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Sample records for juncos junco hyemalis

  1. Speciation on oceanic islands: rapid adaptive divergence vs. cryptic speciation in a Guadalupe Island songbird (Aves: Junco.

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    Pau Aleixandre

    Full Text Available The evolutionary divergence of island populations, and in particular the tempo and relative importance of neutral and selective factors, is of central interest to the study of speciation. The rate of phenotypic evolution upon island colonization can vary greatly among taxa, and cases of convergent evolution can further confound the inference of correct evolutionary histories. Given the potential lability of phenotypic characters, molecular dating of insular lineages analyzed in a phylogenetic framework provides a critical tool to test hypotheses of phenotypic divergence since colonization. The Guadalupe junco is the only insular form of the polymorphic dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis, and shares eye and plumage color with continental morphs, yet presents an enlarged bill and reduced body size. Here we use variation in mtDNA sequence, morphological traits and song variables to test whether the Guadalupe junco evolved rapidly following a recent colonization by a mainland form of the dark-eyed junco, or instead represents a well-differentiated "cryptic" lineage adapted to the insular environment through long-term isolation, with plumage coloration a result of evolutionary convergence. We found high mtDNA divergence of the island lineage with respect to both continental J. hyemalis and J. phaeonotus, representing a history of isolation of about 600,000 years. The island lineage was also significantly differentiated in morphological and male song variables. Moreover, and contrary to predictions regarding diversity loss on small oceanic islands, we document relatively high levels of both haplotypic and song-unit diversity on Guadalupe Island despite long-term isolation in a very small geographic area. In contrast to prevailing taxonomy, the Guadalupe junco is an old, well-differentiated evolutionary lineage, whose similarity to mainland juncos in plumage and eye color is due to evolutionary convergence. Our findings confirm the role of remote islands

  2. Shared songs are of lower performance in the dark-eyed junco

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    Atwell, Jonathan W.

    2016-01-01

    Social learning enables the adjustment of behaviour to complex social and ecological tasks, and underlies cultural traditions. Understanding when animals use social learning versus other forms of behavioural development can help explain the dynamics of animal culture. The dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis) is a songbird with weak cultural song traditions because, in addition to learning songs socially, male juncos also invent or improvise novel songs. We compared songs shared by multiple males (i.e. socially learned) with songs recorded from only one male in the population (many of which should be novel) to gain insight into the advantages of social learning versus invention or improvisation. Song types shared by multiple males were on average of lower performance, on aspects of vocal performance that have been implicated in agonistic communication in several species. This was not explained by cultural selection among socially learned songs (e.g. selective learning) because, for shared song types, song performance did not predict how many males shared them. We discuss why social learning does not maximize song performance in juncos, and suggest that some songbirds may add novel songs to culturally inherited repertoires as a means to acquire higher-quality signals. PMID:27493786

  3. Shared songs are of lower performance in the dark-eyed junco.

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    Cardoso, Gonçalo C; Atwell, Jonathan W

    2016-07-01

    Social learning enables the adjustment of behaviour to complex social and ecological tasks, and underlies cultural traditions. Understanding when animals use social learning versus other forms of behavioural development can help explain the dynamics of animal culture. The dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis) is a songbird with weak cultural song traditions because, in addition to learning songs socially, male juncos also invent or improvise novel songs. We compared songs shared by multiple males (i.e. socially learned) with songs recorded from only one male in the population (many of which should be novel) to gain insight into the advantages of social learning versus invention or improvisation. Song types shared by multiple males were on average of lower performance, on aspects of vocal performance that have been implicated in agonistic communication in several species. This was not explained by cultural selection among socially learned songs (e.g. selective learning) because, for shared song types, song performance did not predict how many males shared them. We discuss why social learning does not maximize song performance in juncos, and suggest that some songbirds may add novel songs to culturally inherited repertoires as a means to acquire higher-quality signals.

  4. Winter fattening in the dark-eyed junco: plasticity and possible interaction with migration trade-offs.

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    Rogers, C M; Nolan, V; Ketterson, E D

    1994-05-01

    Although fat often supplies the major source of metabolic fuel during winter fasts of birds, this critical life-history trait is little studied by ecologists. In the dark-eyed junco Junco hyemalis, we have in a series of studies investigated the extent of plasticity in the winter fat reserve. Earlier (Rogers et al. 1993), we reported (1) a highly variable pattern of geographic variation in the winter fat reserve of junco populations in eastern North America, (2) disappearance of statistically significant interpopulation variation after experimental displacement to a common latitude, and (3) post-displacement temporal variation in the fat reserve. In analyses reported here, recent temperature, recent snowfall (a measure of short-term predictability of resources), season (perhaps reflecting continued exposure to unpredictable resources) and daylength explained spatial variation in the fat store. Recent temperature explained temporal variation in the fat reserves of groups of displaced juncos. These results suggest that platticity in a life-history trait has evolved in an uncertain winter environment. Through environment-dependent fattening, the costs of fat can be avoided during warm periods and at locations where fat confers little benefit, whereas benefits of fat can be quickly gained if weather conditions become harsh and snowfall might restrict food. Three types of winter fatteners probably exist among birds: responders (fatten in response to the proximate environment), predictors (fatten in anticipation of long-term environmental conditions), and responder-predictors (combination of both types of regulation). Because dark-eyed juncos select different winter latitudes as they age, we hypothesize that the nonbreeding component of the life-history of juncos includes the co-adapted plastic traits of winter fattening and post-breeding migration. Life-history theory can apparently explain important traits related to fitness in the nonbreeding period.

  5. Testosterone affects neural gene expression differently in male and female juncos: a role for hormones in mediating sexual dimorphism and conflict.

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    Mark P Peterson

    Full Text Available Despite sharing much of their genomes, males and females are often highly dimorphic, reflecting at least in part the resolution of sexual conflict in response to sexually antagonistic selection. Sexual dimorphism arises owing to sex differences in gene expression, and steroid hormones are often invoked as a proximate cause of sexual dimorphism. Experimental elevation of androgens can modify behavior, physiology, and gene expression, but knowledge of the role of hormones remains incomplete, including how the sexes differ in gene expression in response to hormones. We addressed these questions in a bird species with a long history of behavioral endocrinological and ecological study, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis, using a custom microarray. Focusing on two brain regions involved in sexually dimorphic behavior and regulation of hormone secretion, we identified 651 genes that differed in expression by sex in medial amygdala and 611 in hypothalamus. Additionally, we treated individuals of each sex with testosterone implants and identified many genes that may be related to previously identified phenotypic effects of testosterone treatment. Some of these genes relate to previously identified effects of testosterone-treatment and suggest that the multiple effects of testosterone may be mediated by modifying the expression of a small number of genes. Notably, testosterone-treatment tended to alter expression of different genes in each sex: only 4 of the 527 genes identified as significant in one sex or the other were significantly differentially expressed in both sexes. Hormonally regulated gene expression is a key mechanism underlying sexual dimorphism, and our study identifies specific genes that may mediate some of these processes.

  6. Rapid postglacial diversification and long-term stasis within the songbird genus Junco: phylogeographic and phylogenomic evidence.

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    Friis, Guillermo; Aleixandre, Pau; Rodríguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G; Milá, Borja

    2016-12-01

    Natural systems composed of closely related taxa that vary in the degree of phenotypic divergence and geographic isolation provide an opportunity to investigate the rate of phenotypic diversification and the relative roles of selection and drift in driving lineage formation. The genus Junco (Aves: Emberizidae) of North America includes parapatric northern forms that are markedly divergent in plumage pattern and colour, in contrast to geographically isolated southern populations in remote areas that show moderate phenotypic divergence. Here, we quantify patterns of phenotypic divergence in morphology and plumage colour and use mitochondrial DNA genes, a nuclear intron, and genomewide SNPs to reconstruct the demographic and evolutionary history of the genus to infer relative rates of evolutionary divergence among lineages. We found that geographically isolated populations have evolved independently for hundreds of thousands of years despite little differentiation in phenotype, in sharp contrast to phenotypically diverse northern forms, which have diversified within the last few thousand years as a result of the rapid postglacial recolonization of North America. SNP data resolved young northern lineages into reciprocally monophyletic lineages, indicating low rates of gene flow even among closely related parapatric forms, and suggesting a role for strong genetic drift or multifarious selection acting on multiple loci in driving lineage divergence. Juncos represent a compelling example of speciation in action, where the combined effects of historical and selective factors have produced one of the fastest cases of speciation known in vertebrates. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Sample size clay kaolin of primary in pegmatites regions Junco Serido - PB and Equador - RN; Granulometria de argila caulim primario dos pegmatitos nas regioes do Junco do Serido - PB e Equador - RN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, M.F.; Sousa, J.B.M.; Sales, L.R.; Silva, P.A.S.; Lima, A.D.D., E-mail: mauro.meyer@ifrn.edu.br [Instituto Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (IFRN), RN (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Kaolin is a clay formed mainly of kaolinite resulting from feldspar weathering or hydrothermal. This study aims to investigate the way of occurrence, kaolin particle size of the pegmatites of the Borborema Province Pegmatitic in the regions of Junco do Serido-PB and Ecuador-RN. These variables were analyzed considering granulometric intervals obtained from wet sieving of samples of pegmatite mines in the region. Kaolin was received using sieves of 200, 325, 400 and 500 mesh and the sieve fractions retained by generating statistical parameters histograms. kaolin particles are extremely fine and pass in its entirety through 500 mesh sieve. The characterization of minerals in fine fractions by diffraction of X-rays showed that the relative amount of sericite in fractions retained in sieves 400 and 500 mesh impairing the whiteness and mineralogical texture kaolin production. (author)

  8. La pluma y la cruz al servicio de Franco: Alfonso Junco y el exilio republicano español en México

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Tras la Guerra Civil de 1936, el escritor y periodista mexicano Alfonso Junco habría de ser uno de los partidarios no sólo de la cruzada del general Franco en contra del bando republicano, sino de la decisión, que al término del conlicto adoptaría, de mandar a la otra España al exilio. Ferviente defensor de la cruz y detractor de ideologías como el liberalismo, el comunismo y hasta el fascismo, Alfonso Junco critica- ría con dureza la llegada de los refugiados españoles a Méxic o, bajo el pro...

  9. Mineralogical characterization and beneficiation study of kaolin from Equador (RN and Junco do Seridó (PB to increase the brightness index

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    V. M. J. S. Campos

    Full Text Available Abstract Kaolin is a rock composed mainly of kaolinite. It is used in many industrial segments, such as paper and ceramics. However, for these uses it is necessary to submit the ore to appropriate beneficiation, which generally involves magnetic separation and chemical bleaching, aiming to remove iron oxide and hydroxide, raising brightness index. This work reports the mineralogical characterization and analysis of the beneficiation of three samples of kaolin, two from Equador (Rio Grande do Norte - RN and the third from Junco do Seridó (Paraíba - PB. The samples were submitted to granulometric classification in sieve of 44 μm, magnetic separation in a magnetic induction of 14000 gauss, and chemical bleaching with sodium dithionite during 240 min. The processes were divided into two beneficiation routes. X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis by X-ray fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy were used for mineralogical characterization of the ore and measurement of the brightness index, while electron paramagnetic resonance was applied to study the variation of iron oxides and hydroxides during beneficiation. The results indicate that just 30 min of chemical bleaching without magnetic separation was sufficient to increase the brightness index from 78.2 to 90.2% and from 91.3 to 95.7% in the two samples from Equador (RN and from 86.9 to 90.4% in the sample from Junco do Seridó (PB. The magnetic separation, although causing a small increase in the brightness index, was inefficient for removal of iron oxides and hydroxides. The results indicated no need for using magnetic separation in plants for beneficiation of kaolin from these two locations, providing the reduction of production costs allowing better exploitation of the ore.

  10. Caballos de Poseidón. Barcos de juncos y "hippoi" en el sur de la Península ibérica y el litoral atlántico norteafricano

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    Alfredo Mederos Martín

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Actualmente conocemos la presencia de embarcaciones de junco en Menorca, Cádiz, Larache (Marruecos y Tenerife. Estos barcos, queparecen indicar una marina indígena, se asocian a cauces fluviales navegables como el río Guadiaro en Laja Alta (Jimena de la Frontera,Cádiz y el río Lucos en Larache o a zonas costeras insulares como el Barranco de Macarella (Menorca o La Baranda (El Sauzal, Tenerife. Coexisten barcos grandes en Laja Alta y embarcaciones pequeñas, que no superan los 3 m., en el río Lucos y Tenerife, aunque usan vela. En dos de los casos, Laja Alta y La Baranda, se asocian con barcos de posible procedencia foránea, que en Tenerife se trata de 4 o 5 hippoi, procedentes quizás de Gadir.

  11. Variation in candidate genes CLOCK and ADCYAP1 does not consistently predict differences in migratory behavior in the songbird genus Junco [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/11p

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    Mark P Peterson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies exploring the molecular genetic basis for migratory variation in animals have identified polymorphisms in two genes (CLOCK and ADCYAP1 that are linked to circadian rhythms and correlate with migratory propensity and phenology among individuals and populations. Results from these initial studies are mixed, however, and additional data are needed to assess the generality and diversity of the molecular mechanisms that regulate the biology of migration. We sequenced CLOCK and ADCYAP1 in 15 populations across the two species of the avian genus Junco, a North American lineage in which multiple recently diverged subspecies and populations range from sedentary to long-distance migrants. We found no consistent associations between allele length and migratory status across the genus for either CLOCK or ADCYAP1. However, within two subspecies groups, populations that migrate longer distances have longer CLOCK alleles on average. Additionally, there was a positive relationship between ADCYAP1 allele length and migratory restlessness (zugunruhe among individuals within one of two captive populations studied—a result similar to those reported previously within captive blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla. We conclude that, while both ADCYAP1 and CLOCK may correlate with migratory propensity within or among certain populations or species, previously identified relationships between migratory behavior and sequence variants cannot be easily generalized across taxa.

  12. Environmental Impact Assessment Sandia Laboratories, New Mexico.

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    1977-05-01

    Indigo Bunting ( Passerina cyanea) 102. Lazuli Bunting ( Passerina amoena) 103. Evening Grosbeak (Hesperiphona vespertina) 104. Cassin’s Finch...Junco caniceps) 119. Dark-eyed (Oregon) Junco-(Junco hyemalis)----.. 120. Chipping Sparrow (Spizella passerina ) 121. Brewer’s Sparrow (Spizella

  13. High and low, fast or slow : the complementary contributions of altitude and latitude to understand life-history variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tieleman, B. Irene; Bradshaw, Corey

    2009-01-01

    H. Bears, K. Martin & G.C. White (2009) Breeding in high-elevation habitat results in shift to slower life-history strategy within a single species. Journal of Animal Ecology, 78, 365-375. Dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) from two elevations in the Rocky Mountains of Canada display different life h

  14. Environmental Assessment: Explosive Ordnance Disposal Mission Beddown Minneapolis-St. Paul Air Reserve Station Minneapolis, Minnesota

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    2011-04-01

    cardinalis), mourning dove (Zenaida macroura), house sparrow (Passer domesticus ), and juncos (Junco hyemalis). White-tailed deer (Odocoileus...reported seeing deer, wild turkey, black bear (Ursus americanus) and coyotes ( Canis latrans) near the site. No wildlife was observed at the Lima Range site...Sensitive Species The USFWS’s responsibilities under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) include: (1) the identification of threatened and endangered

  15. ESI-PR39 Juncos, Puerto Rico 2000 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  16. TIGER/Line Shapefile, 2013, county, Juncos Municipio, PR, Current Address Ranges Relationship File

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    US Census Bureau, Department of Commerce — The TIGER/Line shapefiles and related database files (.dbf) are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the U.S. Census Bureau's Master...

  17. Operation and Maintenance of Clarks Hill Lake, Savannah River, Georgia, and South Carolina.

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    1981-10-01

    on a case by case basis. 48 , . € .- " w ii i , - mi . " ’ ." ,: ,.’ .. -. . .,- .-’-..-... - APPENDIX A PROJECT MAPS (Enlarged maps with color coding...Stizostedion canadense Sauger * S. v. vitreum Wal leye B-4 1 I . . - - - CLJ -4 -4 A u -4 0 U L,00~ 4)-4 *)4. 0 c 0 Ai 4 0 0 "a 44 -4 0 4 0 4 -4 J.J...gramineus Vesper Sparrow C/W X *Aimophila aestivalis Bachman’s Sparrow U/P X Junco hyemalis Slate- colored Junco C/W X X Spizella passerina Chipping

  18. Reproductive allochrony in seasonally sympatric populations maintained by differential response to photoperiod: Implications for population divergence and response to climate change

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    Fudickar, A.M.; Grieves, T.J.; Atwell, Jonathan W.; Stricker, Craig A.; Ketterson, Ellen D.

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive allochrony presents a potential barrier to gene flow and is common in seasonally sympatric migratory and sedentary birds. Mechanisms mediating reproductive allochrony can influence population divergence and the capacity of populations to respond to environmental change. We asked whether reproductive allochrony in seasonally sympatric birds results from a difference in response to supplementary or photoperiodic cues and whether the response varies in relation to the distance separating breeding and wintering locations as measured by stable isotopes. We held seasonally sympatric migratory and sedentary male dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) in a common garden in early spring under simulated natural changes in photoperiod and made measurements of reproductive and migratory physiology. On the same dates and photoperiods, sedentary juncos had higher testosterone (initial and gonadotropin-releasing hormone induced), more developed cloacal protuberances, and larger testes than migrants. In contrast, migratory juncos had larger fat reserves (fuel for migration). We found a negative relationship between testis mass and feather hydrogen isotope ratios, indicating that testis growth was more delayed in migrants making longer migrations. We conclude that reproductive allochrony in seasonally sympatric migratory and sedentary birds can result from a differential response to photoperiodic cues in a common garden, and as a result, gene flow between migrants and residents may be reduced by photoperiodic control of reproductive development. Further, earlier breeding in response to future climate change may currently be constrained by differential response to photoperiodic cues.

  19. Reproductive Allochrony in Seasonally Sympatric Populations Maintained by Differential Response to Photoperiod: Implications for Population Divergence and Response to Climate Change.

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    Fudickar, Adam M; Greives, Timothy J; Atwell, Jonathan W; Stricker, Craig A; Ketterson, Ellen D

    2016-04-01

    Reproductive allochrony presents a potential barrier to gene flow and is common in seasonally sympatric migratory and sedentary birds. Mechanisms mediating reproductive allochrony can influence population divergence and the capacity of populations to respond to environmental change. We asked whether reproductive allochrony in seasonally sympatric birds results from a difference in response to supplementary or photoperiodic cues and whether the response varies in relation to the distance separating breeding and wintering locations as measured by stable isotopes. We held seasonally sympatric migratory and sedentary male dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis) in a common garden in early spring under simulated natural changes in photoperiod and made measurements of reproductive and migratory physiology. On the same dates and photoperiods, sedentary juncos had higher testosterone (initial and gonadotropin-releasing hormone induced), more developed cloacal protuberances, and larger testes than migrants. In contrast, migratory juncos had larger fat reserves (fuel for migration). We found a negative relationship between testis mass and feather hydrogen isotope ratios, indicating that testis growth was more delayed in migrants making longer migrations. We conclude that reproductive allochrony in seasonally sympatric migratory and sedentary birds can result from a differential response to photoperiodic cues in a common garden, and as a result, gene flow between migrants and residents may be reduced by photoperiodic control of reproductive development. Further, earlier breeding in response to future climate change may currently be constrained by differential response to photoperiodic cues.

  20. Carvalhos, juncos, árvores e rizomas: paradigmas na formação de professores Oaks reeds, trees and rhizomes: paradigms in teacher education

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    Clarissa Menezes Jordão

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo discutir, a partir da análise de dados empíricos, as metáforas do mundo enquanto rizoma e enquanto árvore, tal como apresentadas por Deleuze e Guattari (1995, relacionando-as à formação inicial e continuada de professores de línguas estrangeiras. Para tanto, analisamos uma atividade realizada durante um curso de formação de professores de inglês "em serviço", na qual os participantes tiveram como tarefa representar o seu desenvolvimento profissional por meio do desenho de uma árvore. A análise interpretativa situa essas representações em relação aos paradigmas arbóreo e rizomático, assim como problematiza a própria perspectiva adotada na proposição da atividade. Embora os desenhos tivessem uma clara relação com a metáfora da árvore, uma vez que a tarefa em si induzia a isso, pudemos também encontrar referências à metáfora do rizoma, o que nos levou a considerar que a perspectiva rizomática encontra espaço mesmo em meio à rigidez disciplinar da formação, desestabilizando e transformando processos identitários no desenvolvimento profissional.This paper aims at promoting a discussion of the rhizome versus tree metaphor as presented by Deleuze and Guattari (1995; 2009, relating such metaphor to the field of foreign language teacher education. In order to do so, we analyse a task presented to the participants of an in-service EFL teacher education course: the task required the teachers to represent their professional development by drawing a tree that would signify the different stages of such development. Our interpretive analysis examines not only the drawings produced by the teachers, but also the task itself in their relation to the rhizome and tree metaphor. Although the drawings showed obvious traces of the tree metaphor, if only because the task itself required that, we could also find references to the rhizome metaphor, what allowed us to conclude that the rhizome perspective finds its way even within academic disciplinary rigidity, thus destabilizing and transforming identity processes in professional development.

  1. Intraspecific correlations of basal and maximal metabolic rates in birds and the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy.

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    David L Swanson

    Full Text Available The underlying assumption of the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy is that basal (BMR and maximal aerobic metabolic rates are phenotypically linked. However, because BMR is largely a function of central organs whereas maximal metabolic output is largely a function of skeletal muscles, the mechanistic underpinnings for their linkage are not obvious. Interspecific studies in birds generally support a phenotypic correlation between BMR and maximal metabolic output. If the aerobic capacity model is valid, these phenotypic correlations should also extend to intraspecific comparisons. We measured BMR, M(sum (maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate and MMR (maximum exercise metabolic rate in a hop-flutter chamber in winter for dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis, American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis; M(sum and MMR only, and black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus; BMR and M(sum only and examined correlations among these variables. We also measured BMR and M(sum in individual house sparrows (Passer domesticus in both summer, winter and spring. For both raw metabolic rates and residuals from allometric regressions, BMR was not significantly correlated with either M(sum or MMR in juncos. Moreover, no significant correlation between M(sum and MMR or their mass-independent residuals occurred for juncos or goldfinches. Raw BMR and M(sum were significantly positively correlated for black-capped chickadees and house sparrows, but mass-independent residuals of BMR and M(sum were not. These data suggest that central organ and exercise organ metabolic levels are not inextricably linked and that muscular capacities for exercise and shivering do not necessarily vary in tandem in individual birds. Why intraspecific and interspecific avian studies show differing results and the significance of these differences to the aerobic capacity model are unknown, and resolution of these questions will require additional studies of potential

  2. Winter Aconite (Eranthis hyemalis Lectin as a cytotoxic effector in the lifecycle of Caenorhabditis elegans

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    Marie-Therese McConnell

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The lectin found in the tubers of the Winter Aconite (Eranthis hyemalis plant is an N-acetyl-D-galactosamine specific Type II Ribosome Inactivating Protein (RIP; Type II RIPs have shown anti-cancer properties, and hence have potential as therapeutic agents. Here we present a modified protocol for the extraction and purification of the E. hyemalis lectin (EHL using affinity chromatography. De novo amino acid sequencing of EHL confirms its classification as a Type II Ribosome Inactivating Protein. The biocidal properties of EHL have been investigated against the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Arrested first stage larvae treated with EHL have shown some direct mortality, with surviving larvae subsequently showing a range of phenotypes including food avoidance, reduced fecundity, developmental delay and constitutive dauer larvae formation. Both inappropriate dauer larvae development and failure to locate to bacterial food source are consistent with the disruption of chemosensory function and the ablation of amphid neurons. Further investigation indicates that mutations that disrupt normal amphid formation can block the EHL-induced dauer larvae formation. In combination, these phenotypes indicate that EHL is cytotoxic and suggest a cell specific activity against the amphid neurons of C. elegans.

  3. A study on aromatic profiles of Thymus hyemalis and Spanish T. vulgaris essential oils at five physiological stages

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    Shrubs of clonal selections of Thymus hyemalis L. and Spanish T. vulgaris subsp. vulgaris were harvested at five phenological stages during the plant growing cycle: vegetative (VEG), floral (FL), floral-fructification (FL-FR), fructification (FR), and passed fructification (FR-pas). The volatile pro...

  4. Feeding ecology of long-tailed ducks Clangula hyemalis wintering on the Nantucket Shoals

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    White, Timothy P.; Veit, Richard R.; Perry, Matthew C.

    2009-01-01

    A substantial proportion, perhaps 30%, of the North American breeding population of Long-tailed Ducks (Clangula hyemalis) winter in the vicinity of Nantucket Island, Massachusetts. These birds spend the night on Nantucket Sound and commute during daylight hours to the Nantucket Shoals, which extend about 65 km offshore from the southeastern corner of Nantucket. Strip transects done from a single-engine plane in 1997 and 1998 indicated that Long-tailed Ducks foraged over the shallower (<= 20 m depth) portions of the Nantucket Shoals, up to 70 km offshore. Diet analyses of ten birds collected in February 1999 and five in December 2006 showed that they fed principally (106.6 +/- 42.0 individuals per crop) on Gammarus annulatus, a pelagic amphipod that often forms large aggregations, and is consumed by several species of fish and marine mammals. Our findings emphasize the importance of conservation of the Nantucket Shoals and the prevention of oil spills or other potentially harmful accidents.

  5. Social environment has a primary influence on the microbial and odor profiles of a chemically signaling songbird

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    Danielle June Whittaker

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chemical signaling is an underappreciated means of communication among birds, as may be the potential contributions of symbiotic microbes to animal chemical communication in general. The dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis produces and detects volatile compounds that may be important in reproductive behavior. These compounds are found in preen oil secreted by the uropygial gland, and this gland supports diverse bacterial communities including genera known to produce some of these volatile compounds. We investigated the relative contributions of shared environments and genetic relatedness in shaping juncos’ symbiotic bacterial communities, and investigated whether these bacterial communities underlie juncos’ chemical signaling behavior. We sampled parents and nestlings at 9 junco nests during one breeding season at Mountain Lake Biological Station in Virginia, USA. From each individual, we collected swabs of the uropygial gland and the cloaca, preen oil, and a small blood sample for paternity testing. We characterized junco bacterial communities through 16S rRNA gene surveys and preen oil volatile compounds via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nest membership and age class had the strongest influence on the structure of bacterial and volatile profiles. We compared father-offspring similarity based on paternity, and nestling similarity in nests containing full siblings and half siblings, and found that relatedness did not noticeably affect bacterial or volatile profiles. While we cannot rule out an influence of genetic relatedness on these profiles, it is clear that shared environments are more influential in shaping bacterial and volatile profiles among juncos.We did not find significant covariation between individual bacterial and volatile profiles. Possible explanations for this result include: 1 bacteria do not underlie volatile production; 2 ample redundancy in volatile production among bacterial types obscures covariation; or 3 the

  6. 76 FR 56464 - Puerto Rico; Amendment No. 1 to Notice of a Major Disaster Declaration

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    2011-09-13

    ... Individual Assistance. Aguas Buenas, Comer o, Juncos, and Orocovis Municipalities for Individual Assistance..., Salinas, San Lorenzo, Santa Isabel, Trujillo Alto, Vieques, Yabucoa and Yauco Municipalities for...

  7. Costs and benefits of competitive traits in females: aggression, maternal care and reproductive success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristal E Cain

    Full Text Available Recent research has shown that female expression of competitive traits can be advantageous, providing greater access to limited reproductive resources. In males increased competitive trait expression often comes at a cost, e.g. trading off with parental effort. However, it is currently unclear whether, and to what extent, females also face such tradeoffs, whether the costs associated with that tradeoff overwhelm the potential benefits of resource acquisition, and how environmental factors might alter those relationships. To address this gap, we examine the relationships between aggression, maternal effort, offspring quality and reproductive success in a common songbird, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis, over two breeding seasons. We found that compared to less aggressive females, more aggressive females spent less time brooding nestlings, but fed nestlings more frequently. In the year with better breeding conditions, more aggressive females produced smaller eggs and lighter hatchlings, but in the year with poorer breeding conditions they produced larger eggs and achieved greater nest success. There was no relationship between aggression and nestling mass after hatch day in either year. These findings suggest that though females appear to tradeoff competitive ability with some forms of maternal care, the costs may be less than previously thought. Further, the observed year effects suggest that costs and benefits vary according to environmental variables, which may help to account for variation in the level of trait expression.

  8. Costs and benefits of competitive traits in females: aggression, maternal care and reproductive success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Kristal E; Ketterson, Ellen D

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown that female expression of competitive traits can be advantageous, providing greater access to limited reproductive resources. In males increased competitive trait expression often comes at a cost, e.g. trading off with parental effort. However, it is currently unclear whether, and to what extent, females also face such tradeoffs, whether the costs associated with that tradeoff overwhelm the potential benefits of resource acquisition, and how environmental factors might alter those relationships. To address this gap, we examine the relationships between aggression, maternal effort, offspring quality and reproductive success in a common songbird, the dark-eyed junco (Junco hyemalis), over two breeding seasons. We found that compared to less aggressive females, more aggressive females spent less time brooding nestlings, but fed nestlings more frequently. In the year with better breeding conditions, more aggressive females produced smaller eggs and lighter hatchlings, but in the year with poorer breeding conditions they produced larger eggs and achieved greater nest success. There was no relationship between aggression and nestling mass after hatch day in either year. These findings suggest that though females appear to tradeoff competitive ability with some forms of maternal care, the costs may be less than previously thought. Further, the observed year effects suggest that costs and benefits vary according to environmental variables, which may help to account for variation in the level of trait expression.

  9. Estimation of avian population sizes and species richness across a boreal landscape in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, C.M.; Swanson, S.A.; Nigro, Debora A.; Matsuoka, S.M.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the distribution of birds breeding within five ecological landforms in Yukon-Charley Rivers National Preserve, a 10,194-km2 roadless conservation unit on the Alaska-Canada border in the boreal forest zone. Passerines dominated the avifauna numerically, comprising 97% of individuals surveyed but less than half of the 115 species recorded in the Preserve. We used distance-sampling and discrete-removal models to estimate detection probabilities, densities, and population sizes across the Preserve for 23 species of migrant passerines and five species of resident passerines. Yellow-rumped Warblers (Dendroica coronata) and Dark-eyed Juncos (Junco hyemalis) were the most abundant species, together accounting for 41% of the migrant passerine populations estimated. White-winged Crossbills (Loxia leucoptera), Boreal Chickadees (Poecile hudsonica), and Gray Jays (Perisoreus canadensis) were the most abundant residents. Species richness was greatest in the Floodplain/Terrace landform flanking the Yukon River but densities were highest in the Subalpine landform. Species composition was related to past glacial history and current physiography of the region and differed notably from other areas of the northwestern boreal forest. Point-transect surveys, augmented with auxiliary observations, were well suited to sampling the largely passerine avifauna across this rugged landscape and could be used across the boreal forest region to monitor changes in northern bird distribution and abundance. ?? 2009 The Wilson Ornithological Society.

  10. Mates of Competitive Females: The Relationships between Female Aggression, Mate Quality, and Parental Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristal E. Cain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though rarely mate-limited, females in a wide variety of species express traits commonly associated with mate competition in males. Recent research has shown that these competitive traits (ornaments, armaments, and intense aggression often function in the context of female-female competition for nonsexual reproductive resources and are often positively related to reproductive success. Increased success could occur because competitive females acquire limited ecological resources (nest sites, territories, etc. or because they pair with high quality males, that is, older, more ornamented, or more parental males. Further, males paired with aggressive/low care females may compensate by increasing their paternal efforts. Here, I examined patterns of social pairing and parental care in free-living dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis, a biparental songbird. I found no detectable relationship between female competitive behavior (aggression and male quality (age, size, or ornamentation or male provisioning. Thus, neither of the mate choice hypotheses (females compete for males or males prefer aggressive females was supported. Instead, these results suggest that females compete for nonsexual resources and mate quality is a secondary consideration. I also found a negative relationship between male and female provisioning rates, suggesting that partners adjust their level of parental effort in response to their partner’s efforts.

  11. Effects of Thyme Extract Oils (from Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis, and Thymus hyemalis) on Cytokine Production and Gene Expression of oxLDL-Stimulated THP-1-Macrophages

    OpenAIRE

    Ocaña, A.; Reglero, G.

    2012-01-01

    Properties of thyme extracts from three different species (Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis, and Thymus hyemalis) were examined. Two oil fractions from each species were obtained by CO2 supercritical fluid extraction. Main compounds presented in the supercritical extracts of the three thyme varieties were 1,8 cineole, thymol, camphor, borneol, and carvacrol. As a cellular model of inflammation/atherogenesis, we use human macrophages derived from THP-1 monocytes and activated by oxidized LDLs. Th...

  12. Spatial genetic structure of Long-tailed Ducks (Clangula hyemalis) among Alaskan, Canadian, and Russian breeding populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert E.; Gust, J R; Petersen, Margaret; Talbot, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Arctic ecosystems are changing at an unprecedented rate. How Arctic species are able to respond to such environmental change is partially dependent on the connections between local and broadly distributed populations. For species like the Long-tailed Duck (Clangula hyemalis), we have limited telemetry and band-recovery information from which to infer population structure and migratory connectivity; however, genetic analyses can offer additional insights. To examine population structure in the Long-tailed Duck, we characterized variation at mtDNA control region and microsatellite loci among four breeding areas in Alaska, Canada, and Russia. We observed significant differences in the variance of mtDNA haplotype frequencies between the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) and the three Arctic locations (Arctic Coastal Plain in Alaska, eastern Siberia, and central Canadian Arctic). However, like most sea duck genetic assessments, our study found no evidence of population structure based on autosomal microsatellite loci. Long-tailed Ducks use multiple wintering areas where pair formation occurs with some populations using both the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. This situation provides a greater opportunity for admixture across breeding locales, which would likely homogenize the nuclear genome even in the presence of female philopatry. The observed mtDNA differentiation was largely due to the presence of two divergent clades: (A) a clade showing signs of admixture among all breeding locales and (B) a clade primarily composed of YKD samples. We hypothesize that the pattern of mtDNA differentiation reflects some degree of philopatry to the YKD and isolation of two refugial populations with subsequent expansion and admixture. We recommend additional genetic assessments throughout the circumpolar range of Long-tailed Ducks to further quantify aspects of genetic diversity and migratory connectivity in this species.

  13. Effects of Thyme Extract Oils (from Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis, and Thymus hyemalis) on Cytokine Production and Gene Expression of oxLDL-Stimulated THP-1-Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocaña, A; Reglero, G

    2012-01-01

    Properties of thyme extracts from three different species (Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis, and Thymus hyemalis) were examined. Two oil fractions from each species were obtained by CO(2) supercritical fluid extraction. Main compounds presented in the supercritical extracts of the three thyme varieties were 1,8 cineole, thymol, camphor, borneol, and carvacrol. As a cellular model of inflammation/atherogenesis, we use human macrophages derived from THP-1 monocytes and activated by oxidized LDLs. These cells were incubated with the thyme fraction oils, and the productions and gene expressions of the inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1B, IL-6, and IL-10 were determined. Thyme extracts significantly reduced production and gene expression of the proinflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1B, and IL-6 and highly increased these parameters on the anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokine. Changes on production and gene expressions were dose dependent and according to the thyme content of each species. Taken together, these results may suggest that thyme extracts could have anti-inflammatory effects.

  14. Effects of Thyme Extract Oils (from Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis, and Thymus hyemalis on Cytokine Production and Gene Expression of oxLDL-Stimulated THP-1-Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ocaña

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Properties of thyme extracts from three different species (Thymus vulgaris, Thymus zygis, and Thymus hyemalis were examined. Two oil fractions from each species were obtained by CO2 supercritical fluid extraction. Main compounds presented in the supercritical extracts of the three thyme varieties were 1,8 cineole, thymol, camphor, borneol, and carvacrol. As a cellular model of inflammation/atherogenesis, we use human macrophages derived from THP-1 monocytes and activated by oxidized LDLs. These cells were incubated with the thyme fraction oils, and the productions and gene expressions of the inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1B, IL-6, and IL-10 were determined. Thyme extracts significantly reduced production and gene expression of the proinflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-1B, and IL-6 and highly increased these parameters on the anti-inflammatory IL-10 cytokine. Changes on production and gene expressions were dose dependent and according to the thyme content of each species. Taken together, these results may suggest that thyme extracts could have anti-inflammatory effects.

  15. Potential Sensitivity of Québec's Breeding Birds to Climate Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Luc DesGranges

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined the relationship between climatic factors and the distribution of breeding birds in southern Québec, Canada to identify the species whose distribution renders them potentially sensitive to climate change in the study area. We determined the degree of association between the distribution of 65 breeding bird species (601 presence-absence squares of the Atlas of the Breeding Birds of Québec and climate variables (212 climatological stations in operation for at least 20 years over the period 1953-1984 by statistically correcting for the effects of several factors that are correlated with bird distribution. Factors considered were the nature and scale of land cover patterns that included vegetation types and landscape characterization, geographical coordinates, and elevation. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA was used to investigate the effect of climatic variables on breeding bird distribution. Independent variables accounted for a total of 29.1% of the variation in the species matrix. A very large portion of the variance explained by climate variables was shared with spatial variables, reflecting the relationships among latitude, longitude, elevation, and climate. After correcting for the effect of land cover variables, climatic variables still explained 11.4% of the variation in the species matrix, with temperature, i.e., warmer summers and milder winters, having a greater influence than precipitation, i.e., wetter summers. Of the 65 species, 14 appeared to be particularly climate-sensitive. Eight are insectivorous neotropical migrants and six species are at the northern limit of their range in the study area. The opposite is largely true for the eight others; they are practically absent from the southern part of the study area, except for the Dark-eyed Junco (Junco hyemalis, which is widespread there. The White-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis is the only resident species that seemed responsive to climatic variables, i

  16. Estructura narrativa en el discurso oral de adultos mayores

    OpenAIRE

    Wittig,Fernando

    2004-01-01

    El envejecimiento implica cambios cognitivos que se traducen en distintos problemas en la producción de discurso narrativo (Kemper, 1992; Craik, Andreson, Kerr & Li, 1995; Juncos, 1998). Juncos y Pereiro (1998) sostienen que el nivel educacional es un factor que incide positivamente en el manejo de la estructura de este tipo de discurso. Para evaluar lo anterior se analizan 167 narraciones orales de 24 sujetos con distinto nivel educacional (básico y universitario) y se clasifican según l...

  17. Educación en valores. Ideología y religión en la escuela pública. [Reseña

    OpenAIRE

    Albert, M.

    2009-01-01

    Reseña de: Antonio LÓPEZ CASTILLO (ed.). Educación en valores. Ideología y religión en la escuela pública. Estudio introductorío de José Alvarez Junco, Centro de Estudios Políticos y Constitucionales, Cuademos y Debates, n. 176, Madríd, 2007, 316 pp.

  18. 77 FR 38269 - Approval for Expanded Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Subzone 7M; Amgen Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Approval for Expanded Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Subzone 7M; Amgen Manufacturing Limited (Biotechnology and Healthcare Products); Juncos, Puerto Rico Pursuant to its authority... Company, grantee of FTZ 7, has requested an expansion of the scope of manufacturing authority on behalf...

  19. 76 FR 80332 - Foreign-Trade Zone 7-Mayaguez, PR, Expansion of Manufacturing Authority; Amgen Manufacturing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ...-Trade Zone 7--Mayaguez, PR, Expansion of Manufacturing Authority; Amgen Manufacturing Limited... expansion of the scope of manufacturing authority approved within Subzone 7M, on behalf of Amgen Manufacturing Limited (Amgen) in Juncos, Puerto Rico. The application was submitted pursuant to the...

  20. Next-generation sequencing reveals phylogeographic structure and a species tree for recent bird divergences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCormack, John E.; Maley, James M.; Hird, Sarah M.;

    2012-01-01

    nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mined from the loci, we detected population differentiation in each of the four bird systems, including: a case of ecological speciation in rails (Rallus); a rapid postglacial radiation in the genus Junco; recent in situ speciation among hummingbirds (Trochilus) in Jamaica...

  1. On the statistical analysis of vegetation change: a wetland affected by water extraction and soil acidification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, ter C.J.F.; Wiertz, J.

    1994-01-01

    A case study is presented on the statistical analysis and interpretation of vegetation change without precise information on environmental change. The changes in a vegetation of a Junco-Molinion grassland are evaluated on the basis of relevés of 1977 and 1988 (20 plots) from a small nature reserve o

  2. Zur Soziologie von Ctenidium molluscum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Gea

    1979-01-01

    Bei einer Untersuchung in einer Anzahl von niederländischen „blauwgraslanden“ (d. h. „blaue Wiesen“, Cirsio-Molinietum, Junco-Molinion) wurde Ctenidium molluscum angetroffen, eine Art, welche in den Niederlanden mehr oder weniger zum Mesobromion gerechnet wird. Untersuchungen an altem Herbarmaterial

  3. Vlozegge (Carex pulicaris L.) in Nederlandse duingebieden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeda, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    In the Netherlands as well as in adjacent countries Carex pulicaris is a strongly declining species. It is mainly known as an inhabitant of little or not manured fen-meadows (Junco-Molinion). Besides there are a limited number of localities of C. pulicaris in the dunes, and in one of these (on the W

  4. Fen-meadow succession in relation to spatial and temporal differences in hydrological and soil conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek, van der D.; Sykora, K.V.

    2006-01-01

    Question: In fen meadows with Junco-Molinion plant communities, falling groundwater levels may not lead to a boosted above-ground biomass production if limitation of nutrients persists. Instead, depending on drainage intensity and microtopography, acidification may trigger a shift into drier and mor

  5. Bibliographie

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Alexander Robert Jackson, « The Latin American Aprista Parties », Political Quarterly, n° 20, 1949, p. 236-247 Álvarez Junco José, Gonzalez Luis (comp.), El populismo en España y América, Madrid, Catriel, 1994. Álvarez Junco José, El emperador del Paralelo. Lerroux et la demagogia populista, Madrid, Alianza, 1990. Ansart Pierre, La gestion des passions politiques, Lausanne, L’Âge d’Homme, 1983. Baciu Sergio, « Un Continente en Busca de Una Doctrina », Journal of Inter-American Studies, n° 2, ...

  6. West Nile Virus Antibodies in Permanent Resident and Overwintering Migrant Birds in South-Central Kansas

    OpenAIRE

    Shelite, Thomas R.; Rogers, Christopher M.; Litzner, Brandon R.; Johnson, R. Roy; Schneegurt, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted serological studies, using epitope-blocking ELISAs directed at West Nile virus (WNV) and flavivirus antibodies, of wild birds in south-central Kansas, the first for this state, in the winters of 2003–04 through 2005–06. Overwintering migratory species (primarily the American tree sparrow and dark-eyed junco) consistently showed significantly lower seropositivity than permanent residents (primarily the northern cardinal). The cardinal showed annual variation in seropositivity betw...

  7. ASSOCIATIONS OF MOLINIETALIA KOCH 1926 (MOLINIO-ARRHENATHERETEA R. Tx. 1937 IDENTIFIED IN NEAGRA BROSTENILOR BASIN (EASTERN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARDARI CONSTANTIN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents eight vegetal communities (Junco-Molinietum coeruleae Preising in R. Tx. et Preising ex Klapp 1954, Calthetum laetae Krajina 1933, Scirpetum sylvatici Ralski 1931, Epilobio-Juncetum effusi Oberd. 1957, Cirsietum rivularis Nowinski 1928, Angelico-Cirsietum oleracei R. Tx. 1937, Filipendulo-Geranietum palustris W. Koch 1926, Deschampsietum caespitosae Hayek ex Horvatic 1930 from Molinietalia Koch 1926 (Molinio-Arrhenatheretea R. Tx. 1937 identified in Neagra Brostenilor hydrographic basin. These are analyzed from the chorology, floristic and phytosociological composition, bio-forms, floristic elements and ecological requests perspectives.

  8. ESTUDIO SOBRE PRODUCCION DE ORACIONES CON RAMIFICACION A LA IZQUIERDA Y A LA DERECHA EN ESPAÑOL

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN La vejez es un estado de involución y no de enfermedad. Durante la involución senil, los órganos constitutivos del ser vivo se modifican y van sufriendo una regresión o atrofia en su estructura y sus funciones van experimentando una disminución. Estas modificaciones se manifiestan tanto en el plano físico como en el plano cognitivo. Según Juncos-Rabadán et al. (2006), el envejecimiento cognitivo es un proceso normal que tiene lugar a lo largo de los años y que produce un...

  9. Bibliografía y documentación citada

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    OBRAS GENERALES Abarca Junco, A. Derecho Internacional Privado, vol. i, Madrid, uned, 2004. Albaladejo García, M. Derecho civil, t. ii, Barcelona, Bosch, 2002. Arrubla Paucar, J. A. Contratos mercantiles, Medellín, Diké, 2009. Ascarelli, T. Teoría de la concurrencia y de los bienes inmateriales, E. Verdera y L. Suárez Llanos (trads.), Barcelona, Bosch, 1970. Ballarino, T. Diritto internazionale privato, 2.ª ed., Padova, Cedam, 1996. Bercovitz, A. Contratos mercantiles, Navarra, Aranzadi, 2001...

  10. Insecticide resistance of adults and nymphs of Asian citrus psyllid populations from Apatzingán Valley, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Saúl; Martínez, Ana M; Figueroa, José I; Chavarrieta, Juan M; Viñuela, Elisa; Rebollar-Alviter, Ángel; Miranda, Mario A; Valle, Javier; Pineda, Samuel

    2017-07-18

    Control of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the most important pest of citrus worldwide, is based on the use of insecticides, though unsatisfactory results have recently been reported. In this study, insecticide resistance of D. citri to three insecticides (bifenthrin, malathion, and chlorpyrifos) was examined. Three populations (designated Dci-CParácuaro, Dci-El Junco, and Dci-Antúnez) of both adults and fourth-instar D. citri individuals were collected in 2014 at two different times and on one occasion, respectively, from three locations (Crucero de Parácuaro, El Junco, and Antúnez). These locations represent the major commercial Mexican lemon production areas in the Apatzingán Valley in the state of Michoacán, Mexico. The three populations of D. citri adults and fourth-instar nymphs at the different collection times showed low levels of resistance (≤7-fold) to bifenthrin, but were very resistant to malathion (≤345- and ≤432-fold for adults and fourth instars, respectively) and chlorpyrifos (≤2435- and ≤1424-fold for adults and fourth instars, respectively). Resistance levels to the tested insecticides were highly variable but homogeneous among seasons and localities. Resistance management programmes that include crop sanitation, use of biological and cultural control practices, and rotation of insecticide classes should be established, particularly in areas where D. citri has developed resistance to malathion and chlorpyrifos. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. “Las relaciones masónicas entre Asturias e Hispanoamérica en los siglos XIX y XX. Estado de la cuestión”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yván Pozuelo Andrés

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available La emigración asturiana se traslado de forma numerosa a los territorios hispanoameri canos durante el siglo XIX y XX. Se emprende a través de este primer estudio el camino para averiguar todo lo relacionado entre masonerías y asturianos tanto desde el Principado como de los países latinoamericanos. Se contempla las dificultades de dicho proyecto y un estado de la cuestión. Se incluyen las reseñas biográficas de Rafael Calzada, Juan Pablo García Álvarez, Augusto Barcia Trelles, Manuel Fernández Juncos y José Victory.

  12. Next-generation sequencing reveals phylogeographic structure and a species tree for recent bird divergences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McCormack, John E.; Maley, James M.; Hird, Sarah M.

    2012-01-01

    Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are revolutionizing many biological disciplines but have been slow to take root in phylogeography. This is partly due to the difficulty of using NGS to sequence orthologous DNA fragments for many individuals at low cost. We explore cases of recent...... divergence in four phylogenetically diverse avian systems using a method for quick and cost-effective generation of primary DNA sequence data using pyrosequencing. NGS data were processed using an analytical pipeline that reduces many reads into two called alleles per locus per individual. Using single...... nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) mined from the loci, we detected population differentiation in each of the four bird systems, including: a case of ecological speciation in rails (Rallus); a rapid postglacial radiation in the genus Junco; recent in situ speciation among hummingbirds (Trochilus) in Jamaica...

  13. Contribuição para o conhecimento das comunidades anfíbias no sul de Portugal Contributions to the knowledge of the amphibian communities in the South of Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marízia Menezes Dias Pereira

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available As comunidades anfíbias pioneiras da bacia hidrográfica do Rio Sado (Setor Mariânico-Monchiquense, Subprovíncia Luso-Extremadurense e Setor Ribatagano-Sadense, Subprovíncia Sadense-Divisório Portuguesa foram objeto do presente estudo. Destacando-se a composição florística de cada fitocenose, bem como os dados referentes à sua ecologia, corologia e sintaxonomia, são apresentadas as principais comunidades vegetais anfíbias identificadas: Junco capitati-Isoetetum hystricis Braun-Blanquet 1936, Junco pygmaei-Isoetetum velati Rivas Goday 1956, Periballio laevis-Illecebretum verticillati Rivas Goday 1954, Loto subbiflori-Chaetopogonetum fasciculati Rivas-Martínez & Costa in Rivas-Martínez, Costa, Castroviejo & E. Valdés 1980, Hyperico elodis-Rhynchosporetum rugosae Neto, Capelo, J.C. Costa & Lousã in Neto 1997, Anagallido tenellae-Juncetum bulbosi Braun-Blanquet 1967, Utriculario exoletae-Sphagnetum auriculati Neto, Capelo, J.C. Costa & Lousã 1996 e Cirsio palustris-Juncetum rugosi Neto, Capelo, J.C. Costa & Lousã 1996. Este estudo mostrou que essas comunidades vegetais são, em sua maioria, relictos, com áreas de distribuição restritas e encontram-se fortemente pressionadas pela crescente ação antrópica e pelas alterações climáticas. Embora com características claramente atlânticas, foram sendo invadidas por espécies mediterrânicas, cujo domínio foi progressivamente aumentando desde o período Atlântico (7800-5700 B.P., durante o qual se verificou o seu ótimo.The pioneer amphibian communities of the Sado river basin (Marianic-Monchiquensean Sector, Lusitan-Extremadurean and Subprovince Ribatagan-Sadensean Sector, Sadensean-Divinding Portuguese Subprovince were subject of the present study. The main plant communities were identified (Junco capitati-Isoetetum hystricis Braun-Blanquet 1936, Junco pygmaei-Isoetetum velati Rivas Goday 1956, Periballio laevis-Illecebretum verticillati Rivas Goday 1954, Loto subbiflori

  14. Postglacial population expansion drives the evolution of long-distance migration in a songbird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milá, Borja; Smith, Thomas B; Wayne, Robert K

    2006-11-01

    The evolution of long-distance migratory behavior from sedentary populations is a central problem in studies of animal migration. Three crucial issues that remain unresolved are: (1) the biotic and abiotic factors promoting evolution of migratory behavior, (2) the geographic origin of ancestral sedentary populations, and (3) the time scale over which migration evolves. We test the role of postglacial population expansions during the Quaternary in driving the evolution of songbird migration against prevailing views favoring the role of intraspecific competition. In contrast to previous attempts to investigate these questions using interspecific phylogenies, we adopt an intraspecific approach and examine the phylogeography of a North American songbird, the chipping sparrow (Spizella passerina), which exhibits both long-distance migratory behavior in temperate North America and sedentary behavior in Mexico and Central America. We show that migratory populations descend from sedentary populations in southern Mexico and that migration has evolved as a result of a northward population expansion into temperate North America since the last glacial maximum 18,000 years ago. Migration appears to have evolved rapidly in some species as populations colonized areas of high seasonality in the temperate zone. The phylogeography of the yellow-eyed junco (Junco phaeonotus), a strictly sedentary species, provides a null model supporting the view that northward range expansions were driven solely by environmental factors and not by a predisposition to evolve migratory behavior. These results provide the strongest evidence to date that historical climate patterns can drive the rapid evolution of avian migration in natural populations, and they suggest a general mechanism for the repeated evolution of migration within and across bird lineages.

  15. Breeding Dispersal by Birds in a Dynamic Urban Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzluff, John M.; DeLap, Jack H.; Oleyar, M. David; Whittaker, Kara A.; Gardner, Beth

    2016-01-01

    Changes in land cover during urbanization profoundly affect the diversity of bird communities, but the demographic mechanisms affecting diversity are poorly known. We advance such understanding by documenting how urbanization influences breeding dispersal—the annual movement of territorial adults—of six songbird species in the Seattle, WA, USA metropolitan area. We color-banded adults and mapped the centers of their annual breeding activities from 2000–2010 to obtain 504 consecutive movements by 337 adults. By comparing movements, annual reproduction, and mate fidelity among 10 developed, 5 reserved, and 11 changing (areas cleared and developed during our study) landscapes, we determined that adaptive breeding dispersal of sensitive forest species (Swainson’s Thrush and Pacific wren), which involves shifting territory and mate after reproductive failure, was constrained by development. In changing lands, sensitive forest specialists dispersed from active development to nearby forested areas, but in so doing suffered low annual reproduction. Species tolerant of suburban lands (song sparrow, spotted towhee, dark-eyed junco, and Bewick’s wren) dispersed adaptively in changing landscapes. Site fidelity ranged from 0% (Pacific wren in changing landscape) to 83% (Bewick’s wren in forest reserve). Mate fidelity ranged from 25% (dark-eyed junco) to 100% (Bewick’s wren). Variation in fidelity to mate and territory was consistent with theories positing an influence of territory quality, asynchronous return from migration, prior productivity, and reproductive benefits of retaining a familiar territory. Costly breeding dispersal, as well as reduced reproductive success and lowered survival cause some birds to decline in the face of urbanization. In contrast, the ability of species that utilize edges and early successional habitats to breed successfully, disperse to improve reproductive success after failure, and survive throughout the urban ecosystem enables them

  16. Long-tailed Duck (Clangula hyemalis) Microsatellite DNA Data; Alaska, Canada, Russia, 1994-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set describes nuclear microsatellite genotypes derived from twelve autosomal loci (6AB, Aph02, Aph08, Aph19, Aph23, Bca10, Bca11, Hhi5, Sfi11, Smo07,...

  17. Metal concentrations in oldsquaw (Clangula hyemalis) during an outbreak of avian cholera, Chesapeake Bay, 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashima, T.Y.; Fleming, W.J.; Stoskopf, M.K.

    1998-01-01

    Forty out of 41 oldsquaw carcasses collected during a 3 month avian cholera outbreak in Chesapeake Bay, USA, in 1994 were culture positive for Pasteurella multocida. Pasteurella-positive birds collected in February had greater (p ??? 0.05) mean (geometric) liver concentrations of cadmium (7.35 versus 3.71 ??g per g dry weight) and lower concentrations of selenium (9.90 versus 12.5 ??g per g dry weight) than Pasteurella-positive birds collected during March and April. The mercury content of the livers and cadmium content of the kidneys did not differ (p > 0.05) between birds collected early in the die-off and those collected in March and April. The liver and kidney concentrations of metals in the Pasteurella-positive birds collected in 1994 were compared to apparently healthy oldsquaw (n = 67) collected from Chesapeake Bay during 1985-1987, because healthy oldsquaw were not collected during the avian cholera outbreak in 1994. Compared to the apparently healthy oldsquaw collected in 1985-1987, the mean concentrations of cadmium (liver 4.32 versus 2.65 ??g per g dry weight and kidney 22.7 versus 11.5 ??g per g dry weight) were greater (p ??? 0.05) in the oldsquaw which succumbed to avian cholera in 1994. In contrast, the liver concentrations of selenium (11.9 versus 17.8 ??g per g dry weight) and mercury (0.389 versus 1.83 ??g per g dry weight) were lower (p ??? 0.05) in the birds from the 1994 die-off than for the apparently healthy oldsquaw collected in 1985-1987. Three birds from the 1985-1987 cohort and none of the birds from the 1994 cohort had liver lead concentrations greater than 4 ??g per g dry weight. The results of this study indicate a possible link between high cadmium tissue concentrations and susceptibility to avian cholera in oldsquaw.

  18. Fatty acids composition of fruits of selected Central European sedges (Carex L. Cyperaceae

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    Janyszek, Magdalena

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acids in the fruits of 13 sedge species (Carex L., Cyperaceae were analyzed. The oil contents in the fruits of the studied sedges ranged from 3.73 and 46.52%. In the studied fruit oils 14 different fatty acids were identified. The main unsaturated fatty acids were: linoleic, α-linolenic, oleic, oleopalmitic n-7; oleopalmitic n-9, octadecenic, and eicosenoic acids. The following acids were found in the greatest quantities: linoleic, oleic, α-linolenic and palmitic acids. Based on the fatty acid composition, studied taxa can be divided in two groups. The first group (C. flava, C. pseudocyperus, C. riparia, C. leporina is a very good source of linoleic acid. The second group, including the remaining species, is a good source of α-linolenic acid. The highest oleic acid contents were observed in C. vulpina. The studied material has shown a low concentration of saturated fatty acids, among which palmitic acid was the main one.Results of the analyses allow for the inclusion of the studied species among plants whose fruits are characterized by a high content of unsaturated fatty acids.Los ácidos grasos de frutos de 13 especies de juncos (Carex L., Cyperaceae fueron analizados. El contenido de aceite en los frutos de juncos estudiados vario desde un 3.73 a un 46.52%. En los aceites de los frutos estudiados fueron identificados 14 ácidos grasos diferentes. Los principales ácidos grasos insaturados fueron los ácidos linoleico, α-linolenico, oleico, n-7 palmitoleico, n-9 palmitoleico, octadecenoico y eicosanoico. Los siguientes ácidos grasos fueron encontrados en mayor cantidad: ácido linoleico, ácido oleico, ácido α-linolenico, y ácido palmítico. Basado en la composición de ácidos grasos, las especies estudiadas pueden ser divididas en dos grupos. El primer grupo (C. flava, C. pseudocyperus, C. riparia, C. leporina es una muy buena fuente de ácido linoleico. El segundo grupo, que incluye las especies restantes, es una buena fuente

  19. Mechanisms associated with an advance in the timing of seasonal reproduction in an urban songbird

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    Fudickar, Adam M.; Greives, Timothy J; Abolins-Abols, Mikas; Atwell, Jonathan W.; Meddle, Simone L.; Friis, Guillermo; Stricker, Craig A.; Ketterson, Ellen D.

    2017-01-01

    The colonization of urban environments by animals is often accompanied by earlier breeding and associated changes in seasonal schedules. Accelerated timing of seasonal reproduction in derived urban populations is a potential cause of evolutionary divergence from ancestral populations if differences in physiological processes that regulate reproductive timing become fixed over time. We compared reproductive development in free-living and captive male dark-eyed juncos deriving from a population that recently colonized a city (~35 years) and ceased migrating to that of conspecifics that live in sympatry with the urban population during winter and spring but migrate elsewhere to breed. We predicted that the earlier breeding sedentary urban birds would exhibit accelerated reproductive development in the spring along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis as compared to migrants. We found that free-living sedentary urban and migrant juncos differed at the level of the pituitary when measured as baseline luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, but not in increased LH when challenged with Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH). Among captives held in a common garden, and at the level of the gonad, we found that sedentary urban birds produced more testosterone in response to GnRH than migrants living in the same common environment, suggesting greater gonadal sensitivity in the derived urban population. Greater gonadal sensitivity could arise from greater upstream activation by LH or FSH or from reduced suppression of gonadal development by the adrenal axis. We compared abundance of gonadal transcripts for LH receptor (LHR), follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in the common-garden, predicting either more abundant transcripts for LHR and FSHR or fewer transcripts for GR and MR in the earlier breeding sedentary urban breeders, as compared to the migrants. We found no difference in the expression of

  20. Mechanisms Associated with an Advance in the Timing of Seasonal Reproduction in an Urban Songbird

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    Adam M. Fudickar

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The colonization of urban environments by animals is often accompanied by earlier breeding and associated changes in seasonal schedules. Accelerated timing of seasonal reproduction in derived urban populations is a potential cause of evolutionary divergence from ancestral populations if differences in physiological processes that regulate reproductive timing become fixed over time. We compared reproductive development in free-living and captive male dark-eyed juncos deriving from a population that recently colonized a city (~35 years and ceased migrating to that of conspecifics that live in sympatry with the urban population during winter and spring but migrate elsewhere to breed. We predicted that the earlier breeding sedentary urban birds would exhibit accelerated reproductive development in the spring along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axis as compared to migrants. We found that free-living sedentary urban and migrant juncos differed at the level of the pituitary when measured as baseline luteinizing hormone (LH levels, but not in increased LH when challenged with Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH. Among captives held in a common garden, and at the level of the gonad, we found that sedentary urban birds produced more testosterone in response to GnRH than migrants living in the same common environment, suggesting greater gonadal sensitivity in the derived urban population. Greater gonadal sensitivity could arise from greater upstream activation by LH or FSH or from reduced suppression of gonadal development by the adrenal axis. We compared abundance of gonadal transcripts for LH receptor (LHR, follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR, glucocorticoid receptor (GR, and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR in the common-garden, predicting either more abundant transcripts for LHR and FSHR or fewer transcripts for GR and MR in the earlier breeding sedentary urban breeders, as compared to the migrants. We found no difference in the

  1. Boldness behavior and stress physiology in a novel urban environment suggest rapid correlated evolutionary adaptation

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    Cardoso, Gonçalo C.; Whittaker, Danielle J.; Campbell-Nelson, Samuel; Robertson, Kyle W.; Ketterson, Ellen D.

    2012-01-01

    Novel or changing environments expose animals to diverse stressors that likely require coordinated hormonal and behavioral adaptations. Predicted adaptations to urban environments include attenuated physiological responses to stressors and bolder exploratory behaviors, but few studies to date have evaluated the impact of urban life on codivergence of these hormonal and behavioral traits in natural systems. Here, we demonstrate rapid adaptive shifts in both stress physiology and correlated boldness behaviors in a songbird, the dark-eyed junco, following its colonization of a novel urban environment. We compared elevation in corticosterone (CORT) in response to handling and flight initiation distances in birds from a recently established urban population in San Diego, California to birds from a nearby wildland population in the species' ancestral montane breeding range. We also measured CORT and exploratory behavior in birds raised from early life in a captive common garden study. We found persistent population differences for both reduced CORT responses and bolder exploratory behavior in birds from the colonist population, as well as significant negative covariation between maximum CORT and exploratory behavior. Although early developmental effects cannot be ruled out, these results suggest contemporary adaptive evolution of correlated hormonal and behavioral traits associated with colonization of an urban habitat. PMID:22936840

  2. A phylogenetic analysis of the emberizid sparrows based on three mitochondrial genes.

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    Carson, Rebecca J; Spicer, Greg S

    2003-10-01

    Previous molecular phylogenetic studies have examined the taxonomic relationships among a number of typical emberizid sparrow genera. To help clarify these relationships, we sequenced a 1673 base pair fragment for the complete sequence of three mitochondrial genes: adenosine triphosphatase (Atp8 and Atp6) and cytochrome oxidase subunit III (COIII) for 38 sparrow species, along with Passerina amoena (Cardinalidae) and Piranga ludoviciana (Thraupidae) which were selected as the outgroups. Our analysis confirms the monophyly of traditional genera such as Junco, Melospiza, and Zonotrichia. Although Calcarius and Plectrophenax are often thought to be putative emberizids, all our analyses placed these genera basal to all other sparrows examined. As observed with Calcarius, Spizella did not form a monophyletic group, with S. arborea being the sister-taxon to Passerella iliaca. Our analyses also suggest that Aimophila ruficeps is probably more closely related to the "brown towhees" (Pipilo aberti, P. crissalis, and P. fuscus) than its putative congeners. The genus Ammodramus was also not monophyletic, since it appears that Passerculus sandwichensis is more closely related to A. henslowii and A. leconteii then either one is related to its congener A. savannarum. Finally, our analyses exhibited other unsuspected associations, such as the sister-taxon relationships between Amphispiza bilineata and the Chondestes grammacus/Calamospiza melanocorys clade, and Amphispiza belli and Pooecetes gramineus.

  3. Extração de nutrientes por macrófitas cultivadas com lixiviado de aterro de resíduos sólidos urbanos Nutrient extraction by macrophytes cultivated in a solid waste landfill leachate

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    Pedro Alexandre Varella Escosteguy

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A absorção de nutrientes por plantas tem sido utilizada para remoção de íons em solos ou outros meios contaminados. Neste trabalho, avaliou-se a capacidade de extração de nutrientes das macrófitas taboa (Typha sp. e junco (Eleocharis sp., cultivadas em monocultivo e consorciadas, em meio contendo brita e lixiviado de aterro de resíduos sólidos urbanos. O cultivo foi em caixas de madeira, contendo brita e lixiviado, em estufa plástica, durante cinco meses. Foram avaliados os teores e as quantidades extraídas, por planta e por área, de macro (N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S e micronutrientes (Fe, Mn, Cu e Zn das macrófitas, além da produção de matéria seca e população de plantas. Essas variáveis foram determinadas na parte aérea das plantas, coletada em cinco cortes, efetuados uma vez por mês. Em geral, os teores e as quantidades extraídas de nutrientes, por planta e por área, não variaram entre o monocultivo e o consórcio, exceto as quantidades extraídas por área de P, K e Zn, que foram maiores no consórcio. A extração de macronutrientes foi maior na taboa e decresceu na ordem: K > N > Ca > P ~ Mg > S (taboa e K > N > P ~ Ca ~ Mg ~ S (junco, e a de micronutrientes, na ordem: Mn > Fe> Zn > Cu. A quantidade extraída de K foi 648 (taboa e 159 kg ha-1 (junco, enquanto a de Mn foi de 6,6 (taboa e 1,4 kg ha-1 (junco. As quantidades de nutrientes extraídas variaram de acordo com o teor deles na parte aérea e a produção de matéria seca das macrófitas, sendo secundária a importância da população de plantas, em ambos os tipos de cultivo. A quantidade de nutrientes extraídos do lixiviado pela taboa foi expressiva, principalmente de K, N e Mn.Plant nutrient extraction has been used to remove inorganic ions from soil or other polluted media. In this study, the nutrient extraction capacity of the macrophytes Typha sp. and Eleocharis sp., cultivated as monoculture and as consortium, was evaluated in a growing medium containing

  4. Textile production in the Bronze Age: an assemblage of splindes or bobbins of yarn from the site of Terlinques (Villena, Alicante

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    Jover Maestre, Francisco Javier

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The archeological field work on the Bronze Age site of Terlinques (Villena, Alicante has given an exceptional sample of spindles or bobbins of rush fibre of yarn in a room destroyed by a violent fire. A meticulous study of these special objects and their process of analysis and restoration yields new perspectives on knowledge in first stages of textile production during Bronze Age in Eastern Spain.

    Los trabajos arqueológicos que se llevan a cabo en el yacimiento de la Edad del Bronce de Terlinques (Villena, Alicante han proporcionado un excepcional conjunto de husos o bobinas de hilo de junco. Éstos se hallaban almacenados en el interior de una habitación destruida por un violento incendio. El detenido estudio de estos singulares objetos y su proceso de análisis y restauración nos permite aproximamos, desde nuevas perspectivas, al conocimiento de la producción textil en las etapas iniciales de la Edad del Bronce en el Levante de la Península Ibérica.

  5. Sustentabilidade Rural no Semiárido Cearense. Uma análise social, biofísica e microeconômica

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    Déa de Lima Vidal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Six rural communities in semiarid Ceará were analyzed for sociological, microeconomic and biophysical sustainability indicators. The collection in situ of original data was carried out through questionnaires that allowed the elaboration of twenty one variables in total. Tapera, Junco and Tiassol were evident more sustainable in relation to biophysical indicators because they use their available surfaces in more diverse way associating crop production to livestock activities of small ruminants. However, the economic and sociological indicators, except for holder age and wage labor, were not statistically different between these communities. Only one community showed up sustainable for all the indicators because it is the more diverse and plural practicing agriculture by combining cereal crops, forage, vegetable garden and orchard with small ruminant livestock with exclusive family labor. Even featuring a smaller total area its ability to diversify agricultural and livestock became viable. In that community the rural units from the latest settlement are managed by intermediate age holders with the second largest number of successors. Finally, its microeconomic results indicate the expanded capacity of productive assets reproduction in these semiarid agroecosystem.

  6. Metastatic gastric cancer – focus on targeted therapies

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    Meza-Junco J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Judith Meza-Junco, Michael B SawyerDepartment of Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, Alberta, CanadaAbstract: Gastric cancer (GC is currently the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide; unfortunately, most patients will present with locally advanced or metastatic disease. Despite recent progress in diagnosis, surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, prognosis remains poor. A better understanding of GC biology and signaling pathways is expected to improve GC therapy, and the integration of targeted therapies has recently become possible and appears to be promising. This article focuses on anti-Her-2 therapy, specifically trastuzumab, as well as other epidermal growth factor receptor antagonists such as cetuximab, panitumub, matuzumab, nimotzumab, gefitinib, and erlotinib. Additionally, drugs that target angiogenesis pathways are also under investigation, particulary bevacizumab, ramucirumab, sorafenib, sunitinib, and cediranib. Other targeted agents in preclinical or early clinical development include mTOR inhibitors, anti c-MET, polo-like kinase 1 inhibitors, anti-insulin-like growth factor, anti-heat shock proteins, and small molecules targeting Hedgehog signaling.Keywords: gastric cancer, targeted therapy, antiangiogenesis drugs, anti-EGFR drugs

  7. Ectoparasites of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Atlantic forest fragments in north-eastern Brazil.

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    Bezerra, Rayanna Hellem Santos; de Vasconcelos, Pedro Fonseca; Bocchiglieri, Adriana

    2016-10-01

    In Brazil, most studies involving parasites of bats (bat flies) treat the mid-west, south-east, and south of the country. This work aimed to characterize the ectoparasites community associated with bats in the Atlantic forest in the state of Sergipe, north-eastern Brazil. Sampling was conducted between January and June 2013 in the Serra de Itabaiana National Park (PNSI) and between November 2013 and June 2015 in the Wildlife Refuge Mata do Junco (RVSMJ). Parasitological indexes were determined, and the influence of host sex and the seasonality in prevalence rates and mean intensity for the most abundant parasites was evaluated. Some 129 parasites were collected in PNSI and 296 in RVSMJ, and 100 and 70.6 %, respectively, belong to the family Streblidae. The differences in parasitological rates in Sergipe in relation to other studies may be associated with the environmental characteristics and the composition of the host community. The influence of sex and the seasonal prevalence of Speiseria ambigua and Trichobius joblingi, associated with Carollia perspicillata, may be associated with a lower rate of female captures and low sampling in the dry season. This is a pioneer study in Sergipe that reveals the occurrence of 16 species of streblids and representatives of Acari and Basilia spp., highlighting the need for more studies to increase the wealth and understanding of host-parasite associations in the state.

  8. The occurrence of blood protozoa in North American birds

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    Herman, C.M.

    1957-01-01

    This report is based on review of literature and examination of a great number of blood smears from native birds in North America, particularly Passeriformes and Anseriformes. Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon occur most frequently, although various species of Plasmodium and, occasionally, other less known forms are recognized. Prevalence of these parasites in wild birds is related to season of year and age of host. Highest incidence occurs in spring and summer. Relapse of Haemoproteus and Leucocytozoon is common in the spring. Blood smears of adult wood ducks, on the Atlantic flyway, in April and May show a high prevalence of Haemoproteus, while smears at other times are usually negative. Although the author (Herman, 1938) demonstrated that young redwings in Massachusetts primarily acquired Plasmodium infections after leaving the nest, in many cases infection is acquired by the nestling. Nestling magpies in northeastern California acquire a high incidence of infection with several parasites. The hypothesis, expressed by Manwell and Herman (1935), that a higher prevalence of infection can be expected in more southerly ranging species, is subject to question. Smears taken during the winter demonstrate higher parasite prevalence in birds at the southern limits of their range, such as juncos and white-throated sparrows, than do smears of other species with more southern range. Little is known of significance of these parasites to survival of the host, although O'Roke ( 1934) reported a high loss for ducklings from Leucocytozoon and there have been occasional reports of fatality in other species.

  9. Valoración del cambio ambiental según los “junqueros” y “leñateros” en el sector sur de la región rioplatense (Argentina

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    Pablo C. Stampella

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mediante un abordaje etnoecológico, se realizaron 24 entrevistas a informantes calificados de los partidos de Magdalena y Punta Indio, en el litoral rioplatense, con el objetivo de recopilar y evaluar las narrativas de junqueros y leñateros locales respecto del cambio ambiental y su impacto en sus vidas cotidianas. Estas actividades extractivas (obtención de leña y recolección de juncos fueron muy importantes en esta zona, aunque en la actualidad sufren una merma, sobre todo en la actividad junquera, debido principalmente a dos acontecimientos que marcaron el rumbo de la actividad: derrame de petróleo y cambios en los sistemas productivos. En la actividad leñera se registraron cambios principalmente como producto de la creación de la Reserva de Biosfera “Parque Costero del Sur”, sin embargo, a diferencia de los junqueros, la abundancia del recurso leñatero y la reformulación en las prácticas y estrategias de selección hizo posible la permanencia de la actividad a pesar de los cambios sufridos en el área de estudio. Las actividades ejercidas por los informantes influyeron en las narrativas sobre su valoración del cambio ambiental, dado que se reconocieron pocos cambios en común, principalmente, en relación con el clima y la fauna.

  10. Use of observed wild bird activity on poultry farms and a literature review to target species as high priority for avian influenza testing in 2 regions of Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Theresa E; Ribble, Carl; Stephen, Craig; Kelton, David; Toews, Lorraine; Osterhold, Jason; Wheeler, Hazel

    2012-02-01

    The risk of avian influenza outbreaks in poultry is partially dependent on the probability of contact between domestic poultry and wild birds shedding avian influenza (AI) virus. The major objective of this study was to document wild bird activity on poultry farms to determine which wild bird species should be targeted for AI surveillance in Canada. We collected data in 2 major poultry producing regions of Canada, southwestern Ontario and the Fraser Valley of British Columbia, on the relative abundance of various wild bird species found on poultry farms and on how these species utilized habitat around poultry farms. We reviewed the published literature to determine what was known about AI pathobiology in the species we observed. From these results we created a list of 10 wild bird species that are a priority for further study. These species are the European starling, barn swallow, rock dove, American crow, northwestern crow, American robin, dark-eyed junco, song sparrow, horned lark, and common grackle. Abundance of these and other species varied between provinces and seasons.

  11. Beneficios de la cobertura muerta para el cultivo del tomate (Solanumlycopersicum L. en Sancti Spíritus, Cuba.

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    Kolima Peña Calzada

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la investigación fue evaluar la utilización de biomasa vegetal como cobertura muerta del suelo en el cultivo del tomate. Se realizaron dos experimentos en dos agroecosistemas y se utilizó como cobertura biomasa vegetal de ambas fincas. Los experimentos fueron montados en bloque al azar con tres y cuatro repeticiones. El experimento 1 constó de tres tratamientos, uno cubierto con guinea (PanicummaximaPers., otro con junco de laguna (ScirpuslacustrisL. y un Control. En el 2 se aplicaron cuatro tratamientos, uno cubierto con restos de cosecha de arroz (Oryza sativa L. otro con guinea (Panicum máxima, otro con hojas de plátano (Musa paradisiaca L. y un Control. Se realizaron mediciones de temperatura de suelo durante 8 semanas, a las 8:00 horas a las 11:00 horas a las 14:00 horas y 17:00 horas. Además se evaluaron las características morfoagronómicas del cultivo (número de frutos por planta, diámetro y masa de los mismos y el rendimiento productivo. Las características morfoagronómicas mostraron los mejores resultados en los tratamientos cubiertos. Los rendimientos en ambos experimentos fueron estadísticamente superiores donde se utilizó la cobertura del suelo.

  12. Buccal habits: frequency and clinic appearance in children between 5 and 11 years Hábitos bucales: frecuencia y manifestaciones clínicas en niños de 5 a 11 años

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    Maureen Janette Más García

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The first step to treat incorrect habits is to detect the cause. Many of them derive from usual situations that, once detected and correctly managed, can contribute to the spontaneous suppression of the incorrect habit. Objective: To characterize a group of children between 5 and 11 years with buccal deforming habits. Methods: Observational, descriptive, correlational study including 176 children from three clinics of the quarter “Junco Sur” in Cienfuegos developed from June 2005 to June 2006. The clinical examination was performed in children, and their parents or tutors were interviewed. The frequency of buccal deforming habits was determined, as well as the presence of dental maxillofacial defects. Results: Deforming habits were identified in 60, 2% of the children; the most frequent were baby bottle suction (48%, finger suction (24% at six years old and lingual protraction at eight years (36,1% in girls. The dental maxillary-facial defects occurred in the 42,6% and there was a prevalence of vestibule-version at eight years (44,4%, augmented ridge at 10 years (35,4% and bilabial incompetence at 11 years (13,3%, all of them in girls. There was prevalence in Angle´s Class I with 60, 1%. Conclusion: Buccal deforming habits are a health problem in the studied universe.Fundamento: Para tratar malos hábitos, el primer paso es la detección del agente causal. Muchos se derivan de situaciones comunes que al ser detectadas y adecuadamente tratadas pueden contribuir a la desaparición espontánea del mal hábito. Objetivo: Caracterizar un grupo de niños de 5 a 11 años portadores de hábitos deformantes bucales. Métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, correlacional que incluyó 176 niños de tres consultorios del Consejo Popular “Junco Sur” de Cienfuegos, desarrollado de junio de 2005 a

  13. Context-dependent neural activation: internally and externally guided rhythmic lower limb movement in individuals with and without neurodegenerative disease

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    Madeleine Eve Hackney

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s Disease (PD is a neurodegenerative disorder that has received considerable attention in allopathic medicine over the past decades. However, it is clear that, to date, pharmacological and surgical interventions do not fully address symptoms of PD and patients’ quality of life. As both an alternative therapy and as an adjuvant to conventional approaches, several types of rhythmic movement (e.g., movement strategies, dance, tandem biking, tai chi have shown improvements to motor symptoms, lower limb control and postural stability in people with PD (Amano, Nocera, Vallabhajosula, Juncos, Gregor, Waddell et al., 2013; Earhart, 2009; M. E. Hackney & Earhart, 2008; Kadivar, Corcos, Foto, & Hondzinski, 2011; Morris, Iansek, & Kirkwood, 2009; Ridgel, Vitek, & Alberts, 2009. However, while these programs are increasing in number, still little is known about the neural mechanisms underlying motor improvements attained with such interventions. Studying limb motor control under task specific contexts can help determine the mechanisms of rehabilitation effectiveness. Both internally guided (IG and externally guided (EG movement strategies have evidence to support their use in rehabilitative programs. However, there appears to be a degree of differentiation in the neural substrates involved in IG versus EG designs. Because of the potential task specific benefits of rhythmic training within a rehabilitative context, this report will consider the use of IG and EG movement strategies, and observations produced by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and other imaging techniques. This review will present findings from lower limb imaging studies, under IG and EG conditions for populations with and without movement disorders. We will discuss how these studies might inform movement disorders rehabilitation (in the form of rhythmic, music-based movement training and highlight research gaps. We believe better understanding of lower limb neural

  14. Feeding Habits of Introduced Black Rats, Rattus rattus, in Nesting Colonies of Galapagos Petrel on San Cristobal Island, Galapagos.

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    Marjorie Riofrío-Lazo

    Full Text Available Introduced rodents are responsible for ecosystem changes in islands around the world. In the Galapagos archipelago, their effects on the native flora and fauna are adverse, including the extinction of endemic rodents in some islands and the reduction in the reproductive success of the Galapagos petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia in its nesting zones. Understanding the feeding behavior of introduced rodents and their trophic interactions with native and non-native species on islands, can assist in the design of management strategies and conservation plans of invasive and endemic species respectively. Four petrel nesting colonies were monitored during June 2013 on San Cristóbal Island (El Plátano, El Junco, San Joaquín, and La Comuna. The feeding habits of black rats were evaluated by analyzing stomach contents and stable isotopes in hair. Three species of introduced rodents were captured. R. rattus was the most abundant at all sites (n=43, capture success (CS = 55.8%, followed by the house mouse, Mus musculus (n = 17, CS = 37.8%, and the Norwegian rat, R. norvegicus (n = 4, CS = 4.5%, captured only at La Comuna. The omnivorous black rat ate mostly plants (98% and arthropods (2%. Intact seeds of Miconia robinsoniana were the main food at all sites (relative abundance=72.1%, present in 95% of the analyzed stomachs, showing the black rats' possible role in the archipelago as endemic seed dispersers. There was no evidence of petrel's intake; however, its possible consumption is not discarded at all. The δ15N and δ13C analysis corroborated the primarily herbivorous diet of black rats. The isotopic signatures of the three rodent species reflect the inter- and intra-specific differential use of food resources. Black rat showed a wider diet in La Comuna, which was related to a lower availability of its primary prey and its ability to adapt to the available resources in its habitat.

  15. Familiasenred: un entorno virtual de participación de las familias

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    Luis A. García

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La plataforma Familiasenred.es nace como una estrategia, dentro del Plan Canario de Formación para la Familia, que ofrece una alternativa formativa a padres y madres a través de las TICs. Montada en un entorno Moodle desde el año 2009, solo en el 2012 se han ofrecido 168 acciones formativas (62 online, 30 semipresencial y 76 presencial que se traducen en más de 1.680 horas de formación sobre diferentes temas relacionados con la familia y la educación de los/as hijos/as. El objetivo del estudio será contrastar los resultados obtenidos en el estudio de García, Castro, Junco y Hernández (2011 acerca de la influencia de la participación de los/as alumnos/as sobre los niveles de satisfacción, y cómo la participación modula dicha influencia. La población objeto de estudio serán los/as 5.083 usuarios/as de la plataforma Familiasenred.es del 2012. Para ello, se empleará una escala de satisfacción de elaboración propia, reducida de la inicial, compuesta de once ítems tipo Likert. Ésta será administrada durante el mes de Diciembre de 2012, de forma voluntaria y una vez finalizada la propuesta formativa 2011-2012. Con los datos obtenidos del paso de pruebas, se llevará a cabo un análisis comparativo entre los niveles de satisfacción del alumnado, su participación en la plataforma y la participación docente.

  16. Obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall ME

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Michael E Hall,1,2 Jussara M do Carmo,2 Alexandre A da Silva,2 Luis A Juncos,1,2 Zhen Wang,2 John E Hall2 1Department of Medicine, 2Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Mississippi Center for Obesity Research, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS, USA Abstract: Obesity is a major risk factor for essential hypertension, diabetes, and other comorbid conditions that contribute to development of chronic kidney disease. Obesity raises blood pressure by increasing renal tubular sodium reabsorption, impairing pressure natriuresis, and causing volume expansion via activation of the sympathetic nervous system and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and by physical compression of the kidneys, especially when there is increased visceral adiposity. Other factors such as inflammation, oxidative stress, and lipotoxicity may also contribute to obesity-mediated hypertension and renal dysfunction. Initially, obesity causes renal vasodilation and glomerular hyperfiltration, which act as compensatory mechanisms to maintain sodium balance despite increased tubular reabsorption. However, these compensations, along with increased arterial pressure and metabolic abnormalities, may ultimately lead to glomerular injury and initiate a slowly developing vicious cycle that exacerbates hypertension and worsens renal injury. Body weight reduction, via caloric restriction and increased physical activity, is an important first step for management of obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease. However, this strategy may not be effective in producing long-term weight loss or in preventing cardiorenal and metabolic consequences in many obese patients. The majority of obese patients require medical therapy for obesity-associated hypertension, metabolic disorders, and renal disease, and morbidly obese patients may require surgical interventions to produce sustained weight loss. Keywords: visceral adiposity, type II diabetes, sodium reabsorption

  17. Reinventing the Rose of Fire: Anarchism and the Movements against Corporate Globalization in Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Juris

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo investiga las intersecciones entre la praxis del anarquismo clásico y el activismo de las organizaciones anti-globalización en Barcelona. Esto se inserta dentro de un debate favorable entre dos claves literarias, poniendo mis argumentos en contraste, todavía últimamente relacionados en diversas direcciones. Primero, en diálogo con la obra de José Álvarez-Junco sobre los “dos anarquismos” en España, me sugirió que los movimientos anti-globalización en Cataluña no sólo reflejan los principios tradicionales del anarquismo, que son claramente comunitarias.  En segundo lugar, contribuyo a las recientes discusiones en torno a los vínculos entre anarquismo y movimiento anti-globalización.Palabras clave: anarquismo, movimiento anti-globalización, Barcelona__________________________ABSTRACT:This article explores the intersections between classic anarchist praxis and contemporary anti-corporate globalization activism in Barcelona. It engages in a sympathetic debate with two key literatures, pushing my argument in contrasting, yet ultimately related directions. First, in conversation with José Alvarez-Junco’s work on the “two anarchisms” in Spain,  I suggest that anti-corporate globalization movements in Catalonia not only reflect traditional anarchist principles, these are distinctly communitarian. Second, I also contribute to recent discussions regarding the links between anarchism and anti-corporate globalization among politically engaged scholars.Keywords: anarchism, anti-globalization movement, Barcelona

  18. Feeding Habits of Introduced Black Rats, Rattus rattus, in Nesting Colonies of Galapagos Petrel on San Cristóbal Island, Galapagos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riofrío-Lazo, Marjorie; Páez-Rosas, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Introduced rodents are responsible for ecosystem changes in islands around the world. In the Galapagos archipelago, their effects on the native flora and fauna are adverse, including the extinction of endemic rodents in some islands and the reduction in the reproductive success of the Galapagos petrel (Pterodroma phaeopygia) in its nesting zones. Understanding the feeding behavior of introduced rodents and their trophic interactions with native and non-native species on islands, can assist in the design of management strategies and conservation plans of invasive and endemic species respectively. Four petrel nesting colonies were monitored during June 2013 on San Cristóbal Island (El Plátano, El Junco, San Joaquín, and La Comuna). The feeding habits of black rats were evaluated by analyzing stomach contents and stable isotopes in hair. Three species of introduced rodents were captured. R. rattus was the most abundant at all sites (n=43, capture success (CS) = 55.8%), followed by the house mouse, Mus musculus (n = 17, CS = 37.8%), and the Norwegian rat, R. norvegicus (n = 4, CS = 4.5%), captured only at La Comuna. The omnivorous black rat ate mostly plants (98%) and arthropods (2%). Intact seeds of Miconia robinsoniana were the main food at all sites (relative abundance=72.1%, present in 95% of the analyzed stomachs), showing the black rats' possible role in the archipelago as endemic seed dispersers. There was no evidence of petrel's intake; however, its possible consumption is not discarded at all. The δ15N and δ13C analysis corroborated the primarily herbivorous diet of black rats. The isotopic signatures of the three rodent species reflect the inter- and intra-specific differential use of food resources. Black rat showed a wider diet in La Comuna, which was related to a lower availability of its primary prey and its ability to adapt to the available resources in its habitat.

  19. Comparación de la calidad del humus de material vegetal con el de residuos orgánicos domésticos, resultado del compostaje mediante el sistema de pilas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Rodriguez Miranda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación se fundamentó en el compostaje del material vegetal de humedales artificiales, puestos en marcha en un proyecto piloto de tratamiento de aguas residuales para la Quebrada Mi Padre de Jesús ubicada a los alrededores de la Facultad de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales de la Universidad Distrital Francisco José de Caldas, realizado en el año 2010. Teniendo en cuenta que estos residuos vegetales, terminan su vida útil en los humedales y no tienen algún uso específico, se generó una alternativa de aprovechamiento de estos residuos, en la producción de compost o abono orgánico. Surge entonces la necesidad de encontrar un método que haga posible su notable reducción, transformación y aprovechamiento de tal manera que se genere un impacto positivo en el ámbito ambiental, económico, social y sanitario. En este caso el compostaje se empleó como técnica para la biodegradación de los residuos vegetales de las especies Buchón de Agua (Eichhornia crassipes, Buchón Cucharita (Limnobium laevigatum. y Junco (Schoenoplectus californicus, transformándolos en un abono orgánico; de igual forma se biodegradaron residuos vegetales de plaza de mercado, que fueron recolectados de la Plaza de mercado de Paloquemao ubicada en la ciudad de Bogotá, empleando la misma técnica con el propósito de tener un punto comparativo en la calidad final de los abonos, con respecto a lo estipulado en la norma NTC 5167 cuarta actualización, referente a parámetros químicos, físicos, microbiológicos con los que deben cumplir los abonos generados a partir de residuos orgánicos de origen animal y vegetal.

  20. Almacenamiento de carbono en especies predominantes de flora en el lago Chinchaycocha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Medrano Yanqui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar la cantidad de carbono que almacenan las especies predominantes de flora del lago Chinchaycocha. Métodos: La investigación fue de tipo básica, de corte transversal y con un nivel exploratorio-comparativo. El estudio se hizo en tres ecosistemas dentro del humedal: bofedal, pajonal y totoral, las áreas fueron identificadas con ayuda de imágenes satelitales Landsat. El procedimiento estuvo basado en la recolección de muestras divididas en: biomasa aérea, biomasa radicular y muestras de suelo, hallándose el contenido de carbono de cada una. Resultados: En el totoral se obtuvo que Schoenoplectus californicus Var. Tatora almacena 30,65 tC/ha y Juncos arcticus Var. Andicola 8,70 tC/ha. En el pajonal Deyeuxia recta Kunth almacena 7,02 tC/ha en su biomasa aérea y 8,41 tC/ha en su biomasa radicular. En el bofedal: Plantago tubulosa almacena 0,81 t C/ha en su biomasa aérea y 1,88 t C/ha en su biomasa radicular, Eleocharis albibracteata almacena 0,22 t C/ha en su biomasa aérea y 2,95 tC/ha en su biomasa radicular, y Limosella australis almacena 0,22 tC/ha en su biomasa aérea y 0,38 tC/ha en su biomasa radicular. En el almacenamiento de carbono en suelos se determinó 774,76 tC/ ha en pajonales y 684,58 tC/ha en bofedales. Conclusiones: Se concluye que en el lago Chinchaycocha el ecosistema que brinda mayor almacenamiento de carbono es el totoral, seguido por el pajonal y en menor proporción el bofedal. Asimismo los suelos son considerados los mayores sumideros de carbono.

  1. Pabellón del club náutico de Sevilla

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    de la Peña Neila, Antonio

    1963-03-01

    Full Text Available This lightweight pavillion is a provisional design, until the permanent Social Headquarters of the Nautical Club of Seville is built. Its plan layout is L shaped, and it faces south and west, so that its main frontage has maximum sunshine during the colder months. As it was anticipated that this building should have multiple uses, so that it could serve as dining room, meeting, and lecture hall, etc., it was decided to suspend from the ceiling a kind of reed woven curtains, which due to their lightness and flexibility, make it easy to subdivide in various ways the building, according to particular requirements. An ondulated canopy and screens, which gyrate about a vertical axis, have been fitted on the outside. These are covered with cane material. Inside, the walls are white, except for a number of lines made with tiles. There is also a picture, and a stand with the sporting trophies; this being the only ornamentation. The furniture is mostly made of cloth and cane, and a number of plants is also distributed about the building, thereby contributing to create a «winter garden» atmosphere, which is highly compatible with the general layout.Este pabellón Iigero se ha construido, como solución de emergencia, basta edificar el Local Social definitivo del Club Nautico de Sevilla, Su planta en forma de ángulo y la orientación sur y oeste de las «fachadas principales» aseguran el aprovechamiento al máximo del soleamiento en los meses fríos. Como se pensó que este local tuviera múltiples utilizaciones —sirviendo de comedor, local de reunión, banquetes, conferencias, etc.— se han empleado unas esterillas de junco, colgadas del techo, que, dada su ligereza y movilidad, permiten efectuar las subdivisiones y variaciones oportunas con un esfuerzo mínimo. Exteriormente existen una visera ondulada y unas pantallas giratorias, en sentido vertical, cubiertas de cañas, e, interiormente, las paredes blancas interrumpidas por unas líneas de cer

  2. Tõsõ mu maailman : [luuletused] / Häniläne, pseud.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Häniläne,, pseud.

    2008-01-01

    Sisu: Bombus lucorum (maakimalane) ; Podiceps auritus (sarvikpütt) ; Malus domestica (aed-õunapuu) ; Felis catus domesticus (kodukass) ; Inachis io (päevapaabusilm) ; Lacerta vivipara (arusisalik) ; Canis familiaris (kodukoer) ; Clangula hyemalis (aul)

  3. Buffalo Metropolitan Area, New York Water Resources Management. Interim Report on Feasibility of Flood Management in Cazenovia Creek Watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-03-01

    Pheucticus ludovicianus rose-breasted grosbeak Passerina cyanea indigo bunting Carpodacus purpureus purple finch Spinus tristis American goldfish...Henslow’s sparrow Pooecetes graminius vesper sparrow Junko hyemalis slate-colored junko (2) Spizella Passerina chipping sparrow Spizella pusilla

  4. Tõsõ mu maailman : [luuletused] / Häniläne, pseud.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Häniläne,, pseud.

    2008-01-01

    Sisu: Bombus lucorum (maakimalane) ; Podiceps auritus (sarvikpütt) ; Malus domestica (aed-õunapuu) ; Felis catus domesticus (kodukass) ; Inachis io (päevapaabusilm) ; Lacerta vivipara (arusisalik) ; Canis familiaris (kodukoer) ; Clangula hyemalis (aul)

  5. À propos de l' influence de la langue Portugaise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando V. Peixoto da Fonseca

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Sur les mots castillans d'origine portugaise, le Prof. Rodrigo de Sá Noguiera écrit: "Il y a une série de mots castillans d'origine claire ou probable portugaise, que le Dictionnaire de l'Académie Espagnole dans la plupart des cas ou omet, ou considère comme d'origine différente". Ceux d'origine claire portugaise, ajoute cet étymologiste, sont ceux qui phonétiquement n'auraient pu avoir en espagnol la forme qu'ils revêtent dans cette langue, tandis qu'ils sont d'accord avec les règles de notre phonétique historique, existant, en outre, sous la même forme (p. ex. chato ou sembllable (p. ex. follaje dans la langue portugaise. Les suivants se trouvent dans ce cas: achantarse, achubascarse, afeitar, aldorta, brinco, barroco, canela, caramelo, cariño, chamada, chapa, chato, chaveta, chinela, chocal!o, chocho, chopa, choza, chubasco, chumacera, chus, chusma, cobra, conchabar, cortiña, desvaído, desvergoñadamente, fado, follaje, fuera, macho, malla, mermelada, morriña, nonio, pintada, vaivén, vergoña. Les vocables d'origine probable (et souvent sûre sont les exotiques, lesquels, dans l'opinion de Sá Nogueira, citée plus haut, ont pénétré dans l'espagnol à travers le portugais. Cet auteur en étudie les suivants: abada, albino, almadía, ananás, bambu, banana, bengala, betel, biombo, bonzo, cacatúa, cachimbo, cacimba, cafre, carcunda, carimbo, catinga, cha, coco, cobra, cornaca, fetiche, jangada, junco, macaco, malagueta, mandarín, mandinga, mandioca, manga, marimba, monzón, naire, pagoda et palanquín. Il est certain qu'ils sont beaucoup plus nombreux, ainsi que l'on s'en rend compte par les ouvrages de Monseigneur Sebastião Rodolfo Dalgado et Georg Friederici. Quant au mot chapéu, dit le Prof. Sá Nogueira, il est difficile de garantir si l'espagnol l'a reçu du portugais, ou si le contraire a eu lieu, et c'est également compliqué le problème du mot castillan jeito, à acception differénte de la nôtre, raison pour

  6. Práticas territoriais indígenas entre a flexibilidade e a fixação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kent

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Em sua busca pelo reconhecimento de seus territórios costumeiros, as populações indígenas das Américas têm progressivamente lançado mão de técnicas modernas para a definição precisa de territórios. Isto resultou em tensões entre suas práticas muitas vezes altamente flexíveis e as modalidades mais fixas de territorialidade produzidas por tais técnicas. O objetivo deste artigo é explorar essas tensões e suas consequências sociais por meio da análise das práticas territoriais dos Uros, um grupo indígena que habita ilhas flutuantes nos juncais do lago andino Titicaca. Tais práticas serão analisadas tanto no nível da comunidade quanto em suas relações conflitantes com as comunidades vizinhas na costa do lago e com uma área protegida administrada pelo Estado peruano. As práticas territoriais internas dos Uros revelam elevados níveis de mobilidade física e flexibilidade social, resultantes do constante fundir e separar das ilhas artificiais de junco. No entanto, seu envolvimento com o Estado e suas práticas territoriais têm resultado em profundas transformações em seus arranjos com as comunidades ribeirinhas. Em especial, redundou numa transformação dos territórios flexíveis, vagamente definidos e compartilhados, em territórios fixos, claramente definidos e exclusivos. Por fim, analisarei conflitos que emergiram entre os Uros quando seus líderes tentaram aplicar mecanismos de fixação territorial, de forma a controlar a constante fusão e separação das ilhas flutuantes.In their quest for the recognition of their customary territories, indigenous populations of the Americas have increasingly made use of modern techniques for the precise definition of territories. This has resulted in tensions between their often highly flexible territorial practices and the more fixed modalities of territoriality produced through such techniques. The objective of this article is to explore such tensions and their social

  7. Un registro de 6 000 años de manifestaciones intensas del fenómeno de El Niño en sedimentos de lagunas de las islas Galápagos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1998-01-01

    ’enregistrement de Bainbridge, nous disposons d’autres carottes susceptibles de retracer l’histoire du phénomène El Niño. Une carotte du lac de cratère de Genovesa (6 000 ± 50 ans montre des fluctuations dans la teneur en phosphore (provenant du Guano de fous aux pattes rouges qui nichent autour du cratère et de pollen de Bursea (plante qui ne fleurit que quand il pleut. Les sédiments du lac de El Junco dans l’île de San Cristobal montrent des fluctuations des espèces de diatomées qui indiquent des variations du niveau de ce lac au cours des derniers 550 ans (daté à l’aide de Pb 210. Des carottes prélevées dans deux lagons côtiers des îles Isabela et Santiago montrent, grâce à la présence de diatomées marines et d’espèces foraminifères, des fluctuations du niveau de l’océan. Muchos de los modelos que se están desarrollando con el propósito de obtener un pronóstico efectivo del fenómeno de El Niño requieren datos históricos sobre el comportamiento del clima, y es especialmente importante para climatólogos el obtener datos de gran antigüedad. En los sedimentos de lagunas de las Islas Galápagos encontramos uno de los registros más antiguos y completos de la frecuencia con la que los eventos de más intensidad de El Niño han ocurrido. Las lluvias torrenciales que El Niño trae causan que la salinidad del agua en lagunas salobres de las islas baje considerablemente. Es posible detectar estos cambios en los sedimentos de las lagunas mediante análisis de mineralogía y geoquímica. Además una capa de agua dulce que se forma en la superficie de estas lagunas durante épocas de lluvia, causa que la composición de especies de algas microscópicas (diatomeas cambie. Las diatomeas tienen paredes celulares de silicio que permiten que la comunidad entera se preserve como fósil en los sedimentos. Un núcleo de sedimentos de 4,17 m, obtenido en la laguna salobre del cráter de Bainbridge al sureste de la Isla Santiago, nos proporciona una historia

  8. La vegetación azonal paramunade la Cordillera Oriental colombiana: síntesis fitosociológica preliminar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangel Churio Orlando

    2006-06-01

    toda la cordillera, seguidas por las alianzas Crassolion  venezuelense, Junco- Elatinion y Calamagrostion ligulatae, ausentes solo en unas pocas áreas; en cuanto a asociaciones, la vegetación del Gentiano-Plantaginetum y del Crassuletum venezuelense posee la distribución más amplia. La vegetación de la alianza
    Oreobolio-Plantagion presenta la distribución altitudinal más amplia de la vegetación azonal (franja extrazonal a
    superpáramo, 3.150-4.350 m, seguida por la vegetación del Egerio-Myriophyllion (páramo bajo a superpáramo,
    3.350-4.435 m. En cuanto a flora, la mayor riqueza de géneros presentes en la vegetación acuática la poseen
    las familias Asteraceae (siete, Poaceae (seis, Cyperaceae (cinco y Scrophulariaceae (cuatro; los géneros con mayor número de morfoespecies en este tipo de vegetación son Isoetes (ocho, Juncus (siete y Eleocharis (cinco. Las familias con mayor representación de géneros en la vegetación terrestre son Asteraceae y Poaceae (25 y 15 respectivamente, seguidas por Scrophulariaceae (nueve y Cyperaceae (siete; los géneros más ricos en morfoespecies son Carex (12, Campylopus, Hypericum, Monticalia y Lachemilla (cada una con 11 morfoespecies. Especies como Crassula venezuelensis, Werneria pygmaea, Plantago rigida,  alamagrostis ligulata, Puya santosii, Blechnum loxense, Aragoa abietina, Chusquea tessellata y varias de los géneros Eleocharis, Isoetes, Carex y Sphagnum cobran gran importancia en el proceso sucesional entre comunidades acuáticas y etapas iniciales de colmatación hasta las fases avanzadas de terrización, transicionales a tipos propios de vegetación zonal.

  9. Don Gonzalo Jimenez de Quesada. El Fundador

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    Alvaro López Pardo

    1989-09-01

    , Gracias a estos fracasos debió enrolarse en la expedición de Don Pedro Fernández de Lugo- como Teniente y Justicia Mayor, para dirigirse al enigmático Nuevo Mundo.

    Vendrá en su mente el recuerdo del vistoso desembarco de las tropas en Santa Martha, en gra contraste con los harapos que vestirían esas mismas tropas más tarde al enfrentarse al territorio americano. Recordará vivamente Don Gonzalo cómo su idea de seguir adelante para conquistar el corazón de América dio muchos ánimos a la gente y fue así como para su empresa logró reunir ochocientos soldados, de a pie y a caballo, acompañados por muchos indios. También dotó una pequeña flotilla que debía subir por el Río Grande de la Magdalena.

    Aquí vendría una parte negra de los ensueños del Mariscal, una pesadilla de fracasos y sufrimientos que comenzó el6 de abril de 1536. Su flota zozobró quedando tan sólo dos naves. Su tropa, que iba por tierra, guiada por expertos Capitanes: Suárez Rendón, Juan del Junco, Antón de Olaya, Juan de Céspedes, etc., sufre todas las inclemencias del tiempo, debe atravesar pantanos, cruzar selvas, hacer caminos al aundar. Las fieras, no menos terribles que las flechas de algunas tribus indígenas, van terminando con la soldadesca. El hambre les lleva a comer de todo. Fiebres desconocidas los asaltaban. Porque, pensaría Don Gonzalo, que en este enfrentamiento de dos mundos, que se desconocen, se causan admiración, se temen, no sólo van a intercambiar disparos y dardos, espejos por esmeraldas, religión por agüeros, sino también a intercambiar enfermedades, que destruyeron a los unos y a los otros.

    Volverá a la mente del adelantado, quien en el fondo estimaba a los indios, la variada conducta de las distintas tribus, los unos los atacan, ocultándose entre el follaje, otros muchos les huyen como a bestias salvajes, otros los reciben como a los dioses blancos prometidos. Pero quizás el recuerdo más impresionante sea el episodio que sucedi

  10. Selenium concentrations and enzyme activities of glutathione metabolism in wild long-tailed ducks and common eiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David J.; Flint, Paul L.

    2011-01-01

    The relationships of selenium (Se) concentrations in whole blood with plasma activities of total glutathione peroxidase, Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were studied in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) and common eiders (Somateria mollissima) sampled along the Beaufort Sea coast of Alaska, USA. Blood Se concentrations were >8 μg/g wet weight in both species. Linear regression revealed that the activities of total and Se-dependent glutathione peroxidase were significantly related to Se concentrations only in long-tailed ducks, raising the possibility that these birds were experiencing early oxidative stress.

  11. O gênero Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae na planície de alagável do Alto Rio Paraná, Estados de Mato Grosso do Sul e Paraná, Brasil The genus Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae on the Upper Paraná River floodplain, Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraná States, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariza Barion Romagnolo

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado o levantamento das espécies de Eugenia L. da planície alagável do Alto Rio Paraná, Estados de Mato Grosso do Sul e Paraná (22º40' a 22º55'S e 53º10' a 53º40'W. Esta área localiza-se no domínio da Floresta Estacional Semidecidual e apresenta formações ripárias ao longo do rio Paraná, de suas ilhas e de seus tributários. As espécies registradas foram: Eugenia egensis DC., E. florida DC., E. hyemalis Cambess., E. klappenbachiana Mattos & D. Legrand, E. moraviana O. Berg, E. pyriformis Cambess., E. ramboi D. Legrand, E. repanda O. Berg., E. sulcata Spring. ex Mart. e E. uniflora L. Os meses que apresentaram o maior número de espécies em floração e frutificação foram respectivamente, setembro e novembro. Eugenia florida, E. hyemalis e E. repanda apresentam ampla distribuição na área, enquanto que E. ramboi e E. sulcata foram encontradas somente na margem esquerda do rio Paraná. É fornecida uma chave para a identificação das espécies, acompanhada de ilustrações e descrições das mesmas, além de informações sobre o período de floração, frutificação e distribuição na área estudada.A floristic survey of Eugenia L. species of the Upper Paraná River floodplain in Mato Grosso do Sul and Paraná States, Brazil (22º40'-22º55'S; 53º10'-53º40'W is presented. The study area is covered by Seasonal Semideciduous Forest, with riparian formations along the Paraná River and its islands and tributaries. The following species were identified: E. egensis DC., E. florida DC., E. hyemalis Cambess., E. klappenbachiana Mattos & D. Legrand, E. moraviana O. Berg, E. pyriformis Cambess., E. ramboi D. Legrand, E. repanda O.Berg., E. sulcata Spring. ex Mart., and E. uniflora L. The greatest number of species in flower or fruit was detected in September and November, respectively. Eugenia florida, E. hyemalis and E. repanda are widely distributed in the study area, whereas E. ramboi and E. sulcata were observed only

  12. Bioaccumulation of polonium 210Po in marine birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skwarzec, B; Fabisiak, J

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the 210Po content in marine birds which permanently or temporally live in the Polish part of the Baltic Sea. We chose 11 species of sea birds: three species permanently residing at southern Baltic Sea, four species of wintering birds and three species of migrating birds. The results show that the polonium is non-uniformly distributed in the marine birds. The highest activities of 210Po were observed in feathers, muscles and liver and the lowest in skin and skeleton. Species of birds that eat crustaceans, molluscs, fish and plants (long-tailed duck Clangula hyemalis, white-winged scoter Melanitta fusca) accumulated more polonium than species that eat mainly fish (great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo, common guillemot Uria aalge) or plants (tufted duck Aythya fuligula). Moreover, about 63% of the 210Po that was located in feathers of razorbil (Alca torda) and long-tailed duck (C. hyemalis) was apparently adsorbed, suggesting an external source such as the air. It means that the adsorption of 210Po on the feather surface may be an important transfer from air to water.

  13. Bioaccumulation of polonium {sup 210}Po in marine birds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarzec, B. [University of Gdansk, Faculty of Chemistry, Chair of Analytical Chemistry, ul. Sobieskiego 18/19, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)]. E-mail: bosk@chemik.chem.univ.gda.pl; Fabisiak, J. [Naval Academy, Smidowicza 61, 81-103 Gdynia (Poland)

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the {sup 210}Po content in marine birds which permanently or temporally live in the Polish part of the Baltic Sea. We chose 11 species of sea birds: three species permanently residing at southern Baltic Sea, four species of wintering birds and three species of migrating birds. The results show that the polonium is non-uniformly distributed in the marine birds. The highest activities of {sup 210}Po were observed in feathers, muscles and liver and the lowest in skin and skeleton. Species of birds that eat crustaceans, molluscs, fish and plants (long-tailed duck Clangula hyemalis, white-winged scoter Melanitta fusca) accumulated more polonium than species that eat mainly fish (great cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo, common guillemot Uria aalge) or plants (tufted duck Aythya fuligula). Moreover, about 63% of the {sup 210}Po that was located in feathers of razorbil (Alca torda) and long-tailed duck (C. hyemalis) was apparently adsorbed, suggesting an external source such as the air. It means that the adsorption of {sup 210}Po on the feather surface may be an important transfer from air to water.

  14. Foraging behavior of Long-tailed Ducks in a ferry wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Clangula hyemalis (Long-tailed Ducks) were observed diving in the wake of the Nantucket Island ferry during December over a 5-year period (2005–2009). The unusual diving behavior appeared to be related to foraging, but could not be confirmed. Long-tailed Ducks typically feed on more mobile prey than most other diving ducks, and it is speculated that the propeller wash in shallow water dislodged or disturbed prey and provided an enhanced feeding opportunity. Long-tailed Ducks collected while feeding in a disturbed area near a clamming boat not far from the ferry channel were feeding predominantly on Crangon septemspinosa (Sand Shrimp) that apparently had been dislodged by the clamming operation.

  15. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal herbs in Jordan, the Ajloun Heights region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburjai, Talal; Hudaib, Mohammad; Tayyem, Rabab; Yousef, Mohammed; Qishawi, Maher

    2007-03-21

    The study of local knowledge about natural resources is becoming increasingly important in defining strategies and actions for conservation of medicinal plants. This study therefore sought to collect information from local population concerning the use of Ajloun Heights region medicinal plants; identify the most important species used; determine the relative importance of the species surveyed and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) in relation to medicinal plant use. Data collection relied predominantly on qualitative tools to record the interviewee's personal information and topics related to the medicinal use of specific plants. Our results revealed that 46 plant species grown in the study region are still in use in traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Achillea falcata, Matricaria aurea, Majorana syriaca, Allium sativum and Allium cepa. The use of moderately unsafe or toxic plants was noted to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the locals. These plants include Ecballium elaterium, Euphorbia hierosolymitana, Mandragora autumnalis and Citrullus colocynthis. Kidney problems scored the highest ICF while Crocus hyemalis was the plant of highest use value. Searching the literature evidenced some concordance with the solicited plant uses mentioned by the informants.

  16. Body molt of male long-tailed ducks in the nearshore waters of the north slope, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, M.D.; Grand, J.B.; Flint, P.L.

    2003-01-01

    We examined the timing and intensity of body molt in relation to stage of remige growth for postbreeding adult male Long-tailed Ducks (Clangula hyemalis) off the coast of northern Alaska. During this period, remige and rectrix feathers are molted simultaneously with body feathers during the prebasic molt, which results in a period of increased energetic and nutritional demands. We collected birds from late July through mid-August and recorded intensity of molt in eight regions: head and neck, back and rump, greater coverts, lesser coverts, flank and sides, breast, belly, and tail. Using nonlinear regression, we estimated the peak intensity and variation for each region in relation to ninth primary length. We found little evidence of molt in the head and neck region. The greater and lesser coverts, and back and rump reached peak molt intensities earliest and were followed by tail, breast, and belly. Molt intensity in the flank and side region was highly variable and indicated a more prolonged molting pattern in relation to other regions. While body molt occurs simultaneously with wing molt, we found that molt among regions occurred in a staggered pattern. Long-tailed Ducks may employ this staggered molting pattern to minimize the energetic and nutritional requirements of molt.

  17. Atypical feeding behavior of Long-tailed Ducks in the wake of a commercial fishing boat while clamming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Matthew; Osenton, Peter C.; White, Timothy P.

    2017-01-01

    A foraging group of Clangula hyemalis (Long-tailed Duck) was observed on 10 February 2010 diving behind a commercial boat that was clamming near Monomoy Island, Nantucket Sound, MA. We used a shotgun to collect 9 of the ducks, and our analyses of gizzard and gullet (esophagus and proventriculus) revealed 37 food items in the gizzard and 16 in the gullet. Mollusca were the dominant food in the gizzard (49%), whereas Crustacea were dominant in the gullet (57%). Crustacea were the second most important food in the gizzard (38%), whereas Mollusca were the second most important food in the gullet (31%). Relatively high volumes of the Amphipoda Caprella sp. (skeleton shrimp) and the Decopoda Crangon septemspinosa (Sand Shrimp) were recorded in the gullet and gizzard. Ensis directus (Atlantic Jackknife Clam) formed the greatest volume of Mollusca in the gizzard (15%) and in the gullet (15%). Long-tailed Ducks had fed on this Bivalvia and several other species of Mollusca that had no shell or broken shell when consumed. Many of the food organisms were apparently dislodged and some damaged by the clamming operation creating an opportunistic feeding strategy for the Long-tailed Ducks.

  18. Habitat use and foraging patterns of molting male Long-tailed Ducks in lagoons of the central Beaufort Sea, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul L.; Reed, John; Deborah Lacroix,; Richard Lanctot,

    2016-01-01

    From mid-July through September, 10 000 to 30 000 Long-tailed Ducks (Clangula hyemalis) use the lagoon systems of the central Beaufort Sea for remigial molt. Little is known about their foraging behavior and patterns of habitat use during this flightless period. We used radio transmitters to track male Long-tailed Ducks through the molt period from 2000 to 2002 in three lagoons: one adjacent to industrial oil field development and activity and two in areas without industrial activity. We found that an index to time spent foraging generally increased through the molt period. Foraging, habitat use, and home range size showed similar patterns, but those patterns were highly variable among lagoons and across years. Even with continuous daylight during the study period, birds tended to use offshore areas during the day for feeding and roosted in protected nearshore waters at night. We suspect that variability in behaviors associated with foraging, habitat use, and home range size are likely influenced by availability of invertebrate prey. Proximity to oil field activity did not appear to affect foraging behaviors of molting Long-tailed Ducks.

  19. Distribution patterns of wintering sea ducks in relation to the North Atlantic Oscillation and local environmental characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipkin, Elise F.; Gardner, Beth; Gilbert, Andrew T.; O'Connell, Allan F.; Royle, J. Andrew; Silverman, Emily D.

    2010-01-01

    Twelve species of North American sea ducks (Tribe Mergini) winter off the eastern coast of the United States and Canada. Yet, despite their seasonal proximity to urbanized areas in this region, there is limited information on patterns of wintering sea duck habitat use. It is difficult to gather information on sea ducks because of the relative inaccessibility of their offshore locations, their high degree of mobility, and their aggregated distributions. To characterize environmental conditions that affect wintering distributions, as well as their geographic ranges, we analyzed count data on five species of sea ducks (black scoters Melanitta nigra americana, surf scoters M. perspicillata, white-winged scoters M. fusca, common eiders Somateria mollissima, and long-tailed ducks Clangula hyemalis) that were collected during the Atlantic Flyway Sea Duck Survey for ten years starting in the early 1990s. We modeled count data for each species within ten-nautical-mile linear survey segments using a zero-inflated negative binomial model that included four local-scale habitat covariates (sea surface temperature, mean bottom depth, maximum bottom slope, and a variable to indicate if the segment was in a bay or not), one broad-scale covariate (the North Atlantic Oscillation), and a temporal correlation component. Our results indicate that species distributions have strong latitudinal gradients and consistency in local habitat use. The North Atlantic Oscillation was the only environmental covariate that had a significant (but variable) effect on the expected count for all five species, suggesting that broad-scale climatic conditions may be directly or indirectly important to the distributions of wintering sea ducks. Our results provide critical information on species-habitat associations, elucidate the complicated relationship between the North Atlantic Oscillation, sea surface temperature, and local sea duck abundances, and should be useful in assessing the impacts of climate

  20. Contaminants and sea ducks in Alaska and the circumpolar region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henny, C.J.; Rudis, D.D.; Roffe, T.J.; Robinson-Wilson, E.

    1995-01-01

    We review nesting sea duck population declines in Alaska during recent decades and explore the possibility that contaminants may be implicated. Aerial surveys of the surf scoter (Melanitta perspicillata) , white-winged scoter (M. fusca) , black scoter (M. nigra) , oldsquaw (Clangula hyemalis) , spectacled eider (Somateria fischeri) , and Steller's eider (Polysticta stelleri) show long-term breeding population declines, especially the latter three species. The spectacled eider was recently classified threatened under the Endangered Species Act. In addition, three other diving ducks, which commonly winter in coastal areas, have declined from unknown causes. Large die-offs of all three species of scoters during molt, a period of high energy demand, were documented in August 1990, 1991, and 1992 at coastal reefs in southeastern Alaska. There was no evidence of infectious diseases in those scoters. The die-offs may or may not be associated with the long-term declines. Many scoters had elevated renal concentrations of cadmium (high of 375 ?g/g dry weight [dw]). Effects of cadmium in sea ducks are not well understood. Selenium concentrations in livers of nesting white-winged scoters were high ; however, the eggs they laid contained less selenium than expected based on relationships for freshwater bird species. Histological evaluation found a high prevalence of hepatocellular vacuolation (49%) , a degenerative change frequently associated with sublethal toxic insult. Cadmium and selenium mean liver concentrations were generally higher in those birds with more severe vacuolation ; however, relationships were not statistically significant. We do not know if sea duck population declines are related to metals or other contaminants.

  1. Evaluation of harvest and information needs for North American sea ducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koneff, Mark D.; Zimmerman, Guthrie S.; Dwyer, Chris P.; Fleming, Kathleen K.; Padding, Paul I.; Devers, Patrick K.; Johnson, Fred A.; Runge, Michael C.; Roberts, Anthony J.

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife managers routinely seek to establish sustainable limits of sport harvest or other regulated forms of take while confronted with considerable uncertainty. A growing body of ecological research focuses on methods to describe and account for uncertainty in management decision-making and to prioritize research and monitoring investments to reduce the most influential uncertainties. We used simulation methods incorporating measures of demographic uncertainty to evaluate risk of overharvest and prioritize information needs for North American sea ducks (Tribe Mergini). Sea ducks are popular game birds in North America, yet they are poorly monitored and their population dynamics are poorly understood relative to other North American waterfowl. There have been few attempts to assess the sustainability of harvest of North American sea ducks, and no formal harvest strategy exists in the U.S. or Canada to guide management. The popularity of sea duck hunting, extended hunting opportunity for some populations (i.e., special seasons and/or bag limits), and population declines have led to concern about potential overharvest. We used Monte Carlo simulation to contrast estimates of allowable harvest and observed harvest and assess risk of overharvest for 7 populations of North American sea ducks: the American subspecies of common eider (Somateria mollissima dresseri), eastern and western populations of black scoter (Melanitta americana) and surf scoter (M. perspicillata), and continental populations of white-winged scoter (M. fusca) and long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis). We combined information from empirical studies and the opinions of experts through formal elicitation to create probability distributions reflecting uncertainty in the individual demographic parameters used in this assessment. Estimates of maximum growth (rmax), and therefore of allowable harvest, were highly uncertain for all populations. Long-tailed duck and American common eider appeared to be at high

  2. Contaminants in molting long-tailed ducks and nesting common eiders in the Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J.C.; Hollmén, Tuula E.; Flint, P.L.; Grand, J.B.; Lanctot, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    In 2000, we collected blood from long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) and blood and eggs from common eiders (Somateria mollissima) at near-shore islands in the vicinity of Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, and at a reference area east of Prudhoe Bay. Blood was analyzed for trace elements and egg contents were analyzed for trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Except for Se (mean=36.1 ??g/g dry weight (dw) in common eiders and 48.8 ??g/g dw in long-tailed ducks), concentrations of trace elements in blood were low and, although several trace elements differed between areas, they were not consistently higher at one location. In long-tailed ducks, Se in blood was positively correlated with activities of two serum enzymes, suggestive of an adverse effect of increasing Se levels on the liver. Although common eiders had high Se concentrations in their blood, Se residues in eggs were low (mean=2.28 ??g/g dw). Strontium and Ni were higher in eggs near Prudhoe Bay than at the reference area, but none of the other trace elements or organic contaminants in eggs differed between locations. Concentrations of Ca, Sr, Mg, and Ni differed among eggs having no visible development, early-stage embryos, or late-stage embryos. Residues of 4,4???-DDE, cis-nonachlor, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, oxychlordane, and trans-nonachlor were found in 100% of the common eider eggs, but at low concentrations (means of 2.35-7.45 ??g/kg wet weight (ww)). The mean total PCB concentration in eggs was 15.12 ??g/kg ww. Of PAHs tested for, residues of 1- and 2-methylnaphthalene and naphthalene were found in 100% of the eggs, at mean concentrations of 0.36-0.89 ??g/kg ww.

  3. Trace Elements in Sea Ducks of the Alaskan Arctic Coast: Patterns of Variation Among Species, Sexes, and Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Micah W C; Lovvorn, James R; Matz, Angela C; Taylor, Robert J; Latty, Christopher J; Safine, David E

    2016-10-01

    Climate change and increasing industrialization in the Arctic call for the collection of reference data for assessing changes in contaminant levels. For migratory birds, measuring and interpreting changes in trace element burdens on Arctic breeding areas require insights into factors such as sex, body size, or wintering area that may modify patterns independently of local exposure. In the Alaskan Arctic, we determined levels of trace elements in liver and kidney of common eiders (Somateria mollissima) and long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) from the Prudhoe Bay oil field and of king eiders (S. spectabilis) and threatened spectacled eiders (S. fischeri) and Steller's eiders (Polystica stelleri) from near the town of Barrow. Small-bodied Steller's eiders and long-tailed ducks from different locations had similarly low levels of selenium (Se), cadmium (Cd), and copper (Cu), perhaps reflecting high mass-specific rates of metabolic depuration during long spring migrations through areas of low exposure. In larger species, Se, Cd, and Cu concentrations were higher in adults than juveniles suggesting that these elements were acquired in nonbreeding marine habitats. Adult male spectacled eiders had exceptionally high Se, Cd, and Cu compared with adult females, possibly because of depuration into eggs and longer female occupancy of nonmarine habitats. Adult female common eiders and juvenile long-tailed ducks at Prudhoe Bay had high and variable levels of Pb, potentially due to local exposure. Explanations for substantial variations in Hg levels were not apparent. Further research into reasons for differing element levels among species and sexes will help clarify the sources, pathways, and risks of exposure.

  4. Avian botulism type E in waterbirds of Lake Michigan, 2010–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipault, Jennifer G.; White, C. LeAnn; Blehert, David S.; Jennings, Susan K.; Strom, Sean M.

    2015-01-01

    During 2010 to 2013, waterbird mortality surveillance programs used a shared protocol for shoreline walking surveys performed June to November at three areas in northern Lake Michigan. In 2010 and 2012, 1244 total carcasses (0.8 dead bird/km walked) and 2399 total carcasses (1.2 dead birds/km walked), respectively, were detected. Fewer carcasses were detected in 2011 (353 total carcasses, 0.2 dead bird/km walked) and 2013 (451 total carcasses, 0.3 dead bird/km walked). During 3 years, peak detection of carcasses occurred in October and involved primarily migratory diving and fish-eating birds, including long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis; 2010), common loons (Gavia immer; 2012), and red-breasted mergansers (Mergus serrator; 2013). In 2011, peak detection of carcasses occurred in August and consisted primarily of summer residents such as gulls (Larus spp.) and double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus). A subset of fresh carcasses was collected throughout each year of the study and tested for botulinum neurotoxin type E (BoNT/E). Sixty-one percent of carcasses (57/94) and 10 of 11 species collected throughout the sampling season tested positive for BoNT/E, suggesting avian botulism type E was a major cause of death for both resident and migratory birds in Lake Michigan. The variety of avian species affected by botulism type E throughout the summer and fall during all 4 years of coordinated surveillance also suggests multiple routes for bird exposure to BoNT/E in Lake Michigan.

  5. Chosen aspects of flowering of Ranunculaceae representatives in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Denisow

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The family Ranunculaceae consists of numerous widespread species occuring from lowlands to subalpine or alpine zones. In Poland, the species grow in different types of habitats, including xerothermic swards (Adonido-Brachypodietum, Brachypodio- Teucrietum, Thalictro-Salvietum, Seslerio- Scorzoneretum and decidous forests (Tilio- Carpinetum. Many species are popular ornamentals cultivated fro their esthetic value. Ranunculaceans vary remarkably in the phenology of blooming. Among them, there are early spring blooming species like Eranthis hyemalis, Ficaria verna, Isopyrum thalictroides, Anemone nemorosa, A. ranunculoides, and those that start to bloom in autumn, e.g. Aconitum carmichaelli. The overall flowering duration may differ significantly between years – for example, in Anemone sylvestris the disparities reached more than three weeks. The occurrence and the length of each blooming phase may vary considerably between sites, e.g. in Adonis vernalis 10-15-day dissimilarities in the occurrence of blooming stages were recorded. Additionally, the duration of the full blooming stage varied from 10 to 30 days. The diurnal pattern of blooming among Ranunculaceae members was proved to be highly species-specific. Flowers of Aquilegia vulgaris started opening at approx. 5.00 (GMT+2, which was 2-3 hours earlier than those of Adonis vernalis. Significant differences in the diurnal flowering dynamics can be found even in the same genus: flowers of Aconitum lycoctonum began opening at 5.00 (with the peak between 6.00-9.00, while flowers of Aconitum carmichaelii started opening at 8.00 and peaked between 11.00-13.00. The flowering abundance may differ among populations of the same species. The management type was found to have an impact on the individuals’ density of Adonis vernalis occurring in xerothermic grasslands. The control of shrub encashment has already been designated as the factor determining the flowering abundance of Adonis vernalis in

  6. The effect of varying protein levels on blood chemistry, food consumption, and behavior of captive seaducks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells-Berlin, A. M.; Perry, M.C.; Olsen, G.H.

    2005-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay is a primary wintering area for scoters and the long-tailed ducks (Clangia hyemalis) that migrate along the Atlantic Flyway. Recently, the Chesapeake Bay had undergone an ecosystem shift and little is known about how this is affecting the seaduck populations. We are determining what are the preferred food sources of the seaducks wintering on the Bay and analyzing the factors influencing prey selection whether it is prey composition, energy assimilated, prey availability, or a combination of any or all of these factors. We have established a captive colony of surf (Melanitta perspicillata) and white-winged scoters (Melanitta fusca) as well as long-tailed ducks at Patuxent Wildlife Research Center to allow us to examine these factors in a more controlled environment. This project contains a multitude of experiments and the resultant data will be compiled into a compartmental model on the feeding ecology of seaducks wintering on the Bay. The first experiment entailed feeding groups of each species (four ducks per pen of equal sex ratio, if possible, and four pens per species) three diets varying in percent protein levels from November to February. Each diet was randomly assigned to each pen and the amount of food consumed was recorded each day. New feed was given when all existing food was consumed. Behavioral trials and blood profiles were completed on all study birds to determine the effects of the varying diets. There were no significant differences in food consumption, blood chemistry, and behavior detected at the 5% level among the diets for all three species of interest. There was a seasonal effect determined based on the food consumption data for white-winged scoters, but not for surf scoters or long-tailed ducks. The blood profiles of the surf scoters were compared to blood profiles of wild surf scoters and a there was no difference detected at the 5% level. As a health check of the ducks an aspergillosis test was run on the blood obtained