冬小麦孕穗期关键苗情参数遥感定量反演%Quantitative Inversion of Key Seedling Condition Parameters in Winter Wheat at Booting Stage Using Remote Sensing Based on HJ-CCD Images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭昌伟; 杨昕; 罗明; 马昌; 严翔; 陈亭亭

    2015-01-01

    [Objective]Application of satellite remote sensing data can timely get field planting crops ‘planar’ growth information, accurately reflect the situation and trend of crop seedling condition, serve the yield forecast and actual production. The purpose of this research was to deepen the mechanism and methods of remote sensing inversion of winter wheat seedling condition in the key period, and this research will provide timely support information and technology for farm production management.[Method]Based on experimental data obtained from 2011-2013 in the fixed-point observation experiment, and using HJ-CCD satellite images, the quantitative correlations between key seedling condition parameters of winter wheat at booting stage in sampling regions and the grain quality parameters, production, and remote sensing variables were emphatically analyzed. In order to further enhance the mechanism and reproducibility of remote sensing inversion models, which were built and analyzed with ground measuring results, the quantitative level and reliability of remote sensing inversion models were raised. Models for monitoring the leaf area index, biomass, SPAD value, and leaf nitrogen content of winter wheat at booting stage using remote sensing variables extracted from the HJ-CCD images were built and assessed, respectively.[Result]It is possible to invert leaf area index, SPAD value and leaf nitrogen content of winter wheat at booting stage by plant senescence reflectance index (PSRI), and invert biomass by ratio vegetation index (RVI), respectively. The remote sensing inversion models of the leaf area index, SPAD value, leaf nitrogen content and biomass of winter wheat were credible, and higher precision was obtained with determination coefficient (R2) of 0.651, 0.585, 0.630 and 0.675, respectively, and with root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.344, 4.62, 0.618% and 2 804.3 kg·hm-2, respectively. It was especially reliable to inverse leaf nitrogen content by PSRI. According

  14. String networks with junctions in competition models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino, P. P.; Bazeia, D.; Losano, L.; Menezes, J.; de Oliveira, B. F.

    2017-03-01

    In this work we give specific examples of competition models, with six and eight species, whose three-dimensional dynamics naturally leads to the formation of string networks with junctions, associated with regions that have a high concentration of enemy species. We study the two- and three-dimensional evolution of such networks, both using stochastic network and mean field theory simulations. If the predation, reproduction and mobility probabilities do not vary in space and time, we find that the networks attain scaling regimes with a characteristic length roughly proportional to t 1 / 2, where t is the physical time, thus showing that the presence of junctions, on its own, does not have a significant impact on their scaling properties.

  15. Vibrational Heat Transport in Molecular Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Dvira; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar

    2016-05-01

    We review studies of vibrational energy transfer in a molecular junction geometry, consisting of a molecule bridging two heat reservoirs, solids or large chemical compounds. This setup is of interest for applications in molecular electronics, thermoelectrics, and nanophononics, and for addressing basic questions in the theory of classical and quantum transport. Calculations show that system size, disorder, structure, dimensionality, internal anharmonicities, contact interaction, and quantum coherent effects are factors that combine to determine the predominant mechanism (ballistic/diffusive), effectiveness (poor/good), and functionality (linear/nonlinear) of thermal conduction at the nanoscale. We review recent experiments and relevant calculations of quantum heat transfer in molecular junctions. We recount the Landauer approach, appropriate for the study of elastic (harmonic) phononic transport, and outline techniques that incorporate molecular anharmonicities. Theoretical methods are described along with examples illustrating the challenge of reaching control over vibrational heat conduction in molecules.

  16. String networks with junctions in competition models

    CERN Document Server

    Avelino, P P; Losano, L; Menezes, J; de Oliveira, B F

    2016-01-01

    In this work we give specific examples of competition models, with six and eight species, whose three-dimensional dynamics naturally leads to the formation of string networks with junctions, associated with regions that have a high concentration of enemy species. We study the two- and three-dimensional evolution of such networks, both using stochastic network and mean field theory simulations. If the predation, reproduction and mobility probabilities do not vary in space and time, we find that the networks attain scaling regimes with a characteristic length roughly proportional to $t^{1/2}$, where $t$ is the physical time, thus showing that the presence of junctions, on its own, does not have a significant impact on their scaling properties.

  17. Junction between surfaces of two topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Diptiman; Deb, Oindrila

    2012-02-01

    We study scattering from a line junction which separates the surfaces of two three-dimensional topological insulators; some aspects of this problem were recently studied in Takahashi and Murakami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 166805 (2011). The velocities of the Dirac electrons on the two surfaces may be unequal and may even have opposite signs; in the latter case, we find that the electrons must, in general, go into the two-dimensional interface separating the two topological insulators. We also study what happens if the two surfaces are at an angle φ with respect to each other. We find in this case that there are bound states which propagate along the line junction with a velocity and direction of spin which depend on the bending angle φ.

  18. Current distributions in stripe Majorana junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osca, Javier; Llorenç, Serra

    2017-02-01

    We calculate current and density distributions in stripe (2D planar) junctions between normal and Majorana nanowires having a finite ( y) transverse length. In presence of a magnetic field with vertical and in-plane components, the y-symmetry of the charge current distribution in the normal lead changes strongly across the Majorana phase transition: from center-symmetric if a Majorana mode is present to laterally-shifted (as expected by the Hall effect) if the field is tilted such as to destroy the Majorana mode due to the projection rule. We compare quasi-particle and charge distributions of current and density, as well as spin magnetizations. The Majorana mode causes opposite spin accumulations on the transverse sides of the junction and the emergence of a spin current.

  19. Boson Josephson Junction with Trapped Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, S.; Smerzi, A.; Fantoni, S.; Shenoy, S. R.

    We consider coherent atomic tunneling between two weakly coupled Bose-Einstein condensates at T=0 in a double-well trap. The condensate dynamics of the macroscopic amplitudes in the two wells is modeled by two Gross-Pitaevskii equations (GPE) coupled by a tunneling matrix element. Analytic elliptic function solutions are obtained for the time evolution of the inter-well fractional population imbalance z(t) (related to the condensate phase difference) of the Boson Josephson junction (BJJ). Surprisingly, the neutral-atom BJJ shows (non-sinusoidal generalizations of) effects seen in charged-electron superconductor Josephson junctions (SJJ). The BJJ elliptic-function behavior has a singular dependence on a GPE parameter ratio Λ at a critical ratio Λ=Λc, beyond which a novel 'macroscopic quantum self-trapping' effect sets in with a non-zero time-averaged imbalance ≠0.

  20. Non-Lagrangian theories from brane junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Ling [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Mitev, Vladimir [Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Mathematik und Inst. fuer Physik; Pomoni, Elli [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Taki, Masato [RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama (Japan). Mathematical Physics Lab.; Yagi, Futoshi [International School of Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste (Italy); INFN, Trieste (Italy); Korea Institute for Advanced Study (KIAS), Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this article we use 5-brane junctions to study the 5D T{sub N} SCFTs corresponding to the 5D N=1 uplift of the 4D N=2 strongly coupled gauge theories, which are obtained by compactifying N M5 branes on a sphere with three full punctures. Even though these theories have no Lagrangian description, by using the 5-brane junctions proposed by Benini, Benvenuti and Tachikawa, we are able to derive their Seiberg-Witten curves and Nekrasov partition functions. We cross-check our results with the 5D superconformal index proposed by Kim, Kim and Lee. Through the AGTW correspondence, we discuss the relations between 5D superconformal indices and n-point functions of the q-deformed W{sub N} Toda theories.

  1. An Important Member of Tight Junctions: Claudins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Demirpence

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The tight junction (TJs, the most apically located of the intercellular junctional complexes, inhibits solute and water flow through the paracellular space, termed the %u201Cbarrier%u201D function. TJs participate in signal transduction mechanisms that regulate epithelial cell proliferation, gene expression, differentiation and morphogenesis. The claudin family of transmembrane proteins localized to the TJ. Loss of expression of Claudin causes of suppression TJs function. Recent studies have shown that altered levels of the different claudins may be related to invasion and progression of carcinoma cells in several primary neoplasms. A better knowledge of the mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis will likely result in the development of novel approaches for the diagnosis and therapy.

  2. Electron transport in doped fullerene molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Milanpreet; Sawhney, Ravinder Singh; Engles, Derick

    The effect of doping on the electron transport of molecular junctions is analyzed in this paper. The doped fullerene molecules are stringed to two semi-infinite gold electrodes and analyzed at equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions of these device configurations. The contemplation is done using nonequilibrium Green’s function (NEGF)-density functional theory (DFT) to evaluate its density of states (DOS), transmission coefficient, molecular orbitals, electron density, charge transfer, current, and conductance. We conclude from the elucidated results that Au-C16Li4-Au and Au-C16Ne4-Au devices behave as an ordinary p-n junction diode and a Zener diode, respectively. Moreover, these doped fullerene molecules do not lose their metallic nature when sandwiched between the pair of gold electrodes.

  3. Charge Transport Phenomena in Peptide Molecular Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Luchini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS is a valuable in situ spectroscopic analysis technique that provides a direct portrait of the electron transport properties of a molecular species. In the past, IETS has been applied to small molecules. Using self-assembled nanoelectronic junctions, IETS was performed for the first time on a large polypeptide protein peptide in the phosphorylated and native form, yielding interpretable spectra. A reproducible 10-fold shift of the I/V characteristics of the peptide was observed upon phosphorylation. Phosphorylation can be utilized as a site-specific modification to alter peptide structure and thereby influence electron transport in peptide molecular junctions. It is envisioned that kinases and phosphatases may be used to create tunable systems for molecular electronics applications, such as biosensors and memory devices.

  4. Peltier Junction heats and cools car seat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottschalk, M.A.

    1994-10-10

    Electrically heated seats may soon become heated and cooled seats. The design called the CCS module exploits the heat-pump capability of a class of semiconductor thermoelectric devices (TEDs) known as Peltier Junction. Every CCS module contain two TEDs. Heating and cooling occurs through convection and conduction. The heart of the system is the thermoelectric heat pump. This is originally conceived as the sole heating/cooling options for a prototype electric vehicle.

  5. Josephson junction microwave modulators for qubit control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naaman, O.; Strong, J. A.; Ferguson, D. G.; Egan, J.; Bailey, N.; Hinkey, R. T.

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate Josephson junction based double-balanced mixer and phase shifter circuits operating at 6-10 GHz and integrate these components to implement both a monolithic amplitude/phase vector modulator and an I/Q quadrature mixer. The devices are actuated by flux signals, dissipate no power on chip, exhibit input saturation powers in excess of 1 nW, and provide cryogenic microwave modulation solutions for integrated control of superconducting qubits.

  6. Internal dynamics of long Josephson junction oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Lomdahl, P. S.; Scott, Alwyn C.;

    1981-01-01

    Numerical computations on a sine-Gordon model of the Josephson junction fluxon oscillator are compared with experimental measurements. Good agreement is found for the voltage current characteristic, oscillator power output, and range of current bias over which oscillation is observed. Our numeric...... results imply a ''bunched-fluxon'' mode of oscillation at larger values of bias current. Applied Physics Letters is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  7. Decreased Vision and Junctional Scotoma from Pituicytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Huynh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pituicytomas are rare neoplasms of the sellar region. We report a case of vision loss and a junctional scotoma in a 43-year-old woman caused by compression of the optic chiasm by a pituitary tumor. The morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of the tumor were consistent with the diagnosis of pituicytoma. The tumor was debulked surgically, and the patient’s vision improved.

  8. Brownian refrigeration by hybrid tunnel junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Peltonen, J. T.; Helle, M.; Timofeev, A. V.; Solinas, P.; Hekking, F. W. J.; Pekola, Jukka P.

    2011-01-01

    Voltage fluctuations generated in a hot resistor can cause extraction of heat from a colder normal metal electrode of a hybrid tunnel junction between a normal metal and a superconductor. We extend the analysis presented in Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 210604 (2007) of this heat rectifying system, bearing resemblance to a Maxwell’s demon. Explicit analytic calculations show that the entropy of the total system is always increasing. We then consider a single-electron transistor configuration with two ...

  9. RADIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF CRANIOVERTEBRAL JUNCTION ANOMALIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joji Reddy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Detailed discussions of the CVJ are conspicuously absent in many standard textbooks and chapters addressing the skull or cervical spine, since it lies in between these regions . CVJ anomalies are common in India subcontinent. OBJECTIVES : To outline the normal anatomy and various abnormalities of craniovertebral junction. To evaluate the most common developmental and acquired craniovertebral junction abnormalities . CRANIOMETRY AND DIAGNOSIS: Radiological evaluation of CVJ requir es identification of only a few anatomic structures. Over the years multiple lines , planes and angles have been described for assessment of CVJ relationship , initially with radiography and later with polytomography. Two lines have remained particularly use ful for evaluation of CVJ relationship with virtually any imaging modality: the chamberlain`s line and weckenheim ’ s clivus base line . Two angles also continue to be useful: the welcher basal angle and atlanto occipital joint axis angle. PATIENTS AND METHOD S: The prospective study of craniovertebral junction anomalies was carried out at Kurnool medical college , Governament general hospital Kurnool from NOV 2012 to AUG 2014. The patients are subjected to clinical evaluation and radiological evaluation. OBSERV ATIONS AND RESULTS : In our study there is male predominance with male to female ratio of 2:1 . Majority of patients are in the age group of 11 - 40 (73.26%. The commonest symptom seen is weakness of extremities ( 70% with associated numbness (50%. On clinica l examination pyramidal tract involvement noticed in 70% of cases. Basilar invagination is the most common followed by Atlantoocoipital assimilation (40% and AAD (30% . CONCLUSION : Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are invalvable adjuncts to the plain radiographs in the evaluation of the craniovertebral junction anomalies. Chamberlain’s line and McGregor line are the most commonly applied craniometric measurements

  10. Interfacial capacitance effects in magnetic tunneling junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Landry, G; Du, J; Xiao, J Q

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the AC transport properties of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) in order to characterize interfacial properties. One such property is interfacial charge accumulation, which leads to a voltage drop in the electrodes of the MTJ and the measured capacitance differing from the geometrical capacitance. Through measurement of capacitance spectra, we have extracted an interfacial capacitance of 16 mu F/cm sup 2 per interface and a screening length of 0.55 A for FeNi electrodes.

  11. Gap junction channels and cardiac impulse propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desplantez, Thomas; Dupont, Emmanuel; Severs, Nicholas J; Weingart, Robert

    2007-08-01

    The role of gap junction channels on cardiac impulse propagation is complex. This review focuses on the differential expression of connexins in the heart and the biophysical properties of gap junction channels under normal and disease conditions. Structural determinants of impulse propagation have been gained from biochemical and immunocytochemical studies performed on tissue extracts and intact cardiac tissue. These have defined the distinctive connexin coexpression patterns and relative levels in different cardiac tissues. Functional determinants of impulse propagation have emerged from electrophysiological experiments carried out on cell pairs. The static properties (channel number and conductance) limit the current flow between adjacent cardiomyocytes and thus set the basic conduction velocity. The dynamic properties (voltage-sensitive gating and kinetics of channels) are responsible for a modulation of the conduction velocity during propagated action potentials. The effect is moderate and depends on the type of Cx and channel. For homomeric-homotypic channels, the influence is small to medium; for homomeric-heterotypic channels, it is medium to strong. Since no data are currently available on heteromeric channels, their influence on impulse propagation is speculative. The modulation by gap junction channels is most prominent in tissues at the boundaries between cardiac tissues such as sinoatrial node-atrial muscle, atrioventricular node-His bundle, His bundle-bundle branch and Purkinje fibers-ventricular muscle. The data predict facilitation of orthodromic propagation.

  12. Gap Junctions: The Claymore for Cancerous Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailar Nakhlband

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gap junctions play an important role in the cell proliferation in mammalian cells as well as carcinogenesis. However, there are controversial issues about their role in cancer pathogenesis. This study was designed to evaluate genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of Carbenoxolone (CBX as a prototype of inter-cellular gap junction blocker in MCF7 and BT20 human breast cancer cells. Methods: The MCF7and BT20 human breast cancer cell lines were cultivated, and treated at designated confluency with different doses of CBX. Cellular cytotoxicity was examined using standard colorimetric assay associated with cell viability tests. Gene expression evaluation was carried out using real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: MCF7 and BT20 cells were significantly affected by CBX in a dose dependent manner in cell viability assays. Despite varying expression of genes, down regulation of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes was observed in these cells. Conclusion: Based upon this investigation, it can be concluded that CBX could affect both low and high proliferative types of breast cancer cell lines and disproportionate down regulation of both pre- and anti-apoptotic genes may be related to interacting biomolecules, perhaps via gap junctions.

  13. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of germanium junctions for multi-junction solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, T.; Faucher, J.; Lee, M. L.

    2016-11-01

    We report on the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth and device characteristics of Ge solar cells. Integrating a Ge bottom cell beneath a lattice-matched triple junction stack grown by MBE could enable ultra-high efficiencies without metamorphic growth or wafer bonding. However, a diffused junction cannot be readily formed in Ge by MBE due to the low sticking coefficient of group-V molecules on Ge surfaces. We therefore realized Ge junctions by growth of homo-epitaxial n-Ge on p-Ge wafers within a standard III-V MBE system. We then fabricated Ge solar cells, finding growth temperature and post-growth annealing to be key factors for achieving high efficiency. Open-circuit voltage and fill factor values of ~0.175 V and ~0.59 without a window layer were obtained, both of which are comparable to diffused Ge junctions formed by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. We also demonstrate growth of high-quality, single-domain GaAs on the Ge junction, as needed for subsequent growth of III-V subcells, and that the surface passivation afforded by the GaAs layer slightly improves the Ge cell performance.

  14. 面向对象的多时相HJ星影像甘蔗识别方法%Identification of sugarcane based on object-oriented analysis using time-series HJ CCD data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王久玲; 黄进良; 王立辉; 胡砚霞; 韩鹏鹏; 黄维

    2014-01-01

    广西甘蔗种植区域离散,因混杂于多种农作物中,其光谱易受其他作物的影响,故利用单一时相多光谱遥感影像提取甘蔗有一定的困难。针对这一难题,该文首先提出甘蔗最佳识别时段,基于多时相HJ-1A/1B星CCD影像,以广西中部贵港市三区为研究区,通过面向对象分类软件 eCognition,利用甘蔗在不同时相影像上的光谱特征:光谱均值、归一化植被指数NDVI和由灰度共生矩阵导出的局部一致性指数GLCM homogeneity,建立决策树逻辑的分类规则集提取甘蔗种植区。结果表明该方法能较精确地进行甘蔗识别,最大程度消除其他干扰因素影响,分类精度为91.3%,kappa系数为0.83,同时也证实了HJ卫星CCD多光谱遥感数据应用于甘蔗识别的有效性。%Sugarcane identification on specific parcels and the assessment of soil management practices are important for agro-ecological studies, greenhouse gas modeling, and agrarian policy development. Information on the sugarcane cultivation areas is of global economic and environmental significance. The study area is Guigang City located in the central area of Guangxi Province which is a good representation of the agricultural conditions. Traditional pixel-based analysis of remotely sensed data results in inaccurate identification of some crops due to pixel heterogeneity, mixed pixels, spectral similarity. The growing region of sugarcane in Guangxi Province is discrete, so the remote sensing spectral of sugarcane is vulnerable to be impacted on a variety of crops. There are certain difficulties in the use of multi-spectral remote sensing to extract sugarcane. Current techniques for mapping sugarcane are based mainly on MODIS satellite data and may not make full use of the texture characteristics. The objective of this research is to investigate the potential for the application of the China Environment Satellite HJ-1A/1B and Phenology in monitoring

  15. Electron Transport through Porphyrin Molecular Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi

    The goal of this work is to study the properties that would affect the electron transport through a porphyrin molecular junction. This work contributes to the field of electron transport in molecular junctions in the following 3 aspects. First of all, by carrying out experiments comparing the conductance of the iron (III) porphyrin (protected) and the free base porphyrin (protected), it is confirmed that the molecular energy level broadening and shifting occurs for porphyrin molecules when coupled with the metal electrodes, and this level broadening and shifting plays an important role in the electron transport through molecular junctions. Secondly, by carrying out an in-situ deprotection of the acetyl-protected free base porphyrin molecules, it is found out that the presence of acetyl groups reduces the conductance. Thirdly, by incorporating the Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) spectrum and the in-situ deprotection prior to formation of molecular junctions, it allows a more precise understanding of the molecules involved in the formation of molecular junctions, and therefore allows an accurate analysis of the conductance histogram. The molecules are prepared by self-assembly and the junctions are formed using a Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) molecular break junction technique. The porphyrin molecules are characterized by MALDI in solution before self-assembly to a gold/mica substrate. The self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of porphyrins on gold are characterized by Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) reflection spectroscopy to confirm that the molecules are attached to the substrate. The SAMs are then characterized by Angle-Resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) to determine the thickness and the average molecular orientation of the molecular layer. The electron transport is measured by conductance-displacement (G-S) experiments under a given bias (-0.4V). The conductance value of a single molecule is identified by a statistical analysis

  16. Electron optics with p-n junctions in ballistic graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaowen; Han, Zheng; Elahi, Mirza M.; Habib, K. M. Masum; Wang, Lei; Wen, Bo; Gao, Yuanda; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Hone, James; Ghosh, Avik W.; Dean, Cory R.

    2016-09-01

    Electrons transmitted across a ballistic semiconductor junction are expected to undergo refraction, analogous to light rays across an optical boundary. In graphene, the linear dispersion and zero-gap band structure admit highly transparent p-n junctions by simple electrostatic gating. Here, we employ transverse magnetic focusing to probe the propagation of carriers across an electrostatically defined graphene junction. We find agreement with the predicted Snell’s law for electrons, including the observation of both positive and negative refraction. Resonant transmission across the p-n junction provides a direct measurement of the angle-dependent transmission coefficient. Comparing experimental data with simulations reveals the crucial role played by the effective junction width, providing guidance for future device design. Our results pave the way for realizing electron optics based on graphene p-n junctions.

  17. Single P-N junction tandem photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Ager, III, Joel W.; Yu, Kin Man

    2011-10-18

    A single P-N junction solar cell is provided having two depletion regions for charge separation while allowing the electrons and holes to recombine such that the voltages associated with both depletion regions of the solar cell will add together. The single p-n junction solar cell includes an alloy of either InGaN or InAlN formed on one side of the P-N junction with Si formed on the other side in order to produce characteristics of a two junction (2J) tandem solar cell through only a single P-N junction. A single P-N junction solar cell having tandem solar cell characteristics will achieve power conversion efficiencies exceeding 30%.

  18. The critical power to maintain thermally stable molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanlei; Xu, Zhiping

    2014-07-01

    With the rise of atomic-scale devices such as molecular electronics and scanning probe microscopies, energy transport processes through molecular junctions have attracted notable research interest recently. In this work, heat dissipation and transport across diamond/benzene/diamond molecular junctions are explored by performing atomistic simulations. We identify the critical power Pcr to maintain thermal stability of the junction through efficient dissipation of local heat. We also find that the molecule-probe contact features a power-dependent interfacial thermal resistance RK in the order of 109 kW-1. Moreover, both Pcr and RK display explicit dependence on atomic structures of the junction, force and temperature. For instance, Pcr can be elevated in multiple-molecule junctions, and streching the junction enhances RK by a factor of 2. The applications of these findings in molecular electronics and scanning probing measurements are discussed, providing practical guidelines in their rational design.

  19. Single P-N junction tandem photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw [Kensington, CA; Ager, III, Joel W.; Yu, Kin Man [Lafayette, CA

    2012-03-06

    A single P-N junction solar cell is provided having two depletion regions for charge separation while allowing the electrons and holes to recombine such that the voltages associated with both depletion regions of the solar cell will add together. The single p-n junction solar cell includes an alloy of either InGaN or InAlN formed on one side of the P-N junction with Si formed on the other side in order to produce characteristics of a two junction (2J) tandem solar cell through only a single P-N junction. A single P-N junction solar cell having tandem solar cell characteristics will achieve power conversion efficiencies exceeding 30%.

  20. Structure, regulation and function of gap junctions in liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Michaël; Decrock, Elke; Wang, Nan; Leybaert, Luc; da Silva, Tereza Cristina; Veloso Alves Pereira, Isabel; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Cogliati, Bruno; Vinken, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Gap junctions are a specialized group of cell-to-cell junctions that mediate direct intercellular communication between cells. They arise from the interaction of 2 hemichannels of adjacent cells, which in turn are composed of 6 connexin proteins. In liver, gap junctions are predominantly found in hepatocytes and play critical roles in virtually all phases of the hepatic life cycle, including cell growth, differentiation, liver-specific functionality and cell death. Liver gap junctions are directed through a broad variety of mechanisms ranging from epigenetic control of connexin expression to posttranslational regulation of gap junction activity. This paper reviews established and novel aspects regarding the architecture, control and functional relevance of liver gap junctions. PMID:27001459

  1. Geometrical theory of triple junctions of CSL boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertsman, V Y

    2001-07-01

    When three grain boundaries having misorientations generating coincidence site lattices (CSLs) meet at a triple junction, a common (triple-junction) CSL is formed. A theory is developed as a set of theorems establishing the relationships between the geometrical parameters of the grain-boundary and triple-junction CSLs. Application of the theory is demonstrated in detail for the case of the cubic crystal system. It is also shown how the theory can be extended to an arbitrary crystal lattice.

  2. Turbulence-induced magnetic flux asymmetry at nanoscale junctions

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    It was recently predicted [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 11059 (2006)] that turbulence of the electron flow may develop at nonadiabatic nanoscale junctions under appropriate conditions. Here we show that such an effect leads to an asymmetric current-induced magnetic field on the two sides of an otherwise symmetric junction. We propose that by measuring the fluxes ensuing from these fields across two surfaces placed at the two sides of the junction would provide direct and noninvasive evidence...

  3. Magnetic interaction between spatially extended superconducting tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    2002-01-01

    A general description of magnetic interactions between superconducting tunnel junctions is given. The description covers a wide range of possible experimental systems, and we explicitly explore two experimentally relevant limits of coupled junctions. One is the limit of junctions with tunneling...... been considered through arrays of superconducting weak links based on semiconductor quantum wells with superconducting electrodes. We use the model to make direct interpretations of the published experiments and thereby propose that long-range magnetic interactions are responsible for the reported...

  4. Endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane junctions: structure, function and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Emmanuel; Dingsdale, Hayley; Parker, Tony; Voronina, Svetlana; Tepikin, Alexei V

    2016-06-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-plasma membrane (PM) junctions are contact sites between the ER and the PM; the distance between the two organelles in the junctions is below 40 nm and the membranes are connected by protein tethers. A number of molecular tools and technical approaches have been recently developed to visualise, modify and characterise properties of ER-PM junctions. The junctions serve as the platforms for lipid exchange between the organelles and for cell signalling, notably Ca(2+) and cAMP signalling. Vice versa, signalling events regulate the development and properties of the junctions. Two Ca(2+) -dependent mechanisms of de novo formation of ER-PM junctions have been recently described and characterised. The junction-forming proteins and lipids are currently the focus of vigorous investigation. Junctions can be relatively short-lived and simple structures, forming and dissolving on the time scale of a few minutes. However, complex, sophisticated and multifunctional ER-PM junctions, capable of attracting numerous protein residents and other cellular organelles, have been described in some cell types. The road from simplicity to complexity, i.e. the transformation from simple 'nascent' ER-PM junctions to advanced stable multiorganellar complexes, is likely to become an attractive research avenue for current and future junctologists. Another area of considerable research interest is the downstream cellular processes that can be activated by specific local signalling events in the ER-PM junctions. Studies of the cell physiology and indeed pathophysiology of ER-PM junctions have already produced some surprising discoveries, likely to expand with advances in our understanding of these remarkable organellar contact sites. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  5. Engineering of Droplet Manipulation in Tertiary Junction Microfluidic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    in silico investigation of path selection by a single droplet inside a tertiary junction microchannel using oil-in-water as a model system. The...droplet was generated at a T-junction inside a microfluidic chip and its flow behaviour as a function of droplet size, streamline position, viscosity...investigation of path selection by a single droplet inside a tertiary- junction microchannel using oil-in-water as a model system. The droplet was generated at

  6. ACCIDENT PREDICTION MODELS FOR UNSIGNALISED URBAN JUNCTIONS IN GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed SALIFU, MSc., PhD, MIHT, MGhIE

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to provide an improved method for safety appraisal in Ghana through the development and application of suitable accident prediction models for unsignalised urban junctions. A case study was designed comprising 91 junctions selected from the two most cosmopolitan cities in Ghana. A wide range of traffic and road data together with the corresponding accident data for each junction for the three-year period 1996-1998 was utilized in the model development p...

  7. Some chaotic features of intrinsically coupled Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolahchi, M.R., E-mail: kolahchi@iasbs.ac.ir [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan 45195-1159 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shukrinov, Yu.M. [BLTP, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region 141980 (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Hamdipour, M. [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan 45195-1159 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); BLTP, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region 141980 (Russian Federation); Botha, A.E. [Department of Physics, University of South Africa, P.O. Box 392, Pretoria 0003 (South Africa); Suzuki, M. [Photonics and Electronics Science and Engineering Center and Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: ► Intrinsically coupled Josephson junctions model a high-T{sub c} superconductor. ► Intrinsically coupled Josephson junctions can act as a chaotic nonlinear system. ► Chaos could be due to resonance overlap. ► Avoiding parameters that lead to chaos is important for the design of resonators. -- Abstract: We look for chaos in an intrinsically coupled system of Josephson junctions. This study has direct applications for the high-T{sub c} resonators which require coherence amongst the junctions.

  8. Imaging snake orbits at graphene n -p junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasiński, K.; Mreńca-Kolasińska, A.; Szafran, B.

    2017-01-01

    We consider conductance mapping of the snake orbits confined along the n -p junction defined in graphene by the electrostatic doping in the quantum Hall regime. We explain the periodicity of conductance oscillations at the magnetic field and the Fermi energy scales by the properties of the n -p junction as a conducting channel. We evaluate the conductance maps for a floating gate scanning the surface of the device. In the quantum Hall conditions the currents flow near the edges of the sample and along the n -p junction. The conductance mapping resolves only the n -p junction and not the edges. The conductance oscillations along the junction are found in the maps with periodicity related to the cyclotron orbits of the scattering current. Stronger probe potentials provide support to localized resonances at one of the sides of the junction with current loops that interfere with the n -p junction currents. The interference results in a series of narrow lines parallel to the junction with positions that strongly depend on the magnetic field through the Aharonov-Bohm effect. The consequences of a limited transparency of finite-width n -p junctions are also discussed.

  9. Assemble four-arm DNA junctions into nanoweb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    DNA is of structural polymorphism, which is useful in nanoarchitecture; especially, four-arm DNA junc tions can be used to assemble nanowebs. The static four-arm DNA junctions were designed and synthesized. One-arm DNA and two-arm DNA came out simultaneously with the four-arm DNA junction's formation. A new method, termed the two-step method, was proposed and the productivity of four-arm DNA junctions was increased. A nanoweb was assembled successfully, but it showed irregularity itself. It was not the same as we expected. We consider that it is aresult from the flexibility of four-arm DNA junction.

  10. Terahertz Detection with Twin Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor Tunnel Junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; WANG Ming-Jye; SHI Sheng-Cai; Hiroshi Mat-suo

    2007-01-01

    Terahertz detection with twin superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) tunnel junctions, which are connected in parallel via an inductive thin-film superconducting microstrip line, is mainly studied. Firstly, we investigate the direct-detection response of a superconducting twin-junction device by means of a Fourier transform spectrometer. Secondly, we construct a direct-detection model of twin SIS tunnel junctions. The superconducting twin-junction device is then simulated in terms of the constructed model. The simulation result is found to be in good agreement with the measured one. In addition, we observe that the direct-detection response of the device is consistent with the noise temperature behaviour.

  11. F-Theory Description of 3-String Junction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGFu-Zhong

    2003-01-01

    The geometrical description of BPS 3-string junction in the F-theory background is given by lifting a string junction in lib into F-theory and constructing a holomorphic curve in K3 with respect to a special complex structure of K3. The holomorphic curve is fibration of 1-cycles of the elliptic fiber over the geodesic string junction. The F-theory picture in this paper provides a unifying description of both string and string junction, and is advantageous over their M-theory picture.

  12. F-Theory Description of 3-String Junction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Fu-Zhong

    2003-01-01

    The geometrical description of BPS 3-string junction in the F-theory background is given by lifting a string junction in IIB into F-theory and constructing a holomorphic curve in K3 with respect to a special complex structure of K3. The holomorphic curve is fibration of 1-cycles of the elliptic fiber over the geodesic string junction. The F-theory picture in this paper provides a unifying description of both string and string junction, and is advantageous over their M-theory picture.

  13. ‘Gap Junctions and Cancer: Communicating for 50 Years’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasen, Trond; Mesnil, Marc; Naus, Christian C.; Lampe, Paul D.; Laird, Dale W.

    2017-01-01

    Fifty years ago, tumour cells were found to lack electrical coupling, leading to the hypothesis that loss of direct intercellular communication is commonly associated with cancer onset and progression. Subsequent studies linked this phenomenon to gap junctions composed of connexin proteins. While many studies support the notion that connexins are tumour suppressors, recent evidence suggests that, in some tumour types, they may facilitate specific stages of tumour progression through both junctional and non-junctional signalling pathways. This Timeline article highlights the milestones connecting gap junctions to cancer, and underscores important unanswered questions, controversies and therapeutic opportunities in the field. PMID:27782134

  14. Superconducting Tunnel Junction Arrays for UV Photon Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An innovative method is described for the fabrication of superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector arrays offering true "three dimensional" imaging throughout...

  15. Improving transition voltage spectroscopy of molecular junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Chen, Jingzhe; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2011-01-01

    Transition voltage spectroscopy (TVS) is a promising spectroscopic tool for molecular junctions. The principles in TVS is to find the minimum on a Fowler-Nordheim plot where ln(I/V2) is plotted against 1/V and relate the voltage at the minimum Vmin to the closest molecular level. Importantly, Vmin...... is approximately half the voltage required to see a peak in the dI/dV curve. Information about the molecular level position can thus be obtained at relatively low voltages. In this work we show that the molecular level position can be determined at even lower voltages, Vmin(α), by finding the minimum of ln...

  16. Anatomy and biomechanics of the craniovertebral junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Alejandro J; Scheer, Justin K; Leibl, Kayla E; Smith, Zachary A; Dlouhy, Brian J; Dahdaleh, Nader S

    2015-04-01

    The craniovertebral junction (CVJ) has unique anatomical structures that separate it from the subaxial cervical spine. In addition to housing vital neural and vascular structures, the majority of cranial flexion, extension, and axial rotation is accomplished at the CVJ. A complex combination of osseous and ligamentous supports allow for stability despite a large degree of motion. An understanding of anatomy and biomechanics is essential to effectively evaluate and address the various pathological processes that may affect this region. Therefore, the authors present an up-to-date narrative review of CVJ anatomy, normal and pathological biomechanics, and fixation techniques.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging in craniovertebral junction anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, Shimpei; Hata, Yuichi; Miyamoto, Yukio

    1985-03-01

    Materials consisted of 6 cases with occipitalization of the atlas, (4 of them complicated by basilar impression), 7 with basilar impression, one with hypoplasia of the atlas and C2-3 fusion, and one with os odontoideum. Basal angles after Welcker were all more than 130 in contrast to 118-138 (127 an average) in control group. Basal angle more than 140 denoted platybasia. Syringomyelia was seen in 7 of all 15 cases and 4 of 5 cases with platybasia. Chiari malformation was seen in 9 of all 15 cases and 4 of 5 with platybasia. Basal angles were closely related to craniovertebral junction bone anomaly, syringomyelia, and Chiari malformation. (author).

  18. Magic-T Junction using Microstrip/Slotline Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    U-yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J.; Doiron, Terence

    2008-01-01

    An improved broadband planar magic-T junction that incorporates microstrip/slotline transitions has been developed. In comparison with a prior broadband magic-T junction incorporating microstrip/slotline transitions, this junction offers superior broadband performance. In addition, because this junction is geometrically simpler and its performance is less affected by fabrication tolerances, the benefits of the improved design can be realized at lower fabrication cost. There are potential uses for junctions like this one in commercial microwave communication receivers, radar and polarimeter systems, and industrial microwave instrumentation. A magic-T junction is a four-port waveguide junction consisting of a combination of an H-type and an E-type junction. An E-type junction is so named because it includes a junction arm that extends from a main waveguide in the same direction as that of the electric (E) field in the waveguide. An H-type junction is so named because it includes a junction arm parallel to the magnetic (H) field in a main waveguide. A magic-T junction includes two input ports (here labeled 1 and 2, respectively) and two output ports (here labeled E and H, respectively). In an ideal case, (1) a magic-T junction is lossless, (2) the input signals add (that is, they combine in phase with each other) at port H, and (3) the input signals subtract (that is, they combine in opposite phase) at port E. The prior junction over which the present junction is an improvement affords in-phase-combining characterized by a broadband frequency response, and features a small slotline area to minimize in-band loss. However, with respect to isolation between ports 1 and 2 and return loss at port E, it exhibits narrowband frequency responses. In addition, its performance is sensitive to misalignment of microstrip and slotline components: this sensitivity is attributable to a limited number of quarter-wavelength (lambda/4) transmission-line sections for matching impedances

  19. Grades 1-8, Apache Junction Unified School District 43, Apache Junction, Arizona. PLATO Evaluation Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, David W.; Quinn, Nancy W.

    Apache Junction Unified School District, Arizona, has embarked on a 5-year program of instructional improvement using technology. PLATO Elementary reading and mathematics products were installed in the district's elementary and middle schools at the beginning of the 1999-2000 school year. This evaluation studied the use and preliminary student…

  20. Fabrication of magnetic tunnel junctions with epitaxial and textured ferromagnetic layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y. Austin; Yang, Jianhua Joshua

    2008-11-11

    This invention relates to magnetic tunnel junctions and methods for making the magnetic tunnel junctions. The magnetic tunnel junctions include a tunnel barrier oxide layer sandwiched between two ferromagnetic layers both of which are epitaxial or textured with respect to the underlying substrate upon which the magnetic tunnel junctions are grown. The magnetic tunnel junctions provide improved magnetic properties, sharper interfaces and few defects.

  1. Gap junctions in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental, R; Giaume, C; Spray, D C

    2000-04-01

    Synapses are classically defined as close connections between two nerve cells or between a neuronal cell and a muscle or gland cell across which a chemical signal (i.e., a neurotransmitter) and/or an electrical signal (i.e., current-carrying ions) can pass. The definition of synapse was developed by Charles Sherrington and by Ramon y Cajal at the beginning of this century and refined by John Eccles and Bernard Katz 50 years later; in this collection of papers, the definition of synapses is discussed further in the chapter by Mike Bennett. who provided the first functional demonstration of electrical transmission via gap junction channels between vertebrate neurons. As is evidenced by the range of topics covered in this issue, research dealing with gap junctions in the nervous system has expanded enormously in the past decade, major findings being that specific cell types in the brain expresses specific types of connexins and that expression patterns coincide with tissue compartmentalization and function and that these compartments change during development.

  2. Electrophysiological study in neuromuscular junction disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajith Cherian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review is on ultrastructure and subcellular physiology at normal and abnormal neuromuscular junctions. The clinical and electrophysiological findings in myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS, congenital myasthenic syndromes, and botulinum intoxication are discussed. Single fiber electromyography (SFEMG helps to explain the basis of testing neuromuscular junction function by repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS. SFEMG requires skill and patience and its availability is limited to a few centers. For RNS supramaximal stimulation is essential and so is display of the whole waveform of each muscle response at maximum amplitude. The amplitudes of the negative phase of the first and fourth responses are measured from baseline to negative peak, and the percent change of the fourth response compared with the first represents the decrement or increment. A decrement greater than 10% is accepted as abnormal and smooth progression of response amplitude train and reproducibility form the crux. In suspected LEMS the effect of fast rates of stimulation should be determined after RNS response to slow rates of stimulation. Caution is required to avoid misinterpretation of potentiation and pseudofacilitation.

  3. Improving transition voltage spectroscopy of molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markussen, Troels; Chen, Jingzhe; Thygesen, Kristian S.

    2011-04-01

    Transition voltage spectroscopy (TVS) is a promising spectroscopic tool for molecular junctions. The principles in TVS is to find the minimum on a Fowler-Nordheim plot where ln(I/V2) is plotted against 1/V and relate the voltage at the minimum Vmin to the closest molecular level. Importantly, Vmin is approximately half the voltage required to see a peak in the dI/dV curve. Information about the molecular level position can thus be obtained at relatively low voltages. In this work we show that the molecular level position can be determined at even lower voltages, Vmin(α), by finding the minimum of ln(I/Vα) with α<2. On the basis of a simple Lorentzian transmission model we analyze theoretical ab initio as well as experimental I-V curves and show that the voltage required to determine the molecular levels can be reduced by ~30% as compared to conventional TVS. As for conventional TVS, the symmetry/asymmetry of the molecular junction needs to be taken into account in order to gain quantitative information. We show that the degree of asymmetry may be estimated from a plot of Vmin(α) vs α.

  4. Development of superconducting tunnel junction radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katagiri, Masaki; Kishimoto, Maki; Ukibe, Masahiro; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Nakazawa, Masaharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Kurakado, Masahiko; Ishibashi, Kenji; Maehata, Keisuke

    1998-07-01

    Study on development of high energy resolution X-ray detector using superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) for radiation detection was conducted for 5 years under cooperation of University of Tokyo group and Kyushu University group by Quantum measurement research group of Advanced fundamental research center of JAERI. As the energy resolution of STJ could be obtained better results than that of Si semiconductor detector told to be actually best at present, this study aimed to actualize an X-ray detector usable for the experimental field and to elucidate radiation detection mechanism due to STJ. The STJ element used for this study was the one developed by Kurakado group of Nippon Steel Corp. As a results, some technical problems were almost resolved, which made some trouble when using the STJ element to detection element of X-ray spectrometer. In order to make the X-ray detector better, it is essential to manufacture a STJ element and develop serial junction type STJ element on the base of optimization of the element structure and selection and single crystallization of new superconducting materials such as Ta and others, activating the research results. (G.K.)

  5. Junction like behavior in polycrystalline diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaskaran, Shivakumar, E-mail: sbhaskar@mail.uh.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cullen College of Engineering, University of Houston, TX 77004 (United States); Charlson, Earl Joe; Litvinov, Dmitri [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cullen College of Engineering, University of Houston, TX 77004 (United States); Makarenko, Boris [Department of Chemistry, University of Houston, TX 77004 (United States)

    2012-01-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result that we obtained are compared with single crystalline diamond devices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The barrier height of 4.4 eV matches the ideal pn-junction barrier height of diamond thin film. - Abstract: We have successfully fabricated polycrystalline diamond rectifying junction devices on n-type (1 0 0) silicon substrates by Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (HFCVD) using methane/hydrogen process gas and trimethyl borate and trimethyl phosphite dissolved in acetone as p- and n-type dopants, respectively. Impedance spectroscopy and current-voltage analysis indicates that the conduction is vertical down the grains and facets and not due to surface effects. Electrical characteristics were analyzed with In and Ti/Au top metal contacts with Al as the substrate contact. Current-voltage characteristics as a function of temperature showed barrier potentials of 1.1 eV and 0.77 eV for the In and Ti/Au contacts, respectively. Barrier heights of 4.8 eV (In) and 4.4 eV (Ti/Au) were obtained from capacitance-voltage measurements.

  6. GAP junctional communication in brain secondary organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosone, Camilla; Andreu, Abraham; Echevarria, Diego

    2016-06-01

    Gap junctions (GJs) are integral membrane proteins that enable the direct cytoplasmic exchange of ions and low molecular weight metabolites between adjacent cells. They are formed by the apposition of two connexons belonging to adjacent cells. Each connexon is formed by six proteins, named connexins (Cxs). Current evidence suggests that gap junctions play an important part in ensuring normal embryo development. Mutations in connexin genes have been linked to a variety of human diseases, although the precise role and the cell biological mechanisms of their action remain almost unknown. Among the big family of Cxs, several are expressed in nervous tissue but just a few are expressed in the anterior neural tube of vertebrates. Many efforts have been made to elucidate the molecular bases of Cxs cell biology and how they influence the morphogenetic signal activity produced by brain signaling centers. These centers, orchestrated by transcription factors and morphogenes determine the axial patterning of the mammalian brain during its specification and regionalization. The present review revisits the findings of GJ composed by Cx43 and Cx36 in neural tube patterning and discuss Cx43 putative enrollment in the control of Fgf8 signal activity coming from the well known secondary organizer, the isthmic organizer. © 2016 The Authors. Development, Growth & Differentiation published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  7. Annealing free magnetic tunnel junction sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudde, S.; Leitao, D. C.; Cardoso, S.; Freitas, P. P.

    2017-04-01

    Annealing is a major step in the fabrication of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). It sets the exchange bias between the pinned and antiferromagnetic layers, and helps to increase the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in both amorphous and crystalline junctions. Recent research on MTJs has focused on MgO-based structures due to their high TMR. However, the strict process control and mandatory annealing step can limit the scope of the application of these structures as sensors. In this paper, we present AlOx-based MTJs that are produced by ion beam sputtering and remote plasma oxidation and show optimum transport properties with no annealing. The microfabricated devices show TMR values of up to 35% and using NiFe/CoFeB free layers provides tunable linear ranges, leading to coercivity-free linear responses with sensitivities of up to 5.5%/mT. The top-pinned synthetic antiferromagnetic reference shows a stability of about 30 mT in the microfabricated devices. Sensors with linear ranges of up to 60 mT are demonstrated. This paves the way for the integration of MTJ sensors in heat-sensitive applications such as flexible substrates, or for the design of low-footprint on-chip multiaxial sensing devices.

  8. Virus interaction with the apical junctional complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mariscal, Lorenza; Garay, Erika; Lechuga, Susana

    2009-01-01

    In order to infect pathogens must breach the epithelial barriers that separate the organism from the external environment or that cover the internal cavities and ducts of the body. Epithelia seal the passage through the paracellular pathway with the apical junctional complex integrated by tight and adherens junctions. In this review we describe how viruses like coxsackie, swine vesicular disease virus, adenovirus, reovirus, feline calcivirus, herpes viruses 1 and 2, pseudorabies, bovine herpes virus 1, poliovirus and hepatitis C use as cellular receptors integral proteins present at the AJC of epithelial cells. Interaction with these proteins contributes in a significant manner in defining the particular tropism of each virus. Besides these proteins, viruses exhibit a wide range of cellular co-receptors among which proteins present in the basolateral cell surface like integrins are often found. Therefore targeting proteins of the AJC constitutes a strategy that might allow viruses to bypass the physical barrier that blocks their access to receptors expressed on the basolateral surface of epithelial cells.

  9. Switching and Rectification in Carbon-Nanotube Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Andriotis, Antonis N.; Menon, Madhu; Chernozatonskii, Leonid

    2003-01-01

    Multi-terminal carbon-nanotube junctions are under investigation as candidate components of nanoscale electronic devices and circuits. Three-terminal "Y" junctions of carbon nanotubes (see Figure 1) have proven to be especially interesting because (1) it is now possible to synthesize them in high yield in a controlled manner and (2) results of preliminary experimental and theoretical studies suggest that such junctions could exhibit switching and rectification properties. Following the preliminary studies, current-versus-voltage characteristics of a number of different "Y" junctions of single-wall carbon nanotubes connected to metal wires were computed. Both semiconducting and metallic nanotubes of various chiralities were considered. Most of the junctions considered were symmetric. These computations involved modeling of the quantum electrical conductivity of the carbon nanotubes and junctions, taking account of such complicating factors as the topological defects (pentagons, heptagons, and octagons) present in the hexagonal molecular structures at the junctions, and the effects of the nanotube/wire interfaces. A major component of the computational approach was the use of an efficient Green s function embedding scheme. The results of these computations showed that symmetric junctions could be expected to support both rectification and switching. The results also showed that rectification and switching properties of a junction could be expected to depend strongly on its symmetry and, to a lesser degree, on the chirality of the nanotubes. In particular, it was found that a zigzag nanotube branching at a symmetric "Y" junction could exhibit either perfect rectification or partial rectification (asymmetric current-versus-voltage characteristic, as in the example of Figure 2). It was also found that an asymmetric "Y" junction would not exhibit rectification.

  10. MgB2 tunnel junctions and SQUIDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, A.; Rowell, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in the realization and understanding of MgB2 tunnel junctions and SQUIDs are surveyed. High quality MgB2 junctions with suitable tunnel barriers have been realized based on both oriented and epitaxial thin MgB2 films. Multiband transport properties, such as the existence of two energ

  11. Craniovertebral Junction Instability in the Setting of Chiari I Malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Hannah E; Anderson, Richard C E

    2015-10-01

    This article addresses the key features, clinical presentation, and radiographic findings associated with craniovertebral junction instability in the setting of Chiari I malformation. It further discusses surgical technique for treating patients with Chiari I malformation with concomitant craniovertebral junction instability, focusing on modern posterior rigid instrumentation and fusion techniques.

  12. Parametric excitation of plasma oscillations in a Josephson tunnel junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Christen Kjeldahl; Kofoed, Bent; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1975-01-01

    Experimental evidence for subharmonic parametric excitation of plasma oscillations in Josephson tunnel junctions is presented. The experiments described are performed by measuring the microwave power necessary to switch a Josephson−tunnel junction biased in the zero−voltage state to a finite−volt......−voltage state. Journal of Applied Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  13. Shapiro and parametric resonances in coupled Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaafar, Ma A.; Shukrinov, Yu M.; Foda, A.

    2012-11-01

    The effect of microwave irradiation on the phase dynamics of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high temperature superconductors is investigated. We compare the current-voltage characteristics for a stack of coupled Josephson junctions under external irradiation calculated in the framework of CCJJ and CCJJ+DC models.

  14. Microwave phase locking of Josephson-junction fluxon oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salerno, M.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm; Filatrella, G.;

    1990-01-01

    -dimensional functional map. Phase-locked states correspond to fixed points of the map. For junctions of in-line geometry, the existence and stability of such fixed points can be studied analytically. Study of overlap-geometry junctions requires the numerical inversion of a functional equation, but the results...

  15. Josephson junctions in high-T/sub c/ superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, C.M.; Lee, T.W.

    1981-01-14

    The invention includes a high T/sub c/ Josephson sperconducting junction as well as the method and apparatus which provides the junction by application of a closely controlled and monitored electrical discharge to a microbridge region connecting two portions of a superconducting film.

  16. Junction leakage measurements with micro four-point probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Rong; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Wang, Fei

    2012-01-01

    We present a new, preparation-free method for measuring the leakage current density on ultra-shallow junctions. The junction leakage is found by making a series of four-point sheet resistance measurements on blanket wafers with variable electrode spacings. The leakage current density is calculate...

  17. How good are one-dimensional Josephson junction models?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomdahl, P. S.; Olsen, O.H.; Eilbeck, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of Josephson junctions of overlap type is presented and shown to reduce to the usual one-dimensional (1D) model in the limit of a very narrow junction. Comparisons between the stability limits for fluxon reflection obtained from the two models suggest that the many results...

  18. Relaxation towards phase-locked dynamics in long Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salerno, M.; Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1995-01-01

    We study the relaxation phenomenon towards phase-locked dynamics in long Josephson junctions. In particular the dependence of the relaxation frequency for the equal time of flight solution on the junction parameters is derived. The analysis is based on a phase-locked map and is compared with dire...

  19. Processing of Superconductor-Normal-Superconductor Josephson Edge Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsasser, A. W.; Barner, J. B.

    1997-01-01

    The electrical behavior of epitaxial superconductor-normal-superconductor (SNS) Josephson edge junctions is strongly affected by processing conditions. Ex-situ processes, utilizing photoresist and polyimide/photoresist mask layers, are employed for ion milling edges for junctions with Yttrium-Barium-Copper-Oxide (YBCO) electrodes and primarily Co-doped YBCO interlayers.

  20. 75 FR 76294 - Radio Broadcasting Services: Pacific Junction, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services: Pacific Junction, IA AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The staff deletes FM Channel 299C2 at Pacific Junction,...

  1. Shunted-Josephson-junction model. I. The autonomous case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belykh, V. N.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sørensen, O. H.

    1977-01-01

    of the junction behavior in different regions of the parameter space. Approximate formulas are given for the parameter-space decomposition into regions of qualitatively different junction behavior corroborated by the associated-phase plane portraits and also approximate expressions for the corresponding dc...

  2. Gap junction protein connexin-43 interacts directly with microtubules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giepmans, B N; Verlaan, I; Hengeveld, T; Janssen, H; Calafat, J; Falk, M M; Moolenaar, W H

    2001-01-01

    Gap junctions are specialized cell-cell junctions that mediate intercellular communication. They are composed of connexin proteins, which form transmembrane channels for small molecules [1, 2]. The C-terminal tail of connexin-43 (Cx43), the most widely expressed connexin member, has been implicated

  3. Septal Junctions in Filamentous Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Enrique; Herrero, Antonia; Forchhammer, Karl; Maldener, Iris

    2016-02-01

    In the filaments of heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria, septal junctions that traverse the septal peptidoglycan join adjacent cells, allowing intercellular communication. Perforations in the septal peptidoglycan have been observed, and proteins involved in the formation of such perforations and putative protein components of the septal junctions have been identified, but their relationships are debated.

  4. Vortex dynamics in Josephson ladders with II-junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornev, Victor K.; Klenov, N. V.; Oboznov, V.A.;

    2004-01-01

    Both experimental and numerical studies of a self-frustrated triangular array of pi-junctions are reported. The array of SFS Josephson junctions shows a transition to the pi-state and self-frustration with a decrease in temperature. This manifests itself in a half-period shift of the bias critica...

  5. Determination of Relaxation Time of a Josephson Tunnel Junction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Xue-Da; YU Yang

    2008-01-01

    We propose a non-stationary method to measure the energy relaxation time of Josephson tunnel junctions from microwave enhanced escape phenomena.Compared with the previous methods,our method possesses simple and accurate features.Moreover,having determined the energy relaxation time,we can further obtain the coupling strength between the microwave source and the junction by changing the microwave power.

  6. Shunted-Josephson-junction model. II. The nonautonomous case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belykh, V. N.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sørensen, O. H.

    1977-01-01

    The shunted-Josephson-junction model with a monochromatic ac current drive is discussed employing the qualitative methods of the theory of nonlinear oscillations. As in the preceding paper dealing with the autonomous junction, the model includes a phase-dependent conductance and a shunt capacitance...

  7. Conditions for synchronization in Josephson-junction arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernikov, A.A.; Schmidt, G. [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    An effective perturbation theoretical method has been developed to study the dynamics of Josephson Junction series arrays. It is shown that the inclusion of Junction capacitances, often ignored, has a significant impact on synchronization. Comparison of analytic with computational results over a wide range of parameters shows excellent agreement.

  8. Internal resonances in periodically modulated long Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Mygind, Jesper; Ustinov, Alexey V.

    1995-01-01

    Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of long Josephson junctions with a periodic lattice of localized inhomogeneities are studied. The interaction between the moving fluxons and the inhomogeneities causes resonant steps in the IV-curve. Some of these steps are due to a synchronization to resonan...... into account the interaction between the resonance in the sub-junction and the magnetic flux density waves excited in the whole junction is given....... Fiske modes in the sub-junctions formed between the inhomogeneities. The voltage positions of the resonant steps oscillate as function of the applied magnetic field with a period corresponding to the inclusion of one magnetic flux quantum, Φ0=h/2e, per sub-junction. A qualitative explanation that takes...

  9. Parametric resonance in the system of long Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmonov, I. R.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Irie, A.

    2014-08-01

    The phase dynamics of the system of long Josephson junctions whose length exceeds the Josephson penetration depth has been studied. The possibility of the appearance of a longitudinal plasma wave and parametric resonance has been demonstrated. Both inductive and capacitive couplings between Josephson junctions have been taken into account in the calculations. The current-voltage characteristics, as well as time evolution of the spatial distribution of the electric charge in superconducting layers and the magnetic field, have been calculated in all Josephson junctions of the system. The coexistence of the longitudinal plasma wave and fluxon states has been observed in the region of parametric resonance beginning with a certain length of the Josephson junction. This indicates the appearance of a new unique collective excitation in the system of coupled Josephson junctions, namely, a composite state of the Josephson current, electric field, and vortex magnetic field.

  10. Design of Steerable Wavelets to Detect Multifold Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Püspöki, Zsuzsanna; Uhlmann, Virginie; Vonesch, Cédric; Unser, Michael

    2016-02-01

    We propose a framework for the detection of junctions in images. Although the detection of edges and key points is a well examined and described area, the multiscale detection of junction centers, especially for odd orders, poses a challenge in pattern analysis. The goal of this paper is to build optimal junction detectors based on 2D steerable wavelets that are polar-separable in the Fourier domain. The approaches we develop are general and can be used for the detection of arbitrary symmetric and asymmetric junctions. The backbone of our construction is a multiscale pyramid with a radial wavelet function where the directional components are represented by circular harmonics and encoded in a shaping matrix. We are able to detect M -fold junctions in different scales and orientations. We provide experimental results on both simulated and real data to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  11. Observation of supercurrent in graphene-based Josephson junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Libin; Li, Sen; Kang, Ning [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xu, Chuan; Ren, Wencai [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2015-07-01

    Josephson junctions with a normal metal region sandwiched between two superconductors (S) are known as superconductor- normal-superconductor (SNS) structures. It has attracted significant attention especially when changing the normal metal with graphene, which allow for high tunability with the gate voltage and to study the proximity effect of the massless Dirac fermions. Here we report our work on graphene-based Josephson junction with a new two dimensional superconductor crystal, which grown directly on graphene, as superconducting electrodes. At low temperature, we observer proximity effect induced supercurrent flowing through the junction. The temperature and the magnetic field dependences of the critical current characteristics of the junction are also studied. The critical current exhibits a Fraunhofer-type diffraction pattern against magnetic field. Our experiments provided a new route of fabrication of graphene-based Josephson junction.

  12. Low conductance of nickel atomic junctions in hydrogen atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuaishuai; Xie, Yi-Qun; Hu, Yibin

    2017-08-01

    The low conductance of nickel atomic junctions in the hydrogen environment is studied using the nonequilibrium Green's function theory combined with first-principles calculations. The Ni junction bridged by a H2 molecule has a conductance of approximately 0.7 G 0. This conductance is contributed by the anti-bonding state of the H2 molecule, which forms a bonding state with the 3 d orbitals of the nearby Ni atoms. In contrast, the Ni junction bridged by the two single H atoms has a conductance of approximately 1 G 0, which is weakly spin-polarized. The spin-up channels were found to contribute mostly to the conductance at a small junction gap, while the spin-down channels play a dominant role at a larger junction gap.

  13. Visualizing supercurrents in 0-{pi} ferromagnetic Josephson tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldobin, Edward; Guerlich, Christian; Gaber, Tobias; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold [Physikalisches Institut and Center for Collective Quantum Phenomena, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Weides, Martin; Kohlstedt, Hermann [Institute of Solid State Physics, Reserch Center Juelich (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    So-called 0 and {pi} Josephson junctions can be treated as having positive and negative critical currents. This implies that the same phase shift applied to a Josephson junction causes counterflow of supercurrents in 0 and in {pi} junctions connected in parallel provided they are short in comparison with Josephson penetration depth {lambda}{sub J}. We have fabricated several 0, {pi}, 0-{pi}, 0-{pi}-0 and 20 x (0-{pi}-) planar superconductor-insulator-ferromagnet-superconductor Josephson junctions and studied the spatial supercurrent density distribution j{sub s}(x,y) across the junction area using low temperature scanning electron microscopy. At zero magnetic field we clearly see counterflow of the supercurrents in 0 and {pi} regions. The picture also changes consistently in the applied magnetic field.

  14. The current-phase relation in HTS Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'ichev, E.; Zakosarenko, V.; Ijsselsteijn, R. P. J.; Schultze, V.; Meyer, H.-G.; Hoenig, H. E.

    The current-phase relation of YBa2Cu3O7-x step-edge as well as 24° and 45° grain boundary Josephson junctions has been investigated experimentally. The junctions were incorporated into a washer-shaped superconducting ring with inductance L≈80-300 pH. The ring was inductively coupled to a tank circuit with a resonance frequency 9…40 MHz. The current-phase relation was obtained from the measurement of the impedance of the phase-biased junction. It is shown, that experimentally observed deviations from harmonic behavior of the apparent current-phase relation for step-edge and 24° grain boundary junctions can be explained by the influence of thermal noise. The current-phase relation of 45° grain boundary junctions was found to be extremely non-harmonic. The reasons of this unusual behavior are discussed.

  15. Glial connexins and gap junctions in CNS inflammation and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielian, Tammy

    2008-08-01

    Gap junctions facilitate direct cytoplasmic communication between neighboring cells, facilitating the transfer of small molecular weight molecules involved in cell signaling and metabolism. Gap junction channels are formed by the joining of two hemichannels from adjacent cells, each composed of six oligomeric protein subunits called connexins. Of paramount importance to CNS homeostasis are astrocyte networks formed by gap junctions, which play a critical role in maintaining the homeostatic regulation of extracellular pH, K+, and glutamate levels. Inflammation is a hallmark of several diseases afflicting the CNS. Within the past several years, the number of publications reporting effects of cytokines and pathogenic stimuli on glial gap junction communication has increased dramatically. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent observations characterizing the consequences of inflammatory stimuli on homocellular gap junction coupling in astrocytes and microglia as well as changes in connexin expression during various CNS inflammatory conditions.

  16. Fixed-gap tunnel junction for reading DNA nucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Pei; Ashcroft, Brian Alan; Song, Weisi; Zhang, Peiming; Biswas, Sovan; Qing, Quan; Yang, Jialing; Nemanich, Robert J; Bai, Jingwei; Smith, Joshua T; Reuter, Kathleen; Balagurusamy, Venkat S K; Astier, Yann; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Lindsay, Stuart

    2014-12-23

    Previous measurements of the electronic conductance of DNA nucleotides or amino acids have used tunnel junctions in which the gap is mechanically adjusted, such as scanning tunneling microscopes or mechanically controllable break junctions. Fixed-junction devices have, at best, detected the passage of whole DNA molecules without yielding chemical information. Here, we report on a layered tunnel junction in which the tunnel gap is defined by a dielectric layer, deposited by atomic layer deposition. Reactive ion etching is used to drill a hole through the layers so that the tunnel junction can be exposed to molecules in solution. When the metal electrodes are functionalized with recognition molecules that capture DNA nucleotides via hydrogen bonds, the identities of the individual nucleotides are revealed by characteristic features of the fluctuating tunnel current associated with single-molecule binding events.

  17. Scattering form factors for self-assembled network junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, T.; Safran, S. A.; Sottmann, T.; Strey, R.

    2007-11-01

    The equilibrium microstructures in microemulsions and other self-assembled systems show complex, connected shapes such as symmetric bicontinuous spongelike structures and asymmetric bicontinuous networks formed by cylinders interconnected at junctions. In microemulsions, these cylinder network microstructures may mediate the structural transition from a spherical or globular phase to the bicontinuous microstructure. To understand the structural and statistical properties of such cylinder network microstructures as measured by scattering experiments, models are needed to extract the real-space structure from the scattering data. In this paper, we calculate the scattering functions appropriate for cylinder network microstructures. We focus on such networks that contain a high density of network junctions that connect the cylindrical elements. In this limit, the network microstructure can be regarded as an assembly of randomly oriented, closed packed network junctions (i.e., the cylinder scattering contributions are neglected). Accordingly, the scattering spectrum of the network microstructure can be calculated as the product of the junction number density, the junction form factor, which describes the scattering from the surface of a single junction, and a structure factor, which describes the local correlations of different junctions due to junction interactions (including their excluded volume). This approach is applied to analyze the scattering data from a bicontinuous microemulsion with equal volumes of water and oil. In a second approach, we included the cylinder scattering contribution in the junction form factor by calculating the scattering intensity of Y junctions to which three rods with spherical cross section are attached. The respective theoretical predictions are compared with results of neutron scattering measurements on a water-in-oil microemulsion with a connected microstructure.

  18. Influence of Coupling between Junctions on Breakpoint Current in Intrinsic Josephson Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Mahfouzi, F.

    2007-04-01

    We study theoretically the current-voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high-Tc superconductors. An oscillation of the breakpoint current on the outermost branch as a function of coupling α and dissipation β parameters is found. We explain this oscillation as a result of the creation of longitudinal plasma waves at the breakpoint with different wave numbers. We demonstrate the commensurability effect and predict a group behavior of the current-voltage characteristics for the stacks with a different number of junctions. A method to determine the wave number of longitudinal plasma waves from α and β dependence of the breakpoint current is suggested. We model the α and β dependence of the breakpoint current and obtain good agreement with the results of the simulation.

  19. Ruptured venous aneurysm of cervicomedullary junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Aggarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ruptured venous aneurysm is often seen with arterio-venous malformation (AVM or developmental venous anomaly (DVA. However, isolated venous aneurysm is unusual. Case Description: We present a case of ruptured venous aneurysm that presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH. Digital substraction angiography (DSA revealed a saccular contrast filling pouch in the left lateral aspect of cervicomedullary junction (CMJ. Endovascular intervention was not a viable option. During surgery, a saccular pliable structure approx. 1.5 Χ 1 cm was found in the subarachnoid space that was clipped and excised. There were no arterial feeders, no evidence of surrounding AVM, and no dilated perimedullary vein. Conclusion: This is perhaps the first reported case of ruptured venous aneurysm (without associated AVM of CMJ, which was successfully managed surgically. The possible etiologies remain an unnoticed head trauma or a congenital vessel wall abnormality. Surgically clipping and excision remains the treatment of choice for such lesion.

  20. Nonlinear nonequilibrium quasiparticle relaxation in Josephson junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnov, V M

    2009-11-27

    I solve numerically a full set of nonlinear kinetic balance equations for stacked Josephson junctions, which allows analysis of strongly nonequilibrium phenomena. It is shown that nonlinearity becomes significant already at very small disequilibrium. The following new, nonlinear effects are obtained: (i) At even-gap voltages V = 2nDelta/e (n = 2, 3, ...) nonequilibrium bosonic bands overlap. This leads to enhanced emission of Omega = 2Delta bosons and to the appearance of dips in tunnel conductance. (ii) A new type of radiative solution is found at strong disequilibrium. It is characterized by the fast stimulated relaxation of quasiparticles. A stack in this state behaves as a light emitting diode and directly converts electric power to boson emission, without utilization of the ac-Josephson effect. The phenomenon can be used for realization of a new type of superconducting cascade laser in the THz frequency range.

  1. Fully magnetic manganite spin filter tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Bhagwati; Blamire, Mark G.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we demonstrate spintronic devices which combine magnetic tunnel junctions with a spin-filtering tunnel barrier. These consist of an ultrathin ferromagnetic insulating barrier, Sm0.75Sr0.25MnO3, sandwiched between two ferromagnetic half-metallic manganite electrodes, La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 and La0.7Ca0.3MnO3, in a nanopillar structure. Depending on the relative magnetic configurations of barrier and electrode layers, three resistance states are well defined, which therefore represent a potential three-state memory concept. These results open the way for the development of spintronic devices by exploiting the many degrees of freedom of perovskite manganite heterostructure systems.

  2. Electron and Phonon Transport in Molecular Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qian

    transmission at the Fermi energy. We propose and analyze a way of using π   stacking to design molecular junctions to control heat transport. We develop a simple model system to identify optimal parameter regimes and then use density functional theory (DFT) to extract model parameters for a number of specific....... The system we are interested in here are π-stacked molecules connected with two semi-infinite leads. π-stacked aromatic rings, connected via π-π electronic coupling, provides a rather soft mechanical bridge while maintaining high electronic conductivity. We investigate electron transport...... and the thermoelectric response of five representative π-stacked systems. We find that the transmission and power factor are both enhanced by increasing the conjugation length or adding substituent groups. The local transmission shows that several extra paths are added by cyano groups, which increases the total...

  3. Electronic transport properties of phenylacetylene molecular junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Wen; Cheng Jie; Yah Cui-Xia; Li Hai-Hong; Wang Yong-Juan; Liu De-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Electronic transport properties of a kind of phenylacetylene compound- (4-mercaptophenyl)-phenylacetylene are calculated by the first-principles method in the framework of density functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism.The molecular junction shows an obvious rectifying behaviour at a bias voltage larger than 1.0 V.The rectification effect is attributed to the asymmetry of the interface contacts.Moreover,at a bias voltage larger than 2.0 V,which is not referred to in a relevant experiment [Fang L,Park J Y,Ma H,Jan A K Y and Salmeron M 2007 Langmuir 23 11522],we find a negative differential resistance phenomenon.The negative differential resistance effect may originate from the change of the delocalization degree of the molecular orbitais induced by the bias.

  4. Functional oesophago-gastric junction imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barry P McMahon; Asbj(φ)rn M Drewes; Hans Gregersen

    2006-01-01

    Despite its role in disease there is still no definitive method to assess oesophago-gastric junction competence (OGJ). Traditionally the OGJ has been assessed using manometry with lower oesophageal sphincter pressure as the indicator. More recently this has been shown not to be a very reliable marker of sphincter function and competence against reflux.Disorders such as gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and to a lesser extend achalasia still effects a significant number of patients. This review looks at using a new technique known as impedance planimetry to profile the geometry and pressure in the OGJ during distension of a bag. The data gathered can be reconstructed into a dynamic representation of OGJ action. This has been shown to provide a useful representation of the OGJ and to show changes to the competence of the OGJ in terms of compliance and distensibility as a result of endoluminal therapy.

  5. Shot Noise in Ferromagnetic Superconductor Tunnel Junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the superconducting order parameter and the energy spectrum of the Bogoliubov excitations are obtained from the Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) equation for a ferromagnetic superconductor (FS). Taking into account the rough interface scattering effect, we calculate the shot noise and the differential conductance of the normal- metal insulator ferromagnetic superconductor junction. It is shown that the exchange energy Eh in FS can lead to splitting of the differential shot noise peaks and the conductance peaks. The energy difference between the two splitting peaks is equal to 2Eh. The rough interface scattering strength results in descent of conductance peaks and the shot noise-to-current ratio but increases the shot noise.

  6. Permanent junctional reciprocating tachycardia in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santilli, Roberto A; Santos, Luis F N; Perego, Manuela

    2013-09-01

    A 5-year-old male English Bulldog was presented with a 1-year history of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) partially responsive to amiodarone. At admission the surface ECG showed sustained runs of a narrow QRS complex tachycardia, with a ventricular cycle length (R-R interval) of 260 ms, alternating with periods of sinus rhythm. Endocardial mapping identified the electrogenic mechanism of the SVT as a circus movement tachycardia with retrograde and decremental conduction along a concealed postero-septal atrioventricular pathway (AP) and anterograde conduction along the atrioventricular node. These characteristics were indicative of a permanent junctional reciprocating tachycardia (PJRT). Radiofrequency catheter ablation of the AP successfully terminated the PJRT, with no recurrence of tachycardia on Holter monitoring at 12 months follow-up.

  7. Exotic Brane Junctions from F-theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, Tetsuji

    2016-01-01

    Applying string dualities to F-theory, we obtain various $[p,q]$-branes whose constituents are standard branes of codimension two and exotic branes. We construct junctions of the exotic five-branes and their Hanany-Witten transitions associated with those in F-theory. In this procedure, we understand the monodromy of the single $5^2_2$-brane. We also find the objects which are sensitive to the branch cut of the $5^2_2$-brane. Considering the web of branes in the presence of multiple exotic five-branes analogous to the web of five-branes with multiple seven-branes, we obtain novel brane constructions for $SU(2)$ gauge theories with $n$ flavors and their superconformal limit with enhanced $E_{n+1}$ symmetry in five, four, and three dimensions. Hence, adapting the techniques of the seven-branes to the exotic branes, we will be able to construct F-theories in diverse dimensions.

  8. Operating modes of superconducting tunnel junction device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehata, Keisuke [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-07-01

    In the Electrotechnical Laboratory, an Nb type superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) device with 200 x 200 sq. micron in area and super high quality was manufactured. By using 55-fe source, response of this large area STJ to X-ray was measured. In this measurement, two action modes with different output wave height from front amplifier were observed. Then, in this study, current-voltage feature of the element in each action mode was analyzed to elucidate a mechanism to form such two action modes. The feature was analyzed by using first order approximate solution on cavity resonance mode of Sine-Gordon equation. From the analytical results, it could be supposed that direction and magnitude of effective magnetic field penetrating into jointed area changed by an induction current effect owing to impressing speed of the magnetic field, which brings two different current-voltage features to make possible to observe two action modes with different pulse wave height. (G.K.)

  9. Studies of silicon pn junction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, F. A.; Neugroschel, A.

    1977-01-01

    Modifications of the basic Shockley equations that result from the random and nonrandom spatial variations of the chemical composition of a semiconductor were developed. These modifications underlie the existence of the extensive emitter recombination current that limits the voltage over the open circuit of solar cells. The measurement of parameters, series resistance and the base diffusion length is discussed. Two methods are presented for establishing the energy bandgap narrowing in the heavily-doped emitter region. Corrections that can be important in the application of one of these methods to small test cells are examined. Oxide-charge-induced high-low-junction emitter (OCI-HLE) test cells which exhibit considerably higher voltage over the open circuit than was previously seen in n-on-p solar cells are described.

  10. Tantalum oxide barrier in magnetic tunnel junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guanghua Yu; Tingting Ren; Wei Ji; Jiao Teng; Fengwu Zhu

    2004-01-01

    Tantalum as an insulating barrier can take the place of Al in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). Ta barriers in MTJs were fabricated by natural oxidation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterize the oxidation states of Ta barrier.The experimental results show that the chemical state of tantalum is pure Ta5+ and the thickness of the oxide is 1.3 nm. The unoxidized Ta in the barrier may chemically reacted with NiFe layer which is usually used in MTJs to form an intermetallic compound,NiTa2. A magnetic "dead layer" could be produced in the NiFe/Ta interface. The "dead layer" is likely to influence the spinning electron transport and the magnetoresistance effect.

  11. Controlling local currents in molecular junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Yadalam, Hari Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The effect of non-equilibrium constraints and dephasing on the circulating currents in molecular junctions are analyzed. Circulating currents are manifestations of quantum effects and can be induced either by externally applied bias or an external magnetic field through the molecular system. In symmetric Aharonov-Bohm ring, bond currents have two contributions, bias driven and magnetic field driven. We analyze the competition between these two contributions and show that, as a consequence, current through one of the branches can be completely suppressed. We then study the effect of asymmetry (as a result of chemical substitution) on the current pathways inside the molecule and study asymmetry induced circulating currents (without magnetic field) by tuning the coupling strength of the substituent (at finite bias).

  12. Tunable Magnetic Proximity Effects in Graphene Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazic, Predrag; Belashchenko, Kirill; Zutic, Igor

    2015-03-01

    The characteristic length of the magnetic proximity effects exceed the thickness of a graphene layer leading to an important, but typically overlooked, modifications of equilibrium and transport properties, as well as the implications for graphene spintronics. Using the first-principles studies that integrate a real space density functional theory (GPAW) with the state-of-the art boundary elements electrostatic code based on the Robin Hood method, we explore tunable electronic structure and magnetic proximity effects in the ferromagnet/insulator/graphene junctions. We show that the inclusion of a finite-size gate electrodes and van der Walls interaction lead to nontrivial effects that could also be important in other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene. Work supported by US ONR, NSF-DMR and Nebraska NSF MRSEC.

  13. Computation of flow through the oesophagogastric junction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barry P McMahon; Karl D Odie; Kenneth W Moloney; Hans Gregersen

    2007-01-01

    Whilst methods exist to indirectly measure the effects of increased flow or gastro-oesophageal refluxing,they cannot quantitatively measure the amount of acid travelling back up into the oesophagus during reflux, nor can they indicate the flow rate through the oesophagogastric junction (OGJ). Since OGJ dysfunction affects flow it seems most appropriate to describe the geometry of the OGJ and its effect on the flow.A device known as the functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) has been shown to reliably measure the geometry of and pressure changes in the OGJ. FLIP cannot directly measure flow but the data gathered from the probe can be used to model flow through the junction by using computational flow dynamics (CFD).CFD uses a set of equations known as the Navier-Stokes equations to predict flow patterns and is a technique widely used in engineering. These equations are complex and require appropriate assumptions to provide simplifications before useful data can be obtained. With the assumption that the cross-sectional areas obtained via FLIP are circular, the radii of these circles can be obtained. A cubic interpolation scheme can then be applied to give a high-resolution geometry for the OGJ.In the case of modelling a reflux scenario, it can be seen that at the narrowest section a jet of fluid squirts into the oesophagus at a higher velocity than the fluid surrounding it. This jet has a maximum velocity of almost 2 ms-1 that occurs where the OGJ is at its narrowest. This simple prediction of acid 'squirting' into the oesophagus illustrates how the use of numerical methods can be used to develop a better understanding of the OGJ. This initial work using CFD shows some considerable promise for the future.

  14. Influence of coupling between junctions on breakpoint current in intrinsic Josephson junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Shukrinov, Yu M.; Mahfouzi, F.

    2006-01-01

    We study theoretically the current-voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high-$T_c$ superconductors. An oscillation of the breakpoint current on the outermost branch as a function of coupling $\\alpha$ and dissipation $\\beta$ parameters is found. We explain this oscillation as a result of the creation of longitudinal plasma waves at the breakpoint with different wave numbers. We demonstrate the commensurability effect and predict a group behavior of the current-voltage ch...

  15. Incompressible Turbulent Wing-Body Junction Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, R.; Cagle, Corey D.; Chandra, S.

    1998-01-01

    The overall objective of this study is to contribute to the optimized design of fan bypass systems in advanced turbofan engines. Increasing the engine bypass ratios have provided a major boost in engine performance improvement over the last fifty years. An engine with high bypass ratio (11-16:1) such as the Advanced Ducted Propulsion (ADP) is being developed and is expected to provide an additional 25% improvement in overall efficiency over the early turbofans. Such significant improvements in overall efficiency would reduce the cost per seat mile, which is a major government and Industry challenge for the 21th century. The research is part of the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) program that involves a NASA, U.S. Industry and FAA partnership with the goal of a safe and highly productive global air transportation system. The immediate objective of the study is to perform numerical simulation of duct-strut interactions to elucidate the loss mechanisms associated with this configuration that is typical of advanced turbofan engines such as ADP. However, at present experimental data for a duct-strut configuration are not available. Thus, as a first step a wing-body junction flow would be studied and is the specific objective of the present study. At the outset it is to be recognized that while duct-strut interaction flow is similar to that of wing-body junction flows, there are some differences owing to the presence of a wall at both ends of the strut. Likewise, some differences are due to the sheared inflow (as opposed to a uniform inflow) velocity profile. It is however expected that some features of a wing-body junction flow would persist. Next, some of the salient aspects of the complex flow near a wing-body junction, as revealed by various studies reported in the literature will be reviewed. One of the principle characteristics of the juncture flow, is the presence of the mean flow components in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the oncoming free

  16. Optical trapping of microparticles using silicon nitride waveguide junctions and tapered-waveguide junctions on an optofluidic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hong; Poon, Andrew W

    2012-10-01

    We study optical trapping of microparticles on an optofluidic chip using silicon nitride waveguide junctions and tapered-waveguide junctions. We demonstrate the trapping of single 1 μm-sized polystyrene particles using the evanescent field of waveguide junctions connecting a submicrometer-sized input-waveguide and a micrometer-sized output-waveguide. Particle trapping is localized in the vicinity of the junction. We also demonstrate trapping of one and two 1μm-sized polystyrene particles using tapered-waveguide junctions connecting a submicrometer-sized singlemode input-waveguide and a micrometer-sized multimode output-waveguide. Particle trapping occurs near the taper output end, the taper center and the taper input end, depending on the taper aspect ratio.

  17. Molecular signatures in the transport properties of molecular wire junctions: what makes a junction "molecular"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Alessandro; Ratner, Mark A

    2006-02-01

    The simplest component of molecular electronics consists of a single-molecule transport junction: a molecule sandwiched between source and drain electrodes, with or without a third gate electrode. In this Concept article, we focus on how molecules control transport in metal-electrode molecular junctions, and where the molecular signatures are to be found. In the situation where the molecule is relatively short and the gap between injection energy and molecular eigenstates is large, transport occurs largely by elastic tunneling, stochastic switching is common, and the vibronic signature can be found using inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). As the energy gaps for injection become smaller, one begins to see stronger molecular signatures - these include Franck-Condon-like structures in the current/voltage characteristic and strong vibronic interactions, which can lead to hopping behavior at the polaron limit. Conformational changes induced by the strong electric field lead to another strong manifestation of the molecular nature of the junction. We overview some of this mechanistic landscape, focusing on significant effects of switching (both stochastic and controlled by the electric field) and of molecular vibronic coupling.

  18. Spin transport and dynamics in the F/N junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Bedell, Kevin

    2015-03-01

    We study the spin transport in the low temperature regime (often referred to as the precession-dominated regime) between a ferromagnetic Fermi liquid (FFL) and a normal metal metallic Fermi liquid (NFL), the F/N junction, which is considered one of the basic spintronic devices. In particular, we explore the propagation of spin waves and transport of magnetization through the interface of the F/N junction where non-equilibrium spin polarization is created on the normal metal side of the junction by spin injection. We calculate the probable spin wave modes in the precession-dominated regime on both sides of the junction especially on the NFL side where the system is out of equilibrium. Proper boundary conditions at the interface are introduced to establish the transport of the spin properties through the F/N junction. In the end, a possible transmission conduction electron spin resonance experiment is suggested on the F/N junction to see if the predicted spin wave modes could propagate through the junction.

  19. Solar cell junction temperature measurement of PV module

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2011-02-01

    The present study develops a simple non-destructive method to measure the solar cell junction temperature of PV module. The PV module was put in the environmental chamber with precise temperature control to keep the solar PV module as well as the cell junction in thermal equilibrium with the chamber. The open-circuit voltage of PV module Voc is then measured using a short pulse of solar irradiation provided by a solar simulator. Repeating the measurements at different environment temperature (40-80°C) and solar irradiation S (200-1000W/m2), the correlation between the open-circuit voltage Voc, the junction temperature Tj, and solar irradiation S is derived.The fundamental correlation of the PV module is utilized for on-site monitoring of solar cell junction temperature using the measured Voc and S at a short time instant with open circuit. The junction temperature Tj is then determined using the measured S and Voc through the fundamental correlation. The outdoor test results show that the junction temperature measured using the present method, Tjo, is more accurate. The maximum error using the average surface temperature Tave as the junction temperature is 4.8 °C underestimation; while the maximum error using the present method is 1.3 °C underestimation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. High electronic couplings of single mesitylene molecular junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Komoto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on an experimental analysis of the charge transport properties of single mesitylene (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene molecular junctions. The electronic conductance and the current–voltage characteristics of mesitylene molecules wired into Au electrodes were measured by a scanning tunnelling microscopy-based break-junction method at room temperature in a liquid environment. We found the molecular junctions exhibited two distinct conductance states with high conductance values of ca. 10−1G0 and of more than 10−3G0 (G0 = 2e2/h in the electronic conductance measurements. We further performed a statistical analysis of the current–voltage characteristics of the molecular junctions in the two states. Within a single channel resonant tunnelling model, we obtained electronic couplings in the molecular junctions by fitting the current–voltage characteristics to the single channel model. The origin of the high conductance was attributed to experimentally obtained large electronic couplings of the direct π-bonded molecular junctions (ca. 0.15 eV. Based on analysis of the stretch length of the molecular junctions and the large electronic couplings obtained from the I–V analysis, we proposed two structural models, in which (i mesitylene binds to the Au electrode perpendicular to the charge transport direction and (ii mesitylene has tilted from the perpendicular orientation.

  1. Gap-junction-mediated cell-to-cell communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervé, Jean-Claude; Derangeon, Mickaël

    2013-04-01

    Cells of multicellular organisms need to communicate with each other and have evolved various mechanisms for this purpose, the most direct and quickest of which is through channels that directly connect the cytoplasms of adjacent cells. Such intercellular channels span the two plasma membranes and the intercellular space and result from the docking of two hemichannels. These channels are densely packed into plasma-membrane spatial microdomains termed "gap junctions" and allow cells to exchange ions and small molecules directly. A hemichannel is a hexameric torus of junctional proteins around an aqueous pore. Vertebrates express two families of gap-junction proteins: the well-characterized connexins and the more recently discovered pannexins, the latter being related to invertebrate innexins ("invertebrate connexins"). Some gap-junctional hemichannels also appear to mediate cell-extracellular communication. Communicating junctions play crucial roles in the maintenance of homeostasis, morphogenesis, cell differentiation and growth control in metazoans. Gap-junctional channels are not passive conduits, as previously long regarded, but use "gating" mechanisms to open and close the central pore in response to biological stimuli (e.g. a change in the transjunctional voltage). Their permeability is finely tuned by complex mechanisms that have just begun to be identified. Given their ubiquity and diversity, gap junctions play crucial roles in a plethora of functions and their dysfunctions are involved in a wide range of diseases. However, the exact mechanisms involved remain poorly understood.

  2. High electronic couplings of single mesitylene molecular junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoto, Yuki; Fujii, Shintaro; Nishino, Tomoaki; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2015-01-01

    We report on an experimental analysis of the charge transport properties of single mesitylene (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene) molecular junctions. The electronic conductance and the current-voltage characteristics of mesitylene molecules wired into Au electrodes were measured by a scanning tunnelling microscopy-based break-junction method at room temperature in a liquid environment. We found the molecular junctions exhibited two distinct conductance states with high conductance values of ca. 10(-1) G 0 and of more than 10(-3) G 0 (G 0 = 2e (2)/h) in the electronic conductance measurements. We further performed a statistical analysis of the current-voltage characteristics of the molecular junctions in the two states. Within a single channel resonant tunnelling model, we obtained electronic couplings in the molecular junctions by fitting the current-voltage characteristics to the single channel model. The origin of the high conductance was attributed to experimentally obtained large electronic couplings of the direct π-bonded molecular junctions (ca. 0.15 eV). Based on analysis of the stretch length of the molecular junctions and the large electronic couplings obtained from the I-V analysis, we proposed two structural models, in which (i) mesitylene binds to the Au electrode perpendicular to the charge transport direction and (ii) mesitylene has tilted from the perpendicular orientation.

  3. Flicker (1/f) noise in tunnel junction DC SQUIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, R.H.; Clarke, J.; Goubau, W.M.; Martinis, J.M.; Pegrum, C.M.; Van Harlingen, D.J.

    1983-04-01

    We have measured the spectral density of the 1/f voltage noise in current-biased resistively shunted Josephson tunnel junctions and dc SQUIDs. A theory in which fluctuations in the temperature give rise to fluctuations in the critical current and hence in the voltage predicts the magnitude of the noise quite accurately for junctions with areas of about 2 x 10/sup 4/ ..mu..m/sup 2/, but significantly overestimates the noise for junctions with areas of about 6 ..mu..m/sup 2/. DC SQUIDs fabricated from these two types of junctions exhibit substantially more 1/f voltage noise than would be predicted from a model in which the noise arises from critical current fluctuations in the junctions. This result was confirmed by an experiment involving two different bias current and flux modulation schemes, which demonstrated that the predominant 1/f voltage noise arises not from critical current fluctuations, but from some unknown source that can be regarded as an apparent 1/f flux noise. Measurements on five different configurations of dc SQUIDs fabricated with thin-film tunnel junctions and with widely varying areas, inductances, and junction capacitances show that the spectral density of the 1/f equivalent flux noise is roughtly constant, within a factor of three of (10/sup -10//f)phi/sup 2//sub 0/Hz/sup -1/. It is emphasized that 1/f flux noise may not be the predominant source of 1/f noise in SQUIDS fabricated with other technologies.

  4. Mechanical deformations of boron nitride nanotubes in crossed junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yadong; Chen, Xiaoming; Ke, Changhong, E-mail: cke@binghamton.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton, New York 13902 (United States); Park, Cheol [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia 23681 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States); Fay, Catharine C. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia 23681 (United States); Stupkiewicz, Stanislaw [Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Warsaw (Poland)

    2014-04-28

    We present a study of the mechanical deformations of boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) in crossed junctions. The structure and deformation of the crossed tubes in the junction are characterized by using atomic force microscopy. Our results show that the total tube heights are reduced by 20%–33% at the crossed junctions formed by double-walled BNNTs with outer diameters in the range of 2.21–4.67 nm. The measured tube height reduction is found to be in a nearly linear relationship with the summation of the outer diameters of the two tubes forming the junction. The contact force between the two tubes in the junction is estimated based on contact mechanics theories and found to be within the range of 4.2–7.6 nN. The Young's modulus of BNNTs and their binding strengths with the substrate are quantified, based on the deformation profile of the upper tube in the junction, and are found to be 1.07 ± 0.11 TPa and 0.18–0.29 nJ/m, respectively. Finally, we perform finite element simulations on the mechanical deformations of the crossed BNNT junctions. The numerical simulation results are consistent with both the experimental measurements and the analytical analysis. The results reported in this paper contribute to a better understanding of the structural and mechanical properties of BNNTs and to the pursuit of their applications.

  5. Association of visceral adiposity with oesophageal and junctional adenocarcinomas.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Beddy, P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of oesophageal and oesophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma, in particular Siewert types I and II. This study compared abdominal fat composition in patients with oesophageal\\/junctional adenocarcinoma with that in patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and gastric adenocarcinoma, and in controls. METHOD: In total, 194 patients (110 with oesophageal\\/junctional adenocarcinoma, 38 with gastric adenocarcinoma and 46 with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma) and 90 matched control subjects were recruited. The abdominal fat area was assessed using computed tomography (CT), and the total fat area (TFA), visceral fat area (VFA) and subcutaneous fat area (SFA) were calculated. RESULTS: Patients with oesophageal\\/junctional adenocarcinoma had significantly higher TFA and VFA values compared with controls (both P < 0.001), patients with gastric adenocarcinoma (P = 0.013 and P = 0.006 respectively) and patients with oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (both P < 0.001). For junctional tumours, the highest TFA and VFA values were seen in patients with Siewert type I tumours (respectively P = 0.041 and P = 0.033 versus type III; P = 0.332 and P = 0.152 versus type II). CONCLUSION: Patients with oesophageal\\/junctional adenocarcinoma, in particular oesophageal and Siewert type I junctional tumours, have greater CT-defined visceral adiposity than patients with gastric adenocarcinoma or oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma, or controls.

  6. Josephson radiation from InSb-nanowire junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Woerkom, David; Proutski, Alexander; Krivachy, Tamas; Bouman, Daniel; van Gulik, Ruben; Gul, Onder; Cassidy, Maja; Car, Diana; Bakkers, Erik; Kouwenhoven, Leo; Geresdi, Attila

    Semiconducting nanowire Josephson junctions has recently gained interest as building blocks for Majorana circuits and gate-tuneable superconducting qubits . Here we investigate the rich physics of the Andreev bound state spectrum of InSb nanowire junctions utilizing the AC Josephson relation 2eV_bias =hf . We designed and characterized an on-chip microwave circuit coupling the nanowire junction to an Al/AlOx/Al tunnel junction. The DC response of the tunnel junction is affected by photon-assisted quasiparticle current, which gives us the possibility to measure the radiation spectrum of the nanowire junction up to several tens of GHz in frequency. Our circuit design allows for voltage or phase biasing of the Josephson junction enabling direct mapping of Andreev bound states. We discuss our fabrication methods and choice of materials to achieve radiation detection up to a magnetic field of few hundred milliTesla, compatible with Majorana states in spin-orbit coupled nanowires. This work has been supported by the Netherlands Foundations FOM, Abstract NWO and Microsoft Corporation Station Q.

  7. [Evaluation on the atmospheric correction methods for water color remote sensing by using HJ-1A/1B CCD image-taking Poyang Lake in China as a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qun; Zhao, Yue; Tian, Li-Qiao; Chen, Xiao-Ling

    2013-05-01

    HJ-1A/1B satellite CCD images have higher spatial and temporal resolution, making them of great potential in quantitatively monitoring the water quality of inland lakes. However, the atmospheric correction of the images restricts their application. Therefore, taking Poyang Lake, the biggest freshwater lake in China as study area , and using the in-situ data collected in 2009 and 2011, this paper compares the atmospheric correction results done by the four methods: FLAASH, 6S, COST and QUAC, and analyzes the influence of these atmospheric correction methods on the inversion accuracy of the total suspended sediments (TSS) concentration. The results indicate: (1) the band 1 (blue band) of HJ-1A/1B CCD satellite images should be recalibrated while being applied into water quality remote sensing. The accuracy of atmospheric correction done from band 2 (green band) and band 3 (red band) is higher than that of others , especially that of the correction done by FLAASH, 6S and COST is much higher while that of correction done by QUAC is lower. So the algorithms of QUAC should be pointedly improved. (2) The ratios done from band 2 and band 3 have a good match with in-situ data , with an average relative error of 8.2%, 9.5%, 7.6% and 11.6% respectively for FLAASH, 6S, COST and QUAC. Therefore, it would be better to use the ratio done from band 2 and band 3 as inversion factors in Poyang Lake. (3) It is found that the accuracy of directly building models by using the four atmospheric corrected results and the TSS concentration is higher than the models built by the in-situ remote sensing reflectance and the TSS concentration. The accuracy of the TSS concentration inverted by FLAASH, 6S and COST is much high with an average error of only 10.0%, 10.2% and 8.0% respectively, while the error inverted by QUAC is a little bit higher of being 18.6%. So it is suggested to build model with atmospheric correction results and the TSS concentration data, because it can avoid the cumulate

  8. 小卫星CCD相机MTF在轨测量与图像复原%On-orbit MTF estimation and restoration for CCD cameras of environment and disaster reduction small satellites (HJ 1A/1B)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨贵军; 邢著荣; 黄文江; 王纪华

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on the CCD cameras of environment and disaster reduction small satellites (HJ1A/1B),an approach on the on-orbit measurement of modulation transfer function (MTF)to the imaging system was proposed. According to selecting the distinct edges among two homogeneous objects from images, the degraded images were processed with smooth filtering, curve fitting and the forward Fourier transform(FFT) of line spread function(LSF) to obtain the point spread function (PSF). After that, MTF corresponding to PSF can be obtained through FFT. Taking into account the noise of the complex constraint restoration method (CRM) without universality, the deconvolution restoration method in frequency domain was proposed, because it had the advantage that we neet not prove the parameters of sensor and atmosphere. Finally, analyzing and evaluating the restored image were carried out based on three factors: the feature value, definition and texture, respectively. The results show that the quality of HJ1A/1B image has been obviously improved, and achieved good restoration results.%基于调制传递函数的基本理论,针对环境与减灾小卫星光学相机,基于刃边法给出了一种在轨测量成像系统调制传递函数的方法.通过选取图像中均匀地物之间灰度变化明显的边缘,对有限采样点进行平滑滤波、曲线拟合和对线扩展函数(LSF)的傅里叶变换获得点扩展函数(PSF),提取调制传递函数(MTF)曲线,进而选取最优的MTF曲线.考虑到采用有约束复原方法时噪声统计、估计的复杂性和欠普适性,本方法通过频率域的去卷积进行复原处理,其优势在于不需要提供传感器、大气状况等参数.并对复原图像从统计特征、清晰度、纹理特征等3方面进行了定量分析和评价.结果表明:复原后的环境与减灾小卫星图像质量得到明显提高,收到良好的复原效果.

  9. Negative differential resistance in Josephson junctions coupled to a cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Filatrella, G.; Pierro, V.

    2014-01-01

    or external – is often used. A cavity may also induce a negative differential resistance region at the lower side of the resonance frequency. We investigate the dynamics of Josephson junctions with a negative differential resistance in the quasi particle tunnel current, i.e. in the McCumber curve. We find......Regions with negative differential resistance can arise in the IV curve of Josephson junctions and this phenomenon plays an essential role for applications, in particular for THz radiation emission. For the measurement of high frequency radiation from Josephson junctions, a cavity – either internal...

  10. Temporal correlations and structural memory effects in break junction measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magyarkuti, A.; Lauritzen, Kasper Primdal; Balogh, Zoltan Imre

    2017-01-01

    that correlations between the opening and subsequent closing traces may indicate structural memory effects in atomic-sized metallic and molecular junctions. Applying these methods on measured and simulated gold metallic contacts as a test system, we show that the surface diffusion induced flattening of the broken......-molecule junctions, we demonstrate pronounced contact memory effects and recovery of the molecule for junctions breaking before atomic chains are formed. However, if chains are pulled the random relaxation of the chain and molecule after rupture prevents opening-closing correlations....

  11. Vortex structure in a long Josephson junction with two inhomogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreeva, O.Yu. [Tumen Thermal Networks OAO ' TRGK' , Tobolsk 626150 (Russian Federation); Boyadjiev, T.L. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Shukrinov, Yu.M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)], E-mail: shukrinv@theor.jinr.ru

    2007-09-01

    We study the vortex structure in the long Josephson junctions with one and two rectangular inhomogeneities in the barrier layer. In case of one inhomogeneity we demonstrate the existence of the asymmetric fluxon states. The disappearance of the mixed fluxon-antifluxon states is shown when the position of the inhomogeneity shifted to the end of the junction. In case of two inhomogeneities the change of the amplitude of Josephson current through the inhomogeneity in the end of the junction makes strong effect on the stability of the fluxon states and smoothes the maximums on the dependence 'critical current-magnetic field'.

  12. Vortex structure in a long Josephson junction with two inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, O. Yu.; Boyadjiev, T. L.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.

    2007-09-01

    We study the vortex structure in the long Josephson junctions with one and two rectangular inhomogeneities in the barrier layer. In case of one inhomogeneity we demonstrate the existence of the asymmetric fluxon states. The disappearance of the mixed fluxon-antifluxon states is shown when the position of the inhomogeneity shifted to the end of the junction. In case of two inhomogeneities the change of the amplitude of Josephson current through the inhomogeneity in the end of the junction makes strong effect on the stability of the fluxon states and smoothes the maximums on the dependence “critical current-magnetic field”.

  13. Bloch inductance in small-capacitance Josephson junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorin, A B

    2006-04-28

    We show that the electrical impedance of a small-capacitance Josephson junction also includes, in addition to the capacitive term -i/(omega)CB, an inductive term i(omega)LB. Similar to the known Bloch capacitance CB(q), the Bloch inductance LB(q) also depends periodically on the quasicharge, q, and its maximum value achieved at q=e(mod 2e) always exceeds the value of the Josephson inductance of this junction LJ(phi) at fixed phi=0. The effect of the Bloch inductance on the dynamics of a single junction and a one-dimensional array is described.

  14. Two new septate junctions in the phylum Coelenterata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, C R; Flower, N E

    1980-04-01

    Freeze-fracture of fixed and unfixed tissue, lanthanum tracer and conventional thin-section studies have revealed 2 new types of septate junction in the class Anthozoa, phylum Coelenterata. These new junctions have the 15-18-nm intercellular spacing of all other described septate junctions and are found around the apical circumference of cells lining a lumen or outside edge. However, in freeze-fracture replicas and tangential views of lanthanum-impregnated tissue, they are seen to be quite different from other known septate junction types. One of the new junctions is found in endothelial tissue such as that lining the gut or the inside of the tentacles. In tangential view it is seen to consist of relatively short, straight, double septa, again with lateral projections. In feeeze-fracture of unfixed tissue, the junction consists of double rows of particles on the P face, the particles of one row being rounded, those of the other being elongated at right angles to the line of the septum. This dichotomy in particle size is unexpected, as the 2 halves of the septa as seen in tangential view are symmetrical. In freeze-fracture of fixed material the particle arrays remain on the P face and appear similar to those of unfixed material, but never as clear. In fixed tissue, some distortion had occurred and in extreme cases septa appear as a single broad jumbled row of particles. In this double septa junction, the rows of particles seen in freeze-fracture are occasionally seen to anastomose with a septum dividing into 2 and a third row of particles aligning with the 2 new septa to form their double particle rows. In both fixed and unfixed tissues, the E face of the junction consists of wide, shallow grooves. The second of the new junctions occurs in epithelial tissue, such as around the outer edge of sea-anemone tentacles, and consists of long wavy septa with lateral projections. In views where these projections appear longest, they arise predominantly from one side of the

  15. Externally pumped millimeter-wave Josephson-junction parametric amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, M.T; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sørensen, Ole;

    1980-01-01

    A unified theory of the singly and doubly degenerate Josephson-junction parametric amplifier is presented. Experiments with single junctions on both amplifier modes at frequencies 10, 35, and 70 GHz are discussed. Low-noise temperature (∼100 K, single sideband (SSB)) and reasonable gain (∼8 d......B) were obtained at 35 GHz in the singly degenerate mode. On the basis of the theory and experiments, a general procedure for optimizing junction parameters is discussed and illustrated by the specific design of a 100-GHz amplifier....

  16. Junction temperature estimation for an advanced active power cycling test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Uimin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Jørgensen, S.

    2015-01-01

    estimation method using on-state VCE for an advanced active power cycling test is proposed. The concept of the advanced power cycling test is explained first. Afterwards the junction temperature estimation method using on-state VCE and current is presented. Further, the method to improve the accuracy......On-state collector-emitter voltage (VCE) is a good indicator to determine the wear-out condition of power device modules. Further, it is a one of the Temperature Sensitive Electrical Parameters (TSEPs) and thus can be used for junction temperature estimation. In this paper, the junction temperature...

  17. Turbulence-induced magnetic flux asymmetry at nanoscale junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushong, Neil; Pershin, Yuriy; Di Ventra, Massimiliano

    2007-11-30

    It was recently predicted [J. Phys. Condens. Matter 18, 11059 (2006)] that turbulence of electron flow may develop at nonadiabatic nanoscale junctions under appropriate conditions. Here we show that such an effect leads to an asymmetric current-induced magnetic field on the two sides of an otherwise symmetric junction. We propose that measuring the fluxes ensuing from these fields across two surfaces placed at the two sides of the junction would provide direct and noninvasive evidence of the transition from laminar to turbulent electron flow. The flux asymmetry is predicted to first increase, reach a maximum, and then decrease with increasing current, i.e., with increasing amount of turbulence.

  18. Nonequilibrium and proximity effects in superconductor-normal metal junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppila, V. J.; Nguyen, H. Q.; Heikkilä, T. T.

    2013-08-01

    We study the consequences of nonequilibrium heating and inverse proximity effect in normal metal-insulator-superconductor-insulator-normal metal (NISIN) junctions with a simple quasi-one-dimensional model. We especially focus on observables and parameter regions that are of interest in the design of SINIS coolers with quasiparticle traps. We present numerical results calculated by solving the Usadel equation and also present analytical approximations in two limiting cases: a short junction with a non-negligible resistance in both ends and a long junction with a transparent contact at one end.

  19. Gap junction modulation and its implications for heart function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtenbach, Stefan; Kurtenbach, Sarah; Zoidl, Georg

    2014-01-01

    Gap junction communication (GJC) mediated by connexins is critical for heart function. To gain insight into the causal relationship of molecular mechanisms of disease pathology, it is important to understand which mechanisms contribute to impairment of gap junctional communication. Here, we present an update on the known modulators of connexins, including various interaction partners, kinases, and signaling cascades. This gap junction network (GJN) can serve as a blueprint for data mining approaches exploring the growing number of publicly available data sets from experimental and clinical studies.

  20. Gap junction modulation and its implications for heart function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eKurtenbach

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Gap junction communication mediated by connexins is critical for heart function. To gain insight into the causal relationship of molecular mechanisms of disease pathology, it is important to understand which mechanisms contribute to impairment of gap junctional communication. Here, we present an update on the known modulators of connexins, including various interaction partners, kinases and signaling cascades. This gap junction network can serve as a blueprint for data mining approaches exploring the growing number of publicly available data sets from experimental and clinical studies.

  1. No junctional communication between epithelial cells in hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Laat, S W; Tertoolen, L G; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1980-01-01

    junctions between epithelial cells of hydra. However, until now, there has been no report published on whether these junctions enable the epithelial cells to exchange molecules of small molecular weight, as has been described in other organisms. Therefore we decided to investigate the communicative...... properties of the junctional membranes by electrophysiological methods and by intracellular-dye iontophoresis. We report here that no electrotonic coupling is detectable between epithelial cells of Hydra attenuata in: (1) intact animals, (2) head-regenerating animals, (3) cell re-aggregates, and (4) hydra...

  2. Soft nanostructuring of YBCO Josephson junctions by phase separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, D; Pettersson, H; Iandolo, B; Olsson, E; Bauch, T; Lombardi, F

    2010-12-08

    We have developed a new method to fabricate biepitaxial YBa2 Cu3 O7-δ (YBCO) Josephson junctions at the nanoscale, allowing junctions widths down to 100 nm and simultaneously avoiding the typical damage in grain boundary interfaces due to conventional patterning procedures. By using the competition between the superconducting YBCO and the insulating Y2 BaCuO5 phases during film growth, we formed nanometer sized grain boundary junctions in the insulating Y2 BaCuO5 matrix as confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Electrical transport measurements give clear indications that we are close to probing the intrinsic properties of the grain boundaries.

  3. Dependence of transport properties in tunnel junction on boron doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, M.J.; Zeng, X.B.; Liu, S.Y.; Peng, W.B; Xiao, H.B; Liao, X.B.; Wang, Z.G.; Kong, G.L. [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2010-04-15

    Boron-doped hydrogenated silicon films with different gaseous doping ratio (B{sub 2}H{sub 6}/SiH{sub 4}) were fabricated as recombination p layers in tunnel junctions. The measurements of I-V characteristics of the junctions and transparency spectra of p layer indicated that the best gaseous doping ratio of the recombination layer is 0.04, which is correlated to the degradation of short range order (SRO) in the inserted p thin film. The junction with such recombination layer has small resistance, near ohmic contact. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Magnetic domain wall engineering in a nanoscale permalloy junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junlin; Zhang, Xichao; Lu, Xianyang; Zhang, Jason; Yan, Yu; Ling, Hua; Wu, Jing; Zhou, Yan; Xu, Yongbing

    2017-08-01

    Nanoscale magnetic junctions provide a useful approach to act as building blocks for magnetoresistive random access memories (MRAM), where one of the key issues is to control the magnetic domain configuration. Here, we study the domain structure and the magnetic switching in the Permalloy (Fe20Ni80) nanoscale magnetic junctions with different thicknesses by using micromagnetic simulations. It is found that both the 90-° and 45-° domain walls can be formed between the junctions and the wire arms depending on the thickness of the device. The magnetic switching fields show distinct thickness dependencies with a broad peak varying from 7 nm to 22 nm depending on the junction sizes, and the large magnetic switching fields favor the stability of the MRAM operation.

  5. Manipulating Josephson junctions in thin-films by nearby vortices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kogan, V G; Mints, R G

    2014-07-01

    It is shown that a vortex trapped in one of the banks of a planar edge-type Josephson junction in a narrow thin-film superconducting strip can change drastically the dependence of the junction critical current on the applied field, I-c(H). When the vortex is placed at certain discrete positions in the strip middle, the pattern I-c(H) has zero at H = 0 instead of the traditional maximum of '0-type' junctions. The number of these positions is equal to the number of vortices trapped at the same location. When the junction-vortex separation exceeds similar to W, the strip width, I-c(H) is no longer sensitive to the vortex presence. The same is true for any separation if the vortex approaches the strip edges. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Low-Cost Multi-Junction Photovoltaic Cells Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed SBIR project will provide a pathway to dramatically reduce the cost of multi-junction solar cells. The project leverages a TRL6 micropackaging process...

  7. Static vortices in long Josephson junctions of exponentially varying width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semerdjieva, E. G.; Boyadjiev, T. L.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.

    2004-06-01

    A numerical simulation is carried out for static vortices in a long Josephson junction with an exponentially varying width. At specified values of the parameters the corresponding boundary-value problem admits more than one solution. Each solution (distribution of the magnetic flux in the junction) is associated to a Sturm-Liouville problem, the smallest eigenvalue of which can be used, in a first approximation, to assess the stability of the vortex against relatively small spatiotemporal perturbations. The change in width of the junction leads to a renormalization of the magnetic flux in comparison with the case of a linear one-dimensional model. The influence of the model parameters on the stability of the states of the magnetic flux is investigated in detail, particularly that of the shape parameter. The critical curve of the junction is constructed from pieces of the critical curves for the different magnetic flux distributions having the highest critical currents for the given magnetic field.

  8. High-temperature superconductor vertically-stacked Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinaga, Y; Kito, T; Izawa, S; Maruyama, M; Inoue, M; Fujimaki, A; Hayakawa, H [Department of Quantum Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2002-12-01

    We study vertically-stacked interface-treated Josephson junctions (ITJs). The barriers of ITJs are formed by Ar ion etching and subsequent annealing, not by depositing an artificial barrier. We have investigated the dependences of the junction properties on the processing parameters. It is found that the control of junction properties can be realized by controlling the incidence angle of Ar, and that the higher accelerating voltage of Ar reduces leakage paths in a barrier. Moreover, we have successfully eliminated the excess current of the junctions using the PrGaO{sub 3} (PGO) doping process. We conclude that the conjunction of the interface treatment and the PGO doping technique leads to highly integrated Josephson circuits.

  9. High-temperature superconductor vertically-stacked Josephson junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshinaga, Y; Izawa, S; Maruyama, M; Inoue, M; Fujimaki, A; Hayakawa, H

    2002-01-01

    We study vertically-stacked interface-treated Josephson junctions (ITJs). The barriers of ITJs are formed by Ar ion etching and subsequent annealing, not by depositing an artificial barrier. We have investigated the dependences of the junction properties on the processing parameters. It is found that the control of junction properties can be realized by controlling the incidence angle of Ar, and that the higher accelerating voltage of Ar reduces leakage paths in a barrier. Moreover, we have successfully eliminated the excess current of the junctions using the PrGaO sub 3 (PGO) doping process. We conclude that the conjunction of the interface treatment and the PGO doping technique leads to highly integrated Josephson circuits.

  10. Effect of surface losses on soliton propagation in Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidson, A.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Pagano, S.

    1986-01-01

    We have explored numerically the effects on soliton propagation of a third order damping term in the modified sine-Gordon equation. In Josephson tunnel junctions such a term corresponds physically to quasiparticle losses within the metal electrodes of the junction. We find that this loss term pla...... the dominant role in determining the shape and stability of the soliton at high velocity. Applied Physics Letters is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics.......We have explored numerically the effects on soliton propagation of a third order damping term in the modified sine-Gordon equation. In Josephson tunnel junctions such a term corresponds physically to quasiparticle losses within the metal electrodes of the junction. We find that this loss term plays...

  11. Radiologic staging of esophageal and gastroesophageal junction carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van Overhagen (Hans)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractPretreatment radiologic staging can, theoretically, improve the effectiveness and results of surgical treatment in esophageal and gastroesophageal junction carcinoma. Ideally, on these studies it is possible to select only patients with limited local disease for surgery, whereas those

  12. Fluxon bunching in supercurrent-coupled Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Lomdahl, Peter S.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1993-01-01

    We investigate analytically and numerically the interaction between fluxons of different Josephson junctions coupled through Cooper-pair tunneling. We find that the supercurrent interaction gives rise to attraction between fluxons regardless of their polarity, although fluxons of different polari...

  13. Magnetoanisotropic Andreev reflection in ferromagnet-superconductor junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högl, Petra; Matos-Abiague, Alex; Žutić, Igor; Fabian, Jaroslav

    2015-09-11

    Andreev reflection spectroscopy of ferromagnet-superconductor (FS) junctions [corrected] is an important probe of spin polarization. We theoretically investigate spin-polarized transport in FS junctions in the presence of Rashba and Dresselhaus interfacial spin-orbit fields and show that Andreev reflection can be controlled by changing the magnetization orientation. We predict a giant in- and out-of-plane magnetoanisotropy of the junction conductance. If the ferromagnet is highly spin polarized-in the half-metal limit-the magnetoanisotropic Andreev reflection depends universally on the spin-orbit fields only. Our results show that Andreev reflection spectroscopy can be used for sensitive probing of interfacial spin-orbit fields in a FS junction.

  14. Coherent Magnetic Switching in a Permalloy Submicron Junction

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Junlin; Lu, Xianyang; Zhang, Jason; Ling, Hua; Wu, Jing; Zhou, Yan; Xu, Yongbing

    2016-01-01

    This work provides a numerical micromagnetic study of the magnetic switching of a submicron magnetic junction in a Permalloy (Ni80Fe20) cross structure. The simulation results demonstrate that the magnetic domain at the junction can be controlled to switch coherently by the applied magnetic field. This coherent magnetic switching in the cross structure has been found to be reversible and the 2-bit information can be written in the magnetic junction. For information storage, this kind of device can also realize the function of a quaternary arithmetic unit. By varying the direction of the applied magnetic field, we have demonstrated that this magnetic junction could be the building block for a magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM) or a quaternary magnetic arithmetic unit.

  15. The gap junction proteome and its relationship to disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Dale W

    2010-02-01

    In recent years our understanding of connexins has advanced from viewing them simply as proteins with a surprisingly short lifespan that form gap junction channels. Connexins are now known to be multifaceted proteins at the core of many multiprotein complexes that link to structural junctional complexes and cytoskeletal elements, and also to the cellular machinery that facilitates their transport, assembly, function and internalization. Collectively, these connexin-binding proteins can be termed the 'gap junction proteome'. The mechanistic understanding of the gap junction proteome with regards to the dynamic life cycle of connexins has grown further in importance in light of the large number of human diseases attributed to connexin gene mutations and regulatory changes in connexin spatial localization and expression levels.

  16. Congenital right sided ureteropelvic junction obstruction in right ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    V. Singh

    Congenital right sided ureteropelvic junction obstruction in right crossed ... Peer review under responsibility of Pan African Urological Surgeons' Asso- ciation. ... There was large gap between the UPJ and the .... relationship to renal disease.

  17. Quantum-confined Stark effect in band-inverted junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Fernández, A.; Domínguez-Adame, F.

    2017-09-01

    Topological phases of matter are often characterized by interface states, which were already known to occur at the boundary of a band-inverted junction in semiconductor heterostructures. In IV-VI compounds such interface states are properly described by a two-band model, predicting the appearance of a Dirac cone in single junctions. We study the quantum-confined Stark effect of interface states due to an electric field perpendicular to a band-inverted junction. We find a closed expression to obtain the interface dispersion relation at any field strength and show that the Dirac cone widens under an applied bias. Thus, the Fermi velocity can be substantially lowered even at moderate fields, paving the way for tunable band-engineered devices based on band-inverted junctions.

  18. Studies of silicon p-n junction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugroschel, A.; Lindholm, F. A.

    1979-01-01

    To provide theoretical support for investigating different ways to obtain high open-circuit voltages in p-n junction silicon solar cells, an analytical treatment of heavily doped transparent-emitter devices is presented that includes the effects of bandgap narrowing, Fermi-Dirac statistics, a doping concentration gradient, and a finite surface recombination velocity at the emitter surface. Topics covered include: (1) experimental determination of bandgap narrowing in the emitter of silicon p-n junction devices; (2) heavily doped transparent regions in junction solar cells, diodes, and transistors; (3) high-low-emitter solar cell; (4) determination of lifetimes and recombination currents in p-n junction solar cells; (5) MOS and oxide-charged-induced BSF solar cells; and (6) design of high efficiency solar cells for space and terrestrial applications.

  19. Evidence for nonlocal electrodynamics in planar Josephson junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boris, A A; Rydh, A; Golod, T; Motzkau, H; Klushin, A M; Krasnov, V M

    2013-09-13

    We study the temperature dependence of the critical current modulation I(c)(H) for two types of planar Josephson junctions: a low-Tc Nb/CuNi/Nb and a high-Tc YBa2Cu3O(7-δ) bicrystal grain-boundary junction. At low T both junctions exhibit a conventional behavior, described by the local sine-Gordon equation. However, at elevated T the behavior becomes qualitatively different: the I(c)(H) modulation field ΔH becomes almost T independent and neither ΔH nor the critical field for the penetration of Josephson vortices vanish at Tc. Such an unusual behavior is in good agreement with theoretical predictions for junctions with nonlocal electrodynamics. We extract absolute values of the London penetration depth λ from our data and show that a crossover from local to nonlocal electrodynamics occurs with increasing T when λ(T) becomes larger than the electrode thickness.

  20. Bedrock Geologic Map of the Essex Junction Quadrangle, Vermont

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Digital data from VG12-3, Gale, M., Kim. J., and Ruksznis, A., 2012, Bedrock Geologic Map of the essex Junction Quadrangle: Vermont Geological Survey Open File...

  1. Memory cell operation based on small Josephson junctions arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braiman, Y.; Nair, N.; Rezac, J.; Imam, N.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we analyze a cryogenic memory cell circuit based on a small coupled array of Josephson junctions. All the basic memory operations (e.g., write, read, and reset) are implemented on the same circuit and different junctions in the array can in principle be utilized for these operations. The presented memory operation paradigm is fundamentally different from conventional single quantum flux operation logics (SFQ). As an example, we demonstrate memory operation driven by a SFQ pulse employing an inductively coupled array of three Josephson junctions. We have chosen realistic Josephson junction parameters based on state-of-the-art fabrication capabilities and have calculated access times and access energies for basic memory cell operations. We also implemented an optimization procedure based on the simulated annealing algorithm to calculate the optimized and typical values of access times and access energies.

  2. Systematic optimization of quantum junction colloidal quantum dot solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Huan

    2012-01-01

    The recently reported quantum junction architecture represents a promising approach to building a rectifying photovoltaic device that employs colloidal quantum dot layers on each side of the p-n junction. Here, we report an optimized quantum junction solar cell that leverages an improved aluminum zinc oxide electrode for a stable contact to the n-side of the quantum junction and silver doping of the p-layer that greatly enhances the photocurrent by expanding the depletion region in the n-side of the device. These improvements result in greater stability and a power conversion efficiency of 6.1 under AM1.5 simulated solar illumination. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  3. Formation of bubbles in a multisection flow-focusing junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Michinao; Whitesides, George M

    2010-05-01

    The formation of bubbles in a flow-focusing (FF) junction comprising multiple rectangular sections is described. The simplest junctions comprise two sections (throat and orifice). Systematic investigation of the influence on the formation of bubbles of the flow of liquid and the geometry of the junction identifies regimes that generate monodisperse, bidisperse, and tridisperse trains of bubbles. The mechanisms by which these junctions form monodisperse and bidisperse bubbles are inferred from the shapes of the gas thread during breakup: these mechanisms differ primarily by the process in which the gas thread collapses in the throat and/or orifice. The dynamic self-assembly of bidisperse bubbles leads to unexpected groupings of bubbles during their flow along the outlet channel.

  4. Niobium nitride technology for Josephson junction devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meckbach, Johannes Maximilian; Merker, Michael; Il' in, Konstantin; Siegel, Michael [Institut fuer Mikro- und Nanoelektronische Systeme (IMS), Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Hertzstrasse 16, 76187 Karlsruhe (Germany); Haeffelin, Andreas [Institut fuer Werkstoffe der Elektrotechnik (IWE), Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie(KIT), Adenauerring 20b, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Over the last decades Nb/Al-AlO{sub x}/Nb multi-layers have been the primary choice for Josephson junction (JJ) devices such as SIS mixers, SQUIDs and RSFQ. Various applications require high critical-current densities j{sub c} and low sub-gap leakage. Additionally, a large gap-voltage benefits the performance of most devices. Nb/Al-AlO{sub x}/Nb technology is limited in j{sub c} due to an increasing transparency of the barrier with increasing j{sub c}, and the energy-gap of the Nb electrodes poses an upper frequency limit for SIS mixers. NbN/AlN/NbN multi-layer technology has emerged as an alternative to Nb/Al-AlO{sub x}/Nb. The upper frequency limit of NbN-based SIS mixing element significantly exceeds that of Nb, and AlN-barriers result in higher j{sub c}'s at identical thicknesses as compared to AlO{sub x}. We have developed an in-situ fabrication technology for NbN/AlN/NbN multi-layers. We found a clear influence of the sputter parameters on the surface morphology of the NbN electrodes, which directly impacts on the quality of the JJs. Transport properties of JJs on different substrates are presented.

  5. Seebeck effect in magnetic tunnel junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Marvin; Walowski, Jakob; Zbarsky, Vladyslav; Münzenberg, Markus; Schäfers, Markus; Ebke, Daniel; Reiss, Günter; Thomas, Andy; Peretzki, Patrick; Seibt, Michael; Moodera, Jagadeesh S; Czerner, Michael; Bachmann, Michael; Heiliger, Christian

    2011-10-01

    Creating temperature gradients in magnetic nanostructures has resulted in a new research direction, that is, the combination of magneto- and thermoelectric effects. Here, we demonstrate the observation of one important effect of this class: the magneto-Seebeck effect. It is observed when a magnetic configuration changes the charge-based Seebeck coefficient. In particular, the Seebeck coefficient changes during the transition from a parallel to an antiparallel magnetic configuration in a tunnel junction. In this respect, it is the analogue to the tunnelling magnetoresistance. The Seebeck coefficients in parallel and antiparallel configurations are of the order of the voltages known from the charge-Seebeck effect. The size and sign of the effect can be controlled by the composition of the electrodes' atomic layers adjacent to the barrier and the temperature. The geometric centre of the electronic density of states relative to the Fermi level determines the size of the Seebeck effect. Experimentally, we realized 8.8% magneto-Seebeck effect, which results from a voltage change of about -8.7 μV K⁻¹ from the antiparallel to the parallel direction close to the predicted value of -12.1 μV K⁻¹. In contrast to the spin-Seebeck effect, it can be measured as a voltage change directly without conversion of a spin current.

  6. Revisiting the Darmois and Lichnerowicz junction conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Kayll

    2017-10-01

    What have become known as the "Darmois" and "Lichnerowicz" junction conditions are often stated to be equivalent, "essentially" equivalent, in a "sense" equivalent, and so on. One even sees not infrequent reference to the "Darmois-Lichnerowicz" conditions. Whereas the equivalence of these conditions is manifest in Gaussian-normal coordinates, a fact that has been known for close to a century, this equivalence does not extend to a loose definition of "admissible" coordinates (coordinates in which the metric and its first order derivatives are continuous). We show this here by way of a simple, but physically relevant, example. In general, a loose definition of the "Lichnerowicz" conditions gives additional restrictions, some of which simply amount to a convenient choice of gauge, and some of which amount to real physical restrictions, away from strict "admissible" coordinates. The situation was totally confused by a very influential, and now frequently misquoted, paper by Bonnor and Vickers, that erroneously claimed a proof of the equivalence of the "Darmois" and "Lichnerowicz" conditions within this loose definition of "admissible" coordinates. A correct proof, based on a strict definition of "admissible" coordinates, was given years previous by Israel. It is that proof, generally unrecognized, that we must refer to. Attention here is given to a clarification of the subject, and to the history of the subject, which, it turns out, is rather fascinating in itself.

  7. Bioengineering a Single-Protein Junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Marta P; Aragones, Albert C; Camarero, Nuria; Vilhena, J G; Ortega, Maria; Zotti, Linda Angela; Perez, Ruben; Cuevas, Juan Carlos; Gorostiza, Pau; Díez-Pérez, Ismael

    2017-10-05

    Bioelectronics moves towards designing nanoscale electronic platforms that allow in vivo determinations. Such devices require interfacing complex biomolecular moieties as the sensing units to an electronic platform for signal transduction. Inevitably, a systematic design goes through a bottom-up understanding of the structurally related electrical signatures of the biomolecular circuit, which will ultimately lead us to tailor its electrical properties. Toward this aim, we show here the first example of bioengineered charge transport in a single-protein electrical contact. The results reveal that a single point-site mutation at the docking hydrophobic patch of a Cu-Azurin causes minor structural distortion of the protein blue Cu site and a dramatic change in the charge transport regime of the single-protein contact, which goes from the classical Cu-mediated 2-step transport in this system to a direct coherent tunneling. Our extensive spectroscopic studies and molecular-dynamics simulations show that the proteins' folding structures are preserved in the single-protein junction. The DFT-computed frontier orbital of the relevant protein segments suggests that the Cu center participation in each protein variant accounts for the different observed charge transport behavior. This work is a direct evidence of charge transport control in a protein backbone through external mutagenesis and a unique nanoscale platform to study structurally related biological electron transfer.

  8. Gamma Radiation Tolerance of Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fanghui; Jander, Albrecht; Dhagat, Pallavi; Nordman, Cathy

    2011-10-01

    Determining the radiation tolerance of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ), which are the storage elements of non-volatile magnetoresistive random access memories (MRAM), is important for investigating their potential application in space. In this effort, the effect of gamma radiation on MTJs with MgO tunnel barriers was studied. Experimental and control groups of samples were characterized by ex situ measurements of the magnetoresistive hysteresis loops and I-V curves. The experimental group was exposed to gamma rays from a ^60Co source. The samples initially received a dose of 5.9 Mrad (Si) after which they were again characterized electrically and magnetically. Irradiation was then continued for a cumulative dose of 10 Mrad and the devices re-measured. The result shows no change in magnetic properties such as coercivity or exchange coupling due to irradiation. After correcting for differences in temperature at the time of testing, the tunneling magnetoresistance was also found to be unchanged. Thus, it has been determined that MgO-based MTJs are highly tolerant of gamma radiation, particularly in comparison to silicon field-effect transistors which have been shown to degrade with gamma ray exposure even as low as 100 Krad [Zhiyuan Hu. et al., IEEE trans. on Nucl. Sci., vol. 58, 2011].

  9. Photoinduced carrier annihilation in silicon pn junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameshima, Toshiyuki; Motoki, Takayuki; Yasuda, Keisuke; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Hasumi, Masahiko; Mizuno, Toshihisa

    2015-08-01

    We report analysis of the photo-induced minority carrier effective lifetime (τeff) in a p+n junction formed on the top surfaces of a n-type silicon substrate by ion implantation of boron and phosphorus atoms at the top and bottom surfaces followed by activation by microwave heating. Bias voltages were applied to the p+ boron-doped surface with n+ phosphorus-doped surface kept at 0 V. The values of τeff were lower than 1 × 10-5 s under the reverse-bias condition. On the other hand, τeff markedly increased to 1.4 × 10-4 s as the forward-bias voltage increased to 0.7 V and then it leveled off when continuous-wave 635 nm light was illuminated at 0.74 mW/cm2 on the p+ surface. The carrier annihilation velocity S\\text{p + } at the p+ surface region was numerically estimated from the experimental τeff. S\\text{p + } ranged from 4000 to 7200 cm/s under the reverse-bias condition when the carrier annihilation velocity S\\text{n + } at the n+ surface region was assumed to be a constant value of 100 cm/s. S\\text{p + } markedly decreased to 265 cm/s as the forward-bias voltage increased to 0.7 V.

  10. Spin-crossover molecule based thermoelectric junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Dibyajyoti [Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560064 (India); Parida, Prakash [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Pati, Swapan K. [Theoretical Sciences Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560064 (India)

    2015-05-11

    Using ab-initio numerical methods, we explore the spin-dependent transport and thermoelectric properties of a spin-crossover molecule (i.e., iron complex of 2-(1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-6-(1H-tetrazole-5-yl)pyridine) based nano-junction. We demonstrate a large magnetoresistance, efficient conductance-switching, and spin-filter activity in this molecule-based two-terminal device. The spin-crossover process also modulates the thermoelectric entities. It can efficiently switch the magnitude as well as spin-polarization of the thermocurrent. We find that thermocurrent is changed by ∼4 orders of magnitude upon spin-crossover. Moreover, it also substantially affects the thermopower and consequently, the device shows extremely efficient spin-crossover magnetothermopower generation. Furthermore, by tuning the chemical potential of electrodes into a certain range, a pure spin-thermopower can be achieved for the high-spin state. Finally, the reasonably large values of figure-of-merit in the presence and absence of phonon demonstrate a large heat-to-voltage conversion efficiency of the device. We believe that our study will pave an alternative way of tuning the transport and thermoelectric properties through the spin-crossover process and can have potential applications in generation of spin-dependent current, information storage, and processing.

  11. Parallel Quantum Circuit in a Tunnel Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizy Namarvar, Omid; Dridi, Ghassen; Joachim, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Spectral analysis of 1 and 2-states per line quantum bus are normally sufficient to determine the effective Vab(N) electronic coupling between the emitter and receiver states through the bus as a function of the number N of parallel lines. When Vab(N) is difficult to determine, an Heisenberg-Rabi time dependent quantum exchange process must be triggered through the bus to capture the secular oscillation frequency Ωab(N) between those states. Two different linear and regimes are demonstrated for Ωab(N) as a function of N. When the initial preparation is replaced by coupling of the quantum bus to semi-infinite electrodes, the resulting quantum transduction process is not faithfully following the Ωab(N) variations. Because of the electronic transparency normalisation to unity and of the low pass filter character of this transduction, large Ωab(N) cannot be captured by the tunnel junction. The broadly used concept of electrical contact between a metallic nanopad and a molecular device must be better described as a quantum transduction process. At small coupling and when N is small enough not to compensate for this small coupling, an N2 power law is preserved for Ωab(N) and for Vab(N).

  12. Parallel Quantum Circuit in a Tunnel Junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizy Namarvar, Omid; Dridi, Ghassen; Joachim, Christian

    2016-07-25

    Spectral analysis of 1 and 2-states per line quantum bus are normally sufficient to determine the effective Vab(N) electronic coupling between the emitter and receiver states through the bus as a function of the number N of parallel lines. When Vab(N) is difficult to determine, an Heisenberg-Rabi time dependent quantum exchange process must be triggered through the bus to capture the secular oscillation frequency Ωab(N) between those states. Two different linear and regimes are demonstrated for Ωab(N) as a function of N. When the initial preparation is replaced by coupling of the quantum bus to semi-infinite electrodes, the resulting quantum transduction process is not faithfully following the Ωab(N) variations. Because of the electronic transparency normalisation to unity and of the low pass filter character of this transduction, large Ωab(N) cannot be captured by the tunnel junction. The broadly used concept of electrical contact between a metallic nanopad and a molecular device must be better described as a quantum transduction process. At small coupling and when N is small enough not to compensate for this small coupling, an N(2) power law is preserved for Ωab(N) and for Vab(N).

  13. 基于环境减灾卫星时序归一化植被指数的冬小麦产量估测%Yield forecasting for winter wheat using time series NDVI from HJ satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏飞; 杨飞; 杜佳

    2013-01-01

    A NDVI time series curve, proposed from high time resolution remote sensing images, contains rich information for crop yield forecasting. MODIS-NDVI and AVHRR-NDVI are normally used. However, the spatial resolution of MODIS and AVHRR are low. When they used for crop yield forecasting in China, the prediction accuracy will be reduced by a mixed pixel problem, as the farmland is small. China launched a HJ satellite constellation in 2009. The satellite constellation can provide an image with a time resolution of 2 days and a spatial resolution of 30 m. It would be helpful to make crop yield forecasting in field scale in China, based on the NDVI time series curve designed from higher spatial resolution HJ images. Taking Yucheng city as a research area, this study research the feasibility of proposing a NDVI time series curve using HJ satellite images and then making a winter wheat yield forecast using parameters extracted from the above curve. For this purpose, 11 images were acquired with a nearly 10 day interval from February 19th to June 5th, and the winter wheat yields of 12 sample sites were also measured during a field campaign in 2012. Firstly, quintic polynomial least square fitting was used to propose a NDVI time series curve using NDVI values extracted from the above images. The curve covered reviving, jointing, flowering, filling and mature stages of winter wheat. Secondly, parameters of a NDVI time series curve were calculated. They were maximum NDVI and accumulated NDVI during winter wheat growth stage, NDVI value at winter wheat reviving stage, NDVI change rate during winter wheat vegetation growth stage, and NDVI change rate during the winter wheat reproduction growth stage. Thirdly, using collected sample data, the yield prediction models were created, based on the above parameters respectively. Meanwhile, a single-phase image NDVI was also used to propose a yield prediction model, and it was compared to the above models, in order to show if a NDVI time

  14. Quantum statistical theory of semiconductor junctions in thermal equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Roos, O.

    1977-01-01

    Free carrier and electric field distributions of one-dimensional semiconductor junctions are evaluated using a quantum mechanical phase-space distribution and its corresponding Boltzmann equation. Attention is given to quantum and exchange corrections in cases of high doping concentrations when carrier densities become degenerate. Quantitative differences between degenerate and classical junction characteristics, e.g., maximum electric field and built-in voltage and carrier concentration within the transition region, are evaluated numerically.

  15. Raman Scattering at Plasmonic Junctions Shorted by Conductive Molecular Bridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hu, Dehong; Apkarian, V. Ara; Hess, Wayne P.

    2013-04-10

    Intensity spikes in Raman scattering, accompanied by switching between line spectra and band spectra, can be assigned to shorting the junction plasmon through molecular conductive bridges. This is demonstrated through Raman trajectories recorded at a plasmonic junction formed by a gold AFM tip in contact with a silver surface coated either with biphenyl-4,4’-dithiol or biphenyl-4-thiol. The fluctuations are absent in the monothiol. In effect, the making and breaking of chemical bonds is tracked.

  16. Craniovertebral junction stenosis in Lenz-Majewski syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuguchi, Koichi; Ishigro, Akira [National Center for Child Health and Development, Department of General Pediatrics and Interdisciplinary Medicine, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Miyazaki, Osamu [National Center for Child Health and Development, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, Gen [Tokyo Metropolitan Children' s Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Imaging, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    We report a girl with Lenz-Majewski syndrome associated with craniovertebral junction stenosis that led to communicating hydrocephalus and cervical myelopathy. The life-threatening complication was related to progressive craniovertebral hyperostosis that rapidly exacerbated during early childhood. Despite initial success of surgical intervention at 2 years of age, she developed apneic spells and died suddenly at age 5 years. Close monitoring for craniovertebral junction stenosis is essential to reduce morbidity and mortality in children with Lenz-Majewski syndrome. (orig.)

  17. Paracellular drug absorption enhancement through tight junction modulation

    OpenAIRE

    Lemmer, Hendrik Jacobus Righard; Josias H. Hamman

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Inclusion of absorption-enhancing agents in dosage forms is one approach to improve the bioavailability of active pharmaceutical ingredients with low membrane permeability. Tight junctions are dynamic protein structures that form a regulated barrier for movement of molecules through the intercellular spaces across the intestinal epithelium. Some drug absorption enhancers are capable of loosening tight junctions and thereby facilitate paracellular absorption of drug molecules. ...

  18. Resonance features of coupled Josephson junctions: radiation and shunting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukrinov, Yu M.; Seidel, P.; Il'ichev, E.; Nawrocki, W.; Grajcar, M.; Plecenik, P. A.; Rahmonov, I. R.; Kulikov, K.

    2012-11-01

    We study the phase dynamics and the resonance features of coupled Josephson junctions in layered superconductors and their manifestations in the current- voltage characteristics and temporal dependence of the electric charge in the superconducting layers. Results on the effect of the external radiation and shunting of the stack of Josephson junctions by LC-elements are presented. We discuss the ideas concerning the experimental observation of these resonances.

  19. High Density Planar High Temperature Superconducting Josephson Junctions Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    TIT,) 3 dependance . At lower temperatures it follows a (1 - T/T,)2 depen- dance ........ ................................... 57 4.7 Shapiro steps in...70 4.23 Dependance of the critical current for a ten junction array on mi- crowave power ..................................... 71 4.24 Resistance vs...GHz microwave radiation. (b) Microwave power dependance of the critical current and 1st-order Shapiro step. 76 5.2 (a) Single junction critical current

  20. Recognition of Nucleic Acid Junctions Using Triptycene-Based Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Barros, Stephanie A.; Chenoweth, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Nucleic acid modulation by small molecules is an essential process across the kingdoms of life. Targeting nucleic acids with small molecules represents a significant challenge at the forefront of chemical biology. Nucleic acid junctions are ubiquitous structural motifs in nature and in designed materials. Herein, we describe a new class of structure specific nucleic acid junction stabilizers based on a triptycene scaffold. Triptycenes provide significant stabilization of DNA and RNA three-way...