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  1. Construction of calibration pads facility, Walker Field, Grand Junction, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, D.L.

    1978-08-01

    A gamma-ray spectrometer facility was completed at Walker Field Airport, Grand Junction, Colorado, in November 1976. This report describes spectrometers and their calibration, the construction of the spectrometer facility, the radioelement concentrations, procedures for using the facilites, and environmental considerations. (LK)

  2. Data Validation Package August 2015 Groundwater Sampling at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Disposal Site October 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, William [USDOE Office of Legacy Management (LM), Washington, DC (United States); Baur, Gary [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-11-03

    The 1998 Interim Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Cheney Disposal Site Near Grand Junction, Colorado, requires annual monitoring to assess the performance of the disposal cell. Monitoring wells 0731, 0732 and 0733 were sampled as specified in the plan. Sampling and analyses were conducted in accordance with Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites.

  3. Environmental assessment of facility operations at the U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office, Grand Junction, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared a sitewide environmental assessment (EA) of the proposed action to continue and expand present-day activities on the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) facility in Grand Junction, Colorado. Because DOE-GJPO regularly proposes and conducts many different on-site activities, DOE decided to evaluate these activities in one sitewide EA rather than in multiple, activity-specific documents. On the basis of the information and analyses presented in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, as defined by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required for facility operations, and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  4. Engineering assessment of inactive uranium mill tailings, Grand Junction site, Grand Junction, Colorado. Phase II, Title I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-10-01

    Ford, Bacon and Davis Utah Inc. has performed an engineering assessment of the problems resulting from the existence of radioactive uranium mill tailings at Grand Junction, Colorado. The Phase II, Title I services include the preparation of topographic maps, the performance of core drillings and radiometric measurements sufficient to determine areas and volumes of tailings and radiation exposures of individuals and nearby populations, the investigation of site hydrology and meteorology and the evaluation and costing of alternative corrective actions. Radon gas release from the 1.9 million tons of tailings at the Grand Junction site constitutes the most significant environmental impact, although windblown tailings and external gamma radiation are also factors. The eight alternative actions presented range from millsite decontamination (Option I), to adding various depths of stabilization cover material (Options II and III), to removal of the tailings to long-term storage sites and decontamination of the present site (Options IV through VIII). Cost estimates for the eight options range from $470,000 to $18,130,000. Reprocessing the tailings for uranium recovery does not appear to be economically attractive at present.

  5. Final audit report of remedial action construction at the UMTRA Project, Grand Junction, Colorado, processing site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This final audit report (FAR) for remedial action at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project processing site consists of a summary of the radiological surveillances/ audits, the quality assurance (QA) in-process surveillances, and the QA final close-out inspection performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC). The FAR also summarizes other surveillances performed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). To summarize, a total of one finding and 127 observations were noted during DOE/TAC audit and surveillance activities. The NRC noted general site-related observations during the OSCRs. Follow-up to responses required from MK-Ferguson for the DOE/TAC finding and observations indicated that all issues related to the Grand Junction processing site were resolved and closed out to the DOE`s satisfaction. The NRC OSCRs resulted in no issues related to the Grand Junction processing site requiring a response from MK-Ferguson.

  6. Long-term surveillance plan for the Cheney disposal site near Grand Junction, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Cheney disposal site. The site is in Mesa County near Grand Junction, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site may be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Cheney disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination that remedial action is complete and the NRC formally accepts this plan. This document describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Cheney disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify potential threats to disposal cell integrity. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  7. Data Validation Package August 2015 Groundwater Sampling at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Disposal Site October 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazier, William [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management; Baur, Gary [Navarro Research and Engineering, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-11-03

    Sampling Period: August 4, 2015. The 1998 Interim Long-Term Surveillance Plan for the Cheney Disposal Site Near Grand Junction, Colorado, requires annual monitoring to assess the performance of the disposal cell. Monitoring wells 0731, 0732, and 0733 were sampled as specified in the plan. Sampling and analyses were conducted in accordance with Sampling and Analysis Plan for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PRO/S04351, continually updated). The water level was measured at each sampled well. The water level in well 0733, located in the disposal cell, is lower than water levels in adjacent wells 0731 and 0732, indicating a hydraulic gradient toward the disposal cell. Results from this sampling event were generally consistent with results from the past as shown in the attached concentration-versus-time graphs. There have been no large changes in contaminant concentration observed over the last several years with the following exception. The uranium concentration in well 0733 has been trending upward since 2003. High uranium concentrations are expected in this well because it is located in the disposal cell. The selenium concentrations observed in wells 0731 and 0732 are elevated when compared to the disposal cell 0733. Wells 0731 and 0732 are completed at the alluvium/Mancos contact; here, elevated selenium concentrations are expected due to contributions from the Mancos shale.

  8. From Compassion Fatigue to Resilience: Children's Hospital Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kelly; Griffin, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Background: Healthcare is a stressful profession. The executives at Children's Hospital Colorado are well aware of the affects that caring for sick children and the pressure associated with it have on our entire staff. Understanding what compassion fatigue looks like as well as the importance of stress management and its role in overall wellness for each of our employees led to the interest and support of HeartMath/Caritas workshops. Methods: HeartMath/Caritas training transformed into a program to help staff connect with why they got into this profession and provides the tools to help staff members function in the immense stress they are faced with every day. Six-hour workshops are offered to every employee of Children's Hospital Colorado, supported and paid for by the wellness program in the human resource department. These trainings intentionally brought Caritas and HeartMath together with an understanding that the two programs match passion with science, trust with hope, and conviction with confidence. Results: Results illustrate the positive effect the workshops have had on staff. Both qualitative data, in the form of written feedback from participants, and quantitative results (Table) support the continued need for these workshops with more exposure to ensure all employees can attend. Table Quantitative Results of HeartMath/Caritas Workshops at The Children's Hospital, Aurora, Colorado Personal Quality: n = 64 % Pre-Workshop % Post-Workshop % Change My life is deeply fulfilling 56 70 14 Calm 29 45 16 Worried 39 22 17 Cynical 17 6 11 It's difficult for me to calm down after I've been upset 13 4 9 Rapid heartbeats 10 5 5=3ppl Muscle tension 33 23 10 Conclusion: Healthcare providers work in immense levels of stress. HeartMath/Caritas workshops are one way Children's Hospital Colorado supports its staff in dealing with compassion fatigue and burnout. The passion for sustaining this work comes from understanding how these programs have personally affected those

  9. Flow-adjusted trends in dissolved selenium load and concentration in the Gunnison and Colorado Rivers near Grand Junction, Colorado, water years 1986--2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, John W.; Leib, Kenneth J.

    2012-01-01

    As a result of elevated selenium concentrations, many western Colorado rivers and streams are on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 2010 Colorado 303(d) list, including the main stem of the Colorado River from the Gunnison River confluence to the Utah border. Selenium is a trace metal that bioaccumulates in aquatic food chains and can cause reproductive failure, deformities, and other adverse impacts in birds and fish, including several threatened and endangered fish species. Salinity in the upper Colorado River has been the focus of source-control efforts for many years. Although salinity loads and concentrations have been previously characterized at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations at the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colo., and at the Colorado River near the Colorado-Utah State line, trends in selenium load and concentration at these two stations have not been studied. The USGS, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and the Colorado River Water Conservation District, evaluated dissolved selenium (herein referred to as "selenium") load and concentration trends at these two sites to inform decision makers on the status and trends of selenium. This report presents results of the evaluation of trends in selenium load and concentration for two USGS streamflow-gaging stations: the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colo. ("Gunnison River site"), USGS site 09152500, and the Colorado River near Colorado-Utah State line ("Colorado River site"), USGS site 09163500. Flow-adjusted selenium loads were estimated for the beginning water year (WY) of the study, 1986, and the ending WY of the study, 2008. The difference between flow-adjusted selenium loads for WY 1986 and WY 2008 was selected as the method of analysis because flow adjustment removes the natural variations in load caused by changes in mean-daily streamflow, emphasizing human-caused changes in selenium load and concentration. Overall changes in human-caused effects

  10. Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Rodríguez Quiroz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La conservación de la biodiversidad cuenta, entre sus principales mecanismos de intervención, con las áreas naturales protegidas. En el alto Golfo de California (AGC se ubica la Reser-va de la Biosfera del Alto Golfo de California y Delta del Río Colorado, en la que subsisten especies de alto valor económico, así como especies en peligro de extinción. Este último factor justificó el establecimiento de la reserva. El estudio analiza la efectividad de la Reserva del Alto Golfo como mecanismo de protección de los recursos naturales, en particular de las que están en riesgo de desaparecer, así como de comprobar si los pescadores han mejorado sus condiciones de vida tras la operación de esa área natural. La exploración se llevó a cabo mediante la aplicación de una encuesta a los pescadores. Se sugiere que es indispensable un gran esfuerzo, de autoridades y grupos organizados, para encontrar soluciones al manejo de la Reserva, a fin fijar un programa que permita la recuperación de las especies en peligro de extinción, elevar la calidad de vida de los pescadores y con ello garantizar un equilibrio entre la conservación y la sustentabilidad de la pesca y de los pescadores en el Alto Golfo de California.

  11. Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    An early-season snowfall accents the Rocky Mountains through western and central Colorado. This true-color image made from data collected by MODIS on October 26, 2001, highlights the contrast between various irrigated areas and the otherwise dry environment at the foothills of the Rockies. One such example is the city of Denver and its outlying suburbs, which can be seen best in the high-resolution image. In areas that would normally harbor drought-tolerant grasses, shrubs and trees, humans are living, watering their lawns, and farming; those watered, green areas differ substantially from the surrounding hues of brown. Numerous National Parks and Monuments dot the Southwestern U.S. The Great Sand Dunes National Monument is one such park. Running along the western base the Sangre de Cristo Range(just below the image's center), a subsection of the Rockies, the monument possesses some of the highest inland sand dunes in the U.S., with crests reaching over 700 feet.

  12. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site near Grand Junction, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site Near Grand Junction, Colorado evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial activities at the site were conducted from 1989 to 1993. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment is the first document specific to this site for the Ground Water Project. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated ground water that flows beneath the processing site toward the Colorado River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentrations of most contaminants are used to assess risk. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to determine what remedial action may be needed for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment follows an approach outlined by the EPA. the first step is to evaluate ground water data collected from monitor wells at the site. Evaluation of these data showed that the contaminants of potential concern in the ground water are arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, fluoride, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, sulfate, uranium, vanadium, zinc, and radium-226. The next step in the risk assessment is to estimate how much of these contaminants people would be exposed to if they drank from a well installed in the contaminated ground water at the former processing site.

  13. Site observational work plan for the UMTRA project site at Grand Junction, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This site observational work plan (SOWP) is one of the first Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Ground Water Project documents developed to select a compliance strategy that meets the UMTRA ground water standards for the Grand Junction site. This SOWP applies information about the Grand Junction site to the compliance strategy selection framework developed in the UMTRA Ground Water Project draft programmatic environmental impact statement. This risk-based, decision-making framework identifies the decision logic for selecting compliance strategies that could be used to meet the ground water standards. The US Department of Energy (DOE) goal is to implement a cost-effective site strategy that complies with the ground water standards and protects human health and the environment. Based on an evaluation of the site characterization and risk assessment data available for the preparation of this SOWP, DOE proposes that the most likely compliance strategy for the Grand Junction site is no remediation with the application of supplemental standards. This proposed strategy is based on a conceptual site model that indicates site-related contamination is confined to a limited-use aquifer as defined in the ground water standards. The conceptual model demonstrates that the uranium processing-related contamination at the site has affected the unconfined alluvial aquifer, but not the deeper confined aquifer.

  14. Work plan for phase 1A paleochannel studies at the Cheney disposal cell, Grand Junction, Colorado: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This document will serve as a Work Plan for continuing paleochannel characterization activities at the Cheney disposal site near Grand Junction, Colorado. Elevated levels of nitrate were encountered in ground water from two monitor wells installed in alluvial paleochannels near the Cheney disposal cell in 1994. This triggered a series of investigations (Phase 1) designed to determine the source of nitrate and other chemical constituents in ground water at the site. A comprehensive summary of the Phase 1 field investigations (limited to passive monitoring and modeling studies) conducted by the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC) and Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) to date is provided in Section 2.0 of this document. Results of Phase 1 were inconclusive regarding the potential interaction between the disposal cell and the paleochannels, so additional Phase 1A investigations are planned. Recommendations for Phase 1A tasks and possible future activities are discussed in Section 3.0. Detailed information on the implementation of the proposed Phase 1A tasks appears in Section 4.0 and will provide the basis for Statements of Work (SOW) for each of these tasks. A detailed sampling plan is provided to ensure quality and a consistency with previous data collection efforts.

  15. Radiological audit of remedial action activities at the processing site, transfer site, and Cheney disposal site Grand Junction, Colorado: Audit date, August 9--11, 1993. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project`s Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) performed a radiological audit of the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), MK-Ferguson and CWM Federal Environmental Services, Inc., at the processing site, transfer site, and Cheney disposal site in Grand Junction, Colorado. Jim Hylko and Bill James of the TAC conducted this audit August 9 through 11, 1993. Bob Cornish and Frank Bosiljevec represented the US Department of Energy (DOE). This report presents one programmatic finding, eleven site-specific observations, one good practice, and four programmatic observations.

  16. [Retroperitoneoscopic assisted pyeloplasty for ureteropelvic junction obstruction in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque Mialdea, R; Martin-Crespo Izquierdo, R; Díaz Gómez, L; Moreno, L; Carrero, C; Cebrian, J

    2007-04-01

    Description of the retroperitoneoscopic approach in the conventional pyeloplasty for ureteropelvic junction obstruction in children. From 1998 pyeloplasty assisted by retroperitoneoscopic approach (PARA) was performed in 30 patients. Position in latero-dorsal decubitus and incision of 1 cm in angle costolumbar. We made retroperitoneoscopic space by ball dissection technique and 11 mm Hg pressure. The ureteropelvic junction was extracted through the incision of the port. The UPJ was resected in all patients and Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty with double PDS 6/0 continuous sutures was performed. In all patients a drainage type Penrose in perirenal space was used. In the last 18 patients a 4F double-J stent was placed. The mean follow-up time was 42 months (range between 6 and 84 months). Operative time, hospital stay, handling of postoperative pain and the postoperative studies have been revised. In all the cases the retroperitoneoscopic approach was good for the identification and dissection of the ureteropelvic junction facilitating the extraction and reconstruction (pyeloplasty) through the mini-incision of the entrance port. The mean operative time was 90 min. (range between 65 and 128 min). We highlight the absence of intraoperative complications. The only postoperative complication has been a pyohydronephrosis in a patient not having internal drainage that was solved by percutaneous pyelostomy and didn't need reintervention. The postoperative handling of the pain was good by means of caudal locorregional anesthesia or by infiltration of the wound with local anesthesic and a dose of Ibuprofeno previous to leave the hospital. The mean hospital stay was 2 days (1-3 days) excluding the complicated case. Postoperative diuretic renograms at the 6 and 18 have shown absence of obstruction in all cases. In the long term follow-up, in 1 case nephrectomy was performed. The PARA for UPJ obstruction is a safe and effective procedure with the advantage of a minimal invasive

  17. Geology and structure of the Pine River, Florida River, Carbon Junction, and Basin Creek gas seeps, La Plata County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassett, James E.; Condon, Steven M.; Huffman, A. Curtis; Taylor, David J.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction: This study was commissioned by a consortium consisting of the Bureau of Land Management, Durango Office; the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission; La Plata County; and all of the major gas-producing companies operating in La Plata County, Colorado. The gas-seep study project consisted of four parts; 1) detailed surface mapping of Fruitland Formation coal outcrops in the above listed seep areas, 2) detailed measurement of joint and fracture patterns in the seep areas, 3) detailed coal-bed correlation of Fruitland coals in the subsurface adjacent to the seep areas, and 4) studies of deep-seated seismic patterns in those seep areas where seismic data was available. This report is divided into three chapters labeled 1, 2, and 3. Chapter 1 contains the results of the subsurface coal-bed correla-tion study, chapter 2 contains the results of the surface geologic mapping and joint measurement study, and chapter 3, contains the results of the deep-seismic study. A preliminary draft of this report was submitted to the La Plata County Group in September 1996. All of the members of the La Plata Group were given an opportunity to critically review the draft report and their comments were the basis for revising the first draft to create this final version of a geologic report on the major La Plata County gas seeps located north of the Southern Ute Indian Reservation.

  18. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the Uranium Mill Tailings Site at Grand Junction, Colorado. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This risk assessment evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the former uranium mill processing site. The tailings and other contaminated material at this site were placed in an off-site disposal cell by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial activities at the site were conducted from 1989 to 1993. Currently, the UMTRA Project is evaluating ground water contamination. This risk assessment evaluates the most contaminated ground water that flows beneath the processing site toward the Colorado River. The monitor wells that have consistently shown the highest concentrations of most contaminants are used to assess risk. This risk assessment will be used in conjunction with additional activities and documents to determine what remedial action may be needed for contaminated ground water at the site.

  19. Remedial actions at the former Climax Uranium Company, Uranium Mill site, Grand Junction, Mesa County, Colorado. Volume 1, Text: Final environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-12-01

    This statement evaluates and compares the environmental impacts associated with the remedial actions of the residual radioactive materials remaining at the inactive uranium processing site and associated vicinity properties at Grand Junction, Mesa County, Colorado. This statement is also intended to aid the BLM in amending their management framework plans and final resource management plan, as well as assisting in compliance with the withdrawal application as appropriate. The site is a 114-acre tract of private and state owned land which contains approximately 3.1 million cubic yards of tailings and associated contaminated soils. The vicinity properties are homes, businesses, public buildings, and vacant lots which may have been contaminated during construction by the use of tailings as building material. An estimated 3465 vicinity properties would be cleaned up during remedial action of the tailings pile. The tailings were produced by the former Climax Uranium Company which processed uranium ore, which it sold to the US Atomic Energy Commission from 1951 to 1966 and to private sources from 1966 to 1970. This statement evaluates six alternatives for stabilization and disposal of the tailings and other contaminated materials: (1) No action. (2) Stabilization at the Grand Junction site. (3) Disposal at the Cheney Reservoir site with truck transport. (4) Disposal at the Cheney Reservoir site with train and truck transport. (5) Disposal at the Two Road site with truck transport. (6) Disposal at the Two Road site with train and truck transport. All of the alternatives except no action include remedial action at an estimated 3465 vicinity properties. Alternative 3 is DOE`s preferred alternative.

  20. Enterovirus D68 Infection in Children with Acute Flaccid Myelitis, Colorado, USA, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messacar, Kevin; Pastula, Daniel M.; Robinson, Christine C.; Leshem, Eyal; Sejvar, James J.; Nix, W. Allan; Oberste, M. Steven; Feikin, Daniel R.; Dominguez, Samuel R.

    2016-01-01

    During August 8, 2014–October 14, 2014, a total of 11 children with acute flaccid myelitis and distinctive neuroimaging changes were identified near Denver, Colorado, USA. A respiratory prodrome was experienced by 10, and nasopharyngeal specimens were positive for enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) for 4. To determine whether an association exists between EV-D68 infection and acute flaccid myelitis, we conducted a retrospective case–control study comparing these patients with 2 groups of outpatient control children (1 group tested for acute respiratory illness and 1 for Bordetella pertussis infection). Adjusted analyses indicated that, for children with acute flaccid myelitis, the odds of having EV-D68 infection were 10.3 times greater than for those tested for acute respiratory infection and 4.5 times greater than for those tested for B. pertussis infection. No statistical association was seen between acute flaccid myelitis and non–EV-D68 enterovirus or rhinovirus infection. These findings support an association between EV-D68 infection and acute flaccid myelitis. PMID:27434186

  1. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction in children: two variants of the same congenital anomaly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braga Luis H.P.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the characteristics of prenatally and postnatally diagnosed ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO in children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed the records of 74 children who underwent pyeloplasty or nephrectomy for UPJO between 1995 and 2000. The patients were divided into 2 groups: prenatally and postnatally diagnosed UPJO. In each group, we compared age at surgery, gender, affected side, anteroposterior diameter (APD of the renal pelvis, surgical findings, and renal function as determined by creatinine clearance. RESULTS: Of the 74 children, 44 (59.4% had a prenatal diagnosis of UPJO and 30 (40.6% had a postnatal diagnosis despite the fact that all had had a fetal ultrasonography. Median age at the time of surgery was 6.3 years (4 months to 16 years for children with postnatal UPJO and 3.6 months (1 month to 4 years for the prenatal group. Forty-three percent of the children in the postnatal group and 25% in the prenatal group were females. Clinical manifestations in children with postnatal UPJO included abdominal pain in 13 (43% patients, pyelonephritis in 7 (23%, urinary tract infection in 5 (16.6%, and occasional findings upon ultrasound in 5 (16.6%. Excretory urography suggested obstruction in most children. The surgical findings included ureteral kinks due to adhesions in 93.3% of postnatally diagnosed UPJO cases and in 27.3% of prenatal cases (p < 0.01. A reduction in mean creatinine clearance of hydronephrotic kidneys was observed for both groups when compared to reference values for the respective ages, but this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Postnatally diagnosed UPJO may be considered, at least in part, an entity different from prenatally detected obstruction due to its peculiar characteristics, i.e., postnatal UPJO more frequently affects females, manifests later in life with urinary infection or abdominal pain, and is frequently associated with ureteral kinking.

  2. Sonographic Renal Parenchymal Measurements for the Evaluation and Management of Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy C Kelley

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To correlate sonographic renal parenchymal measurements among patients with ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO labeled Society of Fetal Urology (SFU hydronephrosis grades 1 to 4 and to examine whether sonographic renal parenchymal measurements could be used to differentiate conservative versus surgical management.Materials and Methods: Retrospective chart review and sonographic renal parenchymal measurements (renal length, medullary pyramid thickness, and renal parenchymal thickness were performed in patients with SFU grades 1 to 4 hydronephrosis secondary to UPJO managed between 2009 and 2014. Exclusion criteria included other concomitant genitourinary pathology or incomplete follow-up. Anterior-posterior renal pelvic diameter (APRPD and radionuclide renography were also evaluated when available. Results: 104 patient with ureteropelvic junction obstruction underwent 244 RBUS (1,464 sonographic renal parenchymal measurements in 488 kidneys. Medullary pyramid thickness and renal parenchymal thickness progressively decreased from SFU grades 1 to 4 (p<0.05. A similar trend was appreciated when comparing SFU grades 1 and 2 vs. 3 and 4, as well as SFU grades 3 vs. 4 (p<0.05. SFU grade 3 and 4 patients who underwent pyeloplasty had longer renal length in comparison to those who were managed conservatively (p<0.02.Conclusions: This is the first study that evaluates these objective, quantifiable sonographic renal parenchymal measurements in children with unilateral UPJO. These sonographic renal parenchymal measurements correlate closely with worsening of hydronephrosis graded by the SFU and APRPD classification systems. Prospective studies are needed to elucidate the role of sonographic renal parenchymal measurements in the management of children with UPJO.□

  3. Cochlear implantation effect on deaf children with gap junction protein beta 2 gene mutation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KONG Ying; LIU Sha; WANG Su-ju; Li Shu-jing; LIANG Shuang

    2013-01-01

    Background The popularization and promotion of gene diagnosis technology makes it possible to detect deafness genes for children with congenital hearing impairment,and the proportion of gap junction protein beta 2 (GJB2) gene mutations in cochlear implant patients is 26.5% We did follow-up evaluation on auditory rehabilitation effect for all 31 deaf children with GJB2 gene mutation after cochlear implantation to provide a reference for such patients.Methods Application of “the genetic deafness gene chip detection kit” and “gene complete sequence analysis” were applied to conduct detection on common genetic deafness gene mutation hotspots of the hearing impaired children with cochlear implantation.To conduct auditory rehabilitation effect evaluation on all 31 cases of patients with GJB2 genetic deafness after 3,6 and 12 months of the operation respectively.The single factor repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to analysis whether there were significant difference among the results of initial consonant of a Chinese syllable recognition at 3 different stages after the operation,the results of vowel of a Chinese syllable recognition at 3 different stages after the operation,and the results of two-syllable recognition at 3 different stages after the operation.Results The 235delC is the high-incidence mutational site in 31 cases of patients with GJB2 genetic deafness,and the total detection rate is up to 90.3% (28/31).There were significant differences in the initial consonant and the vowel of a Chinese syllable recognition rate,and the two-syllable recognition rates at 3,6,and 12 months after the operation (P<0.01).Conclusion Cochlear implantation is a safe and effective measure for auditory reconstruction,enabling patients with GJB2 hereditary severe sensorineural deafness to achieve auditory speech recognition effectively.

  4. Comparison Between Diuretic Urography (IVP and Diuretic Renography for Diagnosis of Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Esmaeili

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO is one of the most common causes of urinary tract obstruction in children. Several methods are used to diagnose upper urinary tract obstruction including renal ultrasonography (US, intravenous pyelogram (IVP, diuretic renography (DR, magnetic resonance urography (MRU and antegrade or retrograde pyelography. Nowadays it is suggested to use diuretic renography as the best method for diagnosing of UPJO. There is no comparative study between IVP and DR scan for diagnosis of UPJO in children. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to compare IVP with furosemide injection and diuretic renography in diagnosis of clinically significant UPJO. Patients and Methods: This was a cross sectional study performed in 153 UPJO suspected children (121 boys, 32 girls based on US findings in cases presented with urinary tract infection (UTI, prenatal hydronephrosis, abdominal/flank pain, abdominal mass and hematuria. Renal ultrasound was used as an initial screening tool for detection of urinary tract abnormality. Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR was ruled out by voiding cystourethrography (VCUG. Serum creatinin, blood urea nitrogen, urinalysis and urine culture was screened in all cases. IVP with furosemide and DR were performed as soon as possible after the mentioned workup. Results: During a five year period, 46 out of 153 patients were diagnosed as UPJO based on diuretic renography: the age ranged from 4 months to 13 years (mean: 3.1 ± 0.78 years. There was a significant higher (76% proportion of UPJO in the boys and in the left side (78%. The sensitivity of IVP with furosemide injection in diagnosis of UPJO was 91.3% whereas DR was accepted as standard for diagnostic procedure in diagnosis of UPJO. Conclusions: Although DR is accepted as the best method for diagnosis of UPJO, we found a small sensitivity difference between IVP and DR in kidneys with normal or near normal function. In many settings such as

  5. Children's belief- and desire-reasoning in the temporoparietal junction: evidence for specialization from functional near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Lindsay C; Kovelman, Ioulia; Hu, Xiaosu; Wellman, Henry M

    2015-01-01

    Behaviorally, children's explicit theory of mind (ToM) proceeds in a progression of mental-state understandings: developmentally, children demonstrate accurate explicit desire-reasoning before accurate explicit belief-reasoning. Given its robust and cross-cultural nature, we hypothesize this progression may be paced in part by maturation/specialization of the brain. Neuroimaging research demonstrates that the right temporoparietal junction (TPJ) becomes increasingly selective for ToM reasoning as children age, and as their ToM improves. But this research has narrowly focused on beliefs or on undifferentiated mental-states. A recent ERP study in children included a critical contrast to desire-reasoning, and demonstrated that right posterior potentials differentiated belief-reasoning from desire-reasoning. Taken together, the literature suggests that children's desire-belief progression may be paced by specialization of the right TPJ for belief-reasoning specifically, beyond desire-reasoning. In the present study, we tested this hypothesis directly by examining children's belief- and desire-reasoning using functional near-infrared spectroscopy in conjunction with structural magnetic resonance imaging to pinpoint brain activation in the right TPJ. Results showed greatest activation in the right TPJ for belief-reasoning, beyond desire-reasoning, and beyond non-mental reasoning (control). Findings replicate and critically extend prior ERP results, and provide clear evidence for a specific neural mechanism underlying children's progression from understanding desires to understanding beliefs.

  6. Colorado economic impact study on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-12

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year (FY) 1993. To capture employment benefits, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Rifle, and Gunnison, Colorado. An estimated 52 percent of the employees working on the UMTRA Project responded to this information request. Economic data were requested from each prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are: Direct employment was estimated at 894 workers; An estimated 89 percent of all direct employment was local; Secondary employment resulting from remedial action at the active Colorado UMTRA Project sites and the Grand Junction vicinity property program is estimated at 546 workers. Total employment (direct and secondary) is estimated at 1440 workers for the period of study (July 1, 1992, to June 30, 1993). An estimated $24.1 million was paid in wages to UMTRA workers in Colorado during FY1993; Direct and secondary wage earnings were estimated at $39.9 million; Income tax payments to the state of Colorado were estimated at $843,400 during FY1993; The gross economic impact of UMTRA Project activities in the state of Colorado is estimated at $70 million during the 1-year study period; and the net economic benefit to the state of Colorado was estimated at $57.5 million, or $5.90 per dollar of funding provided by Colorado. This figure includes both direct and secondary benefits but does not include the impact of alternative uses of the state funding.

  7. Effect of hair color and sun sensitivity on nevus counts in white children in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalborg, Jenny; Morelli, Joseph G; Byers, Tim E; Mokrohisky, Stefan T; Crane, Lori A

    2010-09-01

    It has been widely reported that individuals with a light phenotype (ie, light hair color, light base skin color, and propensity to burn) have more nevi and are at greater risk for developing skin cancer. No studies have systematically investigated how phenotypic traits may interact in relation to nevus development. We sought to systematically examine whether any combinations of phenotype are associated with a greater or lesser risk for nevus development in white children. In the summer of 2007, 654 children were examined to determine full body nevus counts, skin color by colorimetry, and hair and eye color by comparison with charts. Interviews of parents were conducted to capture sun sensitivity, sun exposure, and sun protection practices. Among 9-year-old children with sun sensitivity rating type II (painful burn/light tan), those with light hair had lower nevus counts than did those with dark hair (P value for interaction = .03). This relationship was independent of eye color, presence of freckling, sex, usual daily sun exposure, sunburn in 2004 to 2007, sun protection index, and waterside vacation sun exposure. The difference in nevus counts was further determined to be specific to small nevi (<2 mm) and nevi in intermittently exposed body sites. Geographic and genetic differences in other study populations may produce different results. The standard acceptance that dark phenotype is a marker for low melanoma risk and light phenotype a marker for high risk may need to be reevaluated. In non-Hispanic white children, dark-haired individuals who burn readily and then tan slightly are more prone to nevus development, and may therefore be a previously underrecognized high-risk group for melanoma. Copyright 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of intravenous urography and magnetic resonance urography in preoperative evaluation of pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Alok; Sodhi, Kushaljit Singh; Saxena, Akshay Kumar; Bhatia, Anmol; Menon, Prema; Rao, Katragadda L N; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2016-01-01

    To compare intravenous urography (IVU) and magnetic resonance urography (MRU) in the preoperative evaluation of pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction (PUJO) in children. A total of 35 children up to 10 years of age in whom unilateral or bilateral PUJO were suspected on ultrasonography were enrolled in this prospective study. All children underwent IVU and MRU, and the findings were compared. Of the 70 kidneys evaluated, 14 (20%) were not visualized on IVU because of nonexcretion of contrast, whereas all the 70 (100%) kidneys were visualized on MRU. On IVU, nephrogram was not visualized in 66 (94.2%) of the 70 kidneys, whereas MRU showed prompt and homogeneous nephrogram in 68 (97.1%) of the 70 kidneys. No evidence of PUJO was seen in 31 (44.2%) kidneys on both IVU and MRU. IVU showed PUJO in 26 (37.1%) kidneys, whereas MRU showed it in 38 (54.2%) kidneys. MRU detected two duplex systems that were missed on IVU. A focal renal lesion and two incidental extra renal abnormalities were detected on MRU, which were not visualized on IVU. MRU is better than IVU, especially in case of poorly functioning kidneys which are not visualized on IVU. MRU also provides anatomic details of the ureter and vessels with better evaluation of renal parenchyma. It also has an additional advantage of detecting incidental extra renal abnormalities, if present.

  9. Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty with isthmotomy and lateropexy in horseshoe kidneys with pelviureteric junction obstruction in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shasanka Shekhar Panda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty with isthmotomy and lateropexy in horseshoe kidney with pelviureteric junction obstruction (PUJO. Materials and Methods: Medical records of patients of horseshoe kidney with PUJO operated in our institute between June 1998 and June 2012 were reviewed. Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty with isthmotomy and lateropexy was performed in all patients. The surgical outcome was evaluated with emphasis on the changes in degree of hydronephrosis by ultrasonography, renal drainage and function assessed by diuretic renal scans. Results: We studied the records of eight children of horseshoe kidney having unilateral PUJO. Obstruction was caused by a crossing lower-pole vessel in two cases, a high ureteral insertion in three and narrowing of the PUJ in three cases. Post-operative follow-up (median 4.4 years, range 18 months to 10 years revealed improved renal function and good drainage in all cases. Hydronephrosis disappeared in 3, 4 showed Grade 1 and one showed Grade 2 hydronephrosis. All children are doing well and have no symptoms. Conclusion: Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasty with isthmotomy and lateropexy is a highly effective and safe procedure for treating PUJO in horseshoe kidney in children.

  10. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year (FY) 1995 (1 July 1994 through 30 June 1995). To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Gunnison, Maybell, Naturita, Rifle, and Slick Rock, Colorado. Economic data were requested from the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) and the US Department of Energy (DOE). The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized.

  11. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1993 (July 1, 1992, through June 30, 1993). To capture employment benefits, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Rifle, and Gunnison, Colorado. An estimated 52 percent of the employees working on the UMTRA Project responded to this information request. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized.

  12. Concurrent management of bilateral ureteropelvic junction obstruction in children using robotic-assisted laparoscopic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew A. Freilich

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Bilateral ureteropelvic junction (UPJ obstruction occurs infrequently. When surgical management is deemed necessary, staged pyeloplasties traditionally have been recommended to minimize the morbidity associated with performing procedures concurrently. With the advent of robotic-assistance, concurrent surgical management can more readily be performed laparoscopically. In this report, we evaluated the safety and outcome of managing patients with bilateral UPJ obstruction with concurrent robotic-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasty. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of five patients with bilateral ureteropelvic junction obstruction who underwent concurrent bilateral robotic-assisted pyeloplasties at our institution between October 2003 and April 2007. Technical consideration for patient positioning, robotic set-up, port placement, and the use of a hitch stitches was assessed. The operative time, complications, analgesic needs, length of hospitalization, and overall success of the procedure were evaluated. RESULTS: Operative time ranged from 235 to 541 minutes (mean = 384. Estimated blood loss was 5-100 cc (mean = 48.0. Length of hospitalization ranged from 1.3 to 3.6 days (mean = 2.4. Ureteral stents were removed 3-8 weeks postoperatively. There were no complications. All kidneys demonstrated decreased hydronephrosis on postoperative ultrasound or improved drainage parameters on diuretic renography or IVP. CONCLUSIONS: Simultaneous bilateral robotic-assisted laparoscopic pyeloplasties utilizing 4-port access is feasible and safe. It provides an effective method of managing patients with bilateral UPJ obstruction, avoiding the burden and morbidity of performing staged surgeries.

  13. The Colorado Adoption Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomin, R; DeFries, J C

    1983-04-01

    This report provides an overview of the Colorado Adoption Project (CAP), a longitudinal, prospective, multivariate adoption study of behavioral development. Examples of the types of analyses that can be conducted using this design are presented. The examples are based on general cognitive-ability data for adoptive, biological, and control parents; assessments of their home environment; and Bayley Mental Development Index scores for 152 adopted children and 120 matched control children tested at both 1 and 2 years of age. The illustrative analyses include matched control children tested at both 1 and 2 years of age. The illustrative analyses include examination of genetic and environmental sources of variance, identification of environmental influence devoid of genetic bias, assessment of genotype-environment interaction and correlation, and analyses of the etiology of change and continuity in development.

  14. Performing renography in children with antenatally detected pelvi-ureteric junction stenosis : errors, pitfalls, controversies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piepsz, A.; Sixt, R.; Gordon, I.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present to the reader the practical experience of three clinicians having actively participated to the publication of the guidelines on renography in children. The present publication should be considered as a practical guide. We have underlined good practice, obvious erro

  15. Efficacy of Magnetic Resonance urography in detecting crossing renal vessels in children with ureteropelvic junction obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavicevic, Polina K; Saranovic, Djordjije Z; Mandic, Marija J; Vukadinovic, Vojkan M; Djordjevic, Miroslav Lj; Radojicic, Zoran I; Petronic, Ivana; Cirovic, Dragana; Nikolic, Dejan

    2015-01-01

    An aberrant or accessory crossing renal vessel (CV) leading to the lower pole of the kidney is the most common extrinsic cause of uretero pelvic obstruction(UPJ) obstruction in a child and young adolescent.There is still controversy regarding there functional significance in obstruction Preoperative identification of such vessels may influence surgical management. First aim is to determine the value of magnetic resonance (MR) urography in detecting crossing vessels in children with UPJ obstruction,comparing the data with postoperative findings and the second one is to evaluate morphologic and functional parameters in these hydronephrotic kidneys. Between June 2009 and December 2012 we retrospectively reviewed MR urography records of one hundred and nine children with unilateral hydronephrosis at the University Children's Hospital. 68 (62.4%) were male and 41 (37.6%) were female,median age was 6.5 ± 5.7. Of the total number of patients, 30 (27%) underwent pyeloplasty, while 79 (72.5%) did not. The age at surgery ranged from 0.3 to 18 years (median 6.6 years). The indication for surgery was based on standard criteria (obstructed renal transit time with or without altered renal function of vDRF MRU, there was no crossing vessel in 21 kidneys, confirmed at surgery in 18. A crossing vessel was detected with MRU in 9 kidneys and confirmed at surgery in 6. Thus, the sensitivity of MRU was 66.7%, the specificity was 85.7%, the positive predictive value was 66.7%, the negative predictive value was 85.7% and the accuracy was 80%. There was no statistically significant difference in the detection of crossing vessels between MR urography and surgery (p = 0.004 and p MRU and surgery showed good agreement (κ = 0.524). Based on our results we suggest that MR urography is a reliable and safe diagnostic tool to determine crossing vessels in selected children with UPJ obstruction. Thus, MRU can substitute for other imaging modalities and provide detailed information about the

  16. Transverse comparisons between ultrasound and radionuclide parameters in children with presumed antenatally detected pelvi-ureteric junction obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duong, Hong Phuoc; Janssen, Francoise; Hall, Michelle; Ismaili, Khalid [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Hopital Universitaire des Enfants Reine Fabiola, Brussels (Belgium); Piepsz, Amy [Hopital Universitaire Saint-Pierre, Department of Radioisotopes, Ghent (Belgium); Khelif, Karim; Collier, Frank [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Department of Pediatric Urology, Hopital Universitaire des Enfants Reine Fabiola, Brussel (Belgium); Man, Kathia de [University Hospital Ghent, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium); Damry, Nash [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Department of Pediatric Radiology, Hopital Universitaire des Enfants Reine Fabiola, Brussel (Belgium)

    2015-05-01

    The main criteria used for deciding on surgery in children with presumed antenatally detected pelviureteric junction obstruction (PPUJO) are the level of hydronephrosis (ultrasonography), the level of differential renal function (DRF) and the quality of renal drainage after a furosemide challenge (renography), the importance of each factor being far from generally agreed. Can we predict, on the basis of ultrasound parameters, the patient in whom radionuclide renography can be avoided? We retrospectively analysed the medical charts of 81 consecutive children with presumed unilateral PPUJO detected antenatally. Ultrasound and renographic studies performed at the same time were compared. Anteroposterior pelvic diameter (APD) and calyceal size were both divided into three levels of dilatation. Parenchymal thickness was considered either normal or significantly decreased. Acquisition of renograms under furosemide stimulation provided quantification of DRF, quality of renal drainage and cortical transit. The percentages of patients with low DRF and poor drainage were significantly higher among those with major hydronephrosis, severe calyceal dilatation or parenchymal thinning. Moreover, impaired cortical transit, which is a major risk factor for functional decline, was seen more frequently among those with very severe calyceal dilatation. However, none of the structural parameters obtained by ultrasound examination was able to predict whether the level of renal function or the quality of drainage was normal or abnormal. Alternatively, an APD <30 mm, a calyceal dilatation of <10 mm and a normal parenchymal thickness were associated with a low probability of decreased renal function or poor renal drainage. In the management strategy of patients with prenatally detected PPUJO, nuclear medicine examinations may be postponed in those with an APD <30 mm, a calyceal dilatation of <10 mm and a normal parenchymal thickness. On the contrary, precise estimation of DRF and renal

  17. Benign Fibroepithelial Polyps: A Rare Cause of Ureteropelvic Junction Obstruction in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anitha Ezekiel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available FEPs are rare, benign mucosal growths that may cause urinary tract obstruction in both adults and children. We present the case of a ten year old Hispanic male with recurring urinary tract infections and hydronephrosis diagnosed with fibroepithelial polyps (FEPs. Despite multiple radiographic procedures, we were unable to accurately preoperatively diagnose FEPs. Here we demonstrate the difficulties in preoperative diagnosis and suggest that perhaps a combination of US and MRI in the setting of persistent urinary tract infections and flank pain may be the best approach for early diagnosis and conservative management, including less invasive treatment protocols.

  18. Gap Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L.; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of gap junction activity is complex. The structure of the various connexins is known to some extent; and structural rearrangements and intramolecular interactions are important for regulation of channel function. Intercellular coupling is further regulated by the number and activity of channels present in gap junctional plaques. The number of connexins in cell-cell channels is regulated by controlling transcription, translation, trafficking, and degradation; and all of these processes are under strict control. Once in the membrane, channel activity is determined by the conductive properties of the connexin involved, which can be regulated by voltage and chemical gating, as well as a large number of posttranslational modifications. The aim of the present article is to review our current knowledge on the structure, regulation, function, and pharmacology of gap junctions. This will be supported by examples of how different connexins and their regulation act in concert to achieve appropriate physiological control, and how disturbances of connexin function can lead to disease. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1981-2035, 2012. PMID:23723031

  19. Gap junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Schak; Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Sorgen, Paul L; Verma, Vandana; Delmar, Mario; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2012-07-01

    Gap junctions are essential to the function of multicellular animals, which require a high degree of coordination between cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions comprise connexins and currently 21 connexins are known in humans. The functions of gap junctions are highly diverse and include exchange of metabolites and electrical signals between cells, as well as functions, which are apparently unrelated to intercellular communication. Given the diversity of gap junction physiology, regulation of gap junction activity is complex. The structure of the various connexins is known to some extent; and structural rearrangements and intramolecular interactions are important for regulation of channel function. Intercellular coupling is further regulated by the number and activity of channels present in gap junctional plaques. The number of connexins in cell-cell channels is regulated by controlling transcription, translation, trafficking, and degradation; and all of these processes are under strict control. Once in the membrane, channel activity is determined by the conductive properties of the connexin involved, which can be regulated by voltage and chemical gating, as well as a large number of posttranslational modifications. The aim of the present article is to review our current knowledge on the structure, regulation, function, and pharmacology of gap junctions. This will be supported by examples of how different connexins and their regulation act in concert to achieve appropriate physiological control, and how disturbances of connexin function can lead to disease. © 2012 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 2:1853-1872, 2012.

  20. Selenium impacts on razorback sucker, Colorado River, Colorado: II. Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, S.J.; Holley, K.M.; Buhl, K.J.; Bullard, F.A.

    2005-01-01

    Effects on hatching and development of fertilized eggs in adult razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) exposed to selenium in flooded bottomland sites near Grand Junction, Colorado, were determined. After 9 months exposure, fish were collected and induced to spawn and eggs collected for inorganic element analyses. A 9-day egg study was conducted with five spawns from Horsethief ponds, six spawns from Adobe Creek channel, and four spawns from North Pond using a reference water and site waters. Selenium concentrations in eggs were 6.5 ??g/g from Horsethief, 46 ??g/g from Adobe Creek, 38 ??g/g from North Pond, and 6.0 ??g/g from brood stock. Eggs from young adults had a smaller diameter and higher moisture content than brood stock. There were no differences among the four sources in viability, survival, hatch, hatchability, or mortality of deformed embryos or larvae. Adobe Creek larvae had more deformed embryos in eggs held in site water than held in reference water. There were significant negative correlations between selenium concentrations in adult muscle plugs and percent hatch, egg diameter, and deformities in embryos. Results from this study suggest that selenium contamination in parts of the upper basin of the Colorado River should be a major concern to recovery efforts for endangered fish.

  1. Selenium impacts on razorback sucker, Colorado River, Colorado II. Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Steven J; Holley, Kathy M; Buhl, Kevin J; Bullard, Fern A

    2005-05-01

    Effects on hatching and development of fertilized eggs in adult razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) exposed to selenium in flooded bottomland sites near Grand Junction, Colorado, were determined. After 9 months exposure, fish were collected and induced to spawn and eggs collected for inorganic element analyses. A 9-day egg study was conducted with five spawns from Horsethief ponds, six spawns from Adobe Creek channel, and four spawns from North Pond using a reference water and site waters. Selenium concentrations in eggs were 6.5 microg/g from Horsethief, 46 microg/g from Adobe Creek, 38 microg/g from North Pond, and 6.0 microg/g from brood stock. Eggs from young adults had a smaller diameter and higher moisture content than brood stock. There were no differences among the four sources in viability, survival, hatch, hatchability, or mortality of deformed embryos or larvae. Adobe Creek larvae had more deformed embryos in eggs held in site water than held in reference water. There were significant negative correlations between selenium concentrations in adult muscle plugs and percent hatch, egg diameter, and deformities in embryos. Results from this study suggest that selenium contamination in parts of the upper basin of the Colorado River should be a major concern to recovery efforts for endangered fish.

  2. Air pollution and children: neural and tight junction antibodies and combustion metals, the role of barrier breakdown and brain immunity in neurodegeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Vojdani, Aristo; Blaurock-Busch, Eleonore; Busch, Yvette; Friedle, Albrecht; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Sarathi-Mukherjee, Partha; Martínez-Aguirre, Xavier; Park, Su-Bin; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; D'Angiulli, Amedeo

    2015-01-01

    Millions of children are exposed to concentrations of air pollutants, including fine particulate matter (PM2.5), above safety standards. In the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) megacity, children show an early brain imbalance in oxidative stress, inflammation, innate and adaptive immune response-associated genes, and blood-brain barrier breakdown. We investigated serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) antibodies to neural and tight junction proteins and environmental pollutants in 139 children ages 11.91 ± 4.2 y with high versus low air pollution exposures. We also measured metals in serum and CSF. MCMA children showed significantly higher serum actin IgG, occludin/zonulin 1 IgA, IgG, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein IgG and IgM (p brain barrier. Defining the air pollution linkage of the brain/immune system interactions and damage to physical and immunological barriers with short and long term neural detrimental effects to children's brains ought to be of pressing importance for public health.

  3. 78 FR 73886 - Atmel Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-09

    ... Employment and Training Administration Atmel Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado; Amended Certification... Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado. The Department's notice of determination was published in the Federal... workers at Atmel Corporation, Colorado Springs, Colorado were engaged in activities related to...

  4. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado State fiscal year 1994. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-12-01

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1994 (1 July 1993 through 30 June 1994). To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Naturita, Gunnison, and Rifle, Colorado. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. Information on wages, taxes, and subcontract expenditures in combination with estimates and economic multipliers is used to estimate the dollar economic benefits to Colorado during the state fiscal year. Finally, the fiscal year 1994 estimates are compared to fiscal year 1993 employment and economic information.

  5. Colorado cultural resource survey: Management data form [5JA784

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document includes the survey forms necessary to assess cultural resources in Colorado. This document assesses the Lewis children graves (site # 5JA1478) on...

  6. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography for the detection of crossing renal vessels in children with symptomatic ureteropelvic junction obstruction: comparison with operative findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calder, Alistair D.; Hiorns, Melanie P.; Olsen, Oystein E. [Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Abhyankar, Aruna; Mushtaq, Imran [Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Department of Urology, London (United Kingdom)

    2007-04-15

    Crossing renal vessels (CRV) are associated with ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction, particularly when presentation is beyond the neonatal period. Their presence may influence surgical management. To evaluate the accuracy of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA) in the identification of CRV in children requiring surgical treatment of symptomatic UPJ obstruction, against a gold standard of laparoscopic or open surgical findings. We reviewed CE-MRA studies (3-D T2-weighted turbo spin-echo and multiphase 3-D spoiled gradient echo following intravenous gadolinium administration) of 14 children, age range 6-15 years, performed prior to surgery for suspected CRV-related UPJ obstruction. Consensus reviews of the CE-MRA studies were compared with surgical findings. CE-MRA demonstrated CRV at the level of the obstruction in nine and no crossing vessels in five children. These were all verified intraoperatively ({chi}{sup 2} = 14.0; P < 0.001). In eight of the nine patients with CRV there was no evidence of intrinsic obstruction at surgery. In the remaining patient there was fibrosis of the upper ureter. CE-MRA is an accurate means of identifying CRV in children older than 6 years with symptomatic UPJ obstruction. (orig.)

  7. Significance of MR angiography in the diagnosis of aberrant renal arteries as the cause of ureteropelvic junction obstruction in children; Stellenwert der MR-Angiografie in der Diagnostik aberrierender Nierenarterien als Ursache einer Ureterabgangsstenose bei Kindern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, L.; Sorge, I.; Hirsch, F.W.; Vieweger, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Pediatric Radiology; Goetz, G.; Lehnert, T.; Buehligen, U.; Geyer, C. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Pediatric Surgery

    2015-01-15

    To determine the importance of MRI with contrast-enhanced MRA for the detection or exclusion of aberrant or obstructing renal arteries in ureteropelvic junction obstruction in children. Key word-based search in RIS database (ureteropelvic junction obstruction/MRI) and retrospective comparison of arterial findings from preoperative contrast-enhanced MRA and intra-operative inspection. From 2007 to 2013, 19 children with ureteropelvic junction obstruction underwent contrast-enhanced MRA. Based on the results of the MRI scan and MAG3 scintigraphy, the children were referred to surgery (Anderson-Hynes-pyeloplasty). An aberrant renal artery was diagnosed with MRI in 14 of 19 children, and intra-operative inspection confirmed 13 of those 14. In the remaining 5 children, no aberrant vessel could be observed in MRI and this was confirmed intra-operatively in 3 of the 5 cases, while in the remaining 2, an aberrant vessel was found. Of the 14 children with aberrant vessels, 12 underwent surgery due to assumed ureteral obstruction, which was confirmed by surgery in 11 cases. In one case, an aberrant artery was found intra-operatively, but obstruction could not be confirmed. In one of the 14 children, the vessel was found in MRI, but its obstructing character was negated via MRA, which was confirmed intra-operatively. In the diagnosis of aberrant and obstructing renal arteries, contrast-enhanced MRA presents 85 % sensitivity and 80 % specificity, with a positive predictive value of 0.8. MRI with contrast-enhanced MRA is suitable to detect aberrant and obstructing renal arteries. An obstructive effect of the aberrant vessel is to be assumed if the vessel has a close relationship to the ureteropelvic junction and if it is linearly stretched.

  8. Preservation of the kidney with delayed diagnosis of traumatic pelvi-ureteric junction disruption secondary to blunt abdominal trauma in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ming-lei; LI Ning; SUN Ning; ZHANG Wei-ping; HUANG Cheng-ru; BAI Ji-wu; LIANG Ruo-xin; TIAN Jun; XIE Xiang-hui; SONG Hong-cheng

    2011-01-01

    Background The delayed diagnosis of pelvi-ureteric junction (PUJ) disruption in children following blunt abdominal trauma can result in loss of function of the involved kidney. We examined the potential for kidney preservation and the limits of diagnostic delays. Methods A retrospective review of 17 cases of PUJ disruption at Beijing Children's Hospital from 1993 to 2009 was done with respect to diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Results The interval from trauma to diagnosis of PUJ disruption was (52±52) days. If one case with nephrectomy was excluded, the interval from trauma to diagnosis was (40±20) days. The average time between injury and first treatment was (49±25) days. Pelvi-ureteric reanastomosis and caliceal ureterostomy were performed separately in 11 and 4patients, respectively. lleal replacement for ureter injuries was finally performed in one patient. Hydronephrosis of the injured kidney was reduced and the function improved in 15 out of 17 patients (88%). Only one patient received nephrectomy and the nephrectomy rate was 5.9%. Conclusion Differential renal function at the PUJ disruption side can be saved and the rate of nephrectomy reduced by appropriate surgery if the time to diagnosis and first treatment is limited to within two months.

  9. Colorado Fathers' Resource Guide = Guia de Recursos para los Padres en Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Foundation for Families and Children, Denver.

    Developed through the Colorado Fatherhood Connection, this guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides suggestions and resources for fathers as well as tips on discipline, communication, and activities fathers can do with their children. Topics addressed in the guide include characteristics of responsible fatherhood, characteristics…

  10. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1994. To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Naturita, Gunnison, and Rifle, Colorado. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized. This study assesses benefits associated with the Grand Junction, Gunnison, Naturita, and Rifle UMTRA Projects sites for the 1-year period under study. Work at the Naturita site was initiated in April 1994 and involved demolition of buildings at the processing site. Actual start-up of remediation of Naturita is planned to begin in the spring of 1995. Work at the Slick Rock and Maybell sites is expected to begin in 1995. The only current economic benefits associated with these sites are related to UMTRA Project support work.

  11. Guia del Proceso del IFSP de Colorado: Conexiones para la Ninez Temprana, Iniciativa Infantil de Colorado Parte C del Acta de Educacion para Individuos con Desabilidades (Colorado Guidelines for the IFSP Process: Early Childhood Connections, Colorado's Infant/Toddler Initiative for Part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jerri; Petersen, Sandy

    This booklet for Spanish-speaking parents of young children with disabilities describes Colorado's Individualized Family Service Plan (IFSP) process. It explains guidelines, shares family stories and reflections for families and care providers, and the describes the values that drive the IFSP process in Colorado. Information is provided on…

  12. Asbestos in Colorado Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Cynthia A.

    This study determined, by means of a random sample, how many of Colorado's public schools have asbestos materials and estimated the potential risk of exposure presented by these materials. Forty-one schools were surveyed. Bulk samples of possible asbestos materials were collected and analyzed using the K-squared Asbestos Screening Test to…

  13. Colorado's Singular "No"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedeman, Reeves

    2008-01-01

    Supporters of affirmative action may have finally found a way to defeat state ballot measures that would ban such programs: Latch onto an inspirational presidential candidate with piles of cash and an unprecedented voter-turnout machine. Those activists won a narrow victory in Colorado this month, when 50.7 percent of voters made the state the…

  14. Asbestos in Colorado Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Cynthia A.

    This study determined, by means of a random sample, how many of Colorado's public schools have asbestos materials and estimated the potential risk of exposure presented by these materials. Forty-one schools were surveyed. Bulk samples of possible asbestos materials were collected and analyzed using the K-squared Asbestos Screening Test to…

  15. Game Birds of Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Div. of Wildlife, Denver.

    This booklet is intended to familiarize the reader with game birds typical of Colorado. Discussions in English and Spanish are presented. Discussions cover the management of game birds, individual game bird species, and endangered species of birds related to game birds. (RE)

  16. Molecular electronic junction transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Gemma C.; Herrmann, Carmen; Ratner, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Whenasinglemolecule,oracollectionofmolecules,isplacedbetween two electrodes and voltage is applied, one has a molecular transport junction. We discuss such junctions, their properties, their description, and some of their applications. The discussion is qualitative rather than quantitative, and f...

  17. Libraries in Colorado: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Library → Libraries in Colorado URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/colorado.html Libraries in Colorado ... Room 2106C Aurora, CO 80045 303-724-2111 http://hslibrary.ucdenver.edu/ Denver National Jewish Health Library ...

  18. Silverton folio, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Whitman; Howe, Ernest; Ransome, F. L.

    1905-01-01

    The term San Juan region, or simply "the San Juan," used with variable meaning by early explorers, and naturally with indefinite limitation during the period of settlement, is now quite generally applied to a large tract of mountainous country in southwestern Colorado, together with an undefined zone of lower country bordering it on the north, west, and south.  The Continental Divide traverses this area in a great bow.  The principal part of the district is a deeply scored volcanic plateau, more than 3000 square miles in extent, drained on the north by the tributaties of the Gunnison River, on the west by those of the Dolores and San Miguel rivers, on the south by numerous branches of the San Juan, and on the east by the Rio Grande.  ALl but the latter drainage finds its way to the Gulf of California through the Colorado River.

  19. 77 FR 15798 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-16

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs..., Colorado College, Armstrong Hall, Room 201, 14 E. Cache La Poudre, Colorado Springs, CO 80903, telephone... as the Taylor Museum and the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center) and the Denver Museum of...

  20. 77 FR 23498 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs..., Colorado College, Armstrong Hall, Room 201, 14 E. Cache La Poudre, Colorado Springs, CO 80903, telephone... Fine Arts Center (formerly known as the Taylor Museum and the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center)...

  1. Magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We review the giant tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in ferromagnetic-insulator-ferromagnetic junctions discovered in recent years, which is the magnetoresistance (MR) associated with the spin-dependent tunneling between two ferromagnetic metal films separated by an insulating thin tunnel barrier. The theoretical and experimental results including junction conductance, magnetoresistance and their temperature and bias dependences are described.

  2. Stacked Josephson Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Find; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2010-01-01

    Long Josephson junctions have for some time been considered as a source of THz radiation. Solitons moving coherently in the junctions is a possible source for this radiation. Analytical computations of the bunched state and bunching-inducing methods are reviewed. Experiments showing THz radiation...

  3. Colorado State Capitol Geothermal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, Lance [Colorado Department of Personnel and Adminstration, Denver, CO (United States)

    2016-04-29

    Colorado State Capitol Geothermal Project - Final report is redacted due to space constraints. This project was an innovative large-scale ground-source heat pump (GSHP) project at the Colorado State Capitol in Denver, Colorado. The project employed two large wells on the property. One for pulling water from the aquifer, and another for returning the water to the aquifer, after performing the heat exchange. The two wells can work in either direction. Heat extracted/added to the water via a heat exchanger is used to perform space conditioning in the building.

  4. Colorado wetlands initiative : 1997-2000 : Protecting Colorado's wetlands resource

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Colorado Wetlands Initiative is an endeavor to protect wetlands and wetland-dependent wildlife through the use of voluntary, incentive-based mechanisms. It is a...

  5. Pikes Peak, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstein, Craig; Quesenberry, Carol; Davis, John; Jackson, Gene; Scott, Glenn R.; D'Erchia, Terry D.; Swibas, Ed; Carter, Lorna; McKinney, Kevin; Cole, Jim

    2006-01-01

    For 200 years, Pikes Peak has been a symbol of America's Western Frontier--a beacon that drew prospectors during the great 1859-60 Gold Rush to the 'Pikes Peak country,' the scenic destination for hundreds of thousands of visitors each year, and an enduring source of pride for cities in the region, the State of Colorado, and the Nation. November 2006 marks the 200th anniversary of the Zebulon M. Pike expedition's first sighting of what has become one of the world's most famous mountains--Pikes Peak. In the decades following that sighting, Pikes Peak became symbolic of America's Western Frontier, embodying the spirit of Native Americans, early explorers, trappers, and traders who traversed the vast uncharted wilderness of the Western Great Plains and the Southern Rocky Mountains. High-quality printed paper copies of this poster are available at no cost from Information Services, U.S. Geological Survey (1-888-ASK-USGS).

  6. Colorados asutati rohelise ehituse toetusprogramm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    USA Colorado osariigi rohelised arhitektid ja projekteerijad asutasid koos ehitusfirmadega programmi "Ehita rohelist Coloradot", mille raames pakutakse rohelise maja või korteri ehitamise väljaõpet

  7. Colorados asutati rohelise ehituse toetusprogramm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2002-01-01

    USA Colorado osariigi rohelised arhitektid ja projekteerijad asutasid koos ehitusfirmadega programmi "Ehita rohelist Coloradot", mille raames pakutakse rohelise maja või korteri ehitamise väljaõpet

  8. Non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography using time-spin labelling inversion pulse technique for detecting crossing renal vessels in children with symptomatic ureteropelvic junction obstruction: comparison with surgical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucher, Nicolas; Vial, Julie; Baunin, Christiane; Labarre, David; Meyrignac, Olivier; Juricic, Michel; Bouali, Ourdia; Abbo, Olivier; Galinier, Philippe; Sans, Nicolas

    2016-08-01

    Investigate the feasibility and evaluate the accuracy of non-contrast-enhanced MR angiography (NC-MRA) using time-spin labelling inversion pulse (time-SLIP)to identify crossing renal vessels (CRVs) in children requiring surgical treatment of ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstructionand compare to laparoscopic findings. Nineteen children ranging from 6 to 16 years of age underwent NC-MRA using the time-SLIP technique before surgery. Two independent readers analysed the MRA images. Number of renal arteries and presence or absence of CRVs were identified and compared with surgicalfindings. Image quality was assessed, as well as the presence of CRVs and measurement of renal pelvis diameter. Intra and inter-reader agreement was calculated using Cohen's kappa coefficient and Bland-Altman plots. The overall image quality was fair or good in 88% of cases. NC-MRA demonstrated CRVs at the level of the obstruction in 10 children and no CRV in 9 children. All were confirmed intra-operatively except in one of the nine children. Sensitivity, specificity, NPV, PPV for predicting CRVs were 92%, 100%, 100% and 87.5%, respectively, for both readers. NC-MRA is a good alternative to contrast-enhanced MRA and CT scanning for identifying CRVs in children with symptomatic UPJ. • Time-SLIP technique offers acceptable imaging quality for identifying crossing renal vessel. • Time-SLIP technique is easy to apply to the renal MRA examination. • Time-SLIP technique is an alternative to contrast-enhanced MRA and CT scanning.

  9. Equivalent Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyadjiev, T. L.; Semerdjieva, E. G.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.

    2008-01-01

    The magnetic field dependences of critical current are numerically constructed for a long Josephson junction with a shunt-or resistor-type microscopic inhomogeneities and compared to the critical curve of a junction with exponentially varying width. The numerical results show that it is adequate to replace the distributed inhomogeneity of a long Josephson junction by an inhomogeneity localized at one of its ends, which has certain technological advantages. It is also shown that the critical curves of junctions with exponentially varying width and inhomogeneities localized at the ends are unaffected by the mixed fluxon-antifluxon distributions of the magnetic flow. This fact may explain the improvement of the spectra of microwave radiation noted in the literature.

  10. Quantum Junction Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Tang, Jiang

    2012-09-12

    Colloidal quantum dot solids combine convenient solution-processing with quantum size effect tuning, offering avenues to high-efficiency multijunction cells based on a single materials synthesis and processing platform. The highest-performing colloidal quantum dot rectifying devices reported to date have relied on a junction between a quantum-tuned absorber and a bulk material (e.g., TiO 2); however, quantum tuning of the absorber then requires complete redesign of the bulk acceptor, compromising the benefits of facile quantum tuning. Here we report rectifying junctions constructed entirely using inherently band-aligned quantum-tuned materials. Realizing these quantum junction diodes relied upon the creation of an n-type quantum dot solid having a clean bandgap. We combine stable, chemically compatible, high-performance n-type and p-type materials to create the first quantum junction solar cells. We present a family of photovoltaic devices having widely tuned bandgaps of 0.6-1.6 eV that excel where conventional quantum-to-bulk devices fail to perform. Devices having optimal single-junction bandgaps exhibit certified AM1.5 solar power conversion efficiencies of 5.4%. Control over doping in quantum solids, and the successful integration of these materials to form stable quantum junctions, offers a powerful new degree of freedom to colloidal quantum dot optoelectronics. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  11. 78 FR 53783 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO..., Chief of Staff, President's Office, Colorado College, 14 E. Cache La Poudre, Colorado Springs, CO 80903... Springs, CO, that meet the definition of unassociated funerary objects under 25 U.S.C. 3001. This...

  12. 78 FR 19304 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs... College, Armstrong Hall, Room 201, 14 E. Cache La Poudre, Colorado Springs, CO 80903, telephone (719) 389... Center (formerly known as the Taylor Museum and the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center) and the...

  13. Assessment of a Refined Short Acculturation Scale for Latino Preteens in Rural Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Elena; Anderson, Jennifer

    2003-01-01

    The Short Acculturation Scale for Hispanic Youth (SASH-Y) was used to assess acculturation among 137 fourth- and fifth-grade children in rural southern Colorado, including 11 Mexican, 33 Mexican American, and 93 Euro-American children. The SASH-Y, especially questions related to language use, was found to be robust with a young, rural Latino…

  14. Survey for bats in Jackson County, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers a targeted bat survey of Jackson County in north-central Colorado to better understand the abundance and distribution of bats in Colorado. The...

  15. Craniovertebral junction stenosis in Lenz-Majewski syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizuguchi, Koichi; Ishigro, Akira [National Center for Child Health and Development, Department of General Pediatrics and Interdisciplinary Medicine, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Miyazaki, Osamu [National Center for Child Health and Development, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, Gen [Tokyo Metropolitan Children' s Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Imaging, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    We report a girl with Lenz-Majewski syndrome associated with craniovertebral junction stenosis that led to communicating hydrocephalus and cervical myelopathy. The life-threatening complication was related to progressive craniovertebral hyperostosis that rapidly exacerbated during early childhood. Despite initial success of surgical intervention at 2 years of age, she developed apneic spells and died suddenly at age 5 years. Close monitoring for craniovertebral junction stenosis is essential to reduce morbidity and mortality in children with Lenz-Majewski syndrome. (orig.)

  16. Craniovertebral junction stenosis in Lenz-Majewski syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuguchi, Koichi; Miyazaki, Osamu; Nishimura, Gen; Ishigro, Akira

    2015-09-01

    We report a girl with Lenz-Majewski syndrome associated with craniovertebral junction stenosis that led to communicating hydrocephalus and cervical myelopathy. The life-threatening complication was related to progressive craniovertebral hyperostosis that rapidly exacerbated during early childhood. Despite initial success of surgical intervention at 2 years of age, she developed apneic spells and died suddenly at age 5 years. Close monitoring for craniovertebral junction stenosis is essential to reduce morbidity and mortality in children with Lenz-Majewski syndrome.

  17. The human myotendinous junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, A B; Larsen, M; Mackey, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    The myotendinous junction (MTJ) is a specialized structure in the musculotendinous system, where force is transmitted from muscle to tendon. Animal models have shown that the MTJ takes form of tendon finger-like processes merging with muscle tissue. The human MTJ is largely unknown and has never ...

  18. Doped semiconductor nanocrystal junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borowik, Ł.; Mélin, T., E-mail: thierry.melin@isen.iemn.univ-lille1.fr [Institut d’Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie, CNRS-UMR8520, Avenue Poincaré, F-59652 Villeneuve d’Ascq (France); Nguyen-Tran, T.; Roca i Cabarrocas, P. [Laboratoire de Physique des Interfaces et des Couches Minces, CNRS-UMR7647, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2013-11-28

    Semiconductor junctions are the basis of electronic and photovoltaic devices. Here, we investigate junctions formed from highly doped (N{sub D}≈10{sup 20}−10{sup 21}cm{sup −3}) silicon nanocrystals (NCs) in the 2–50 nm size range, using Kelvin probe force microscopy experiments with single charge sensitivity. We show that the charge transfer from doped NCs towards a two-dimensional layer experimentally follows a simple phenomenological law, corresponding to formation of an interface dipole linearly increasing with the NC diameter. This feature leads to analytically predictable junction properties down to quantum size regimes: NC depletion width independent of the NC size and varying as N{sub D}{sup −1/3}, and depleted charge linearly increasing with the NC diameter and varying as N{sub D}{sup 1/3}. We thus establish a “nanocrystal counterpart” of conventional semiconductor planar junctions, here however valid in regimes of strong electrostatic and quantum confinements.

  19. Evaluation of the 1988 Summer Enrichment Program for the Gifted and Talented at the University of Northern Colorado [and] Making a Good Program for Gifted and Talented Children Better: Improving a Program through Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Alan D.; Betts, George T.

    The first of two documents presents results of a 5-week evaluation of the Summer Enrichment Program for the Gifted and Talented at the University of Northern Colorado. The program typically serves about 650 residential students (ages 10-15) in two 2-week sessions. Descriptive information includes the program rationale, student selection…

  20. Junction trees of general graphs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaofei WANG; Jianhua GUO

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,we study the maximal prime subgraphs and their corresponding structure for any undirected graph.We introduce the notion of junction trees and investigate their structural characteristics,including junction properties,induced-subtree properties,running-intersection properties and maximum-weight spanning tree properties.Furthermore,the characters of leaves and edges on junction trees are discussed.

  1. Colorado's Voucher Law:Examining the Claim of Fiscal Neutrality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin G. Welner

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Colorado's voucher law was declared unconstitutional by the Colorado Supreme Court on June 28, 2004. Voucher supporters have begun drafting revised legislation designed to address the legal problem. This article calls into question the key financial claim of revenue neutrality'a claim that was central to the promotion and passage of the departing voucher law. The author concludes that the voucher law was not revenue neutral, even though it attempts to exclude from eligibility those children already enrolled in private schools. In fact, this law, as well as any revised law with similar eligibility provisions, would actually cost taxpayers an additional $10 million per year once fully implemented because the eligibility provision provides little more than a short-term damper on the law's long-term fiscal impact.

  2. Holliday junction resolvases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Haley D M; West, Stephen C

    2014-09-02

    Four-way DNA intermediates, called Holliday junctions (HJs), can form during meiotic and mitotic recombination, and their removal is crucial for chromosome segregation. A group of ubiquitous and highly specialized structure-selective endonucleases catalyze the cleavage of HJs into two disconnected DNA duplexes in a reaction called HJ resolution. These enzymes, called HJ resolvases, have been identified in bacteria and their bacteriophages, archaea, and eukaryotes. In this review, we discuss fundamental aspects of the HJ structure and their interaction with junction-resolving enzymes. This is followed by a brief discussion of the eubacterial RuvABC enzymes, which provide the paradigm for HJ resolvases in other organisms. Finally, we review the biochemical and structural properties of some well-characterized resolvases from archaea, bacteriophage, and eukaryotes. Copyright © 2014 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  3. Wireless Josephson Junction Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Laura

    2015-03-01

    We report low temperature, microwave transmission measurements on a wireless two- dimensional network of Josephson junction arrays composed of superconductor-insulator -superconductor tunnel junctions. Unlike their biased counterparts, by removing all electrical contacts to the arrays and superfluous microwave components and interconnects in the transmission line, we observe new collective behavior in the transmission spectra. In particular we will show emergent behavior that systematically responds to changes in microwave power at fixed temperature. Likewise we will show the dynamic and collective response of the arrays while tuning the temperature at fixed microwave power. We discuss these spectra in terms of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition and Shapiro steps. We gratefully acknowledge the support Prof. Steven Anlage at the University of Maryland and Prof. Allen Goldman at the University of Minnesota. Physics and School of Engineering and Applied Sciences.

  4. Assessment of Pelvo- ureteric Junction Obstruction in Children with Diuretic Ultrasound%利尿B超诊断小儿肾盂输尿管连接部梗阻

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文建国; 申涛; 孙雁龄; 王明太; 文兰田; 黄敏

    1995-01-01

    In order to evaluate the reliability of the diuretic ultrasound diagnosis of the pelvi- ureteric junction obstruction ( PUJO ), 25 patients ( 34 kidneys ) with hydronephrosis (Hn) were examined with diuretic ultrasound. Being compared with those of IVU, the Whitaker test, the operative findings, and the diuretic ultrasound examination in healthy children, the results in children with PUJO showed significantly increasing of pyelotasis (average increased by 105%) as the failure of returning to the original condition within 90 minutes after diuresis. The results of PUJO were significantly different from those of hydronephrosis due to reflux, lower ureteric or lower urinary obstruction, or The normal kidneys (P< 0.05). Diuretic ultrasound will play a useful role in the investigation of PUJO.%为了解利尿B超诊断小儿肾盂输尿管连接部梗阻(PUJO)的意义,对25例(34侧)小儿肾积水进行利尿B超检查,将检查结果与IVU、肾盂测压、手术中所见病理改变及正常肾脏检查结果进行比较.结果显示利尿后PUJO患儿肾脏集合系统明显扩大,平均较利尿前扩大105%,利尿后90 min仍不能恢复.同返流、输尿管远端或下尿路梗阻引起的肾积水及正常肾脏检查结果比较有显著性差异(P<0.05).利尿B超可作为判断PUJO的方法之一.

  5. Los 'Colorados': Etnohistoria y Toponimia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez-Rendón, J.

    2015-01-01

    Los "colorados" comprendían varios grupos étnicos emparentados etnolingüísticamente que ocupaban el piedemonte andino occidental desde El Carchi hasta Bolívar así como las tierras bajas del Pacífico en los sistemas hidrográficos de los ríos Esmeraldas y Guayas. Aunque la ocupación "colorada" de

  6. Los 'Colorados': Etnohistoria y Toponimia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez-Rendón, J.

    2015-01-01

    Los "colorados" comprendían varios grupos étnicos emparentados etnolingüísticamente que ocupaban el piedemonte andino occidental desde El Carchi hasta Bolívar así como las tierras bajas del Pacífico en los sistemas hidrográficos de los ríos Esmeraldas y Guayas. Aunque la ocupación "colorada" de esta

  7. 75 FR 58426 - Notice of Inventory Completion: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: The Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO... College, Colorado Springs, CO. The human remains and associated funerary objects were removed from...

  8. Barrier function of esophagogastric junction and acid reflux in children with wheezing%喘息儿童胃食管连接部功能和酸反流的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗燕军; 胡赤军; 鲁明

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between the barrier function of esophagogastric junction (EGJ) and acid reflux in children with wheezing. Methods A total of 74 children with wheezing were recruited and evaluated by 24-h pH monitoring and esophageal manometry. The children with wheezing were divided into reflux group (pH + group) and non-reflux group(pH- group) in accordance with the criteria of the total percentage time of pH below 4 less than 4% and Boix-Ochoa score < 11.99. Results In the group of wheezing children, there were 49 children with acid reflux (pH+ group) and 25 children without acid reflux (pH- group). Results of parameters of 24-h pH monitoring were significantly higher in pH+ group than those in pH- group ( P < 0.05). The levels of lower esophageal sphincter pressure(LESP)( 12. 1±6.8) mmHg( 1mmHg=0. 133 kPa) ,crura of diaphragm pressure(CDP) ( 14. 6 ± 8.4 ) mmHg and esophagogastric junction pressure (EGJP) ( 28.6 ± 11.1 ) mmHg, post-lower esophageal sphincter relaxation pressure(post-LESRA)(37. 0±18. 9) mmHg of the pH+ group were significantly lower than those of the pH- group (33.5 ± 5.6) mmHg, (21.3± 10.3) mmHg, (38.0± 14. 5) mmHg, (71.8± 17.2) mmHg,respectively( P <0.05). Conclusion Gastroesophageal reflux is popular in children with wheezing. It shows that the barrier function of esophagogastric junction is very important in the pathogenesis of wheezing children with acid reflux.%目的 探讨胃食管连接部(EGJ)屏障功能在喘息儿童酸反流发病机制中的作用.方法 选取有典型喘息症状的儿童74例行24小时食管pH监测和食管测压.根据pH<4总时间百分比<4%且Boix-Ochoa计分<11.99的标准,将受试者分为胃食管反流组(pH+组)和非胃食管反流组(pH-组).结果 喘息儿童胃食管反流发生率为66.2%(49/74),pH+组儿童食管pH监测的各项参数均明显高于pH-组儿童.胃食管连接部(EGJ)功能指标中,pH+组食管下括

  9. An induced junction photovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Call, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Silicon solar cells operating with induced junctions rather than diffused junctions have been fabricated and tested. Induced junctions were created by forming an inversion layer near the surface of the silicon by supplying a sheet of positive charge above the surface. Measurements of the response of the inversion layer cell to light of different wavelengths indicated it to be more sensitive to the shorter wavelengths of the sun's spectrum than conventional cells. The greater sensitivity occurs because of the shallow junction and the strong electric field at the surface.

  10. Nutrition. Healthy Moms, Healthy Kids: A Series on Maternal and Child Health in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Adequate consumption of nutritious, wholesome foods is essential to the healthy development of young children. Unfortunately, many households throughout the U.S. and Colorado struggle to put sufficient food on the table. According to the United States Department of Agriculture, the percentage of American families who reported experiencing…

  11. Childhood Poverty in Colorado: A Closer Look at a Statewide Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piscopo, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The nation's recent economic problems underscore the urgency of addressing the challenges that low-income families face. The current economic downturn will exacerbate what already are troubling trends in Colorado--namely, that too many children in the state live in poverty and these numbers are growing rapidly. Until updated data are available, it…

  12. 78 FR 52600 - Colorado Disaster # CO-00054

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-23

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster CO-00054 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of Colorado dated 08/14/2013. Incident: Black Forest Fire. Incident Period: 06/11/2013 through 06/21/2013. Effective Date:...

  13. 75 FR 60151 - Colorado Disaster # CO-00033

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster CO-00033 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a notice of an Administrative declaration of a disaster for the State of COLORADO dated 09/23/2010. Incident: Fourmile Canyon Fire. Incident Period: 09/06/2010 through 09/18/2010. Effective...

  14. Mixing in T-junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Jacobus B.W.; van der Wal, S.

    1996-01-01

    The transport processes that are involved in the mixing of two gases in a T-junction mixer are investigated. The turbulent flow field is calculated for the T-junction with the k- turbulence model by FLOW3D. In the mathematical model the transport of species is described with a mixture fraction

  15. 7 CFR 948.151 - Colorado Potato Committee membership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee membership. 948.151 Section... POTATOES GROWN IN COLORADO Rules and Regulations Modification of Inspection Requirements § 948.151 Colorado Potato Committee membership. The Colorado Potato Committee shall be comprised of six members...

  16. Energy Smart Colorado, Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gitchell, John M. [Program Administrator; Palmer, Adam L. [Program Manager

    2014-03-31

    Energy Smart Colorado is an energy efficiency program established in 2011 in the central mountain region of Colorado. The program was funded through a grant of $4.9 million, awarded in August 2010 by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Buildings Program. As primary grant recipient, Eagle County coordinated program activities, managed the budget, and reported results. Eagle County staff worked closely with local community education and outreach partner Eagle Valley Alliance for Sustainability (now Walking Mountains Science Center) to engage residents in the program. Sub-recipients Pitkin County and Gunnison County assigned local implementation of the program in their regions to their respective community efficiency organizations, Community Office for Resource Efficiency (CORE) in Pitkin County, and Office for Resource Efficiency (ORE) in Gunnison County. Utility partners contributed $166,600 to support Home Energy Assessments for their customers. Program staff opened Energy Resource Centers, engaged a network of qualified contractors, developed a work-flow, an enrollment website, a loan program, and a data management system to track results.

  17. Metallic Junction Thermoelectric Device Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duzik, Adam J.; Choi, Sang H.

    2017-01-01

    Thermoelectric junctions made of semiconductors have existed in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) for deep space missions, but are currently being adapted for terrestrial energy harvesting. Unfortunately, these devices are inefficient, operating at only 7% efficiency. This low efficiency has driven efforts to make high-figure-of-merit thermoelectric devices, which require a high electrical conductivity but a low thermal conductivity, a combination that is difficult to achieve. Lowered thermal conductivity has increased efficiency, but at the cost of power output. An alternative setup is to use metallic junctions rather than semiconductors as thermoelectric devices. Metals have orders of magnitude more electrons and electronic conductivities higher than semiconductors, but thermal conductivity is higher as well. To evaluate the viability of metallic junction thermoelectrics, a two dimensional heat transfer MATLAB simulation was constructed to calculate efficiency and power output. High Seebeck coefficient alloys, Chromel (90%Ni-10%Cr) and Constantan (55%Cu-45%Ni), produced efficiencies of around 20-30%. Parameters such as the number of layers of junctions, lateral junction density, and junction sizes for both series- and parallel-connected junctions were explored.

  18. Annual report on the U.S. Department of Energy`s cultural resource activities at Colorado UMTRA Project sites for October 1995--September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes the results of cultural resource activities conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) at Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project sites in Colorado for the period of October 1, 1995 through September 30, 1996. The inactive uranium mill tailings sites in Colorado are at Durango, Grand Junction, Gunnison, Maybell, Naturita, Rifle, and Slick Rock. On December 6, 1984, the DOE, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, and the Colorado State Historic Preservation Officer (SHPO) entered into a programmatic memorandum of understanding (PMOU). This PMOU requires the DOE to fulfillment of its obligations under various state and federal regulations for the protection and preservation of cultural resources. This report provides the state of Colorado with an annual report on the cultural resource activities performed for all UMTRA Project sites in Colorado. Due to the completion of surface activities at the UMTRA Project sites, this will be the last annual report to the state of Colorado. Cultural resources activities subsequent to this report will be reported to the state through site-specific correspondence.

  19. US Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project, final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of Building 36 at the Grand Junction Projects Office Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widdop, M.R.

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot milling experiments conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJPO Remedial Action Project to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor for the facility, Rust Geotech, also is the remedial action contractor. Building 36 was found to be radiologically contaminated and was demolished in 1996. The soil beneath the building was remediated in accordance with identified standards and can be released for unlimited exposure and unrestricted use. This document was prepared in response to a DOE request for an individual final report for each contaminated GJPO building.

  20. USGS Colorado Water Science Center bookmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2016-12-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey Colorado Water Science Center conducts its water-resources activities primarily in Colorado in cooperation with more than 125 different entities. These activities include extensive data-collection efforts and studies of streamflow, water quality, and groundwater to address many specific issues of concern to Colorado water-management entities and citizens. The collected data are provided in the National Water Information System, and study results are documented in reports and information served on the Internet.

  1. Colorado geology then and now: following the route of the Colorado Scientific Society's 1901 trip through central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Beth

    2013-01-01

    In 1901, Charles Van Hise asked Samuel Emmons and Whitman Cross to organize a grand excursion across Colorado as part of the combined meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, GSA, and the Colorado Scientific Society (CSS). This trip replays part of that 10-day excursion across Colorado. Shortened to three days, this trip takes in some of the same sites as the 1901 trip, plus adds others of interest along the route where CSS members are reinventing geological interpretations. The trip will follow the precedent set in 1901; CSS members will serve as “site or stop hosts” in addition to the trip leader and drivers. While walking in the steps of the most famous of our profession we will also see some of the most magnificent scenery of Colorado.

  2. Imaging of cervicothoracic junction trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wongwaisayawan S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sirote Wongwaisayawan,1 Ruedeekorn Suwannanon,2 Rathachai Kaewlai11Department of Radiology, Ramathibodi Hospital and Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Prince of Songkla University, Hat Yai, ThailandAbstract: Cervicothoracic junction trauma is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in trauma patients. Imaging has played an important role in identifying injuries and guiding appropriate, timely therapy. Computed tomography is currently a method of choice for diagnosing cervicothoracic junction trauma, in which the pattern of injuries often suggests possible mechanisms and potential injuries. In this article, the authors describe and illustrate common and uncommon injuries that can occur in the cervicothoracic junction.Keywords: cervicothoracic junction, cervical spine, trauma, imaging, radiology

  3. Demonstrated Anomalous Pancreaticobiliary Ductal Junction

    OpenAIRE

    Koçkar, Cem; ?ENOL, Altu?; BA?TÜRK, Abdulkadir; AYDIN, Bünyamin; Cüre, Erkan

    2015-01-01

    Anomalies of the pancreaticobiliary junction are rare. Clinically anomalies of the pancreaticobiliary junction are uncommonly symptomatic but may present themselves with associated conditions ranging from benign acute abdominal pain to carcinomas. A 52 years old man was admitted to gastroenterology service with complaints of fever, nausea, vomiting and recurrent epigastric pain. He was diagnosed with biliary pancreatitis. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreato-graphy was performed. Papilla ...

  4. Josephson junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wild, Georg Hermann

    2012-03-04

    We report on the fabrication of superconductor/insulator/ferromagnetic metal/superconductor (Nb/AlO{sub x}/Pd{sub 0.82}Ni{sub 0.18}/Nb) Josephson junctions (SIFS JJs) with high critical current densities, large normal resistance times area products, and high quality factors. For these junctions, a transition from 0- to {pi}-coupling is observed for a thickness d{sub F}=6 nm of the ferromagnetic Pd{sub 0.82}Ni{sub 0.18} interlayer. The magnetic field dependence of the critical current of the junctions demonstrates good spatial homogeneity of the tunneling barrier and ferromagnetic interlayer. Magnetic characterization shows that the Pd{sub 0.82}Ni{sub 0.18} has an out-of-plane anisotropy and large saturation magnetization indicating negligible dead layers at the interfaces. A careful analysis of Fiske modes up to about 400 GHz provides valuable information on the junction quality factor and the relevant damping mechanisms. Whereas losses due to quasiparticle tunneling dominate at low frequencies, at high frequencies the damping is explained by the finite surface resistance of the junction electrodes. High quality factors of up to 30 around 200 GHz have been achieved. They allow to study the junction dynamics, in particular the switching probability from the zero-voltage into the voltage state with and without microwave irradiation. The experiments with microwave irradiation are well explained within semi-classical models and numerical simulations. In contrast, at mK temperature the switching dynamics without applied microwaves clearly shows secondary quantum effects. Here, we could observe for the first time macroscopic quantum tunneling in Josephson junctions with a ferromagnetic interlayer. This observation excludes fluctuations of the critical current as a consequence of an unstable magnetic domain structure of the ferromagnetic interlayer and affirms the suitability of SIFS Josephson junctions for quantum information processing.

  5. Electronic thermometry in tunable tunnel junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maksymovych, Petro

    2016-03-15

    A tunable tunnel junction thermometry circuit includes a variable width tunnel junction between a test object and a probe. The junction width is varied and a change in thermovoltage across the junction with respect to the change in distance across the junction is determined. Also, a change in biased current with respect to a change in distance across the junction is determined. A temperature gradient across the junction is determined based on a mathematical relationship between the temperature gradient, the change in thermovoltage with respect to distance and the change in biased current with respect to distance. Thermovoltage may be measured by nullifying a thermoelectric tunneling current with an applied voltage supply level. A piezoelectric actuator may modulate the probe, and thus the junction width, to vary thermovoltage and biased current across the junction. Lock-in amplifiers measure the derivatives of the thermovoltage and biased current modulated by varying junction width.

  6. Confocal Annular Josephson Tunnel Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, Roberto

    2016-09-01

    The physics of Josephson tunnel junctions drastically depends on their geometrical configurations and here we show that also tiny geometrical details play a determinant role. More specifically, we develop the theory of short and long annular Josephson tunnel junctions delimited by two confocal ellipses. The behavior of a circular annular Josephson tunnel junction is then seen to be simply a special case of the above result. For junctions having a normalized perimeter less than one, the threshold curves in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field of arbitrary orientations are derived and computed even in the case with trapped Josephson vortices. For longer junctions, a numerical analysis is carried out after the derivation of the appropriate motion equation for the Josephson phase. We found that the system is modeled by a modified and perturbed sine-Gordon equation with a space-dependent effective Josephson penetration length inversely proportional to the local junction width. Both the fluxon statics and dynamics are deeply affected by the non-uniform annulus width. Static zero-field multiple-fluxon solutions exist even in the presence of a large bias current. The tangential velocity of a traveling fluxon is not determined by the balance between the driving and drag forces due to the dissipative losses. Furthermore, the fluxon motion is characterized by a strong radial inward acceleration which causes electromagnetic radiation concentrated at the ellipse equatorial points.

  7. Professional Orientation of Colorado PR Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattimore, Dan L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Findings indicate that a majority of public relations practitioners are highly educated, have professional media backgrounds as part of their professional experience, and are paid better than newspaper personnel in Colorado. (RB)

  8. Notes and comments on Colorado Refuges

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is a summary of actual management actions, and plant community responses on Colorado refuges during 1992. It is part of the moist-soil expert system...

  9. Colorado River Mile System, Tenths of Miles

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains points representing tenth of miles in the GCMRC river mile system. The points fall along the centerline of the Colorado River from Glen Canyon...

  10. Colorado Plateau Rapid Ecoregion Assessment Data Catalog

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Land Management, Department of the Interior — Datasets used in the analysis of the Colorado Plateau (COP) Rapid Ecoregion Assessment (REA).They can be downloaded via a layer package (lpk, similar to a zip file...

  11. Octagonal Defects at Carbon Nanotube Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskólski, W.; Pelc, M.; Chico, Leonor; Ayuela, A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate knee-shaped junctions of semiconductor zigzag carbon nanotubes. Two dissimilar octagons appear at such junctions; one of them can reconstruct into a pair of pentagons. The junction with two octagons presents two degenerate localized states at Fermi energy (EF). The reconstructed junction has only one state near EF, indicating that these localized states are related to the octagonal defects. The inclusion of Coulomb interaction splits the localized states in the junction with two octagons, yielding an antiferromagnetic system. PMID:24089604

  12. Modelling of Dual-Junction Solar Cells including Tunnel Junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz Amine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monolithically stacked multijunction solar cells based on III–V semiconductors materials are the state-of-art of approach for high efficiency photovoltaic energy conversion, in particular for space applications. The individual subcells of the multi-junction structure are interconnected via tunnel diodes which must be optically transparent and connect the component cells with a minimum electrical resistance. The quality of these diodes determines the output performance of the solar cell. The purpose of this work is to contribute to the investigation of the tunnel electrical resistance of such a multi-junction cell through the analysis of the current-voltage (J-V characteristics under illumination. Our approach is based on an equivalent circuit model of a diode for each subcell. We examine the effect of tunnel resistance on the performance of a multi-junction cell using minimization of the least squares technique.

  13. Ureteropelvic junction obstruction: the effect of pyeloplasty on renal function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowling, K.J.; Harmon, E.P.; Ortenberg, J.; Polanco, E.; Evans, B.B.

    1988-11-01

    We studied preoperatively and postoperatively 41 children who underwent pyeloplasty for correction of unilateral ureteropelvic junction obstruction. Conventional radiological studies and quantitative radioiodine hippurate renal scans were obtained to assess the effect of pyeloplasty on the appearance of the kidney and its function. Analysis of the data suggests that the degree of improvement in renal function is related primarily to the age at which the surgical correction is accomplished and whether infection has occurred preoperatively.

  14. 77 FR 11524 - Town of Walden, Colorado; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Town of Walden, Colorado; Notice of Application Take notice that on February 1, 2012, Town of Walden, Colorado (Walden) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission... area within which Walden may, without further Commission authorization, provide natural...

  15. Ecological Integrity Assessment for Colorado Wetlands, Field Manual

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A quick reviewed survey protocol framework developed by the Colorado Natural Heritage program on performing an Ecological Integrity Assessment (EIA) for Colorado...

  16. Gap junctions - guards of excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroemlund, Line Waring; Jensen, Christa Funch; Qvortrup, Klaus; Delmar, Mario; Nielsen, Morten Schak

    2015-06-01

    Cardiomyocytes are connected by mechanical and electrical junctions located at the intercalated discs (IDs). Although these structures have long been known, it is becoming increasingly clear that their components interact. This review describes the involvement of the ID in electrical disturbances of the heart and focuses on the role of the gap junctional protein connexin 43 (Cx43). Current evidence shows that Cx43 plays a crucial role in organizing microtubules at the intercalated disc and thereby regulating the trafficking of the cardiac sodium channel NaV1.5 to the membrane.

  17. Barriers to Enrollment in Health Coverage in Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Laurie T.; Bharmal, Nazleen; Blanchard, Janice C.; Harvey, Melody; Williams, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    As part of the implementation of the Affordable Care Act, Colorado has expanded Medicaid and also now operates its own health insurance exchange for individuals (called Connect for Health Colorado). As of early 2014, more than 300,000 Coloradans have newly enrolled in Medicaid or health insurance through Connect for Health Colorado, but there also continues to be a diverse mix of individuals in Colorado who remain eligible for but not enrolled in either private insurance or Medicaid. The Colo...

  18. 75 FR 52935 - Colorado Interstate Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... notice that on August 12, 2010, Colorado Interstate Gas Company (CIG), P.O. Box 1087, Colorado Springs... appurtenant facilities located in Douglas County, Colorado. Specifically, CIG states that it proposes: (1) To... adjacent to CIG's existing Spruce Hill Meter Station. CIG estimates the cost of the facilities will be $15...

  19. 76 FR 61382 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. ] SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  20. 75 FR 25877 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control ] Act of 1974...

  1. 78 FR 70574 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ....20350010.REG0000, RR04084000] Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  2. 77 FR 23508 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  3. 75 FR 27360 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  4. 75 FR 66389 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  5. 76 FR 24515 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of... Committee Act, the Bureau of Reclamation announces that the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory...) 524-3826; e-mail at: kjacobson@usbr.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Colorado River Basin...

  6. 77 FR 61784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  7. 78 FR 23784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974...

  8. 7 CFR 948.51 - Colorado Potato Committee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Colorado Potato Committee. 948.51 Section 948.51... Order Regulating Handling Committees § 948.51 Colorado Potato Committee. The Colorado Potato Committee... selected from each area committee. Committeemen shall be selected by the Secretary from nominations of...

  9. Control over Rectification in Supramolecular Tunneling Junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wimbush, K.S.; Wimbush, Kim S.; Reus, William F.; van der Wiel, Wilfred Gerard; Reinhoudt, David; Whitesides, George M.; Nijhuis, C.A.; Velders, Aldrik

    2010-01-01

    In complete control: The magnitude of current rectification in well-defined supramolecular tunneling junctions can be controlled by changing the terminal functionality (red spheres) of dendrimers (gray spheres) immobilized on a supramolecular platform (see picture). Junctions containing biferrocene

  10. Nano-Molecular Junctions on STM Tips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Huang∗; Jianshu Yang

    2011-01-01

    We present a technique for building metal-organic-metal junctions, which contain ten or fewer conjugated molecules between each of such junction, and the investigations of the I-V response of these junctions. The junctions are made by self assembling thiolated molecules onto gold coated tips for use in scanning tunneling microscopy. We show that this easy technique probes the qualitative properties of the molecules. Current-voltage characteristics of a Tour wire and a new molecular rectifier are presented.

  11. Nano-Molecular Junctions on STM Tips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun Huang; Jianshu Yang

    2011-01-01

    We present a technique for building metal-organic-metal junctions, which contain ten or fewer conjugated molecules between each of such junction, and the investigations of the I-V response of these junctions.The junctions are made by self assembling thiolated molecules onto gold coated tips for use in scanning tunneling microscopy. We show that this easy technique probes the qualitative properties of the molecules. Currentvoltage characteristics of a Tour wire and a new molecular rectifier are presented.

  12. Current noise in tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frey, Moritz; Grabert, Hermann [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Freiburg, Hermann-Herder-Strasse 3, 79104, Freiburg (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    We study current fluctuations in tunnel junctions driven by a voltage source. The voltage is applied to the tunneling element via an impedance providing an electromagnetic environment of the junction. We use circuit theory to relate the fluctuations of the current flowing in the leads of the junction with the voltage fluctuations generated by the environmental impedance and the fluctuations of the tunneling current. The spectrum of current fluctuations is found to consist of three parts: a term arising from the environmental Johnson-Nyquist noise, a term due to the shot noise of the tunneling current and a third term describing the cross-correlation between these two noise sources. Our phenomenological theory reproduces previous results based on the Hamiltonian model for the dynamical Coulomb blockade and provides a simple understanding of the current fluctuation spectrum in terms of circuit theory and properties of the average current. Specific results are given for a tunnel junction driven through a resonator. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  13. Josephson tunnel junction microwave attenuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshelets, V. P.; Shitov, S. V.; Shchukin, A. V.

    1993-01-01

    A new element for superconducting electronic circuitry-a variable attenuator-has been proposed, designed, and successfully tested. The principle of operation is based on the change in the microwave impedance of a superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) Josephson tunnel junction when dc bias...

  14. Stability of large-area molecular junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, Hylke B.; Kronemeijer, Auke J.; Harkema, Jan; van Hal, Paul A.; Smits, Edsger C. P.; de Leeuw, Dago M.; Blom, Paul W. M.

    The stability of molecular junctions is crucial for any application of molecular electronics. Degradation of molecular junctions when exposed to ambient conditions is regularly observed. In this report the stability of large-area molecular junctions under ambient conditions for more than two years

  15. Soliton bunching in annular Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernik, I.V; Lazarides, Nickos; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    1996-01-01

    By studying soliton (fluxon) motion in long annular Josephson junctions it is possible to avoid the influence of the boundaries and soliton-soliton collisions present in linear junctions. A new experimental design consisting of a niobium coil placed on top of an annular junction has been used...

  16. Long Range Magnetic Interaction between Josephson Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1995-01-01

    A new model for magnetic coupling between long Josephson junctions is proposed. The coupling mechanism is a result of the magnetic fields outside the junctions and is consequently effective over long distances between junctions. We give specific expressions for the form and magnitude of the inter...

  17. Dynamics of pi-junction interferometer circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornkev, V.K.; Mozhaev, P.B.; Borisenko, I.V.;

    2002-01-01

    The pi-junction superconducting circuit dynamics was studied by means of numerical simulation technique. Parallel arrays consisting of Josephson junctions of both 0- and pi-type were studied as a model of high-T-c grain-boundary Josephson junction. The array dynamics and the critical current...

  18. Dynamics of pi-junction interferometer circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornkev, V.K.; Mozhaev, P.B.; Borisenko, I.V.

    2002-01-01

    The pi-junction superconducting circuit dynamics was studied by means of numerical simulation technique. Parallel arrays consisting of Josephson junctions of both 0- and pi-type were studied as a model of high-T-c grain-boundary Josephson junction. The array dynamics and the critical current...

  19. The instrumental climate history of southwestern Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doesken, N.J.; McKee, T.B. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Instrumental observations of the climate of southwestern Colorado date back to about 1880. Climatic conditions since the late 19th century will be described with emphasis on temperatures, temperature ranges and observed precipitation. Typical seasonal patterns of temperature and precipitation will be shown, and variations and apparent trends over time will be discussed. Drought characteristics will be described based on a standardized precipitation index developed for Colorado. Finally, brief comments on the challenge of collecting accurate and consistent long-term data will be given.

  20. Octagonal Defects at Carbon Nanotube Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jaskólski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate knee-shaped junctions of semiconductor zigzag carbon nanotubes. Two dissimilar octagons appear at such junctions; one of them can reconstruct into a pair of pentagons. The junction with two octagons presents two degenerate localized states at Fermi energy (EF. The reconstructed junction has only one state near EF, indicating that these localized states are related to the octagonal defects. The inclusion of Coulomb interaction splits the localized states in the junction with two octagons, yielding an antiferromagnetic system.

  1. Fabrication of high quality ferromagnetic Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weides, M. [Institute for Solid State Research, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany) and CNI-Center of Nanoelectronic Systems for Information Technology, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)]. E-mail: m.weides@fz-juelich.de; Tillmann, K. [Institute for Solid State Research, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Kohlstedt, H. [Institute for Solid State Research, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); CNI-Center of Nanoelectronic Systems for Information Technology, Research Centre Juelich, D-52425 Juelich (Germany); Department of Material Science and Engineering and Department of Physics, University of Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    We present ferromagnetic Nb/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Ni{sub 60}Cu{sub 40}/Nb Josephson junctions (SIFS) with an ultrathin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tunnel barrier. The junction fabrication was optimized regarding junction insulation and homogeneity of current transport. Using ion-beam-etching and anodic oxidation we defined and insulated the junction mesas. The additional 2 nm thin Cu-layer below the ferromagnetic NiCu (SINFS) lowered interface roughness and ensured very homogeneous current transport. A high yield of junctional devices with j {sub c} spreads less than 2% was obtained.

  2. The Colorado Lightning Mapping Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rison, W.; Krehbiel, P. R.; Thomas, R. J.; Rodeheffer, D.; Fuchs, B.

    2012-12-01

    A fifteen station Lightning Mapping Array (LMA) was installed in northern Colorado in the spring of 2012. While the driving force for the array was to produce 3-dimensional lightning data to support the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) Experiment (Barth, this conference), data from the array are being used for several other projects. These include: electrification studies in conjunction with the CSU CHILL radar (Lang et al, this conference); observations of the parent lightning discharges of sprites (Lyons et al, this conference); trying to detect upward discharges triggered by wind turbines, characterizing conditions in which aircraft flying through clouds produce discharges which can be detected by the LMA, and other opportunities, such as observations of lightning in pyrocumulus clouds produced by the High Park Fire west of Fort Collins, CO. All the COLMA stations are solar-powered, and use broadband cellular modems for data communications. This makes the stations completely self-contained and autonomous, allowing a station to be installed anywhere a cellular signal is available. Because most of the stations were installed well away from anthropogenic noise sources, the COLMA is very sensitive. This is evidenced by the numerous plane tracks detected in its the vicinity. The diameter, D, of the COLMA is about 100 km, significantly larger than other LMAs. Because the error in the radial distance r is proportional to (r/D)2, and the error in the altitude z is proportional to (z/D)2, the larger array diameter greatly expands the usable range of the COLMA. The COLMA is able to detect and characterize lighting flashes to a distance of about 350 km from the array center. In addition to a web-based display (lightning.nmt.edu/colma), geo-referenced images are produced and updated at one-minute intervals. These geo-referenced images can be used to overlay the real-time lightning data on Google Earth and other mapping software. These displays were used by the DC3

  3. Selective permeability of gap junction channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Gary S; Valiunas, Virginijus; Brink, Peter R

    2004-03-23

    Gap junctions mediate the transfer of small cytoplasmic molecules between adjacent cells. A family of gap junction proteins exist that form channels with unique properties, and differ in their ability to mediate the transfer of specific molecules. Mutations in a number of individual gap junction proteins, called connexins, cause specific human diseases. Therefore, it is important to understand how gap junctions selectively move molecules between cells. Rules that dictate the ability of a molecule to travel through gap junction channels are complex. In addition to molecular weight and size, the ability of a solute to transverse these channels depends on its net charge, shape, and interactions with specific connexins that constitute gap junctions in particular cells. This review presents some data and interpretations pertaining to mechanisms that govern the differential transfer of signals through gap junction channels.

  4. 78 FR 47815 - Colorado Disaster # CO-00060

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster CO-00060 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This is a Notice of the Presidential declaration of a major disaster for Public Assistance Only for the... Disaster Assistance, U.S. Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington,...

  5. Effectiveness of the AHEC Concept in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Richard D.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Colorado's area health education program, the SEARCH program, designed to alleviate the maldistribution of health manpower, is described. It recruits new professionals to underserved areas through student/resident rotations and retains those professionals already there by providing accessible continuing education. (Author/MLW)

  6. Colorado's forest resources, 2002-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael T. Thompson; Joseph A. Duda; Larry T. DeBlander; John D. Shaw; Chris Witt; Todd A. Morgan; Michael C. Amacher

    2010-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the most recent inventory information for Colorado's forest lands. The report includes descriptive highlights and tables of area, number of trees, biomass, volume, growth, mortality, and removals. Most of the tables are organized by forest type, species, diameter class, or owner group. The report also describes inventory design,...

  7. Is Colorado's Voucher System Worth Vouching for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Brian T.

    2010-01-01

    In 2004 Colorado passed legislation enacting the nation's first voucher-based approach to financing higher education, known as the College Opportunity Fund (COF). The work of an unusual coalition that included higher education leaders, generally conservative policymakers, and others, COF completely replaced the traditional approach of subsidizing…

  8. Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Sally J.; DeFries, John C.; Olson, Richard K.; Willcutt, Erik G.

    2007-01-01

    The primary objectives of the present study are to introduce the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Study of Reading Disability, the first longitudinal twin study in which subjects have been specifically selected for having a history of reading difficulties, and to present some initial assessments of the stability of reading performance and cognitive…

  9. 76 FR 36039 - Colorado Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... regulation of surface coal mining and reclamation operations on non- Federal and non-Indian lands within its... for the regulation of surface coal mining and reclamation operations in accordance with the... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 906 Colorado Regulatory Program AGENCY...

  10. Besnoitiosis in rodents from Colorado. [Parasitic infestations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagle, G E; Winsor, T F; Adee, R R

    1976-01-01

    Parasitic cysts of Besnoitia jellisoni (coccidia) were found in rodents (Peromyscus maniculatus and Spermophilus tridecemlineatus) trapped in Eastern Colorado. The parasite was associated with a granulomatous inflammatory reaction in the lungs of each rodent and was disseminated in several organs from one Peromyscus. The ultrastructural appearance of the merozoites and the cyst wall formed by the host cell were studied.

  11. Clinical characteristics and management of children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clinical characteristics and management of children with ureteropelvic ... structural changes in predisposed children. ... or secondary changes of the ureteral barrier at the UPJ. However .... higher resistance at the ureterovesical junction when.

  12. Seebeck effect in molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimbovskaya, Natalya A.

    2016-05-01

    Advances in the fabrication and characterization of nanoscale systems presently allow for a better understanding of their thermoelectric properties. As is known, the building blocks of thermoelectricity are the Peltier and Seebeck effects. In the present work we review results of theoretical studies of the Seebeck effect in single-molecule junctions and similar systems. The behavior of thermovoltage and thermopower in these systems is controlled by several factors including the geometry of molecular bridges, the characteristics of contacts between the bridge and the electrodes, the strength of the Coulomb interactions between electrons on the bridge, and of electron-phonon interactions. We describe the impact of these factors on the thermopower. Also, we discuss a nonlinear Seebeck effect in molecular junctions.

  13. Electron transport in molecular junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Chengjun

    This thesis addresses the electron transport in molecular junctions, focusing on the energy level alignment and correlation effects. Various levels of theory have been applied to study the structural and electronic effects in different molecular junctions, starting from the single particle density...... charge position are in quantitative agreement with the experiments, while pure DFT is not. This is the consequence of the accurate energy level alignment, where the DFT+∑ method corrects the self-interaction error in the standard DFT functional and uses a static image charge model to include the image...... charge effect on the energy level renormalization. Additionally, the gating of the 4,4’-bipyridine (44BP) molecule contacted to either Ni or Au electrodes has been investigated. Here it is found that the gating mechanism is conceptually different between two cases. In the case of Ni contacts where...

  14. How coherent are Josephson junctions?

    CERN Document Server

    Paik, Hanhee; Bishop, Lev S; Kirchmair, G; Catelani, G; Sears, A P; Johnson, B R; Reagor, M J; Frunzio, L; Glazman, L; Schoelkopf, R J

    2011-01-01

    Attaining sufficient coherence is a requirement for realizing a large-scale quantum computer. We present a new implementation of a superconducting transmon qubit that is strongly coupled to a three-dimensional superconducting cavity. We observe a reproducible increase in the coherence times of qubit (both $T_1$ and $T_2$ > 10 microseconds) and cavity ($T_{cav}$ ~ 50 microseconds) by more than an order of magnitude compared to the current state-of-art superconducting qubits. This enables the study of the stability and quality of Josephson junctions at precisions exceeding one part per million. Surprisingly, we see no evidence for $1/f$ critical current noise. At elevated temperatures, we observe the dissipation due to a small density (< 1 - 10 ppm) of thermally-excited quasiparticles. The results suggest that the overall quality of Josephson junctions will allow error rates of a few $10^{-4}$, approaching the error correction threshold.

  15. Morphogenesis of rat myotendinous junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzi, Davide; Ambrogini, Patrizia; Falcieri, Elisabetta; Burattini, Sabrina

    2013-10-01

    Myotendinous junction (MTJ) is the highly specialized complex which connects the skeletal muscle to the tendon for transmitting the contractile force between the two tissues. The purpose of this study was to investigate the MTJ development and rat EDL was chosen as a model. 1, 15, 30 day animals were considered and the junctions were analyzed by light and electron microscopy. The MTJ interface architecture increased during the development, extending the interaction between muscle and tendon. 1-day-old rats showed disorganized myofibril bundles, spread cytosol and incomplete rough endoplasmic reticulum, features partially improved in 15-day-old rats, and completely developed in 30-day-old animals. These findings indicate that muscle-tendon interface displays, during rat lifetime, numerically increased and longer tendon interdigitations, correlated with an improved organization of both tissues and with a progressive acquirement of full functionality.

  16. Thermoelectric efficiency of molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perroni, C. A.; Ninno, D.; Cataudella, V.

    2016-09-01

    Focus of the review is on experimental set-ups and theoretical proposals aimed to enhance thermoelectric performances of molecular junctions. In addition to charge conductance, the thermoelectric parameter commonly measured in these systems is the thermopower, which is typically rather low. We review recent experimental outcomes relative to several junction configurations used to optimize the thermopower. On the other hand, theoretical calculations provide estimations of all the thermoelectric parameters in the linear and non-linear regime, in particular of the thermoelectric figure of merit and efficiency, completing our knowledge of molecular thermoelectricity. For this reason, the review will mainly focus on theoretical studies analyzing the role of not only electronic, but also of the vibrational degrees of freedom. Theoretical results about thermoelectric phenomena in the coherent regime are reviewed focusing on interference effects which play a significant role in enhancing the figure of merit. Moreover, we review theoretical studies including the effects of molecular many-body interactions, such as electron-vibration couplings, which typically tend to reduce the efficiency. Since a fine tuning of many parameters and coupling strengths is required to optimize the thermoelectric conversion in molecular junctions, new theoretically proposed set-ups are discussed in the conclusions.

  17. Chaos induced by coupling between Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Azemtsa-Donfack, H.; Botha, A. E.

    2015-02-01

    It is found that, in a stack of intrinsic Josephson junctions in layered high temperature superconductors under external electromagnetic radiation, the chaotic features are triggered by interjunction coupling, i.e., the coupling between different junctions in the stack. While the radiation is well known to produce chaotic effects in the single junction, the effect of interjunction coupling is fundamentally different and it can lead to the onset of chaos via a different route to that of the single junction. A precise numerical study of the phase dynamics of intrinsic Josephson junctions, as described by the CCJJ+DC model, is performed. We demonstrate the charging of superconducting layers, in a bias current interval corresponding to a Shapiro step subharmonic, due to the creation of a longitudinal plasma wave along the stack of junctions. With increase in radiation amplitude chaotic behavior sets in. The chaotic features of the coupled Josephson junctions are analyzed by calculations of the Lyapunov exponents. We compare results for a stack of junctions to the case of a single junction and prove that the observed chaos is induced by the coupling between the junctions. The use of Shapiro step subharmonics may allow longitudinal plasma waves to be excited at low radiation power.

  18. [Remodeling of cardiac gap junctions and arrhythmias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhi-Bin; Sheng, Juan-Juan

    2011-12-25

    In the heart, gap junctions mediate electrical and chemical coupling between adjacent cardiomyocytes, forming the cell-to-cell pathways for orderly spread of the wave of electrical excitation responsible for a functional syncytium. Three principal connexins are expressed in cardiomyocytes, connexin 43 (CX43), CX40, and CX45. CX43 predominates in ventricular muscle cells. Most of the gap junctions, assembled from CX43, are located at the intercalated discs, often with larger junctional plaques at the disc periphery. The gap junctions are rarely distributed to the sides of the cardiomyocyte. The ischemia-reperfusion, cardiac hypertrophy, heart failure, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes mellitus induce gap junction remodeling. The gap junction remodeling induced by above-mentioned diseases shows similar characteristics, including down-regulation of CX43, reduction in gap junction plaque size, increased heterogeneity and lateralization of gap junction distribution, and dephosphorylation of CX43. The elevated angiotensin II concentration in local myocardium may play an important role in the gap junction remodeling. The down-regulation of CX43 and lateralization of gap junction distribution alter anisotropic spread of the impulse of ventricular myocardium. The dephosphorylation of CX43 not only reduces electrical conductance, but also decreases permeability of chemicals between cardiomyocytes. The lateralization of gap junctions may increase the number of hemichannels formed by CX43. The opening of hemichannels induces ATP efflux and Na(+) influx, which forms a delayed after-depolarization. The gap junction remodeling in pathological condition produces arrhythmia substrate in the ventricles. In this review, the current knowledge on the relationship between the remodeling of cardiac gap junctions and arrhythmias were summarized.

  19. Physics and Applications of NIS Junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullom, J N

    2001-08-24

    This paper reviews the physics and applications of Normal-Insulator-Superconductor (NIS) tunnel junctions. The current-voltage properties of NIS junctions are diode-like with a strong temperature dependence. Hence, these structures can be used as sensitive thermometers at temperatures well below the energy gap, {Delta}, of the superconducting electrode. For junction voltages comparable to {Delta}/q, current flow removes energy from the normal electrode. This property has been exploited to build refrigerators capable of cooling thin-film circuits from 0.3 K to 0.1 K. Calorimeters and bolometers for the detection of X-rays and millimeter-wave radiation, respectively, have successfully been built from NIS junctions. NIS junctions have also been used to probe the superconducting state. Finally, recent ideas for the use of NIS junctions as simple circuit elements are described.

  20. Algorithms for Junctions in Directed Acyclic Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Carlos Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Given a pair of distinct vertices u, v in a graph G, we say that s is a junction of u, v if there are in G internally vertex disjoint directed paths from s to u and from s to v. We show how to characterize junctions in directed acyclic graphs. We also consider the two problems in the following and derive efficient algorithms to solve them. Given a directed acyclic graph G and a vertex s in G, how can we find all pairs of vertices of G such that s is a junction of them? And given a directed acyclic graph G and k pairs of vertices of G, how can we preprocess G such that all junctions of k given pairs of vertices could be listed quickly? All junctions of k pairs problem arises in an application in Anthropology and we apply our algorithm to find such junctions on kinship networks of some brazilian indian ethnic groups.

  1. Environmental Audit, Rifle, Gunnison and Grand Junction UMTRA Project Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1991-08-01

    This report documents the results of the comprehensive baseline Environmental Audit completed for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) sites at Grand Junction, Rifle, and Gunnison, Colorado. Included in the Audit were the actual abandoned mill sites, associated transportation and disposal cell facilities, and representative examples of the more than 4,000 known vicinity properties. Sites investigated include: Climax Mill Site, Truck/Train Haul Route, Cotter Transfer Station, Cheney Disposal Cell, Rifle Mill Sites (Old and New Rifle), Gunnison Mill Site, Vicinity Properties, and Estes Gulch and Proposed Landfill Site No. 1 Disposal Cells. The UMTRA Audit was a comprehensive baseline audit which considered all environmental programs and the activities associated with ongoing and planned remediation at the UMTRA sites listed above. Compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was not considered during this investigation. The Audit Team looked at the following technical disciplines: air, surface water/drinking water, groundwater, soil/sediment/biota, waste management, toxic and chemical materials, quality assurance, radiation, inactive waste sites, and environmental management. 6 figs., 12 tabs.

  2. Molecular junctions: can pulling influence optical controllability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Shane M; Smeu, Manuel; Franco, Ignacio; Ratner, Mark A; Seideman, Tamar

    2014-08-13

    We suggest the combination of single molecule pulling and optical control as a way to enhance control over the electron transport characteristics of a molecular junction. We demonstrate using a model junction consisting of biphenyl-dithiol coupled to gold contacts. The junction is pulled while optically manipulating the dihedral angle between the two rings. Quantum dynamics simulations show that molecular pulling enhances the degree of control over the dihedral angle and hence over the transport properties.

  3. 75 FR 23288 - Notice of Public Meeting, Southwest Colorado Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... will be held on June 4, 2010, in Dolores, Colorado; August 13, 2010, in Gunnison, Colorado; and October... 184, Dolores, Colorado 81323; August 13, 2010, at the Holiday Inn Express at 910 E. Tomichi,...

  4. Final report of the radiological release survey of Building 19 at the Grand Junction Office Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.K.; Corle, S.G.

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Office (GJO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore concentrates and mill tailings during vanadium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District, and during sampling, assaying, pilot milling, storage, and brokerage activities conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJO Remedial Action Project (GJORAP) to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and underlying aquifer. WASTREN-Grand Junction is the site contractor for the facility and the remedial action contractor for GJORAP. Building 19 and the underlying soil were found not to be radiologically contaminated; therefore, the building can be released for unrestricted use. Placards have been placed at the building entrances indicating the completion of the radiological release survey and prohibiting the introduction of any radioactive materials within the building without written approvals from the GJO Facilities Operations Manager. This document was prepared in response to a DOE-GJO request for an individual final release report for each GJO building.

  5. Final report of the radiological release survey of Building 54 at the Grand Junction Office Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.K.; Corle, S.G.

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Office (GJO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore concentrates and mill tailings during vanadium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District, and during sampling, assaying, pilot milling, storage, and brokerage activities conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJO Remedial Action Project (GJORAP) to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and underlying aquifer. WASTREN-Grand Junction is the site contractor for the facility and the remedial action contractor for GJORAP. Building 54 and the underlying soil were found not to be radiologically contaminated, and can be released for unrestricted use. Placards have been placed at the building entrances indicating the completion of the radiological release survey and prohibiting the introduction of any radioactive materials within the building without written approvals from the GJO Facilities Operations Manager. This document was prepared in response to a DOE-GJO request for an individual release report for each GJO building.

  6. Final report of the radiological release survey of Building 11 at the Grand Junction Office Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.K.; Corle, S.G.

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Office (GJO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore concentrates and mill tailings during vanadium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District, and during sampling, assaying, pilot milling, storage, and brokerage activities conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJO Remedial Action Project (GJORAP) to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and underlying aquifer. WASTREN-Grand Junction is the site contractor for the facility and the remedial action contractor for GJORAP. Building 11 and the underlying soil were found not to be radiologically contaminated; therefore, the building can be released for unrestricted use. Placards have been placed at the building entrances indicating the completion of the radiological release survey and prohibiting the introduction of any radioactive materials within the building without written approvals from the GJO Facilities Operations Manager. This document was prepared in response to a DOE-GJO request for an individual final release report for each GJO building.

  7. Final report of the radiological release survey of Building 29 at the Grand Junction Office Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.K.; Corle, S.G.

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Office (GJO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore concentrates and mill tailing during vanadium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District, and during sampling, assaying, pilot milling, storage, and brokerage activities conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJO Remedial Action Project (GJORAP) to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and underlying aquifer. WASTREN-Grand Junction is the site contractor for the facility and the remedial action contractor for GJORAP. Building 29 and the underlying soil were found not to be radiologically contaminated; therefore, the building can be released for unrestricted use. Placards have been placed at the building entrances indicating the completion of the radiological release survey and prohibiting the introduction of any radioactive materials within the building without written approvals from the GJO Facilities Operations Manager. This document was prepared in response to a DOE-GJO request for an individual final release report for each GJO building.

  8. Loss models for long Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O. H.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1984-01-01

    A general model for loss mechanisms in long Josephson junctions is presented. An expression for the zero-field step is found for a junction of overlap type by means of a perturbation method. Comparison between analytic solution and perturbation result shows good agreement.......A general model for loss mechanisms in long Josephson junctions is presented. An expression for the zero-field step is found for a junction of overlap type by means of a perturbation method. Comparison between analytic solution and perturbation result shows good agreement....

  9. Green pricing: A Colorado case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blank, E.; Udall, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    A model program for green pricing targeted primarily at large customers is proposed in this paper. The program would create a partnership between a local community group, a renewables advocacy group, and several Colorado utilities. The first part of the paper summarizes pertinent background issues, including utility experience with green pricing programs. The rest of the paper outlines the program proposal, focusing primarily on organizational structure.

  10. Theory of mind, language and the temporoparietal junction mystery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perner, Josef; Aichhorn, Markus

    2008-04-01

    Brain imaging of adults during false-belief story tasks consistently shows activation of the temporoparietal junction in English-speaking Americans and German-speaking Europeans. Kobayashi et al. find this observation in adult English speakers but not in English-speaking children or in English-Japanese bilingual persons. This finding suggests a cultural or linguistic influence on location of brain function and argues against maturation of innately specified neural substrates. It is reminiscent of effects of linguistic development, bilingualism and cultural differences on theory of mind development.

  11. Pyelonephritis caused by Actinobaculum schaalii in a child with pyeloureteral junction obstruction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pajkrt, D.; Simoons - Smit, A.M.; Savelkoul, P.H.M.; Hoek, van den J.; Hack, WW; Furth, van A.M.

    2003-01-01

    Reported here is the case of a 5-year old boy with a pyeloureteral junction (PUJ) obstruction and pyelonephritis caused by Actinobaculum schaalii, an Actinomyces-like organism. Pyelonephritis or any other urinary tract infection caused by Actinobaculum schaalii has not been described in children

  12. Gap junctions and connexin-interacting proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giepmans, Ben N G

    2004-01-01

    Gap junctions form channels between adjacent cells. The core proteins of these channels are the connexins. Regulation of gap junction communication (GJC) can be modulated by connexin-associating proteins, such as regulatory protein phosphatases and protein kinases, of which c-Src is the best-studied

  13. Gap junctions and connexin-interacting proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giepmans, Ben N G

    2004-01-01

    Gap junctions form channels between adjacent cells. The core proteins of these channels are the connexins. Regulation of gap junction communication (GJC) can be modulated by connexin-associating proteins, such as regulatory protein phosphatases and protein kinases, of which c-Src is the

  14. Gap junctions and connexin-interacting proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giepmans, Ben N G

    2004-01-01

    Gap junctions form channels between adjacent cells. The core proteins of these channels are the connexins. Regulation of gap junction communication (GJC) can be modulated by connexin-associating proteins, such as regulatory protein phosphatases and protein kinases, of which c-Src is the best-studied

  15. Shot noise in YBCO bicrystal Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantinian, K.Y.; Ovsyannikov, G.A.; Borisenko, I.V.;

    2003-01-01

    We measured spectral noise density in YBCO symmetric bicrystal Josephson junctions on sapphire substrates at bias voltages up to 100 mV and T 4.2 K. Normal state resistance of the Josephson junctions, R-N = 20-90 Omega and ICRN up to 2.2 mV have been observed in the experimental samples. Noise...

  16. Efficacy of Prophylactic Dexmedetomidine in Preventing Postoperative Junctional Ectopic Tachycardia After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Amrousy, Doaa Mohamed; Elshmaa, Nagat S; El-Kashlan, Mohamed; Hassan, Samir; Elsanosy, Mohamed; Hablas, Nahed; Elrifaey, Shimaa; El-Feky, Wael

    2017-03-01

    Postoperative junctional ectopic tachycardia is one of the most serious arrhythmias that occur after pediatric cardiac surgery, difficult to treat and better to be prevented. Our aim was to assess the efficacy of prophylactic dexmedetomidine in preventing junctional ectopic tachycardia after pediatric cardiac surgery. A prospective controlled study was carried out on 90 children who underwent elective cardiac surgery for congenital heart diseases. Patients were randomized into 2 groups. Group I (dexmedetomidine group): 60 patients received dexmedetomidine; Group II (Placebo group): 30 patients received the same amount of normal saline intravenously. The primary outcome was the incidence of postoperative junctional ectopic tachycardia. Secondary outcomes included bradycardia, hypotension, vasoactive inotropic score, ventilation time, pediatric cardiac care unit stay, length of hospital stay, and perioperative mortality. The incidence of junctional ectopic tachycardia was significantly reduced in the dexmedetomidine group (3.3%) compared with the placebo group (16.7%) with P0.005). Prophylactic use of dexmedetomidine is associated with significantly decreased incidence of postoperative junctional ectopic tachycardia in children after congenital heart surgery without significant side effects. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  17. Notes from the field: Contamination of alcohol prep pads with Bacillus cereus group and Bacillus species--Colorado, 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    In October 2010, a child at The Children's Hospital (TCH) in Aurora, Colorado, with newly diagnosed leukemia developed clinical sepsis 24 hours after insertion of an implanted vascular access device. The child also developed extensive cellulitis at the insertion site, requiring surgical debridement, intensive care, antibiotics, prolonged wound management, and outpatient treatment. Cultures of the child's blood and tissue specimens grew Bacillus cereus. An investigation found neither breach of infection control procedures nor any violations of sterile surgical technique.

  18. Shear zone junctions: Of zippers and freeways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passchier, Cees W.; Platt, John P.

    2017-02-01

    Ductile shear zones are commonly treated as straight high-strain domains with uniform shear sense and characteristic curved foliation trails, bounded by non-deforming wall rock. Many shear zones, however, are branched, and if movement on such branches is contemporaneous, the resulting shape can be complicated and lead to unusual shear sense arrangement and foliation geometries in the wall rock. For Y-shaped shear zone triple junctions with three joining branches and transport direction at a high angle to the branchline, only eight basic types of junction are thought to be stable and to produce significant displacement. The simplest type, called freeway junctions, have similar shear sense in all three branches. The other types show joining or separating behaviour of shear zone branches similar to the action of a zipper. Such junctions may have shear zone branches that join to form a single branch (closing zipper junction), or a single shear zone that splits to form two branches, (opening zipper junction). All categories of shear zone junctions show characteristic foliation patterns and deflection of markers in the wall rock. Closing zipper junctions are unusual, since they form a non-active zone with opposite deflection of foliations in the wall rock known as an extraction fault or wake. Shear zipper junctions can form domains of overprinting shear sense along their flanks. A small and large field example are given from NE Spain and Eastern Anatolia. The geometry of more complex, 3D shear zone junctions with slip parallel and oblique to the branchline is briefly discussed.

  19. Soil moisture ground truth: Steamboat Springs, Colorado, site and Walden, Colorado, site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E. B.

    1976-01-01

    Ground-truth data taken at Steamboat Springs and Walden, Colorado in support of the NASA missions in these areas during the period March 8, 1976 through March 11, 1976 was presented. This includes the following information: snow course data for Steamboat Springs and Walden, snow pit and snow quality data for Steamboat Springs, and soil moisture report.

  20. 78 FR 19296 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, formerly Colorado Historical Society, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... appropriate Indian tribes, and has determined that there is no cultural affiliation between the human remains...: Representatives of any Indian tribe that believes it has a cultural affiliation with the human remains should... of History Colorado, Denver, CO. The human remains were removed from Suncor Energy USA Pipeline...

  1. 76 FR 17444 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado), Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... (History Colorado), Denver, CO. The human remains were removed from Howiri Ruin (LA 71), Taos County, NM...), Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here given in accordance... Ana, New Mexico; Pueblo of Santa Clara, New Mexico; Pueblo of Taos, New Mexico; Pueblo of Tesuque,...

  2. 76 FR 28071 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Colorado Historical Society (History Colorado), Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ...), Denver, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice is here given in accordance... (History Colorado), Denver, CO. The human remains were removed from Canyon de Chelly, AZ. This notice is... Mexico; Pueblo of Santa Ana, New Mexico; Pueblo of Santa Clara, New Mexico; Pueblo of Taos, New...

  3. 78 FR 72700 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, formerly Colorado Historical Society, Denver, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... 1973, he brought the human remains to the Department of Anthropology at the University of Southern Colorado. In 2000, when the University closed its anthropology lab, the remains were taken into custody by.... 3001(9), the human remains described in this notice represent the physical remains of one individual of...

  4. Junction conditions of cosmological perturbations

    CERN Document Server

    Tomita, K

    2004-01-01

    The behavior of perturbations is studied in cosmological models which consist of two different homogeneous regions connected in a spherical shell boundary. The junction conditions for the metric perturbations and the displacements of the shell boundary are analyzed and the surface densities of the perturbed energy and momentum in the shell are derived, using Mukohyama's gauge-invariant formalism and the Israel discontinuity condition. In both homogeneous regions the perturbations of scalar, vector and tensor types are expanded using the 3-dimensional harmonic functions, but the model coupling among them is caused in the shell by the inhomogeneity. By treating the perturbations with odd and even parities separately, it is found, however, that we can have consistent displacements and surface densities for given metric parturbations

  5. US Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project. Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of Building 52 at the Grand Junction Projects Office Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krabacher, J.E.

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot milling experiments conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJPO Remedial Action Project to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor for the facility, Rust Geotech, also was the remedial action contractor. Building 52 was found to be radiologically contaminated and was demolished in 1994. The soil area within the footprint of the building has been remediated in accordance with the identified standards and the area can be released for unlimited exposure and unrestricted use. This document was prepared in response to a DOE request for an individual final report for each contaminated GJPO building.

  6. Colorado Hispanics: A Report of Selected Social Concerns, 1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Georgia, Ed.; Guajardo, Maria, Ed.

    This publication offers a compilation of 12 reports on selected social concerns pertaining to the Hispanic community in Colorado and provides a comprehensive overview of demographic information and information on health, education, and social welfare issues. The first report looks at Colorado's multicultural population through a demographic…

  7. Colorado River Basin Hover Dam - Review of Flood Control Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    Percichthyidae Striped bass 1ile sxiiis Pocilldae Mosquito fish Cainbusia affnus Sailfin mollie Poecilia latipin a Mexican mollie Poecila mexicana Salmonidae...Colorado River Basin Progress Report No. 8, 195 pp. Vitt, L.J. and R.D. Ohmart, 1978. Herpetofauna of the Lower Colorado River: Davis Dam to the

  8. Colorado Air Quality Control Regulations and Ambient Air Quality Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Health, Denver. Div. of Air Pollution Control.

    Regulations and standards relative to air quality control in Colorado are defined in this publication. Presented first are definitions of terms, a statement of intent, and general provisions applicable to all emission control regulations adopted by the Colorado Air Pollution Control Commission. Following this, three regulations are enumerated: (1)…

  9. Extensive Green Roof Research Program at Colorado State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the high elevation, semi-arid climate of Colorado, green roofs have not been scientifically tested. This research examined alternative plant species, media blends, and plant interactions on an existing modular extensive green roof in Denver, Colorado. Six plant species were ev...

  10. 77 FR 21803 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Land... Creek East Tract described below in Gunnison County, Colorado, will be offered for competitive lease by... lease sale will be held at 10 a.m., May 15, 2012. The sealed bid must be submitted on or before 10...

  11. The Information-Seeking Behavior of Intrinsically Motivated Elementary School Children of a Collectivist Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, Sherry R.

    2015-01-01

    This study, conducted in June 2014 in Kampala, Uganda, is a follow-up to a similar study conducted in Colorado Springs, Colorado, in 2008. The basic research question addressed is: "What are the experiences in the lives of upper elementary-aged Ugandan children that foster an intrinsic motivation to seek information?" A secondary…

  12. Development of industrial minerals in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Belinda F.; Knepper, Daniel H.; Langer, William H.; Cappa, James A.; Keller, John W.; Widmann, Beth L.; Ellefsen, Karl J.; Klein, Terry L.; Lucius, Jeffrey E.; Dersch, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Technology and engineering have helped make mining safer and cleaner for both humans and the environment. Inevitably, mineral development entails costs as well as benefits. Developing a mine is an environmental, engineering, and planning challenge that must conform to many Federal, State, and local regulations. Community collaboration, creative design, and best management practices of sustainability and biodiversity can be positive indicators for the mining industry. A better understanding of aesthetics, culture, economics, geology, climate, vegetation and wildlife, topography, historical significance, and regional land planning is important in resolving land-use issues and managing mineral resources wisely. Ultimately, the consuming public makes choices about product use (including water, food, highways, housing, and thousands of other items) that influence operations of the mineral industry. Land planners, resource managers, earth scientists, designers, and public groups have a responsibility to consider sound scientific information, society's needs, and community appeals in making smart decisions concerning resource use and how complex landscapes should change. An effort to provide comprehensive geosciences data for land management agencies in central Colorado was undertaken in 2003 by scientists of the U.S. Geological Survey and the Colorado Geological Survey. This effort, the Central Colorado Assessment Project, addressed a variety of land-use issues: an understanding of the availability of industrial and metallic rocks and minerals, the geochemical and environmental effects of historic mining activity on surface water and groundwater, and the geologic controls on the availability and quality of groundwater. The USDA Forest Service and other land management agencies have the opportunity to contribute to the sustainable management of natural aggregate and other mineral resources through the identification and selective development of mineral resources and the

  13. Colorado Front Range Surface Ozone Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure-Begley, A.; Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Oltmans, S. J.; Kofler, J.; Petron, G.; Cothrel, H.

    2014-12-01

    The Colorado Front Range is a unique geographical region for air quality studies, including research of surface level ozone. Not only does surface ozone play a critical role in regulating the oxidation capacity of the atmosphere, but is a primary contributor to local smog and leads to public health complications and altered ecosystem functioning. The high frequency of sunny days, increasing population and pollution, and Mountain/Valley air dynamics of this region provide atmospheric conditions suitable for production and accumulation of ozone at the surface. This region of Colorado is currently in an ozone non-attainment status due to an assortment of contributing factors. Precursor emissions from pollution, wild-fires, and gas and oil production; along with stratosphere-troposphere exchange, can all result in high ozone episodes over the Colorado Front Range. To understand the dynamics of ozone accumulation in this region, Thermo-Scientific ozone monitors have been continuously sampling ozone from 4 different altitudes since the early 2000s. Analysis of ozone data in relation to Nitrogen Oxides (NOx), Methane (CH4), Carbon Monoxide (CO), wind-conditions and back-trajectory air mass origins help to address local ozone precursor emissions and resulting high ozone episodes. Increased ozone episodes are scrutinized with regards to dominant wind direction to determine main precursor emission sources. Analysis of this data reveals a strong influence of precursor emissions from the North-East wind sector, with roughly 50% of ozone exceedances originating from winds prevailing from this direction. Further, correlation with methane is enhanced when prevailing winds are from the North-East; indicative of influence from natural gas processes and feedlot activity. Similar analysis is completed for the North-West wind sector exceedances, with strong correlation to carbon monoxide; likely related to emissions from biomass burning events and forest fires. In depth analysis of

  14. Rawhide Energy Station, Fort Collins, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, R.

    2008-10-15

    The staff of Platte River Power Authority's Rawhide Energy Station have been racking up operating stats and an environmental performance record that is the envy of other plant managers. In the past decade Rawhide has enjoyed an equivalent availability factor in the mid to high 90s and an average capacity factor approaching 90%. Still not content with this performance, Rawhide invested in new technology and equipment upgrades to further optimise performance, reduce emissions, and keep cost competitive. The Energy Station includes four GE France 7EA natural gas-fired turbines totalling 260 MW and a 274 MW coal-fired unit located in northeastern Colorado. 7 figs.

  15. Coordinate transformation in the model of long Josephson junctions: geometrically equivalent Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semerdzhieva, E. G.; Boyadzhiev, T. L.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.

    2005-10-01

    The transition from the model of a long Josephson junction of variable width to the model of a junction with a coordinate-dependent Josephson current amplitude is effected through a coordinate transformation. This establishes the correspondence between the classes of Josephson junctions of variable width and quasi-one-dimensional junctions with a variable thickness of the barrier layer. It is shown that for a junction of exponentially varying width the barrier layer of the equivalent quasi-one-dimensional junction has a distributed resistive inhomogeneity that acts as an attractor for magnetic flux vortices. The curve of the critical current versus magnetic field for a Josephson junction with a resistive microinhomogeneity is constructed with the aid of a numerical simulation, and a comparison is made with the critical curve of a junction of exponentially varying width. The possibility of replacing a distributed inhomogeneity in a Josephson junction by a local inhomogeneity at the end of the junction is thereby demonstrated; this can have certain advantages from a technological point of view.

  16. Atomically Abrupt Topological p-n Junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung Hwan; Jin, Kyung-Hwan; Kho, Byung Woo; Park, Byeong-Gyu; Liu, Feng; Kim, Jun Sung; Yeom, Han Woong

    2017-08-24

    Topological insulators (TI's) are a new class of quantum matter with extraordinary surface electronic states, which bear great potential for spintronics and error-tolerant quantum computing. In order to put a TI into any practical use, these materials need to be fabricated into devices whose basic units are often p-n junctions. Interesting electronic properties of a 'topological' p-n junction were proposed theoretically such as the junction electronic state and the spin rectification. However, the fabrication of a lateral topological p-n junction has been challenging because of materials, process, and fundamental reasons. Here, we demonstrate an innovative approach to realize a p-n junction of topological surface states (TSS's) of a three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator (TI) with an atomically abrupt interface. When a ultrathin Sb film is grown on a 3D TI of Bi2Se3 with a typical n-type TSS, the surface develops a strongly p-type TSS through the substantial hybridization between the 2D Sb film and the Bi2Se3 surface. Thus, the Bi2Se3 surface covered partially with Sb films bifurcates into areas of n- and p-type TSS's as separated by atomic step edges with a lateral electronic junction of as short as 2 nm. This approach opens a different avenue toward various electronic and spintronic devices based on well-defined topological p-n junctions with the scalability down to atomic dimensions.

  17. POLICY STATEMENT RELATING TO THE EDUCATION OF MIGRANT CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    PURPOSES, DEFINITIONS, OBLIGATIONS, AND PRACTICES IN THE EDUCATION PROGRAM FOR AGRICULTURAL MIGRATORY CHILDREN ARE CLARIFIED IN A POLICY STATEMENT. COLORADO LAW PROVIDES EDUCATIONAL FACILITIES FOR MIGRANT CHILDREN TO DEVELOP THEIR POTENTIALITIES AND CAPACITIES. A MIGRANT CHILD IS DEFINED BY THE MIGRANT CHILDREN EDUCATIONAL ACT. COMMON USAGE AND…

  18. Gap junction communication in myelinating glia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nualart-Marti, Anna; Solsona, Carles; Fields, R Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Gap junction communication is crucial for myelination and axonal survival in both the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS). This review examines the different types of gap junctions in myelinating glia of the PNS and CNS (Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes respectively), including their functions and involvement in neurological disorders. Gap junctions mediate intercellular communication among Schwann cells in the PNS, and among oligodendrocytes and between oligodendrocytes and astrocytes in the CNS. Reflexive gap junctions mediating transfer between different regions of the same cell promote communication between cellular compartments of myelinating glia that are separated by layers of compact myelin. Gap junctions in myelinating glia regulate physiological processes such as cell growth, proliferation, calcium signaling, and participate in extracellular signaling via release of neurotransmitters from hemijunctions. In the CNS, gap junctions form a glial network between oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. This transcellular communication is hypothesized to maintain homeostasis by facilitating restoration of membrane potential after axonal activity via electrical coupling and the re-distribution of potassium ions released from axons. The generation of transgenic mice for different subsets of connexins has revealed the contribution of different connexins in gap junction formation and illuminated new subcellular mechanisms underlying demyelination and cognitive defects. Alterations in metabolic coupling have been reported in animal models of X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX) and Pelizaeus-Merzbarcher-like disease (PMLD), which are caused by mutations in the genes encoding for connexin 32 and connexin 47 respectively. Future research identifying the expression and regulation of gap junctions in myelinating glia is likely to provide a better understanding of myelinating glia in nervous system function, plasticity, and disease. This

  19. 77 FR 9840 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO AGENCY... airspace at City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport, Colorado Springs, CO. Decommissioning of the Black... controlled airspace at Colorado Springs, CO (76 FR 70920). Interested parties were invited to participate...

  20. Fluxon dynamics in three stacked Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorria, Carlos; Christiansen, Peter Leth; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich

    2002-01-01

    /sub -/, the coupling between junctions leads to a repulsion of the fluxons with the same polarity. Above this critical velocity a fluxon will induce radiation in the neighboring junctions, leading to a bunching of the fluxons in the stacked junctions. Using the Sakai-Bodin-Pedersen model, three coupled perturbed sine......-Gordon equations are numerically studied for different values of coupling, damping, and bias parameters. In a narrow range of velocities bunching occurs. Outside this interval the fluxons split and new fluxons may be created. I-V characteristics are presented...

  1. Temperature dependence of thermopower in molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsang; Lenert, Andrej; Meyhofer, Edgar; Reddy, Pramod

    2016-07-01

    The thermoelectric properties of molecular junctions are of considerable interest due to their promise for efficient energy conversion. While the dependence of thermoelectric properties of junctions on molecular structure has been recently studied, their temperature dependence remains unexplored. Using a custom built variable temperature scanning tunneling microscope, we measured the thermopower and electrical conductance of individual benzenedithiol junctions over a range of temperatures (100 K-300 K). We find that while the electrical conductance is independent of temperature, the thermopower increases linearly with temperature, confirming the predictions of the Landauer theory.

  2. Phase qubits fabricated with trilayer junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weides, M; Bialczak, R C; Lenander, M; Lucero, E; Mariantoni, Matteo; Neeley, M; O' Connell, A D; Sank, D; Wang, H; Wenner, J; Yamamoto, T; Yin, Y; Cleland, A N; Martinis, J, E-mail: martin.weides@nist.gov, E-mail: martinis@physics.ucsb.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    We have developed a novel Josephson junction geometry with minimal volume of lossy isolation dielectric, suitable for higher quality trilayer junctions implemented in qubits. The junctions are based on in situ deposited trilayers with thermal tunnel oxide, have micron-sized areas and a low subgap current. In qubit spectroscopy only a few avoided level crossings are observed, and the measured relaxation time of T{sub 1{approx}}400 ns is in good agreement with the usual phase qubit decay time, indicating low loss due to the additional isolation dielectric.

  3. Epidemiologic characterization of Colorado backyard bird flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emily I; Reif, John S; Hill, Ashley E; Slota, Katharine E; Miller, Ryan S; Bjork, Kathe E; Pabilonia, Kristy L

    2012-06-01

    Backyard gallinaceous bird flocks may play an important role in the spread of infectious diseases within poultry populations as well as the transmission of zoonotic diseases to humans. An epidemiologic characterization was conducted of Colorado backyard flocks to gather information on general flock characteristics, human movement of birds, human-bird interaction, biosecurity practices, and flock health. Our results suggest that backyard poultry flocks in Colorado are small-sized flocks (68.6% of flocks had backyard flock environment may promote bird-to-bird transmission as well as bird-to-human transmission of infectious disease. Birds are primarily housed with free access to the outside (96.85%), and many are moved from the home premises (46.06% within 1 yr). Human contact with backyard flocks is high, biosecurity practices are minimal, and bird health is negatively impacted by increased movement events. Increased knowledge of backyard bird characteristics and associated management practices can provide guidelines for the development of measures to decrease disease transmission between bird populations, decrease disease transmission from birds to humans, and increase the overall health of backyard birds.

  4. Increasing gap junctional coupling: a tool for dissecting the role of gap junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Haugan, Ketil; Stahlhut, Martin; Kjølbye, Anne-Louise; Hennan, James K; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik; Petersen, Jørgen Søberg; Nielsen, Morten Schak

    2007-03-01

    Much of our current knowledge about the physiological and pathophysiological role of gap junctions is based on experiments where coupling has been reduced by either chemical agents or genetic modification. This has brought evidence that gap junctions are important in many physiological processes. In a number of cases, gap junctions have been implicated in the initiation and progress of disease, and experimental uncoupling has been used to investigate the exact role of coupling. The inverse approach, i.e., to increase coupling, has become possible in recent years and represents a new way of testing the role of gap junctions. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge obtained with agents that selectively increase gap junctional intercellular coupling. Two approaches will be reviewed: increasing coupling by the use of antiarrhythmic peptide and its synthetic analogs and by interfering with the gating of gap junctional channels.

  5. Presynaptic spike broadening reduces junctional potential amplitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, A N; Przysiezniak, J; Acosta-Urquidi, J; Basarsky, T A

    1989-08-24

    Presynaptic modulation of action potential duration may regulate synaptic transmission in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Such synaptic plasticity is brought about by modifications to membrane currents at presynaptic release sites, which, in turn, lead to changes in the concentration of cytosolic calcium available for mediating transmitter release. The 'primitive' neuromuscular junction of the jellyfish Polyorchis penicillatus is a useful model of presynaptic modulation. In this study, we show that the durations of action potentials in the motor neurons of this jellyfish are negatively correlated with the amplitude of excitatory junctional potentials. We present data from in vitro voltage-clamp experiments showing that short duration voltage spikes, which elicit large excitatory junctional potentials in vivo, produce larger and briefer calcium currents than do long duration action potentials, which elicit small excitatory junctional potentials.

  6. Laparoscopically assisted pyeloplasty for ureteropelvic junction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    junction obstruction: a transperitoneal versus a retroperitoneal approach ... laparoscopic-assisted dismembered pyeloplasty (TLADP) ... to an open technique for two patients of the TLADP group; ... Annals of Pediatric Surgery 2012, 8:29–31.

  7. Tight Junctions in Salivary Epithelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga J. Baker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Epithelial cell tight junctions (TJs consist of a narrow belt-like structure in the apical region of the lateral plasma membrane that circumferentially binds each cell to its neighbor. TJs are found in tissues that are involved in polarized secretions, absorption functions, and maintaining barriers between blood and interstitial fluids. The morphology, permeability, and ion selectivity of TJ vary among different types of tissues and species. TJs are very dynamic structures that assemble, grow, reorganize, and disassemble during physiological or pathological events. Several studies have indicated the active role of TJ in intestinal, renal, and airway epithelial function; however, the functional significance of TJ in salivary gland epithelium is poorly understood. Interactions between different combinations of the TJ family (each with their own unique regulatory proteins define tissue specificity and functions during physiopathological processes; however, these interaction patterns have not been studied in salivary glands. The purpose of this review is to analyze some of the current data regarding the regulatory components of the TJ that could potentially affect cellular functions of the salivary epithelium.

  8. Androgen-Dependent Sertoli Cell Tight Junction Remodeling Is Mediated by Multiple Tight Junction Components

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chakraborty, Papia; William Buaas, F; Sharma, Manju; Smith, Benjamin E; Greenlee, Anne R; Eacker, Stephen M; Braun, Robert E

    2014-01-01

    Sertoli cell tight junctions (SCTJs) of the seminiferous epithelium create a specialized microenvironment in the testis to aid differentiation of spermatocytes and spermatids from spermatogonial stem cells...

  9. Junction Plasmon-Induced Molecular Reorientation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hu, Dehong; Hess, Wayne P.

    2013-10-17

    Time and frequency dependent intensity variations in sequences of Raman spectra recorded at plasmonic junctions can be assigned to molecular reorientation. This is revealed through Raman trajectories recorded at a nanojunction formed between a silver AFM tip and a corrugated silver surface coated with biphenyl-4,4’-dithiol. Molecular motion is not observed when the tip is retracted and only surface enhancement is operative. In effect, junction plasmon induced molecular reorientation is tracked.

  10. [Clinical anatomy of the esophagogastric junction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tănase, M; Aldea, A S

    2012-01-01

    The esophagogastric junction is a controversial anatomical area, due to its sphincteric mechanism which does not show an obvious anatomical basis. The aim of this study is to investigate the anatomical components that endoscopically indicate the mucosal esophagogastric junction in hiatal hernia patients. The esophagogastric junction was investigated in 27 hiatal hernia patients undergoing surgery. Hiatal hernia is an extension of the stomach situated between the esophagogastric junction and the diaphragmatic indentation. The following types of hiatal hernia were found: sliding hiatal hernia (type I) in 4 patients (14.81%), rolling hiatal hernia (type II) in 2 (7.4%), mixed hiatal hernia (type III) in 12 (44.44%), type IV hiatal hernia in 4 (14.81%) and recurrent hiatal hernia in 5 (18.51%). Of the 27 hiatal hernia patients, 8 (29.6%) were operated using classical procedures: laparotomy--6 (75%) and laparoscopic surgery--2 (25%). The angle of His cannot be used for marking the mucosal esophagogastric junction due to the severe damage of the lower esophageal sphincter in hiatal hernia patients. The squamocolumnar junction is displaced in hiatal hernia patients and was not an option for the study group. The distal end of the esophageal longitudinal palisading vessels needs medication (proton pump inhibitors that reduce the gastric acid production), in order to enhance the visibility of these vessels. The proximal end of gastric longitudinal mucosal folds proved to be the most reliable site to identify endoscopically the mucosal esophagogastric junction. The anatomical structure of the esophagogastric junction differs in hiatal hernia patients and these peculiarities are very important in surgery.

  11. The Dissolution of Double Holliday Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizard, Anna H; Hickson, Ian D

    2014-01-01

    as "double Holliday junction dissolution." This reaction requires the cooperative action of a so-called "dissolvasome" comprising a Holliday junction branch migration enzyme (Sgs1/BLM RecQ helicase) and a type IA topoisomerase (Top3/TopoIIIα) in complex with its OB (oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding......) fold containing accessory factor (Rmi1). This review details our current knowledge of the dissolution process and the players involved in catalyzing this mechanistically complex means of completing homologous recombination reactions....

  12. Health hazard evaluation determination report No. 78-128-549, Nixon Power Plant, Colorado Springs, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunter, B.J.

    1978-12-01

    Asbestos (CAS 1332-21-4) concentrations during sanding and buffing operations were measured at the Nixon Power facility (SIC-4911) in Colorado Springs, Colorado on September 29, 1978. The evaluation was requested by the vice president of the Watkin Construction Company on behalf of plumbers engaged in sanding asbestos joints and connections. Breathing zone asbestos concentrations of fibers greater than five microns in length ranged from 0.02 to 0.187 fibers per cubic centimeter. The OSHA asbestos standard of 2 fibers per cubic centimeter was not exceeded, however, the author concludes that a potential asbestos hazard does exist. He recommends that respirators be used by workers until exhaust ventilation is provided.

  13. Gap junction intercellular communication and benzene toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivedal, Edgar; Witz, Gisela; Leithe, Edward

    2010-03-19

    Aberrant regulation of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) has been linked to several human diseases, including cancer and abnormal hematopoietic development. Benzene exposure has been shown to cause hematotoxicity and leukemia, but the underlying mechanisms involved remain unclear. We have observed that several metabolites of benzene have the ability to block gap junction intercellular communication. The ring-opened trans,trans-muconaldehyde (MUC) was found to be the most potent inhibitor of gap junction channels. MUC was found to induce cross-linking of the gap junction protein connexin43, which seemed to be responsible for the induced inhibition of GJIC. Glutaraldehyde, which has a similar molecular structure as MUC, was found to possess similar effects on gap junctions as MUC, while the mono-aldehyde formaldehyde shows lower potency, both as a connexin cross-linker, and as an inhibitor of GJIC. Both glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde have previously been associated with induction of leukemia and disturbance of hematopoiesis. Taken together, the data support a possible link between the effect of MUC on gap junctions, and the toxic effects of benzene. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Gap junctions: structure and function (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Howard; Martin, Patricia E M

    2002-01-01

    Gap junctions are plasma membrane spatial microdomains constructed of assemblies of channel proteins called connexins in vertebrates and innexins in invertebrates. The channels provide direct intercellular communication pathways allowing rapid exchange of ions and metabolites up to approximately 1 kD in size. Approximately 20 connexins are identified in the human or mouse genome, and orthologues are increasingly characterized in other vertebrates. Most cell types express multiple connexin isoforms, making likely the construction of a spectrum of heteromeric hemichannels and heterotypic gap junctions that could provide a structural basis for the charge and size selectivity of these intercellular channels. The precise nature of the potential signalling information traversing junctions in physiologically defined situations remains elusive, but extensive progress has been made in elucidating how connexins are assembled into gap junctions. Also, participation of gap junction hemichannels in the propagation of calcium waves via an extracellular purinergic pathway is emerging. Connexin mutations have been identified in a number of genetically inherited channel communication-opathies. These are detected in connexin 32 in Charcot Marie Tooth-X linked disease, in connexins 26 and 30 in deafness and skin diseases, and in connexins 46 and 50 in hereditary cataracts. Biochemical approaches indicate that many of the mutated connexins are mistargeted to gap junctions and/or fail to oligomerize correctly into hemichannels. Genetic ablation approaches are helping to map out a connexin code and point to specific connexins being required for cell growth and differentiation as well as underwriting basic intercellular communication.

  15. Predictive modelling of ferroelectric tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, Julian P.; Burton, John D.; Zhuravlev, Mikhail Ye; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y.

    2016-05-01

    Ferroelectric tunnel junctions combine the phenomena of quantum-mechanical tunnelling and switchable spontaneous polarisation of a nanometre-thick ferroelectric film into novel device functionality. Switching the ferroelectric barrier polarisation direction produces a sizable change in resistance of the junction—a phenomenon known as the tunnelling electroresistance effect. From a fundamental perspective, ferroelectric tunnel junctions and their version with ferromagnetic electrodes, i.e., multiferroic tunnel junctions, are testbeds for studying the underlying mechanisms of tunnelling electroresistance as well as the interplay between electric and magnetic degrees of freedom and their effect on transport. From a practical perspective, ferroelectric tunnel junctions hold promise for disruptive device applications. In a very short time, they have traversed the path from basic model predictions to prototypes for novel non-volatile ferroelectric random access memories with non-destructive readout. This remarkable progress is to a large extent driven by a productive cycle of predictive modelling and innovative experimental effort. In this review article, we outline the development of the ferroelectric tunnel junction concept and the role of theoretical modelling in guiding experimental work. We discuss a wide range of physical phenomena that control the functional properties of ferroelectric tunnel junctions and summarise the state-of-the-art achievements in the field.

  16. Conifer health classification for Colorado, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Christopher J.; Noble, Suzanne M.; Blauer, Steven L.; Friesen, Beverly A.; Curry, Stacy E.; Bauer, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Colorado has undergone substantial changes in forests due to urbanization, wildfires, insect-caused tree mortality, and other human and environmental factors. The U.S. Geological Survey Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center evaluated and developed a methodology for applying remotely-sensed imagery for assessing conifer health in Colorado. Two classes were identified for the purposes of this study: healthy and unhealthy (for example, an area the size of a 30- x 30-m pixel with 20 percent or greater visibly dead trees was defined as ?unhealthy?). Medium-resolution Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper imagery were collected. The normalized, reflectance-converted, cloud-filled Landsat scenes were merged to form a statewide image mosaic, and a Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Renormalized Difference Infrared Index (RDII) were derived. A supervised maximum likelihood classification was done using the Landsat multispectral bands, the NDVI, the RDII, and 30-m U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Dataset (NED). The classification was constrained to pixels identified in the updated landcover dataset as coniferous or mixed coniferous/deciduous vegetation. The statewide results were merged with a separate health assessment of Grand County, Colo., produced in late 2008. Sampling and validation was done by collecting field data and high-resolution imagery. The 86 percent overall classification accuracy attained in this study suggests that the data and methods used successfully characterized conifer conditions within Colorado. Although forest conditions for Lodgepole Pine (Pinus contorta) are easily characterized, classification uncertainty exists between healthy/unhealthy Ponderosa Pine (Pinus ponderosa), Pi?on (Pinus edulis), and Juniper (Juniperus sp.) vegetation. Some underestimation of conifer mortality in Summit County is likely, where recent (2008) cloud-free imagery was unavailable. These classification uncertainties are primarily due to the spatial and

  17. Environmental Setting and Implications on Water Quality, Upper Colorado River Basin, Colorado and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apodaca, Lori E.; Driver, Nancy E.; Stephens, Verlin C.; Spahr, Norman E.

    1995-01-01

    The Upper Colorado River Basin in Colorado and Utah is 1 of 60 study units selected for water-quality assessment as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program, which began full implementation in 1991. Understanding the environmental setting of the Upper Colorado River Basin study unit is important in evaluating water-quality issues in the basin. Natural and human factors that affect water quality in the basin are presented, including an overview of the physiography, climatic conditions, general geology and soils, ecoregions, population, land use, water management and use, hydrologic characteristics, and to the extent possible aquatic biology. These factors have substantial implications on water-quality conditions in the basin. For example, high concentrations of dissolved solids and selenium are present in the natural background water conditions of surface and ground water in parts ofthe basin. In addition, mining, urban, and agricultural land and water uses result in the presence of certain constituents in the surface and ground water of the basin that can detrimentally affect water quality. The environmental setting of the study unit provides a framework of the basin characteristics, which is important in the design of integrated studies of surface water, ground water, and biology.

  18. Lessons Learned: The Grand Junction Office Site Transfer to Private Ownership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2001-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Grand Junction Office (DOE-GJO) in Grand Junction, Colorado, has played an integral role within the DOE complex for many years. GJO has a reputation for outstanding quality in the performance of complex environmental restoration projects, utilizing state-of-the-art technology. Many of the GJO missions have been completed in recent years. In 1998, DOE Headquarters directed GJO to reduce its mortgage costs by transferring ownership of the site and to lease space at a reasonable rate for its ongoing work. A local community group and GJO have entered into a sales contract; signing of the Quitclaim Deed is planned for February 16, 2001. Site transfer tasks were organized as a project with a critical-path schedule to track activities and a Site Transition Decision Plan was prepared that included a decision process flow chart, key tasks, and responsibilities. Specifically, GJO identified the end state with affected parties early on, successfully dealt with site contamination issues, and negotiated a lease-back arrangement, resulting in an estimated savings of more than 60 percent of facility maintenance costs annually. Lessons learned regarding these transition activities could be beneficial to many other sites.

  19. Grand Junction Projects Office site environmental report for calendar year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    This report presents information pertaining to environmental activities conducted during calendar year 1992 at the US Department of Energy Grand Junction Projects Office (DOE-GJPO) facility in Colorado. Environmental activities conducted at the GJPO facility during 1992 included those associated with environmental compliance, site remediation, off-site dose modeling, and radiological and nonradiological monitoring. Four phases of the on-site Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project were completed in 1992. Remediation activities, which included the removal of 161,589 tons of uranium-mill-tailings-contaminated material from the facility, were conducted in compliance with all applicable permits. Off-site dose modeling for the GJPO was conducted to determine compliance with current National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants, Subpart H, and applicable DOE Orders (5400.1 and 5400.5). The total off-site EDE to the public from all sources of radiation emanating from the facility (radon, air particulates, gamma) was calculated as 9 mrem/yr, which is well below the DOE dose limit of 100 mrem/yr above background. The radiological and nonradiological monitoring program at the GJPO facility included monitoring of activities that generate potentially hazardous or toxic wastes and monitoring of ambient air, surface water, and ground water.

  20. Charge transport in nanoscale junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Tim; Kornyshev, Alexei; Bjørnholm, Thomas

    2008-09-03

    many particle excitations, new surface states in semiconductor electrodes, various mechanisms for single molecule rectification of the current, inelastic electron spectra and SERS spectroscopy. Three terminal architectures allowing (electrochemical) gating and transistor effects. Electrochemical nanojunctions and gating: intermolecular electron transfer in multi-redox metalloproteins, contact force modulation, characteristic current-noise patterns due to conformational fluctuations, resonance effects and electrocatalysis. Novel architectures: linear coupled quantum-dot-bridged junctions, electrochemical redox mediated transfer in two center systems leading to double maxima current-voltage plots and negative differential resistance, molecular-nanoparticle hybrid junctions and unexpected mesoscopic effects in polymeric wires. Device integration: techniques for creating stable metal/molecule/metal junctions using 'nano-alligator clips' and integration with 'traditional' silicon-based technology. The Guest Editors would like to thank all of the authors and referees of this special issue for their meticulous work in making each paper a valuable contribution to this research area, the early-bird authors for their patience, and Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter editorial staff in Bristol for their continuous support.

  1. Quality of life on the Colorado Plateau: a report to the respondents in southwestern Colorado and northwestern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponds, Phadrea

    2001-01-01

    During the fall of 1998, scientists from the Midcontinent Ecological Science Center (MESC) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) a?? sent a survey by mail to residents in southwest Colorado and northwest New Mexico to better understand quality of life issues in this area of the Colorado Plateau. Collaborators in this study included the Bureau of Land Management and U.S. Forest Service offices located in Durango, Colorado. The information was collected to determine: *what elements of the community and surrounding landscapes contribute to the quality of like among resident populations, and *what critical areas, elements, and special places are essential to retain quality of life.

  2. High elaeophorosis prevalence among harvested Colorado moose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVan, Ivy K; Fox, Karen A; Miller, Michael W

    2013-07-01

    Infection with Elaeophora schneideri, a filarial parasite, occurs commonly in mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) and elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), but seemingly less so in moose (Alces alces). Of 109 carotid artery samples from moose harvested throughout Colorado, USA, in 2007, 14 (13%; 95% binomial confidence interval [bCI]=7-21%) showed gross and 91 (83%; 95% bCI=75-90%) showed histologic evidence of elaeophorosis. Although neither blindness nor other clinical signs associated with elaeophorosis were reported among the harvested moose we examined, the pervasiveness of this parasite may motivate further study of the potential effects of elaeophorosis on moose survival and population performance in the southern Rocky Mountains. Our data suggest histopathology may be more sensitive than gross examination in detecting elaeophorosis in harvested moose.

  3. SANGRE DE CRISTO WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, COLORADO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bruce R.; Ellis, Clarence E.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral surveys were undertaken of a wilderness study area which includes most of the Sangre de Cristo Range of south-central Colorado. Four areas of probable mineral-resource potential for gold, silver, and base metals lie along a northwest structural trend which follows the western margin of the range north of the Great Sand Dunes National Monument and crosses the range south of the monument. An area of probable mineral-resource potential for similar minerals plus tungsten has been identified east of Blanca Peak at the extreme southern end of the study area. Another area of probable mineral-resource potential includes molybdenum mineralization associated with the Rito Alto stock. A small area of probable geothermal resource potential exists on the west side of the area around the Valley View Hot Springs. There is little promise for the occurrence of oil and gas resources.

  4. US hydropower resource assessment for Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1994-05-01

    The US Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE, menu-driven software application. HES allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the State of Colorado.

  5. Ecosystem trends in the Colorado Rockies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, T. J.; Baron, J. S.; Kittel, T. G. F.; Binkley, D.

    1995-01-01

    Biological conservation is increasingly moving toward an ecosystem and landscape approach, recognizing the prohibitive cost and difficulty of a species-by-species approach (LaRoe 1993). Also, statewide (e.g., Gap Analysis Program) and national surveys (e.g., Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program or EMAP) are conducted at a scale and level of resolution that do not meet the needs of most small land-management units that require detailed information at the ecosystem and landscape scale (Stohlgren 1994). The Colorado Rockies are an ideal outdoor laboratory for ecosystem science and management. The escalating environmental threats described in this article compelled us to design a landscape-scale assessment of the status and trends of biotic resources.

  6. Ponnequin Wind Energy Project Weld County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of this environmental assessment (EA) is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with the development of the Ponnequin Wind Energy Project in Colorado. This EA and public comments received on it will be used in DOE`s deliberations on whether to release funding for the project. This document provides a detailed description of the proposed project and an assessment of potential impacts associated with its construction and operations. Resources and conditions considered in the analysis include streams; wetlands; floodplains; water quality; soils; vegetation; air quality; socioeconomic conditions; energy resources; noise; transportation; cultural resources; visual and land use resources; public health and safety; wildlife; threatened, endangered, and candidate species; and cumulative impacts. The analysis found that the project would have minimal impacts on these resources and conditions, and would not create impacts that exceed the significance criteria defined in this document. 90 refs., 5 figs.

  7. US Forest Service Roadless Areas: Colorado Roadless Rule

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — A map service, available on the www that depicts the boundaries of Roadless Areas designated by the Colorado Roadless Rule of 2012 and managed by the US Forest...

  8. Final Critical Habitat for the Little Colorado spinedace (Lepidomeda vittata)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Little Colorado spinedace (Lepidomeda vittata) occur based on the description provided...

  9. The Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area, 2000 (cpstdyg)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a coverage of the Colorado Plateau coal assessment study area. The study area outline was drawn on the county lines that most closely outline the...

  10. Photographs of historical mining operations in Colorado and Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A collection of photographs of mine sites, mining operations, and tailings taken prior to 1980 at a variety of sites throughout Colorado and Utah. A database of...

  11. Mahogany Ledge Digital Line Outcrop of the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Mahogany ledge outcrop was needed to limit resource calculations in the Piceance Basin, Colorado as part of a 2009 National Oil Shale Assessment.

  12. Final Critical Habitat for the Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) occur based on the description provided...

  13. Colorado's hydrothermal resource base: an assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearl, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    As part of its effort to more accurately describe the nations geothrmal resource potential, the US Department of Energy/Division of Geothermal Energy contracted with the Colorado Geological survey to appraise the hydrothermal (hot water) geothermal resources of Colorado. Part of this effort required that the amount of energy that could possibly be contained in the various hydrothermal systems in Colorado be estimated. The findings of that assessment are presented. To make these estimates the geothermometer reservoir temperatures estimated by Barrett and Pearl (1978) were used. In addition, the possible reservoir size and extent were estimated and used. This assessment shows that the total energy content of the thermal systems in Colorado could range from 4.872 x 10{sup 15} BTU's to 13.2386 x 10{sup 15} BTU's.

  14. Vomiting Disorder on Rise in Weed-Friendly Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_162895.html Vomiting Disorder on Rise in Weed-Friendly Colorado Doctors say problem may become more ... Jan. 5, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Long-term heavy marijuana use can cause chronic vomiting and abdominal pain ...

  15. Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture to Upgrade Wastewater System

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAN FRANCISCO -Today, the Colorado River Sewer System Joint Venture, located in Parker, Ariz. entered into an agreement with the EPA to upgrade their wastewater treatment system to meet stringent water quality standards. The cost of the upgrade is ap

  16. Mean-annual erosion potential for Colorado and New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey Data Series provides raster data representing an estimate of the mean-annual erosion potential of a 30-meter raster cell in Colorado and...

  17. Colorado cultural resource survey: Management data form [5JA784

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document includes the survey forms necessary to assess cultural resources in Colorado. This document assesses the Allard Ranch (site # 5JA784, temporary #...

  18. Final Critical Habitat for the Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — To provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Colorado pikeminnow (Ptychocheilus lucius) occur based on the description provided...

  19. Final Critical Habitat for the Little Colorado spinedace (Lepidomeda vittata)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — provide the user with a general idea of areas where final critical habitat for Little Colorado spinedace (Lepidomeda vittata) occur based on the description provided...

  20. Corbiculae fluminea as a bioindicator on the Lower Colorado River

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Tissue samples from Asiatic clam (Corbimla fluminea) from the lower Colorado River were analyzed for trace element concentrations. Selenium and arsenic were elevated...

  1. Josephson tunnel junctions with ferromagnetic interlayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weides, M.P.

    2006-07-01

    Superconductivity and ferromagnetism are well-known physical properties of solid states that have been widely studied and long thought about as antagonistic phenomena due to difference in spin ordering. It turns out that the combination of both superconductor and ferromagnet leads to a very rich and interesting physics. One particular example, the phase oscillations of the superconducting order parameter inside the ferromagnet, will play a major role for the devices discussed in this work. In this thesis, I present Josephson junctions with a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} tunnel barrier and a ferromagnetic interlayer, i.e. superconductor-insulator-ferromagnet-superconductor (SIFS) stacks. The fabrication of junctions was optimized regarding the insulation of electrodes and the homogeneity of the current transport. The junctions were either in the 0 or {pi} coupled ground state, depending on the thickness of the ferromagnetic layer and on temperature. The influence of ferromagnetic layer thickness on the transport properties and the coupling (0, {pi}) of SIFS tunnel junctions was studied. Furthermore, using a stepped ferromagnetic layer with well-chosen thicknesses, I obtained the so-called 0-{pi} Josephson junction. At a certain temperature this 0-{pi} junction can be made perfectly symmetric. In this case the ground state corresponds to a vortex of supercurrent creating a magnetic flux which is a fraction of the magnetic flux quantum {phi}{sub 0}. Such structures allow to study the physics of fractional vortices and to build various electronic circuits based on them. The SIFS junctions presented here have an exponentially vanishing damping at T {yields} 0. The SIFS technology developed within the framework of this work may be used to construct classical and quantum devices such as oscillators, memory cells and qubits. (orig.)

  2. Model Building to Facilitate Understanding of Holliday Junction and Heteroduplex Formation, and Holliday Junction Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvarajah, Geeta; Selvarajah, Susila

    2016-01-01

    Students frequently expressed difficulty in understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in chromosomal recombination. Therefore, we explored alternative methods for presenting the two concepts of the double-strand break model: Holliday junction and heteroduplex formation, and Holliday junction resolution. In addition to a lecture and…

  3. Raton basin coalbed methane production picking up in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemborg, H. Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Coalbed methane production in the Raton basin of south-central Colorado and northeast New Mexico has gone over pilot testing and entered the development stage which is expected to last several years. The development work is restricted to roughly a 25 mile by 15 mile wide `fairway' centered about 20 miles west of Trinidad, Colorado. At last count, 85 wells were producing nearly 17.5 MMcfd of coalbed methane from the basin's Raton and Vermejo formation coals.

  4. The Colorado Plateau II : Biophysical, Socioeconomic, and Cultural Research

    OpenAIRE

    Van Riper, Charles; Mattson, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract from GoogleBooks: The publication of The Colorado Plateau: Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research in 2004 marked a timely summation of current research in the Four Corners states. This new volume, derived from the seventh Biennial Conference on the Colorado Plateau in 2003, complements the previous book by again focusing on the integration of science into resource management issues. The 32 chapters range in content from measuring human impacts on cultural resources, through graz...

  5. Barriers to Enrollment in Health Coverage in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laurie T; Bharmal, Nazleen; Blanchard, Janice C; Harvey, Melody; Williams, Malcolm

    2015-03-20

    As part of the implementation of the Affordable Care Act, Colorado has expanded Medicaid and also now operates its own health insurance exchange for individuals (called Connect for Health Colorado). As of early 2014, more than 300,000 Coloradans have newly enrolled in Medicaid or health insurance through Connect for Health Colorado, but there also continues to be a diverse mix of individuals in Colorado who remain eligible for but not enrolled in either private insurance or Medicaid. The Colorado Health Foundation commissioned the RAND Corporation to conduct a study to better understand why these individuals are not enrolled in health insurance coverage and to develop recommendations for how Colorado can strengthen its outreach and enrollment efforts during the next open enrollment period, which starts in November 2014. RAND conducted focus groups with uninsured and newly insured individuals across the state and interviews with local stakeholders responsible for enrollment efforts in their regions. The authors identified 11 commonly cited barriers, as well as several that were specific to certain regions or populations (such as young adults and seasonal workers). Collectively, these barriers point to a set of four priority recommendations that stakeholders in Colorado may wish to consider: (1) Support and expand localized outreach and tailored messaging; (2) Strengthen marketing and messaging to be clear, focused on health benefits of insurance (rather than politics and mandates), and actionable; (3) Improve the clarity and transparency of insurance and health care costs and enrollment procedures; and (4) Revisit the two-stage enrollment process and improve Connect for Health Colorado website navigation and technical support.

  6. The Colorado Plateau II : Biophysical, Socioeconomic, and Cultural Research

    OpenAIRE

    Van Riper, Charles; Mattson, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Abstract from GoogleBooks: The publication of The Colorado Plateau: Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research in 2004 marked a timely summation of current research in the Four Corners states. This new volume, derived from the seventh Biennial Conference on the Colorado Plateau in 2003, complements the previous book by again focusing on the integration of science into resource management issues. The 32 chapters range in content from measuring human impacts on cultural resources, through graz...

  7. Increasing gap junctional coupling: a tool for dissecting the role of gap junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Lene Nygaard; Haugan, Ketil; Stahlhut, Martin;

    2007-01-01

    . In a number of cases, gap junctions have been implicated in the initiation and progress of disease, and experimental uncoupling has been used to investigate the exact role of coupling. The inverse approach, i.e., to increase coupling, has become possible in recent years and represents a new way of testing......Much of our current knowledge about the physiological and pathophysiological role of gap junctions is based on experiments where coupling has been reduced by either chemical agents or genetic modification. This has brought evidence that gap junctions are important in many physiological processes...... the role of gap junctions. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge obtained with agents that selectively increase gap junctional intercellular coupling. Two approaches will be reviewed: increasing coupling by the use of antiarrhythmic peptide and its synthetic analogs...

  8. Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of Building 44 at the Grand Junction Projects Office Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widdop, M.R.

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Junction Projects Office (GJPO) occupies a 61.7 acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot milling experiments conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor for the facility, Rust Geotech, is also the remedial action contractor. Building 44 was radiologically contaminated and the building was demolished in 1994. The soil area within the footprint of the building was not contaminated; it complies with the identified standards and the area can be released for unlimited exposure and unrestricted use. This document was prepared in response to a DOE request for an individual final report for each contaminated GJPO building.

  9. Final report of the radiological release survey of Building 30B at the Grand Junction Office Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauland, P.A.; Corle, S.G.

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Office (GJO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore concentrates and mill tailings during vanadium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District, and during sampling, assaying, pilot milling, storage, and brokerage activities conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJO Remedial Action Project (GJORAP) to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and underlying aquifer. WASTREN-Grand Junction is the site contractor for the facility and the remedial action contractor for GJORAP. Building 30B and the underlying soil were found not to be radiologically contaminated; therefore, the building can be released for unrestricted use. Placards have been placed at the building entrances indicating the completion of the radiological release survey and prohibiting the introduction of any radioactive materials within the building without written approvals from the GJO Facilities Operations Manager. This document was prepared in response to a DOE-GJO request for an individual final release report for each GJO building.

  10. Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of Building 34 at the Grand Junction Projects Office Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widdop, M.R.

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) occupies a 61.7 acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot milling experiments conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the Grand Junction Projects Office Remedial Action Project to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor for the facility, Rust Geotech, was also the remedial action contractor. Building 34 was radiologically contaminated and the building was demolished in 1996. The soil area within the footprint of the building was analyzed and found to be not contaminated. The area can be released for unlimited exposure and unrestricted use. This document was prepared in response to a DOE request for an individual closeout report for each contaminated GJPO building.

  11. Dislocation Multi-junctions and Strain Hardening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulatov, V; Hsiung, L; Tang, M; Arsenlis, A; Bartelt, M; Cai, W; Florando, J; Hiratani, M; Rhee, M; Hommes, G; Pierce, T; Diaz de la Rubia, T

    2006-06-20

    At the microscopic scale, the strength of a crystal derives from the motion, multiplication and interaction of distinctive line defects--dislocations. First theorized in 1934 to explain low magnitudes of crystal strength observed experimentally, the existence of dislocations was confirmed only two decades later. Much of the research in dislocation physics has since focused on dislocation interactions and their role in strain hardening: a common phenomenon in which continued deformation increases a crystal's strength. The existing theory relates strain hardening to pair-wise dislocation reactions in which two intersecting dislocations form junctions tying dislocations together. Here we report that interactions among three dislocations result in the formation of unusual elements of dislocation network topology, termed hereafter multi-junctions. The existence of multi-junctions is first predicted by Dislocation Dynamics (DD) and atomistic simulations and then confirmed by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) experiments in single crystal molybdenum. In large-scale Dislocation Dynamics simulations, multi-junctions present very strong, nearly indestructible, obstacles to dislocation motion and furnish new sources for dislocation multiplication thereby playing an essential role in the evolution of dislocation microstructure and strength of deforming crystals. Simulation analyses conclude that multi-junctions are responsible for the strong orientation dependence of strain hardening in BCC crystals.

  12. Imaging of uretero-pelvic junction obstruction with stimulated diuresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebel, K.D.; Bliesener, J.A.; Gharib, M.

    1988-01-01

    Eighty-nine kidneys of 81 infants and children with uretero-pelvic junction obstruction were investigated using ultrasonography (US), diuretic urography (DUR) and diuretic renography (DREN). Results of the US were false-negative in 14%. This can be avoided by ensuring that the patients get an amount of fluid appropriate to their age before the examination or by performing diuretic ultrasonography with frusemide. False-positive results were found with US in 15%, but obstruction was excluded by using the DUR and/or the DREN. During post-operative follow-up the DUS is useful and after 6 months the clearance with 123-iodine hippurate combined with the DREN should be performed. The administration of the Whitaker-test is unnecessary.

  13. Created-by-current states in long Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyadjiev, T. L.; Andreeva, O. Yu.; Semerdjieva, E. G.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.

    2008-08-01

    Critical curves "critical current-external magnetic field" of long Josephson junctions with inhomogeneity and variable width are studied. We demonstrate the existence of regions of magnetic field where some fluxon states are stable only if the external current through the junction is different from zero. Position and size of such regions depend on the length of the junction, its geometry, parameters of inhomogeneity and form of the junction. The noncentral (left and right) pure fluxon states appear in the inhomogeneous Josephson junction with the increase in the junction length. We demonstrate new bifurcation points with change in width of the inhomogeneity and amplitude of the Josephson current through the inhomogeneity.

  14. Thermionic refrigeration at CNT-CNT junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C.; Pipe, K. P.

    2016-10-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is used to study carrier energy relaxation following thermionic emission at the junction of two van der Waals bonded single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). An energy-dependent transmission probability gives rise to energy filtering at the junction, which is predicted to increase the average electron transport energy by as much as 0.115 eV, leading to an effective Seebeck coefficient of 386 μV/K. MC results predict a long energy relaxation length (˜8 μm) for hot electrons crossing the junction into the barrier SWCNT. For SWCNTs of optimal length, an analytical transport model is used to show that thermionic cooling can outweigh parasitic heat conduction due to high SWCNT thermal conductivity, leading to a significant cooling capacity (2.4 × 106 W/cm2).

  15. Silicon fiber with p-n junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homa, D.; Cito, A.; Pickrell, G.; Hill, C.; Scott, B. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, 312 Holden Hall, Blacksburg, Virginia 24060 (United States)

    2014-09-22

    In this study, we fabricated a p-n junction in a fiber with a phosphorous doped silicon core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a hybrid process of the core-suction and melt-draw techniques and maintained overall diameters ranging from 200 to 900 μm and core diameters of 20–800 μm. The p-n junction was formed by doping the fiber with boron and confirmed via the current-voltage characteristic. The demonstration of a p-n junction in a melt-drawn silicon core fiber paves the way for the seamless integration of optical and electronic devices in fibers.

  16. Vortex structures in exponentially shaped Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Semerdjieva, E. G.; Boyadjiev, T. L.

    2005-04-01

    We report the numerical calculations of the static vortex structure and critical curves in exponentially shaped long Josephson junctions for in-line and overlap geometries. Stability of the static solutions is investigated by checking the sign of the smallest eigenvalue of the associated Sturm-Liouville problem. The change in the junction width leads to the renormalization of the magnetic flux in comparison with the case of a linear one-dimensional model. We study the influence of the model's parameters, and particularly, the shape parameter on the stability of the states of the magnetic flux. We compare the vortex structure and critical curves for the in-line and overlap geometries. Our numerically constructed critical curve of the Josephson junction matches well with the experimental one.

  17. Holographic Josephson Junction from Massive Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Ya-Peng; Zeng, Hua-Bi; Zhang, Hai-Qing

    2015-01-01

    We study the holographic superconductor-normal metal-superconductor (SNS) Josephon junction in the massive gravity. In the homogeneous case of the chemical potential, we find that the graviton mass will make the normal metal-superconductor phase transition harder to take place. In the holographic model of Josephson junction, it is found that the maximal tunneling current will decrease according to the graviton mass. Besides, the coherence length of the junction decreases as well with respect to the graviton mass. If one interprets the graviton mass as the effect of momentum dissipation in the boundary field theory, it indicates that the stronger the momentum dissipation is, the smaller the coherence length is.

  18. Characterization of magnetic tunnel junction test pads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Kjær, Daniel; Nielsen, Peter Folmer

    2015-01-01

    We show experimentally as well as theoretically that patterned magnetic tunnel junctions can be characterized using the current-in-plane tunneling (CIPT) method, and the key parameters, the resistance-area product (RA) and the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR), can be determined. The CIPT method...... on square tunnel junction pads with varying sizes and analyze the measured data using both the original and the modified CIPT model. Thus, we determine in which sample size range the modified CIPT model is needed to ensure validity of the extracted sample parameters, RA and TMR. In addition, measurements...... as a function of position on a square tunnel junction pad are used to investigate the sensitivity of the measurement results to probe misalignment....

  19. Gap junction diseases of the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steensel, M A M

    2004-11-15

    Gap junctions are intercellular channels that allow the passage of water, ions, and small molecules. They are involved in quick, short-range messaging between cells and are found in skin, nervous tissue, heart, and muscle. An increasing number of hereditary skin disorders appear to be caused by mutations in one of the genes coding for the constituent proteins of gap junctions, known as connexins. In this review, the currently known connexin disorders that feature skin abnormalities are described: keratitis-ichthyosis deafness syndrome, erythrokeratoderma variabilis, Vohwinkel's syndrome, and a novel disorder called hypotrichosis-deafness syndrome. What is known about the pathogenesis of these disorders is discussed and related to gap junction physiology. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Geologic map of Colorado National Monument and adjacent areas, Mesa County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert B.; Harding, Anne E.; Hood, William C.; Cole, Rex D.; Livaccari, Richard F.; Johnson, James B.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Dickerson, Robert P.

    2001-01-01

    New 1:24,000-scale geologic mapping in the Colorado National Monument Quadrangle and adjacent areas, in support of the USGS Western Colorado I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides new interpretations of and data for the stratigraphy, structure, geologic hazards in the area from the Colorado River in Grand Valley onto the Uncompahgre Plateau. The plateau drops abruptly along northwest-trending structures toward the northeast 800 m to the Redlands area and the Colorado River in Grand Valley. In addition to common alluvial and colluvial deposits, surficial deposits include Holocene and late Pleistocene charcoal-bearing valley-fill deposits, late to middle Pleistocene river-gravel terrace deposits, Holocene to middle Pleistocene younger, intermediate, and old fan-alluvium deposits, late to middle Pleistocene local gravel deposits, Holocene to late Pleistocene rock-fall deposits, Holocene to middle Pleistocene young and old landslide deposits, Holocene to late Pleistocene sheetwash deposits and eolian deposits, and Holocene Cienga-type deposits. Only the lowest part of the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale is exposed in the map area near the Colorado River. The Upper and Lower? Cretaceous Dakota Formation and the Lower Cretaceous Burro Canyon Formation form resistant dipslopes in the Grand Valley and a prominent ridge on the plateau. Less resistant strata of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation consisting of the Brushy Basin, Salt Wash, and Tidwell Members form slopes on the plateau and low areas below the mountain front of the plateau. The Middle Jurassic Wanakah Formation nomenclature replaces the previously used Summerville Formation. Because an upper part of the Middle Jurassic Entrada Formation is not obviously correlated with strata found elsewhere, it is therefore not formally named; however, the lower rounded cliff former Slickrock Member is clearly present. The Lower Jurassic silica-cemented Kayenta Formation forms the cap rock for the Lower

  1. Overdamped Josephson junctions for digital applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Febvre, P., E-mail: Pascal.Febvre@univ-savoie.fr [University of Savoie, IMEP-LAHC – CNRS UMR5130, 73376 Le Bourget du Lac (France); De Leo, N.; Fretto, M.; Sosso, A. [I.N.Ri.M., Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy); Belogolovskii, M. [Donetsk Institute for Physics and Engineering, 72 R. Luxemburg str., 83114 Donetsk (Ukraine); Collot, R. [University of Savoie, IMEP-LAHC – CNRS UMR5130, 73376 Le Bourget du Lac (France); Lacquaniti, V. [I.N.Ri.M., Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica, Strada delle Cacce 91, 10135 Torino (Italy)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► Properties of self-shunted sub-micron Nb/Al–AlO{sub x}/Nb SNIS junctions are studied. ► 1–100 kA/cm{sup 2} current densities and 0.1–0.7 mV critical voltages are obtained. ► The critical voltage-vs-temperature behavior of SNIS junctions is discussed. ► Numerical results showing an effect of the aluminum film thickness are presented. ► A Josephson balanced comparator is studied for different temperatures of operation. -- Abstract: An interesting feature of Superconductor–Normal metal–Superconductor Josephson junctions for digital applications is due to their non-hysteretic current–voltage characteristics in a broad temperature range below T{sub c}. This allows to design Single-Flux-Quantum (SFQ) cells without the need of external shunts. Two advantages can be drawn from this property: first the SFQ cells can be more compact which leads to a more integrated solution towards nano-devices and more complex circuits; second the absence of electrical parasitic elements associated with the wiring of resistors external to the Josephson junctions increases the performance of SFQ circuits, in particular regarding the ultimate speed of operation. For this purpose Superconductor–Normal metal–Insulator–Superconductor Nb/Al–AlO{sub x}/Nb Josephson junctions have been recently developed at INRiM with aluminum layer thicknesses between 30 and 100 nm. They exhibit non-hysteretic current–voltage characteristics with I{sub c}R{sub n} values higher than 0.5 mV in a broad temperature range and optimal Stewart McCumber parameters at 4.2 K for RSFQ applications. The main features of obtained SNIS junctions regarding digital applications are presented.

  2. Colorado Better Buildings Project Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strife, Susie; Yancey, Lea

    2013-12-30

    The Colorado Better Buildings project intended to bring new and existing energy efficiency model programs to market with regional collaboration and funding partnerships. The goals for Boulder County and its program partners were to advance energy efficiency investments, stimulate economic growth in Colorado and advance the state’s energy independence. Collectively, three counties set out to complete 9,025 energy efficiency upgrades in 2.5 years and they succeeded in doing so. Energy efficiency upgrades have been completed in more than 11,000 homes and businesses in these communities. Boulder County and its partners received a $25 million BetterBuildings grant from the U.S. Department of Energy under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act in the summer of 2010. This was also known as the Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants program. With this funding, Boulder County, the City and County of Denver, and Garfield County set out to design programs for the residential and commercial sectors to overcome key barriers in the energy upgrade process. Since January 2011, these communities have paired homeowners and business owners with an Energy Advisor – an expert to help move from assessment to upgrade with minimal hassle. Pairing this step-by-step assistance with financing incentives has effectively addressed many key barriers, resulting in energy efficiency improvements and happy customers. An expert energy advisor guides the building owner through every step of the process, coordinating the energy assessment, interpreting results for a customized action plan, providing a list of contractors, and finding and applying for all available rebates and low-interest loans. In addition to the expert advising and financial incentives, the programs also included elements of social marketing, technical assistance, workforce development and contractor trainings, project monitoring and verification, and a cloud-based customer data system to coordinate among field

  3. Multiplication in Silicon p-n Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moll, John L.

    1965-01-01

    Multiplication values were measured in the collector junctions of silicon p-n-p and n-p-n transistors before and after bombardment by 1016 neutrons/cm2. Within experimental error there was no change either in junction fields, as deduced from capacitance measurements, or in multiplication values...... in any of the transistors. The implication is that the electron and hole ionization rates did not change as a result of the addition of extra scattering centers. This result is in direct contradiction to observations of Lee et al. The most likely explanation for the discrepancy is erroneous determination...

  4. Fast transient response of novel Peltier junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyos, G.E.; Rao, K.R.; Jerger, D.

    1977-01-01

    The fast transient response of a thermoelectric (TE) cooler with novel geometry is discussed. This geometry involves conical semiconductor legs whose hot to cold junction cross-sectional area ratios can be varied. The novel TE junctions are fabricated such that the thermal capacitance and electrical conductance are decreased while simultaneously increasing the thermal resistance. The experimental apparatus which includes the vacuum system, power supplies, pulse and control circuitry, sensing and measuring instrumentation etc. is described. With narrow pulse width and large amplitudes, additional cooling of the order of 45/sup 0/C below the steady-state maximum with recovery times in the range of 1 to 3 sec is obtained.

  5. The Geometric Field at a Josephson Junction

    CERN Document Server

    Atanasov, Victor

    2016-01-01

    A geometric potential from the kinetic term of a constrained to a curved hyper-plane of space-time quantum superconducting condensate is derived. An energy conservation relation involving the geometric field at every material point in the superconductor is demonstrated. At a Josephson junction the energy conservation relation implies the possibility to transform electric energy into geometric field energy, that is curvature of space-time. Experimental procedures to verify that the Josephson junction can act as a voltage-to-curvature converter are discussed.

  6. Microscopic tunneling theory of long Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, N.; Hattel, Søren A.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1992-01-01

    We present a numerical scheme for solving a nonlinear partial integro-differential equation with nonlocal time dependence. The equation describes the dynamics in a long Josephson junction modeled by use of the microscopic theory for tunneling between superconductors. We demonstrate that the detai......We present a numerical scheme for solving a nonlinear partial integro-differential equation with nonlocal time dependence. The equation describes the dynamics in a long Josephson junction modeled by use of the microscopic theory for tunneling between superconductors. We demonstrate...

  7. Rectangular-to-circular groove waveguide junction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI; Licheng; (崔立成); YANG; Hongsheng; (杨鸿生)

    2003-01-01

    Mode matching method is used to analyze the scattering characteristics of the rectangular-to-circular groove waveguide junction. Firstly, the scattering matrix equation is obtained by matching the electromagnetic fields at the boundary of the junction. The scattering coefficients can be obtained from the equation. Secondly the scattering characteristics of the iris with rectangular window positioned in circular groove waveguide are briefly analyzed. Thirdly, the convergent problem is discussed and the numerical results are given. At last experiment is made and good agreement is found between the calculated results and the measured results.

  8. Electroplated Ni on the PN Junction Semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Joo; Uhm, Young Rang; Son, Kwang Jae; Kim, Jong Bum; Choi, Sang Moo; Park, Jong Han; Hong, Jintae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Nickel (Ni) electroplating was implemented by using a metal Ni powder in order to establish a Ni-63 plating condition on the PN junction semiconductor needed for production of betavoltaic battery. PN junction semiconductors with a Ni seed layer of 500 and 1000 A were coated with Ni at current density from 10 to 50 mA cm{sup 2}. The surface roughness and average grain size of Ni deposits were investigated by XRD and SEM techniques. The roughness of Ni deposit was increased as the current density was increased, and decreased as the thickness of Ni seed layer was increased.

  9. Connexin26 regulates assembly and maintenance of cochlear gap junction macromolecular complex for normal hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Kazusaku; Fukunaga, Ichiro; Hatakeyama, Kaori; Ikeda, Katsuhisa

    2015-12-01

    Hereditary deafness affects about 1 in 2000 children and GJB2 gene mutation is most frequent cause for this disease in the world. GJB2 encodes connexin26 (Cx26), a component in cochlear gap junction. Recently, we found macromolecular change of gap junction plaques with two different types of Cx26 mutation as major classification of clinical case, one is a model of dominant negative type, Cx26R75W+ and the other is conditional gene deficient mouse, Cx26f/fP0Cre as a model for insufficiency of gap junction protein [6]. Gap junction composed mainly of Cx26 and Cx30 in wild type mice formed large planar gap junction plaques (GJP). In contrast, Cx26R75W+ and Cx26f/fP0Cre showed fragmented small round GJPs around the cell border. In Cx26f/fP0Cre, some of the cells with Cx26 expression due to their cellular mosaicism showed normal large GJP with Cx26 and Cx30 only at the cell junction site between two Cx26 positive cells. These indicate that bilateral Cx26 expressions from both adjacent cells are essential for the formation of the cochlear linear GJP, and it is not compensated by other cochlear Connexins such as Connexin30. In the present study, we demonstrated a new molecular pathology in most common hereditary deafness with different types of Connexin26 mutations, and this machinery can be a new target for drag design of hereditary deafness.

  10. Approaches to local climate action in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Y. D.

    2011-12-01

    Though climate change is a global problem, the impacts are felt on the local scale; it follows that the solutions must come at the local level. Fortunately, many cities and municipalities are implementing climate mitigation (or climate action) policies and programs. However, they face many procedural and institutional barriers to their efforts, such of lack of expertise or data, limited human and financial resources, and lack of community engagement (Krause 2011). To address the first obstacle, thirteen in-depth case studies were done of successful model practices ("best practices") of climate action programs carried out by various cities, counties, and organizations in Colorado, and one outside Colorado, and developed into "how-to guides" for other municipalities to use. Research was conducted by reading documents (e.g. annual reports, community guides, city websites), email correspondence with program managers and city officials, and via phone interviews. The information gathered was then compiled into a series of reports containing a narrative description of the initiative; an overview of the plan elements (target audience and goals); implementation strategies and any indicators of success to date (e.g. GHG emissions reductions, cost savings); and the adoption or approval process, as well as community engagement efforts and marketing or messaging strategies. The types of programs covered were energy action plans, energy efficiency programs, renewable energy programs, and transportation and land use programs. Between the thirteen case studies, there was a range of approaches to implementing local climate action programs, examined along two dimensions: focus on climate change (whether it was direct/explicit or indirect/implicit) and extent of government authority. This benchmarking exercise affirmed the conventional wisdom propounded by Pitt (2010), that peer pressure (that is, the presence of neighboring jurisdictions with climate initiatives), the level of

  11. Puente Río Colorado - Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulka, F.

    1973-03-01

    Full Text Available The Colorado River bridge is located in a 95 m deep canyon, with a 122 m span. To choose the type of bridge, it has been endeavoured to use the largest possible number of national building materials which, together with the difficulty of reaching the site, meant that a series of classical solutions had to be rejected. That of an arch bridge was adopted, with a reversed support on prestressed cables, on which the road passes. The system is based on the hanging bridge principle, but with the rolling track resting on the cables, instead of hanging from them. There is a first cover, made up of prefabricated components, on the cables, which strengthens the bridge's stability. This cover supports three portal-columns, the pillars of the final roadway. The cables were prestressed from the heads of the two sloping pillars. The two side spans were designed with prefabricated T girders.El puente Río Colorado está situado en un cañón de 95 m de profundidad, salvando una luz de 122 m. Para la elección del tipo de puente se ha procurado emplear el mayor número posible de materiales de construcción nacionales, lo que, unido a la dificultad de acceso a la obra, hizo que se rechazaran una serie de soluciones clásicas. Se adoptó la de un puente-arco con un soporte invertido sobre cables pretensados, encima del cual descansa la calzada. El sistema está basado en los principios del puente colgante, pero apoyando el camino de rodadura en los cables, en lugar de colgarlo de ellos. Sobre los cables existe una primera cubierta, integrada por elementos prefabricados, que refuerza la estabilidad del puente. Esta cubierta soporta tres pórticos-columna, pilares de la calzada definitiva. El pretensado de los cables se realizó desde las cabezas de dos pilares inclinados. Los dos vanos laterales se proyectaron con vigas en T prefabricadas.

  12. Common features of a vortex structure in long exponentially shaped Josephson junctions and Josephson junctions with inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyadjiev, T. L.; Semerdjieva, E. G.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.

    2007-09-01

    We study the vortex structure in three different models of the long Josephson junction: the exponentially shaped Josephson junction and the Josephson junctions with the resistor and the shunt inhomogeneities in the barrier layer. For these three models the critical curves “critical current-magnetic field” are numerically constructed. We develop the idea of the equivalence of the exponentially shaped Josephson junction and the rectangular junction with the distributed inhomogeneity and demonstrate that at some parameters of the shunt and the resistor inhomogeneities in the ends of the junction the corresponding critical curves are very close to the exponentially shaped one.

  13. Common features of a vortex structure in long exponentially shaped Josephson junctions and Josephson junctions with inhomogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyadjiev, T.L. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Semerdjieva, E.G. [Plovdiv University, 24 Tzar Asen Str., Plovdiv 4000 (Bulgaria); Shukrinov, Yu.M. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation)], E-mail: shukrinv@theor.jinr.ru

    2007-09-01

    We study the vortex structure in three different models of the long Josephson junction: the exponentially shaped Josephson junction and the Josephson junctions with the resistor and the shunt inhomogeneities in the barrier layer. For these three models the critical curves 'critical current-magnetic field' are numerically constructed. We develop the idea of the equivalence of the exponentially shaped Josephson junction and the rectangular junction with the distributed inhomogeneity and demonstrate that at some parameters of the shunt and the resistor inhomogeneities in the ends of the junction the corresponding critical curves are very close to the exponentially shaped one.

  14. Oil-bearing sediments beneath San Juan volcanics - Colorado's newest frontier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gries, R.R.

    1985-05-01

    During the Tertiary, the western part of the northern Sange de Cristo Range dropped 16,000 ft (4877 m) to become what is now known as the San Luis basin. The foreland basin formerly adjacent to and west of the range remained intact but was subsequently concealed by 10,000 ft (3048 m) of volcanic deposits. The existence of this concealed basin, a northeastern arm of the San Juan basin, was first suggested by Vincent Kelly who named it the San Juan sag. Oil, which was generated in the underlying Mancos Shale, migrated upward into vesicles and fractures in volcanic rocks. In at least two places, oil is currently seeping onto the volcanic surface or into overlying soil. These oil occurrences encouraged geologic and geophysical exploration and have led to confirmation by drilling that the basin exists. Porous reservoirs in both tertiary sedimentary rocks and volcanic rocks overlie a 2000 ft (610 m) Cretaceous Mancos Shale source rock. Within the Mancos Shale are fractured reservoirs, volcanic sills that have reservoir potential where fractured or porous, and stray sandstones. The Dakota Formation underlies the Mancos Shale and is about 200 ft (61 m) thick in this area. In addition, the Jurassic section has potential for source rocks in the Todilto Formation and reservoir rocks in the Entrada and Junction Creek Sandstones. The San Juan sag, a newly discovered basin of 2600 miS (6734 kmS) is a frontier for Colorado oil and gas exploration.

  15. Transcriptional mechanisms coordinating tight junction assembly during epithelial differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, Felix J; Schmidt-Ott, Kai M

    2017-06-01

    Epithelial tissues form a selective barrier via direct cell-cell interactions to separate and establish concentration gradients between the different compartments of the body. Proper function and formation of this barrier rely on the establishment of distinct intercellular junction complexes. These complexes include tight junctions, adherens junctions, desmosomes, and gap junctions. The tight junction is by far the most diverse junctional complex in the epithelial barrier. Its composition varies greatly across different epithelial tissues to confer various barrier properties. Thus, epithelial cells rely on tightly regulated transcriptional mechanisms to ensure proper formation of the epithelial barrier and to achieve tight junction diversity. Here, we review different transcriptional mechanisms utilized during embryogenesis and disease development to promote tight junction assembly and maintenance of intercellular barrier integrity. We focus particularly on the Grainyhead-like transcription factors and ligand-activated nuclear hormone receptors, two central families of proteins in epithelialization. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. Preliminary Site Characterization Report, Rulsion Site, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report is a summary of environmental information gathered during a review of the documents pertaining to Project Rulison and interviews with personnel who worked on the project. Project Rulison was part of Operation Plowshare (a program designed to explore peaceful uses for nuclear devices). The project consisted of detonating a 43-kiloton nuclear device on September 10, 1969, in western Colorado to stimulate natural gas production. Following the detonation, a reentry well was drilled and several gas production tests were conducted. The reentry well was shut-in after the last gas production test and was held in standby condition until the general cleanup was undertaken in 1972. A final cleanup was conducted after the emplacement and testing wells were plugged in 1976. However, some surface radiologic contamination resulted from decontamination of the drilling equipment and fallout from the gas flaring during drilling operations. With the exception of the drilling effluent pond, all surface contamination at the Rulison Site was removed during the cleanup operations. All mudpits and other excavations were backfilled, and both upper and lower drilling pads were leveled and dressed. This report provides information regarding known or suspected areas of contamination, previous cleanup activities, analytical results, a review of the regulatory status, the site`s physical environment, and future recommendations for Project Ruhson. Based on this research, several potential areas of contamination have been identified. These include the drilling effluent pond and mudpits used during drilling operations. In addition, contamination could migrate in the gas horizon.

  17. Birth outcomes in Colorado's undocumented immigrant population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Battaglia Catherine

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The birth outcomes of undocumented women have not been systematically studied on a large scale. The growing number of undocumented women giving birth in the United States has important implications for clinical care and public health policy. The objective of this study was to describe birth outcomes of undocumented immigrants in Colorado. Methods Retrospective descriptive study of singleton births to 5961 undocumented women using birth certificate data for 1998–1999. Results Undocumented mothers were younger, less educated, and more likely to be single. They had higher rates of anemia, were less likely to gain enough weight, and less likely to receive early prenatal care. They were much less likely to use alcohol or tobacco. Undocumented women had a lower rate of low birth weight (5.3% v 6.5%, P Conclusion Undocumented women have lower rates of preterm delivery and low birth weight infants, but higher rates of pregnancy related risk factors. Higher prevalence of some risk factors which are amenable to medical intervention reveals the need for improved prenatal care in this group.

  18. Geology of the Gypsum Gap quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.

    1953-01-01

    The Gypsum Gap quadrangle is one eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comparative study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through a arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The core consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  19. Geology of the Davis Mesa quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.; Bryner, Leonid

    1953-01-01

    The Davis Mesa quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by hih-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as "Uruvan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  20. Geology of the Anderson Mesa quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.; Withington, C.F.

    1953-01-01

    The Anderson Mesa quadrangle is one of the eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of the southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteenth quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quarternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-tending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive slat and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists of largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  1. Geology of the Hamm Canyon quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.

    1953-01-01

    The Hamm Canyon quadrangle is on eof eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  2. Geology of the Naturita NW quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.; Vogel, J.D.

    1953-01-01

    The Naturita NW quadrangle is one of eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles were mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey on behalf of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear ro be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  3. US Army hangar, Fort Carson, Colorado, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollick, J. [Solar Wall International Ltd., Downsview (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    The US Army's first solar-ventilated hangar is located at Fort Carson, Colorado. Fumes from the fuel tanks of up to 30 helicopters stored in the building are displaced with solar-warmed fresh air. A conventional gas-heated ventilation system had been specified, but a value engineering analysis done for the Corps of Engineers showed that a solar-heated ventilation system would be comparable in cost to what was specified, so the design was changed. The fans were installed with the original building in 1992, but the solar cladding system was installed later, in 1995. The panels had to be supplied later as a retrofit project because of scheduling concerns at the time of construction. The solar-transpired collectors cover 725 m{sup 2} of the south wall above the hangar doors and heat 107,000 m{sup 3}/h of ventilation air. Cost savings have been calculated at US $14,000 (ECU 12,600) a year based on energy savings of 974,000 kWh a year. (author)

  4. Dendroclimatic reconstructions for the southern Colorado plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.S.; Funkhouser, G.S. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    1995-09-01

    A geographical network of climate sensitive tree-ring chronologies consisting of 25 archaeological sequences and two bristlecone pine series provides the basis for high resolution reconstructions of low and high frequency climatic variability on the southern Colorado Plateau over the last 1,500 years. Qualitative and quantitative dendroclimatic analyses of these data produce annual retrodictions of yearly and seasonal precipitation and summer Palmer Drought Severity Indices for each station and reconstructions of regional scale patterns in climatic variability. These reconstructions provide detailed information on climatic fluctuations that affected biotic and human populations as well as long-term baseline data for evaluating present-day climate and estimating future climatic trends. When integrated with other measures of past environmental variability, these reconstructions specify periods of favorable and unfavorable environmental conditions that would have affected past human populations of the region. The severest degradation, which occurred between A.D. 1250 and 1450, probably was causally related to numerous cultural changes that occurred at the end of the l3th century including the Anasazi abandonment of the Four Comers area. Projecting environmental patterns that characterized the last two millennia into the future indicates potential hazards to long term uranium mill waste disposal and containment and the potential and limitations of environmental restoration.

  5. Magnetotelluric Data, Southern San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jackie M.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The population of the San Luis Valley region is growing rapidly. The shallow unconfined and the deeper confined Santa Fe Group aquifer in the San Luis Basin is the main sources of municipal water for the region. Water shortfalls could have serious consequences. Future growth and land management in the region depend on accurate assessment and protection of the region's ground-water resources. An important issue in managing the ground-water resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Santa Fe Group and the nature of the sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift, which contain the principal ground-water aquifers. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the San Luis Basin located in southern Colorado. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, an electromagnetic survey, called magnetotellurics (MT), and hydrologic and lithologic data are being used to better understand the aquifer systems. The primary goal of the MT survey is to map changes in electrical resistivity with depth that are related to differences in rock type. These various rock types help control the properties of aquifers in the region. This report does not include any interpretation of the data. Its purpose is to release the MT data acquired at the 22 stations shown in figure 1.

  6. Magnetotelluric Data, San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Brian D.; Williams, Jackie M.

    2008-01-01

    The San Luis Valley region population is growing. Water shortfalls could have serious consequences. Future growth and land management in the region depend on accurate assessment and protection of the region?s ground-water resources. An important issue in managing the ground-water resources is a better understanding of the hydrogeology of the Santa Fe Group and the nature of the sedimentary deposits that fill the Rio Grande rift, which contain the principal ground-water aquifers. The shallow unconfined aquifer and the deeper confined Santa Fe Group aquifer in the San Luis Basin are the main sources of municipal water for the region. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a series of multidisciplinary studies of the San Luis Basin located in southern Colorado. Detailed geologic mapping, high-resolution airborne magnetic surveys, gravity surveys, an electromagnetic survey (called magnetotellurics, or MT), and hydrologic and lithologic data are being used to better understand the aquifers. The MT survey primary goal is to map changes in electrical resistivity with depth that are related to differences in rock types. These various rock types help control the properties of aquifers. This report does not include any data interpretation. Its purpose is to release the MT data acquired at 24 stations. Two of the stations were collected near Santa Fe, New Mexico, near deep wildcat wells. Well logs from those wells will help tie future interpretations of this data with geologic units from the Santa Fe Group sediments to Precambrian basement.

  7. 76 FR 14063 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ..., Curator of Anthropology, University of Colorado Museum, in care of Jan Bernstein, NAGPRA Consultant...(c)(1) should contact Steve Lekson, Curator of Anthropology, University of Colorado Museum, in care...

  8. 76 FR 22686 - Colorado Interstate Gas Company; Notice of Application for Abandonment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-22

    ... notice that on April 8, 2011, Colorado Interstate Gas Company (CIG), Post Office Box 1087 Colorado..., comprising of Unit Nos. 7, 8, 9, 10, 11 and 12 at CIG's Lakin Compressor Station (collectively referred to as...

  9. 78 FR 62657 - Notice of Public Meeting, Southwest Colorado Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-22

    ... November 15, 2013, in Dolores, Colorado. ADDRESSES: The Southwest Colorado RAC meeting will be held November 15, 2013, at the Dolores Public Lands Center, 29211 Highway 184, Dolores, CO 81323. The...

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Colorado. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Colorado.

  11. 77 FR 12580 - Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Public Water System Supervision Program Revision for the State of Colorado AGENCY: Environmental... the state of Colorado has revised its Public Water System Supervision (PWSS) Program by...

  12. Good Days on the Trail, 1938-1942: Film Footage of the Rocky Mountains, Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This film documents student hiking trips conducted by the University of Colorado at Boulder in the Rocky Mountains, Colorado, USA during the summers of 1938-1942....

  13. Ballistic transport in InSb Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasco, John Jeffrey; Gill, Stephen; Car, Diana; Bakkers, Erik; Mason, Nadya

    We present transport measurements on Josephson junctions consisting of InSb nanowires contacted by Al at various junction lengths. Junction behavior as a function of gate voltage, electric field, and magnetic field is discussed. We show that short junctions behave as 1D quantum wires, exhibiting quantized conductance steps. In addition, we show how Josephson behavior changes as transport evolves from ballistic to diffusive as a function of contact spacing.

  14. Dynamics near Resonance Junctions in Hamiltonian Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Goto, S; Goto, Shin-itiro; Nozaki, Kazuhiro

    1999-01-01

    An approximate Poincare map near equally strong multiple resonances is reduced by means the method of averaging. Near the resonance junction of three degrees of freedom, we find that some homoclinic orbits ``whiskers'' in single resonance lines survive and form nearly periodic orbits, each of which looks like a pair of homoclinic orbits.

  15. Cooling of suspended nanostructures with tunnel junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Koppinen, P. J.; Maasilta, I. J.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated electronic cooling of suspended nanowires with SINIS tunnel junction coolers. The suspended samples consist of a free standing nanowire suspended by four narrow ($\\sim$ 200 nm) bridges. We have compared two different cooler designs for cooling the suspended nanowire. We demonstrate that cooling of the nanowire is possible with a proper SINIS cooler design.

  16. Polyphosphonium-based ion bipolar junction transistors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielsson, Erik O; Tybrandt, Klas; Berggren, Magnus

    2014-11-01

    Advancements in the field of electronics during the past few decades have inspired the use of transistors in a diversity of research fields, including biology and medicine. However, signals in living organisms are not only carried by electrons but also through fluxes of ions and biomolecules. Thus, in order to implement the transistor functionality to control biological signals, devices that can modulate currents of ions and biomolecules, i.e., ionic transistors and diodes, are needed. One successful approach for modulation of ionic currents is to use oppositely charged ion-selective membranes to form so called ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs). Unfortunately, overall IBJT device performance has been hindered due to the typical low mobility of ions, large geometries of the ion bipolar junction materials, and the possibility of electric field enhanced (EFE) water dissociation in the junction. Here, we introduce a novel polyphosphonium-based anion-selective material into npn-type IBJTs. The new material does not show EFE water dissociation and therefore allows for a reduction of junction length down to 2 μm, which significantly improves the switching performance of the ion transistor to 2 s. The presented improvement in speed as well the simplified design will be useful for future development of advanced iontronic circuits employing IBJTs, for example, addressable drug-delivery devices.

  17. Flux interactions on stacked Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Alwyn C.; A., Petraglia

    1996-01-01

    Perturbation methods are used to study the dynamics of locked fluxon modes on stacked Josephson junctions and single crystals of certain high-T-c, superconductors. Two limiting cases are considered: (i) The nonlinear diffusion regime in which fluxon dynamics are dominated by energy exchange betwe...

  18. Defect formation in long Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordeeva, Anna; Pankratov, Andrey

    2010-01-01

    We study numerically a mechanism of vortex formation in a long Josephson junction within the framework of the one-dimensional sine-Gordon model. This mechanism is switched on below the critical temperature. It is shown that the number of fluxons versus velocity of cooling roughly scales according...

  19. Gap junction diseases of the skin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steensel, M.A.M. van

    2004-01-01

    Gap junctions are intercellular channels that allow the passage of water, ions, and small molecules. They are involved in quick, short-range messaging between cells and are found in skin, nervous tissue, heart, and muscle. An increasing number of hereditary skin disorders appear to be caused by muta

  20. Gap junctions-guards of excitability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroemlund, Line Waring; Jensen, Christa Funch; Qvortrup, Klaus;

    2015-01-01

    Cardiomyocytes are connected by mechanical and electrical junctions located at the intercalated discs (IDs). Although these structures have long been known, it is becoming increasingly clear that their components interact. This review describes the involvement of the ID in electrical disturbances...

  1. Fluxon density waves in long Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O. H.; Ustinov, A. V.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1993-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the multiple fluxon dynamics stimulated by an external oscillating force applied at a boundary of a long Josephson junction are presented. The calculated IV characteristics agree well with a recent experimental observation of rf-induced satellite flux-flow steps. The volt...... density waves....

  2. Transmembrane potentials of canine AV junctional tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, W W

    1986-06-01

    The atrioventricular (AV) junction comprises the AV node, His bundle (HB), and specialized tissues proximal to the node called paranodal fibers (PNF). In the present study, an in vitro, dissection-exposed canine right atrial (RA), transitional fiber (TF), AV junctional preparation was used. The TF and PNF formed a pathway running along the base of the septal cusp of the tricuspid valve (SCTV). In the first experiment, impulses elicited at the RA were monitored to propagate sequentially through the TF, PNF, AV node, and then the HB. This functional evidence supports the concept that a conduction pathway connecting the RA and the AV node exists along the base of the SCTV. This internodal pathway is referred to as the septal cusp pathway. In another experiment, transmembrane potentials and Vmax were determined on each of the AV junctional tissues. Results showed that PNF had the lowest Vmax (2.5 V/sec), followed by AV node (7.0 V/sec) and HB (33 V/sec). This finding showed that PNF, and not the AV node, has the lowest Vmax, suggesting that the PNF has the lowest conductivity among the AV junctional tissues, and this study advances our understanding on the mechanism of AV conduction delay in dog hearts.

  3. Lateral junction dynamics lead the way out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrndt, Martin; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp

    2014-02-01

    Epithelial cell layers need to be tightly regulated to maintain their integrity and correct function. Cell integration into epithelial sheets is now shown to depend on the N-WASP-regulated stabilization of cortical F-actin, which generates distinct patterns of apical-lateral contractility at E-cadherin-based cell-cell junctions.

  4. Soliton excitations in Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomdahl, P. S.; Sørensen, O. H.; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1982-01-01

    on the Nth ZFS yields the frequency Nf1 Coexistence of two adjacent frequencies is found on the third ZFS of the longer junction (L / λJ=6) in a narrow range of bias current as also found in the experiments. Small asymmetries in the experimental environment, a weak magnetic field, e.g., is introduced via...

  5. Gap junction diseases of the skin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steensel, M.A.M. van

    2004-01-01

    Gap junctions are intercellular channels that allow the passage of water, ions, and small molecules. They are involved in quick, short-range messaging between cells and are found in skin, nervous tissue, heart, and muscle. An increasing number of hereditary skin disorders appear to be caused by muta

  6. Fluxon Dynamics in Elliptic Annular Josephson Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monaco, Roberto; Mygind, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of a magnetic flux quantum (current vortex) trapped in a current-biased long planar elliptic annular Josephson tunnel junction. The system is modeled by a perturbed sine-Gordon equation that determines the spatial and temporal behavior of the phase difference across the tu...

  7. Intercellular junctions in nerve-free hydra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDowall, A W; Grimmelikhuijzen, C J

    1980-01-01

    with particles in an "enplaque conformation appearing as a raised plateau on the E-face or as a depression on the P-face; (ii) structures morphologically similar to gap junctions in rat liver, containing particles on the P-face and corresponding pits on the E-face, both having hexagonal packing with a lattice...

  8. All-carbon molecular tunnel junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Haijun; Bergren, Adam Johan; McCreery, Richard L

    2011-11-30

    This Article explores the idea of using nonmetallic contacts for molecular electronics. Metal-free, all-carbon molecular electronic junctions were fabricated by orienting a layer of organic molecules between two carbon conductors with high yield (>90%) and good reproducibility (rsd of current density at 0.5 V carbon devices exhibit current density-voltage (J-V) behavior similar to those with metallic Cu top contacts. However, the all-carbon devices display enhanced stability to bias extremes and greatly improved thermal stability. Completed carbon/nitroazobenzene(NAB)/carbon junctions can sustain temperatures up to 300 °C in vacuum for 30 min and can be scanned at ±1 V for at least 1.2 × 10(9) cycles in air at 100 °C without a significant change in J-V characteristics. Furthermore, these all-carbon devices can withstand much higher voltages and current densities than can Cu-containing junctions, which fail upon oxidation and/or electromigration of the copper. The advantages of carbon contacts stem mainly from the strong covalent bonding in the disordered carbon materials, which resists electromigration or penetration into the molecular layer, and provides enhanced stability. These results highlight the significance of nonmetallic contacts for molecular electronics and the potential for integration of all-carbon molecular junctions with conventional microelectronics.

  9. Mesh Currents and Josephson Junction Arrays

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    A simple but accurate mesh current analysis is performed on a XY model and on a SIMF model to derive the equations for a Josephson junction array. The equations obtained here turn out to be different from other equations already existing in the literature. Moreover, it is shown that the two models come from an unique hidden structure

  10. 注意缺陷多动障碍儿童的右侧颞顶叶联合部全脑功能连接特征%Abnormal patterns of functional connectivity between right temporal parietal junction and whole brain in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王苏文; 邢伟; 陈杰; 王娜; 王苏弘

    2015-01-01

    目的 通过静息态功能连接磁共振成像(functional magnetic resonance imaging, fMRI)来研究注意缺陷多动障碍(attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD)儿童右侧颞顶叶联合部(right temporal parietal junction,rTPJ)与全脑的功能连接特征,从功能网络角度分析ADHD儿童临床症状与神经网络之间的联系.方法 采集30名混合型ADHD儿童及33名正常对照(normal control,NC)儿童静息态下血氧依赖水平(blood oxygenation level dependent,BOLD) fMRI数据,选取rTPJ为感兴趣区,进行功能连接分析比较组内、组间差异及连接强度与注意缺陷评分和多动评分间的关系.结果 rTPJ与全脑功能连接显著区在两组儿童分布相似.与NC组比较,ADHD组rTPJ与全脑功能连接增高区域包括:左侧颞上回(MNI坐标:-33,6,-48)、右侧前扣带回(MNI坐标:6,39,-3)、右侧顶下小叶(MNI坐标:42,-33,30)、左额内侧回(MNI坐标:-3,63,-18);减低区域包括:右侧颞中回(MNI坐标:57,-33,-12)、右侧扣带回(MNI坐标:18,-21,36).相关性分析显示,ADHD组中,rTPJ与全脑功能连接强度的平均值与注意缺陷评分及多动评分呈正相关,而在NC组中,则呈负相关.rTPJ与上述6个脑区间功能连接强度与注意缺陷评分及多动评分存在相关性,但相关性无统计学意义.结论 rTPJ与全脑的异常功能连接可能与ADHD儿童注意力不集中这一临床症状有关.%Objective To investigate the pathophysiological distinction of the functional connectivity between right temporal parietal junction(rTPJ) and whole brain in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging(fMRI) and explore the neurological mechanisms of ADHD at the point of functional connectivity.Methods Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained in 30 children with ADHD from The Third Affiliated Hospital of Soochow Univcrsity and another 33 with age and gender

  11. Salinization of the Upper Colorado River - Fingerprinting Geologic Salt Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Grauch, Richard I.

    2009-01-01

    Salt in the upper Colorado River is of concern for a number of political and socioeconomic reasons. Salinity limits in the 1974 U.S. agreement with Mexico require the United States to deliver Colorado River water of a particular quality to the border. Irrigation of crops, protection of wildlife habitat, and treatment for municipal water along the course of the river also place restrictions on the river's salt content. Most of the salt in the upper Colorado River at Cisco, Utah, comes from interactions of water with rock formations, their derived soil, and alluvium. Half of the salt comes from the Mancos Shale and the Eagle Valley Evaporite. Anthropogenic activities in the river basin (for example, mining, farming, petroleum exploration, and urban development) can greatly accelerate the release of constituents from these geologic materials, thus increasing the salt load of nearby streams and rivers. Evaporative concentration further concentrates these salts in several watersheds where agricultural land is extensively irrigated. Sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate show the greatest promise for fingerprinting the geologic sources of salts to the upper Colorado River and its major tributaries and estimating the relative contribution from each geologic formation. Knowing the salt source, its contribution, and whether the salt is released during natural weathering or during anthropogenic activities, such as irrigation and urban development, will facilitate efforts to lower the salt content of the upper Colorado River.

  12. Zero-voltage nondegenerate parametric mode in Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1976-01-01

    A new parametric mode in a Josephson tunnel junction biased in the zero-voltage mode is suggested. It is a nondegenerate parametric excitation where the junction plasma resonance represents the input circuit, and a junction geometrical resonance represents the idler circuit. This nondegenerate mo...... for such a coupling. Journal of Applied Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  13. Systematic study of shallow junction formation on germanium substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellings, Geert; Rosseel, Erik; Clarysse, Trudo

    2011-01-01

    Published results on Ge junctions are benchmarked systematically using RS–XJ plots. The electrical activation level required to meet the ITRS targets is calculated. Additionally, new results are presented on shallow furnace-annealed B junctions and shallow laser-annealed As junctions. Co-implanti...

  14. Long Josephson Junction Stack Coupled to a Cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Peder; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Groenbech-Jensen, N.

    2007-01-01

    A stack of inductively coupled long Josephson junctions are modeled as a system of coupled sine-Gordon equations. One boundary of the stack is coupled electrically to a resonant cavity. With one fluxon in each Josephson junction, the inter-junction fluxon forces are repulsive. We look at a possible...

  15. Structure Stability of Ⅰ-Type Carbon Nanotube Junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏丹; 袁喆; 李家明

    2002-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes with junctions may play an important role in future ‘nanoelectronics' and future ‘nano devices'.In particular, junctions constructed with metal and semiconducting nanotubes have potential applications. Basedon the orthogonal tight-binding molecular dynamics method, we present our study of the structure stability ofI-type carbon nanotube junctions.

  16. Vacuum Tight Threaded Junctions (VTTJ): A new solution for reliable heterogeneous junctions in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostinetti, P., E-mail: piero.agostinetti@igi.cnr.it; Palma, M. Dalla; Agostini, F. Degli; Marcuzzi, D.; Rizzolo, A.; Rossetto, F.; Sonato, P.; Zaccaria, P.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Heterogeneous junctions represent a critical issue in Nuclear Fusion experiments. • We have developed a new technique for heterogeneous junctions, called VTTJ, whose main advantages are low cost, high reliability and easiness of construction. • The VTTJ junctions have passed all the tests required by ITER for the heterogeneous junctions of the divertor. • Further tests have demonstrated wide margins for operation (up to 700 °C and 500 bar). - Abstract: A new technique, called Vacuum Tight Threaded Junction (VTTJ), has been developed and patented by Consorzio RFX, permitting to obtain low-cost and reliable non-welded junctions, able to maintain vacuum tightness also in heavy loading conditions (high temperature and high mechanical loads). The technique can be applied also if the materials to be joint are not weldable and for heterogeneous junctions (for example, between steel and copper) and has been tested up to 500 bar internal pressure and up to 700 °C, showing excellent leak tightness in vacuum conditions and high mechanical resistance. The main advantages with respect to existing technologies (for example, friction welding and electron beam welding) are an easy construction, a low cost, a precise positioning of the junction and a high repeatability of the process. Due to these advantages, the new technique has been adopted for several components of the SPIDER experiment and it is proposed for ITER, in particular for the ITER Heat and Current Drive Neutral Beam Injector and for its prototype, the MITICA experiment, to be tested at Consorzio RFX. This paper gives a detailed description of the VTTJ technique, of the samples manufactured and of the qualification tests that have been carried out so far.

  17. Graphene junction field-effect transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Tzu-Min; Borsa, Tomoko; van Zeghbroeck, Bart

    2014-03-01

    We have demonstrated for the first time a novel graphene transistor gated by a graphene/semiconductor junction rather than an insulating gate. The transistor operates much like a semiconductor junction Field Effect Transistor (jFET) where the depletion layer charge in the semiconductor modulates the mobile charge in the channel. The channel in our case is the graphene rather than another semiconductor layer. An increased reverse bias of the graphene/n-silicon junction increases the positive charge in the depletion region and thereby reduces the total charge in the graphene. We fabricated individual graphene/silicon junctions as well as graphene jFETs (GjFETs) on n-type (4.5x1015 cm-3) silicon with Cr/Au electrodes and 3 μm gate length. As a control device, we also fabricated back-gated graphene MOSFETs using a 90nm SiO2 on a p-type silicon substrate (1019 cm-3) . The graphene was grown by APCVD on copper foil and transferred with PMMA onto the silicon substrate. The GjFET exhibited an on-off ratio of 3.75, an intrinsic graphene doping of 1.75x1012 cm-2, compared to 1.17x1013 cm-2 in the MOSFET, and reached the Dirac point at 13.5V. Characteristics of the junctions and transistors were measured as a function of temperature and in response to light. Experimental data and a comparison with simulations will be presented.

  18. A Regional Approach to Wildlife Monitoring Related to Energy Exploration and Development in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotliar, Natasha B.; Bowen, Zachary H.; Ouren, Douglas S.; Farmer, Adrian H.

    2008-01-01

    : White River, Glenwood Springs, Kremmling, Grand Junction, and Little Snake. The overall study area was selected to encompass the primary distribution of sagebrush and greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) in Colorado and to provide a larger context for evaluating priority management issues of the White River and Glenwood Springs Field Offices. Within the study area, we selected an additional scale of analysis: the Roan Plateau, an area of increased energy development. We focused our demonstration project on the primary objectives identified by the BLM and other stakeholders: (1) How do we evaluate the cumulative effects of energy development and mitigation activities on species of management interest or concern? (2) How can cumulative effects, including direct and indirect effects, be quantified relative to natural variation? (3) How can we implement compliance and effectiveness monitoring to determine whether lease stipulations are met and restoration/mitigation goals are achieved? We targeted greater sage-grouse because this species was identified as a monitoring priority for the White River Field Office. We also evaluated landscape-level indices to address fragmentation resulting from surface disturbance. The primary purpose of this exercise was to highlight the types of analyses and approaches that could be used to evaluate energy development in an application of the three-phase framework. We provide examples of Phase I products that can be used to guide the refinement of management objectives, development of adaptive management and research frameworks, and planning activities in Phase II. Finally, we report on the BLM's National Sage-Grouse Habitat Conservation Strategy as an example of Phase III activities. The development of an effective monitoring program is a daunting task, and will be difficult to implement by the BLM independently due to the current work load of staff. However, the scientific expertise and experience for developing cr

  19. 76 FR 62833 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-11

    ... 10, 2011. ADDRESSES: Steve Lekson, Curator of Anthropology, University of Colorado Museum, Campus Box... Colorado Museum's curator of anthropology from 1953 to 1988. In November 2009, the human remains (TIN 0290...(c)(1) should contact Steve Lekson, Curator of Anthropology, University of Colorado Museum, Campus...

  20. Latinos in Colorado: A Profile of Culture, Changes, and Challenges. Volume V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Georgia, Ed.; Guajardo, Maria, Ed.

    It is projected that the population of Colorado will increase by 25% between 1990 and 2000. The Latino community will experience a slight increase in the proportion of Colorado's population, and will remain the largest ethnic group over the next 30 years. The chapters in this profile describe the Latino population of Colorado. The following essays…

  1. 76 FR 77549 - Colorado River Indian Tribes-Amendment to Health & Safety Code, Article 2. Liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Colorado River Indian Tribes--Amendment to Health & Safety Code, Article 2... amendment to the Colorado River Tribal Health and Safety Code, Article 2. Liquor, Section 2-403(12). The... liquor ordinances for the purpose of regulating liquor transactions in Indian country. The Colorado...

  2. 77 FR 35617 - Amendment of Class C Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class C Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action modifies the Colorado Springs, CO, Class C...) information for the City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport. The operating requirements remain the...

  3. 77 FR 32393 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO AGENCY: Federal Aviation... date for the amendment of Class E airspace at City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport, Colorado Springs, CO, until September 20, 2012. The FAA is taking this action to allow additional time...

  4. 76 FR 70920 - Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Amendment of Class E Airspace; Colorado Springs...). SUMMARY: This action proposes to amend Class E airspace at City of Colorado Springs Municipal Airport, Colorado Springs, CO. Decommissioning of the Black Forest Tactical Air Navigation System (TACAN) has...

  5. 76 FR 43715 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Colorado Museum has completed... University of Colorado Museum. ] Repatriation of the human remains and associated funerary objects to...

  6. 76 FR 43713 - Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: University of Colorado Museum, Boulder, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The University of Colorado Museum has completed... contact the University of Colorado Museum. Disposition of the human remains and associated funerary...

  7. Wood use in Colorado at the turn of the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis L. Lynch; Kurt Mackes

    2001-01-01

    This study estimates the kinds, uses, amount, and retail value of wood products consumed annually in Colorado from 1997 to 2000. Colorado uses tremendous amounts of wood products, but it imports most of it from other states and countries despite the abundant forests in Colorado that are capable of providing many types of wood products.

  8. Austin Children`s Museum ``Go Power`` project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    Go Power, was conceived as an interactive exhibit and related set of activities designed to promote in children and families an understanding and appreciation of energy concepts. Planned in 1990, the project culminated its first phase of activities with colorful, interactive exhibit about the pathways and transformations of energy, on display at the Austin Children`s Museum between February 5th and June 6th, 1993. The project was supported by the US Department of Energy, the National Science Foundation, the Lower Colorado River Authority and various local foundations and businesses. This report describes the process, product and outcomes of this project.

  9. Oil shale and nahcolite resources of the Piceance Basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    This report presents an in-place assessment of the oil shale and nahcolite resources of the Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin of western Colorado. The Piceance Basin is one of three large structural and sedimentary basins that contain vast amounts of oil shale resources in the Green River Formation of Eocene age. The other two basins, the Uinta Basin of eastern Utah and westernmost Colorado, and the Greater Green River Basin of southwest Wyoming, northwestern Colorado, and northeastern Utah also contain large resources of oil shale in the Green River Formation, and these two basins will be assessed separately. Estimated in-place oil is about 1.5 trillion barrels, based on Fischer a ssay results from boreholes drilled to evaluate oil shale, making it the largest oil shale deposit in the world. The estimated in-place nahcolite resource is about 43.3 billion short tons.

  10. Environmental assessment, expanded Ponnequin wind energy project, Weld County, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has considered a proposal from the State of Colorado, Office of Energy Conservation (OEC), for funding construction of the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project in Weld County, Colorado. OEC plans to enter into a contracting arrangement with Public Service Company of Colorado (PSCo) for the completion of these activities. PSCo, along with its subcontractors and business partners, are jointly developing the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Project. The purpose of this Final Environmental Assessment (EA) is to provide DOE and the public with information on potential environmental impacts associated with the Expanded Ponnequin Wind Energy Project. This EA, and public comments received on it, were used in DOE`s deliberations on whether to release funding for the expanded project under the Commercialization Ventures Program.

  11. Intracaldera volcanism and sedimentation - Creede Caldera, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, G.; Krier, D.; Snow, M.G. [and others

    1997-06-01

    Within the Creede caldera, Colorado, many of the answers to its postcaldera volcanic and sedimentary history lie within the sequence of tuffaceous elastic sedimentary rocks and tuffs known as the Creede Formation. The Creede Formation and its interbedded ash deposits were sampled by research coreholes Creede 1 and 2, drilled during the fall of 1991. In an earlier study of the Creede Formation, based on surface outcrops and shallow mining company coreholes, Heiken and Krier concluded that the process of caldera structural resurgence was rapid and that a caldera lake had developed in an annulus ({open_quotes}moat{close_quotes}) located between the resurgent dome and caldera wall. So far we have a picture of intracaldera activity consisting of intermittent hydrovolcanic eruptions within a caldera lake for the lower third of the Creede Formation, and both magmatic and hydrovolcanic ash eruptions throughout the top two-thirds. Most of the ash deposits interbedded with the moat sedimentary rocks are extremely fine-grained. Ash fallout into the moat lake and unconsolidated ash eroded from caldera walls and the slopes of the resurgent dome were deposited over stream delta distributaries within relatively shallow water in the northwestern moat, and in deeper waters of the northern moat, where the caldera was intersected by a graben. Interbedded with ash beds and tuffaceous siltstones are coarse-grained turbidites from adjacent steep slopes and travertine from fissure ridges adjacent to the moat. Sedimentation rates and provenance for elastic sediments are linked to the frequent volcanic activity in and near the caldera; nearly all of the Creede Formation sedimentary rocks are tuffaceous.

  12. Denitrification in marine shales in northeastern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, P.B.; Böhlke, J.K.; Bruce, B.W.

    1999-01-01

    Parts of the South Platte River alluvial aquifer in northeastern Colorado are underlain by the Pierre Shale, a marine deposit of Late Cretaceous age that is water in the aquifer is contaminated with NO3/-, and the shale contains abundant potential electron donors for denitrification in the forms of organic carbon and sulfide minerals. Nested piezometers were sampled, pore water was squeezed from cores of shale, and an injection test was conducted to determine if denitrification in the shale was a sink for alluvial NO3/- and to measure denitrification rates in the shale. Measured values of NO3/-, N2, NH4/+, ??15[NO3/-], ??15N[N2], and ??15N[NH4/+] in the alluvial and shale pore water indicated that denitrification in the shale was a sink for alluvial NO3/-. Chemical gradients, reaction rate constants, and hydraulic head data indicated that denitrification in the shale was limited by the slow rate of NO3/- transport (possibly by diffusion) into the shale. The apparent in situ first-order rate constant for denitrification in the shale based on diffusion calculations was of the order of 0.04-0.4 yr-1, whereas the potential rate constant in the shale based on injection tests was of the order of 60 yr-1. Chemical data and mass balance calculations indicate that organic carbon was the primary electron donor for denitrification in the shale during the injection test, and ferrous iron was a minor electron donor in the process. Flux calculations for the conditions encountered at the site indicate that denitrification in the shale could remove only a small fraction of the annual agricultural NO3/- input to the alluvial aquifer. However, the relatively large potential first-order rate constant for denitrification in the shale indicated that the percentage of NO3/- uptake by the shale could be considerably larger in areas where NO3/- is transported more rapidly into the shale by advection.

  13. Pattern and mortality in Colorado Desert plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, S J; Howe, H F

    1987-10-01

    We tested for intraspecific interference among Colorado Desert shrubs using an integrated analysis of spatial pattern and juvenile mortality. The data set included 7,000 woody perennials of 24 species in a mapped hectare of Joshua Tree National Monument, California. The site is dominated by Ambrosia dumosa (62.0% of the stems), with Larre tridentata a conspicuous secondary species (2.3% of the stems). Analyses of static pattern for common species showed: (1) aggregated adults and juveniles for Ambrosia dumosa, Erigonum fasciculatum, Mirabilis bigelovii, and Sphaeralcea ambigua, with more aggregation among juveniles than adults; (2) randomly distributed adults and juveniles for Krameria grayi, Opuntia rasmosissima, Simondsia chinensis, and Yucca schidigera. The summed volumes and distances between nearest conspecific neighbors were positively correlated for Ambrosia dumosa and Larrea tridentata, but not significantly correlated for eight remaining species with ≥100 individuals. Static pattern suggests only weak evidence for negative interactions in Ambrosia and Larrea, and little evidence for other species. Alternative mechanisms other than negative interaction that could give rise to these static patterns are discussed. Juvenile mortality was documented for four common species (Ambrosia dumosa, Eriogonum fasciculatum, Mirabilis bigelovii, and Sphaeralcea ambigua) that experienced substantial mortality. Analyses show: (1) the proportion of individuals that died was independent of the initial density of conspecifics; (2) distance to conspecific adults did not differ for juveniles that died versus those that survived; and (3) death was no more likely for juveniles that contacted other plants than for those that were isolated. The exception was a vine, Mirabilis bigelovii, whose juveniles survived better in contact with other plants. In sum, neither spatial pattern nor patterns of mortality showed clear evidence of negative intraspecific interference.

  14. Hydrogen Peroxide in Groundwater at Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, X.; Nico, P. S.; Williams, K. H.; Hobson, C.; Davis, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), as a reactive transient presenting ubiquitously in natural surface waters, can react with a large suite of biologically important and redox-sensitive trace elements. The dominant source of H2O2 in natural waters has long been thought to be photo-oxidation of chromophoric dissolved organic matter by molecular oxygen to produce superoxide radical, which then proceeds via dismutation to generate H2O2. However, recent studies have indicated that dark production of H2O2 in deep seawater, principally by biological production, is potentially on par with photochemical generation. Here, we present evidence for abiotic dark generation of H2O2 in groundwater in an alluvial aquifer adjacent to the Colorado River near Rifle, CO. Background H2O2 concentrations were determined in situ using a sensitive chemiluminescence-based method. Our results suggest H2O2 concentrations ranged from lower than the detection limit (1 nM) to 54 nM in different monitoring wells at the site, and the concentrations exhibited close correlations with profiles of dissolved oxygen and iron concentrations in the wells, indicating a possible metal redox cycling mechanism. In addition, dissolved natural organic matter, which could potentially coordinate the interconversion of ferric and ferrous species, might also play an important role in H2O2 formation. While biologically mediated activities have been recognized as the major sink of H2O2, the detected H2O2 pattern in groundwater suggests the existence of a balance between H2O2 source and decay, which potentially involves a cascade of biogeochemically significant processes, including the interconversion of ferrous/ferric species, the generation of more reactive oxygen species, such as hydroxyl radical, the depletion of dissolved oxygen and further transformation of natural organic matter and other chemical pollutants.

  15. Colorado Lights: Exploring the Sun-Earth Connection through Art and Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Possel, T.; Cobabe-Ammann, E.; Wood, E.; Becker, K.

    2007-12-01

    Over the last decade, it has become increasingly clear that science can be an important way to excite children about reading, writing and the arts. The natural beauty that science represents inspires students to both think about the world around them and strive to find the words and images that communicate their excitement. Colorado Lights is a new program that provides a set of five activities for students in Grades 3 through 5 to explore the beauty, science and mythology of the aurora creatively through art and writing. This standards-based, flexible 'plug-and-play' program is based on the latest research on bringing science into the literacy and art classroom. It can be used as a complete sequence of lessons or can be used as guidelines for teachers to develop their own activities.

  16. The Colorado Plateau II: biophysical, socioeconomic, and cultural research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattson, David J.; van Riper, Charles

    2005-01-01

    The publication of The Colorado Plateau: Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research in 2004 marked a timely summation of current research in the Four Corners states. This new volume, derived from the seventh Biennial Conference on the Colorado Plateau in 2003, complements the previous book by focusing on the integration of science into resource management issues. The 32 chapters range in content from measuring human impacts on cultural resources, through grazing and the wildland-urban interface issues, to parameters of climate change on the Plateau. The book also introduces economic perspectives by considering shifting patterns and regional disparities in the Colorado Plateau economy. A series of chapters on mountain lions explores the human-wildland interface. These chapters deal with the entire spectrum of challenges associated with managing this large mammal species in Arizona and on the Colorado Plateau, conveying a wealth of timely information of interest to wildlife managers and enthusiasts. Another provocative set of chapters on biophysical resources explores the management of forest restoration, from the micro scale all the way up to large-scale GIS analyses of ponderosa pine ecosystems on the Colorado Plateau. Given recent concerns for forest health in the wake of fires, severe drought, and bark-beetle infestation, these chapters will prove enlightening for forest service, park service, and land management professionals at both the federal and state level, as well as general readers interested in how forest management practices will ultimately affect their recreation activities. With broad coverage that touches on topics as diverse as movement patterns of rattlesnakes, calculating watersheds, and rescuing looted rockshelters, this volume stands as a compendium of cutting-edge research on the Colorado Plateau that offers a wealth of insights for many scholars.

  17. Planar Josephson tunnel junctions in a transverse magnetic field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monacoa, R.; Aarøe, Morten; Mygind, Jesper

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally, since the discovery of the Josephson effect in 1962, the magnetic diffraction pattern of planar Josephson tunnel junctions has been recorded with the field applied in the plane of the junction. Here we discuss the static junction properties in a transverse magnetic field where...... demagnetization effects imposed by the tunnel barrier and electrodes geometry are important. Measurements of the junction critical current versus magnetic field in planar Nb-based high-quality junctions with different geometry, size, and critical current density show that it is advantageous to use a transverse...

  18. The computation of first order moments on junction trees

    CERN Document Server

    Djuric, Milos B; Stankovic, Miomir S

    2012-01-01

    We review some existing methods for the computation of first order moments on junction trees using Shafer-Shenoy algorithm. First, we consider the problem of first order moments computation as vertices problem in junction trees. In this way, the problem is solved using the memory space of an order of the junction tree edge-set cardinality. After that, we consider two algorithms, Lauritzen-Nilsson algorithm, and Mau\\'a et al. algorithm, which computes the first order moments as the normalization problem in junction tree, using the memory space of an order of the junction tree leaf-set cardinality.

  19. Transgenic resistance of eggplants to the Colorado potato beetle

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the use of transgenic plant resistance as a method to control the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say in eggplant. The gene conferring resistance is coding for a Cry3B toxin and it is a synthetic version of a wild-type gene originally obtained from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis Berl.Eggplant cultivations are constantly attacked by a number of serious pests (e.g. the fruit and shoot borer, the Colorado potato beetle, soil-borne fungi)...

  20. 75 FR 45654 - Notice of Intent to Repatriate a Cultural Item: Taylor Museum of the Colorado Springs Fine Arts...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... National Park Service Notice of Intent to Repatriate a Cultural Item: Taylor Museum of the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center, Colorado Springs, CO AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. Notice... the Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center, Colorado Springs, CO, that meets the definition of object...

  1. 76 FR 34711 - Notice of Hearing; Reconsideration of Disapproval of Colorado State Plan Amendments (SPA) 10-034

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... Disapproval of Colorado State Plan Amendments (SPA) 10-034 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services..., Suite 700, Denver, Colorado 80202-4367 to reconsider CMS' decision to disapprove Colorado SPA 10-034...: This notice announces an administrative hearing to reconsider CMS' decision to disapprove Colorado SPA...

  2. Assessment of surface-water quantity and quality, Eagle River watershed, Colorado, 1947-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Cory A.; Moore, Jennifer L.; Richards, Rodney J.

    2011-01-01

    From the early mining days to the current tourism-based economy, the Eagle River watershed (ERW) in central Colorado has undergone a sequence of land-use changes that has affected the hydrology, habitat, and water quality of the area. In 2000, the USGS, in cooperation with the Colorado River Water Conservation District, Eagle County, Eagle River Water and Sanitation District, Upper Eagle Regional Water Authority, Colorado Department of Transportation, City of Aurora, Town of Eagle, Town of Gypsum, Town of Minturn, Town of Vail, Vail Resorts, City of Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs Utilities, and Denver Water, initiated a retrospective analysis of surface-water quantity and quality in the ERW.

  3. String networks with junctions in competition models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino, P. P.; Bazeia, D.; Losano, L.; Menezes, J.; de Oliveira, B. F.

    2017-03-01

    In this work we give specific examples of competition models, with six and eight species, whose three-dimensional dynamics naturally leads to the formation of string networks with junctions, associated with regions that have a high concentration of enemy species. We study the two- and three-dimensional evolution of such networks, both using stochastic network and mean field theory simulations. If the predation, reproduction and mobility probabilities do not vary in space and time, we find that the networks attain scaling regimes with a characteristic length roughly proportional to t 1 / 2, where t is the physical time, thus showing that the presence of junctions, on its own, does not have a significant impact on their scaling properties.

  4. Vibrational Heat Transport in Molecular Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Dvira; Agarwalla, Bijay Kumar

    2016-05-01

    We review studies of vibrational energy transfer in a molecular junction geometry, consisting of a molecule bridging two heat reservoirs, solids or large chemical compounds. This setup is of interest for applications in molecular electronics, thermoelectrics, and nanophononics, and for addressing basic questions in the theory of classical and quantum transport. Calculations show that system size, disorder, structure, dimensionality, internal anharmonicities, contact interaction, and quantum coherent effects are factors that combine to determine the predominant mechanism (ballistic/diffusive), effectiveness (poor/good), and functionality (linear/nonlinear) of thermal conduction at the nanoscale. We review recent experiments and relevant calculations of quantum heat transfer in molecular junctions. We recount the Landauer approach, appropriate for the study of elastic (harmonic) phononic transport, and outline techniques that incorporate molecular anharmonicities. Theoretical methods are described along with examples illustrating the challenge of reaching control over vibrational heat conduction in molecules.

  5. String networks with junctions in competition models

    CERN Document Server

    Avelino, P P; Losano, L; Menezes, J; de Oliveira, B F

    2016-01-01

    In this work we give specific examples of competition models, with six and eight species, whose three-dimensional dynamics naturally leads to the formation of string networks with junctions, associated with regions that have a high concentration of enemy species. We study the two- and three-dimensional evolution of such networks, both using stochastic network and mean field theory simulations. If the predation, reproduction and mobility probabilities do not vary in space and time, we find that the networks attain scaling regimes with a characteristic length roughly proportional to $t^{1/2}$, where $t$ is the physical time, thus showing that the presence of junctions, on its own, does not have a significant impact on their scaling properties.

  6. Junction between surfaces of two topological insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Diptiman; Deb, Oindrila

    2012-02-01

    We study scattering from a line junction which separates the surfaces of two three-dimensional topological insulators; some aspects of this problem were recently studied in Takahashi and Murakami, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 166805 (2011). The velocities of the Dirac electrons on the two surfaces may be unequal and may even have opposite signs; in the latter case, we find that the electrons must, in general, go into the two-dimensional interface separating the two topological insulators. We also study what happens if the two surfaces are at an angle φ with respect to each other. We find in this case that there are bound states which propagate along the line junction with a velocity and direction of spin which depend on the bending angle φ.

  7. Current distributions in stripe Majorana junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osca, Javier; Llorenç, Serra

    2017-02-01

    We calculate current and density distributions in stripe (2D planar) junctions between normal and Majorana nanowires having a finite ( y) transverse length. In presence of a magnetic field with vertical and in-plane components, the y-symmetry of the charge current distribution in the normal lead changes strongly across the Majorana phase transition: from center-symmetric if a Majorana mode is present to laterally-shifted (as expected by the Hall effect) if the field is tilted such as to destroy the Majorana mode due to the projection rule. We compare quasi-particle and charge distributions of current and density, as well as spin magnetizations. The Majorana mode causes opposite spin accumulations on the transverse sides of the junction and the emergence of a spin current.

  8. Boson Josephson Junction with Trapped Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, S.; Smerzi, A.; Fantoni, S.; Shenoy, S. R.

    We consider coherent atomic tunneling between two weakly coupled Bose-Einstein condensates at T=0 in a double-well trap. The condensate dynamics of the macroscopic amplitudes in the two wells is modeled by two Gross-Pitaevskii equations (GPE) coupled by a tunneling matrix element. Analytic elliptic function solutions are obtained for the time evolution of the inter-well fractional population imbalance z(t) (related to the condensate phase difference) of the Boson Josephson junction (BJJ). Surprisingly, the neutral-atom BJJ shows (non-sinusoidal generalizations of) effects seen in charged-electron superconductor Josephson junctions (SJJ). The BJJ elliptic-function behavior has a singular dependence on a GPE parameter ratio Λ at a critical ratio Λ=Λc, beyond which a novel 'macroscopic quantum self-trapping' effect sets in with a non-zero time-averaged imbalance ≠0.

  9. Non-Lagrangian theories from brane junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Ling [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Mitev, Vladimir [Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Mathematik und Inst. fuer Physik; Pomoni, Elli [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Taki, Masato [RIKEN Nishina Center, Saitama (Japan). Mathematical Physics Lab.; Yagi, Futoshi [International School of Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste (Italy); INFN, Trieste (Italy); Korea Institute for Advanced Study (KIAS), Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this article we use 5-brane junctions to study the 5D T{sub N} SCFTs corresponding to the 5D N=1 uplift of the 4D N=2 strongly coupled gauge theories, which are obtained by compactifying N M5 branes on a sphere with three full punctures. Even though these theories have no Lagrangian description, by using the 5-brane junctions proposed by Benini, Benvenuti and Tachikawa, we are able to derive their Seiberg-Witten curves and Nekrasov partition functions. We cross-check our results with the 5D superconformal index proposed by Kim, Kim and Lee. Through the AGTW correspondence, we discuss the relations between 5D superconformal indices and n-point functions of the q-deformed W{sub N} Toda theories.

  10. An Important Member of Tight Junctions: Claudins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Demirpence

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The tight junction (TJs, the most apically located of the intercellular junctional complexes, inhibits solute and water flow through the paracellular space, termed the %u201Cbarrier%u201D function. TJs participate in signal transduction mechanisms that regulate epithelial cell proliferation, gene expression, differentiation and morphogenesis. The claudin family of transmembrane proteins localized to the TJ. Loss of expression of Claudin causes of suppression TJs function. Recent studies have shown that altered levels of the different claudins may be related to invasion and progression of carcinoma cells in several primary neoplasms. A better knowledge of the mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis will likely result in the development of novel approaches for the diagnosis and therapy.

  11. Electron transport in doped fullerene molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Milanpreet; Sawhney, Ravinder Singh; Engles, Derick

    The effect of doping on the electron transport of molecular junctions is analyzed in this paper. The doped fullerene molecules are stringed to two semi-infinite gold electrodes and analyzed at equilibrium and nonequilibrium conditions of these device configurations. The contemplation is done using nonequilibrium Green’s function (NEGF)-density functional theory (DFT) to evaluate its density of states (DOS), transmission coefficient, molecular orbitals, electron density, charge transfer, current, and conductance. We conclude from the elucidated results that Au-C16Li4-Au and Au-C16Ne4-Au devices behave as an ordinary p-n junction diode and a Zener diode, respectively. Moreover, these doped fullerene molecules do not lose their metallic nature when sandwiched between the pair of gold electrodes.

  12. Charge Transport Phenomena in Peptide Molecular Junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Luchini

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS is a valuable in situ spectroscopic analysis technique that provides a direct portrait of the electron transport properties of a molecular species. In the past, IETS has been applied to small molecules. Using self-assembled nanoelectronic junctions, IETS was performed for the first time on a large polypeptide protein peptide in the phosphorylated and native form, yielding interpretable spectra. A reproducible 10-fold shift of the I/V characteristics of the peptide was observed upon phosphorylation. Phosphorylation can be utilized as a site-specific modification to alter peptide structure and thereby influence electron transport in peptide molecular junctions. It is envisioned that kinases and phosphatases may be used to create tunable systems for molecular electronics applications, such as biosensors and memory devices.

  13. Beyond Colorado's Front Range - A new look at Laramide basin subsidence, sedimentation, and deformation in north-central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James C.; Trexler, James H.; Cashman, Patricia H.; Miller, Ian M.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Cosca, Michael A.; Workman, Jeremiah B.

    2010-01-01

    This field trip highlights recent research into the Laramide uplift, erosion, and sedimentation on the western side of the northern Colorado Front Range. The Laramide history of the North Park?Middle Park basin (designated the Colorado Headwaters Basin in this paper) is distinctly different from that of the Denver basin on the eastern flank of the range. The Denver basin stratigraphy records the transition from Late Cretaceous marine shale to recessional shoreline sandstones to continental, fluvial, marsh, and coal mires environments, followed by orogenic sediments that span the K-T boundary. Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene strata in the Denver basin consist of two mega-fan complexes that are separated by a 9 million-year interval of erosion/non-deposition between about 63 and 54 Ma. In contrast, the marine shale unit on the western flank of the Front Range was deeply eroded over most of the area of the Colorado Headwaters Basin (approximately one km removed) prior to any orogenic sediment accumulation. New 40Ar-39Ar ages indicate the oldest sediments on the western flank of the Front Range were as young as about 61 Ma. They comprise the Windy Gap Volcanic Member of the Middle Park Formation, which consists of coarse, immature volcanic conglomerates derived from nearby alkalic-mafic volcanic edifices that were forming at about 65?61 Ma. Clasts of Proterozoic granite, pegmatite, and gneiss (eroded from the uplifted core of the Front Range) seem to arrive in the Colorado Headwaters Basin at different times in different places, but they become dominant in arkosic sandstones and conglomerates about one km above the base of the Colorado Headwaters Basin section. Paleocurrent trends suggest the southern end of the Colorado Headwaters Basin was structurally closed because all fluvial deposits show a northward component of transport. Lacustrine depositional environments are indicated by various sedimentological features in several sections within the >3 km of sediment

  14. Peltier Junction heats and cools car seat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottschalk, M.A.

    1994-10-10

    Electrically heated seats may soon become heated and cooled seats. The design called the CCS module exploits the heat-pump capability of a class of semiconductor thermoelectric devices (TEDs) known as Peltier Junction. Every CCS module contain two TEDs. Heating and cooling occurs through convection and conduction. The heart of the system is the thermoelectric heat pump. This is originally conceived as the sole heating/cooling options for a prototype electric vehicle.

  15. Josephson junction microwave modulators for qubit control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naaman, O.; Strong, J. A.; Ferguson, D. G.; Egan, J.; Bailey, N.; Hinkey, R. T.

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate Josephson junction based double-balanced mixer and phase shifter circuits operating at 6-10 GHz and integrate these components to implement both a monolithic amplitude/phase vector modulator and an I/Q quadrature mixer. The devices are actuated by flux signals, dissipate no power on chip, exhibit input saturation powers in excess of 1 nW, and provide cryogenic microwave modulation solutions for integrated control of superconducting qubits.

  16. Internal dynamics of long Josephson junction oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Peter Leth; Lomdahl, P. S.; Scott, Alwyn C.;

    1981-01-01

    Numerical computations on a sine-Gordon model of the Josephson junction fluxon oscillator are compared with experimental measurements. Good agreement is found for the voltage current characteristic, oscillator power output, and range of current bias over which oscillation is observed. Our numeric...... results imply a ''bunched-fluxon'' mode of oscillation at larger values of bias current. Applied Physics Letters is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  17. Decreased Vision and Junctional Scotoma from Pituicytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Huynh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Pituicytomas are rare neoplasms of the sellar region. We report a case of vision loss and a junctional scotoma in a 43-year-old woman caused by compression of the optic chiasm by a pituitary tumor. The morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics of the tumor were consistent with the diagnosis of pituicytoma. The tumor was debulked surgically, and the patient’s vision improved.

  18. Brownian refrigeration by hybrid tunnel junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Peltonen, J. T.; Helle, M.; Timofeev, A. V.; Solinas, P.; Hekking, F. W. J.; Pekola, Jukka P.

    2011-01-01

    Voltage fluctuations generated in a hot resistor can cause extraction of heat from a colder normal metal electrode of a hybrid tunnel junction between a normal metal and a superconductor. We extend the analysis presented in Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 210604 (2007) of this heat rectifying system, bearing resemblance to a Maxwell’s demon. Explicit analytic calculations show that the entropy of the total system is always increasing. We then consider a single-electron transistor configuration with two ...

  19. RADIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF CRANIOVERTEBRAL JUNCTION ANOMALIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joji Reddy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Detailed discussions of the CVJ are conspicuously absent in many standard textbooks and chapters addressing the skull or cervical spine, since it lies in between these regions . CVJ anomalies are common in India subcontinent. OBJECTIVES : To outline the normal anatomy and various abnormalities of craniovertebral junction. To evaluate the most common developmental and acquired craniovertebral junction abnormalities . CRANIOMETRY AND DIAGNOSIS: Radiological evaluation of CVJ requir es identification of only a few anatomic structures. Over the years multiple lines , planes and angles have been described for assessment of CVJ relationship , initially with radiography and later with polytomography. Two lines have remained particularly use ful for evaluation of CVJ relationship with virtually any imaging modality: the chamberlain`s line and weckenheim ’ s clivus base line . Two angles also continue to be useful: the welcher basal angle and atlanto occipital joint axis angle. PATIENTS AND METHOD S: The prospective study of craniovertebral junction anomalies was carried out at Kurnool medical college , Governament general hospital Kurnool from NOV 2012 to AUG 2014. The patients are subjected to clinical evaluation and radiological evaluation. OBSERV ATIONS AND RESULTS : In our study there is male predominance with male to female ratio of 2:1 . Majority of patients are in the age group of 11 - 40 (73.26%. The commonest symptom seen is weakness of extremities ( 70% with associated numbness (50%. On clinica l examination pyramidal tract involvement noticed in 70% of cases. Basilar invagination is the most common followed by Atlantoocoipital assimilation (40% and AAD (30% . CONCLUSION : Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are invalvable adjuncts to the plain radiographs in the evaluation of the craniovertebral junction anomalies. Chamberlain’s line and McGregor line are the most commonly applied craniometric measurements

  20. Interfacial capacitance effects in magnetic tunneling junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Landry, G; Du, J; Xiao, J Q

    2001-01-01

    We have investigated the AC transport properties of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ) in order to characterize interfacial properties. One such property is interfacial charge accumulation, which leads to a voltage drop in the electrodes of the MTJ and the measured capacitance differing from the geometrical capacitance. Through measurement of capacitance spectra, we have extracted an interfacial capacitance of 16 mu F/cm sup 2 per interface and a screening length of 0.55 A for FeNi electrodes.

  1. Gap junction channels and cardiac impulse propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desplantez, Thomas; Dupont, Emmanuel; Severs, Nicholas J; Weingart, Robert

    2007-08-01

    The role of gap junction channels on cardiac impulse propagation is complex. This review focuses on the differential expression of connexins in the heart and the biophysical properties of gap junction channels under normal and disease conditions. Structural determinants of impulse propagation have been gained from biochemical and immunocytochemical studies performed on tissue extracts and intact cardiac tissue. These have defined the distinctive connexin coexpression patterns and relative levels in different cardiac tissues. Functional determinants of impulse propagation have emerged from electrophysiological experiments carried out on cell pairs. The static properties (channel number and conductance) limit the current flow between adjacent cardiomyocytes and thus set the basic conduction velocity. The dynamic properties (voltage-sensitive gating and kinetics of channels) are responsible for a modulation of the conduction velocity during propagated action potentials. The effect is moderate and depends on the type of Cx and channel. For homomeric-homotypic channels, the influence is small to medium; for homomeric-heterotypic channels, it is medium to strong. Since no data are currently available on heteromeric channels, their influence on impulse propagation is speculative. The modulation by gap junction channels is most prominent in tissues at the boundaries between cardiac tissues such as sinoatrial node-atrial muscle, atrioventricular node-His bundle, His bundle-bundle branch and Purkinje fibers-ventricular muscle. The data predict facilitation of orthodromic propagation.

  2. Gap Junctions: The Claymore for Cancerous Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailar Nakhlband

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gap junctions play an important role in the cell proliferation in mammalian cells as well as carcinogenesis. However, there are controversial issues about their role in cancer pathogenesis. This study was designed to evaluate genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of Carbenoxolone (CBX as a prototype of inter-cellular gap junction blocker in MCF7 and BT20 human breast cancer cells. Methods: The MCF7and BT20 human breast cancer cell lines were cultivated, and treated at designated confluency with different doses of CBX. Cellular cytotoxicity was examined using standard colorimetric assay associated with cell viability tests. Gene expression evaluation was carried out using real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: MCF7 and BT20 cells were significantly affected by CBX in a dose dependent manner in cell viability assays. Despite varying expression of genes, down regulation of pro- and anti-apoptotic genes was observed in these cells. Conclusion: Based upon this investigation, it can be concluded that CBX could affect both low and high proliferative types of breast cancer cell lines and disproportionate down regulation of both pre- and anti-apoptotic genes may be related to interacting biomolecules, perhaps via gap junctions.

  3. Molecular beam epitaxy growth of germanium junctions for multi-junction solar cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, T.; Faucher, J.; Lee, M. L.

    2016-11-01

    We report on the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth and device characteristics of Ge solar cells. Integrating a Ge bottom cell beneath a lattice-matched triple junction stack grown by MBE could enable ultra-high efficiencies without metamorphic growth or wafer bonding. However, a diffused junction cannot be readily formed in Ge by MBE due to the low sticking coefficient of group-V molecules on Ge surfaces. We therefore realized Ge junctions by growth of homo-epitaxial n-Ge on p-Ge wafers within a standard III-V MBE system. We then fabricated Ge solar cells, finding growth temperature and post-growth annealing to be key factors for achieving high efficiency. Open-circuit voltage and fill factor values of ~0.175 V and ~0.59 without a window layer were obtained, both of which are comparable to diffused Ge junctions formed by metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy. We also demonstrate growth of high-quality, single-domain GaAs on the Ge junction, as needed for subsequent growth of III-V subcells, and that the surface passivation afforded by the GaAs layer slightly improves the Ge cell performance.

  4. Evaluation of Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, K. A.; Yale, M. S.; Bennett, D. E.; Haugan, M. P.; Bryan, L. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey (CLASS) is a widely used instrument designed to measure student attitudes toward physics and learning physics. Previous research revealed a fairly complex factor structure. In this study, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on data from an undergraduate introductory…

  5. The Colorado Gambling Boom: An Experiment in Rural Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokowski, Patricia A.

    1992-01-01

    Three small Colorado towns that faced a declining economy as the mining resource ran out used gambling-based tourism as a strategy for community development. Although economic benefits to the towns have far exceeded expectations, negative social, environmental, and political changes, such as crime alcoholism, traffic problems, and conflicts…

  6. Discovery of cryptic Armillaria solidipes genotypes within the Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. W. Hanna; N. B. Klopfenstein; M. -S. Kim; S. M. Ashiglar; A. L. Ross-Davis; G. I. McDonald

    2012-01-01

    Armillaria solidipes (= A. ostoyae) is a root-disease pathogen that causes severe losses in growth and productivity of forest trees throughout the Northern Hemisphere. This species is genetically diverse with variable disease activities across different regions of the world. In North America, A. solidipes in the Colorado Plateau exists in drier habitats and causes more...

  7. Colorado's Millennial Generation: Youth Perceptions and Experiences of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses survey and focus group methods to explore attitudes toward and experiences of nature among millennial-aged students in northern Colorado. First, results confirm that young people possess a strong interest in the outdoors yet time, transportation, and new technologies hamper their ability to visit public lands and outdoor spaces.…

  8. Ray D. Nixon plant built below budget. [Colorado Springs, CO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGlasson, W.J.

    1980-12-01

    The Ray D. Nixon plant was built in Colorado Springs at about $250,000 below the $100 million budgeted. Permit and operating deadlines provided important incentives to maintain the construction schedule, requiring intensive management efforts to keep cooperation and productivity high. The plant is also a model for environmental and wildlife protection. (DCK)

  9. Public School-Public Library Cooperation in Sheridan, Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelver, Ann E.

    The Arapahoe Regional Library District and the Sheridan School District, in Colorado, cooperated in developing a library to serve both high school students and the general community. Initially funded by a Library Services and Construction Act grant, this cooperative venture succeeded because of the intense preplanning done by school and library…

  10. Transgenic resistance of eggplants to the Colorado potato beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arpaia, S.

    1999-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is the use of transgenic plant resistance as a method to control the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say in eggplant. The gene conferring resistance is coding for a Cry3B toxin and it is a synthetic version of a wild-type gene originally obtained from the

  11. An Evaluation of Colorado's College Opportunity Fund and Related Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    During the spring of 2004, the State of Colorado enacted legislation that fundamentally changed the mechanisms through which it financed its public higher education system, beginning with the 2005-06 academic year. Rather than appropriating funds directly to institutions, the legislation created the College Opportunity Fund (COF), the principal…

  12. Colorado's Millennial Generation: Youth Perceptions and Experiences of Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Karen S.

    2012-01-01

    This study uses survey and focus group methods to explore attitudes toward and experiences of nature among millennial-aged students in northern Colorado. First, results confirm that young people possess a strong interest in the outdoors yet time, transportation, and new technologies hamper their ability to visit public lands and outdoor spaces.…

  13. 78 FR 60008 - Colorado Disaster Number CO-00065

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... ADMINISTRATION Colorado Disaster Number CO-00065 AGENCY: U.S. Small Business Administration. ACTION: Amendment 2... applications to: U.S. Small Business Administration, Processing And Disbursement Center, 14925 Kingsport Road.... Small Business Administration, 409 3rd Street SW., Suite 6050, Washington, DC 20416....

  14. 77 FR 40630 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that... competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920,...

  15. Colorado Plateau magmatism and uplift by warming of heterogeneous lithosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mousumi; Jordan, Thomas H; Pederson, Joel

    2009-06-18

    The forces that drove rock uplift of the low-relief, high-elevation, tectonically stable Colorado Plateau are the subject of long-standing debate. While the adjacent Basin and Range province and Rio Grande rift province underwent Cenozoic shortening followed by extension, the plateau experienced approximately 2 km of rock uplift without significant internal deformation. Here we propose that warming of the thicker, more iron-depleted Colorado Plateau lithosphere over 35-40 Myr following mid-Cenozoic removal of the Farallon plate from beneath North America is the primary mechanism driving rock uplift. In our model, conductive re-equilibration not only explains the rock uplift of the plateau, but also provides a robust geodynamic interpretation of observed contrasts between the Colorado Plateau margins and the plateau interior. In particular, the model matches the encroachment of Cenozoic magmatism from the margins towards the plateau interior at rates of 3-6 km Myr(-1) and is consistent with lower seismic velocities and more negative Bouguer gravity at the margins than in the plateau interior. We suggest that warming of heterogeneous lithosphere is a powerful mechanism for driving epeirogenic rock uplift of the Colorado Plateau and may be of general importance in plate-interior settings.

  16. 75 FR 52649 - Radio Broadcasting Services; DeBeque, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 . Radio Broadcasting Services; DeBeque, Colorado AGENCY: Federal Communications... Congressional Review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. 0 As stated in the preamble, the Federal Communications Commission amends 47 CFR part 73...

  17. 78 FR 37474 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Dove Creek, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Dove Creek, Colorado AGENCY: Federal Communications... CFR Part 73 Radio, Radio broadcasting. Federal Communications Commission. Nazifa Sawez, Chief, Audio... amends 47 CFR part 73 as follows: PART 73--RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES 0 1. The authority citation for...

  18. Ammonia sources, transport, and deposition in northern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, J. L., Jr.; Benedict, K. B.; Li, Y.; Shao, Y.; Wentworth, G.; Sullivan, A.; Evanoski-Cole, A. R.; Bangs, E.; Murphy, J. G.; Schichtel, B. A.

    2016-12-01

    Expanded measurements of ammonia in northern Colorado are providing new insight into ammonia sources in the region, their spatial variability, and their contributions to reactive nitrogen deposition in sensitive regions such as Rocky Mountain National Park (RMNP). Regional ammonia concentrations have been examined through a combination of a passive ammonia monitoring network, through mobile measurements, and through an east-west transect of real-time ammonia monitors stretching from the agricultural source region of NE Colorado through the Rocky Mountain foothills west of the Front Range urban corridor, to Rocky Mountain National Park. Several years of ammonia observations in NE Colorado reveal considerable concentration variability, with the highest concentrations observed near animal feeding observations. Multi-year concentration increases have been observed at some locations and significant decreases at other locations, but most sites exhibit no significant long-term trends. Ammonia concentrations in RMNP are strongly influenced by episodic transport from ammonia-rich NE Colorado, but an imprtant influence is also observed from wildfire emissions. Local recylcing of boundary layer ammonia through formation and evaporation of dew also exerts a strong influence on local concentrations, a phenomenon that has received little prior attention.

  19. USDA-ARS Colorado maize water productivity data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-Agricultural Research Service conducted a water productivity field trial for irrigated maize in northeastern Colorado in 2008 through 2011. The dataset, which is available online from the USDA National Agricultural Library, includes measurements of irrigation, precipitation, soil water sto...

  20. Updated streamflow reconstructions for the Upper Colorado River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, C.A.; Gray, S.T.; Meko, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    Updated proxy reconstructions of water year (October-September) streamflow for four key gauges in the Upper Colorado River Basin were generated using an expanded tree ring network and longer calibration records than in previous efforts. Reconstructed gauges include the Green River at Green River, Utah; Colorado near Cisco, Utah; San Juan near Bluff, Utah; and Colorado at Lees Ferry, Arizona. The reconstructions explain 72-81% of the variance in the gauge records, and results are robust across several reconstruction approaches. Time series plots as well as results of cross-spectral analysis indicate strong spatial coherence in runoff variations across the subbasins. The Lees Ferry reconstruction suggests a higher long-term mean than previous reconstructions but strongly supports earlier findings that Colorado River allocations were based on one of the wettest periods in the past 5 centuries and that droughts more severe than any 20th to 21st century event occurred in the past. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. The Colorado Plateau IV: shaping conservation through science and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakeling, Brian F.; Sisk, Thomas D.; van Riper, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Roughly centered on the Four Corners region of the southwestern United States, the Colorado Plateau covers some 130,000 square miles of sparsely vegetated plateaus, mesas, canyons, arches, and cliffs in Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico. With elevations ranging from 3,000 to 14,000 feet, the natural systems found within the plateau are dramatically varied, from desert to alpine conditions. This book focuses on the integration of science and resource management issues in this unique and highly varied environment. Broken into three subsections, this volume addresses conservation biology, biophysical resources, and inventory and monitoring concerns. The chapters range in content, addressing conservation issues–past, present, and future–on the Colorado Plateau, measurement of human impacts on resources, grazing and wildland-urban interfaces, and tools and methods for monitoring habitats and species. An informative read for people interested in the conservation and natural history of the region, the book will also serve as a valuable reference for those people engaged in the management of cultural and biological resources of the Colorado Plateau, as well as scientists interested in methods and tools for land and resource management throughout the West.

  2. The Social Work Research Center at Colorado State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winokur, Marc A.; Valentine, Deborah P.; Drendel, James M.

    2009-01-01

    The Social Work Research Center is an innovative university-community partnership within the School of Social Work in the College of Applied Human Sciences at Colorado State University. The center is focused on working with county and state child welfare agencies to generate applied research that translates into evidence-based practice for serving…

  3. Colorado Model Content Standards for Theatre: Suggested Grade Level Expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    This booklet lists six model content standards in theater arts for elementary and secondary school students in the state of Colorado. The six standards cited in the booklet are: (1) Students develop interpersonal skills and problem-solving capabilities through group interaction and artistic collaboration; (2) Students understand and apply the…

  4. Aspects of host-plant relationship of the Colorado beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bongers, W.

    1970-01-01

    Host plant choice, suitability of and conditioning to the host in Leptinotarsa decemlineata SAY were studied under controlled conditions.

    The literature on historical and geographical distribution of the Colorado beetle has been reviewed and an extensive survey is given of the

  5. The Colorado Gambling Boom: An Experiment in Rural Community Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokowski, Patricia A.

    1992-01-01

    Three small Colorado towns that faced a declining economy as the mining resource ran out used gambling-based tourism as a strategy for community development. Although economic benefits to the towns have far exceeded expectations, negative social, environmental, and political changes, such as crime alcoholism, traffic problems, and conflicts…

  6. Telehealth: Families Finding Ways to Connect in Rural Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Kristen

    2011-01-01

    JFK Partners, at the University of Colorado Denver, School of Medicine, is currently implementing a study on the use of telehealth (receiving treatment or services using videoconferencing technology, such as Skype) and youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and anxiety. The study is an exploratory grant from Health Resources and Services…

  7. Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of Building 1 at the Grand Junction Projects Office Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widdop, M.R.

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot milling experiments conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJPO Remedial Action Project to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor for the facility, Rust Geotech, also is the remedial action contractor. Building 1 was found to be radiologically contaminated and was demolished in 1996. The soil beneath and adjacent to the building was remediated in accordance with identified standards and can be released for unlimited exposure and unrestricted use. This document was prepared in response to a DOE request for an individual final report for each contaminated GJPO building.

  8. Final report of the decontamination and decommissioning of Building 18 at the Grand Junction Projects Office Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widdop, M.R.

    1996-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) occupies a 61.7-acre facility along the Gunnison River near Grand Junction, Colorado. This site was contaminated with uranium ore and mill tailings during uranium refining activities of the Manhattan Engineer District and during pilot milling experiments conducted for the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s domestic uranium procurement program. The DOE Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning Program established the GJPO Remedial Action Project to clean up and restore the facility lands, improvements, and the underlying aquifer. The site contractor for the facility, Rust Geotech, also is the remedial action contractor. The soil beneath Building 18 was found to be radiologically contaminated; the building was not contaminated. The soil was remediated in accordance with identified standards. Building 18 and the underlying soil can be released for unlimited exposure and unrestricted use. This document was prepared in response to a DOE request for an individual final report for each contaminated GJPO building.

  9. Public Library Trustees of Colorado: Responsibilities and Opportunities. A Manual for the Trustees of Colorado Public Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Library Association, Denver.

    This basic reference on the responsibilities and opportunities of library trustees provides information on the public libraries of Colorado and how they are established, operated, and funded, as well as clues to needed information--i.e., some philosophy, many facts, opinions, recommended practices, and suggestions. Chapters focus on the types of…

  10. Nearshore thermal gradients of the Colorado River near the Little Colorado River confluence, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Rob; Grams, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Construction and operation of Glen Canyon Dam has dramatically impacted the flow of the Colorado River through Glen, Marble, and Grand Canyons. Extremes in both streamflow and water temperature have been suppressed by controlled releases from the dam. Trapping of sediment in Lake Powell, the reservoir formed by Glen Canyon Dam, has also dramatically reduced the supply of suspended sediment entering the system. These changes have altered the riverine ecosystem and the habitat of native species, including fish such as the endangered humpback chub (Gila cypha). Most native fish are adapted to seasonally warm water, and the continuous relatively cold water released by the dam is one of the factors that is believed to limit humpback chub growth and survival. While average mainstem temperatures in the Colorado River are well documented, there is limited understanding of temperatures in the nearshore environments that fish typically occupy. Four nearshore geomorphic unit types were studied between the confluence of the Colorado and Little Colorado Rivers and Lava Canyon in the summer and fall of 2010, for study periods of 10 to 27 days. Five to seven sites were studied during each interval. Persistent thermal gradients greater than the 0.2 °C accuracy of the instruments were not observed in any of the sampled shoreline environments. Temperature gradients between the shoreline and mainstem on the order of 4 °C, believed to be important to the habitat-seeking behavior of native or nonnative fishes, were not detected.

  11. Electron Transport through Porphyrin Molecular Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi

    The goal of this work is to study the properties that would affect the electron transport through a porphyrin molecular junction. This work contributes to the field of electron transport in molecular junctions in the following 3 aspects. First of all, by carrying out experiments comparing the conductance of the iron (III) porphyrin (protected) and the free base porphyrin (protected), it is confirmed that the molecular energy level broadening and shifting occurs for porphyrin molecules when coupled with the metal electrodes, and this level broadening and shifting plays an important role in the electron transport through molecular junctions. Secondly, by carrying out an in-situ deprotection of the acetyl-protected free base porphyrin molecules, it is found out that the presence of acetyl groups reduces the conductance. Thirdly, by incorporating the Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) spectrum and the in-situ deprotection prior to formation of molecular junctions, it allows a more precise understanding of the molecules involved in the formation of molecular junctions, and therefore allows an accurate analysis of the conductance histogram. The molecules are prepared by self-assembly and the junctions are formed using a Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) molecular break junction technique. The porphyrin molecules are characterized by MALDI in solution before self-assembly to a gold/mica substrate. The self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) of porphyrins on gold are characterized by Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) reflection spectroscopy to confirm that the molecules are attached to the substrate. The SAMs are then characterized by Angle-Resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (ARXPS) to determine the thickness and the average molecular orientation of the molecular layer. The electron transport is measured by conductance-displacement (G-S) experiments under a given bias (-0.4V). The conductance value of a single molecule is identified by a statistical analysis

  12. Electron optics with p-n junctions in ballistic graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shaowen; Han, Zheng; Elahi, Mirza M.; Habib, K. M. Masum; Wang, Lei; Wen, Bo; Gao, Yuanda; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Hone, James; Ghosh, Avik W.; Dean, Cory R.

    2016-09-01

    Electrons transmitted across a ballistic semiconductor junction are expected to undergo refraction, analogous to light rays across an optical boundary. In graphene, the linear dispersion and zero-gap band structure admit highly transparent p-n junctions by simple electrostatic gating. Here, we employ transverse magnetic focusing to probe the propagation of carriers across an electrostatically defined graphene junction. We find agreement with the predicted Snell’s law for electrons, including the observation of both positive and negative refraction. Resonant transmission across the p-n junction provides a direct measurement of the angle-dependent transmission coefficient. Comparing experimental data with simulations reveals the crucial role played by the effective junction width, providing guidance for future device design. Our results pave the way for realizing electron optics based on graphene p-n junctions.

  13. Single P-N junction tandem photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw; Ager, III, Joel W.; Yu, Kin Man

    2011-10-18

    A single P-N junction solar cell is provided having two depletion regions for charge separation while allowing the electrons and holes to recombine such that the voltages associated with both depletion regions of the solar cell will add together. The single p-n junction solar cell includes an alloy of either InGaN or InAlN formed on one side of the P-N junction with Si formed on the other side in order to produce characteristics of a two junction (2J) tandem solar cell through only a single P-N junction. A single P-N junction solar cell having tandem solar cell characteristics will achieve power conversion efficiencies exceeding 30%.

  14. The critical power to maintain thermally stable molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanlei; Xu, Zhiping

    2014-07-01

    With the rise of atomic-scale devices such as molecular electronics and scanning probe microscopies, energy transport processes through molecular junctions have attracted notable research interest recently. In this work, heat dissipation and transport across diamond/benzene/diamond molecular junctions are explored by performing atomistic simulations. We identify the critical power Pcr to maintain thermal stability of the junction through efficient dissipation of local heat. We also find that the molecule-probe contact features a power-dependent interfacial thermal resistance RK in the order of 109 kW-1. Moreover, both Pcr and RK display explicit dependence on atomic structures of the junction, force and temperature. For instance, Pcr can be elevated in multiple-molecule junctions, and streching the junction enhances RK by a factor of 2. The applications of these findings in molecular electronics and scanning probing measurements are discussed, providing practical guidelines in their rational design.

  15. Single P-N junction tandem photovoltaic device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walukiewicz, Wladyslaw [Kensington, CA; Ager, III, Joel W.; Yu, Kin Man [Lafayette, CA

    2012-03-06

    A single P-N junction solar cell is provided having two depletion regions for charge separation while allowing the electrons and holes to recombine such that the voltages associated with both depletion regions of the solar cell will add together. The single p-n junction solar cell includes an alloy of either InGaN or InAlN formed on one side of the P-N junction with Si formed on the other side in order to produce characteristics of a two junction (2J) tandem solar cell through only a single P-N junction. A single P-N junction solar cell having tandem solar cell characteristics will achieve power conversion efficiencies exceeding 30%.

  16. Structure, regulation and function of gap junctions in liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Michaël; Decrock, Elke; Wang, Nan; Leybaert, Luc; da Silva, Tereza Cristina; Veloso Alves Pereira, Isabel; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Cogliati, Bruno; Vinken, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Gap junctions are a specialized group of cell-to-cell junctions that mediate direct intercellular communication between cells. They arise from the interaction of 2 hemichannels of adjacent cells, which in turn are composed of 6 connexin proteins. In liver, gap junctions are predominantly found in hepatocytes and play critical roles in virtually all phases of the hepatic life cycle, including cell growth, differentiation, liver-specific functionality and cell death. Liver gap junctions are directed through a broad variety of mechanisms ranging from epigenetic control of connexin expression to posttranslational regulation of gap junction activity. This paper reviews established and novel aspects regarding the architecture, control and functional relevance of liver gap junctions. PMID:27001459

  17. The Boulder Creek Batholith, Front Range, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gable, Dolores J.

    1980-01-01

    The Boulder Creek batholith is the best known of several large Precambrian batholiths of similar rock composition that crop out across central Colorado. The rocks in the batholith belong to the calc-alkaline series and range in composition from granodiorite through quartz diorite (tonalite) to gneissic aplite. Two rock types dominate': the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, the major rock unit, and a more leucocratic and slightly younger unit herein named Twin Spruce Quartz Monzonite. Besides mafic inclusions, which occur mainly in hornblende-bearing phases of the Boulder Creek Granodiorite, there are cogenetic older and younger lenses, dikes, and small plutons of hornblende diorite, hornblendite, gabbro, and pyroxenite. Pyroxenite is not found in the batholith. The Boulder Creek Granodiorite in the batholith represents essentially two contemporaneous magmas, a northern body occurring in the Gold Hill and Boulder quadrangles and a larger southern body exposed in the Blackhawk and the greater parts of the Tungsten and Eldorado Springs quadrangles. The two bodies are chemically and mineralogically distinct. The northern body is richer in CaO and poorer in K2O, is more mafic, and has a larger percentage of plagioclase than the southern body. A crude sequence of rock types occurs from west to east in the batholith accompanied by a change in plagioclase composition from calcic plagioclase on the west to sodic on the east. Ore minerals tend to decrease, and the ratio potassium feldspar:plagioclase increases inward from the western contact of the batholith, indicating that the Boulder Creek batholith is similar to granodiorite batholiths the world over. Emplacement of the Boulder Creek batholith was contemporaneous with plastic deformation and high-grade regional metamorphism that folded the country rock and the batholith contact along west-northwest and north-northwest axes. Also, smaller satellitic granodiorite bodies tend to conform to the trends of foliation and fold axes in

  18. Tight junction protein expression of gastric mucosa and its significance in children with Helicobacter pylori infection%幽门螺杆菌感染患儿胃黏膜紧密连接蛋白表达的变化及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李炜; 舒小莉; 顾伟忠; 彭克荣; 蔡海芳; 江丽琴; 江米足

    2015-01-01

    .75、1.15,F=5.445,P<0.05).结论 Hp感染患儿胃黏膜紧密连接蛋白E-cadherin、β-catenin、ZO-1表达降低,Hp阳性消化性溃疡患儿claudin-4表达增加,提示儿童Hp感染时胃上皮屏障功能受损可能是Hp相关性胃病的主要致病机制.%Objective To understand the junction protein expression of gastric mucosa including occlusal proteins (occludin),closed protein-4 (claudin-4),zonula occluden-1 (ZO-1),epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin),and β ring protein (β-catenin) and the clinical significance in children with Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection.Method Seventy patients in whom gastric endoscopy was performed because of nausea,vomiting,abdominal pain,bloating,acid reflux,melena,and other gastrointestinal symptoms were enrolled in this study from Dec.2010 to Apr.2013 in our hospital.Informed consent was signed by their parents,and the study was in accordance with the principles of medical ethics.Hp positivity was confirmed if both respiratory urea test (RUT) and Hp were positive by gastric mucosal pathology.Gastric mucosal samples from 70 patients were enrolled in this study,23 of them were Hp negative,47 of them were Hp positive (24 cases without peptic ulcer,23 cases with peptic ulcer).The mRNA levels and protein expression of tight junction protein of gastric mucosa were measured by RT-PCR and Western blot respectively.The location and semi quantitative content of E-cadherin and β-catenin in gastric mucosa were detected by immunohistochemical staining method.Result The mRNA level of E-cadherin,β-catenin,ZO-1 in the Hp positive group regardless of peptic ulcer was significantly lower than that in the Hp negative group.Hp positive without peptic ulcer group were 0.000 8,0.004 0,0.001 4,respectively;Hp positive with peptic ulcer group were 0.001 0,0.009 0,0.001 3,respectively;Hp negative group were 0.013 7,0.042 3,0.019 8,respectively (F values were 36.956,39.893,38.962,respectively,all P < 0.05).The expression of claudin-4 mRNA in Hp

  19. Geometrical theory of triple junctions of CSL boundaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertsman, V Y

    2001-07-01

    When three grain boundaries having misorientations generating coincidence site lattices (CSLs) meet at a triple junction, a common (triple-junction) CSL is formed. A theory is developed as a set of theorems establishing the relationships between the geometrical parameters of the grain-boundary and triple-junction CSLs. Application of the theory is demonstrated in detail for the case of the cubic crystal system. It is also shown how the theory can be extended to an arbitrary crystal lattice.

  20. Turbulence-induced magnetic flux asymmetry at nanoscale junctions

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    It was recently predicted [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 18, 11059 (2006)] that turbulence of the electron flow may develop at nonadiabatic nanoscale junctions under appropriate conditions. Here we show that such an effect leads to an asymmetric current-induced magnetic field on the two sides of an otherwise symmetric junction. We propose that by measuring the fluxes ensuing from these fields across two surfaces placed at the two sides of the junction would provide direct and noninvasive evidence...

  1. Magnetic interaction between spatially extended superconducting tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    2002-01-01

    A general description of magnetic interactions between superconducting tunnel junctions is given. The description covers a wide range of possible experimental systems, and we explicitly explore two experimentally relevant limits of coupled junctions. One is the limit of junctions with tunneling...... been considered through arrays of superconducting weak links based on semiconductor quantum wells with superconducting electrodes. We use the model to make direct interpretations of the published experiments and thereby propose that long-range magnetic interactions are responsible for the reported...

  2. Endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane junctions: structure, function and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeke, Emmanuel; Dingsdale, Hayley; Parker, Tony; Voronina, Svetlana; Tepikin, Alexei V

    2016-06-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-plasma membrane (PM) junctions are contact sites between the ER and the PM; the distance between the two organelles in the junctions is below 40 nm and the membranes are connected by protein tethers. A number of molecular tools and technical approaches have been recently developed to visualise, modify and characterise properties of ER-PM junctions. The junctions serve as the platforms for lipid exchange between the organelles and for cell signalling, notably Ca(2+) and cAMP signalling. Vice versa, signalling events regulate the development and properties of the junctions. Two Ca(2+) -dependent mechanisms of de novo formation of ER-PM junctions have been recently described and characterised. The junction-forming proteins and lipids are currently the focus of vigorous investigation. Junctions can be relatively short-lived and simple structures, forming and dissolving on the time scale of a few minutes. However, complex, sophisticated and multifunctional ER-PM junctions, capable of attracting numerous protein residents and other cellular organelles, have been described in some cell types. The road from simplicity to complexity, i.e. the transformation from simple 'nascent' ER-PM junctions to advanced stable multiorganellar complexes, is likely to become an attractive research avenue for current and future junctologists. Another area of considerable research interest is the downstream cellular processes that can be activated by specific local signalling events in the ER-PM junctions. Studies of the cell physiology and indeed pathophysiology of ER-PM junctions have already produced some surprising discoveries, likely to expand with advances in our understanding of these remarkable organellar contact sites. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  3. Engineering of Droplet Manipulation in Tertiary Junction Microfluidic Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-30

    in silico investigation of path selection by a single droplet inside a tertiary junction microchannel using oil-in-water as a model system. The...droplet was generated at a T-junction inside a microfluidic chip and its flow behaviour as a function of droplet size, streamline position, viscosity...investigation of path selection by a single droplet inside a tertiary- junction microchannel using oil-in-water as a model system. The droplet was generated at

  4. ACCIDENT PREDICTION MODELS FOR UNSIGNALISED URBAN JUNCTIONS IN GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed SALIFU, MSc., PhD, MIHT, MGhIE

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to provide an improved method for safety appraisal in Ghana through the development and application of suitable accident prediction models for unsignalised urban junctions. A case study was designed comprising 91 junctions selected from the two most cosmopolitan cities in Ghana. A wide range of traffic and road data together with the corresponding accident data for each junction for the three-year period 1996-1998 was utilized in the model development p...

  5. Some chaotic features of intrinsically coupled Josephson junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolahchi, M.R., E-mail: kolahchi@iasbs.ac.ir [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan 45195-1159 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shukrinov, Yu.M. [BLTP, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region 141980 (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Hamdipour, M. [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan 45195-1159 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); BLTP, JINR, Dubna, Moscow Region 141980 (Russian Federation); Botha, A.E. [Department of Physics, University of South Africa, P.O. Box 392, Pretoria 0003 (South Africa); Suzuki, M. [Photonics and Electronics Science and Engineering Center and Department of Electronic Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 615-8510 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: ► Intrinsically coupled Josephson junctions model a high-T{sub c} superconductor. ► Intrinsically coupled Josephson junctions can act as a chaotic nonlinear system. ► Chaos could be due to resonance overlap. ► Avoiding parameters that lead to chaos is important for the design of resonators. -- Abstract: We look for chaos in an intrinsically coupled system of Josephson junctions. This study has direct applications for the high-T{sub c} resonators which require coherence amongst the junctions.

  6. Imaging snake orbits at graphene n -p junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolasiński, K.; Mreńca-Kolasińska, A.; Szafran, B.

    2017-01-01

    We consider conductance mapping of the snake orbits confined along the n -p junction defined in graphene by the electrostatic doping in the quantum Hall regime. We explain the periodicity of conductance oscillations at the magnetic field and the Fermi energy scales by the properties of the n -p junction as a conducting channel. We evaluate the conductance maps for a floating gate scanning the surface of the device. In the quantum Hall conditions the currents flow near the edges of the sample and along the n -p junction. The conductance mapping resolves only the n -p junction and not the edges. The conductance oscillations along the junction are found in the maps with periodicity related to the cyclotron orbits of the scattering current. Stronger probe potentials provide support to localized resonances at one of the sides of the junction with current loops that interfere with the n -p junction currents. The interference results in a series of narrow lines parallel to the junction with positions that strongly depend on the magnetic field through the Aharonov-Bohm effect. The consequences of a limited transparency of finite-width n -p junctions are also discussed.

  7. Assemble four-arm DNA junctions into nanoweb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    DNA is of structural polymorphism, which is useful in nanoarchitecture; especially, four-arm DNA junc tions can be used to assemble nanowebs. The static four-arm DNA junctions were designed and synthesized. One-arm DNA and two-arm DNA came out simultaneously with the four-arm DNA junction's formation. A new method, termed the two-step method, was proposed and the productivity of four-arm DNA junctions was increased. A nanoweb was assembled successfully, but it showed irregularity itself. It was not the same as we expected. We consider that it is aresult from the flexibility of four-arm DNA junction.

  8. Terahertz Detection with Twin Superconductor-Insulator-Superconductor Tunnel Junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jing; WANG Ming-Jye; SHI Sheng-Cai; Hiroshi Mat-suo

    2007-01-01

    Terahertz detection with twin superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) tunnel junctions, which are connected in parallel via an inductive thin-film superconducting microstrip line, is mainly studied. Firstly, we investigate the direct-detection response of a superconducting twin-junction device by means of a Fourier transform spectrometer. Secondly, we construct a direct-detection model of twin SIS tunnel junctions. The superconducting twin-junction device is then simulated in terms of the constructed model. The simulation result is found to be in good agreement with the measured one. In addition, we observe that the direct-detection response of the device is consistent with the noise temperature behaviour.

  9. F-Theory Description of 3-String Junction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGFu-Zhong

    2003-01-01

    The geometrical description of BPS 3-string junction in the F-theory background is given by lifting a string junction in lib into F-theory and constructing a holomorphic curve in K3 with respect to a special complex structure of K3. The holomorphic curve is fibration of 1-cycles of the elliptic fiber over the geodesic string junction. The F-theory picture in this paper provides a unifying description of both string and string junction, and is advantageous over their M-theory picture.

  10. F-Theory Description of 3-String Junction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Fu-Zhong

    2003-01-01

    The geometrical description of BPS 3-string junction in the F-theory background is given by lifting a string junction in IIB into F-theory and constructing a holomorphic curve in K3 with respect to a special complex structure of K3. The holomorphic curve is fibration of 1-cycles of the elliptic fiber over the geodesic string junction. The F-theory picture in this paper provides a unifying description of both string and string junction, and is advantageous over their M-theory picture.

  11. ‘Gap Junctions and Cancer: Communicating for 50 Years’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasen, Trond; Mesnil, Marc; Naus, Christian C.; Lampe, Paul D.; Laird, Dale W.

    2017-01-01

    Fifty years ago, tumour cells were found to lack electrical coupling, leading to the hypothesis that loss of direct intercellular communication is commonly associated with cancer onset and progression. Subsequent studies linked this phenomenon to gap junctions composed of connexin proteins. While many studies support the notion that connexins are tumour suppressors, recent evidence suggests that, in some tumour types, they may facilitate specific stages of tumour progression through both junctional and non-junctional signalling pathways. This Timeline article highlights the milestones connecting gap junctions to cancer, and underscores important unanswered questions, controversies and therapeutic opportunities in the field. PMID:27782134

  12. Superconducting Tunnel Junction Arrays for UV Photon Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An innovative method is described for the fabrication of superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector arrays offering true "three dimensional" imaging throughout...

  13. Improving transition voltage spectroscopy of molecular junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Chen, Jingzhe; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2011-01-01

    Transition voltage spectroscopy (TVS) is a promising spectroscopic tool for molecular junctions. The principles in TVS is to find the minimum on a Fowler-Nordheim plot where ln(I/V2) is plotted against 1/V and relate the voltage at the minimum Vmin to the closest molecular level. Importantly, Vmin...... is approximately half the voltage required to see a peak in the dI/dV curve. Information about the molecular level position can thus be obtained at relatively low voltages. In this work we show that the molecular level position can be determined at even lower voltages, Vmin(α), by finding the minimum of ln...

  14. Anatomy and biomechanics of the craniovertebral junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Alejandro J; Scheer, Justin K; Leibl, Kayla E; Smith, Zachary A; Dlouhy, Brian J; Dahdaleh, Nader S

    2015-04-01

    The craniovertebral junction (CVJ) has unique anatomical structures that separate it from the subaxial cervical spine. In addition to housing vital neural and vascular structures, the majority of cranial flexion, extension, and axial rotation is accomplished at the CVJ. A complex combination of osseous and ligamentous supports allow for stability despite a large degree of motion. An understanding of anatomy and biomechanics is essential to effectively evaluate and address the various pathological processes that may affect this region. Therefore, the authors present an up-to-date narrative review of CVJ anatomy, normal and pathological biomechanics, and fixation techniques.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging in craniovertebral junction anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, Shimpei; Hata, Yuichi; Miyamoto, Yukio

    1985-03-01

    Materials consisted of 6 cases with occipitalization of the atlas, (4 of them complicated by basilar impression), 7 with basilar impression, one with hypoplasia of the atlas and C2-3 fusion, and one with os odontoideum. Basal angles after Welcker were all more than 130 in contrast to 118-138 (127 an average) in control group. Basal angle more than 140 denoted platybasia. Syringomyelia was seen in 7 of all 15 cases and 4 of 5 cases with platybasia. Chiari malformation was seen in 9 of all 15 cases and 4 of 5 with platybasia. Basal angles were closely related to craniovertebral junction bone anomaly, syringomyelia, and Chiari malformation. (author).

  16. Magic-T Junction using Microstrip/Slotline Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    U-yen, Kongpop; Wollack, Edward J.; Doiron, Terence

    2008-01-01

    An improved broadband planar magic-T junction that incorporates microstrip/slotline transitions has been developed. In comparison with a prior broadband magic-T junction incorporating microstrip/slotline transitions, this junction offers superior broadband performance. In addition, because this junction is geometrically simpler and its performance is less affected by fabrication tolerances, the benefits of the improved design can be realized at lower fabrication cost. There are potential uses for junctions like this one in commercial microwave communication receivers, radar and polarimeter systems, and industrial microwave instrumentation. A magic-T junction is a four-port waveguide junction consisting of a combination of an H-type and an E-type junction. An E-type junction is so named because it includes a junction arm that extends from a main waveguide in the same direction as that of the electric (E) field in the waveguide. An H-type junction is so named because it includes a junction arm parallel to the magnetic (H) field in a main waveguide. A magic-T junction includes two input ports (here labeled 1 and 2, respectively) and two output ports (here labeled E and H, respectively). In an ideal case, (1) a magic-T junction is lossless, (2) the input signals add (that is, they combine in phase with each other) at port H, and (3) the input signals subtract (that is, they combine in opposite phase) at port E. The prior junction over which the present junction is an improvement affords in-phase-combining characterized by a broadband frequency response, and features a small slotline area to minimize in-band loss. However, with respect to isolation between ports 1 and 2 and return loss at port E, it exhibits narrowband frequency responses. In addition, its performance is sensitive to misalignment of microstrip and slotline components: this sensitivity is attributable to a limited number of quarter-wavelength (lambda/4) transmission-line sections for matching impedances

  17. Erosion and channel changes due to extreme flooding in the Fourmile Creek catchment, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicherski, Will; Dethier, David P.; Ouimet, William B.

    2017-10-01

    Infrequent, large magnitude geomorphic events generate quantifiable change on geologically short timescales and are crucial to understanding landscape evolution. Airborne lidar surveys and field measurements were used to investigate floodplain erosion and deposition along a 19.5 km reach of Fourmile Creek, Colorado that was devastated by severe flooding in 2013 that followed a 2010 wildfire. > 350 mm of rain fell on the Fourmile catchment from September 9-15, 2013, generating discharge that exceeded bankfull for > 120 h at the Orodell gage, with local unit stream power > 300 W m- 2 throughout the study reach. Debris flows occurred on steep hillslopes and tributary channels in the most intensely burned areas. Lidar difference measurements and field studies highlight zones of local deposition along the study reach, but demonstrate overall net erosion of 0.25 m for the 19.5 km reach of Fourmile floodplain, mainly by channel widening. Tributary junctions where debris-flow sediment entered the floodplain and local decreases in unit stream power controlled some zones of deposition. Overall, mass balance calculations show that a total sediment loss of 91,000-161,000 m3 from the Fourmile Creek floodplain and hillslopes, which is broadly consistent with channel sediment flux estimates of 71,000-111,000 m3. Measurements from the Fourmile catchment demonstrate that floodplain erosion was a major source of sediment in the 2013 flood and demonstrate that infrequent events marked by long-duration flooding and high total energy expenditure can account for a large fraction of total sediment transport in mountain streams.

  18. Grades 1-8, Apache Junction Unified School District 43, Apache Junction, Arizona. PLATO Evaluation Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, David W.; Quinn, Nancy W.

    Apache Junction Unified School District, Arizona, has embarked on a 5-year program of instructional improvement using technology. PLATO Elementary reading and mathematics products were installed in the district's elementary and middle schools at the beginning of the 1999-2000 school year. This evaluation studied the use and preliminary student…

  19. Fabrication of magnetic tunnel junctions with epitaxial and textured ferromagnetic layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y. Austin; Yang, Jianhua Joshua

    2008-11-11

    This invention relates to magnetic tunnel junctions and methods for making the magnetic tunnel junctions. The magnetic tunnel junctions include a tunnel barrier oxide layer sandwiched between two ferromagnetic layers both of which are epitaxial or textured with respect to the underlying substrate upon which the magnetic tunnel junctions are grown. The magnetic tunnel junctions provide improved magnetic properties, sharper interfaces and few defects.

  20. Assessing Vulnerability under Uncertainty in the Colorado River Basin: The Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerla, C.; Adams, P.; Butler, A.; Nowak, K.; Prairie, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    Spanning parts of the seven states, of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming, the Colorado River is one of the most critical sources of water in the western United States. Colorado River allocations exceed the long-term supply and since the 1950s, there have been a number of years when the annual water use in the Colorado River Basin exceeded the yield. The Basin is entering its second decade of drought conditions which brings challenges that will only be compounded if projections of climate change are realized. It was against this backdrop that the Colorado River Basin Water Supply and Demand Study was conducted. The Study's objectives are to define current and future imbalances in the Basin over the next 50 years and to develop and analyze adaptation and mitigation strategies to resolve those imbalances. Long-term planning in the Basin involves the integration of uncertainty with respect to a changing climate and other uncertainties such as future demand and how policies may be modified to adapt to changing reliability. The Study adopted a scenario planning approach to address this uncertainty in which thousands of scenarios were developed to encompass a wide range of plausible future water supply and demand conditions. Using Reclamation's long-term planning model, the Colorado River Simulation System, the reliability of the system to meet Basin resource needs under these future conditions was projected both with and without additional future adaptation strategies in place. System reliability metrics were developed in order to define system vulnerabilities, the conditions that lead to those vulnerabilities, and sign posts to indicate if the system is approaching a vulnerable state. Options and strategies that reduce these vulnerabilities and improve system reliability were explored through the development of portfolios. Four portfolios, each with different management strategies, were analyzed to assess their effectiveness at

  1. Gap junctions in the nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozental, R; Giaume, C; Spray, D C

    2000-04-01

    Synapses are classically defined as close connections between two nerve cells or between a neuronal cell and a muscle or gland cell across which a chemical signal (i.e., a neurotransmitter) and/or an electrical signal (i.e., current-carrying ions) can pass. The definition of synapse was developed by Charles Sherrington and by Ramon y Cajal at the beginning of this century and refined by John Eccles and Bernard Katz 50 years later; in this collection of papers, the definition of synapses is discussed further in the chapter by Mike Bennett. who provided the first functional demonstration of electrical transmission via gap junction channels between vertebrate neurons. As is evidenced by the range of topics covered in this issue, research dealing with gap junctions in the nervous system has expanded enormously in the past decade, major findings being that specific cell types in the brain expresses specific types of connexins and that expression patterns coincide with tissue compartmentalization and function and that these compartments change during development.

  2. Electrophysiological study in neuromuscular junction disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajith Cherian

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review is on ultrastructure and subcellular physiology at normal and abnormal neuromuscular junctions. The clinical and electrophysiological findings in myasthenia gravis, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS, congenital myasthenic syndromes, and botulinum intoxication are discussed. Single fiber electromyography (SFEMG helps to explain the basis of testing neuromuscular junction function by repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS. SFEMG requires skill and patience and its availability is limited to a few centers. For RNS supramaximal stimulation is essential and so is display of the whole waveform of each muscle response at maximum amplitude. The amplitudes of the negative phase of the first and fourth responses are measured from baseline to negative peak, and the percent change of the fourth response compared with the first represents the decrement or increment. A decrement greater than 10% is accepted as abnormal and smooth progression of response amplitude train and reproducibility form the crux. In suspected LEMS the effect of fast rates of stimulation should be determined after RNS response to slow rates of stimulation. Caution is required to avoid misinterpretation of potentiation and pseudofacilitation.

  3. Improving transition voltage spectroscopy of molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markussen, Troels; Chen, Jingzhe; Thygesen, Kristian S.

    2011-04-01

    Transition voltage spectroscopy (TVS) is a promising spectroscopic tool for molecular junctions. The principles in TVS is to find the minimum on a Fowler-Nordheim plot where ln(I/V2) is plotted against 1/V and relate the voltage at the minimum Vmin to the closest molecular level. Importantly, Vmin is approximately half the voltage required to see a peak in the dI/dV curve. Information about the molecular level position can thus be obtained at relatively low voltages. In this work we show that the molecular level position can be determined at even lower voltages, Vmin(α), by finding the minimum of ln(I/Vα) with α<2. On the basis of a simple Lorentzian transmission model we analyze theoretical ab initio as well as experimental I-V curves and show that the voltage required to determine the molecular levels can be reduced by ~30% as compared to conventional TVS. As for conventional TVS, the symmetry/asymmetry of the molecular junction needs to be taken into account in order to gain quantitative information. We show that the degree of asymmetry may be estimated from a plot of Vmin(α) vs α.

  4. Development of superconducting tunnel junction radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katagiri, Masaki; Kishimoto, Maki; Ukibe, Masahiro; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Nakazawa, Masaharu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokyo (Japan); Kurakado, Masahiko; Ishibashi, Kenji; Maehata, Keisuke

    1998-07-01

    Study on development of high energy resolution X-ray detector using superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) for radiation detection was conducted for 5 years under cooperation of University of Tokyo group and Kyushu University group by Quantum measurement research group of Advanced fundamental research center of JAERI. As the energy resolution of STJ could be obtained better results than that of Si semiconductor detector told to be actually best at present, this study aimed to actualize an X-ray detector usable for the experimental field and to elucidate radiation detection mechanism due to STJ. The STJ element used for this study was the one developed by Kurakado group of Nippon Steel Corp. As a results, some technical problems were almost resolved, which made some trouble when using the STJ element to detection element of X-ray spectrometer. In order to make the X-ray detector better, it is essential to manufacture a STJ element and develop serial junction type STJ element on the base of optimization of the element structure and selection and single crystallization of new superconducting materials such as Ta and others, activating the research results. (G.K.)

  5. Junction like behavior in polycrystalline diamond films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhaskaran, Shivakumar, E-mail: sbhaskar@mail.uh.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cullen College of Engineering, University of Houston, TX 77004 (United States); Charlson, Earl Joe; Litvinov, Dmitri [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cullen College of Engineering, University of Houston, TX 77004 (United States); Makarenko, Boris [Department of Chemistry, University of Houston, TX 77004 (United States)

    2012-01-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result that we obtained are compared with single crystalline diamond devices. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The barrier height of 4.4 eV matches the ideal pn-junction barrier height of diamond thin film. - Abstract: We have successfully fabricated polycrystalline diamond rectifying junction devices on n-type (1 0 0) silicon substrates by Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (HFCVD) using methane/hydrogen process gas and trimethyl borate and trimethyl phosphite dissolved in acetone as p- and n-type dopants, respectively. Impedance spectroscopy and current-voltage analysis indicates that the conduction is vertical down the grains and facets and not due to surface effects. Electrical characteristics were analyzed with In and Ti/Au top metal contacts with Al as the substrate contact. Current-voltage characteristics as a function of temperature showed barrier potentials of 1.1 eV and 0.77 eV for the In and Ti/Au contacts, respectively. Barrier heights of 4.8 eV (In) and 4.4 eV (Ti/Au) were obtained from capacitance-voltage measurements.

  6. GAP junctional communication in brain secondary organizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosone, Camilla; Andreu, Abraham; Echevarria, Diego

    2016-06-01

    Gap junctions (GJs) are integral membrane proteins that enable the direct cytoplasmic exchange of ions and low molecular weight metabolites between adjacent cells. They are formed by the apposition of two connexons belonging to adjacent cells. Each connexon is formed by six proteins, named connexins (Cxs). Current evidence suggests that gap junctions play an important part in ensuring normal embryo development. Mutations in connexin genes have been linked to a variety of human diseases, although the precise role and the cell biological mechanisms of their action remain almost unknown. Among the big family of Cxs, several are expressed in nervous tissue but just a few are expressed in the anterior neural tube of vertebrates. Many efforts have been made to elucidate the molecular bases of Cxs cell biology and how they influence the morphogenetic signal activity produced by brain signaling centers. These centers, orchestrated by transcription factors and morphogenes determine the axial patterning of the mammalian brain during its specification and regionalization. The present review revisits the findings of GJ composed by Cx43 and Cx36 in neural tube patterning and discuss Cx43 putative enrollment in the control of Fgf8 signal activity coming from the well known secondary organizer, the isthmic organizer. © 2016 The Authors. Development, Growth & Differentiation published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  7. Annealing free magnetic tunnel junction sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudde, S.; Leitao, D. C.; Cardoso, S.; Freitas, P. P.

    2017-04-01

    Annealing is a major step in the fabrication of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). It sets the exchange bias between the pinned and antiferromagnetic layers, and helps to increase the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) in both amorphous and crystalline junctions. Recent research on MTJs has focused on MgO-based structures due to their high TMR. However, the strict process control and mandatory annealing step can limit the scope of the application of these structures as sensors. In this paper, we present AlOx-based MTJs that are produced by ion beam sputtering and remote plasma oxidation and show optimum transport properties with no annealing. The microfabricated devices show TMR values of up to 35% and using NiFe/CoFeB free layers provides tunable linear ranges, leading to coercivity-free linear responses with sensitivities of up to 5.5%/mT. The top-pinned synthetic antiferromagnetic reference shows a stability of about 30 mT in the microfabricated devices. Sensors with linear ranges of up to 60 mT are demonstrated. This paves the way for the integration of MTJ sensors in heat-sensitive applications such as flexible substrates, or for the design of low-footprint on-chip multiaxial sensing devices.

  8. Virus interaction with the apical junctional complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mariscal, Lorenza; Garay, Erika; Lechuga, Susana

    2009-01-01

    In order to infect pathogens must breach the epithelial barriers that separate the organism from the external environment or that cover the internal cavities and ducts of the body. Epithelia seal the passage through the paracellular pathway with the apical junctional complex integrated by tight and adherens junctions. In this review we describe how viruses like coxsackie, swine vesicular disease virus, adenovirus, reovirus, feline calcivirus, herpes viruses 1 and 2, pseudorabies, bovine herpes virus 1, poliovirus and hepatitis C use as cellular receptors integral proteins present at the AJC of epithelial cells. Interaction with these proteins contributes in a significant manner in defining the particular tropism of each virus. Besides these proteins, viruses exhibit a wide range of cellular co-receptors among which proteins present in the basolateral cell surface like integrins are often found. Therefore targeting proteins of the AJC constitutes a strategy that might allow viruses to bypass the physical barrier that blocks their access to receptors expressed on the basolateral surface of epithelial cells.

  9. Switching and Rectification in Carbon-Nanotube Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Deepak; Andriotis, Antonis N.; Menon, Madhu; Chernozatonskii, Leonid

    2003-01-01

    Multi-terminal carbon-nanotube junctions are under investigation as candidate components of nanoscale electronic devices and circuits. Three-terminal "Y" junctions of carbon nanotubes (see Figure 1) have proven to be especially interesting because (1) it is now possible to synthesize them in high yield in a controlled manner and (2) results of preliminary experimental and theoretical studies suggest that such junctions could exhibit switching and rectification properties. Following the preliminary studies, current-versus-voltage characteristics of a number of different "Y" junctions of single-wall carbon nanotubes connected to metal wires were computed. Both semiconducting and metallic nanotubes of various chiralities were considered. Most of the junctions considered were symmetric. These computations involved modeling of the quantum electrical conductivity of the carbon nanotubes and junctions, taking account of such complicating factors as the topological defects (pentagons, heptagons, and octagons) present in the hexagonal molecular structures at the junctions, and the effects of the nanotube/wire interfaces. A major component of the computational approach was the use of an efficient Green s function embedding scheme. The results of these computations showed that symmetric junctions could be expected to support both rectification and switching. The results also showed that rectification and switching properties of a junction could be expected to depend strongly on its symmetry and, to a lesser degree, on the chirality of the nanotubes. In particular, it was found that a zigzag nanotube branching at a symmetric "Y" junction could exhibit either perfect rectification or partial rectification (asymmetric current-versus-voltage characteristic, as in the example of Figure 2). It was also found that an asymmetric "Y" junction would not exhibit rectification.

  10. Crustal structure across the Colorado Basin, offshore Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Dieter; Neben, Soenke; Schreckenberger, Bernd; Schulze, Albrecht; Stiller, Manfred; Krawczyk, Charlotte M.

    2006-06-01

    The geology of the wide shelves surrounding the South Atlantic is closely linked to the kinematics and history of the opening of the ocean. However, several wide sedimentary basins, which developed along the margins show peculiarities that are not yet understood in the context of the evolution of the South Atlantic. The Colorado Basin, a wide sedimentary basin on the broad shelf of Argentina, extends in EW direction. The basin's evolution oblique or orthogonal to the continent-ocean boundary indicates that it is not a product of simple progressive extension and crustal thinning. In addition a basement high, paralleling the continental margin and separating the Colorado Basin from the deep-sea basin is a common interpretation. These findings are hardly in accordance with the idea that the Colorado Basin is an extensional basin that developed in conjunction with the early E-W opening phase of the South Atlantic in the Late Jurassic/Early Cretaceous. The composition, type, and structure of the basement, key points for the evaluation of the basins evolution, are widely speculative. In this context multichannel seismic reflection data from the Argentine Shelf and a 665-km-long onshore-offshore refraction profile, running across the Colorado Basin onto the coast are discussed in combination with gravity data. The stratigraphy for the sedimentary successions was adopted from the literature and the reflection seismic marker horizons formed besides the interval velocities the input for the starting model for refraction seismic traveltime modelling. The modelling strategy was an iterative procedure between refraction seismic traveltime and gravity modelling. The preparation of the density models was coarsely orientated on published velocity-density relations. The modelling results are in favour of a continuation of the main onshore geological features beneath the sedimentary infill of the Colorado Basin. We interpret the basement along the line from west to east as offshore

  11. Bathymetry of Clear Creek Reservoir, Chaffee County, Colorado, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, Michael S.; Kinzel, Paul J.; Mohrmann, Jacob S.

    2017-03-06

    To better characterize the water supply capacity of Clear Creek Reservoir, Chaffee County, Colorado, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pueblo Board of Water Works and Colorado Mountain College, carried out a bathymetry survey of Clear Creek Reservoir. A bathymetry map of the reservoir is presented here with the elevation-surface area and the elevation-volume relations. The bathymetry survey was carried out June 6–9, 2016, using a man-operated boat-mounted, multibeam echo sounder integrated with a Global Positioning System and a terrestrial survey using real-time kinematic Global Navigation Satellite Systems. The two collected datasets were merged and imported into geographic information system software. The equipment and methods used in this study allowed water-resource managers to maintain typical reservoir operations, eliminating the need to empty the reservoir to carry out the survey.

  12. Nuclear Physics Laboratory, University of Colorado, Final Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, E.R., ed.

    2004-05-12

    OAK-B135 The results and progress of research funded by DOE grant number DOE-FG03-95ER40913 at the University of Colorado at Boulder is described. Includes work performed at the HERMES experiment at DESY to study the quark structure of the nucleon and the hadronization process in nuclei, as well as hadronic reactions studied at LAMPF, KEK, and Fermilab.

  13. Multicriteria GIS modeling of wind and solar farms in Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, Jason R. [Metropolitan State College of Denver, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, CB 22 P.O. Box 173362-22, Denver, CO 80217-3362 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    The majority of electricity and heat in Colorado comes from coal and natural gas; however, renewable energy sources will play an integral role in the state's energy future. Colorado is the 11th windiest state and has more than 250 sunny days per year. The objectives of this research are to: 1) determine which landcover classes are affiliated with high wind and solar potential; and 2) identify areas that are suitable for wind and solar farms using multicriteria GIS modelling techniques. Renewable potential (NREL wind speed measurements at 50 m above the ground and NREL annual insolation data), landcover, population density, federal lands, and distance to roads, transmission lines, and cities were reclassified according to their suitability. Each was assigned weights based on their relative importance to one another. Superb wind classes are located in high alpine areas. Unfortunately, these areas are not suitable for large-scale wind farm development due to their inaccessibility and location within a sensitive ecosystem. Federal lands have low wind potential. According to the GIS model, ideal areas for wind farm development are located in northeastern Colorado. About 41 850 km{sup 2} of the state has model scores that are in the 90-100% range. Although annual solar radiation varies slightly, inter-mountain areas receive the most insolation. As far as federal lands, Indian reservations have the greatest solar input. The GIS model indicates that ideal areas for solar development are located in northwestern Colorado and east of Denver. Only 191 km{sup 2} of the state had model scores that were in the 90-100% range. These results suggest that the variables used in this analysis have more of an effect at eliminating non-suitable areas for large-scale solar farms; a greater area exists for suitable wind farms. However, given the statewide high insolation values with minimal variance, solar projects may be better suited for small-scale residential or commercial

  14. The historical distribution of Gunnison Sage-Grouse in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Clait E.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Nehring, Jennifer A.; Commons, Michelle L.; Young, Jessica R.; Potter, Kim M.

    2014-01-01

    The historical distribution of Gunnison Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus minimus) in Colorado is described based on published literature, observations, museum specimens, and the known distribution of sagebrush (Artemisia spp.). Historically, Gunnison Sage-Grouse were widely but patchily distributed in up to 22 counties in south-central and southwestern Colorado. The historical distribution of this species was south of the Colorado-Eagle river drainages primarily west of the Continental Divide. Potential contact areas with Greater Sage-Grouse (C. urophasianus) were along the Colorado-Eagle river system in Mesa, Garfield, and Eagle counties, west of the Continental Divide. Gunnison Sage-Grouse historically occupied habitats that were naturally highly fragmented by forested mountains and plateaus/mesas, intermountain basins without robust species of sagebrush, and river systems. This species adapted to use areas with more deciduous shrubs (i.e., Quercus spp., Amelanchier spp., Prunus spp.) in conjunction with sagebrush. Most areas historically occupied were small, linear, and patchily distributed within the overall landscape matrix. The exception was the large intermountain basin in Gunnison, Hinsdale, and Saguache counties. The documented distribution east of the Continental Divide within the large expanse of the San Luis Valley (Alamosa, Conejos, Costilla, and Rio Grande counties) was minimal and mostly on the eastern, northern, and southern fringes. Many formerly occupied habitat patches were vacant by the mid 1940s with extirpations continuing to the late 1990s. Counties from which populations were recently extirpated include Archuleta and Pitkin (1960s), and Eagle, Garfield, Montezuma, and Ouray (1990s).

  15. Estimated Colorado Golf Course Irrigation Water Use, 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivahnenko, Tamara

    2009-01-01

    Golf course irrigation water-use data were collected as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Use Program's 2005 compilation to provide baseline information, as no golf course irrigation water-use data (separate from crop irrigation) have been reported in previous compilations. A Web-based survey, designed by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Rocky Mountain Golf Course Superintendents Association (RMGCSA), was electronically distributed by the association to the 237 members in Colorado. Forty-three percent of the members returned the survey, and additional source water information was collected by telephone for all but 20 of the 245 association member and non-member Colorado golf courses. For golf courses where no data were collected at all, an average 'per hole' coefficient, based on returned surveys from that same county, were applied. In counties where no data were collected at all, a State average 'per hole' value of 13.2 acre-feet was used as the coefficient. In 2005, Colorado had 243 turf golf courses (there are 2 sand courses in the State) that had an estimated 2.27 acre-feet per irrigated course acre, and 65 percent of the source water for these courses was surface water. Ground water, potable water (public supply), and reclaimed wastewater, either partially or wholly, were source waters for the remaining courses. Fifty-three of the 64 counties in Colorado have at least one golf course, with the greatest number of courses in Jefferson (23 courses), Arapahoe (22 courses), and El Paso Counties (20 courses). In 2005, an estimated 5,647.8 acre-feet in Jefferson County, 5,402 acre-feet in Arapahoe County, and 4,473.3 acre-feet in El Paso County were used to irrigate the turf grass.

  16. Foraging Behavior of Odontomachus bauri on Barro Colorado Island, Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgit Ehmer

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Foraging behavior and partitioning of foraging areas of Odonomachus bauri were investigated on Barro Colorado Island in Panama. The activity of the ants did not show any daily pattern; foragers were active day and night. The type of prey captured by O. bauri supports the idea that in higher Odontomachus and Anochetus species, the high speed of mandible closure serves more for generating power than capturing elusive prey. Polydomous nests may enable O. bauri colonies to enlarge their foraging areas.

  17. Zia Taqueria: Building a Local Supply Chain in Southwestern Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    Sullins, Martha

    2014-01-01

    Zia Taqueria is a full-service restaurant in Durango, Colorado whose owners have steadily increased the proportion of local vegetables, grains and meats they source and serve to their customers. They created new supply chains that add value to heritage products grown in the Four Corners area, invested in building capacity in local farming operations, and created a restaurant brand known for its commitment to serving high-quality, reasonably priced meals. In addition to operating a profitable ...

  18. The Colorado Plateau: cultural, biological, and physical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Kenneth L.; van Riper, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Stretching from the four corners of Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Utah, the Colorado Plateau is a natural laboratory for a wide range of studies. This volume presents 23 original articles drawn from more than 100 research projects presented at the Sixth Biennial Conference of Research on the Colorado Plateau. This scientific gathering revolved around research, inventory, and monitoring of lands in the region. The book's contents cover management techniques for cultural, biological, and physical resources, representing collaborative efforts among federal, university, and private sector scientists and land managers. Chapters on cultural concerns cover benchmarks of modern southwestern anthropological knowledge, models of past human activity and impact of modern visitation at newly established national monuments, challenges in implementing the 1964 Wilderness Act, and opportunities for increased federal research on Native American lands. The section on biological resources comprises sixteen chapters, with coverage that ranges from mammalian biogeography to responses of elk at the urban-wildland interface. Additional biological studies include the effects of fire and grazing on vegetation; research on bald eagles at Grand Canyon and tracking wild turkeys using radio collars; and management of palentological resources. Two final chapters on physical resources consider a proposed rerouting of the Rio de Flag River in urban Flagstaff, Arizona, and an examination of past climate patterns over the Plateau, using stream flow records and tree ring data. In light of similarities in habitat and climate across the Colorado Plateau, techniques useful to particular management units have been found to be applicable in many locations. This volume highlights an abundance of research that will prove useful for all of those working in the region, as well as for others seeking comparative studies that integrate research into land management actions.

  19. Deep mantle forces and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moucha, R; Forte, A M; Rowley, D B; Mitrovica, J X; Simmons, N A; Grand, S P

    2009-06-23

    Since the advent of plate tectonics, it has been speculated that the northern extension of the East Pacific Rise, specifically its mantle source, has been over-ridden by the North American Plate in the last 30 Myrs. Consequently, it has also been postulated that the opening of the Gulf of California, the extension in the Basin and Range province, and the uplift of the Colorado Plateau are the resulting continental expressions of the over-ridden mantle source of the East Pacific Rise. However, only qualitative models based solely on surface observations and heuristic, simplified conceptions of mantle convection have been used in support or against this hypothesis. We introduce a quantitative model of mantle convection that reconstructs the detailed motion of a warm mantle upwelling over the last 30 Myrs and its relative advance towards the interior of the southwestern USA. The onset and evolution of the crustal uplift in the central Basin and Range province and the Colorado Plateau is determined by tracking the topographic swell due to this mantle upwelling through time. We show that (1) the extension and magmatism in the central Basin and Range province between 25 and 10 Ma coincides with the reconstructed past position of this focused upwelling, and (2) the southwestern portion of the Colorado Plateau experienced significant uplift between 10 Ma and 5 Ma that progressed towards the northeastern portion of the plateau. These uplift estimates are consistent with a young, ca. 6 Ma, Grand Canyon model and the recent commencement of mafic magmatism.

  20. Geothermal resource assessment of western San Luis Valley, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharakis, Ted G.; Pearl, Richard Howard; Ringrose, Charles D.

    1983-01-01

    The Colorado Geological Survey initiated and carried out a fully integrated assessment program of the geothermal resource potential of the western San Luis Valley during 1979 and 1980. The San Luis Valley is a large intermontane basin located in southcentral Colorado. While thermal springs and wells are found throughout the Valley, the only thermal waters found along the western part of the Valley are found at Shaw Warm Springs which is a relatively unused spring located approximately 6 miles (9.66 km) north of Del Norte, Colorado. The waters at Shaws Warm Spring have a temperature of 86 F (30 C), a discharge of 40 gallons per minute and contain approximately 408 mg/l of total dissolved solids. The assessment program carried out din the western San Luis Valley consisted of: soil mercury geochemical surveys; geothermal gradient drilling; and dipole-dipole electrical resistivity traverses, Schlumberger soundings, Audio-magnetotelluric surveys, telluric surveys, and time-domain electro-magnetic soundings and seismic surveys. Shaw Warm Springs appears to be the only source of thermal waters along the western side of the Valley. From the various investigations conducted the springs appear to be fault controlled and is very limited in extent. Based on best evidence presently available estimates are presented on the size and extent of Shaw Warm Springs thermal system. It is estimated that this could have an areal extent of 0.63 sq. miles (1.62 sq. km) and contain 0.0148 Q's of heat energy.

  1. Geologic map of the Clifton Quadrangle, Mesa County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, P.E.

    2001-01-01

    1:24,000-scale geologic mapping in the Clifton 7.5' quadrangle, in support of the USGS Colorado River/I-70 Corridor Cooperative Geologic Mapping Project, provides interpretations of the Quaternary stratigraphy and geologic hazards in this area of the Grand Valley. The Clifton 1:24,000 quadrangle is in Mesa County in western Colorado. Because the map area is dominated by various surficial deposits, the map depicts 16 different Quaternary units. Five prominent river terraces are present in the quadrangle containing gravels deposited by the Colorado River. The map area contains a large landslide deposit on the southern slopes of Mount Garfield. The landslide developed in the Mancos Shale and contains large blocks of the overlying Mesaverde Group. In addition, the landslide is a source of debris flows that have closed I-70 in the past. The major bedrock unit in the quadrangle is the Mancos Shale of Upper Cretaceous age. The map is accompanied by text containing unit descriptions, and sections on geologic hazards (including landslides, piping, gullying, expansive soils, and flooding), and economic geology (including sand and gravel). A table indicates what map units are susceptible to a given hazard. Approximately 20 references are cited at the end of the report.

  2. MgB2 tunnel junctions and SQUIDs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, A.; Rowell, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in the realization and understanding of MgB2 tunnel junctions and SQUIDs are surveyed. High quality MgB2 junctions with suitable tunnel barriers have been realized based on both oriented and epitaxial thin MgB2 films. Multiband transport properties, such as the existence of two energ

  3. Craniovertebral Junction Instability in the Setting of Chiari I Malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Hannah E; Anderson, Richard C E

    2015-10-01

    This article addresses the key features, clinical presentation, and radiographic findings associated with craniovertebral junction instability in the setting of Chiari I malformation. It further discusses surgical technique for treating patients with Chiari I malformation with concomitant craniovertebral junction instability, focusing on modern posterior rigid instrumentation and fusion techniques.

  4. Parametric excitation of plasma oscillations in a Josephson tunnel junction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Christen Kjeldahl; Kofoed, Bent; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    1975-01-01

    Experimental evidence for subharmonic parametric excitation of plasma oscillations in Josephson tunnel junctions is presented. The experiments described are performed by measuring the microwave power necessary to switch a Josephson−tunnel junction biased in the zero−voltage state to a finite−volt......−voltage state. Journal of Applied Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  5. Shapiro and parametric resonances in coupled Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaafar, Ma A.; Shukrinov, Yu M.; Foda, A.

    2012-11-01

    The effect of microwave irradiation on the phase dynamics of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high temperature superconductors is investigated. We compare the current-voltage characteristics for a stack of coupled Josephson junctions under external irradiation calculated in the framework of CCJJ and CCJJ+DC models.

  6. Microwave phase locking of Josephson-junction fluxon oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salerno, M.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm; Filatrella, G.;

    1990-01-01

    -dimensional functional map. Phase-locked states correspond to fixed points of the map. For junctions of in-line geometry, the existence and stability of such fixed points can be studied analytically. Study of overlap-geometry junctions requires the numerical inversion of a functional equation, but the results...

  7. Josephson junctions in high-T/sub c/ superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, C.M.; Lee, T.W.

    1981-01-14

    The invention includes a high T/sub c/ Josephson sperconducting junction as well as the method and apparatus which provides the junction by application of a closely controlled and monitored electrical discharge to a microbridge region connecting two portions of a superconducting film.

  8. Junction leakage measurements with micro four-point probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Rong; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Wang, Fei

    2012-01-01

    We present a new, preparation-free method for measuring the leakage current density on ultra-shallow junctions. The junction leakage is found by making a series of four-point sheet resistance measurements on blanket wafers with variable electrode spacings. The leakage current density is calculate...

  9. How good are one-dimensional Josephson junction models?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomdahl, P. S.; Olsen, O.H.; Eilbeck, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of Josephson junctions of overlap type is presented and shown to reduce to the usual one-dimensional (1D) model in the limit of a very narrow junction. Comparisons between the stability limits for fluxon reflection obtained from the two models suggest that the many results...

  10. Relaxation towards phase-locked dynamics in long Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salerno, M.; Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1995-01-01

    We study the relaxation phenomenon towards phase-locked dynamics in long Josephson junctions. In particular the dependence of the relaxation frequency for the equal time of flight solution on the junction parameters is derived. The analysis is based on a phase-locked map and is compared with dire...

  11. Processing of Superconductor-Normal-Superconductor Josephson Edge Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinsasser, A. W.; Barner, J. B.

    1997-01-01

    The electrical behavior of epitaxial superconductor-normal-superconductor (SNS) Josephson edge junctions is strongly affected by processing conditions. Ex-situ processes, utilizing photoresist and polyimide/photoresist mask layers, are employed for ion milling edges for junctions with Yttrium-Barium-Copper-Oxide (YBCO) electrodes and primarily Co-doped YBCO interlayers.

  12. 75 FR 76294 - Radio Broadcasting Services: Pacific Junction, IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services: Pacific Junction, IA AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The staff deletes FM Channel 299C2 at Pacific Junction,...

  13. Shunted-Josephson-junction model. I. The autonomous case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belykh, V. N.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sørensen, O. H.

    1977-01-01

    of the junction behavior in different regions of the parameter space. Approximate formulas are given for the parameter-space decomposition into regions of qualitatively different junction behavior corroborated by the associated-phase plane portraits and also approximate expressions for the corresponding dc...

  14. Gap junction protein connexin-43 interacts directly with microtubules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giepmans, B N; Verlaan, I; Hengeveld, T; Janssen, H; Calafat, J; Falk, M M; Moolenaar, W H

    2001-01-01

    Gap junctions are specialized cell-cell junctions that mediate intercellular communication. They are composed of connexin proteins, which form transmembrane channels for small molecules [1, 2]. The C-terminal tail of connexin-43 (Cx43), the most widely expressed connexin member, has been implicated

  15. Septal Junctions in Filamentous Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Enrique; Herrero, Antonia; Forchhammer, Karl; Maldener, Iris

    2016-02-01

    In the filaments of heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria, septal junctions that traverse the septal peptidoglycan join adjacent cells, allowing intercellular communication. Perforations in the septal peptidoglycan have been observed, and proteins involved in the formation of such perforations and putative protein components of the septal junctions have been identified, but their relationships are debated.

  16. Vortex dynamics in Josephson ladders with II-junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornev, Victor K.; Klenov, N. V.; Oboznov, V.A.;

    2004-01-01

    Both experimental and numerical studies of a self-frustrated triangular array of pi-junctions are reported. The array of SFS Josephson junctions shows a transition to the pi-state and self-frustration with a decrease in temperature. This manifests itself in a half-period shift of the bias critica...

  17. Determination of Relaxation Time of a Josephson Tunnel Junction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Xue-Da; YU Yang

    2008-01-01

    We propose a non-stationary method to measure the energy relaxation time of Josephson tunnel junctions from microwave enhanced escape phenomena.Compared with the previous methods,our method possesses simple and accurate features.Moreover,having determined the energy relaxation time,we can further obtain the coupling strength between the microwave source and the junction by changing the microwave power.

  18. Shunted-Josephson-junction model. II. The nonautonomous case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belykh, V. N.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Sørensen, O. H.

    1977-01-01

    The shunted-Josephson-junction model with a monochromatic ac current drive is discussed employing the qualitative methods of the theory of nonlinear oscillations. As in the preceding paper dealing with the autonomous junction, the model includes a phase-dependent conductance and a shunt capacitance...

  19. Conditions for synchronization in Josephson-junction arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernikov, A.A.; Schmidt, G. [Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ (United States)

    1995-12-31

    An effective perturbation theoretical method has been developed to study the dynamics of Josephson Junction series arrays. It is shown that the inclusion of Junction capacitances, often ignored, has a significant impact on synchronization. Comparison of analytic with computational results over a wide range of parameters shows excellent agreement.

  20. Traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek, upper Colorado River basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdak, Jason J.; Spahr, Norman E.; Szmajter, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    In the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, major highways are often constructed in stream valleys. In the event of a vehicular accident involving hazardous materials, the close proximity of highways to the streams increases the risk of contamination entering the streams. Recent population growth has contributed to increased traffic volume along Colorado highways and has resulted in increased movement of hazardous materials, particularly along Interstate 70. Gore Creek and its major tributary, Black Gore Creek, are vulnerable to such contamination from vehicular accidents along Interstate 70. Gore Creek, major tributary of the Eagle River, drains approximately 102 square miles, some of which has recently undergone significant urban development. The headwaters of Gore Creek originate in the Gore Range in the eastern part of the Gore Creek watershed. Gore Creek flows west to the Eagle River. Beginning at the watershed boundary on Vail Pass, southeast of Vail Ski Resort, Interstate 70 parallels Black Gore Creek and then closely follows Gore Creek the entire length of the watershed. Interstate 70 crosses Gore Creek and tributaries 20 times in the watershed. In the event of a vehicular accident involving a contaminant spill into Gore Creek or Black Gore Creek, a stepwise procedure has been developed for water-resource managers to estimate traveltimes of the leading edge and peak concentration of a conservative contaminant. An example calculating estimated traveltimes for a hypothetical contaminant release in Black Gore Creek is provided. Traveltime measurements were made during May and September along Black Gore Creek and Gore Creek from just downstream from the Black Lakes to the confluence with the Eagle River to account for seasonal variability in stream discharge. Fluorometric dye injection of rhodamine WT and downstream dye detection by fluorometry were used to measure traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek. During the May traveltime measurements

  1. Changing Climates @ Colorado State: 100 (Multidisciplinary) Views of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, S.; Calderazzo, J.; Changing Climates, Cmmap Education; Diversity Team

    2011-12-01

    We would like to talk about a multidisciplinary education and outreach program we co-direct at Colorado State University, with support from an NSF-funded STC, CMMAP, the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes. We are working to raise public literacy about climate change by providing information that is high quality, up to date, thoroughly multidisciplinary, and easy for non-specialists to understand. Our primary audiences are college-level students, their teachers, and the general public. Our motto is Climate Change is Everybody's Business. To encourage and help our faculty infuse climate-change content into their courses, we have organized some 115 talks given by as many different speakers-speakers drawn from 28 academic departments, all 8 colleges at CSU, and numerous other entities from campus, the community, and farther afield. We began with a faculty-teaching-faculty series and then broadened our attentions to the whole campus and surrounding community. Some talks have been for narrowly focused audiences such as extension agents who work on energy, but most are for more eclectic groups of students, staff, faculty, and citizens. We count heads at most events, and our current total is roughly 6,000. We have created a website (http://changingclimates.colostate.edu) that includes videotapes of many of these talks, short videos we have created, and annotated sources that we judge to be accurate, interesting, clearly written, and aimed at non-specialists, including books, articles and essays, websites, and a few items specifically for college teachers (such as syllabi). Pages of the website focus on such topics as how the climate works / how it changes; what's happening / what might happen; natural ecosystems; agriculture; impacts on people; responses from ethics, art, literature; communication; daily life; policy; energy; and-pulling all the pieces together-the big picture. We have begun working on a new series of very short videos that can be

  2. Internal resonances in periodically modulated long Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Britt Hvolbæk; Mygind, Jesper; Ustinov, Alexey V.

    1995-01-01

    Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of long Josephson junctions with a periodic lattice of localized inhomogeneities are studied. The interaction between the moving fluxons and the inhomogeneities causes resonant steps in the IV-curve. Some of these steps are due to a synchronization to resonan...... into account the interaction between the resonance in the sub-junction and the magnetic flux density waves excited in the whole junction is given....... Fiske modes in the sub-junctions formed between the inhomogeneities. The voltage positions of the resonant steps oscillate as function of the applied magnetic field with a period corresponding to the inclusion of one magnetic flux quantum, Φ0=h/2e, per sub-junction. A qualitative explanation that takes...

  3. Parametric resonance in the system of long Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmonov, I. R.; Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Irie, A.

    2014-08-01

    The phase dynamics of the system of long Josephson junctions whose length exceeds the Josephson penetration depth has been studied. The possibility of the appearance of a longitudinal plasma wave and parametric resonance has been demonstrated. Both inductive and capacitive couplings between Josephson junctions have been taken into account in the calculations. The current-voltage characteristics, as well as time evolution of the spatial distribution of the electric charge in superconducting layers and the magnetic field, have been calculated in all Josephson junctions of the system. The coexistence of the longitudinal plasma wave and fluxon states has been observed in the region of parametric resonance beginning with a certain length of the Josephson junction. This indicates the appearance of a new unique collective excitation in the system of coupled Josephson junctions, namely, a composite state of the Josephson current, electric field, and vortex magnetic field.

  4. Design of Steerable Wavelets to Detect Multifold Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Püspöki, Zsuzsanna; Uhlmann, Virginie; Vonesch, Cédric; Unser, Michael

    2016-02-01

    We propose a framework for the detection of junctions in images. Although the detection of edges and key points is a well examined and described area, the multiscale detection of junction centers, especially for odd orders, poses a challenge in pattern analysis. The goal of this paper is to build optimal junction detectors based on 2D steerable wavelets that are polar-separable in the Fourier domain. The approaches we develop are general and can be used for the detection of arbitrary symmetric and asymmetric junctions. The backbone of our construction is a multiscale pyramid with a radial wavelet function where the directional components are represented by circular harmonics and encoded in a shaping matrix. We are able to detect M -fold junctions in different scales and orientations. We provide experimental results on both simulated and real data to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  5. Observation of supercurrent in graphene-based Josephson junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Libin; Li, Sen; Kang, Ning [Key Laboratory for the Physics and Chemistry of Nanodevices and Department of Electronics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Xu, Chuan; Ren, Wencai [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2015-07-01

    Josephson junctions with a normal metal region sandwiched between two superconductors (S) are known as superconductor- normal-superconductor (SNS) structures. It has attracted significant attention especially when changing the normal metal with graphene, which allow for high tunability with the gate voltage and to study the proximity effect of the massless Dirac fermions. Here we report our work on graphene-based Josephson junction with a new two dimensional superconductor crystal, which grown directly on graphene, as superconducting electrodes. At low temperature, we observer proximity effect induced supercurrent flowing through the junction. The temperature and the magnetic field dependences of the critical current characteristics of the junction are also studied. The critical current exhibits a Fraunhofer-type diffraction pattern against magnetic field. Our experiments provided a new route of fabrication of graphene-based Josephson junction.

  6. Low conductance of nickel atomic junctions in hydrogen atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuaishuai; Xie, Yi-Qun; Hu, Yibin

    2017-08-01

    The low conductance of nickel atomic junctions in the hydrogen environment is studied using the nonequilibrium Green's function theory combined with first-principles calculations. The Ni junction bridged by a H2 molecule has a conductance of approximately 0.7 G 0. This conductance is contributed by the anti-bonding state of the H2 molecule, which forms a bonding state with the 3 d orbitals of the nearby Ni atoms. In contrast, the Ni junction bridged by the two single H atoms has a conductance of approximately 1 G 0, which is weakly spin-polarized. The spin-up channels were found to contribute mostly to the conductance at a small junction gap, while the spin-down channels play a dominant role at a larger junction gap.

  7. Visualizing supercurrents in 0-{pi} ferromagnetic Josephson tunnel junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldobin, Edward; Guerlich, Christian; Gaber, Tobias; Koelle, Dieter; Kleiner, Reinhold [Physikalisches Institut and Center for Collective Quantum Phenomena, Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany); Weides, Martin; Kohlstedt, Hermann [Institute of Solid State Physics, Reserch Center Juelich (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    So-called 0 and {pi} Josephson junctions can be treated as having positive and negative critical currents. This implies that the same phase shift applied to a Josephson junction causes counterflow of supercurrents in 0 and in {pi} junctions connected in parallel provided they are short in comparison with Josephson penetration depth {lambda}{sub J}. We have fabricated several 0, {pi}, 0-{pi}, 0-{pi}-0 and 20 x (0-{pi}-) planar superconductor-insulator-ferromagnet-superconductor Josephson junctions and studied the spatial supercurrent density distribution j{sub s}(x,y) across the junction area using low temperature scanning electron microscopy. At zero magnetic field we clearly see counterflow of the supercurrents in 0 and {pi} regions. The picture also changes consistently in the applied magnetic field.

  8. The current-phase relation in HTS Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'ichev, E.; Zakosarenko, V.; Ijsselsteijn, R. P. J.; Schultze, V.; Meyer, H.-G.; Hoenig, H. E.

    The current-phase relation of YBa2Cu3O7-x step-edge as well as 24° and 45° grain boundary Josephson junctions has been investigated experimentally. The junctions were incorporated into a washer-shaped superconducting ring with inductance L≈80-300 pH. The ring was inductively coupled to a tank circuit with a resonance frequency 9…40 MHz. The current-phase relation was obtained from the measurement of the impedance of the phase-biased junction. It is shown, that experimentally observed deviations from harmonic behavior of the apparent current-phase relation for step-edge and 24° grain boundary junctions can be explained by the influence of thermal noise. The current-phase relation of 45° grain boundary junctions was found to be extremely non-harmonic. The reasons of this unusual behavior are discussed.

  9. Glial connexins and gap junctions in CNS inflammation and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielian, Tammy

    2008-08-01

    Gap junctions facilitate direct cytoplasmic communication between neighboring cells, facilitating the transfer of small molecular weight molecules involved in cell signaling and metabolism. Gap junction channels are formed by the joining of two hemichannels from adjacent cells, each composed of six oligomeric protein subunits called connexins. Of paramount importance to CNS homeostasis are astrocyte networks formed by gap junctions, which play a critical role in maintaining the homeostatic regulation of extracellular pH, K+, and glutamate levels. Inflammation is a hallmark of several diseases afflicting the CNS. Within the past several years, the number of publications reporting effects of cytokines and pathogenic stimuli on glial gap junction communication has increased dramatically. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent observations characterizing the consequences of inflammatory stimuli on homocellular gap junction coupling in astrocytes and microglia as well as changes in connexin expression during various CNS inflammatory conditions.

  10. Fixed-gap tunnel junction for reading DNA nucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Pei; Ashcroft, Brian Alan; Song, Weisi; Zhang, Peiming; Biswas, Sovan; Qing, Quan; Yang, Jialing; Nemanich, Robert J; Bai, Jingwei; Smith, Joshua T; Reuter, Kathleen; Balagurusamy, Venkat S K; Astier, Yann; Stolovitzky, Gustavo; Lindsay, Stuart

    2014-12-23

    Previous measurements of the electronic conductance of DNA nucleotides or amino acids have used tunnel junctions in which the gap is mechanically adjusted, such as scanning tunneling microscopes or mechanically controllable break junctions. Fixed-junction devices have, at best, detected the passage of whole DNA molecules without yielding chemical information. Here, we report on a layered tunnel junction in which the tunnel gap is defined by a dielectric layer, deposited by atomic layer deposition. Reactive ion etching is used to drill a hole through the layers so that the tunnel junction can be exposed to molecules in solution. When the metal electrodes are functionalized with recognition molecules that capture DNA nucleotides via hydrogen bonds, the identities of the individual nucleotides are revealed by characteristic features of the fluctuating tunnel current associated with single-molecule binding events.

  11. Scattering form factors for self-assembled network junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, T.; Safran, S. A.; Sottmann, T.; Strey, R.

    2007-11-01

    The equilibrium microstructures in microemulsions and other self-assembled systems show complex, connected shapes such as symmetric bicontinuous spongelike structures and asymmetric bicontinuous networks formed by cylinders interconnected at junctions. In microemulsions, these cylinder network microstructures may mediate the structural transition from a spherical or globular phase to the bicontinuous microstructure. To understand the structural and statistical properties of such cylinder network microstructures as measured by scattering experiments, models are needed to extract the real-space structure from the scattering data. In this paper, we calculate the scattering functions appropriate for cylinder network microstructures. We focus on such networks that contain a high density of network junctions that connect the cylindrical elements. In this limit, the network microstructure can be regarded as an assembly of randomly oriented, closed packed network junctions (i.e., the cylinder scattering contributions are neglected). Accordingly, the scattering spectrum of the network microstructure can be calculated as the product of the junction number density, the junction form factor, which describes the scattering from the surface of a single junction, and a structure factor, which describes the local correlations of different junctions due to junction interactions (including their excluded volume). This approach is applied to analyze the scattering data from a bicontinuous microemulsion with equal volumes of water and oil. In a second approach, we included the cylinder scattering contribution in the junction form factor by calculating the scattering intensity of Y junctions to which three rods with spherical cross section are attached. The respective theoretical predictions are compared with results of neutron scattering measurements on a water-in-oil microemulsion with a connected microstructure.

  12. Phonological Spelling and Reading Deficits in Children with Spelling Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Angela; Olson, Richard K.

    2008-01-01

    Spelling errors in the Wide Range Achievement Test were analyzed for 77 pairs of children, each of which included one older child with spelling disability (SD) and one spelling-level-matched younger child with normal spelling ability from the Colorado Learning Disabilities Research Center database. Spelling error analysis consisted of a percent…

  13. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1995. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    As required by the Romer-Twining Agreement of 1990, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this annual economic impact study for the state of Colorado. This report assesses the economic impacts related to the DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project in Colorado during the state fiscal year (FY) between 1 July 1994 and 30 June 1995. To estimate net economic benefit, employment, salaries and wages, and other related economic benefits are discussed, quantified, and then compared to the state`s 10 percent share of the remedial action costs. Actual data obtained from sites currently undergoing remedial action were used as the basis for analyses. If data were not available, estimates were used to derive economic indicators. This study describes the types of employment associated with the UMTRA Project and estimates of the numbers of people employed by UMTRA Project subcontractors in Colorado during state FY 1995. Employment totals are reported in estimated average annual jobs; however, the actual number of workers at the site fluctuates depending on weather and on the status of remedial action activities. In addition, the actual number of people employed on the Project during the year may be higher than the average annual employment reported due to the temporary nature of some of the jobs.

  14. Influence of Coupling between Junctions on Breakpoint Current in Intrinsic Josephson Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukrinov, Yu. M.; Mahfouzi, F.

    2007-04-01

    We study theoretically the current-voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high-Tc superconductors. An oscillation of the breakpoint current on the outermost branch as a function of coupling α and dissipation β parameters is found. We explain this oscillation as a result of the creation of longitudinal plasma waves at the breakpoint with different wave numbers. We demonstrate the commensurability effect and predict a group behavior of the current-voltage characteristics for the stacks with a different number of junctions. A method to determine the wave number of longitudinal plasma waves from α and β dependence of the breakpoint current is suggested. We model the α and β dependence of the breakpoint current and obtain good agreement with the results of the simulation.

  15. Ruptured venous aneurysm of cervicomedullary junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Aggarwal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ruptured venous aneurysm is often seen with arterio-venous malformation (AVM or developmental venous anomaly (DVA. However, isolated venous aneurysm is unusual. Case Description: We present a case of ruptured venous aneurysm that presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH. Digital substraction angiography (DSA revealed a saccular contrast filling pouch in the left lateral aspect of cervicomedullary junction (CMJ. Endovascular intervention was not a viable option. During surgery, a saccular pliable structure approx. 1.5 Χ 1 cm was found in the subarachnoid space that was clipped and excised. There were no arterial feeders, no evidence of surrounding AVM, and no dilated perimedullary vein. Conclusion: This is perhaps the first reported case of ruptured venous aneurysm (without associated AVM of CMJ, which was successfully managed surgically. The possible etiologies remain an unnoticed head trauma or a congenital vessel wall abnormality. Surgically clipping and excision remains the treatment of choice for such lesion.

  16. Nonlinear nonequilibrium quasiparticle relaxation in Josephson junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnov, V M

    2009-11-27

    I solve numerically a full set of nonlinear kinetic balance equations for stacked Josephson junctions, which allows analysis of strongly nonequilibrium phenomena. It is shown that nonlinearity becomes significant already at very small disequilibrium. The following new, nonlinear effects are obtained: (i) At even-gap voltages V = 2nDelta/e (n = 2, 3, ...) nonequilibrium bosonic bands overlap. This leads to enhanced emission of Omega = 2Delta bosons and to the appearance of dips in tunnel conductance. (ii) A new type of radiative solution is found at strong disequilibrium. It is characterized by the fast stimulated relaxation of quasiparticles. A stack in this state behaves as a light emitting diode and directly converts electric power to boson emission, without utilization of the ac-Josephson effect. The phenomenon can be used for realization of a new type of superconducting cascade laser in the THz frequency range.

  17. Fully magnetic manganite spin filter tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Bhagwati; Blamire, Mark G.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we demonstrate spintronic devices which combine magnetic tunnel junctions with a spin-filtering tunnel barrier. These consist of an ultrathin ferromagnetic insulating barrier, Sm0.75Sr0.25MnO3, sandwiched between two ferromagnetic half-metallic manganite electrodes, La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 and La0.7Ca0.3MnO3, in a nanopillar structure. Depending on the relative magnetic configurations of barrier and electrode layers, three resistance states are well defined, which therefore represent a potential three-state memory concept. These results open the way for the development of spintronic devices by exploiting the many degrees of freedom of perovskite manganite heterostructure systems.

  18. Electron and Phonon Transport in Molecular Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qian

    transmission at the Fermi energy. We propose and analyze a way of using π   stacking to design molecular junctions to control heat transport. We develop a simple model system to identify optimal parameter regimes and then use density functional theory (DFT) to extract model parameters for a number of specific....... The system we are interested in here are π-stacked molecules connected with two semi-infinite leads. π-stacked aromatic rings, connected via π-π electronic coupling, provides a rather soft mechanical bridge while maintaining high electronic conductivity. We investigate electron transport...... and the thermoelectric response of five representative π-stacked systems. We find that the transmission and power factor are both enhanced by increasing the conjugation length or adding substituent groups. The local transmission shows that several extra paths are added by cyano groups, which increases the total...

  19. Electronic transport properties of phenylacetylene molecular junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Wen; Cheng Jie; Yah Cui-Xia; Li Hai-Hong; Wang Yong-Juan; Liu De-Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Electronic transport properties of a kind of phenylacetylene compound- (4-mercaptophenyl)-phenylacetylene are calculated by the first-principles method in the framework of density functional theory and the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism.The molecular junction shows an obvious rectifying behaviour at a bias voltage larger than 1.0 V.The rectification effect is attributed to the asymmetry of the interface contacts.Moreover,at a bias voltage larger than 2.0 V,which is not referred to in a relevant experiment [Fang L,Park J Y,Ma H,Jan A K Y and Salmeron M 2007 Langmuir 23 11522],we find a negative differential resistance phenomenon.The negative differential resistance effect may originate from the change of the delocalization degree of the molecular orbitais induced by the bias.

  20. Functional oesophago-gastric junction imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barry P McMahon; Asbj(φ)rn M Drewes; Hans Gregersen

    2006-01-01

    Despite its role in disease there is still no definitive method to assess oesophago-gastric junction competence (OGJ). Traditionally the OGJ has been assessed using manometry with lower oesophageal sphincter pressure as the indicator. More recently this has been shown not to be a very reliable marker of sphincter function and competence against reflux.Disorders such as gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and to a lesser extend achalasia still effects a significant number of patients. This review looks at using a new technique known as impedance planimetry to profile the geometry and pressure in the OGJ during distension of a bag. The data gathered can be reconstructed into a dynamic representation of OGJ action. This has been shown to provide a useful representation of the OGJ and to show changes to the competence of the OGJ in terms of compliance and distensibility as a result of endoluminal therapy.

  1. Shot Noise in Ferromagnetic Superconductor Tunnel Junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the superconducting order parameter and the energy spectrum of the Bogoliubov excitations are obtained from the Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) equation for a ferromagnetic superconductor (FS). Taking into account the rough interface scattering effect, we calculate the shot noise and the differential conductance of the normal- metal insulator ferromagnetic superconductor junction. It is shown that the exchange energy Eh in FS can lead to splitting of the differential shot noise peaks and the conductance peaks. The energy difference between the two splitting peaks is equal to 2Eh. The rough interface scattering strength results in descent of conductance peaks and the shot noise-to-current ratio but increases the shot noise.

  2. Permanent junctional reciprocating tachycardia in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santilli, Roberto A; Santos, Luis F N; Perego, Manuela

    2013-09-01

    A 5-year-old male English Bulldog was presented with a 1-year history of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) partially responsive to amiodarone. At admission the surface ECG showed sustained runs of a narrow QRS complex tachycardia, with a ventricular cycle length (R-R interval) of 260 ms, alternating with periods of sinus rhythm. Endocardial mapping identified the electrogenic mechanism of the SVT as a circus movement tachycardia with retrograde and decremental conduction along a concealed postero-septal atrioventricular pathway (AP) and anterograde conduction along the atrioventricular node. These characteristics were indicative of a permanent junctional reciprocating tachycardia (PJRT). Radiofrequency catheter ablation of the AP successfully terminated the PJRT, with no recurrence of tachycardia on Holter monitoring at 12 months follow-up.

  3. Exotic Brane Junctions from F-theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, Tetsuji

    2016-01-01

    Applying string dualities to F-theory, we obtain various $[p,q]$-branes whose constituents are standard branes of codimension two and exotic branes. We construct junctions of the exotic five-branes and their Hanany-Witten transitions associated with those in F-theory. In this procedure, we understand the monodromy of the single $5^2_2$-brane. We also find the objects which are sensitive to the branch cut of the $5^2_2$-brane. Considering the web of branes in the presence of multiple exotic five-branes analogous to the web of five-branes with multiple seven-branes, we obtain novel brane constructions for $SU(2)$ gauge theories with $n$ flavors and their superconformal limit with enhanced $E_{n+1}$ symmetry in five, four, and three dimensions. Hence, adapting the techniques of the seven-branes to the exotic branes, we will be able to construct F-theories in diverse dimensions.

  4. Operating modes of superconducting tunnel junction device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maehata, Keisuke [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1998-07-01

    In the Electrotechnical Laboratory, an Nb type superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) device with 200 x 200 sq. micron in area and super high quality was manufactured. By using 55-fe source, response of this large area STJ to X-ray was measured. In this measurement, two action modes with different output wave height from front amplifier were observed. Then, in this study, current-voltage feature of the element in each action mode was analyzed to elucidate a mechanism to form such two action modes. The feature was analyzed by using first order approximate solution on cavity resonance mode of Sine-Gordon equation. From the analytical results, it could be supposed that direction and magnitude of effective magnetic field penetrating into jointed area changed by an induction current effect owing to impressing speed of the magnetic field, which brings two different current-voltage features to make possible to observe two action modes with different pulse wave height. (G.K.)

  5. Studies of silicon pn junction solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, F. A.; Neugroschel, A.

    1977-01-01

    Modifications of the basic Shockley equations that result from the random and nonrandom spatial variations of the chemical composition of a semiconductor were developed. These modifications underlie the existence of the extensive emitter recombination current that limits the voltage over the open circuit of solar cells. The measurement of parameters, series resistance and the base diffusion length is discussed. Two methods are presented for establishing the energy bandgap narrowing in the heavily-doped emitter region. Corrections that can be important in the application of one of these methods to small test cells are examined. Oxide-charge-induced high-low-junction emitter (OCI-HLE) test cells which exhibit considerably higher voltage over the open circuit than was previously seen in n-on-p solar cells are described.

  6. Tantalum oxide barrier in magnetic tunnel junctions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guanghua Yu; Tingting Ren; Wei Ji; Jiao Teng; Fengwu Zhu

    2004-01-01

    Tantalum as an insulating barrier can take the place of Al in magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). Ta barriers in MTJs were fabricated by natural oxidation. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to characterize the oxidation states of Ta barrier.The experimental results show that the chemical state of tantalum is pure Ta5+ and the thickness of the oxide is 1.3 nm. The unoxidized Ta in the barrier may chemically reacted with NiFe layer which is usually used in MTJs to form an intermetallic compound,NiTa2. A magnetic "dead layer" could be produced in the NiFe/Ta interface. The "dead layer" is likely to influence the spinning electron transport and the magnetoresistance effect.

  7. Controlling local currents in molecular junctions

    CERN Document Server

    Yadalam, Hari Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The effect of non-equilibrium constraints and dephasing on the circulating currents in molecular junctions are analyzed. Circulating currents are manifestations of quantum effects and can be induced either by externally applied bias or an external magnetic field through the molecular system. In symmetric Aharonov-Bohm ring, bond currents have two contributions, bias driven and magnetic field driven. We analyze the competition between these two contributions and show that, as a consequence, current through one of the branches can be completely suppressed. We then study the effect of asymmetry (as a result of chemical substitution) on the current pathways inside the molecule and study asymmetry induced circulating currents (without magnetic field) by tuning the coupling strength of the substituent (at finite bias).

  8. Tunable Magnetic Proximity Effects in Graphene Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazic, Predrag; Belashchenko, Kirill; Zutic, Igor

    2015-03-01

    The characteristic length of the magnetic proximity effects exceed the thickness of a graphene layer leading to an important, but typically overlooked, modifications of equilibrium and transport properties, as well as the implications for graphene spintronics. Using the first-principles studies that integrate a real space density functional theory (GPAW) with the state-of-the art boundary elements electrostatic code based on the Robin Hood method, we explore tunable electronic structure and magnetic proximity effects in the ferromagnet/insulator/graphene junctions. We show that the inclusion of a finite-size gate electrodes and van der Walls interaction lead to nontrivial effects that could also be important in other two-dimensional materials beyond graphene. Work supported by US ONR, NSF-DMR and Nebraska NSF MRSEC.

  9. Computation of flow through the oesophagogastric junction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Barry P McMahon; Karl D Odie; Kenneth W Moloney; Hans Gregersen

    2007-01-01

    Whilst methods exist to indirectly measure the effects of increased flow or gastro-oesophageal refluxing,they cannot quantitatively measure the amount of acid travelling back up into the oesophagus during reflux, nor can they indicate the flow rate through the oesophagogastric junction (OGJ). Since OGJ dysfunction affects flow it seems most appropriate to describe the geometry of the OGJ and its effect on the flow.A device known as the functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) has been shown to reliably measure the geometry of and pressure changes in the OGJ. FLIP cannot directly measure flow but the data gathered from the probe can be used to model flow through the junction by using computational flow dynamics (CFD).CFD uses a set of equations known as the Navier-Stokes equations to predict flow patterns and is a technique widely used in engineering. These equations are complex and require appropriate assumptions to provide simplifications before useful data can be obtained. With the assumption that the cross-sectional areas obtained via FLIP are circular, the radii of these circles can be obtained. A cubic interpolation scheme can then be applied to give a high-resolution geometry for the OGJ.In the case of modelling a reflux scenario, it can be seen that at the narrowest section a jet of fluid squirts into the oesophagus at a higher velocity than the fluid surrounding it. This jet has a maximum velocity of almost 2 ms-1 that occurs where the OGJ is at its narrowest. This simple prediction of acid 'squirting' into the oesophagus illustrates how the use of numerical methods can be used to develop a better understanding of the OGJ. This initial work using CFD shows some considerable promise for the future.

  10. Influence of coupling between junctions on breakpoint current in intrinsic Josephson junctions

    OpenAIRE

    Shukrinov, Yu M.; Mahfouzi, F.

    2006-01-01

    We study theoretically the current-voltage characteristics of intrinsic Josephson junctions in high-$T_c$ superconductors. An oscillation of the breakpoint current on the outermost branch as a function of coupling $\\alpha$ and dissipation $\\beta$ parameters is found. We explain this oscillation as a result of the creation of longitudinal plasma waves at the breakpoint with different wave numbers. We demonstrate the commensurability effect and predict a group behavior of the current-voltage ch...

  11. Utilizing ultrasonography in the diagnosis of pediatric fibroepithelial polyps causing ureteropelvic junction obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao Man; Jia, Li Qun; Wang, Yu; Wang, Ning

    2012-09-01

    Fibroepithelial polyps are a rare cause of ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction in children. Preoperative US diagnosis of fibroepithelial polyps is infrequently reported, with intravenous pylogram and retrograde pyelography being most commonly used for diagnosis. To recommend the most accurate process for diagnosing this disease in children by assessing a modified ultrasonographic procedure for the diagnosis of fibroepithelial polyps. A retrospective review of US and IVP imaging studies performed in surgically and histologically confirmed cases of fibroepithelial polyps in children. Each child was asked to drink as much water as possible 30 min before the US testing. For US, the renal pelvis, UPJ and the proximal ureter were inspected for an echogenic mass resulting in hydronephrosis. For IVP studies, abdominal plain films were performed at 7, 15 and 30 min following contrast injection. Thirty-five children, 34 boys and 1 girl, had confirmed fibroepithelial polyps. The children ranged in age from 3 to 14 years (mean age 9 years). Clinical presentation included intermittent vague abdominal pain (100%) and/or hematuria (9.7%) for a period ranging from 1 month to 5 years. Of the 35 children (37 polyps), 21 (23 polyps) were correctly diagnosed preoperatively with US, establishing a 62.2% (23/37) US accuracy rate. Twenty polyps were seen on the left, three on the right and two children had bilateral polyps. The masses were all mildly echogenic with defined edges. Eight children (9 polyps) had an IVP consistent with fibroepithelial polyps giving IVP an accuracy rate of 24.3% (9/37). US is an effective screening tool for identifying fibroepithelial polyps causing UPJ obstruction in children.

  12. Incompressible Turbulent Wing-Body Junction Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, R.; Cagle, Corey D.; Chandra, S.

    1998-01-01

    The overall objective of this study is to contribute to the optimized design of fan bypass systems in advanced turbofan engines. Increasing the engine bypass ratios have provided a major boost in engine performance improvement over the last fifty years. An engine with high bypass ratio (11-16:1) such as the Advanced Ducted Propulsion (ADP) is being developed and is expected to provide an additional 25% improvement in overall efficiency over the early turbofans. Such significant improvements in overall efficiency would reduce the cost per seat mile, which is a major government and Industry challenge for the 21th century. The research is part of the Advanced Subsonic Technology (AST) program that involves a NASA, U.S. Industry and FAA partnership with the goal of a safe and highly productive global air transportation system. The immediate objective of the study is to perform numerical simulation of duct-strut interactions to elucidate the loss mechanisms associated with this configuration that is typical of advanced turbofan engines such as ADP. However, at present experimental data for a duct-strut configuration are not available. Thus, as a first step a wing-body junction flow would be studied and is the specific objective of the present study. At the outset it is to be recognized that while duct-strut interaction flow is similar to that of wing-body junction flows, there are some differences owing to the presence of a wall at both ends of the strut. Likewise, some differences are due to the sheared inflow (as opposed to a uniform inflow) velocity profile. It is however expected that some features of a wing-body junction flow would persist. Next, some of the salient aspects of the complex flow near a wing-body junction, as revealed by various studies reported in the literature will be reviewed. One of the principle characteristics of the juncture flow, is the presence of the mean flow components in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the oncoming free

  13. Analysis of Dissolved Selenium Loading for Selected Sites in the Lower Gunnison River Basin, Colorado, 1978-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Judith C.; Leib, Kenneth J.; Mayo, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Elevated selenium concentrations in streams are a water-quality concern in western Colorado. The U.S. Geologic Survey, in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, summarized selenium loading in the Lower Gunnison River Basin to support the development of total maximum daily selenium loads at sites that represent the cumulative contribution to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 303(d) list segments. Analysis of selenium loading included quantifying loads and determining the amount of load that would need to be reduced to bring the site into compliance, referred to as 'the load reduction,' with the State chronic aquatic-life standard for dissolved selenium [85th percentile selenium concentration not to exceed 4.6 ?g/L (micrograms per liter)], referred to as 'the water-quality standard.' Streamflow and selenium concentration data for 54 historical water-quality/water-quantity monitoring sites were compiled from U.S. Geological Survey and Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment data sources. Three methods were used for analysis of selenium concentration data to address the variable data density among sites. Mean annual selenium loads were determined for only 10 of the 54 sites due to data availability limitations. Twenty-two sites had 85th percentile selenium concentrations that exceeded the water-quality standard, 3 sites had 85th percentile selenium concentrations less than the State standard, and 29 sites could not be evaluated with respect to 85th percentile selenium concentration (sample count less than 5). To bring selenium concentrations into compliance with the water-quality standard, more than 80 percent of the mean annual selenium load would need to be reduced at Red Rock Canyon, Dry Cedar Creek, Cedar Creek, Loutzenhizer Arroyo, Sunflower Drain, and Whitewater Creek. More than 50 percent of the mean annual load would need to be reduced at Dry Creek to bring the site into compliance with the water

  14. Optical trapping of microparticles using silicon nitride waveguide junctions and tapered-waveguide junctions on an optofluidic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hong; Poon, Andrew W

    2012-10-01

    We study optical trapping of microparticles on an optofluidic chip using silicon nitride waveguide junctions and tapered-waveguide junctions. We demonstrate the trapping of single 1 μm-sized polystyrene particles using the evanescent field of waveguide junctions connecting a submicrometer-sized input-waveguide and a micrometer-sized output-waveguide. Particle trapping is localized in the vicinity of the junction. We also demonstrate trapping of one and two 1μm-sized polystyrene particles using tapered-waveguide junctions connecting a submicrometer-sized singlemode input-waveguide and a micrometer-sized multimode output-waveguide. Particle trapping occurs near the taper output end, the taper center and the taper input end, depending on the taper aspect ratio.

  15. Molecular signatures in the transport properties of molecular wire junctions: what makes a junction "molecular"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Alessandro; Ratner, Mark A

    2006-02-01

    The simplest component of molecular electronics consists of a single-molecule transport junction: a molecule sandwiched between source and drain electrodes, with or without a third gate electrode. In this Concept article, we focus on how molecules control transport in metal-electrode molecular junctions, and where the molecular signatures are to be found. In the situation where the molecule is relatively short and the gap between injection energy and molecular eigenstates is large, transport occurs largely by elastic tunneling, stochastic switching is common, and the vibronic signature can be found using inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy (IETS). As the energy gaps for injection become smaller, one begins to see stronger molecular signatures - these include Franck-Condon-like structures in the current/voltage characteristic and strong vibronic interactions, which can lead to hopping behavior at the polaron limit. Conformational changes induced by the strong electric field lead to another strong manifestation of the molecular nature of the junction. We overview some of this mechanistic landscape, focusing on significant effects of switching (both stochastic and controlled by the electric field) and of molecular vibronic coupling.

  16. 78 FR 17716 - Notice Seeking Public Interest for Solar Energy Development on Public Lands in the State of Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... land administered by the BLM's San Luis Valley Field Office in Saguache and Conejos counties, Colorado... Principal Meridian, Conejos County, Colorado. This parcel lies three miles west of the town of Romeo...

  17. 78 FR 52758 - Foreign-Trade Zone 123-Denver, Colorado; Application for Subzone, Pillow Kingdom, Inc., Aurora...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... Kingdom, Inc., Aurora, Colorado An application has been submitted to the Foreign-Trade Zones (FTZ) Board... Pillow Kingdom, Inc. (Pillow Kingdom), located in Aurora, Colorado. The application was...

  18. Spin transport and dynamics in the F/N junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Bedell, Kevin

    2015-03-01

    We study the spin transport in the low temperature regime (often referred to as the precession-dominated regime) between a ferromagnetic Fermi liquid (FFL) and a normal metal metallic Fermi liquid (NFL), the F/N junction, which is considered one of the basic spintronic devices. In particular, we explore the propagation of spin waves and transport of magnetization through the interface of the F/N junction where non-equilibrium spin polarization is created on the normal metal side of the junction by spin injection. We calculate the probable spin wave modes in the precession-dominated regime on both sides of the junction especially on the NFL side where the system is out of equilibrium. Proper boundary conditions at the interface are introduced to establish the transport of the spin properties through the F/N junction. In the end, a possible transmission conduction electron spin resonance experiment is suggested on the F/N junction to see if the predicted spin wave modes could propagate through the junction.

  19. Solar cell junction temperature measurement of PV module

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, B.J.

    2011-02-01

    The present study develops a simple non-destructive method to measure the solar cell junction temperature of PV module. The PV module was put in the environmental chamber with precise temperature control to keep the solar PV module as well as the cell junction in thermal equilibrium with the chamber. The open-circuit voltage of PV module Voc is then measured using a short pulse of solar irradiation provided by a solar simulator. Repeating the measurements at different environment temperature (40-80°C) and solar irradiation S (200-1000W/m2), the correlation between the open-circuit voltage Voc, the junction temperature Tj, and solar irradiation S is derived.The fundamental correlation of the PV module is utilized for on-site monitoring of solar cell junction temperature using the measured Voc and S at a short time instant with open circuit. The junction temperature Tj is then determined using the measured S and Voc through the fundamental correlation. The outdoor test results show that the junction temperature measured using the present method, Tjo, is more accurate. The maximum error using the average surface temperature Tave as the junction temperature is 4.8 °C underestimation; while the maximum error using the present method is 1.3 °C underestimation. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. High electronic couplings of single mesitylene molecular junctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Komoto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on an experimental analysis of the charge transport properties of single mesitylene (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene molecular junctions. The electronic conductance and the current–voltage characteristics of mesitylene molecules wired into Au electrodes were measured by a scanning tunnelling microscopy-based break-junction method at room temperature in a liquid environment. We found the molecular junctions exhibited two distinct conductance states with high conductance values of ca. 10−1G0 and of more than 10−3G0 (G0 = 2e2/h in the electronic conductance measurements. We further performed a statistical analysis of the current–voltage characteristics of the molecular junctions in the two states. Within a single channel resonant tunnelling model, we obtained electronic couplings in the molecular junctions by fitting the current–voltage characteristics to the single channel model. The origin of the high conductance was attributed to experimentally obtained large electronic couplings of the direct π-bonded molecular junctions (ca. 0.15 eV. Based on analysis of the stretch length of the molecular junctions and the large electronic couplings obtained from the I–V analysis, we proposed two structural models, in which (i mesitylene binds to the Au electrode perpendicular to the charge transport direction and (ii mesitylene has tilted from the perpendicular orientation.