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Sample records for jumbo 5-t cbr-proof

  1. Jumbo Dragon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Following the Chinese Government’s decision to devel-op the country’s own line of jumbo jets, Beijing Review spoke to aviation experts Li Guangyi, a senior research fel-low on industry strategy and Ren Xiaohua, an associate researcher on airplane man-ufa

  2. The Inglorious Death of Jumbo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-04-28

    In the summer of 1944, J. Robert Oppenheimer and Los Alamos faced a crisis. An isotopic impurity in Plutonium rendered the metal unusable in a gun-assembled atomic bomb (i.e., Little Boy). Making this situation worse was a shortage of Uranium. The combination of these two problems threatened the entire wartime project. The answer to this dilemma, in part, was to develop a novel assembly method for Plutonium using the supersonic shock waves created by several tons of high explosives to compress a ball of Plutonium into a supercritical state. Since this method, implosion, was not much more than a theoretical construct, the Trinity test was devised to proof test the process. Given the speculative nature of implosion, Trinity was a gamble of sorts. If the test failed (i.e., little or no nuclear yield), the blast of the high explosives would scatter the scarce and expensive Plutonium over the surrounding desert. Since the probability of failure remained high into the early summer of 1945, some method of containing a failed nuclear explosion was needed. Jumbo was the answer.

  3. 7 CFR 51.1235 - U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked. 51.1235 Section 51.1235 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards.... Jumbo Hand Picked. U.S. Jumbo Hand Picked shall consist of cleaned Virginia type peanuts in the...

  4. Successful endoscopic fragmentation of large hardened fecaloma using jumbo forceps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Yasumasa; Yasuda, Hiroshi; Nakano, Hiroyasu; Hattori, Miki; Ozawa, Midori; Sato, Yoshinori; Ikeda, Yoshiko; Ozawa, Shun-Ichiro; Yamashita, Masaki; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Itoh, Fumio

    2017-01-01

    We present a rare case of fecaloma, 7 cm in size, in the setting of systemic scleroderma. A colonoscopy revealed a giant brown fecaloma occupying the lumen of the colon and a colonic ulcer that was caused by the fecaloma. The surface of the fecaloma was hard, large and slippery, and fragmentation was not possible despite the use of various devices, including standard biopsy forceps, an injection needle, and a snare. However, jumbo forceps were able to shave the surface of the fecaloma and break it successfully by repeated biting for 6 h over 2 d. The ability of the jumbo forceps to collect large mucosal samples was also appropriate for achieving fragmentation of the giant fecaloma. PMID:28250902

  5. In vitro antioxidant, antimutagenic and antiproliferative activities of collagen hydrolysates of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas byproducts

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    Guadalupe Miroslava Suárez-Jiménez

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractHydrolysates from two different jumbo squid byproducts (fins and arms, produced by trypsin and protease type XIV were compared on the basis of their antioxidant (DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays, antimutagenic (Ames test and antiproliferative (Transformation cell proliferation in M12.C3F6 murine cells activities. Jumbo squid arms had higher content of collagen than fins, and their hydrolysates had the highest antioxidant activity. Also, jumbo squid arm-derived collagen hydrolyzed with protease XIV showed the highest antimutagenic activity. The four hydrolysates obtained showed low antiproliferative activity, however they are susceptible for further studies to be applied as food additives.

  6. Fishery Biology of Jumbo Flying Squid Dosidicus gigas off Costa Rica Dome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xinjun; LI Jianghua; LIU Bilin; LI Gang; LU Huajie

    2014-01-01

    The jumbo flying squid (Dosidicus gigas) population was surveyed with the help of Chinese squid jigging vessels off the Costa Rica Dome (4˚-11˚N, 90˚-100˚W) in 2009 and 2010. The daily catch of D. gigas in the two survey cruises ranged from 0 to 5.5 t and was mostly obtained from the areas bounded by 6˚-9˚N and 91˚-94˚W and by 6˚30´-7˚30´N and 96˚-97˚W. The sea surface temperature in the areas yielding the most catch ranged from 27.5 to 29℃. The sex ratio of the total catch was 3.75:1 (female:male). The mantle length of the squid ranged from 211 to 355 mm (male) and from 204 to 429 mm (female) with an average of 297.9 and 306.7 mm, respectively. In the relationship of the mantle length (mm) and body weight (g) of the squid, there was no significant dif-ference between sexes. The female and male were at a similar maturity, and most individuals are maturing or have matured with a few females being spent. The size (mantle length) and age at the first sexual maturity were 297 mm and 195 d in females, and less than 211 mm and 130 d in males, respectively. Most of the sampled stomachs (70.6%) had no food remains. The major preys of the squids were fish, cephalopods and crustaceans, with the most abundant Myctophum orientale and D. gigas. The preys in more than 65%of the non-empty sampled stomachs evidenced the cannibalism of D. gigas. The results improved current understanding of the fishery biology of D. gigas off the Costa Rica Dome, which may facilitate the assessment and management of relative fishery re-sources.

  7. Fishery biology of jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas off Costa Rica Dome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinjun; Li, Jianghua; Liu, Bilin; Li, Gang; Lu, Huajie

    2014-06-01

    The jumbo flying squid ( Dosidicus gigas) population was surveyed with the help of Chinese squid jigging vessels off the Costa Rica Dome (4°-11°N, 90°-100°W) in 2009 and 2010. The daily catch of D. gigas in the two survey cruises ranged from 0 to 5.5 t and was mostly obtained from the areas bounded by 6°-9°N and 91°-94°W and by 6°30'-7°30'N and 96°-97°W. The sea surface temperature in the areas yielding the most catch ranged from 27.5 to 29°C. The sex ratio of the total catch was 3.75:1 (female: male). The mantle length of the squid ranged from 211 to 355 mm (male) and from 204 to 429 mm (female) with an average of 297.9 and 306.7 mm, respectively. In the relationship of the mantle length (mm) and body weight (g) of the squid, there was no significant difference between sexes. The female and male were at a similar maturity, and most individuals are maturing or have matured with a few females being spent. The size (mantle length) and age at the first sexual maturity were 297 mm and 195 d in females, and less than 211 mm and 130 d in males, respectively. Most of the sampled stomachs (70.6%) had no food remains. The major preys of the squids were fish, cephalopods and crustaceans, with the most abundant Myctophum orientale and D. gigas. The preys in more than 65% of the non-empty sampled stomachs evidenced the cannibalism of D. gigas. The results improved current understanding of the fishery biology of D. gigas off the Costa Rica Dome, which may facilitate the assessment and management of relative fishery resources.

  8. Comprehensive Model of Jumbo Squid Dosidicus gigas Trophic Ecology in the Northern Humboldt Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, Ana; Ménard, Frédéric; Tafur, Ricardo; Espinoza, Pepe; Argüelles, Juan; Maehara, Víctor; Flores, Oswaldo; Simier, Monique; Bertrand, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    The jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas plays an important role in marine food webs both as predator and prey. We investigated the ontogenetic and spatiotemporal variability of the diet composition of jumbo squid in the northern Humboldt Current system. For that purpose we applied several statistical methods to an extensive dataset of 3,618 jumbo squid non empty stomachs collected off Peru from 2004 to 2011. A total of 55 prey taxa was identified that we aggregated into eleven groups. Our results evidenced a large variability in prey composition as already observed in other systems. However, our data do not support the hypothesis that jumbo squids select the most abundant or energetic taxon in a prey assemblage, neglecting the other available prey. Indeed, multinomial model predictions showed that stomach fullness increased with the number of prey taxa, while most stomachs with low contents contained one or two prey taxa only. Our results therefore question the common hypothesis that predators seek locally dense aggregations of monospecific prey. In addition D. gigas consumes very few anchovy Engraulis ringens in Peru, whereas a tremendous biomass of anchovy is potentially available. It seems that D. gigas cannot reach the oxygen unsaturated waters very close to the coast, where the bulk of anchovy occurs. Indeed, even if jumbo squid can forage in hypoxic deep waters during the day, surface normoxic waters are then required to recover its maintenance respiration (or energy?). Oxygen concentration could thus limit the co-occurrence of both species and then preclude predator-prey interactions. Finally we propose a conceptual model illustrating the opportunistic foraging behaviour of jumbo squid impacted by ontogenetic migration and potentially constrained by oxygen saturation in surface waters. PMID:24465788

  9. Comprehensive model of Jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas trophic ecology in the Northern Humboldt current system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alegre

    Full Text Available The jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas plays an important role in marine food webs both as predator and prey. We investigated the ontogenetic and spatiotemporal variability of the diet composition of jumbo squid in the northern Humboldt Current system. For that purpose we applied several statistical methods to an extensive dataset of 3,618 jumbo squid non empty stomachs collected off Peru from 2004 to 2011. A total of 55 prey taxa was identified that we aggregated into eleven groups. Our results evidenced a large variability in prey composition as already observed in other systems. However, our data do not support the hypothesis that jumbo squids select the most abundant or energetic taxon in a prey assemblage, neglecting the other available prey. Indeed, multinomial model predictions showed that stomach fullness increased with the number of prey taxa, while most stomachs with low contents contained one or two prey taxa only. Our results therefore question the common hypothesis that predators seek locally dense aggregations of monospecific prey. In addition D. gigas consumes very few anchovy Engraulis ringens in Peru, whereas a tremendous biomass of anchovy is potentially available. It seems that D. gigas cannot reach the oxygen unsaturated waters very close to the coast, where the bulk of anchovy occurs. Indeed, even if jumbo squid can forage in hypoxic deep waters during the day, surface normoxic waters are then required to recover its maintenance respiration (or energy?. Oxygen concentration could thus limit the co-occurrence of both species and then preclude predator-prey interactions. Finally we propose a conceptual model illustrating the opportunistic foraging behaviour of jumbo squid impacted by ontogenetic migration and potentially constrained by oxygen saturation in surface waters.

  10. Comprehensive model of Jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas trophic ecology in the Northern Humboldt current system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, Ana; Ménard, Frédéric; Tafur, Ricardo; Espinoza, Pepe; Argüelles, Juan; Maehara, Víctor; Flores, Oswaldo; Simier, Monique; Bertrand, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    The jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas plays an important role in marine food webs both as predator and prey. We investigated the ontogenetic and spatiotemporal variability of the diet composition of jumbo squid in the northern Humboldt Current system. For that purpose we applied several statistical methods to an extensive dataset of 3,618 jumbo squid non empty stomachs collected off Peru from 2004 to 2011. A total of 55 prey taxa was identified that we aggregated into eleven groups. Our results evidenced a large variability in prey composition as already observed in other systems. However, our data do not support the hypothesis that jumbo squids select the most abundant or energetic taxon in a prey assemblage, neglecting the other available prey. Indeed, multinomial model predictions showed that stomach fullness increased with the number of prey taxa, while most stomachs with low contents contained one or two prey taxa only. Our results therefore question the common hypothesis that predators seek locally dense aggregations of monospecific prey. In addition D. gigas consumes very few anchovy Engraulis ringens in Peru, whereas a tremendous biomass of anchovy is potentially available. It seems that D. gigas cannot reach the oxygen unsaturated waters very close to the coast, where the bulk of anchovy occurs. Indeed, even if jumbo squid can forage in hypoxic deep waters during the day, surface normoxic waters are then required to recover its maintenance respiration (or energy?). Oxygen concentration could thus limit the co-occurrence of both species and then preclude predator-prey interactions. Finally we propose a conceptual model illustrating the opportunistic foraging behaviour of jumbo squid impacted by ontogenetic migration and potentially constrained by oxygen saturation in surface waters.

  11. Jumbo squid beaks: inspiration for design of robust organic composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miserez, Ali; Li, Youli; Waite, J Herbert; Zok, Frank

    2007-01-01

    The hard tissues found in some invertebrate marine organisms represent intriguing paradigms for robust, lightweight materials. The present study focuses on one such tissue: that comprising the beak of the jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas). Its main constituents are chitin fibers (15-20wt.%) and histidine- and glycine-rich proteins (40-45%). Notably absent are mineral phases, metals and halogens. Despite being fully organic, beak hardness and stiffness are at least twice those of the most competitive synthetic organic materials (notably engineering polymers) and comparable to those of Glycera and Nereis jaws. Furthermore, the combination of hardness and stiffness makes the beaks more resistant to plastic deformation when in contact with blunt abrasives than virtually all metals and polymers. The 3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine and abundant histidine content in the beak proteins as well as the pigmented hydrolysis-resistant residue are suggestive of aromatic cross-linking. A high cross-linking density between the proteins and chitin may be the single most important determinant of hardness and stiffness in the beak. Beak microstructure is characterized by a lamellar arrangement of the constituents, with a weak interface that promotes crack deflection and endows the structure with high fracture toughness. The susceptibility of this microstructure to cracking along these interfaces from contact stresses at the external surface is mitigated by the presence of a protective coating.

  12. TCP/IP Jumbo Frames Network Performance Evaluation on A Testbed Infrastructure

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    Paula Raymond Lutui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing network performance has been studied by a number of researchers. The need to provide greater throughput on network infrastructure has been the key driver for these studies. The use of jumbo frames is considered one of the methodologies that can be employed to increase data throughput on networks. In this research undertaking, the authors implement jumbo frames on a test-bed implemented with Windows Server 2003/2008 networks and performance related metrics are measured for both IPv4 and IPv6 implementations. The results obtained in this empirical study shows that performance metrics values are different in various scenarios.

  13. The Automatic Drilling System of 6R-2P Mining Drill Jumbos

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    Yujun Wang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the efficiency of underground mining and tunneling operations and to realize automatic drilling, it is necessary to develop the automation system for large drill jumbos. This work focuses on one such mining drill jumbo which is actually a redundant robotic manipulator with eight degrees of freedom, because it has six revolute joints and two prismatic joints. To realize the autonomous drilling operation, algorithms are proposed to calculate the desired pose of the end-effector and to solve the inverse kinematics of the drill jumbo, which is one of the key issues for developing the automation system. After that, a control strategy is proposed to independently control the eight joint variables using PID feedback control approaches. The simulation model is developed in Simulink. As the closed-loop controllers corresponding to all joints are local and independent of each other, the whole system is not a closed-loop feedback control. In order to estimate the possible maximal pose error, the analysis of the pose error caused by the errors of the joint variables is conducted. The results are satisfactory for mining applications and the developed automation system is being applied in the drill jumbos built by Mining Technologies International Inc.

  14. Reversible stress softening of collagen based networks from the jumbo squid mantle (Dosidicus gigas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, F.G., E-mail: fgtorres@pucp.edu.pe [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Catholic University of Peru, Lima 32 (Peru); Troncoso, O.P.; Rivas, E.R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Catholic University of Peru, Lima 32 (Peru); Gomez, C.G. [Departament de Química Física and Institut de Ciencia dels Materials, Universitat de València, Dr. Moliner 50, Burjassot, E-46100 Valencia (Spain); Lopez, D. [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Polímeros, C.S.I.C., Calle Juan de la Cierva 3, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-04-01

    Dosidicus gigas is the largest and one of the most abundant jumbo squids in the eastern Pacific Ocean. In this paper we have studied the muscle of the mantle of D. gigas (DGM). Morphological, thermal and rheological properties were assessed by means of atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry and oscillatory rheometry. This study allowed us to assess the morphological and rheological properties of a collagen based network occurring in nature. The results showed that the DGM network displays a nonlinear effect called reversible stress softening (RSS) that has been previously described for other types of biological structures such as naturally occurring cellulose networks and actin networks. We propose that the RSS could play a key role on the way jumbo squids withstand hydrostatic pressure. The results presented here confirm that this phenomenon occurs in a wider number of materials than previously thought, all of them exhibiting different size scales as well as physical conformation. - Highlights: • We studied the structure property relationships of the jumbo squid mantle. • Rheological tests showed that such a mantle exhibits reversible stress softening (RSS). • RSS could also play a role on the way jumbo squids withstand hydrostatic pressure.

  15. Behavioral ecology of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) in relation to oxygen minimum zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Julia S.; Field, John C.; Markaida, Unai; Gilly, William F.

    2013-10-01

    Habitat utilization, behavior and food habits of the jumbo or Humboldt squid, Dosidicus gigas, were compared between an area recently inhabited in the northern California Current System (CCS) and a historically established area of residence in the Gulf of California (GOC). Low dissolved oxygen concentrations at midwater depths define the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), an important environmental feature in both areas. We analyzed vertical diving behavior and diet of D. gigas and hydrographic properties of the water column to ascertain the extent to which squid utilized the OMZ in the two areas. The upper boundary of the OMZ has been shoaling in recent decades in the CCS, and this phenomenon has been proposed to vertically compress the pelagic environment inhabited by aerobic predators. A shoaling OMZ will also bring mesopelagic communities into a depth range with more illumination during daytime, making these organisms more vulnerable to predation by visual predators (i.e. jumbo squid). Because the OMZ in the GOC is considerably shallower than in the CCS, our study provides insight into the behavioral plasticity of jumbo squid and how they may respond to a shoaling OMZ in the CCS. We propose that shoaling OMZs are likely to be favorable to jumbo squid and could be a key indirect factor behind the recent range expansion of this highly migratory predator.

  16. Novel jumbo biopsy forceps for surveillance of inflammatory bowel disease: a comparative retrospective assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kenneth; Toweill, Daniel; Rulyak, Stephen J; Lee, Scott D

    2011-01-01

    Background and Study Aims. Most available jumbo cup forceps require a 3.7 mm biopsy channel, necessitating the use of standard-sized colonoscope. A newer jumbo forceps (Radial Jaw 4 Jumbo Biopsy Forceps [RJ4]) fits within a 3.2 mm biopsy channel, allowing use with a pediatric colonoscope. To assure the RJ4 did not alter biopsy adequacy, we compared the size and quality of specimens to a historical jumbo cup forceps (Radial Jaw 3 Max Capacity Biopsy Forceps, [RJ3 MC]). Patients and Methods. A retrospective comparative study of biopsies taken with either forceps. Biopsies were compared for diameter, depth, crush artifact, and acceptability for diagnosis. Results. 333 specimens were taken with RJ4 and 335 specimens with the RJ3 MC. Mean sample diameter was 4.45 mm and 4.55 mm for the RJ4 and RJ3 MC (P = 0.41). Mean depth of biopsies with the RJ4 was greater (P < 0.01). Conclusions. Biopsies from the RJ4 are similar in size and quality to biopsies from the RJ3 MC. The RJ4 has the advantage of fitting in a smaller biopsy channel.

  17. Novel Jumbo Biopsy Forceps for Surveillance of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Comparative Retrospective Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Song

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Study Aims. Most available jumbo cup forceps require a 3.7 mm biopsy channel, necessitating the use of standard-sized colonoscope. A newer jumbo forceps (Radial Jaw 4 Jumbo Biopsy Forceps [RJ4] fits within a 3.2 mm biopsy channel, allowing use with a pediatric colonoscope. To assure the RJ4 did not alter biopsy adequacy, we compared the size and quality of specimens to a historical jumbo cup forceps (Radial Jaw 3 Max Capacity Biopsy Forceps, [RJ3 MC]. Patients and Methods. A retrospective comparative study of biopsies taken with either forceps. Biopsies were compared for diameter, depth, crush artifact, and acceptability for diagnosis. Results. 333 specimens were taken with RJ4 and 335 specimens with the RJ3 MC. Mean sample diameter was 4.45 mm and 4.55 mm for the RJ4 and RJ3 MC (=0.41. Mean depth of biopsies with the RJ4 was greater (<0.01. Conclusions. Biopsies from the RJ4 are similar in size and quality to biopsies from the RJ3 MC. The RJ4 has the advantage of fitting in a smaller biopsy channel.

  18. Jumbo biopsy is useful for the diagnosis of colonic prolapsing mucosal polyps with diverticulosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shingo Kato; Kazutoshi Hashiguchi; Ryuichi Yamamoto; Mitsuru Seo; Takashi Matsuura; Kazuro Itoh; Akinori Iwashita; Soichiro Miura

    2006-01-01

    We report here a case of multiple prolapsing mucosal polyps with diverticulosis in the sigmoid colon. A 52-yearold man was admitted to our hospital because of bloody diarrhea. Colonoscopy and barium enema showed multiple diverticula, markedly thickened mucosal folds and polypoid lesions with mucus on the top of them in the sigmoid colon. Endoscopic ultrasonography showed thickening of the mucosal and submucosal layers.Several endoscopic biopsy specimens were taken from the polypoid lesions. Histological examination revealed only chronic inflammatory cell infiltration. In order to obtain a definite diagnosis, we performed endoscopic jumbo biopsy for the polypoid lesions after obtaining informed consent. Histological examination revealed marked lymphocyte infiltration, hemosiderin deposits and fibromuscular obliteration in the lamina propria, features similar to those of mucosal prolapsing syndrome. After anti-diarrhetic treatment, clinical findings were improved.Thus, jumbo biopsy is useful for diagnosis and treatment of prolapsing mucosal polyps.

  19. Foraging ecology and movement patterns of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) in the California Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, John C.; Elliger, Carl; Baltz, Ken; Gillespie, Graham E.; Gilly, William F.; Ruiz-Cooley, R. I.; Pearse, Devon; Stewart, Julia S.; Matsubu, William; Walker, William A.

    2013-10-01

    From 2002 to 2010, the jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) has been regularly encountered in large numbers throughout the California Current System (CCS). This species, usually found in subtropical waters, could affect coastal pelagic ecosystems and fisheries as both predator and prey. Neither the abundance of jumbo squid nor the optimal ocean conditions in which they flourish are well known. To understand better the potential impacts of this species on both commercial fisheries and on food-web structure we collected nearly 900 specimens from waters of the CCS, covering over 20° of latitude, over a range of depths and seasons. We used demographic information (size, sex, and maturity state) and analyzed stomach contents using morphological and molecular methods to best understand the foraging ecology of this species in different habitats of the CCS. Squid were found to consume a broad array of prey. Prey in offshore waters generally reflected the forage base reported in previous studies (mainly mesopelagic fishes and squids), whereas in more coastal waters (shelf, shelf break and slope habitats) squid foraged on a much broader mix that included substantial numbers of coastal pelagic fishes (Pacific herring and northern anchovy, as well as osmerids and salmonids in northern waters) and groundfish (Pacific hake, several species of rockfish and flatfish). We propose a seasonal movement pattern, based on size and maturity distributions along with qualitative patterns of presence or absence, and discuss the relevance of both the movement and distribution of jumbo squid over space and time. We find that jumbo squid are a generalist predator, which feeds primarily on small, pelagic or mesopelagic micronekton but also on larger fishes when they are available. We also conclude that interactions with and potential impacts on ecosystems likely vary over space and time, in response to both seasonal movement patterns and highly variable year-to-year abundance of the squid themselves.

  20. Size increment of jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas mature females in Peruvian waters, 1989-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüelles, Juan; Tafur, Ricardo; Taipe, Anatolio; Villegas, Piero; Keyl, Friedeman; Dominguez, Noel; Salazar, Martín

    2008-10-01

    Changes in population structure of the jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas in Peruvian waters were studied based on size-at-maturity from 1989 to 2004. From 1989 to 1999, mature squid belonging to the medium-sized group prevailed, but from 2001 on, mature squids were larger. This change is not related to the changes in sea surface temperature and we hypothesized that it was caused by the population increase of mesopelagic fishes as prey.

  1. Onshore-offshore movement of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) on the continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Julia S.; Gilly, William F.; Field, John C.; Payne, John C.

    2013-10-01

    Jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) have greatly extended their range in the California Current System, where they forage on a variety of ecologically and economically important species that inhabit both coastal and offshore mesopelagic regions. Swimming abilities and behavior are important factors in assessing the impacts of this range expansion, particularly in regard to foraging in conjunction with onshore-offshore movement over the continental shelf. Here we describe a study of horizontal movements by jumbo squid along and across the continental shelf off Washington, USA, using acoustic tags in association with the Census of Marine Life's Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking Program (POST) receiver arrays. We detected frequent movements along the shelf break, movement onto the shelf at night, and no evidence of movement as a cohesive school. Our results demonstrate feasibility of using acoustic tags and arrays to document horizontal movements of jumbo squid along and across the continental shelf. This is important in order to determine how those movements overlap with those of other ecologically and commercially important fish species.

  2. Sequential isotopic signature along gladius highlights contrasted individual foraging strategies of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas.

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    Anne Lorrain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cephalopods play a major role in marine ecosystems, but knowledge of their feeding ecology is limited. In particular, intra- and inter-individual variations in their use of resources has not been adequatly explored, although there is growing evidence that individual organisms can vary considerably in the way they use their habitats and resources. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using δ(13C and δ(15N values of serially sampled gladius (an archival tissue, we examined high resolution variations in the trophic niche of five large (>60 cm mantle length jumbo squids (Dosidicus gigas that were collected off the coast of Peru. We report the first evidence of large inter-individual differences in jumbo squid foraging strategies with no systematic increase of trophic level with size. Overall, gladius δ(13C values indicated one or several migrations through the squid's lifetime (∼8-9 months, during which δ(15N values also fluctuated (range: 1 to 5‰. One individual showed an unexpected terminal 4.6‰ δ(15N decrease (more than one trophic level, thus indicating a shift from higher- to lower-trophic level prey at that time. The data illustrate the high diversity of prey types and foraging histories of this species at the individual level. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The isotopic signature of gladii proved to be a powerful tool to depict high resolution and ontogenic variations in individual foraging strategies of squids, thus complementing traditional information offered by stomach content analysis and stable isotopes on metabolically active tissues. The observed differences in life history strategies highlight the high degree of plasticity of the jumbo squid and its high potential to adapt to environmental changes.

  3. Characteristics of deacetylation and depolymerization of β-chitin from jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) pens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jooyeoun; Zhao, Yanyun

    2011-09-27

    This study evaluated the deacetylation characteristics of β-chitin from jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) pens by using strongly alkaline solutions of NaOH or KOH. Taguchi design was employed to investigate the effect of reagent concentration, temperature, time, and treatment step on molecular mass (MM) and degree of deacetylation (DDA) of the chitosan obtained. The optimal treatment conditions for achieving high MM and DDA of chitosan were identified as: 40% NaOH at 90°C for 6h with three separate steps (2h+2h+2h) or 50% NaOH at 90°C for 6h with one step, or 50% KOH at 90°C for 4h with three steps (1h+1h+2h) or 6h with one step. The most important factor affecting DDA and MM was temperature and time, respectively. The chitosan obtained was then further depolymerized by cellulase or lysozyme with cellulase giving a higher degradation ratio, lower relative viscosity, and a larger amount of reducing-end formations than that of lysozyme due to its higher susceptibility. This study demonstrated that jumbo squid pens are a good source of materials to produce β-chitosan with high DDA and a wide range of MM for various potential applications.

  4. Trace element concentrations in the top predator jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) from the Gulf of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimundo, Joana; Vale, Carlos; Rosa, Rui

    2014-04-01

    Jumbo (or Humboldt) squid, Dosidicus gigas, is a large jet-propelled top oceanic predator off the Eastern Pacific. The present study reports, for the first time, concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Cd and Pb in gills, mantle and digestive gland of this powerful pelagic squid in the Gulf of California. Zinc and Cu were the most abundant elements. All elements, with the exception of As, were largely stored in digestive gland; particularly Cd that reached concentrations between 57 and 509 µg g(-1). Significant relationships between tissues were found for Co (digestive gland-gills), As (gills-mantle) and Cd (digestive gland-mantle). Proportionality of Cd concentrations between mantle and digestive gland suggested that detoxification capacity by digestive gland was insufficient to avoid the transfer of this element to mantle and other tissues. Nonetheless, Cd concentrations in the mantle were always below the regulatory limit and, therefore lack of constraints for human consumption. On the basis of the fishery landings, one may estimate that up to 1t of Cd can be annually removed by jumbo squid fisheries.

  5. Reversible stress softening of collagen based networks from the jumbo squid mantle (Dosidicus gigas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, F G; Troncoso, O P; Rivas, E R; Gomez, C G; Lopez, D

    2014-04-01

    Dosidicus gigas is the largest and one of the most abundant jumbo squids in the eastern Pacific Ocean. In this paper we have studied the muscle of the mantle of D. gigas (DGM). Morphological, thermal and rheological properties were assessed by means of atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry and oscillatory rheometry. This study allowed us to assess the morphological and rheological properties of a collagen based network occurring in nature. The results showed that the DGM network displays a nonlinear effect called reversible stress softening (RSS) that has been previously described for other types of biological structures such as naturally occurring cellulose networks and actin networks. We propose that the RSS could play a key role on the way jumbo squids withstand hydrostatic pressure. The results presented here confirm that this phenomenon occurs in a wider number of materials than previously thought, all of them exhibiting different size scales as well as physical conformation.

  6. Food web and fish stock changes in central Chile: comparing the roles of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) predation, the environment, and fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neira, Sergio; Arancibia, Hugo

    2013-10-01

    We analyzed recent food web and fish stock changes in the central Chile marine ecosystem, comparing the roles of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) as predator, the environment, and fishing. To accomplish this we used food web modeling and the Ecopath with Ecosim software (EwE). The principal fish stocks have experienced wide decadal fluctuations in the past 30 years, including stock collapses of horse mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) and hake (Merluccius gayi), and there was a large influx of jumbo squid during the mid-2000s. We used two EwE models representing the food web off central Chile to test the hypothesis that predation by jumbo squid has been significant in explaining the dynamics of the main fishing resources and other species in the study area. Results indicate that predation by jumbo squid on fish stocks is lower than that of other predators (e.g. hake) and the fishery. Long-term fluctuations (1978-2004) in the biomass of the main fish stocks (as well as other components of the food web) seem to be related to fishing and to variation in primary production, rather than to predation by jumbo squid alone. Jumbo squid seems to play a role as predator rather than prey in the system, but its impacts are low when compared with the impacts of other predators and fishing. Therefore, we conclude that jumbo squid predation on its prey was not the primary force behind the collapse of important fish stocks off central Chile. Future efforts should be directed to better understanding factors that trigger sudden increases in jumbo squid abundance off central Chile, as well as modeling its trophic impacts.

  7. Creating a TALE protein with unbiased 5'-T binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Shogo; Futaki, Shiroh; Imanishi, Miki

    2013-11-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are convenient tools for genome engineering at specific genomic sites. However, their use is constrained because most TALE binding sites are preceded by a highly conserved 5' terminal T nucleotide (5'-T). To remove the 5'-T constraint, we substituted tryptophan 232 in the repeat-1 loop region of the dHax3 N-terminal domain for other amino acids. Furthermore, we randomized four amino acid residues of the hairpin loop region of repeat-1. Although point mutation was insufficient to remove the 5'-T constraint, directed evolution from the randomized library yielded repeat-1 mutants with unbiased targeting sites for 5'-bases. Our result indicates that the repeat-1 loop region of dHax3 is important for 5'-base accommodation, and that molecular evolution of repeat-1 of TALEs is an efficient strategy to remove the 5'-T constraint and thus allow targeting of any DNA sequences.

  8. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF JUMBO GRASS (SORGHUM BICOLOUR SORGHUM SUDANEFE SILAGE IN LACTATING NILI-RAVI BUFFALOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. TAUQIR, M. SARWAR1, M. A. JABBAR2 AND S. MAHMOOD

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the feeding value of Jambo grass (Sorghum bicolour Sorghum sudanefe silage as a replacement of conventional fodder (Jambo grass; JG in the diet of lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis. Jumbo grass was ensiled with molasses (at 2% of fodder DM on large scale in bunker silos for 30 days. Two experimental iso-nitrogenous and iso-energetic diets were formulated with 75:25% of forage to concentrate ratio on DM basis that contained 75% of JG fodder or silage and 25% concentrate. Twenty early lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes were divided into two equal groups and fed experimental diets for 60 days at ad libitum. First 10 days were given for adaptation to new diets and the rest 50 days for sample collection. Daily feed intake and milk yield were recorded for each animal. Milk samples were analyzed for crude protein (CP, fat, solids not fat, total solids and non-protein nitrogen. During last week of the study, a digestibility trial was conducted. The acid insoluble ash was used as digestibility marker. Intakes of dry matter (DMI, CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF were higher in animals fed control diet than those fed Jambo grass silage (JGS diet. A significant difference among experimental diets for DMI may be due to the presence of fermentation products in ensiled material that might have depressed the intake in silage based diets. The apparent DM, CP, NDF and ADF digestibilities were non-significantly different between both experimental diets, showing a trivial loss of nutrients during silage making. Milk yield (4% FCM and its composition did not show any treatment effect. The present results indicated that JG ensiled with 2% molasses for 30 days could safely replace the conventional fresh Jumbo grass fodder in the diet of lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes without affecting their milk yield.

  9. Characteristics and complete genome analysis of a novel jumbo phage infecting pathogenic Bacillus pumilus causing ginger rhizome rot disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yihui; Gao, Meiying

    2016-12-01

    Tailed phages with genomes larger than 200 kbp are classified as jumbo phage and exhibit extremely high diversity. In this study, a novel jumbo phage, vB_BpuM_BpSp, infecting pathogenic Bacillus pumilus, the cause of ginger rhizome rot disease, was isolated. Notable features of phage vB_BpuM_BpSp are the large phage capsid of 137 nm and baseplate-attached curly tail fibers. The genome of the phage is 255,569 bp in size with G+C content of 25.9 %, and it shows low similarity to known biological entities. The phage genome contains 318 predicted coding sequences. Among these predicted coding sequences, 26 genes responsible for nucleotide metabolism were found, and seven structural genes could be identified. The findings of this study provide new understanding of the genetic diversity of phages.

  10. Analysis of the tenderisation of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) meat by ultrasonic treatment using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaqin; Yu, Hiaxia; Dong, Kaicheng; Yang, Shuibing; Ye, Xingqian; Chen, Shiguo

    2014-10-01

    Due to its unique structure, jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) meat is sensitive to heat treatment, which makes the traditional squid products taste tough and hard. This study aimed to tenderise jumbo squid meat through ultrasonic treatment. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to predict the tenderising effect of various treatment conditions. According to the results of RSM, the optimal conditions appeared to be a power of 186.9 W, a frequency of 25.6 kHz, and a time of 30.8 min, and the predicted values of flexibility and firmness under these optimal conditions were 2.40 mm and 435.1 g, respectively. Protein degradation and a broken muscle fibre structure were observed through histological assay and SDS-PAGE, which suggests a satisfactory tenderisation effect.

  11. 26 CFR 1.897-5T - Corporate distributions (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Miscellaneous Provisions § 1.897-5T Corporate distributions (temporary... be entitled pursuant to the provisions of a U.S. income tax treaty to reduced U.S. taxation upon the... States-Canada Income Tax Convention. (C) Waiver of treaty benefits to preserve...

  12. CXCR5+ T helper cells mediate protective immunity against tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slight, Samantha R.; Rangel-Moreno, Javier; Gopal, Radha; Lin, Yinyao; Fallert Junecko, Beth A.; Mehra, Smriti; Selman, Moises; Becerril-Villanueva, Enrique; Baquera-Heredia, Javier; Pavon, Lenin; Kaushal, Deepak; Reinhart, Todd A.; Randall, Troy D.; Khader, Shabaana A.

    2013-01-01

    One third of the world’s population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Although most infected people remain asymptomatic, they have a 10% lifetime risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB). Thus, the current challenge is to identify immune parameters that distinguish individuals with latent TB from those with active TB. Using human and experimental models of Mtb infection, we demonstrated that organized ectopic lymphoid structures containing CXCR5+ T cells were present in Mtb-infected lungs. In addition, we found that in experimental Mtb infection models, the presence of CXCR5+ T cells within ectopic lymphoid structures was associated with immune control. Furthermore, in a mouse model of Mtb infection, we showed that activated CD4+CXCR5+ T cells accumulated in Mtb-infected lungs and produced proinflammatory cytokines. Mice deficient in Cxcr5 had increased susceptibility to TB due to defective T cell localization within the lung parenchyma. We demonstrated that CXCR5 expression in T cells mediated correct T cell localization within TB granulomas, promoted efficient macrophage activation, protected against Mtb infection, and facilitated lymphoid follicle formation. These data demonstrate that CD4+CXCR5+ T cells play a protective role in the immune response against TB and highlight their potential use for future TB vaccine design and therapy. PMID:23281399

  13. Complete genome sequence of Desulfurispirillum indicum strain S5(T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Elisabetta; Rauschenbach, Ines; Narasingarao, Priya; Starovoytov, Valentin; Hauser, Lauren; Jeffries, Cynthia D; Land, Miriam; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Goodwin, Lynne; Han, Shunsheng; Held, Brittany; Tapia, Roxanne; Copeland, Alex; Ivanova, Natalia; Mikhailova, Natalia; Nolan, Matt; Pati, Amrita; Pennacchio, Len; Pitluck, Sam; Woyke, Tanja; Häggblom, Max

    2011-12-31

    Desulfurispirillum indicum strain S5(T) is a strictly anaerobic bacterium isolated from river sediment in Chennai, India. D. indicum belongs to the deep branching phylum of Chrysiogenetes, which currently only includes three other cultured species. Strain S5(T) is the type strain of the species and it is capable of growth using selenate, selenite, arsenate, nitrate or nitrite as terminal electron acceptors. The 2,928,377 bp genome encodes 2,619 proteins and 49 RNA genes, and the information gained from its sequence will be relevant to the elucidation of microbially-mediated transformations of arsenic and selenium, in addition to deepening our knowledge of the underrepresented phylum of Chrysiogenetes.

  14. Digestion of Ceramide 2-Aminoethylphosphonate, a Sphingolipid from the Jumbo Flying Squid Dosidicus gigas, in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomonaga, Nami; Manabe, Yuki; Sugawara, Tatsuya

    2017-04-01

    Ceramide 2-aminoethylphosphonate (CAEP), a sphingophosphonolipid containing a carbon-phosphorus bond, is frequently found in marine organisms and has a unique triene type of sphingoid base in its structure. CAEP has not been evaluated as a food ingredient, although it is generally contained in Mollusca organisms such as squids and shellfish, which are consumed worldwide. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the effects of CAEP as a food component by evaluating the digestion of CAEP extracted from the skin of the jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas. Our results revealed that dietary CAEP was digested to free sphingoid bases via ceramides by the mouse small intestinal mucosa. At pH 7.2, CAEP was hydrolyzed more rapidly than the major mammalian sphingolipid sphingomyelin; however, the hydrolysis of CAEP was similar to that of sphingomyelin at pH 9.0. Thus, the digestion of CAEP may be catalyzed by alkaline spingomyelinase and other enzymes. Our findings provide important insights into the digestion of the dietary sphingophosphonolipid CAEP in marine foods.

  15. Hypoxia tolerance and antioxidant defense system of juvenile jumbo squids in oxygen minimum zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trübenbach, Katja; Teixeira, Tatiana; Diniz, Mário; Rosa, Rui

    2013-10-01

    Jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) is a large oceanic squid endemic off the Eastern Tropical Pacific that undertakes diel vertical migrations into mesopelagic oxygen minimum zones. One of the expected physiological effects of such migration is the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the surface, promoted by the transition between hypoxia and reoxygenation states. The aim of this study was to investigate the energy expenditure rates and the antioxidant stress strategies of juvenile D. gigas under normoxia and hypoxia, namely by quantifying oxygen consumption rates, antioxidant enzyme activities [including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST)], heat shock protein expression (Hsp70/Hsc70), and lipid peroxidation [malondialdehyde (MDA) levels]. A high significant decrease (68%) in squid's metabolic rates was observed during hypoxia (p0.05), with the latter indicating no enhancement of lipid peroxidation (i.e. cellular damage) at the warmer and normoxic surface waters. The understanding of such physiological strategies that are linked to oxygen deprivation and reoxygenation phases may provide valuable information about how this species is quickly responding to the impacts of environmental stressors coupled with global climate change.

  16. Investigation of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) skin gelatin peptides for their in vitro antioxidant effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, Eresha; Rajapakse, Niranjan; Byun, Hee-Guk; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2005-09-09

    Peptides derived from tryptic hydrolysate of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) skin gelatin were assessed for their antioxidant properties in different in vitro assay systems. The hydrolysate itself exhibited a strong lipid peroxidation inhibition and it was much higher than that of natural antioxidant, alpha-tocopherol. In addition, it could scavenge highly active free radicals in oxidative systems, in the order of hydroxyl and carbon-centered radicals. Two representative peptides with comparatively higher antioxidant potency were purified and characterized as Phe-Asp-Ser-Gly-Pro-Ala-Gly-Val-Leu (880.18 Da) and Asn-Gly-Pro-Leu-Gln-Ala-Gly-Gln-Pro-Gly-Glu-Arg (1241.59 Da). Furthermore, viability of radical-mediated oxidation-induced human lung fibroblasts was enhanced following the treatment of two peptides. However it did not exhibit substantial ion chelation, and we presumed that the observed radical scavenging potency of these peptides play a vital role for their strong antioxidant activity. Based on our results we suggest that hydrophobic amino acids present in peptide sequences contributed greatly for observed antioxidant activities.

  17. Purification and characterization of trimethylamine-N-oxide demethylase from jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xue-Yan; Xue, Chang-Hu; Miao, Ben-Chun; Liang, Jun-Ni; Li, Zhao-Jie; Cui, Feng-Xia

    2006-02-08

    Trimethylamine-N-oxide demethylase (TMAOase) was purified from Jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) and characterized in detail herein. The TMAOase was extracted from squid with 20 mM Tris-acetate buffer (pH 7.0) containing 1.0 M NaCl, followed by acid treatment and heat treatment. Then it was purified by deithylaminoethyl-cellulose and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography, subsequently resulting in an 839-fold purification. The molecular mass of the TMAOase was defined to be 17.5 kDa. The optimum pH of the purified TMAOase was 7.0, and its optimum temperature was confirmed to be 55 degrees C. The TMAOase was stable to heat treatment up to 50 degrees C and stable at pH 7.0-9.0. Reducing agents such as DTT, Na2SO3, and NADH were effective at activating TMAOase, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, as well as Mg2+ and Ca2+, could also enhance the activity of TMAOase remarkably, whereas the TMAOase could be significantly inhibited by tea polyphenol, phytic acid and acetic acid. In addition, the TMAOase converted TMAO to dimethylamine and formaldehyde stoichiometrically with a K(m) of 26.2 mM.

  18. Partial characterization of an effluent produced by cooking of Jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) mantle muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Romero, Zaidy G; Ramirez-Suarez, Juan C; Pacheco-Aguilar, Ramón; Lugo-Sánchez, Maria E; Carvallo-Ruiz, Gisela; García-Sánchez, Guillermina

    2010-01-01

    Jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) mantle muscle was cooked simulating industrial procedures (95 degrees C x 25 min, 1.2:5 muscle:water ratio). The effluent produced was analyzed for chemical and biochemical oxygen demands (COD and BOD(5), respectively), proximate analysis, flavor-related compounds (free amino acids, nucleotides and carbohydrates) and SDS-PAGE. The COD and BOD(5) exhibited variation among samplings (N=3) (27.4-118.5 g O(2)/L for COD and 11.3-26.7 g O(2)/L for BOD(5)). The effluent consisted of 1% total solids, 75% of which represented crude protein. Sixty percent of the total free amino acid content, which imparts flavor in squid species, corresponded to glutamic acid, serine, glycine, arginine, alanine, leucine and lysine. The nucleotide concentration followed this order, Hx>ADP>AMP>ATP>IMP>HxR. The variation observed in the present work was probably due to physiological maturity differences among the squid specimens (i.e., juvenile versus mature). Solids present in squid cooking effluent could be recovered and potentially used as flavor ingredients in squid-analog production by the food industry.

  19. Methods to obtain protein concentrates from jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) and evaluation of their functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvez-Rongel, A; Ezquerra-Brauer, J M; Ocano-Higuera, V M; Ramirez-Wong, B; Torres-Arreola, W; Rouzaud-Sandez, O; Marquez-Rios, E

    2014-03-01

    Jumbo squid is an important fishery resource in Mexico, and its muscle is lean and white and it has a very low price in the market. It is abundant, but with little or nothing added value, therefore is necessary to search alternatives of processing. Due to muscle characteristics, the aim of this study was to obtain protein concentrates using different methods. They were obtained by means of acidic (acid protein concentrates) and alkaline (alkaline protein concentrates) dissolution. Moreover, a protein concentrate was obtained by direct isoelectric precipitation and by the traditional method (neutral protein concentrates). The yield with better results was alkaline protein concentrates (63.58 ± 1.8%). The gel hardness was significantly different (p < 0.05), especially for the alkaline protein concentrates. The acid protein concentrates, isoelectric precipitation and alkaline protein concentrates were better with regard to the neutral protein concentrates, concerning the emulsifying and foaming properties. The protein concentrates by means of alkaline dissolution gave a better gelling property, but all the processes had the potential to obtain protein with emulsifying and foaming properties.

  20. Important innovations in conventional drivage technology by a new generation of drilling jumbos; Massgebende Innovationen in der konventionellen Vortriebstechnologie durch eine neue Bohrwagengeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wennmohs, Karl-Heinz [Atlas Copco MCT GmbH, Essen (Germany). Global Strategic Customers

    2009-01-29

    Important innovations in the development of the new generation of drilling jumbos led to an increase in the performance of conventional drivage technology, which had previously not been considered possible. An important factor in addition to the high drilling rate is the greater precision of the kinematics. This permits important cost savings on concrete and re-profiling. At the same time customer requirements such as the pre-drilling technology, recording of drilling parameters, profile monitoring and communication engineering were implemented in this new generation of drilling jumbos. (orig.)

  1. The biology and ecology of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (Cephalopoda in Chilean waters: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M Ibáñez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. The jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas is the most abundant cephalopod species in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, which supports the biggest cephalopod fishery in the world. Due to its growing economic importance, the population growth and distributional expansion of this squid is being increasingly studied. Nevertheless, some basic features of the biology of D. gigas are still unknown or have been poorly investigated. In this review we summarize the known information regarding the biology and ecology of this species in the southeastern Pacific Ocean; we focus on the Chilean region in order to propose hypotheses and research lines for a better understanding the life history of this organism. Available data on the size structure, reproduction and genetics of D. gigas allows us to propose hypotheses related to the squid's life history traits. Based on the current literature and publications of colleagues, we propose two hypotheses regarding the effect of spatial variation on the life history of D. gigas. Hypothesis 1: Squids mature at large sizes and spawn in oceanic waters with warm temperatures where paralarvae and juveniles develop. Immature squids migrate near shore to feed, grow and mature, and then return to the offshore sites to spawn. Hypothesis 2: Alternatively, juvenile D. gigas in the oceanic zone do not migrate to coastal waters and mature at small sizes compared to individuals living near the coast that mature at larger size and migrate to oceanic waters to spawn. We provide background information about the feeding behavior and parasitism of this species, suggesting that D. gigas is an important trophic link in the southeastern Pacific marine ecosystem. However, more studies on the feeding habits, reproduction and parasite load are needed not only to test hypotheses proposed in this study, but also to advance the overall knowledge of this species.

  2. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACTS OF PHLOGACANTHUS THYRSIFLORUS, HOTTUYNIA CORDATA, CURCUMA CAESIA AND SYZYGIUM JUMBOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shagufa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to know and compare the antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extracts of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus (EEPT, Hottuynia cordata (EEHC, Curcuma caesia (EECC and Syzygium jumbos (EESJ on Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by disc diffusion method. The ethanolic plant extracts were prepared from the bark of Syzygium jumbos and leaves of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus, Hottuynia cordata and Curcuma caesia by percolation method. Clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were obtained from the Department of Microbiology, Assam Medical College & Hospital. Disc diffusion method for antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed according to the standard Kirby Bauer method. The whatmann-1 filter paper discs of 6mm sizes impregnated with the plant extracts were placed on Mueller-Hinton agar plates seeded with bacterial cultures of 0.5 Mc Farland standards. Ciprofloxacin (5μg/disc was used as positive control. The antibacterial activities were assessed by the presence or absence of inhibition zones after incubating the plates at 370c for 24 hours. The ethanolic extracts of Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus (EEPT and Hottuynia cordata (EEHC showed significant anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ethanolic extracts of Syzygium jumbos (EESJ showed significant activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli while ethanolic extracts of Curcuma caesia (EECC showed significant anti-bacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Maximum zones of inhibition to Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were exhibited by Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus, Syzygium jumbos and Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus respectively.

  3. Studies on the fungal diseases in Crustaceans II.Halipthoros Philippinensis sp. nov. isolated from cultivated larvae of the jumbo tiger Prawn Penaeus monodon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KishioHATAI; ZhongBIAN; Ma.CeciliaL.BATICADOS; SyuzoEGUSA

    1986-01-01

    Haliphthoros, philippinensis, a marine mastigomycete isolated from larvae of the jumbo tiger p.rawn Penaeus monodon, is described and illustrated as new. The fungus grew at a temperature range of 13.5 to 36.3℃, with the optimum of 29.3-34.5℃.

  4. Isolation and properties of AMP deaminase from jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) mantle muscle from the Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez-Rios, E; Pacheco-Aguilar, R; Castillo-Yañez, F J; Figueroa-Soto, C G; Ezquerra-Brauer, J M; Gollas-Galvan, T

    2008-09-01

    Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) deaminase was purified from jumbo squid mantle muscle by chromatography in cellulose phosphate, Q-Fast and 5'-AMP sepharose. Specific activity of 2.5U/mg protein, 4.5% recovery and 133.68 purification fold were obtained at the end of the experiment. SDS-PAGE showed a single band with 87kDa molecular mass, native PAGE proved a band of 178kDa, whereas gel filtration detected a 180kDa protein, suggesting the homodimeric nature of this enzyme, in which subunits are not linked by covalent forces. Isoelectric focusing of this enzyme showed a pI of 5.76, which agrees with pI values of AMP deaminase from other invertebrate organisms. AMP deaminase presented a kinetic sigmoidal plot with Vmax of 1.16μM/min/mg, Km of 13mM, Kcat of 3.48μM.s(-1) and a Kcat/Km of 267 (mol/L)(-1).s(-1). The apparent relative low catalytic activity of jumbo squid muscle AMP deaminase in the absence of positive effectors is similar to that reported for homologous enzymes in other invertebrate organisms.

  5. Comparison of Head Center Position and Screw Fixation Options Between a Jumbo Cup and an Offset Center of Rotation Cup in Revision Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Computer Simulation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faizan, Ahmad; Black, Brandon J; Fay, Brian D; Heffernan, Christopher D; Ries, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Jumbo acetabular cups are commonly used in revision total hip arthroplasty (THA). A straightforward reaming technique is used which is similar to primary THA. However, jumbo cups may also be associated with hip center elevation, limited screw fixation options, and anterior soft tissue impingement. A partially truncated hemispherical shell was designed with an offset center of rotation, thick superior rim, and beveled anterior and superior rims as an alternative to a conventional jumbo cup. A three dimensional computer simulation was used to assess head center position and safe screw trajectories. Results of this in vitro study indicate that a modified hemispherical implant geometry can reduce head center elevation while permitting favorable screw fixation trajectories into the pelvis in comparison to a conventional jumbo cup.

  6. Ventilation rates and activity levels of juvenile jumbo squid under metabolic suppression in the oxygen minimum zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trübenbach, Katja; Pegado, Maria R; Seibel, Brad A; Rosa, Rui

    2013-02-01

    The Humboldt (jumbo) squid, Dosidicus gigas, is a part-time resident of the permanent oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and, thereby, it encounters oxygen levels below its critical oxygen partial pressure. To better understand the ventilatory mechanisms that accompany the process of metabolic suppression in these top oceanic predators, we exposed juvenile D. gigas to the oxygen levels found in the OMZ (1% O(2), 1 kPa, 10 °C) and measured metabolic rate, activity cycling patterns, swimming mode, escape jet (burst) frequency, mantle contraction frequency and strength, stroke volume and oxygen extraction efficiency. In normoxia, metabolic rate varied between 14 and 29 μmol O(2) g(-1) wet mass h(-1), depending on the level of activity. The mantle contraction frequency and strength were linearly correlated and increased significantly with activity level. Additionally, an increase in stroke volume and ventilatory volume per minute was observed, followed by a mantle hyperinflation process during high activity periods. Squid metabolic rate dropped more than 75% during exposure to hypoxia. Maximum metabolic rate was not achieved under such conditions and the metabolic scope was significantly decreased. Hypoxia changed the relationship between mantle contraction strength and frequency from linear to polynomial with increasing activity, indicating that, under hypoxic conditions, the jumbo squid primarily increases the strength of mantle contraction and does not regulate its frequency. Under hypoxia, jumbo squid also showed a larger inflation period (reduced contraction frequency) and decreased relaxed mantle diameter (shortened diffusion pathway), which optimize oxygen extraction efficiency (up to 82%/34%, without/with consideration of 60% potential skin respiration). Additionally, they breathe 'deeply', with more powerful contractions and enhanced stroke volume. This deep-breathing behavior allows them to display a stable ventilatory volume per

  7. Description of plastic remains found in the stomach contents of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas landed in Ecuador during 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Luis, Rigoberto

    2016-12-15

    Squids are active and opportunistic predators that feed on a wide range of prey. Their active movements in the water column and their voracity promote a high consumption of food. In the pelagic environment off Ecuador, marine pollution is characterized by plastic debris with a mainland origin, including plastics trash of fishing gears. The objective of this work was to describe the presence of plastic remains in the stomach contents of Dosidicus gigas caught off the coast of Ecuador. Results demonstrated that 12% of the stomachs contained plastic remains. These plastics were identified as multifilament of polyethylene lines and polyvinyl chloride remains. Findings of this work could be related to an increase in the discharge of solid materials in the water column, increasing the probability to be ingested by the jumbo squid.

  8. Metabolic suppression during protracted exposure to hypoxia in the jumbo squid, Dosidicus gigas, living in an oxygen minimum zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, Brad A; Häfker, N Sören; Trübenbach, Katja; Zhang, Jing; Tessier, Shannon N; Pörtner, Hans-Otto; Rosa, Rui; Storey, Kenneth B

    2014-07-15

    The jumbo squid, Dosidicus gigas, can survive extended forays into the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the Eastern Pacific Ocean. Previous studies have demonstrated reduced oxygen consumption and a limited anaerobic contribution to ATP production, suggesting the capacity for substantial metabolic suppression during hypoxic exposure. Here, we provide a more complete description of energy metabolism and explore the expression of proteins indicative of transcriptional and translational arrest that may contribute to metabolic suppression. We demonstrate a suppression of total ATP demand under hypoxic conditions (1% oxygen, PO2 =0.8 kPa) in both juveniles (52%) and adults (35%) of the jumbo squid. Oxygen consumption rates are reduced to 20% under hypoxia relative to air-saturated controls. Concentrations of arginine phosphate (Arg-P) and ATP declined initially, reaching a new steady state (~30% of controls) after the first hour of hypoxic exposure. Octopine began accumulating after the first hour of hypoxic exposure, once Arg-P breakdown resulted in sufficient free arginine for substrate. Octopine reached levels near 30 mmol g(-1) after 3.4 h of hypoxic exposure. Succinate did increase through hypoxia but contributed minimally to total ATP production. Glycogenolysis in mantle muscle presumably serves to maintain muscle functionality and balance energetics during hypoxia. We provide evidence that post-translational modifications on histone proteins and translation factors serve as a primary means of energy conservation and that select components of the stress response are altered in hypoxic squids. Reduced ATP consumption under hypoxia serves to maintain ATP levels, prolong fuel store use and minimize the accumulation of acidic intermediates of anaerobic ATP-generating pathways during prolonged diel forays into the OMZ. Metabolic suppression likely limits active, daytime foraging at depth in the core of the OMZ, but confers an energetic advantage over competitors that must

  9. Practical experience with a partly automated drilling jumbo in Auguste Victoria colliery; Betriebliche Einsatzerfahrungen mit einem teilautomatisierten Bohrwagen auf dem Bergwerk Auguste Victoria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesch, Uwe [Bergwerk Auguste Victoria, Marl (Germany). Bereich Aus- und Vorrichtung; Koch, Olaf [RAG Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Herne (Germany). Bereich Bergtechnik

    2010-09-15

    On the German hard coal mines from RAG Deutsche Steinkohle the two-armed drilling jumbo for blasting and bolting called BTRK 2 is ued in headings by drilling and blasting work. This type of device was fitted in a first step with an electro-hydraulic control system and an IPC. With the help of the IPC main functions of drilling in operation and execution were easier and more accurate. Based on the improvements a partial automation of the drilling jumbo was carried out. The semi-automated unit can line up virtually to the roadway axis through a simple orientation at the laser. Then for the drilling operation a virtual heading face is assumed which is drilled out. The report presents on the basis of the first application at the Augusta Victoria colliery the procedure during the implementation and the operational experience from the perspective of the heading operation. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas byproduct hydrolysates obtained by acid-enzymatic hydrolysis and by autohydrolysis in practical diets for Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayra Lizett González-Félix

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The marine bioprocessing industry offers great potential to utilize byproducts for fish meal replacement in aquafeeds. Jumbo squid is an important fishery commodity in Mexico, but only the mantle is marketed. Head, fins, guts and tentacles are discarded in spite of being protein-rich byproducts. This study evaluated the use of two jumbo squid byproduct hydrolysates obtained by acid-enzymatic hydrolysis (AEH and by autohydrolysis (AH as ingredients in practical diets for shrimp. The hydrolysates were included at levels of 2.5 and 5.0% of the diet dry weight in four practical diets, including a control diet without hydrolysate. Shrimp growth and survival were not significantly affected by the dietary treatments. Postharvest quality of abdominal muscle was evaluated in terms of proximate composition and sensory evaluation. Significantly higher crude protein was observed in the muscle of shrimp fed the highest hydrolysate levels, AH 5% (204.8 g kg- 1 or AEH 5% (201.3 g kg- 1. Sensory analysis of cooked muscle showed significant differences for all variables evaluated: color, odor, flavor, and firmness. It was concluded that Jumbo squid byproducts can be successfully processed by autohydrolysis or acid-enzymatic hydrolysis, and that up to 5.0% of the hydrolysates can be incorporated into shrimp diets without affecting growth or survival.

  11. Analysis on the Design Features of CHARLES DARWIN Jumbo TSHD%CHARLES DARWIN号巨型耙吸船设计特点解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪凯; 刘厚恕

    2012-01-01

    CHARLES DARWIN (30500m3) is one of the remarkable Jumbo TSHDs which have been built since the new century,Besides the character of shallow draft,the breakthrough in deadweight and driving mode of this dredger can be obtained.This paper compares the technical and functional differences between this ship type and the similar ship types,The newest achievement in the design of Jumbo TSHD is thus showed,which can be beneficial to the domestic study and development of Jumbo TSHD,%30500m3 CHARLES DARWIN是新世纪以来国外建造的几艘巨型耙吸挖泥船之一,除了浅吃水特性取得显要成功之外,该船在载重能力、驱动方式等诸多设计方面均有新的突破,本文通过该型船与同类型船主要技术形态及性能参数的比较,展示了超大型耙吸船船型设计技术的最新成就,以期对国内业已开展的相关船型的开发研究能有所裨益.

  12. Replications of Two Closely Related Groups of Jumbo Phages Show Different Level of Dependence on Host-encoded RNA Polymerase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Takeru; Yoshikawa, Genki; Mihara, Tomoko; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan; Kawasaki, Takeru; Nakano, Miyako; Fujie, Makoto; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Ralstonia solanacearum phages ΦRP12 and ΦRP31 are jumbo phages isolated in Thailand. Here we show that they exhibit similar virion morphology, genome organization and host range. Genome comparisons as well as phylogenetic and proteomic tree analyses support that they belong to the group of ΦKZ-related phages, with their closest relatives being R. solanacearum phages ΦRSL2 and ΦRSF1. Compared with ΦRSL2 and ΦRSF1, ΦRP12 and ΦRP31 possess larger genomes (ca. 280 kbp, 25% larger). The replication of ΦRP12 and ΦRP31 was not affected by rifampicin treatment (20 μg/ml), suggesting that phage-encoded RNAPs function to start and complete the infection cycle of these phages without the need of host-encoded RNAPs. In contrast, ΦRSL2 and ΦRSF1, encoding the same set of RNAPs, did not produce progeny phages in the presence of rifampicin (5 μg/ml). This observation opens the possibility that some ΦRP12/ΦRP31 factors that are absent in ΦRSL2 and ΦRSF1 are involved in their host-independent transcription. PMID:28659872

  13. Range expansion of the jumbo squid in the NE Pacific: δ15N decrypts multiple origins, migration and habitat use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Cooley, Rocio I; Ballance, Lisa T; McCarthy, Matthew D

    2013-01-01

    Coincident with climate shifts and anthropogenic perturbations, the highly voracious jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas reached unprecedented northern latitudes along the NE Pacific margin post 1997-98. The physical or biological drivers of this expansion, as well as its ecological consequences remain unknown. Here, novel analysis from both bulk tissues and individual amino acids (Phenylalanine; Phe and Glutamic acid; Glu) in both gladii and muscle of D. gigas captured in the Northern California Current System (NCCS) documents for the first time multiple geographic origins and migration. Phe δ(15)N values, a proxy for habitat baseline δ(15)N values, confirm at least three different geographic origins that were initially detected by highly variable bulk δ(15)N values in gladii for squid at small sizes (60 cm) converged, indicating feeding in a common ecosystem. The strong latitudinal gradient in Phe δ(15)N values from composite muscle samples further confirmed residency at a point in time for large squid in the NCCS. These results contrast with previous ideas, and indicate that small squid are highly migratory, move into the NCCS from two or more distinct geographic origins, and use this ecosystem mainly for feeding. These results represent the first direct information on the origins, immigration and habitat use of this key "invasive" predator in the NCCS, with wide implications for understanding both the mechanisms of periodic D. gigas population range expansions, and effects on ecosystem trophic structure.

  14. Range expansion of the jumbo squid in the NE Pacific: δ15N decrypts multiple origins, migration and habitat use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio I Ruiz-Cooley

    Full Text Available Coincident with climate shifts and anthropogenic perturbations, the highly voracious jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas reached unprecedented northern latitudes along the NE Pacific margin post 1997-98. The physical or biological drivers of this expansion, as well as its ecological consequences remain unknown. Here, novel analysis from both bulk tissues and individual amino acids (Phenylalanine; Phe and Glutamic acid; Glu in both gladii and muscle of D. gigas captured in the Northern California Current System (NCCS documents for the first time multiple geographic origins and migration. Phe δ(15N values, a proxy for habitat baseline δ(15N values, confirm at least three different geographic origins that were initially detected by highly variable bulk δ(15N values in gladii for squid at small sizes (60 cm converged, indicating feeding in a common ecosystem. The strong latitudinal gradient in Phe δ(15N values from composite muscle samples further confirmed residency at a point in time for large squid in the NCCS. These results contrast with previous ideas, and indicate that small squid are highly migratory, move into the NCCS from two or more distinct geographic origins, and use this ecosystem mainly for feeding. These results represent the first direct information on the origins, immigration and habitat use of this key "invasive" predator in the NCCS, with wide implications for understanding both the mechanisms of periodic D. gigas population range expansions, and effects on ecosystem trophic structure.

  15. Extreme plasticity in life-history strategy allows a migratory predator (jumbo squid) to cope with a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoving, Henk-Jan T; Gilly, William F; Markaida, Unai; Benoit-Bird, Kelly J; -Brown, Zachary W; Daniel, Patrick; Field, John C; Parassenti, Liz; Liu, Bilin; Campos, Bernardita

    2013-07-01

    Dosidicus gigas (jumbo or Humboldt squid) is a semelparous, major predator of the eastern Pacific that is ecologically and commercially important. In the Gulf of California, these animals mature at large size (>55 cm mantle length) in 1-1.5 years and have supported a major commercial fishery in the Guaymas Basin during the last 20 years. An El Niño event in 2009-2010, was accompanied by a collapse of this fishery, and squid in the region showed major changes in the distribution and life-history strategy. Large squid abandoned seasonal coastal-shelf habitats in 2010 and instead were found in the Salsipuedes Basin to the north, an area buffered from the effects of El Niño by tidal upwelling and a well-mixed water column. The commercial fishery also relocated to this region. Although large squid were not found in the Guaymas Basin from 2010 to 2012, small squid were abundant and matured at an unusually small mantle-length (gigas to rapidly adapt to and cope with El Niño. This ability is likely to be an important factor in conjunction with longerterm climate-change and the potential ecological impacts of this invasive predator on marine ecosystems.

  16. ESR studies on the thermal decomposition of trimethylamine oxide to formaldehyde and dimethylamine in jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junli; Jia, Jia; Li, Xuepeng; Dong, Liangliang; Li, Jianrong

    2013-12-15

    The effects of ferrous iron, heating temperature and different additives on the decomposition of trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) to formaldehyde (FA) and dimethylamine (DMA) and generation of free radicals in jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) extract during heating were evaluated by electron spin resonance (ESR). The thermal decomposition of TMAO to TMA, DMA and FA and free radical signals was observed in squid extract, whereas no DMA, FA and free radical signals were detected in cod extract or in aqueous TMAO solution in vitro at high temperatures. Significant increase in levels of DMA, FA and radicals intensity were observed in squid extract and TMAO solution in the presence of ferrous iron with increasing temperature. Hydrogen peroxide stimulated the production of DMA, FA and ESR signals in squid extract, while citric acid, trisodium citrate, calcium chloride, tea polyphenols and resveratrol had the opposite effect. Similar ESR spectra of six peaks regarded as amminium radical were detected in the squid extract and TMAO-iron(II) solution, suggesting that the amminium radical was involved in the decomposition of TMAO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Revival of Waste: Atmospheric Pressure Nitrogen Plasma Jet Enhanced Jumbo Silicon/Silicon Carbide Composite in Lithium Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing-Hong; Chuang, Shang-I; Liu, Wei-Ren; Duh, Jenq-Gong

    2015-12-30

    In this study, a jumbo silicon/silicon carbide (Si/SiC) composite (JSC), a novel anode material source, was extracted from solar power industry cutting waste and used as a material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), instead of manufacturing the nanolized-Si. Unlike previous methods used for preventing volume expansion and solid electrolyte interphase (SEI), the approach proposed here simply entails applying surface modification to JSC-based electrodes by using nitrogen-atmospheric pressure plasma jet (N-APPJ) treatment process. Surface organic bonds were rearranged and N-doped compounds were formed on the electrodes through applying different plasma treatment durations, and the qualitative examinations of before/after plasma treatment were identified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA). The surface modification resulted in the enhancement of electrochemical performance with stable capacity retention and high Coulombic efficiency. In addition, depth profile and scanning electron microscope (SEM) images were executed to determine the existence of Li-N matrix and how the nitrogen compounds change the surface conditions of the electrodes. The N-APPJ-induced rapid surface modification is a major breakthrough for processing recycled waste that can serve as anode materials for next-generation high-performance LIBs.

  18. Fishery biology of the jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas off the Exclusive Economic Zone of Chilean waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilin Liu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas is widely distributed in the eastern Pacific Ocean and supports an important fishery. Although many studies have been carried out on the biology of this species, limited biological information is available in the waters outside the Exclusive Economic Zone of Chile (EEZ (20°S-41°S and 74°30’W-84°W. Three surveys were conducted in this area by the Chinese squid jigging vessels during the period from April 2006 to May 2008. The majority of the catch in the survey was from the two areas defined by 37°30’-41°S and 78°30’-80°W and by 25°-30°S and 76°-77°30’W. The sex ratio (M: F of the catch was 1: 2.48. The mean mantle length (ML was 376 mm for males with a range of 257-721 mm and 388.7 mm for females with a range of 236-837 mm. Two distinguished size classes, medium- and large-sized groups, were identified in this study with the medium-sized group (350-450 mm ML consisting of 89% of the total catch. The sizes at first sexual maturity were 638 mm ML for females and 565 mm ML for males. This study suggests that all the individuals examined were hatched from March 2007 to February 2008, indicating that D. gigas might spawn all year around with a peak spawning time from November 2007 to January 2008. Most of the stomachs analyzed had food remains. The preys included three major groups: fish (mainly lanternfish, cephalopods and crustaceans, but D. gigas was the dominant species in the stomach contents, showing strong evidence of cannibalism. The information obtained from this study improves our understanding of the fishery biology of D. gigas off Chile.

  19. Jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) mantle collagen: extraction, characterization, and potential application in the preparation of chitosan-collagen biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uriarte-Montoya, Mario Hiram; Arias-Moscoso, Joe Luis; Plascencia-Jatomea, Maribel; Santacruz-Ortega, Hisila; Rouzaud-Sández, Ofelia; Cardenas-Lopez, Jose Luis; Marquez-Rios, Enrique; Ezquerra-Brauer, Josafat Marina

    2010-06-01

    Collagen-based biomaterials have been widely used due to its binding capabilities. However the properties and potential use of new collagen sources are still under investigation. Fish by-products are an excellent source of collagen. Thus, acid-soluble collagen (ASC) was extracted, and biochemical and physicochemically characterized from one under-utilized specie, jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas). In addition, commercial chitosan (95-50%)-ASC (5-50%) blend films were successfully prepared by casting, and characterized by infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The molecular masses of the ASC subunits were about 190kDa, 110kDa, and 97kDa, the content of proline and hydroxyproline was 10.9% and 2.8%, respectively. The FT-IR and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra ((1)H NMR) confirmed collagen peptidic crosslinks, and one endothermic peak was found at 119 degrees C. The FT-IR spectrum showed that chitosan and ASC remain linked into the films mainly due to hydrogen bonding. The 85:15 (chitosan:ASC) ratio was selected for its thermal and mechanical analyses. The thermograms of this film indicated the presence of two peaks, one at 87-98 degrees C and the other at 142-182 degrees C. The chitosan:ASC blend produced a transparent and brittle film, with high percentage of elongation at break, and low tensile strength in comparison to chitosan films. D. gigas mantle might be useful as a new source of plasticizer agent in the preparation of biofilms in composites with chitosan.

  20. Horizontal movements, vertical-habitat utilization and diet of the jumbo squid ( Dosidicus gigas) in the Pacific Ocean off Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzino, Gastón; Gilly, William F.; Markaida, Unai; Salinas-Zavala, César A.; Ramos-Castillejos, Jorge

    2010-07-01

    We deployed four pop-up archival-transmitting (PAT) tags on jumbo squid ( Dosidicus gigas) collected in the Pacific Ocean off the main entrance to Magdalena Bay on the Baja California peninsula in June 2005. This is the first successful deployment of PAT tags on jumbo squid in an area outside the Gulf of California. Summary data were obtained through the ARGOS satellite system for three of the tags; the fourth tag was physically recovered. All of the tagged squid tended to remain on the shallow continental shelf for several days after tagging and then moved offshore into deeper water. Three of the four squid appeared to migrate in a general southerly direction while the fourth remained offshore of Magdalena Bay. All of the squid spent most daylight hours at depths that were associated with the hypoxic oxygen minimum layer, and at night they spent a majority of time in the upper 50 m of the water column. Stomach content analysis and tag temperature-depth data during the first days after tagging revealed that the squid were feeding on pelagic red crabs ( Pleuroncodes planipes) and several larger, neritic fishes over the continental shelf off Magdalena Bay during a seasonal nearshore upwelling. Comparison of our results with those previously collected in the Gulf of California reveal that Dosidicus gigas can vary its behavior and diet to suit local environmental conditions. This adaptability is likely to be an important factor in the ability of D. gigas to invade and colonize new areas.

  1. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1CLMA-1QX5T [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1CLMA-1QX5T 1CLM 1QX5 A T --LTEEQIAEFKEAFALFDKDGDGTITTKELGTVMRSLG...QNPTEAELQDMINEVDADGNGTIDFPEFLSLMARKMKEQ-DSEEELIEAFKVFDRDGNGLISAAELRHVMTNLGEKLTDDEVDEMIREADIDGDGHINYEEFVRMMVS.../pdbID> A 1CLMA KMKEQ-DSEEE 1CLM A 1CLMA EAFKVFDRD

  2. Asthma and COPD in cystic fibrosis intron-8 5T carriers. A population-based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Lange, Peter;

    2005-01-01

    Carriers of cystic fibrosis intron-8 5T alleles with high exon-9 skipping could have increased annual lung function decline and increased risk for asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).......Carriers of cystic fibrosis intron-8 5T alleles with high exon-9 skipping could have increased annual lung function decline and increased risk for asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)....

  3. The Effects of the Recombinant CCR5 T4 Lysozyme Fusion Protein on HIV-1 Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwen Jin

    Full Text Available Insertion of T4 lysozyme (T4L into the GPCR successfully enhanced GPCR protein stability and solubilization. However, the biological functions of the recombinant GPCR protein have not been analyzed.We engineered the CCR5-T4L mutant and expressed and purified the soluble recombinant protein using an E.coli expression system. The antiviral effects of this recombinant protein in THP-1 cell lines, primary human macrophages, and PBMCs from different donors were investigated. We also explored the possible mechanisms underlying the observed antiviral effects.Our data showed the biphasic inhibitory and promotion effects of different concentrations of soluble recombinant CCR5-T4L protein on R5 tropic human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1 infection in THP-1 cell lines, human macrophages, and PBMCs from clinical isolates. We demonstrated that soluble recombinant CCR5-T4L acts as a HIV-1 co-receptor, interacts with wild type CCR5, down-regulates the surface CCR5 expression in human macrophages, and interacts with CCL5 to inhibit macrophage migration. Using binding assays, we further determined that recombinant CCR5-T4L and [125I]-CCL5 compete for the same binding site on wild type CCR5.Our results suggest that recombinant CCR5-T4L protein marginally promotes HIV-1 infection at low concentrations and markedly inhibits infection at higher concentrations. This recombinant protein may be helpful in the future development of anti-HIV-1 therapeutic agents.

  4. Study of cerebral blood flow by magnetic resonance 0. 5 T. Estudio de la perfusion cerebral con RM de 0,5 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrijo, C.; Marti-Bonmati, L.; Palop, C.; Caballero, E.; Poyatos, C.; Sopena, R. (Hospital Doctor Peset. Servicio de Diagnostico por la Imagen. Valencia (Spain))

    1993-01-01

    To asses the cerebral blood flow by magnetic resonance, 1.5 T superconductor imagers have been used, taking slices of the brain for dynamic study following rapid iv administration of gadolinium (Gd-DTPA). Our aim was to attempt to reproduce these data with a 0.5 T superconductor imager. Thirty-two dynamic studies of the head were carried out. The first 10 were used to modify the methodology until a standard technique was achieved, which was employed for the remaining 22:T2*-weighted gradient-echo sequence (TR=50msec, TE=23 msec, angle=10*, thickness=10mm, matrix=128x64, FOV=250 mm), taking 15 slices in 75 seconds following a 20 ml iv bolus of Gd-DTPA. When the signal intensity was measured at the level of the cerebral cortex, a reduction was detected in association with the passage of Gd-DTPA through the cerebral microcirculation, with a mean signal loss of 5.96%[+-]2.25. This signal loss is significant (p<0.01) when compared with that reported in studies in which no contrast agent was used (2.54%[+-]0.6). The maximum signal loss appeared at times varying between 10 and 40 seconds after administration of the contrast medium. It is concluded that passage (perfusion) through the cerebral microcirculation can be observed at 0.5 T, although the attenuation values obtained are lower than those reported by other authors in their series. The time at which the signal loss appears after iv contrast administration is unpredictable, fact which further limits the utility of this methodology. (Author)

  5. Glycosylation and epitope mapping of the 5T4 glycoprotein oncofoetal antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David M; Woods, Andrew M; Myers, Kevin A; Westwater, Caroline; Rahi-Saund, Veena; Davies, Michael J; Renouf, David V; Hounsell, Elizabeth F; Stern, Peter L

    2002-01-01

    The human 5T4 oncofoetal antigen is a focus for development of several antibody-directed therapies on the basis of the murine monoclonal antibody against 5T4 (mAb5T4), which recognizes a conformational epitope. 5T4 molecules are highly N-glycosylated transmembrane glycoproteins whose extracellular domain contains two regions of leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and associated flanking regions, separated by an intervening hydrophilic sequence. Using a series of deletion and mutated cDNA constructs as well as chimaeras with the murine homologue, we have mapped the mAb5T4 epitope to the more membrane-proximal LRR2 or its flanking region. Analysis of the glycosylation of the seven consensus Asp-Xaa-Ser/Thr sites was consistent with all of the sites being glycosylated. A combination of two high-mannose chains (predominantly octasaccharide) and five mostly sialylated bi-, tri- and tetra-antennary complex chains with minor quantities of core fucose were detected. The two glycosylation sites, which are the most likely to have predominantly high-mannose chains, are in the only two regions that show significant differences between the human and the 81% identical mouse sequence. A site-directed mutation, which abolished glycosylation at one of these sites (position 192), did not alter antigenicity. The other, which is nearest to the N-terminus in the human, has an Asn-Leu-Thr to Asn-Leu-Leu conversion in the mouse, so cannot be glycosylated in the latter species. The large complex glycosylation at the other sites is likely to influence the antigenicity and tertiary structure generating the 5T4 epitope. PMID:11903056

  6. Deficient Fas expression by CD4+ CCR5+ T cells in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julià, Eva; Montalban, Xavier; Al-Zayat, Hammad;

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether T cells expressing CCR5 and CXCR3 from multiple sclerosis (MS) patients are more resistant to apoptosis. METHODS: Expression of CD69, TNF-R1, Fas, FasL, bcl-2, and bax was investigated in 41 MS patients and 12 healthy controls by flow cytometry in CD4+ and CD8+ T...... cells expressing CCR5 and CXCR3. RESULTS: In MS patients, the percentage of CD69 was increased and Fas expression decreased in CD4+ CCR5+ T cells. INTERPRETATION: The lower Fas expression in activated CD4+ CCR5+ T cells might contribute to disease pathogenesis by prolonging cell survival and favoring...

  7. An Experimental 11.5 T Nb3Sn LHC Type of Dipole Magnet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouden, den A.; Wessel, S.; Krooshoop, E.; Dubbeldam, R.; Kate, ten H.H.J.

    1994-01-01

    As part of the magnet development program for the LHC an experimental 1 m long 11.5 T single aperture Nb3Sn dipole magnet has been designed and is now under construction. The design is focused on full utilisation of the high current density in the powder tube Nb3Sn. A new field optimisation has led

  8. 26 CFR 1.132-5T - Working condition fringe-1985 through 1988 (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Working condition fringe-1985 through 1988....132-5T Working condition fringe—1985 through 1988 (temporary). (a) In general—(1) Definition. Gross income does not include the value of a working condition fringe. The term “working condition...

  9. Researth of Kinematics Simulation of Drill Jumbo Boom Based on MATLAB/Simulink%基于 MATLAB/Simulink 的台车钻臂运动学仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张典成

    2016-01-01

    本文根据自动定位型凿岩台车的钻臂运动控制需要,利用MATLAB/Simulink运动仿真工具,实现了凿岩台车钻臂的运动学仿真,并实现了检验控制策略,优化控制算法的目的。%Based on the need of automatic positioning of drill jumbo boom motion control, by using MATLAB /Simulink motion simulation tools, the jumbo boom kinematics simulation was fulfilled.Meanwhile the purpose of testing the control strategy and optimizing the control algorithm were achived.

  10. Clinical advantages of 3.0 T MRI over 1.5 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willinek, Winfried A. [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, D-53105 Bonn (Germany)], E-mail: winfried.willinek@ukb.uni-bonn.de; Schild, Hans H. [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Strasse 25, D-53105 Bonn (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    Since approval by the FDA in 2000, human MR imaging (MRI) at 3.0 T has been increasingly used in clinical practice. In spite of the potential technical challenges, a number of clinical advantages of 3.0 T MRI over 1.5 T have been identified in the recent years. This article reviews the benefits and the current knowledge of 3.0 T whole-body MRI from an evidence-based perspective and summarizes its clinical applications.

  11. 1.5 T augmented reality navigated interventional MRI: paravertebral sympathetic plexus injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marker, David R; U Thainual, Paweena; Ungi, Tamas; Flammang, Aaron J; Fichtinger, Gabor; Iordachita, Iulian I; Carrino, John A; Fritz, Jan

    2017-01-01

    The high contrast resolution and absent ionizing radiation of interventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be advantageous for paravertebral sympathetic nerve plexus injections. We assessed the feasibility and technical performance of MRI-guided paravertebral sympathetic injections utilizing augmented reality navigation and 1.5 T MRI scanner. A total of 23 bilateral injections of the thoracic (8/23, 35%), lumbar (8/23, 35%), and hypogastric (7/23, 30%) paravertebral sympathetic plexus were prospectively planned in twelve human cadavers using a 1.5 Tesla (T) MRI scanner and augmented reality navigation system. MRI-conditional needles were used. Gadolinium-DTPA-enhanced saline was injected. Outcome variables included the number of control magnetic resonance images, target error of the needle tip, punctures of critical nontarget structures, distribution of the injected fluid, and procedure length. Augmented-reality navigated MRI guidance at 1.5 T provided detailed anatomical visualization for successful targeting of the paravertebral space, needle placement, and perineural paravertebral injections in 46 of 46 targets (100%). A mean of 2 images (range, 1-5 images) were required to control needle placement. Changes of the needle trajectory occurred in 9 of 46 targets (20%) and changes of needle advancement occurred in 6 of 46 targets (13%), which were statistically not related to spinal regions (P = 0.728 and P = 0.86, respectively) and cadaver sizes (P = 0.893 and P = 0.859, respectively). The mean error of the needle tip was 3.9±1.7 mm. There were no punctures of critical nontarget structures. The mean procedure length was 33±12 min. 1.5 T augmented reality-navigated interventional MRI can provide accurate imaging guidance for perineural injections of the thoracic, lumbar, and hypogastric sympathetic plexus.

  12. Chang'E-5T Orbit Determination Using Onboard GPS Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xing; Geng, Tao; Li, Wenwen; Zhao, Qile; Xie, Xin

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) has played an important role in Space Service Volume, the region enclosing the altitudes above 3000 km up to 36,000 km. As an in-flight test for the feasibility as well as for the performance of GNSS-based satellite orbit determination (OD), the Chinese experimental lunar mission Chang'E-5T had been equipped with an onboard high-sensitivity GNSS receiver with GPS and GLONASS tracking capability. In this contribution, the 2-h onboard GPS data are evaluated in terms of tracking performance as well as observation quality. It is indicated that the onboard receiver can track 7-8 GPS satellites per epoch on average and the ratio of carrier to noise spectral density (C/N0) values are higher than 28 dB-Hz for 90% of all the observables. The C1 code errors are generally about 4.15 m but can be better than 2 m with C/N0 values over 36 dB-Hz. GPS-based Chang'E-5T OD is performed and the Helmert variance component estimation method is investigated to determine the weights of code and carrier phase observations. The results reveal that the orbit consistency is about 20 m. OD is furthermore analyzed with GPS data screened out according to different C/N0 thresholds. It is indicated that for the Chang'E-5T, the precision of OD is dominated by the number of observed satellite. Although increased C/N0 thresholds can improve the overall data quality, the available number of GPS observations is greatly reduced and the resulting orbit solution is poor.

  13. 5T4 Oncotrophoblast Glycoprotein: Janus Molecule in Life and a Novel Potential Target against Tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Zhao; Yuxia Wang

    2007-01-01

    5T4 oncotrophoblast glycoprotein is a transmembrane protein expressed on the embryonic tissue and various malignant tumor cell surfaces. It plays a vital role in the multiple biological and pathological processes including massive cellular migration during the embryogenesis, cell invasion associated with implantation, and neoplastic metastasis in the progression of tumorigenesis. Its restricted profile of expression stratifies criteria of tumorassociated antigen and makes it a new promising candidate for immunotherapy for cancer. Hence, illustrating this molecular function is necessary for discovering the principle of the tumor diffusion and aggravation and is helpful for developing novel and effective strategies of cancer therapy.

  14. Field strength in MR imaging of multiple sclerosis: A comparison of 0. 5 and 1. 5 T. Bedeutung der Magnetfeldstaerke in der MR-Diagnostik der multiplen Sklerose: Ein Vergleich von 0,5 und 1,5 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schima, W. (Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik und MR-Institut der Medizinischen Fakultaet, Vienna (Austria)); Wimberger, D. (Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik und MR-Institut der Medizinischen Fakultaet, Vienna (Austria)); Schneider, B. (Institut fuer Medizinische Statistik, Univ. Vienna (Austria)); Stiglbauer, R. (Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik und MR-Institut der Medizinischen Fakultaet, Vienna (Austria)); Asenbaum, S. (Universitaetsklinik fuer Neurologie, Vienna (Austria)); Imhof, H. (Universitaetsklinik fuer Radiodiagnostik und MR-Institut der Medizinischen Fakultaet, Vienna (Austria))

    1993-04-01

    The value of magnetic resonance (MR) to establish the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS) is well known. This study was undertaken to compare MR imaging of the brain of MS patients at high (1.5 T) and mid (0.5 T) field strength. 25 patients with MS underwent two consecutive MR studies within one hour, each consisting of axial proton density and T[sub 2]-weighted spin-echo images. Lesions in the supratentorial white matter and corpus callosum and those in the brain stem and cerebellum were separately counted. At 1.5 T significantly more lesions were seen than at 0.5 T (p<0.05). Although T[sub 2]-weighted images at 1.5 T added significant information compared to images obtained at 0.5 T, in none of our 25 patients the diagnosis was missed at 0.5 T. However, at 1.5 T dissemination in space was better demonstrated, suggesting MR scanning with high field-units to be favourable in patients with clinically suspected MS. (orig.)

  15. 2T/5T Two-Axis Cryogen Free Superconducting Vector Magnet With Variable Temperature Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demikhov, E. I.; Demikhov, T. E.; Kostrov, E. A.; Lysenko, V. V.; Piskunov, N. A.

    2014-05-01

    A conduction cooled 2T / 5T superconducting vector magnetic system with a variable temperature space was developed and tested. The system is based on a commercial two-stage 4 K Gifford-McMahon cryocooler with the cooling power of 1.5 W at 4.2 K. The cool down time of the magnet from room temperature to 3.2 K is 17 hours. The system provides sample temperature range of 6.0-300 K. The clear diameter of variable temperature space is 39 mm. A 5 T solenoid generates magnetic field in the vertical axis and a 2 T split coil generates field in the horizontal axis. The magnets are made of niobium-titanium wire wound on a copper former. A PC controlled rotary drive is applied to rotate a sample holder around the vertical axis. Thus the measured sample can be exposed to the magnetic field in any desired direction. A helium gas gap heat switch is used as a controllable thermal link between the variable temperature space and the 2nd stage to avoid overheating of the magnet at high temperatures of the sample. The system design, manufacturing and test results are presented.

  16. Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas rhizosphaerae IH5T (=DSM 16299T), a phosphate-solubilizing rhizobacterium for bacterial biofertilizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Yunyoung; Jung, Byung Kwon; Shin, Jae-Ho

    2015-01-10

    Pseudomonas rhizosphaerae IH5(T) (=DSM 16299(T)), isolated from the rhizospheric soil of grass growing in Spain, has been reported as a novel species of the genus Pseudomonas harboring insoluble phosphorus solubilizing activity. To understanding the multifunctional biofertilizer better, we report the complete genome sequence of P. rhizosphaerae IH5(T). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Functional properties of protein from frozen mantle and fin of jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas in function of pH and ionic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha-Estrada, J G; Córdova-Murueta, J H; García-Carreño, F L

    2010-10-01

    Functional properties of protein from mantle and fin of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas were explained based on microscopic muscle fiber and protein fractions profiles as observed in SDS-PAGE. Fin has higher content of connective tissue and complex fiber arrangement, and we observed higher hardness of fin gels as expected. Myosin heavy chain (MHC) was found in sarcoplasmic, myofibril and soluble-in-alkali fractions of mantle and only in sarcoplasmic and soluble-in-alkali fractions of fin. An additive effect of salt concentration and pH affected the solubility and foaming properties. Fin and mantle proteins yielded similar results in solubility tests, but significant differences occurred for specific pH and concentrations of salt. Foaming capacity was proportional to solubility; foam stability was also affected by pH and salt concentration. Hardness and fracture strength of fin gels were significantly higher than mantle gels; gels from proteins of both tissues reached the highest level in the folding test. Structural and molecular properties, such as MHC and paramyosin solubility, arrangement of muscle fibers and the content of connective tissue were useful to explain the differences observed in these protein properties. High-strength gels can be formed from squid mantle or fin muscle. Fin displayed similar or better properties than mantle in all tests.

  18. Orbit determination for CE5T based upon GPS data%CE5T 星载 GPS 数据的定轨分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹建峰; 张宇; 胡松杰; 唐歌实; 李勰

    2016-01-01

    嫦娥五号飞行试验器搭载星载多模接收机,验证星载接收机接收导航星旁瓣信号的能力,首次实现了利用旁瓣信号对大椭圆轨道航天器的导航定位。理论分析了导航星旁瓣信号接收的可行性,基于嫦娥五号飞行试验器轨道特性研究了接收机接收信号功率及可视导航星数目与地心距变化的关系,并给出了理论几何定位因子。分析表明,接收机灵敏度达到-160 dBm 条件下,可具备6×104 km 以下高度的定位能力。对获取的导航解数据及伪距进行了处理分析,利用导航解进行定轨计算,导航解的噪声水平优于10 m。利用差分伪距数据进行定轨计算,残差噪声约为8.5 m,使用1 h 数据可以实现定轨预报1 h 优于百米的精度,达到地基数据长弧条件下定轨预报精度水平。%With a multiple-mode receiver onboard,Chang’e-5 test vehicle (CE5T)was tested on its ability to receive the side-lobe weak signal of global navigation satellite system (GNSS)satellites.Results show that the on board receiver can receive the signal,and its navigation and positioning for the large elliptical orbit phase using the GNSS satellite side-lobe signal are achieved.The possibility of receiving the side lobe signal of naviga-tion satellites is analyzed theoretically;the received signal power and the number of satellites available in rela-tion to the geocentric distance are studied,and the position dilution of precision is also provided.The results in-dicate that the positioning ability can be achieved for orbits with geocentric distance less than 60 000 km,and the sensitivity of the receiver is better than -160 dBm.Additionally,both the navigation solution and pseudo-ran-ging are processed and analyzed,and the former is also employed to calculate the orbit.The noise level of the naviga-tion solution is better than 10 m.Using differential pseudo-ranging,the noise level is approximately 8.5 m.One hour

  19. The data processing and analysis for the CE-5T1 GNSS experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huicui; Cao, Jianfeng; Cheng, Xiao; Peng, Jing; Tang, Geshi

    2017-02-01

    In this paper the performance of a high sensitivity GPS/GLONASS receiver mounted on CE-5T1 Service Module is studied and the data received on the first Earth-lunar transfer orbit is processed and analyzed. At least four GLONASS satellites are visible for 46% of the data span while for 98% of the data span at least four GPS satellites are visible. GLONASS serves as a necessary supplement to GPS in real time positioning whenever less than four GPS satellites are tracked, and helps to optimize the observation geometry by reducing the Position Dilution of Precision (PDOP) values by up to 77%. However, noisier GLONASS pseudorange data should be properly weighted in order not to deteriorate the positioning accuracy. Studies indicate that when the inverse square of the pseudorange measurement error of each satellite is applied as the weight value, single point positioning (SPP) accuracy improves from 57.7 m (RMS) with GPS data alone to 44.6 m (RMS) with the addition of GLONASS data. Transmitter antenna Equivalent Isotropic Radiated Power (EIRP)s of all the four blocks of GPS satellites as well as GLONASS satellites are derived from the received C/N0 data and show significant variance in sidelobe power patterns. In general, the EIRP patterns of GPS Block IIR-M and GLONASS satellite antennas have a comparatively flat power level of around 10 dB W within the off-boresight angle range of 30-80° and roll off at the off-boresight angle of about 80°, offering deep space applications greater benefits than the other three blocks of GPS satellites. In addition, an interesting close encounter happens between CE-5T1 spacecraft and GLONASS satellite R06. Investigations indicate that the PDOP value increases up to 1.4 times and the SPP accuracy deteriorates by more than 142% if satellite R06 is excluded in the positioning computation.

  20. Quantitation of glutamate in the brain by using MR proton spectroscopy at 1.5 T and 3 T; Quantitative Bestimmung von Glutamat im Hirn mithilfe der MR-Protonenspektroskopie bei 1,5 T und 3 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussew, A.; Rzanny, R.; Reichenbach, J.R. [AG Medizinische Physik, Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Friedrich Schiller Univ. Jena (Germany); Scholle, H.C. [Funktionsbereich Motorik, Pathophysiologie und Biomechanik, Klinik fuer Unfall-, Hand- und Wiederherstellungschirurgie, Friedrich Schiller Univ. Jena (Germany); Kaiser, W.A. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Friedrich Schiller Univ Jena (Germany)

    2008-08-15

    Purpose: the influence of different magnetic field strengths on the quantification of glutamate was experimentally investigated by means of in vitro and in vivo {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopic measurements at 1.5 T and 3 T. Materials and methods: in vitro {sup 1}H-MR measurements of aqueous solutions of NAA, glutamate, glutamine and GABA were performed on two clinical MR scanners at 1.5 T and 3 T using a single voxel PRESS sequence (TR/TE = 10000/30 ms). In vitro brain measurements were also performed at both field strengths using a PRESS 2D-{sup 1}H-CSI-sequence (TR/TE = 5000/30 ms) in 6 volunteers. Spectra at 1.5 T and 3 T were compared with respect to the overlap of the single compound spectra and the deviations between estimated and nominally adjusted concentrations. In vivo spectra at both field strengths were compared with respect to SNR{sub Glu}, line width and Cramer-Rao values of the estimated glutamate intensities by using the LCModel. For the thalamus, insular and parietal cortex mean Glu/tCr ratios were estimated and compared between 1.5 T and 3 T as well as with corresponding values in the literature. Results: in general, an improved separation of signal maxima was observed in the in vitro spectra at 3 T. Except for GABA, all in vitro concentrations estimated at 3 T revealed lower deviations from their adjusted nominal concentration compared to 1.5 T: NAA (1.5 T: -5.5%, 3 T: 0.7%), glutamate (1.5 T: -18.1%, 3 T: 12.3%), glutamine (1.5 T: 44.8%, 3 T: 9.2%), GABA (1.5 T: -24.8%, 3 T: 33.8%). The SNR of in vivo spectra at 3 T was nearly doubled compared to 1.5 T. The mean number of voxels with %SD{sub Glu} < 20 was distinctly lower at 1.5 T (53%) than at 3 T (80%). Estimated Glu/tCr ratios for thalamus, insular and parietal cortex lay in the upper range of the literature values. (orig.)

  1. Complex cystic renal masses: Comparison of cyst complexity and Bosniak classification between 1.5 T and 3 T MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenkrantz, Andrew B., E-mail: Andrew.Rosenkrantz@nyumc.org [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, 660 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Wehrli, Natasha E., E-mail: Natasha.Wehrli@nyumc.org [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, 660 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Mussi, Thais C., E-mail: thaiscaldara@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, 660 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Taneja, Samir S., E-mail: Samir.Taneja@nyumc.org [Department of Urology, Division of Urologic Oncology, NYU Langone Medical Center, 150 East 32nd Street, Suite 200, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Triolo, Michael J., E-mail: Michael.Triolo@nyumc.org [Department of Radiology, NYU Langone Medical Center, 660 First Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To retrospectively compare perceived complexity and Bosniak cyst classification of cystic renal lesions between 1.5 T and 3 T MRI. Methods: 33 cystic renal lesions in 26 patients that underwent contrast-enhanced MRI at both 1.5 T and 3 T within a 12 month span were included. Two radiologists (R1, R2) independently assessed lesions, unaware of field strength, in terms of number of septations, septal thickening, mural thickening, presence of mural nodule, and Bosniak cyst category. Scores were compared between field strengths for each lesion. Results: R1 observed increases in septal number, septal thickening, mural thickening, and presence of mural nodule at 3 T in 8, 7, 4, and 2 lesions, and at 1.5 T in 3, 3, 2, and 0 lesions, respectively; R2 observed increases in septal number, septal thickening, mural thickening, and presence of mural nodule at 3 T in 3, 4, 3, and 0 lesions, and at 1.5 T in 2, 0, 0, and 0 lesions, respectively. R1 provided higher Bosniak category at 3 T in 9 cases and at 1.5 T in 4 cases; R2 provided higher Bosniak category at 3 T in 4 cases and at 1.5 T in 0 cases. Higher scores at 3 T than 1.5 T were associated with differences in advised clinical management in 7/9 cases for R1 and 4/4 cases for R2. Conclusion: There was an overall tendency for both readers to upgrade cyst complexity and Bosniak cyst category at 3 T than 1.5 T, which impacted advised management. Thus, we suggest that serial MRI evaluation of cystic renal lesions be performed at constant field strength.

  2. CHANG'E-5T1 extended mission: The first lunar libration point flight via a lunar swing-by

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Li, Ji-sheng

    2016-08-01

    This paper introduces the extended mission of the Chinese circumlunar return and reentry test (i.e., the CHANG'E-5T1 mission), the first Chinese flight in the Earth-Moon libration orbit and the first spacecraft to reach the Earth-Moon libration orbit via a lunar swing-by. The extended mission utilized the remaining propellant from the CHANG'E-5T1 mission. Based on the normal trajectory and satellite state at the end of the CHANG'E-5T1 mission, a lunar return and a flight in the lunar libration orbit were determined to be the flight goals of the extended mission. Two schemes were then proposed for the CHANG'E-5T1 extended mission, including a possible Earth-Moon libration orbit. The methodology for the trajectory design and maneuvering included the direct libration-point orbit transfer and injection method, which is characterized by a reduced calculation burden compared with the prevalent invariant manifold method. The scenarios were compared in terms of flight time, control energy and number of maneuvers, flight distance, and achieved flight goals. The comparison indicated that the scheme, including the Earth-Moon L2 point and return to the Moon, was preferred for the CHANG'E-5T1 extended mission. Furthermore, the actual flight parameters of the CHANG'E-5T1 extended mission are also presented to validate the selected scheme.

  3. Comparison of MR sequences in early cerebral infarction at 0.5 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saatci, I.; Baskan, O.; Cekirge, H.S.; Besim, A. [Hacettepe Univ. Hospital, Ankara (Turkey). Radiology Dept.

    2000-11-01

    To compare the diagnostic values of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and gradient spin-echo (GRASE) with those of conventional spin-echo (SE) and fast SE T2-weighted sequences in the evaluation of acute cerebrovascular lesions at 0.5 T. Material and Methods: Twenty-two consecutive patients with the clinical diagnosis of acute cerebrovascular accident were examined by MR imaging within the first 48 h of ictus. MR examination included 5-mm axial conventional SE and turbo SE (TSE) T2-weighted, dual-echo GRASE and FLAIR sequences. The patients also had pre- and postcontrast T1-weighted axial images. Two examiners evaluated the images and scored the conspicuity of the acute lesions. Results: Regardless of location, FLAIR provided the best lesion conspicuity in the detection of acute infarcts, followed by the GRASE sequence. In the posterior fossa, TSE and SE demonstrated the lesions better than GRASE and FLAIR techniques. In the detection of hemorrhagic elements within the ischemic region, TSE demonstrated statistically significant superiority over other sequences. Conclusion: In the detection of acute ischemic lesions in locations other than the posterior fossa, FLAIR provided the best lesion conspicuity among four T2-weighted sequences, including SE, TSE, GRASE and FLAIR. However, for the posterior fossa examination, preference of SE or TSE T2-weighted sequences is suggested.

  4. Effects of 1.5 T magnetic fields on cell cultures of macrophages and amniocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, C. [IBILI-Biomedical Institute for Research on Light and Image, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, Celas 3000-354 Coimbra (Portugal); Pinto, M. [Laboratorio Citogenetica, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, Celas 3000-354 Coimbra (Portugal); Caramelo, F. [IBILI-Biomedical Institute for Research on Light and Image, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, Celas 3000-354 Coimbra (Portugal); Pinto, A. [Servico de Imagiologia, Hospitais da Universidade de Coimbra, Av. Bissaya Barreto, 3000 Coimbra (Portugal); Pires, D.; Fernandes, H.; Duarte, I; Amaro, J.; Caldas, J.; Medeiros, J.; Inacio, R.; Lavrador, R.; Almeida, T. [Faculty of Science and Technology, University of Coimbra, Rua Larga da Universidade, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Caseiro-Alves, F. [Servico de Imagiologia, Hospitais da Universidade de Coimbra, Av. Bissaya Barreto, 3000 Coimbra (Portugal); Carreira, I [Laboratorio Citogenetica, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, Celas 3000-354 Coimbra (Portugal); Botelho, M.F. [IBILI-Biomedical Institute for Research on Light and Image, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, Celas 3000-354 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2009-05-15

    Magnetic resonance is frequently used to obtain medical images for diagnosis. To perform these exams high magnetic fields are applied, implying at least circa 10000 times the value of the Earth basal field (0.00003 to 0.00007 T). In our experimental study we used two different adherent types of cells (rat peritoneal macrophages and human amniocytes), cultured in standard conditions (37 C, 5% CO2) with adequate media in 6 wells plates. Three groups for each type of cell were established: control, head and body coil, being the irradiation performed with a MR System MAGNETON 1.5 T (University Hospital of Coimbra). Macrophages' cytotoxicity and viability were tested with the MTT1 assay 0, 12, 36, 60 and 84 hours post-irradiation, amniocytes viability and chromosome alteration were studied 3, 13, 37, 109, 205 hours post-irradiation. Irradiated macrophages presented slightly less viability and adhesion features compared to control, although no differences between the head and body coil were found. Amniocytes showed no significant differences amongst them. (author)

  5. Basic Study of Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging at 1.5T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasai,Nobuya

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of sequence optimization in susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI, 2 image acquisition parameters (slice thickness and matrix size and 2 image processing conditions (number of slices per minimum intensity projection (MIP and Sliding Window were investigated using a 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI system. The subjects were 12 healthy volunteers and the target region for scanning was the whole brain. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects. First, susceptibility-weighted images were acquired with various slice thicknesses from 1mm to 5mm and various matrix sizes from 256x256 to 512x512, and the images were assessed in terms of the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR and were also visually evaluated by three radiologists. Then, the number of slices per MIP and the usefulness of the Sliding Window were investigated. In the study of the optimal slice thickness and matrix size, the results of visual evaluation suggested that a slice thickness of 3mm and a matrix size of 448x448 are optimal, while the results of evaluation based on CNR were not significant. As regards the image processing conditions, the results suggested that the number of slices per MIP should be set to a minimum value of 2 and that the use of Sliding Window is effective. The present study provides useful reference data for optimizing SWI sequences.

  6. Localization of pancreatic insulinomas with MR imaging at 0.5 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, C.; Pavone, P.; Laghi, A.; Panebianco, V.; Fraioli, F.; Pediconi, F.; Napoli, A.; Passariello, R. [Dept. of Radiology, 2 Chair, Univ. of Rome La Sapienza (Italy)

    1999-11-01

    Objective: To determine the role of MR imaging in the localization of pancreatic insulinomas in patients with clinical and laboratory diagnosis of insulin-producing tumor. Material and Methods: Thirty-one patients presenting with signs and symptoms of pancreatic insulinomas were prospectively included in our study. Twenty-six patients underwent surgery, and pathologic specimens were examined: 5 patients, in whom the initial diagnosis of insulinoma was excluded, were also studied and then followed up. All patients were studied with a high gradient power 0.5 T magnet. Images were evaluated by 2 radiologists blinded to previous investigations, tests and results. Results: MR imaging correctly localized 24 of the 26 insulinomas (2 were false-negative and 1 false-positive) and was correctly negative in the 5 control patients. The interobserver agreement had a kappa value of 0.89. Conclusion: MR imaging was accurate in localizing pancreatic insulinomas and as a consequence, patients in our institution are now submitted to surgery directly after the MR examination. Invasive methods are considered only in cases in which, despite clear biochemical results, MR imaging has not demonstrated a pancreatic focal lesion. (orig.)

  7. A comparison of fishery biology of jumbo flying squid, Dosidicus gigas outside three Exclusive Economic Zones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bilin; Chen, Xinjun; Yi, Qian

    2013-05-01

    Although many studies on the fishery biology of jumbo flying squid, Dosidicus gigas, have been conducted in the coastal areas within Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) of various countries due to its commercial and ecological importance, limited biological information is available from waters outside these EEZs. In this paper, we examined D. gigas fishery biology from waters outside Chilean, Peruvian and Costa Rican EEZs, based on the fishery data collected by Chinese jigging vessels during 2006 to 2010. The dominant mantle lengths of D. gigas were 350-450 mm, 250-400 mm and 250-350 mm outside Chilean, Peruvian and Costa Rican EEZs, respectively. Size structure analysis show that a medium-sized group existed mostly in the waters outside the Chilean and Peruvian EEZs, whereas a small-sized group occurred mainly in the waters outside the Costa Rican EEZ. The longevity of the squid outside the Costa Rican EEZ was less than 10 months, while most of those outside Chilean and Peruvian EEZs were about 1-1.5 years and very few large individuals were 1.5-2 years old. A higher percentage of mature individuals existed outside Costa Rican EEZ implying the region as a potential spawning ground, while lower proportions of mature squid outside the Peruvian and Chilean EEZs indicated that spawning may be occurring outside our study area. Spatial differences in sizes at maturity of the squid are thought to be result from different environmental factors especially different temperature and nutrition among the three areas. Stomach-content analysis showed that cannibalism was important in the diet of D. gigas. Stress generated by jigging may increase the incidence of cannibalism.

  8. A comparison of fishery biology of jumbo flying squid,Dosidicus gigas outside three Exclusive Economic Zones in the Eastern Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bilin; CHEN Xinjun; YI Qian

    2013-01-01

    Although many studies on the fishery biology of jumbo flying squid,Dosidicus gigas,have been conducted in the coastal areas within Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) of various countries due to its commercial and ecological importance,limited biological information is available from waters outside these EEZs.In this paper,we examined D.gigas fishery biology from waters outside Chilean,Peruvian and Costa Rican EEZs,based on the fishery data collected by Chinese jigging vessels during 2006 to 2010.The dominant mantle lengths of D.gigas were 350-450 mm,250-400 mm and 250-350 mm outside Chilean,Peruvian and Costa Rican EEZs,respectively.Size structure analysis show that a medium-sized group existed mostly in the waters outside the Chilean and Peruvian EEZs,whereas a small-sized group occurred mainly in the waters outside the Costa Rican EEZ.The longevity of the squid outside the Costa Rican EEZ was less than 10 months,while most of those outside Chilean and Peruvian EEZs were about 1-1.5 years and very few large individuals were 1.5-2 years old.A higher percentage of mature individuals existed outside Costa Rican EEZ implying the region as a potential spawning ground,while lower proportions of mature squid outside the Peruvian and Chilean EEZs indicated that spawning may be occurring outside our study area.Spatial differences in sizes at maturity of the squid are thought to be result from different environmental factors especially different temperature and nutrition among the three areas.Stomach-content analysis showed that cannibalism was important in the diet of D.gigas.Stress generated by jigging may increase the incidence of cannibalism.

  9. Biases in determining the diet of jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (D' Orbigny 1835) (Cephalopoda: Ommastrephidae) off southern-central Chile (34°S-40°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez, Christian M.; Arancibia, Hugo; Cubillos, Luis A.

    2008-12-01

    The diet of jumbo squid ( Dosidicus gigas) off southern-central Chile is described to examine potential biases in the determination of their main prey. Specimens were collected from catches using different fishing gear (jigging, trawl and purse-seine), from July 2003 to January 2004, and from December 2005 to October 2006. The stomach contents were analyzed in terms of frequency of occurrence, number, and weight of prey items and the diet composition was analyzed using Detrended Correspondence Analysis. In the industrial purse-seine fleet for jack mackerel ( Trachurus murphyi), the dominant prey of D. gigas was T. murphyi. In the industrial mid-trawl fishery for Patagonian grenadier ( Macruronus magellanicus), the dominant species in the diet of D. gigas was M. magellanicus. Similarly, Chilean hake ( Merluccius gayi) was the main prey in the diet of D. gigas obtained in the industrial trawl fishery for Chilean hake; and, in both artisanal fisheries (purse-seine for small pelagics and jigging), small pelagic fish and D. gigas were the main prey in the stomach contents of D. gigas. Cannibalism in D. gigas varied between different fleets and probably is related to stress behavior during fishing. The Detrended Correspondence Analysis ordination showed that the main prey in the diet of D. gigas is associated with the target species of the respective fishery. Consequently, biases are associated with fishing gear, leading to an overestimate in the occurrence of the target species in the diet. We recommend analyzing samples from jigging taken at the same time and place where the trawl and purse-seine fleets are operating to avoid this problem, and the application of new tools like stable isotope, heavy metal, and fatty acid signature analyses.

  10. High-quality draft genome sequence of Flavobacterium suncheonense GH29-5(T) (DSM 17707(T)) isolated from greenhouse soil in South Korea, and emended description of Flavobacterium suncheonense GH29-5(T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashkandy, Nisreen; Sabban, Sari; Fakieh, Mohammad; Meier-Kolthoff, Jan P; Huang, Sixing; Tindall, Brian J; Rohde, Manfred; Baeshen, Mohammed N; Baeshen, Nabih A; Lapidus, Alla; Copeland, Alex; Pillay, Manoj; Reddy, T B K; Huntemann, Marcel; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia; Markowitz, Victor; Woyke, Tanja; Göker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Hahnke, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    Flavobacterium suncheonense is a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae in the phylum Bacteroidetes. Strain GH29-5(T) (DSM 17707(T)) was isolated from greenhouse soil in Suncheon, South Korea. F. suncheonense GH29-5(T) is part of the G enomic E ncyclopedia of B acteria and A rchaea project. The 2,880,663 bp long draft genome consists of 54 scaffolds with 2739 protein-coding genes and 82 RNA genes. The genome of strain GH29-5(T) has 117 genes encoding peptidases but a small number of genes encoding carbohydrate active enzymes (51 CAZymes). Metallo and serine peptidases were found most frequently. Among CAZymes, eight glycoside hydrolase families, nine glycosyl transferase families, two carbohydrate binding module families and four carbohydrate esterase families were identified. Suprisingly, polysaccharides utilization loci (PULs) were not found in strain GH29-5(T). Based on the coherent physiological and genomic characteristics we suggest that F. suncheonense GH29-5(T) feeds rather on proteins than saccharides and lipids.

  11. Vaccination with live attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus causes dynamic changes in intestinal CD4+CCR5+ T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsley William

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination with live attenuated SIV can protect against detectable infection with wild-type virus. We have investigated whether target cell depletion contributes to the protection observed. Following vaccination with live attenuated SIV the frequency of intestinal CD4+CCR5+ T cells, an early target of wild-type SIV infection and destruction, was determined at days 3, 7, 10, 21 and 125 post inoculation. Results In naive controls, modest frequencies of intestinal CD4+CCR5+ T cells were predominantly found within the LPL TTrM-1 and IEL TTrM-2 subsets. At day 3, LPL and IEL CD4+CCR5+ TEM cells were dramatically increased whilst less differentiated subsets were greatly reduced, consistent with activation-induced maturation. CCR5 expression remained high at day 7, although there was a shift in subset balance from CD4+CCR5+ TEM to less differentiated TTrM-2 cells. This increase in intestinal CD4+CCR5+ T cells preceded the peak of SIV RNA plasma loads measured at day 10. Greater than 65.9% depletion of intestinal CD4+CCR5+ T cells followed at day 10, but overall CD4+ T cell homeostasis was maintained by increased CD4+CCR5- T cells. At days 21 and 125, high numbers of intestinal CD4+CCR5- naive TN cells were detected concurrent with greatly increased CD4+CCR5+ LPL TTrM-2 and IEL TEM cells at day 125, yet SIV RNA plasma loads remained low. Conclusions This increase in intestinal CD4+CCR5+ T cells, following vaccination with live attenuated SIV, does not correlate with target cell depletion as a mechanism of protection. Instead, increased intestinal CD4+CCR5+ T cells may correlate with or contribute to the protection conferred by vaccination with live attenuated SIV.

  12. Trophoblast Glycoprotein (TPGB/5T4) in Human Placenta: Expression, Regulation, and Presence in Extracellular Microvesicles and Exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, S M K; Jasti, S; Kshirsagar, S K; Tannetta, D S; Dragovic, R A; Redman, C W; Sargent, I L; Hodes, H C; Nauser, T L; Fortes, T; Filler, A M; Behan, K; Martin, D R; Fields, T A; Petroff, B K; Petroff, M G

    2017-01-01

    Many parallels exist between growth and development of the placenta and that of cancer. One parallel is shared expression of antigens that may have functional importance and may be recognized by the immune system. Here, we characterize expression and regulation of one such antigen, Trophoblast glycoprotein (TPGB; also called 5T4), in the placenta across gestation, in placentas of preeclamptic (PE) pregnancies, and in purified microvesicles and exosomes. Trophoblast glycoprotein expression was analyzed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Regulation of 5T4 in cytotrophoblast cells was examined under either differentiating conditions of epidermal growth factor or under varying oxygen conditions. Microvesicles and exosomes were purified from supernatant of cultured and perfused placentas. Trophoblast glycoprotein expression was prominent at the microvillus surface of syncytiotrophoblast and on the extravillous trophoblast cells, with minimal expression in undifferentiated cytotrophoblasts and normal tissues. Trophoblast glycoprotein expression was elevated in malignant tumors. In cytotrophoblasts, 5T4 was induced by in vitro differentiation, and its messenger RNA (mRNA) was increased under conditions of low oxygen. PE placentas expressed higher 5T4 mRNA than matched control placentas. Trophoblast glycoprotein was prominent within shed placental microvesicles and exosomes. Given the potential functional and known immunological importance of 5T4 in cancer, these studies reveal a class of proteins that may influence placental development and/or sensitize the maternal immune system. In extravillous trophoblasts, 5T4 may function in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition during placentation. The role of syncytiotrophoblast 5T4 is unknown, but its abundance in shed syncytial vesicles may signify route of sensitization of the maternal immune system.

  13. Post-mortem 1.5T MR quantification of regular anatomical brain structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, Wolf-Dieter; Hottinger, Anna-Lena; Schwendener, Nicole; Schuster, Frederick; Persson, Anders; Warntjes, Marcel J; Jackowski, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Recently, post-mortem MR quantification has been introduced to the field of post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging. By usage of a particular MR quantification sequence, T1 and T2 relaxation times and proton density (PD) of tissues and organs can be quantified simultaneously. The aim of the present basic research study was to assess the quantitative T1, T2, and PD values of regular anatomical brain structures for a 1.5T application and to correlate the assessed values with corpse temperatures. In a prospective study, 30 forensic cases were MR-scanned with a quantification sequence prior to autopsy. Body temperature was assessed during MR scans. In synthetically calculated T1, T2, and PD-weighted images, quantitative T1, T2 (both in ms) and PD (in %) values of anatomical structures of cerebrum (Group 1: frontal gray matter, frontal white matter, thalamus, internal capsule, caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus) and brainstem/cerebellum (Group 2: cerebral crus, substantia nigra, red nucleus, pons, cerebellar hemisphere, and superior cerebellar peduncle) were assessed. The investigated brain structures of cerebrum and brainstem/cerebellum could be characterized and differentiated based on a combination of their quantitative T1, T2, and PD values. MANOVA testing verified significant differences between the investigated anatomical brain structures among each other in Group 1 and Group 2 based on their quantitative values. Temperature dependence was observed mainly for T1 values, which were slightly increasing with rising temperature in the investigated brain structures in both groups. The results provide a base for future computer-aided diagnosis of brain pathologies and lesions in post-mortem magnetic resonance imaging.

  14. MR imaging of the chest: A practical approach at 1.5 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puderbach, M. [DKFZ, Department of Radiology (E010), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: m.puderbach@dkfz.de; Hintze, C. [DKFZ, Department of Radiology (E010), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Ley, S. [DKFZ, Department of Radiology (E010), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); University Heidelberg, Department of Pediatric Radiology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 153, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Eichinger, M.; Kauczor, H.-U. [DKFZ, Department of Radiology (E010), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Biederer, J. [University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Arnold-Heller-Str. 9, 24105 Kiel (Germany)

    2007-12-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is capable of imaging infiltrative lung diseases as well as solid lung pathologies with high sensitivity. The broad use of lung MRI was limited by the long study time as well as its sensitivity to motion and susceptibility artifacts. These disadvantages were overcome by the utilisation of new techniques such as parallel imaging. This article aims to propose a standard MR imaging protocol at 1.5 T and presents a spectrum of indications. The standard protocol comprises non-contrast-enhanced sequences. Following a GRE localizer (2D-FLASH), a coronal T2w single-shot half-Fourier TSE (HASTE) sequence with a high sensitivity for infiltrates and a transversal T1w 3D-GRE (VIBE) sequence with a high sensitivity for small lesions are acquired in a single breath hold. Afterwards, a coronal steady-state free precession sequence (TrueFISP) in free breathing is obtained. This sequence has a high sensitivity for central pulmonary embolism. Distinct cardiac dysfunctions as well as an impairment of the breathing mechanism are visible. The last step of the basic protocol is a transversal T2w-STIR (T2-TIRM) in a multi-breath holds technique to visualize enlarged lymph nodes as well as skeletal lesions. The in-room time is approximately 15 min. The extended protocol comprises contrast-enhanced sequences (3D-GRE sequence (VIBE) after contrast media; about five additional minutes). Indications are tumorous lesions, unclear (malignant) pleural effusions and inflammatory diseases (vaskulitis). A perfusion analysis can be achieved using a 3D-GRE in shared echo-technique (TREAT) with a high temporal resolution. This protocol can be completed using a MR-angiography (3D-FLASH) with high spatial resolution. The in-room time for the complete protocol is approximately 30 min.

  15. EU Directive 2004/40: field measurements of a 1.5 T clinical MR scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riches, S F; Collins, D J; Scuffham, J W; Leach, M O

    2007-06-01

    The European Union (EU) Physical Agents (EMF) Directive [1] must be incorporated into UK law in 2008. The directive, which applies to employees working in MRI, sets legal exposure limits for two of the three types of EMF exposure employed in MRI; time-varying gradient fields and radiofrequency (RF) fields. Limits on the static field are currently not included but may be added at a later date. Conservative action values have been set for all three types of exposure including the static field. The absolute exposure limits will exclude staff from the scanner bore and adjacent areas during scanning, impacting on many clinical activities such as anaesthetic monitoring during sedated scans, paediatric scanning and interventional MRI. When the legislation comes into force, NHS Trusts, scanner companies and academic institutions will be required to show compliance with the law. We present results of initial measurements performed on a 1.5 T clinical MRI scanner. For the static field, the proposed action value is exceeded at 40 cm from the scanner bore and would be exceeded when positioning a patient for scanning. For the RF field, the action values were only exceeded within the bore at distances of 40 cm from the scanner ends during a very RF intensive sequence; MRI employees are unlikely to be in the bore during an acquisition. For the time-varying gradient fields the action values were exceeded 52 cm out from the mouth of the bore during two clinical sequences, and estimated current densities show the exposure limit to be exceeded at 40 cm for frequencies above 333 Hz. Limiting employees to distances greater than these from the scanner during acquisition will have a severe impact on the future use and development of MRI.

  16. Moessbauer and magnetic studies of the system Li{sub 0.35+0.5t} Zn{sub 03}Ti{sub t}Fe{sub 2.35-1.5t}O{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phanjoubam, Sumitra, E-mail: sumitra4@rediffmail.com [Manipur University, Department of Physics (India); Prakash, Chandra [DRDO Bhawan, Directorate of ER and IPR (India)

    2009-01-15

    Moessbauer and magnetic investigations were carried out on a series of Li-Zn-Ti ferrites with compositional formula Li{sub 035+0.5t} Zn{sub 03}Ti{sub t}Fe{sub 2.35-1.5t}O{sub 4}. Moessbauer spectra were taken at room temperature and analysed to yield information on hyperfine properties like isomer shift, quadrupole splitting and nuclear magnetic fields. Magnetic properties like Curie temperature and saturation magnetization have also been studied. The magnetic properties were observed to fall with increased values of 't'. The results obtained and the mechanisms involved are discussed.

  17. Optimization of brain MRA withcontrast injection in 1.5 T field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Qenaati

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Selection of suitable parameters for brain MRA requires accurate measures, because the image quality depends on the location of arteries, veins and also the velocity differences of blood, taking into account the low blood flow in small veins and arteries, use of paramagnetic contrast media is recommended. Hence, in present study, we investigated the imaging optimization of brain vessels using contrast media in 1.5 T field.Materials and Methods: For image optimization blood T1 was estimated after the injection of 0.1mmol/kg of Gd-DTPA and the relative blood signals were measured at T1=300, 600, 900 and 1200ms using TR=20ms and TE=7ms parameters. Ernest angle and relative signal increased as the T1 decreased. MRA was obtained in three groups, each including five volunteer patients using parameters TR=20ms, TE=7ms and flip angle 10, 20 & 30 degrees in two series without and during contrast injection.Signals of carotid, M.C.A and thorcolar herofili and SD in air were measured and it was shown that in 20 degrees flip angle, C/N was maximum.At the last stage, three series of MRA, without, during c.i and 15 minutes after c.i where obtained in 20 volunteer patients using parameters TR=20ms, TE=7ms and flip angle 20 degrees and calculated C/N .Results: After statistical analysis the highest C/N was observed during c.i MRA. Paired t-student test was performed to compare the differences between the C/N ratios. For clinical purposes one vein and two arterles were graded in 5 definite levels.Conclusion: Results indicated an important effect of paramagnetic contrast media on better observing of small arteries and vein. The best quality was taken during c.i, but in some arteries contrast media did not improve the quality of MRA.

  18. MR imaging of the brachial plexus: comparison between 1.5-T and 3-T MR imaging: preliminary experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagliafico, Alberto; Neumaier, Carlo Emanuele; Calabrese, Massimo [National Institute for Cancer Research, Department of Radiology, Genova (Italy); Succio, Giulia; Serafini, Giovanni; Ghidara, Matteo [Santa Corona Hospital, Radiology Department, Savona (Italy); Martinoli, Carlo [Universita di Genova, Radiology Department, Genova (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    To compare 1.5-T and 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brachial plexus. Institutional review board approval and informed consent were obtained from 30 healthy volunteers and 30 consecutive patients with brachial plexus disturbances. MR was prospectively performed with comparable sequence parameters and coils with a 1.5-T and a 3-T system. Imaging protocols at both field strengths included T1-weighted turbo spin-echo (tSE) sequences and T2-weighed turbo spin-echo (tSE) sequences with fat saturation. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) between muscle and nerve were calculated for both field strengths. The visibility of brachial plexus nerve at various anatomic levels (roots, interscalene area, costoclavicular space, and axillary level) was analyzed with a four-point grading scale by two radiologists. MR imaging diagnoses and pathological findings were also compared qualitatively. SNR and CNRs were significantly higher on 3-T MR images than on 1.5-T MR images (Friedman test) for all sequences. Nerve visibility was significantly better on 3-T MR images than on 1.5-T MR images (paired sign test). Pathological findings (n = 30/30) were seen equally well with both field strengths. MR imaging diagnoses did not differ for the 1.5- and 3-T protocols. High-quality MR images of the brachial plexus can be obtained with 3-T MR imaging by using sequences similar to those used at 1.5-T MR imaging. In patients and healthy volunteers, the visibility of nerve trunks and cords at 3-T MR imaging appears to be superior to that at 1.5-T MR imaging. (orig.)

  19. 26 CFR 1.905-5T - Foreign tax redeterminations and currency translation rules for foreign tax redeterminations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Foreign tax redeterminations and currency... States § 1.905-5T Foreign tax redeterminations and currency translation rules for foreign tax... paid in foreign currency that are paid by or on behalf of a taxpayer or deemed paid under section...

  20. Comparative study of electrochemical oxidation of herbicide 2,4,5-T: Kinetics, parametric optimization and mineralization pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Zazou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative degradation of herbicide 2,4,5-T was studied by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes anodic oxidation and electro-Fenton (EF using Pt/carbon felt and BDD/carbon felt cells. The effect of main operating parameters on oxidation of 2,4,5-T and mineralization of its aqueous solution were investigated. The rate constant for oxidation of 2,4,5-T by ·≡OH was determined as (3.7 ± 0.2 × 109 M−1 s−1 using competition kinetics method. The EF process with BDD anode was shown to be very efficient reaching 94% mineralization in 3 h treatment. Based on identified aromatic intermediates, short-chain carboxylic acids, released inorganic ions and total organic carbon removal measurements, a plausible oxidation pathway for mineralization of 2,4,5-T by hydroxyl radical was proposed. In addition, the evolution of solution toxicity during treatment was monitored by Microtox method showing the formation of toxic aromatic/cyclic intermediates. The results showed also that EF process was able to remove efficiently toxic intermediates and consequently solution toxicity.

  1. The last glacial maximum locations of summer-green tree refugia using simulations with ECHAM3 T42 uncoupled, ECHAM5 T31 coupled and ECHAM5 T106 uncoupled models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Arpe

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Model simulations of the last glacial maximum (21±2 ka with the ECHAM3 T42, ECHAM5 T31 coupled and ECHAM5 T106 uncoupled models are compared. The ECHAM5 T106 simulations were forced at the boundaries by results from the coupled ECHAM5-MPIOM atmosphere ocean model while the ECHAM3 T42 model was forced with prescribed sea surface temperatures (SSTs provided by Climate/Long-Range Investigation, Mapping Prediction project (CLIMAP. The topography, land-sea mask and glacier distribution for the ECHAM5 simulations were taken from the PMIP2 data set while for ECHAM3 they were taken from PMIP1.

    The ECHAM5 simulations were run with a variable SST in time simulated by the coupled model. These were also used for the T106 run but corrected for systematic errors. The SSTs in the ECHAM5-MPIOM simulations for the last glacial maximum (LGM were much warmer in the northern Atlantic than those suggested by CLIMAP or GLAMAP while they were cooler everywhere else. This had a clear effect on the temperatures over Europe, warmer for winters in Western Europe and cooler for Eastern Europe than the simulation with CLIMAP SSTs.

    Considerable differences in the general circulation patterns were found in the different simulations. A ridge over Western Europe for the present climate during winter in the 500 hPa height field remains in the ECHAM5 simulations for the LGM, more so in the T106 version, while the ECHAM3 CLIMAP simulation provided a trough. The zonal wind between 30° W and 10° E shows a southward shift of the polar and subtropical jet in the T106 simulation for the LGM and an extremely strong polar jet for the ECHAM3 CLIMAP. The latter can probably be assigned to the much stronger north-south gradient in the CLIMAP SSTs. The southward shift of the polar jet during LGM is supported by observation evidence.

    Cyclone tracks in winter represented by high precipitation are characterised over Europe for the present by a main branch from

  2. Evaluation of intracranial aneurysms with 7 T versus 1.5 T time-of-flight MR angiography. Initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moenninghoff, C.; Maderwald, S.; Theysohn, J.M.; Kraff, O.; Ladd, S.C.; Ladd, M.E.; Forsting, M.; Quick, H.H.; Wanke, I. [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie; Duisburg-Essen Univ. (Germany). Erwin-L.-Hahn Inst. fuer Magnetresonanz

    2009-01-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the depiction of intracranial aneurysms by 3D time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) at 7 Tesla (T) with the clinical standard TOF MRA at 1.5 T and with digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Materials and Methods: 7 T and 1.5 T TOF MRA images optimized for both field strengths were compared in ten patients with an unruptured intracranial aneurysm. Two blinded neuroradiologists independently rated the image quality of the dome, the neck, and the vessel of origin of all aneurysms in MRA source and maximum intensity projection (MIP) images. DSA was obtained in all subjects and served as reference standard. The mean values of image quality were compared by Wilcoxon signed rank test. In all patients the number and location of the aneurysms was confirmed by DSA. Results: Both readers identified twelve aneurysms in ten patients in 7 T, 1.5 T TOF MRA and DSA. The image quality of the aneurysm dome was rated higher in 8 of 12 aneurysms and the image quality of the aneurysm neck was superior in 9 of 12 aneurysms at 7 T TOF MRA compared to 1.5 T TOF MRA. The depiction of the parent vessel was graded almost equally by both readers. Conclusion: Our initial results indicate that image quality of intracranial aneurysms may benefit from the increased spatial resolution of 7 T TOF MRA compared with 1.5 T TOF MRA. Tailored scan protocols and optimized radiofrequency head coils are needed to further improve the image quality of 7 T TOF MRA. (orig.)

  3. Innovative Application of Needle-beam Full-circular Formwork Jumbos in Construction of Lining of Sub-sea Water-diversion Tunnel%针梁式全圆模板台车在海底引水隧洞工程衬砌施工中的创新应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈启伟; 王亚利; 张建

    2013-01-01

    Needle-beam full-circular formwork jumbos are used in the construction of the secondary lining of the intake tunnel of Taishan Nuclear Power Plant,so as to realize once-for-all and rapid construction of the full-circular concrete lining of the sub-sea water-diversion tunnel.In this paper,the method and procedure of the construction of the secondary lining are analyzed,the main structure and technical parameters of the formwork jumbos are presented,and the key construction technologies are described.Furthermore,three innovative points of the application of the formwork jumbos,including the construction arrangement and design inside and outside of the tunnel in the case of 3 formwork jumbos,the continuous construction of the lining by means of 3 formwork jumbos and the cautions for the continuous construction of the lining by 3 formwork jumbos,are summarized.%为了解决海底引水隧洞衬砌混凝土施工全圆一次成型和长距离隧洞衬砌施工短工期内快速完成等诸多问题,选用针梁式全圆模板台车对台山核电站取水隧洞工程进行二次衬砌施工.分析长大隧洞二次衬砌总体施工方法及流程,详细介绍模板台车的构造及主要技术参数,阐述模板台车关键施工工艺和技术.结合工程概况和工期要求,总结了以下3个创新应用结论:在3台模板台车连续跳板作业条件下,隧道内、外的施工布局和流程设计;3台模板台车一次性灌注整体模板连续跳板衬砌施工的工艺和方法;3台模板台车连续跳板流水线作业施工注意事项.

  4. Application of quantitative MRI for brain tissue segmentation at 1.5 T and 3.0 T field strengths.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne West

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brain tissue segmentation of white matter (WM, grey matter (GM, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF are important in neuroradiological applications. Quantitative Mri (qMRI allows segmentation based on physical tissue properties, and the dependencies on MR scanner settings are removed. Brain tissue groups into clusters in the three dimensional space formed by the qMRI parameters R1, R2 and PD, and partial volume voxels are intermediate in this space. The qMRI parameters, however, depend on the main magnetic field strength. Therefore, longitudinal studies can be seriously limited by system upgrades. The aim of this work was to apply one recently described brain tissue segmentation method, based on qMRI, at both 1.5 T and 3.0 T field strengths, and to investigate similarities and differences. METHODS: In vivo qMRI measurements were performed on 10 healthy subjects using both 1.5 T and 3.0 T MR scanners. The brain tissue segmentation method was applied for both 1.5 T and 3.0 T and volumes of WM, GM, CSF and brain parenchymal fraction (BPF were calculated on both field strengths. Repeatability was calculated for each scanner and a General Linear Model was used to examine the effect of field strength. Voxel-wise t-tests were also performed to evaluate regional differences. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found between 1.5 T and 3.0 T for WM, GM, CSF and BPF (p<0.001. Analyses of main effects showed that WM was underestimated, while GM and CSF were overestimated on 1.5 T compared to 3.0 T. The mean differences between 1.5 T and 3.0 T were -66 mL WM, 40 mL GM, 29 mL CSF and -1.99% BPF. Voxel-wise t-tests revealed regional differences of WM and GM in deep brain structures, cerebellum and brain stem. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the brain was identically classified at the two field strengths, although some regional differences were observed.

  5. MR diagnosis of bone metastases at 1.5 T and 3 T. Can STIR imaging be omitted?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlmann-Knafo, S.; Tarnoki, A.D.; Tarnoki, D.L.; Pickuth, D. [Caritasklinikum Saarbruecken St. Theresia (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology

    2015-10-15

    To date, no prospective comparative study of the diagnostic value of STIR versus T1-weighted (T1w) sequences at both 1.5 T and 3 T has been performed with special focus on the detectability of bone metastases. 212 oncological patients had a whole-body MRI at 1.5 T and/or at 3 T. The standard protocol comprised STIR and T1w sequences. All patients who showed typical signs of bone metastases were included in the study. Evaluation of the images was performed by the calculation of the number of metastases by three independent readers and by visual assessment on a 4-point scale. 86 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The total number of metastases was significantly higher on T1w than on STIR images at both field strengths (p < 0.05). T1w revealed a sensitivity of 99.72 % (3 T) and 100.00 % (1.5 T) versus STIR with 70.99 % (3 T) and 79.34 % (1.5 T). In 53 % (38/72) of all patients, STIR detected fewer bone metastases in comparison with T1w at 3 T. At 1.5 T, STIR showed inferior results in 37.5 % (18/48) of all patients. Qualitative analysis indicated a significantly better lesion conspicuity, lesion delineation and an improved image quality on T1w compared to STIR imaging at both field strengths (p < 0.05) with similar results for T1w at 1.5 T and 3 T, but inferior results for STIR especially at 3 T. The whole-body MRI protocol for the detection of bone metastases could safely be limited to the T1w sequence in adults, especially at 3 T. There is no need for an additional STIR sequence. These initial results will have a major impact on the department's workflow if confirmed by larger studies as they will help reduce examination time and therefore save financial resources.

  6. Geometric accuracy in three-dimensional coordinates of Leksell stereotactic skull frame with wide-bore 1.5-T MRI compared with conventional 1.5-T MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Hisato; Komori, Masataka; Shibamoto, Yuta; Takikawa, Yukinori; Mori, Yoshimasa; Tsugawa, Takahiko

    2014-10-01

    The use of 1.5-tesla (T) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with a wide and simultaneously short bore enhances patient comfort compared with traditional 1.5-T MR imaging and is becoming increasingly available in stereotactic radiosurgery treatment planning. However, the geometric accuracy seems unavoidably worse in wide-bore MR imaging than in conventional MR imaging. We assessed the geometric distortion of the stereotactic image attached on a Leksell skull frame in conventional and wide-bore 1.5-T MR imaging. Two kinds of acrylic phantoms were placed on the skull frame and were scanned using computed tomography (CT) and conventional and wide-bore 1.5-T MR imaging. The three-dimensional coordinates on both MR imaging were compared with those on CT. Deviations of measured coordinates at selected points (x = 50, 100, 150 mm; y = 50, 100, 150 mm) were indicated on different axial planes (z = 50, 75, 100, 125, 150 mm). The differences of coordinates were less than 1.0 mm in the entire treatable area for conventional MR imaging. With the large bore system, the differences of the coordinates were less than 1.0 mm around the center but substantially exceeded 1.0 mm in the peripheral regions. Further study is needed to increase the geometric accuracy of wide-bore MR imaging for stereotactic radiosurgery treatment planning.

  7. Cellular Imaging at 1.5 T: Detecting Cells in Neuroinflammation using Active Labeling with Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman J. Oweida

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The ability to visualize cell infiltration in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a well-known animal model for multiple sclerosis in humans, was investigated using a clinical 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scanner, a custom-built, high-strength gradient coil insert, a 3-D fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA imaging sequence and a superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO contrast agent. An “active labeling” approach was used with SPIO administered intravenously during inflammation in EAE. Our results show that small, discrete regions of signal void corresponding to iron accumulation in EAE brain can be detected using FIESTA at 1.5 T. This work provides early evidence that cellular abnormalities that are the basis of diseases can be probed using cellular MRI and supports our earlier work which indicates that tracking of iron-labeled cells will be possible using clinical MR scanners.

  8. Indigenous design and fabrication of a 6.5 T superconducting magnet and a magnetotransport measurement set-up

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Khatua; A K Majumdar

    2009-04-01

    A low-cost apparatus for measuring Hall effect and magnetoresistance is designed and built indigenously. This includes a 6.5 T superconducting magnet and a variable temperature sample holder assembly. A superinsulated liquid helium dewar with a low liquid helium boil-off rate is chosen as the low-temperature bath for doing magnetotrans-port measurements. A pair of high-c superconducting leads for energizing the magnet reduces the liquid helium consumption further and makes it economically beneficial, especially for laboratories with limited budget. The performance of the apparatus is tested over a wide range of temperatures (4.2 to 300 K) and fields up to 6.5 T. Reproducible magnetotransport data are obtained with excellent temperature and field stability.

  9. [The mitochondrial ND5 T12338C mutation may be associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy in two Chinese families].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yan-Chun; Liu, Xiao-Ling; Zhao, Fu-Xin; Zhang, Juan-Juan; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Xiang-Tian; Qu, Jia; Guan, Min-Xin

    2011-04-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) associated with mitochondrial DNA mutation is a maternally inherited eye disease. We reported here the clinical, genetic and molecular characterization of two Han Chinese families with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. Ophthalmologic examinations revealed that the variable severity and age-of-onset in visual impairment among probands and other matrilineal relatives of these families. Strikingly, there were extremely low penetrances of visual impairment in these families. Sequence analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes in these pedigrees identified the homoplasmic ND4 G11696A and ND5 T12338C mutation and distinct sets of polymorphism belonging to haplogroups F2. It is well known that mitochondrial DNA ND4 G11696A is associated with LHON. The ND5 T12338C mutation resulted in replacement of the first amino acid, translation-initiating methionine with a threonine, and shortening two amino acids of ND5. This mutation also locates in two nucleotides adjacent to the 3' end of the tRNALeu(Cun). Thus, this mutation may alter structural formation and stabilization of functional tRNA, thereby leading to a failure in protein synthesis and mitochondrial dysfunction involved in visual impairment. Therefore, the ND4 G11696A and ND5 T12338C mutation is likely associated with LHON in these two Chinese families. But these families exhibited extremely low penetrances of visual impairment. It suggests that other factors, such as nuclear modifier gene(s) or environmental factor(s), may play a role in the phenotypic expression of the LHON-associated ND4 G11696A and ND5 T12338C mutation.

  10. Performance of a multi-axis ionization chamber array in a 1.5 T magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, K; Kok, J G M; Lagendijk, J J W; Raaymakers, B W

    2014-04-07

    At the UMC Utrecht a prototype MR-linac has been installed. The system consists of an 8 MV Elekta linear accelerator and a 1.5 T Philips MRI system. This paper investigates the performance of the IC PROFILER™, a multi-axis ionization chamber array, in a 1.5 T magnetic field. The influence of the magnetic field on the IC PROFILER™ reproducibility, dose response linearity, pulse rate frequency dependence, power to electronics, panel orientation and ionization chamber shape were investigated. The linearity, reproducibility, pulse rate frequency dependence, panel orientation and ionization chamber shape are unaffected by the magnetic field. When the measurements results are normalized to the centre reference chamber, the measurements can commence unaltered. Orientation of the ionization chambers in the magnetic field is of importance, therefore caution must be taken when comparing or normalizing results from several different axes. IC PROFILER™ dose profiles were compared with film dose profiles obtained simultaneously in the MR-linac. Deviation between the film and the IC PROFILER™ data was caused by the noise in the film, indicating correct performance of the IC PROFILER™ in the transverse 1.5 T magnetic field.

  11. Performance of a multi-axis ionization chamber array in a 1.5 T magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, K.; Kok, J. G. M.; Lagendijk, J. J. W.; Raaymakers, B. W.

    2014-04-01

    At the UMC Utrecht a prototype MR-linac has been installed. The system consists of an 8 MV Elekta linear accelerator and a 1.5 T Philips MRI system. This paper investigates the performance of the IC PROFILER™, a multi-axis ionization chamber array, in a 1.5 T magnetic field. The influence of the magnetic field on the IC PROFILER™ reproducibility, dose response linearity, pulse rate frequency dependence, power to electronics, panel orientation and ionization chamber shape were investigated. The linearity, reproducibility, pulse rate frequency dependence, panel orientation and ionization chamber shape are unaffected by the magnetic field. When the measurements results are normalized to the centre reference chamber, the measurements can commence unaltered. Orientation of the ionization chambers in the magnetic field is of importance, therefore caution must be taken when comparing or normalizing results from several different axes. IC PROFILER™ dose profiles were compared with film dose profiles obtained simultaneously in the MR-linac. Deviation between the film and the IC PROFILER™ data was caused by the noise in the film, indicating correct performance of the IC PROFILER™ in the transverse 1.5 T magnetic field.

  12. Vestibular effects of a 7 Tesla MRI examination compared to 1.5 T and 0 T in healthy volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens M Theysohn

    Full Text Available Ultra-high-field MRI (7 Tesla (T and above elicits more temporary side-effects compared to 1.5 T and 3 T, e.g. dizziness or "postural instability" even after exiting the scanner. The current study aims to assess quantitatively vestibular performance before and after exposure to different MRI scenarios at 7 T, 1.5 T and 0 T. Sway path and body axis rotation (Unterberger's stepping test were quantitatively recorded in a total of 46 volunteers before, 2 minutes after, and 15 minutes after different exposure scenarios: 7 T head MRI (n = 27, 7 T no RF (n = 22, 7 T only B0 (n = 20, 7 T in & out B0 (n = 20, 1.5 T no RF (n = 20, 0 T (n = 15. All exposure scenarios lasted 30 minutes except for brief one minute exposure in 7 T in & out B0. Both measures were documented utilizing a 3D ultrasound system. During sway path evaluation, the experiment was repeated with eyes both open and closed. Sway paths for all long-lasting 7 T scenarios (normal, no RF, only B0 with eyes closed were significantly prolonged 2 minutes after exiting the scanner, normalizing after 15 minutes. Brief exposure to 7 T B0 or 30 minutes exposure to 1.5 T or 0 T did not show significant changes. End positions after Unterberger's stepping test were significantly changed counter-clockwise after all 7 T scenarios, including the brief in & out B0 exposure. Shorter exposure resulted in a smaller alteration angle. In contrast to sway path, reversal of changes in body axis rotation was incomplete after 15 minutes. 1.5 T caused no rotational changes. The results show that exposure to the 7 Tesla static magnetic field causes only a temporary dysfunction or "over-compensation" of the vestibular system not measurable at 1.5 or 0 Tesla. Radiofrequency fields, gradient switching, and orthostatic dysregulation do not seem to play a role.

  13. Three-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography in trigeminal neuralgia on a 0.5-T system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voeroes, E.; Palko, A.; Horvath, K. [Dept. of Radiology, University of Szeged (Hungary); Barzo, P. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. of Szeged (Hungary); Kardos, L.; Kuncz, A.

    2001-04-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze the diagnostic value of three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (3D TOF MRA), performed on a 0.5-T system in the detection of neurovascular compression in patients with trigeminal neuralgia (TN). One hundred seventy-two TN patients were examined using plain and contrast-enhanced 3D TOF MRA on a 0.5-T system. Maximum intensity projection (MIP) reconstruction was performed in three standard planes. Both the original and the reconstructed images were studied to search for vascular compression shown by close neurovascular contact and/or dislocation of the trigeminal nerve. Forty-two TN patients underwent surgical exploration of the posterior fossa. Results of MRA were compared with clinical data in all cases and to results of surgery in the surgically treated cases. Neurovascular contact at the root entry zone of the trigeminal nerve was detected on the symptomatic side in 94 patients, and on the asymptomatic side in 12 patients. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, as well as positive and negative predictive value of 3D TOF MRA in the detection of neurovascular compression in the patient group undergoing surgery, were 97.6, 92.5, 95.0, 93.0, and 97.4 %, respectively. Three-dimensional TOF MRA performed on a 0.5-T system appears to be not less effective than similar examinations by higher field strength devices in the detection of neurovascular contact. This sequence accurately demonstrates the presence of neurovascular compression, and in this way valuable information may be achieved for the planning of surgical therapy of patients with trigeminal neuralgia. (orig.)

  14. MRI evaluation of the anterolateral ligament of the knee: assessment in routine 1.5-T scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partezani Helito, Camilo; Pecora, Jose Ricardo; Camanho, Gilberto Luis; Kawamura Demange, Marco [University of Sao Paulo, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Knee Surgery Division, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Partezani Helito, Paulo Victor; Pereira Costa, Hugo; Bordalo-Rodrigues, Marcelo [University of Sao Paulo, Faculty of Medicine, Institute of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Musculoskeletal Radiology Department, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-10-15

    This study evaluated the ability of routine 1.5-T MRI scans to visualize the anterolateral ligament (ALL) and describe its path and anatomic relations with lateral knee structures. Thirty-nine 1.5-T MRI scans of the knee were evaluated. The scans included an MRI knee protocol with T1-weighted sequences, T2-weighted sequences with fat saturation, and proton density (PD)-weighted fast spin-echo sequences. Two radiologists separately reviewed all MRI scans to evaluate interobserver reliability. The ALL was divided into three portions for analyses: femoral, meniscal, and tibial. The path of the ALL was evaluated with regard to known structural parameters previously studied in this region. At least a portion of the ALL was visualized in 38 (97.8 %) cases. The meniscal portion was most visualized (94.8 %), followed by the femoral (89.7 %) and the tibial (79.4 %) portions. The three portions of the ALL were visualized in 28 (71.7 %) patients. The ALL was characterized with greater clarity on the coronal plane and was visualized as a thin, linear structure. The T1-weighted sequences showed a statistically inferior ligament visibility frequency. With regard to the T2 and PD evaluations, although the visualization frequency in PD was higher for the three portions of the ligament, only the femoral portion showed significant values. The ALL can be visualized in routine 1.5-T MRI scans. Although some of the ligament could be depicted in nearly all of the scans (97.4 %), it could only be observed in its entirety in about 71.7 % of the tests. (orig.)

  15. Manufacture and Test of the Prototype 5 T Superconducting Undulator for the LHC Synchrotron Radiation Profile Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    MacCaferri, R; Tommasini, D; Venturini-Delsolaro, W

    2006-01-01

    A superconducting undulator wound with Nb-Ti based conductor, will be used in the LHC as a key part of the synchrotron radiation profile monitor system. Two undulators are needed, one per each circulating beam, providing 5 T in a 60 mm bore over two periods of 280 mm each. A full scale prototype has been designed and successfully tested in the end of 2004. In this paper, the electromagnetic and the mechanical design of the undulator are summarized. The fabrication of the prototype is described and the successful cold test results, both power test and magnetic flux density measurements, are reported.

  16. Physical location of rice Gm-6,Pi-5(t) genes in O. officinalis with BAC-FISH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) procedure was adoptedto physically map two rice BAC clones 24E21 and 4F22 linked to Gm-6 and Pi-5(t) in O. officinalis. FISH results showed that the two BAC clones were located at 4L. The percentage distance from the centromere to the hybridization sites was 72±2.62 for 24E21 and 54±5.43 for 4F22, the detection rates were 52.70% and 61.2%. The results obtained from the BAC and plasmid clones, RG214 and RZ565 of cultivated rice and O. officinalis were the same. This suggested that the markers, RG214 and RZ565 of cultivated rice and O. officinalis were in the same BAC clones. The homologous sequences of Gm-6 and Pi-5(t) in O. officinalis were positions that signals existed on the 4L. Many signals were observed when no Cot-1 DNA blocked. This also showed that repetitive sequences were some homolgous between cultivated rice and O. officinalis. The identification of chromosome 4 of O. officinalis is based on Jena et al. (1994). In our study, we discussed the possibility of physical map in O. officinalis with rice BAC clones.

  17. A 1.5 T transverse magnetic field in radiotherapy of rectal cancer: Impact on the dose distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uilkema, Sander, E-mail: s.uilkema@nki.nl; Heide, Uulke van der; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Triest, Baukelien van; Nijkamp, Jasper [Department of Radiotherapy, NKI-AVL, Amsterdam 1066 CX (Netherlands); Moreau, Michel [RTP Research Group, Elekta, Maryland Heights, Missouri 63043 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: MRI guidance during radiotherapy has the potential to enable more accurate dose delivery, optimizing the balance between local control and treatment related toxicity. However, the presence of a permanent magnetic field influences the dose delivery, especially around air cavities. Here, electrons are able to return to the surface through which they entered the air cavity (electron return effect, ERE) locally resulting in dose hot- and cold-spots. Where RT of rectal cancer patients might benefit from MRI guidance for margin reduction, air cavities in and around the target volume are frequently present. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the impact of the presence of a 1.5 T transverse magnetic field on dose delivery in patients with rectal cancer. Methods: Ten patients treated with 5 × 5 Gy RT having large changes in pelvic air content were selected out of a cohort of 33 patients. On the planning CT, a 1.5 T, 6 MV, 7-field intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plan was created. This plan was subsequently recalculated on daily CT scans. For each daily CT, the CTV V{sub 95%} and V{sub 107%} and bowel area V{sub 5Gy}, V{sub 10Gy}, V{sub 15Gy}, V{sub 20Gy}, and V{sub 25Gy} were calculated to evaluate the changes in dose distribution from fraction to fraction. For comparison, the authors repeated this procedure for the 0 T situation. To study the effect of changing air cavities separate from other anatomical changes, the authors also generated artificial air cavities in the CTV of one patient (2 and 5 cm diameter), in the high dose gradient region (2 cm), and in the low dose area (2 cm). Treatment plans were optimized without and with each simulated air cavity. For appearing and disappearing air cavities, the CTV V{sub 95%} and V{sub 107%} were evaluated. The authors also evaluated the ERE separate from attenuation changes locally around appearing gas pockets. Results: For the ten patients, at 1.5 T, the V{sub 95%} was influenced by both appearing and

  18. CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A CHROMOSOMAL DNA REGION REQUIRED FOR GROWTH ON 2,4,5-T BY PSEUDOMONAS CEPACIA AC1100

    Science.gov (United States)

    A series of spontaneous 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) nonmetabolizing mutants of Pseudomonas cepacia AC1100 were characterized to be defective in either 2,4,5-T uptake or conversion of this compound to 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP). Two of these mutants, RHC22 a...

  19. Biological characteristics of jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas in waters off Costa Rica%哥斯达黎加外海茎柔鱼生物学特性初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李纲; 贾涛; 刘必林; 陈新军

    2011-01-01

    根据2009年7-8月在哥斯达黎加外海探捕期间采集的281尾茎柔鱼样本,对其生物学特性进行仞步分析.结果表明:茎柔鱼样本胴长范围为205~429 mm,优势胴长为260~360 mm,占81.14%;体重范围为0.17~1.69 kg,优势体重为0.2~1.0 kg,占88.26%;雌雄性比约为3.76∶1,性腺成熟度以Ⅲ和Ⅳ期为主,雄性、雌性性成熟的比例分别为94.92%和66.67%;摄食等级以0~1级为主,占89.32%.体重与胴长关系W=2.35×10-7LM2.5944.相对于加利福尼亚湾、秘鲁和智利外海的茎柔鱼,哥斯达黎加外海茎柔龟个体较小且体型偏瘦,属于小型或中型群体.研究亮点:2009年我国首次组织实施了哥斯达黎加外海茎柔龟资源探捕调查.根据此次调查的结果,从胴长组成、肥满度、性成熟、性比等角度和分布于秘鲁、智利外海和加利福尼亚近海等东太平洋其它海域的茎柔鱼生物学特性进行了比较研究.%During the trial fishing in the open waters off Costa Rica in the central east Pacific in July and August 2007, 281 jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas were sampled to examine the biological characteristics. The squid mantle length ML ranged from 205 to 429 mm, and the dominant size between 260 mm and 360 mm which accounted for 81.14% of the total. Body weight was 0.17 - 1.69 kg, in which 88.26% was 0.2 -2.0 kg. The female: male ratio was 3.76: 1. Maturity stages for the squid was mainly at Ⅲ and Ⅳ. 94.92% males and 66. 67% females were mature. Feeding stage 0 and 1 attained 89. 32%. The ML-weight relationship was expressed as W =2.35 × 10-7LM2.5944. It can be found that the size of jumbo squid off Costa Rica was smaller and thinner than that in the Gulf of California and waters off Chile and Peru, which indicated that jumbo squid off Costa Rica belongs to small or medium-sized group.

  20. The association between maternally inherited hearing loss and mitochondrial ND5 T12338C mutation%母系遗传药物性耳聋与线粒体ND5 T12338C突变的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚雪莲; 黄灵; 方苑仲

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨药物性耳聋的发病机制,为临床早期诊断、预防提供理论依据.方法 在余杭区开展了耳聋的分子流行病学调查.对1个母系遗传的药物性耳聋家系进行听力学检查和遗传学分析,对先证者和母系成员的线粒体基因组和GJB2基因进行PCR扩增并测序,测序结果和NCBI上的标准序列进行比对,分析突变位点.结果 该家系呈现母系遗传,耳聋外显率较高,但未筛查到GJB2基因突变.在家系的成员中发现2个同质性tRNASer(UCN)C7492T和ND5T12338C突变.共发现了31个多态性位点,在tRNASer(UCN)上有1个变异位点,在蛋白编码区共有20个变异位点.结论 线粒体ND5T12338C突变可能与药物性耳聋有关,是耳聋的一个致病性突变位点,这为耳聋的早期诊断与治疗提供理论依据.

  1. Assessment of magnetic resonance imaging of the breast using 0.5 T equipment; Valoracion de la resonancia magnetic de mama en un equipo de 0.5 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilanova, J. C.; Barcelo, J.; Ferrer, J.; Castaner, F.; Miro, J.; Bassaganyas, R.; Viejo, N.; Albanell, J.; Villalon, M.

    2002-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a magnetic resonance imaging technique of the breast using half-field equipment (0.5 T). We evaluated 191 magnetic resonance (MRI) studies made at our center from March 1998 to March 2001 using Signa Contour 0.5 T MRI equipment of General Electric. A dedicated bilateral breast made at fat saturation in the coronal plane before administering intravenous gadolinium, then 6 consecutive times after contrast administration. The sequence acquisition time was 70-90 seconds Image post processing included subtraction and analysis of the intensity/time curves in the region of interest (ROI) together with morphological evaluation of the lesion. Additional T2 weighted fast-spin-echo sequences (FSE T2), T1-weighted spin-echo (SE T1), FSE T2 with fat suppression, and STIR with water saturation were made for studies of breast implants. The clinical indications for MRI study of the breast were masses (n=79), microcalcifications (n=7), asymmetry (n=17), cases of indeterminate risk (n=7), postoperative control (n=51), and breast implants (n=25). The histological diagnosis was benign in 31 lesions and malignant in 73 lesions. The sensitivity specificity, and reliability of breast MRI were 93%, 81% and 89% respectively. Multicenter/multifocal neoplasms were found in 8% of patients and bilateral neoplasms in 2%. The therapeutic attitude was modified in 18% of the patients with breast cancer as a result of MRI findings. The results confirm the usefulness of MRI in the management of patients with breast cancer. Likewise, the present study demonstrated that breast MRI can be carried out with half-field equipment with the same reliability as with full-field equipment as long as specific breast cots are used rapid 3D sequences, and image processing with suitable software. (Author) 28 refs.

  2. SU-E-J-203: Investigation of 1.5T Magnetic Field Dose Effects On Organs of Different Density

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H; Rubinstein, A; Ibbott, G [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: For the combined 1.5T/6MV MRI-linac system, the perpendicular magnetic field to the radiation beam results in altered radiation dose distributions. This Monte Carlo study investigates the change in dose at interfaces for common organs neighboring soft tissue. Methods: MCNP6 was used to simulate the effects of a 1.5T magnetic field when irradiating tissues with a 6 MV beam. The geometries used in this study were not necessarily anatomically representative in size in order to directly compare quantitative dose effects for each tissue at the same depths. For this purpose, a 512 cm{sup 3} cubic material was positioned at the center of a 2744 cm{sup 3} cubic soft tissue material phantom. The following tissue materials and their densities were used in this study: lung (0.296 g/cm{sup 3}), fat (0.95), spinal cord (1.038), soft tissue (1.04), muscle (1.05), eye (1.076), trabecular bone (1.40), and cortical bone (1.85). Results: The addition of a 1.5T magnetic field caused dose changes of +46.5%, +2.4%, −0.9%, −0.8%, −1.5%, −6.5%, and −8.8% at the entrance interface between soft tissue and lung, fat, spinal cord, muscle, eye, trabecular bone, and cortical bone tissues respectively. Dose changes of −39.4%, −4.1%, −0.8%, −0.8%, +0.5%, +6.7%, and +10.9% were observed at the second interface between the same tissues respectively and soft tissue. On average, the build-up distance was reduced by 0.6 cm, and a dose increase of 62.7% was observed at the exit interface between soft tissue and air of the entire phantom. Conclusion: The greatest changes in dose were observed at interfaces containing lung and bone tissues. Due to the prevalence and proximity of bony anatomy to soft tissues throughout the human body, these results encourage further examination of these tissues with anatomically representative geometries using multiple beam configurations for safe treatment using the MRI-linac system.

  3. 5T Slewing Crane Stability Design%5t旋臂起重机的稳定性设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹伟; 刘晓超

    2015-01-01

    Slewing crane single support has poor stability, large vibration, structure under optimization problems. 5t slewing crane adopts double driving double support design, with compact structure, it is safe and reliable to use, and convenient to maintain. Compared with ordinary slewing crane,it has the advantages of heavy lifting goods,big rotating radius and strong stability.%针对旋臂起重机的单支撑稳定性差、振动大、结构欠优化等问题,5t旋臂起重机采用双驱动双支撑设计,结构紧凑,使用安全可靠,维修简单方便,与普通旋臂起重机相比,具有起吊货物重、旋转半径大、稳定性增加。

  4. Development of 5 T NbTi Superconducting Magnet with 160 mm Warm Bore for Magnetic Separation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Yi; WU Yu; LI Shaolei

    2008-01-01

    A wide-bore 5 T NbTi superconducting magnet,for magnetic separator,with an operational current of 106 A is designed and fabricated. This magnet with a φ60 mm room temperature bore is installed in a vacuum cryostat and immersed in liquid helium.A two-stage 4 K Gifford-McMahon (GM) cryocooler is used to maintain the cooling shield at 70 K and the condenser at 4 K in order to achieve the zero vaporization loss of liquid helium. The cooling power of the GM cryocooler is 1.5 W.In this paper,the design,heat leakage,stress analysis,quench protection characteristics and preliminary test results are presented.

  5. Ultra low voltage and low power Static Random Access Memory design using average 6.5T technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagalingam RAJESWARAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Power Stringent Static Random Access Memory (SRAM design is very much essential in embedded systems such as biomedical implants, automotive electronics and energy harvesting devices in which battery life, input power and execution delay are of main concern. With reduced supply voltage, SRAM cell design will go through severe stability issues. In this paper, we present a highly stable average nT SRAM cell for ultra-low power in 125nm technology. The distinct difference between the proposed technique and other conventional methods is about the data independent leakage in the read bit line which is achieved by newly introduced block mask transistors. An average 6.5T SRAM and average 8T SRAM are designed and compared with 6T SRAM, 8T SRAM, 9T SRAM, 10T SRAM and 14T SRAM cells. The result indicates that there is an appreciable decrease in power consumption and delay.

  6. Effect of a Static Magnetic Field (1.5T) on Brain Oscillatory Activities in Resting State Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formaggio, E; Avesani, M; Storti, S F; Milanese, F; Gasparini, A; Acler, M; Cerini, R; Pozzi Mucelli, R; Fiaschi, A; Manganotti, P

    2008-12-17

    The aim of the present study was to compare the EEG signal recorded outside and inside a 1.5T magnetic resonance (MR) scanner. The EEG was recorded in eyes open and eyes closed conditions using a digital recording MR-compatible system. To characterize how a static magnetic field induces changes in EEG signal, EEG data were analyzed using FFT frequency analysis. No significant difference between the alpha powers recorded outside and inside the magnetic field was observed in eyes closed conditions. However, in eyes open condition there was a significant increase in alpha power inside the magnet in comparison to the outside position. The changes in alpha power according to the eyes open/closed conditions could be inversely correlated to a subject's state of wakefulness and due to some physiological changes, rather than an effect of the magnetic field. This experiment suggests that subjects' state of wakefulness is of prime concern when performing functional MRI.

  7. Cortical projections to the human red nucleus: a diffusion tensor tractography study with a 1.5-T MRI machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habas, Christophe; Cabanis, Emmanuel Alain [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie Paris 6, Service de Neuroimagerie, Centre Hospitalier National d' Optalmologie des Quinze-Vingts, Paris (France)

    2006-10-15

    Previous studies in apes and monkeys have shown that the red nucleus receives projections from the sensorimotor and premotor cortices, whereas other experiments carried out with injured human brains have found corticorubral projections issuing from associative areas. Therefore, we reassessed in vivo the human anatomical projections from the cerebral cortex to the red nucleus using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) axonal tracking. The connectivity between the cerebral cortex and the red nuclei of seven volunteers was studied at 1.5 T using streamlined DTI axonal tracking. Trajectories were constantly tracked between the red nuclei and the ipsilateral pericentral and prefrontal cortices, as well as the temporal cortex and the striatum in two subjects. Within the cerebral trunk, trajectories also include the superior cerebellar peduncle and the central tegmental tract. The human red nucleus receives its main afferences from the sensorimotor and prefrontal cortices. (orig.)

  8. MR microscopy of articular cartilage at 1.5 T: orientation and site dependence of laminar structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Hiroshi; Anno, Izumi; Echigo, Junko; Itai, Yuji [Department of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8575 (Japan); Haishi, Tomoyuki; Uematsu, Takaaki; Matsuda, Yoshimasa; Kose, Katsumi [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Lang, Philipp [Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Abstract Objective. To evaluate MR microscopic images of normal-appearing porcine hyaline cartilage (n=15) in vitro obtained with an MR microscope using an independent console system (MRMICS) at 1.5 T.Design and results. The MRMICS is a portable imaging system consisting of a radiofrequency system, gradient power supplies and a personal computer. The images from the MRMICS showed a laminar structure of porcine cartilage similar to the structure demonstrated with other MR imaging techniques. The laminar structures of the articular cartilage, were, however heterogeneous in respect of signal intensity and thickness, which varied according to the site resected. The MR laminar appearance was most comparable to the staining with Masson's trichrome for collagen.Conclusion. MRMICS is a useful add-on system for obtaining microscopic MR images of articular cartilage in vitro. (orig.)

  9. Cardiac MRI, How Much can be Performed on a 1.5T Magnet with Basic Cardiac Sequences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Sefidbakht*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: To present our first 8-month experience with cardiac MRI (1.5T, Siemens Avanto magnet, Argus viewer spectrum of local referrals and outcomes.Materials and Methods: The population included 24 patients, (five female, 19 male reffered for evaluation of possible arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD (11, myocarditis (5, ischemic scar (2 and miscellaneous cases (6 including myocardial cyst, papillary muscle lipoma, straight back syndrome (ruling out absent pericardium, possible pericarditis, Brugada syndrome and one case of later biopsy proven cardiac amyloidosis. Retrorecon, truFisp cine images were obtained in SA, 2 and 4 chamber views. T1 flash images were taken with/ without fat-saturation. T2HASTE and SA STIR images were obtained. Postcontrast delayed enhancement images were taken (PSIR tFla or Trufisp. Dynamic perfusion images were obtained in two cases. For DE images, TI 160-360 was manually selected one image at a time and optimal myocardial nulling was selected visually and subjectively. Results: Out of 11 patients reffered for possible ARVD, four patients showed regional dys/akinesia; with an EF<40% this was considered a major criterion. Three of the mentioned patients as well as two patients without obvious dyskinesia showed delayed RV freewall enhancement. Out of five patients referred with possible myocarditis, three showed patchy subepicardial enhanecement which confirmed the diagnosis, and two showed nonspecific transmural edema and/or enhancement. Ischemic scar was observed in two.Conclusion: Although far less than perfect, the basic MRI sequences provided by many vendors on 1.5T magnets can be helpful in selected cases of cardiac disease when referral to centers with a higher level of expertise and equipment is not feasible.

  10. 3D coronary MR angiography at 1.5 T: Volume-targeted versus whole-heart acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hang; Zeng, Meng-Su; Ge, Mei-Ying; Yun, Hong; Yang, Shan

    2013-09-01

    To compare volume-targeted acquisition with whole-heart acquisition in 1.5-T free-breathing 3D coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with parallel imaging. The major coronary arteries were imaged in 36 subjects using the whole-heart and volume-targeted acquisitions with comparable imaging parameters. The quantitative and semiquantitative data derived from these two acquisition methods were analyzed statistically, with P coronary artery (RCA) / left circumflex artery (LCX)- and the left main (LM) / left anterior descending (LAD)-targeted acquisitions had similar results in navigator efficiencies and apparent signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in comparison with whole-heart acquisition. Apparent contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the volume-targeted imaging was significantly higher than that of the whole-heart imaging. The imaging time required for a whole-heart scan was significantly longer than each of the RCA/LCX- and LM/LAD-targeted acquisitions. However, the sum of scanning times derived from volume-targeted imaging was significantly longer than that of whole-heart acquisition. Both RCA/LCX- and LM/LAD-targeted acquisition yield higher vessel sharpness and overall image quality in comparison with whole-heart acquisition. The lengths of the major coronary arteries were not significantly different for the whole-heart and volume-targeted approaches. The whole-heart method was obviously superior to the volume-targeted method in terms of visualization of the posterior descending artery. For current 1.5-T navigator coronary MRA, volume-targeted and whole-heart acquisitions have their own advantages and the choice of methods may vary in accordance with the different aims of clinical practice. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  11. MR-guided core biopsy of the shoulder: possibilities and experience with a vertically open 0.5T system; MRT-gesteuerte Stanzbiopsie der Schulter: Moeglichkeiten und Erfahrungen an einem vertikal offenen 0,5-T-System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, M. [Orthopaedische Klinik und Poliklinik am Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig AoeR (Germany); Schulz, T.; Schmidt, F.; Kahn, T. [Klinik fuer Diagnostische Radiologie am Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig AoeR (Germany); Busse, M.W. [Inst. fuer Sportmedizin der Univ. Leipzig (Germany)

    2005-09-01

    Purpose: the availability of open whole body MRI magnets and MR-compatible instrumentarium were essential conditions for the progression of interventional MRI. The advantages of an MR-guided biopsy at the musculoskeletal system are the visualization of the puncture site of a representative area for tumor histology, the absence of exposure to radiation and the free selection of imaging planes. The purpose of the study was the development of a new technique of a secure MR-guided biopsy of intraosseus lesions in the humeral head. Material and methods: MR-guided core biopsy of a intraosseus lesion of the humeral head was performed in five male patients on a vertical open, whole body MRI magnet (SIGNA SP/i 0.5T, GE Medical Systems). The technique using interactive MRI and the MR-compatible instrumentarium are described. Results: a secure core biopsy could be obtained from a representative area for tumor histology in all cases. No complications occurred, especially no nerve or vessel lesion, no rotator cuff lesion and no intra-articular contamination of the shoulder joint were observed. Conclusion: a new technique is presented to obtain MR-guided core biopsies of intraosseous lesions of the humeral head. Furthermore, clinical indications of this technique are described. (orig.)

  12. Augmented reality visualization using image overlay technology for MR-guided interventions: cadaveric bone biopsy at 1.5 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Jan; U-Thainual, Paweena; Ungi, Tamas; Flammang, Aaron J; McCarthy, Edward F; Fichtinger, Gabor; Iordachita, Iulian I; Carrino, John A

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively test the hypothesis that image overlay technology facilitates accurate navigation for magnetic resonance (MR)-guided osseous biopsy. A prototype augmented reality image overlay system was used in conjunction with a clinical 1.5-T MR imaging system. Osseous biopsy of a total of 16 lesions was planned in 4 human cadavers with osseous metastases. A loadable module of 3D Slicer open-source medical image analysis and visualization software was developed and used for display of MR images, lesion identification, planning of virtual biopsy paths, and navigation of drill placement. The osseous drill biopsy was performed by maneuvering the drill along the displayed MR image containing the virtual biopsy path into the target. The drill placement and the final drill position were monitored by intermittent MR imaging. Outcome variables included successful drill placement, number of intermittent MR imaging control steps, target error, number of performed passes and tissue sampling, time requirements, and pathological analysis of the obtained osseous core specimens including adequacy of specimens, presence of tumor cells, and degree of necrosis. A total of 16 osseous lesions were sampled with percutaneous osseous drill biopsy. Eight lesions were located in the osseous pelvis (8/16, 50%) and 8 (8/16, 50%) lesions were located in the thoracic and lumbar spine. Lesion size was 2.2 cm (1.1-3.5 cm). Four (2-8) MR imaging control steps were required. MR imaging demonstrated successful drill placement inside 16 of the 16 target lesions (100%). One needle pass was sufficient for accurate targeting of all lesions. One tissue sample was obtained in 8 of the 16 lesions (50%); 2, in 6 of the 16 lesions (38%); and 3, in 2 of the 16 lesions (12%). The target error was 4.3 mm (0.8-6.8 mm). Length of time required for biopsy of a single lesion was 38 minutes (20-55 minutes). Specimens of 15 of the 16 lesions (94%) were sufficient for pathological

  13. Diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tractography of the median nerve at 1.5T: optimization of b value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreisek, Gustav [University of Toronto, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Department of Medical Imaging, Mount Sinai Hospital and the University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); University Hospital Zuerich, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Zuerich (Switzerland); White, Lawrence M. [University of Toronto, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging, Department of Medical Imaging, Mount Sinai Hospital and the University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Kassner, Andrea [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, University Health Network, Toronto (Canada); Tomlinson, George [Toronto General Hospital, Division of Clinical Decision-Making and Health Care, Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Sussman, Marshall S. [University of Toronto, Department of Medical Imaging, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto (Canada)

    2009-01-15

    The objective of this study was to systematically assess the optimal b value for diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tractography of the median nerve at 1.5 T. This is a prospective study which was carried out with institutional review board approval and written informed consent from the study subjects. Fifteen healthy volunteers (seven men, eight women; mean age, 31.2 years) underwent diffusion tensor imaging of the wrist. A single-shot spin-echo-based echo-planar imaging sequence (TR/TE, 7000/103 ms) was performed in each subject at eight different b values ranging from 325 to 1,550 s/mm{sup 2}. Number and length of reconstructed fiber tracts, fiber density index (FDi), fractional anisotropy (FA), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were calculated for the median nerve. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was also calculated for each acquisition. The overall image quality was assessed by two readers in consensus by ranking representative fiber tract images for each subject using a scale range from 1 to 8 (1 = best to 8 = worst image quality). Longest fibers were observed for b values between 675 and 1,025 s/mm{sup 2}. Maximum FDi was found at b values of 1,025 s/mm{sup 2}. FA was between 0.5 and 0.6 for all b values. ADC gradually decreased from 1.44 x 10{sup -3} to 0.92 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s with increasing b values. Maximum SNR {+-} standard deviation (175.4 {+-} 72.6) was observed at the lowest b value and decreased with increasing b values. SNR at b values of 1,025 s/mm{sup 2} was 48.5% of the maximum SNR. Optimal fiber tract image quality was found for b values of 1,025 s/mm{sup 2}. The optimal b value for diffusion tensor imaging and fiber tractography of the median nerve at 1.5 T was 1,025 s/mm{sup 2}. (orig.)

  14. Accuracy of 3 T versus 1.5 T breast MRI for pre-operative assessment of extent of disease in newly diagnosed DCIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahbar, Habib, E-mail: hrahbar@uw.edu; DeMartini, Wendy B.; Lee, Amie Y.; Partridge, Savannah C.; Peacock, Sue; Lehman, Constance D.

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •We compared sizes of known ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) on pre-operative breast MRI at 3 T and 1.5 T with final pathology sizes. •DCIS sizes on 3 T MRI correlated better with pathologic sizes than 1.5 T MRI. •Imaging features of DCIS, including morphology and kinetics, were similar at 3 T and 1.5 T MRI. -- Abstract: Objectives: While 3 T breast magnetic resonance imaging has increased in use over the past decade, there is little data comparing its use for assessing ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) versus 1.5 T. We sought to compare the accuracies of DCIS extent of disease measures on pre-operative 3 T versus 1.5 T MRI. Methods: This institutional review board-approved prospective study included 20 patients with ductal carcinoma in situ diagnosed by core needle biopsy (CNB) who underwent pre-operative breast MRI at both 3 T (resolution = 0.5 mm × 0.5 mm × 1.3 mm) and 1.5 T (0.85 mm × 0.85 mm × 1.6 mm). All patients provided informed consent, and the study was HIPPA compliant. Lesion sizes and imaging characteristics (morphologic and kinetic enhancement) were recorded for the 3 T and 1.5 T examinations. Lesion size measures at both field strengths were correlated to final pathology, and imaging characteristics also were compared. Results: Of the initial cohort of 20 patients with CNB-diagnosed DCIS, 19 underwent definitive surgery. Median DCIS sizes of these 19 patients were 6 mm (range: 0–67 mm) on 3 T, 13 mm (0–60 mm) on 1.5 T, and 6 mm (0–55 mm) on surgical pathology. Size correlation between MRI and pathology was higher for 3 T (Spearman's ρ = 0.66, p = 0.002) than 1.5 T (ρ = 0.36, p = 0.13). In 10 women in which a residual area of suspicious enhancement was identified on both field strengths, there was agreement of morphologic description (NME vs. mass) in nine, and no significant difference in dynamic contrast enhanced kinetics at 3 T compared to 1.5 T. Conclusions: Pre-operative breast MRI at 3 T provided higher

  15. Identification of pre- and post-treatment markers, clinical, and laboratory parameters associated with outcome in renal cancer patients treated with MVA-5T4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eAmato

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent approvals of immunotherapeutic agents (Sipuleucel-T and Ipilimumab for the treatment of different solid tumors gave a boost to the growing cancer immunotherapy field, even though few immunotherapy studies have demonstrated convincingly that there is a direct link between the predicted mode of action of an immunological compound and therapeutic benefit. MVA-5T4 (Trovax® is a novel vaccine combining the tumor-associated antigen 5T4 to an engineered vector-modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA. MVA helps to express the oncofetal 5T4 antigen and subsequently trigger a tumor-directed immune reaction. The safety and clinical benefit reported in multiple phase I and II clinical trials using MVA-5T4 were encouraging; immune responses were induced in almost all treated patients, and associations between 5T4-specific cellular or humoral responses and clinical benefit were reported in most of the nine phase II trials. In particular, clinical studies conducted in renal cell carcinoma (RCC patients have demonstrated an association between 5T4-specific (but not MVA antibody responses and enhanced survival. This review describes the clinical studies using MVA-5T4 conducted in RCC that convincingly demonstrated that an antigen-specific immune response induced by vaccination is associated with enhanced patient survival and is not simply a function of the general health of patients. We will also provide our expert opinions on possible future better-designed clinical trials based on relevant biomarkers. In addition, various combinations of MVA-5T4 and different and newer immunomodulator agents with promising clinical benefit will be discussed.

  16. A persistent-mode 0.5 T solid-nitrogen-cooled MgB2 magnet for MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Jiayin; Voccio, John P.; Hahn, Seungyong; Qu, Timing; Bascuñán, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents construction details and test results of a persistent-mode 0.5 T MgB2 magnet developed at the Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory, MIT. The magnet, of 276 mm inner diameter and 290 mm outer diameter, consisted of a stack of eight solenoidal coils with a total height of 460 mm. Each coil was wound with monofilament MgB2 wire, equipped with a persistent-current switch and terminated with a superconducting joint, forming an individual superconducting loop. Resistive solder joints connected the eight coils in series. The magnet, after being integrated into a testing system, immersed in solid nitrogen, was operated in a temperature range of 10-13 K. A two-stage cryocooler was deployed to cool a radiation shield and the cold mass that included mainly ˜60 kg of solid nitrogen and the magnet. The solid nitrogen was capable of providing a uniform and stable cryogenic environment to the magnet. The magnet sustained a 0.47 T magnetic field at its center persistently in a range of 10-13 K. The current in each coil was inversely calculated from the measured field profile to determine the performance of each coil in persistent-mode operation. Persistent-current switches were successfully operated in solid nitrogen for ramping the magnet. They were also designed to absorb magnetic energy in a protection mechanism; its effectiveness was evaluated in an induced quench.

  17. Improvement of brain angiographic images using 1.5t super conductive MRI unit of Imam Khomeini Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Takavar A

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Fue to the importance of selecting imaging parameters in magnetic resonance brain angiography, this study was carried out to choose optimum theoretical and experimental parameters for improving image controast and resolution and achieve shorter imaging time for practical reasons.A 1.5T super conductive magnet MRI with gradient power of 13 nT/m and Larmour frequency of 63 MHz with imaging coli of 30 cm was used.In this study, 5 healthy volunteers and 34 patients were the subjects of brain angiography. Flip angles of 15-20 degrees for peripheral brain vessels and 35-45 degrees for internal brain vessels were found to give higher contrast and better image resolution with a artifact. Using our optimum imaging parameters, (ie [TR/Te/FA/FOV] [40ms/7cm/20°/1mm 023cm], besides obtaining high quality angiography images, routine imaging time of 9-12 minutes was reduced to 7.3 mintues

  18. Characterization of a cold-active lipase from Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5(T) and its deletion mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novototskaya-Vlasova, K A; Petrovskaya, L E; Rivkina, E M; Dolgikh, D A; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2013-04-01

    A gene coding for cold-active lipase from the psychrotrophic Gram-negative bacterium Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5(T) isolated from a Siberian cryopeg has been cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein Lip1Pc with a 6× histidine tag at its C-terminus was purified by nickel affinity chromatography. With p-nitrophenyl dodecanoate (C12) as a substrate, the purified recombinant protein displayed maximum lipolytic activity at 25°C and pH 8.0. Increasing the temperature above 40°C and addition of various metal ions and organic solvents inhibited the enzymatic activity of Lip1Pc. Most nonionic detergents, such as Triton X-100 and Tween 20, slightly increased the lipase activity, while SDS completely inhibited it. To investigate the functional significance of the Lip1Pc N-terminal domain, we constructed five deletion mutants of this protein. The ND1 and ND2 mutants displayed specific activity reduced by 30-35%, while other truncated proteins were completely inactive. Both mutants demonstrated increased activity towards p-nitrophenyl decanoate (C10) and impaired utilization of C16 substrate. Although optimum reaction temperature of ND2 lowered to 20°C, it displayed enhanced stability by 44% after incubation at 40°C. The results prove that the N-terminal domain of Lip1Pc has a fundamental impact on the activity and stability of the protein.

  19. Expression and chaperone-assisted refolding of a new cold-active lipase from Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5(T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novototskaya-Vlasova, Ksenia; Petrovskaya, Lada; Kryukova, Elena; Rivkina, Elizaveta; Dolgikh, Dmitry; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail

    2013-09-01

    We describe cloning and expression of genes coding for lipase Lip2Pc and lipase-specific foldase LifPc from a psychrotrophic microorganism Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5(T) isolated from a Siberian cryopeg (the lense of overcooled brine within permafrost). Upon expression in Escherichiacoli Lip2Pc accumulated in inclusion bodies while chaperone was synthesized in a soluble form. An efficient protocol for solubilization and subsequent refolding of the recombinant lipase in the presence of the truncated chaperone was developed. Using this procedure Lip2Pc with specific activity of 6900U/mg was obtained. Contrary to published data on other lipase-chaperone complexes, refolded Lip2Pc was mostly recovered from the complex with chaperone by metal-affinity chromatography. Recombinant Lip2Pc displayed maximum lipolytic activity at 25°C and pH 8.0 with p-nitrophenyl palmitate (C16) as a substrate. Activity assays conducted at different temperatures revealed that the recombinant Lip2Pc is a cold-adapted lipase with ability to utilize substrates with long (C10-C16) hydrocarbon chains in the temperature range from +5 to +65°C. It demonstrated relatively high stability at temperatures above 60°C and in the presence of various metal ions or organic solvents (ethanol, methanol, etc.). Non-ionic detergents, such as Triton X-100 and Tween 20 decreased Lip2Pc activity and SDS completely inhibited it.

  20. Novel Peak Assignments of in Vivo 13C MRS in Human Brain at 1.5 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blüml, Stefan; Hwang, Jong-Hee; Moreno, Angel; Ross, Brian D.

    2000-04-01

    13C MRS studies at natural abundance and after intravenous 1-13C glucose infusion were performed on a 1.5-T clinical scanner in four subjects. Localization to the occipital cortex was achieved by a surface coil. In natural abundance spectra glucose C3β,5β, myo-inositol, glutamate C1,2,5, glutamine C1,2,5, N-acetyl-aspartate C1-4,Cdbnd O, creatine CH2, CH3, and CCdbnd N, taurine C2,3, bicarbonate HCO-3 were identified. After glucose infusion 13C enrichment of glucose C1α,1β, glutamate C1-4, glutamine C1-4, aspartate C2,3, N-acetyl-aspartate C2,3, lactate C3, alanine C3, and HCO-3 were observed. The observation of 13C enrichment of resonances resonating at >150 ppm is an extension of previously published studies and will provide a more precise determination of metabolic rates and substrate decarboxylation in human brain.

  1. In vivo imaging of transplanted hepatocytes with a 1.5-T clinical MRI system - initial experience in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luciani, Alain [CHU Henri Mondor, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Radiology Department, Creteil (France); Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Laboratoire de Recherche en Imagerie, EA 4062, Universite Paris Descartes, Paris (France); Parouchev, Alexandre; Braga, Gustavo; Boudechiche, Lyes; L' Hermine-Coulomb, Aurore; Hadchouel, Michele; Weber, Anne [CHU Bicetre, INSERM EMI 00 20, and University Paris XI, Kremlin Bicetre (France); Smirnov, Pierre [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Laboratoire de Recherche en Imagerie, EA 4062, Universite Paris Descartes, Paris (France); Universite Paris VII, CNRS UMR 7057, Matieres et systemes Complexes, Paris (France); Wilhelm, Claire; Gazeau, Florence [Universite Paris VII, CNRS UMR 7057, Matieres et systemes Complexes, Paris (France); Dagher, Ibrahim; Franco, Dominique [CHU Bicetre, INSERM EMI 00 20, and University Paris XI, Kremlin Bicetre (France); Chirurgie Viscerale, CHLI Antoine Beclers, Clamart (France); Rahmouni, Alain [CHU Henri Mondor, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Radiology Department, Creteil (France); Clement, Olivier [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Laboratoire de Recherche en Imagerie, EA 4062, Universite Paris Descartes, Paris (France)

    2008-01-15

    The feasibility of in vitro mature mouse hepatocyte labeling with a novel iron oxide particle was assessed and the ability of 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to track labeled mouse hepatocytes in syngenic recipient livers following intraportal cell transplantation was tested. Mouse hepatocytes were incubated with anionic iron oxide nanoparticles at various iron concentrations. Cell viability was assessed and iron oxide particle uptake quantified. Labeled hepatocytes were intraportally injected into 20 mice, while unlabeled hepatocytes were injected into two mice. Liver T2 values, spleen-to-muscle relative signal intensity (RI{sub spleen/muscle}), and liver-to-muscle relative signal intensity (RI{sub liver/muscle}) on gradient-echo T2-weighted imaging after injection of either labeled or unlabeled hepatocytes were compared with an ANOVA test followed by Fisher's a posteriori PLSD test. Livers, spleens and lungs were collected for histological analysis. Iron oxide particle uptake was saturable with a maximum iron content of 20 pg per cell and without viability alteration after 3 days of culture. Following labeled-cell transplantation, recipient livers showed well-defined nodular foci of low signal intensity on MRI - consistent with clusters of labeled hepatocytes on pathological analysis - combined with a significant decrease in both liver T2 values and liver-to-muscle RI{sub liver/muscle} (P = 0.01) with minimal T2 values demonstrated 8 days after transplantation. Conventional MRI can demonstrate the presence of transplanted iron-labeled mature hepatocytes in mouse liver. (orig.)

  2. Single breath hold 3D cardiac cine MRI using kat-ARC: preliminary results at 1.5T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Daniel; Schiebler, Mark L; Lai, Peng; Wang, Kang; Vigen, Karl K; François, Christopher J

    2015-04-01

    Validation of a new single breath-hold, three-dimensional, cine balanced steady-state free precession (3D cine bSSFP) cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) sequence for left ventricular function. CMR examinations were performed on fifteen patients and three healthy volunteers on a clinical 1.5T scanner using a two-dimensional (2D) cine balanced SSFP CMR sequence (2D cine bSSFP) followed by an investigational 3D cine bSSFP pulse sequence acquired within a single breath hold. Left ventricular end diastolic volume (LVEDV), end systolic volume (LVESV), ejection fraction (LVEF), and myocardial mass were independently segmented on a workstation by two experienced radiologists. Blood pool to myocardial contrast was evaluated in consensus using a Likert scale. Bland-Altman analysis was used to compare these quantitative and nominal measurements for the two sequences. The average acquisition time was significantly shorter for the 3D cine bSSFP than for 2D cine bSSFP (0.36 ± 0.03 vs. 8.5 ± 2.3 min) p = 0.0002. Bland-Altman analyses [bias and (limits of agreement)] of the data derived from these two methods revealed that the LVEF 0.9% (-4.7, 6.4), LVEDV 4.9 ml (-23.0, 32.8), LVESV -0.2 ml (-22.4, 21.9), and myocardial mass -0.4 g (-23.8, 23.0) were not significantly different. There was excellent intraclass correlation for intra-observer variability (0.981, 0.989, 0.997, 0.985) and inter-observer variability (0.903, 0.954, 0.970, 0.842) for LVEF, LVEDV, LVESV, and myocardial mass respectively. 3D cine bSSFP allows for accurate single breath-hold volumetric cine CMR which enables substantial improvements in scanner time efficiency without sacrificing diagnostic accuracy.

  3. Conduction cooled magnet design for 1.5 T, 3.0 T and 7.0 T MRI systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Tanvir; Yao, Zhen; Doll, David; Tomsic, Michael; Martens, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Main magnets for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are largely constructed with low temperature superconducting material. Most commonly used superconductors for these magnets are niobium-titanium (NbTi). Such magnets are operated at 4.2 K by being immersed in a liquid helium bath for long time operation. As the cost of liquid helium has increased threefold in the last decade and the market for MRI systems is on average increasing by more than 7% every year, there is a growing demand for an alternative to liquid helium. Superconductors such as magnesium-diboride (MgB2) and niobium-tin (Nb3Sn) demonstrate superior current carrying quality at higher critical temperatures than 4.2 K. In this article, electromagnetic designs for conduction cooled main magnets over the range of medium field strengths (1.5 T) to ultrahigh field strengths (7.0 T) are presented. These designs are achieved by an improved functional approach coming from a series of developments by the present research group and using properties of the state-of-the-art second generation MgB2 wires and Nb3Sn wires developed by Hyper Tech Research Inc. The MgB2 magnet designs operated at different field strengths demonstrate excellent homogeneity and shielding properties at an operating temperature of 10 K. At ultrahigh field, the high current density on Nb3Sn allowed by the larger magnetic field on wire helps to reduce the superconductor volume in comparison with high field NbTi magnet designs. This allows for a compact magnet design that can operate at a temperature of 8 K. Overall, the designs created show promise in the development of conduction cooled dry magnets that would reduce dependence on helium.

  4. Radiation-damping effects in a birdcage resonator with hyperpolarised 3He gas NMR at 1.5 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Kevin; de Zanche, Nicola; Wild, Jim M

    2007-03-01

    The presence and diagnosis of radiation damping could have major implications in NMR experiments with hyperpolarised gases, where accurate knowledge of the flip angle is imperative. In this work radiation damping was observed and investigated in a low-pass birdcage resonator (Q=250) with samples of hyperpolarised 3He at 1.5 T. With an initially highly polarised (P=38%) sample of 3He in a spherical cell, the observed FID had a distorted line shape with a spectral line width that was three times that of the same sample in a virtually depolarised state (1 Hz line width for Pradiation damping. With highly polarised samples, significant radiation damping was observed and the effect was a lower than expected rate of depletion of M0 in RF flip angle calibration experiments, which led to significant underestimate of the RF flip angle. To our knowledge this is the first report of radiation damping in a birdcage resonator with samples hyperpolarised or otherwise. Experimental observation of radiation damping could be used as means of measuring coil efficiency as an alternative to the geometrical filling factor (eta) the definition of which is open to question for a birdcage resonator. Estimates of the birdcage filling factor from the measured damping time constants (eta(RD)=0.4%) are compared to those derived from electromagnetic energy ratios (eta(E)=1.6%) and metallic sphere frequency shift methods (eta(fs)=1.4%). These figures are much lower than the simple volume geometrical upper limit of eta(v)=3.7% derived from the ratio of cell volume to total coil volume (shield included). The physical explanation for this shortfall is that the bulk of the magnetic energy stored in the birdcage is spatially distributed predominantly between the rungs and the shield, and not in the coil centre where the sample is placed and where the B1+ field has its highest spatial homogeneity.

  5. Lingering fat signals with CHESS in simultaneous imaging of both hands can be improved with rice pads in both 1.5 T and 3.0 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriya, Susumu, E-mail: smoyari@yahoo.co.jp [Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, 5-11-80 Kodatsuno, Kanazawa 920-0942 (Japan); Ishikawa Clinic, 46-1 Shimokamo-Umenoki-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi, Kyoto 606-0851 (Japan); Miki, Yukio, E-mail: yukio.miki@med.osaka-cu.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-4-3 Asahi-machi, Abeno-ku, Osaka 545-8585 (Japan); Kamishima, Tamotsu, E-mail: ktamotamo2@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Biomedical Sciences and Engineering, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Health Science, North-12 West-5 Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Miyati, Tosiaki, E-mail: ramiyati@mhs.mp.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Division of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, 5-11-80 Kodatsuno, Kanazawa 920-0942 (Japan); Kanagaki, Mitsunori, E-mail: mitsuk@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto University, 54 Shogoin-kawahara-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi, Kyoto 606-8507 (Japan); Matsuno, Yukako, E-mail: ynoma2000jp@yahoo.co.jp [Oike Clinic, 11 Nishinokyo-Shimoai-cho, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto-shi, Kyoto 604-8436 (Japan); Yokobayashi, Tsuneo, E-mail: mri@mrnet.jp [Ishikawa Clinic, 46-1 Shimokamo-Umenoki-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto-shi, Kyoto 606-0851 (Japan)

    2013-09-15

    Objectives: To investigate whether rice pads can eliminate lingering fat signals of the complex surface shape of both hands that occur with chemical shift selective (CHESS) at 1.5 T and 3.0 T. Materials and methods: T1-weighted images were obtained with CHESS using 1.5 T and 3.0 T systems. The same imaging parameters were used with and without rice pads on the coronal plane of both hands in 10 healthy volunteers. The fat-suppression effects were classified into four categories and scored for images, and visual evaluations were performed by one radiologist and one radiologic technologist. Results: At 1.5 T, the mean evaluation score was 1.55 for images obtained without rice pads and 3.50 for images obtained with rice pads. At 3.0 T, the mean evaluation score was 1.10 for images obtained without rice pads and 3.20 for images obtained with rice pads. With both systems, images obtained with the rice pads showed significantly better fat suppression effects than images obtained without rice pads (P < 0.0001, P < 0.0001). Conclusions: It was confirmed that lingering fat signals are eliminated and good fat-suppressed images are obtained with the use of rice pads at 1.5 T and 3.0 T. Rice pads are therefore useful with at 1.5 T and 3.0 T, which are currently becoming more widely used.

  6. Parallel transmit excitation at 1.5 T based on the minimization of a driving function for device heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudino, N., E-mail: natalia.gudino@nih.gov [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 and National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Sonmez, M.; Nielles-Vallespin, S.; Faranesh, A. Z.; Lederman, R. J.; Balaban, R. S.; Hansen, M. S. [National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Yao, Z.; Baig, T.; Martens, M. [Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States); Griswold, M. A. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 and Department of Radiology, University Hospitals of Cleveland, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: To provide a rapid method to reduce the radiofrequency (RF) E-field coupling and consequent heating in long conductors in an interventional MRI (iMRI) setup. Methods: A driving function for device heating (W) was defined as the integration of the E-field along the direction of the wire and calculated through a quasistatic approximation. Based on this function, the phases of four independently controlled transmit channels were dynamically changed in a 1.5 T MRI scanner. During the different excitation configurations, the RF induced heating in a nitinol wire immersed in a saline phantom was measured by fiber-optic temperature sensing. Additionally, a minimization of W as a function of phase and amplitude values of the different channels and constrained by the homogeneity of the RF excitation field (B{sub 1}) over a region of interest was proposed and its results tested on the benchtop. To analyze the validity of the proposed method, using a model of the array and phantom setup tested in the scanner, RF fields and SAR maps were calculated through finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations. In addition to phantom experiments, RF induced heating of an active guidewire inserted in a swine was also evaluated. Results: In the phantom experiment, heating at the tip of the device was reduced by 92% when replacing the body coil by an optimized parallel transmit excitation with same nominal flip angle. In the benchtop, up to 90% heating reduction was measured when implementing the constrained minimization algorithm with the additional degree of freedom given by independent amplitude control. The computation of the optimum phase and amplitude values was executed in just 12 s using a standard CPU. The results of the FDTD simulations showed similar trend of the local SAR at the tip of the wire and measured temperature as well as to a quadratic function of W, confirming the validity of the quasistatic approach for the presented problem at 64 MHz. Imaging and heating

  7. Comparison of myocardial T1 and T2 values in 3 T with T2* in 1.5 T in patients with iron overload and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Gabriel C; Rothstein, Tamara; Junqueira, Flavia P; Fernandes, Elsa; Greiser, Andreas; Strecker, Ralph; Pessoa, Viviani; Lima, Ronaldo S L; Gottlieb, Ilan

    2016-05-01

    Myocardial iron quantification remains limited to 1.5 T systems with T2* measurement. The present study aimed at comparing myocardial T2* values at 1.5 T to T1 and T2 mapping at 3.0 T in patients with iron overload and healthy controls. A total of 17 normal volunteers and seven patients with a history of myocardial iron overload were prospectively enrolled. Mid-interventricular septum T2*, native T1 and T2 times were quantified on the same day, using a multi-echo gradient-echo sequence at 1.5 T and T1 and T2 mapping sequences at 3.0 T, respectively. Subjects with myocardial iron overload (T2* iron overload quantification.

  8. Quantitative evaluation of perfusion magnetic resonance imaging hyper-acute ischemic stroke patients comparison with 1.5T and 3.0T units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Eun Hoe [Dept. of Radiological Science, Cheongju University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Il Bong; Dong, Kyung Rae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Perfusion magnetic resonance image of biological mechanism are independent of magnetic field strength in hyper acute ischemic stroke. 3.0 T magnetic field, however, does affect the SNRs (signal to noise ratio) and artifacts of PMRI (perfusion magnetic resonance image), which basically will influence the quantitative of PMRI. In this study, the effects of field strength on PMRI are analyzed. The effects of the diseases also are discussed. PMRI in WM (white matter), GM (gray matter), hyper acute ischemic stroke were companied with 1.5 T and 3.0 T on SNR. PMRI also was compared to the SI difference after setting ROI (region of interest) in left and right b side of the brain. In conclusion, the SNRs and SI of the 3.0 T PMRI showed higher than those at 1.5 T. In summary, PMRI studies at 3.0 T is provided significantly improved perfusion evaluation when comparing with 1.5 T.

  9. Quantitative and qualitative evaluation of brain diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging comparison with 1.5 T and 3.0 T units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Eun Hoe [Dept. of Radiological Science, Cheongju University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    DWI of biological effects are independent of magnetic field strength in various regions. High field strength, however, does affect the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and artifacts of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) images, which ultimately will influence the quantitative of diffusion imaging . In this study, the effects of field strength on DWI are reviewed. The effects of the diseases also are discussed. Comparing DWI in cerebellum, WM, GM, Hyperacute region measurements both as a function of field strength (1.5 T and 3.0 T). Overall, the SNR of the DWI roughly doubled going from 1.5 T to 3.0 T. In summary, DWI studies at 3.0 T is provided significantly improved DWI measurements relative to studies at 1.5 T.

  10. In vitro culture of Cucumis sativus L. VI. Histological analysis of leaf explants cultured on media with 2, 4-D or 2, 4, 5-T

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Nadolska-Orczyk; Stefan Malepszy

    2014-01-01

    The developmental sequence of callus initiation and somatic embryogenesis in leaf explants of Cucumis sativus cv. Borszczagowski was analysed and compared on media containing two different auxin phenoxy-derivatives (2,4-D and 2,4,5-T) and cytokinin (BAP or 2iP). During the first 20 days of culture on media with 2,4,5-T proliferation of parenchymatic tissue occurred mainly and only small meristematic centers were observed. There was an intensive detachment of parenchymatic cells and dissociati...

  11. Key technology in design and manufacture of formwork jumbo used for horn-shaped portal section of tunnel on passenger-dedicated railway%客运专线隧道喇叭口洞门模板台车设计与制作关键技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张刚宏; 袁仁爱

    2015-01-01

    采用喇叭口缓冲式结构洞门是解决客运专线大断面隧道空气动力学效应的主要措施,结合沪昆客专长昆湖南段喇叭口隧道洞门实际情况,重点研究隧道衬砌模板台车设计、制作、安装等关键技术,将原隧道模板台车的门架总成、丝杠支撑总成予以改造,解决了客运专线喇叭口洞门衬砌问题。%Horn-shaped buffer structure portal is the main solution for aerodynamic effect of large section tunnel in passenger-dedicated line. Combining with the actual situation of tunnel horn-shaped portal in Changsha-Kunming Hunan province section of Shanghai-Kunming passenger-dedicated line,this paper studied the design,manufacture and installation key technology for formwork jumbo of tunnel lining and improved the portal assembly and screw support assembly of original tunnel formwork jumbo,which could solve the tunnel horn-shaped portal lining in passenger-dedicated line.

  12. In vitro culture of Cucumis sativus L. VI. Histological analysis of leaf explants cultured on media with 2, 4-D or 2, 4, 5-T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nadolska-Orczyk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The developmental sequence of callus initiation and somatic embryogenesis in leaf explants of Cucumis sativus cv. Borszczagowski was analysed and compared on media containing two different auxin phenoxy-derivatives (2,4-D and 2,4,5-T and cytokinin (BAP or 2iP. During the first 20 days of culture on media with 2,4,5-T proliferation of parenchymatic tissue occurred mainly and only small meristematic centers were observed. There was an intensive detachment of parenchymatic cells and dissociation of their cell walls near vessels and in the lower part of the explant adjacent to the medium. These cells were strongly plasmolysed. On the 2,4-D containing medium mostly meristematic tissue developed, proliferating around vascular bundles and forming meristematic centers or promeristem-like structures. After 35-50 days of culture, secondary callus was formed by separation of meristematic cells from the meristem surface in explants cultured on the 2,4-D containing medium. On medium supplemented with 2, 4, 5-T the detachment of parenchymatic and meristematic cells occurred, along with formation of a gel-like substance. The gel-like callus contained multi-cellular aggregates, proembryoids and embryoids. This type of callus tissue was initiated more intensively on medium with 2, 4, 5-T, but the frequency of somatic embryogenesis was much lower. The periferial cells of aggregates, proembryoids and embryoids showed the tendency to separate from the surface of the tissue. Many embryoids formed adventitious embryos.

  13. Quantitative and qualitative comparison of 3.0T and 1.5T MR imaging of the liver in patients with diffuse parenchymal liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Semelka, Richard C; Zapparoli, Mauricio; Elias, Jorge; Altun, Ersan; Pamuklar, Ertan; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of our study was to compare signal characteristics and image qualities of MR imaging at 3.0T and 1.5T in patients with diffuse parenchymal liver disease. 25 consecutive patients with diffuse parenchymal liver disease underwent abdominal MR imaging at both 3.0T and 1.5T within a 6-month interval. A retrospective study was conducted to obtain quantitative and qualitative data from both 3.0T and 1.5T MRI. Quantitative image analysis was performed by measuring the signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) and the contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs) by the Students t-test. Qualitative image analysis was assessed by grading each sequence on a 3- and 4-point scale, regarding the presence of artifacts and image quality, respectively. Statistical analysis consisted of the Wilcoxon signed-rank test. the mean SNRs and CNRs of the liver parenchyma and the portal vein were significantly higher at 3.0T than at 1.5T on portal and equilibrium phases of volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) images (Pquantitative and qualitative advantages of evaluating for diffuse parenchymal liver disease.

  14. Superficial amygdala and hippocampal activity during affective music listening observed at 3 T but not 1.5 T fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouras, Stavros; Gray, Marcus; Critchley, Hugo; Koelsch, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare 3 T and 1.5 T fMRI results during emotional music listening. Stimuli comprised of psychoacoustically balanced instrumental musical pieces, with three different affective expressions (fear, neutral, joy). Participants (N=32) were split into two groups, one subjected to fMRI scanning using 3 T and another group scanned using 1.5 T. Whole brain t-tests (corrected for multiple comparisons) compared joy and fear in each of the two groups. The 3 T group showed significant activity differences between joy and fear localized in bilateral superficial amygdala, bilateral hippocampus and bilateral auditory cortex. The 1.5 T group showed significant activity differences between joy and fear localized in bilateral auditory cortex and cuneus. This is the first study to compare results obtained under different field strengths with regard to affective processes elicited by means of auditory/musical stimulation. The findings raise concern over false negatives in the superficial amygdala and hippocampus in affective studies conducted under 1.5 T and caution that imaging improvements due to increasing magnetic field strength can be influenced by region-specific characteristics.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION AND NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE DETERMINATION OF A REPEAT ELEMENT ISOLATED FROM A 2,4,5,-T DEGRADING STRAIN OF PSEUDOMONAS CEPACIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas cepacia strain AC1100, capable of growth on 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T), was mutated to the 2,4,5-T− strain PT88 by a ColE1 :: Tn5 chromosomal insertion. Using cloned DNA from the region flanking the insertion, a 1477-bp sequence (designated RS1100) wa...

  16. CD4+CXCR5+ T cells activate CD27+IgG+ B cells via IL-21 in patients with hepatitis C virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan-Yun Kong; Bo Feng; Heng-Hui Zhang; Hui-Ying Rao; Jiang-Hua Wang; Xu Cong; Lai Wei

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection causes the skewing and activation of B cell subsets, but the characteristics of IgG+ B cells in patients with chronic hepa-titis C (CHC) infection have not been thoroughly elucidated. CD4+CXCR5+ follicularhelperT(Tfh)cells,viainterleukin (IL)-21 secretion, activate B cells. However, the role of CD4+CXCR5+T cellsintheactivationof IgG+ BcellsinCHCpatientsis not clear. METHODS: The frequency of IgG+ B cells, including CD27−IgG+B and CD27+IgG+ B cells,the expression of the activation markers (CD86 and CD95) in IgG+ B cells, and the percentage of circu-lating CD4+CXCR5+ T cells were detected by flow cytometry in CHC patients (n=70) and healthy controls (n=25). The con-centrations of serum IL-21 were analyzed using ELISA. The role of CD4+CXCR5+ T cells in the activation of IgG+ B cells was investigated using a co-culture system. RESULTS: A significantly lower proportion of CD27+IgG+ B cells with increased expression of CD86 and CD95 was observed in CHC patients.The expression of CD95 was negatively correlated with the percentage of CD27+IgG+ B cells, and it contributed to CD27+IgG+ B cell apoptosis. Circulating CD4+CXCR5+ T cells and serum IL-21 were significantly increased in CHC patients. Moreover, circulating CD4+CXCR5+ T cells from CHC patients induced higher expressions of CD86 and CD95 in CD27+IgG+B cells in a co-culture system; the blockade of the IL-21 decreased the expression levels of CD86 and CD95 in CD27+IgG+ B cells. CONCLUSIONS: HCV infection increased the frequency of CD4+CXCR5+ T cells and decreased the frequency of CD27+IgG+B cells. CD4+CXCR5+ T cells activated CD27+IgG+ B cells via the secretion of IL-21.

  17. Vaccination of prostate cancer patients with modified vaccinia ankara delivering the tumor antigen 5T4 (TroVax): a phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Robert J; Drury, Noel; Naylor, Stuart; Jac, Jaroslaw; Saxena, Somya; Cao, Amy; Hernandez-McClain, Joan; Harrop, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The attenuated vaccinia virus, modified vaccinia Ankara, has been engineered to deliver the tumor antigen 5T4 (TroVax). TroVax has been evaluated in an open-label phase 2 trial in hormone refractory prostate cancer patients in which the vaccine was administered either alone or in combination with granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). The comparative safety and immunologic and clinical efficacy of TroVax alone or in combination with GM-CSF was determined. Twenty-seven patients with metastatic hormone refractory prostate cancer were treated with TroVax alone (n=14) or TroVax+GM-CSF (n=13). 5T4-specific cellular and humoral responses were monitored throughout the study. Clinical responses were assessed by quantifying prostate-specific antigen concentrations and measuring changes in tumor burden by computer-assisted tomography scan. TroVax was well tolerated in all patients with no serious adverse events attributed to vaccination. Of 24 immunologically evaluable patients, all mounted 5T4-specific antibody responses. Periods of disease stabilization from 2 to >10 months were observed. Time to progression was significantly greater in patients who mounted 5T4-specific cellular responses compared with those who did not (5.6 vs. 2.3 mo, respectively). There were no objective clinical responses seen in this study. In this study, the combination of GM-CSF with TroVax showed similar clinical and immunologic responses to TroVax alone. The high frequency of 5T4-specific immune responses and relationship with enhanced time to progression is encouraging and warrants further investigation.

  18. SU-E-QI-19: Evaluation of a Clinical 1.5T MRI for Prostate Cancer MRS Imaging Using a In Vivo Tumor Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, X; Chen, L; Hensley, H; Cvetkovic, D; Fan, J; Ma, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Zhang, C [Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Qiqihaer Medical University, Qiqihaer, Heilongjiang (China)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance spectroscopic (MRS) imaging may provide important bio-markers to distinguish normal/cancerous prostate tissue. While MRS imaging requires a high uniform magnetic field, the ability of a clinical 1.5T MRI to achieve a comparable MRS signal is of interest for radiation treatment planning/assessment. This study is to evaluate the MRS imaging of a 1.5T clinical MRI for prostate cancers by comparing with a small animal 7T MRS scanner. Methods: A tumor model was developed by implanting LNCaP tumor cells in nude mice prostates. Tumor was monitored 3 weeks after implantation using MRI, and MRS imaging was performed on the tumor area when the tumor reached around 1cm in diameter. The 1.5T GE clinical MR scanner and the 7T Bruker small animal MR scanner were used for each mouse. MR spectrums acquired with these scanners were analyzed and compared. The signals of Choline and Citrate were considered. Results: The prostate tumor MR spectrum under the 1.5T clinical MRI showed a similar spectrum pattern to that acquired using the 7T animal MRI. The Choline signal (3.2ppm) is clear and there is no clear peak for Citrate (2.6ppm). However, the signal magnitude for Choline is not dominant compared to the background signal under 1.5T MRI. Typical cancerous prostate tissue MR spectrum with an increased Choline signal and a reduced Citrate signal was observed. In addition, signal variation is noticeable between repeated spectrum scans. The average of these scans showed a comparable and consistent spectrum to those under 7T MRI. Conclusion: The clinical 1.5T MRI is able to acquire a MR spectrum for prostate cancer comparable to those acquired using a dedicated 7T MRS scanner. However, to achieve a consistent and reliable spectrum, multiple repeated scans were necessary to get a statistical result and reduce the noise-induced artifact. This work was supported in part by the National Cancer Institute Grant R21 CA131979 and R01CA172638.

  19. 基于混料实验设计优化鱿鱼甲醛复合抑制剂%Optimization of compound inhibitors of formaldehyde in the jumbo squid ( Dosidicus gigas) based on mixture design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗林林; 朱军莉; 励建荣

    2012-01-01

    为了研发水产品内源性甲醛的控制新技术,本文利用SAS软件的单纯型格子混料设计进行秘鲁鱿鱼甲醛复合抑制剂的优化。确定了茶多酚、氯化钙和氯化镁三种甲醛抑制剂的最佳配比为0.026%、0.642mmol/L、0.332mmol/L。通过模型的建立得到响应值与三种物质配比之间的回归方程,其中茶多酚对鱿鱼甲醛的减少率影响最大,而氯化钙对二甲胺的减少率影响最大。方差分析和验证结果表明,该模型能够准确可靠的预测响应值,并且甲醛抑制剂在高温及pH6.0时能有效降低鱿鱼中甲醛和二甲胺含量。因此,该复合抑制剂可用于鱿鱼制品高温加工过程中内源性甲醛生成的控制。%In order to research a new technique of formaldehyde control in the aquatic products, mixture design of SAS software was applied to optimizing compound inhibitors of formaldehyde in the jumbo squid.The best mixture radio of tea polyphenol, calcium chloride and magnesium chlorid was 0.026%, 0.642mmol/L, 0.332mmol/L, respectively.The model established to predict the equation between responses and three substances mixture radio was obtained by regression analysis.Tea polyphenol had the greatest effect on the reducing rate of formaldehyde, while calcium chloride had the greatest effect on the reducing rate of dimethylamine in squid.The data of analysis of variance and demonstration test indicated that the established models and regressive equation were significance,and could predict the responses value accurately and reliably.The inhibitors reduced effectively the content of formaldehyde and dimethylamine treated at high temperature and pH 6.0. Therefore, the compound inhibitors could be applied to control formaldehyde formation during the squid products thermal processing.

  20. Safety of implantable coronary stents during 1H-magnetic resonance imaging at 1.0 and 1.5 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohm, O; Kivelitz, D; Gross, W; Schulz-Menger, J; Liu, X; Hamm, B; Dietz, R; Friedrich, M G

    1999-01-01

    The safety of most available implantable intracoronary stents during magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has not been sufficiently tested. Minor, but possibly clinically significant, increases in temperature have not been excluded. We measured temperature changes of 14 different stents clinically in use or currently tested for release on the world market. Stents were examined in 1.0- and 1.5-T MR scanners with multiple sequences used in routine cardiac and thoracic MRI examinations ("clinical worst case") and after implantation of the stents into the coronary arteries of excised pig hearts (1.5-T scanner only). We used a highly sensitive infrared camera with a thermal resolution of 10 mK and did not see significant heating of any stent during the examinations. We conclude that MRI is safe in patients with the currently available intracoronary stents.

  1. Biodegradation of phenol, 2,4-DCP, 2,4-D, and 2,4,5-T in field-collected rhizosphere and nonrhizosphere soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, J.J.; Shann, J.R. [Univ. of Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-07-01

    This study investigated xenobiotic biodegradation in rhizosphere soil collected from field-grown plants, grouped for analysis as monocots or dicots. Microbial activity was highest in monocot rhizosphere soils, No differences were seen between these soils in the mineralization of phenol or 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), but there were differences in 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T) mineralization. The rate constants for 2,4-D or 2,4,5-T mineralization in nonrhizosphere soil. Thus, soils that had a prior association with a plant showed significantly increased rates o mineralization for the more recalcitrant compounds tested. In addition, this enhanced mineralization in the rhizosphere appeared to be dependent on the type of plant involved. 20 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Diffusion-weighted MR neurography of the brachial and lumbosacral plexus: 3.0 T versus 1.5 T imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mürtz, P., E-mail: petra.muertz@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Kaschner, M., E-mail: Marius.Kaschner@med.uni-duesseldorf.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Lakghomi, A., E-mail: Asadeh.Lakghomi@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Gieseke, J., E-mail: juergen.gieseke@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Philips Healthcare, Lübeckertordamm 5, 20099 Hamburg (Germany); Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Willinek, W.A., E-mail: winfried.willinek@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Schild, H.H., E-mail: hans.schild@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany); Thomas, D., E-mail: daniel.thomas@ukb.uni-bonn.de [Department of Radiology, University of Bonn, Sigmund-Freud-Straße 25, 53105 Bonn (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •DW MRN of brachial and lumbosacral plexus at 1.5 T and at 3.0 T was compared. •For lumbosacral plexus, nerve conspicuity on MIP images was superior at 3.0 T, also visible length and mean sharpness of the nerves. •For brachial plexus, nerve conspicuity at 3.0 T was rather inferior, nerve length was not significantly different, mean sharpness was superior at 3.0 T. -- Abstract: Purpose: To compare intraindividually the nerve conspicuity of the brachial and lumbosacral plexus on diffusion-weighted (DW) MR neurography (MRN) at two different field strengths. Materials and methods: 16 healthy volunteers were investigated at 3.0 T and 1.5 T applying optimized variants of a DW spin-echo echo-planar imaging sequence with short TI inversion recovery fat suppression. Full-volume (FV) and curved sub-volume (CSV) maximum intensity projection (MIP) images were reconstructed and nerve conspicuity was visually assessed. Moreover, visible length and sharpness of the nerves were quantitatively analyzed. Results: On FV MIP images, nerve conspicuity at 3.0 T compared to 1.5 T was worse for brachial plexus (P = 0.00228), but better for lumbosacral plexus (P = 0.00666). On CSV MIP images, nerve conspicuity did not differ significantly for brachial plexus, but was better at 3.0 T for lumbosacral plexus (P = 0.00091). The visible length of the analyzed nerves did not differ significantly with the exception of some lumbosacral nerves, which were significantly longer at 3.0 T. The sharpness of all investigated nerves was significantly higher at 3.0 T by about 40–60% for cervical and 97–169% for lumbosacral nerves. Conclusion: DW MRN imaging at 3.0 T compared to 1.5 T is superior for lumbosacral plexus, but not for brachial plexus.

  3. [Evaluation of Artificial Hip Joint with Radiofrequency Heating Issues during MRI Examination: A Comparison between 1.5 T and 3 T].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Masaru; Ideta, Takahiro; Kudo, Sadahiro; Nakazawa, Masami

    2016-06-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), when radiofrequency (RF) is irradiated to a subject with metallic implant, it can generate heat by RF irradiation. Recently 3 T MRI scanner has spread widely and imaging for any regions of whole body has been conducted. However specific absorption rate (SAR) of 3 T MRI becomes approximately four times as much as the 1.5 T, which can significantly affect the heat generation of metallic implants. So, we evaluated RF heating of artificial hip joints in different shapes and materials in 1.5 T and 3 T MRI. Three types of artificial hip joints made of stainless alloy, titanium alloy and cobalt chrome alloy were embedded in the human body-equivalent phantom respectively and their temperature change were measured for twenty minutes by 1.5 T and 3 T MRI. The maximum temperature rise was observed at the bottom head in all of three types of artificial hip joints, the rise being 12°C for stainless alloy, 11.9°C for titanium alloy and 6.1°C for cobalt chrome alloy in 1.5 T. The temperature rise depended on SAR and the increase of SAR had a good linear relationship with the temperature rise. It was found from the result that the RF heating of metallic implants can take place in various kinds of material and the increase of SAR has a good linear relationship with the temperature rise. This experience shows that reduction of SAR can decrease temperature of metallic implants.

  4. Treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma adjacent to large blood vessels using 1.5T MRI-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation combined with iodine-125 radioactive seed implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Zheng-Yu, E-mail: linsinlan@yahoo.com.cn [The Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 20 Chazhong Road, Fuzhou 350005 (China); Chen, Jin, E-mail: snow8968851@163.com [The Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 20 Chazhong Road, Fuzhou 350005 (China); Deng, Xiu-Fen, E-mail: dxf197286@yahoo.com.cn [The Department of Radiology, First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, 20 Chazhong Road, Fuzhou 350005 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Objective: The objective is to study the technology associated with and feasibility of the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) adjacent to large blood vessels using 1.5T MRI-guided radiofrequency ablation combined with iodine-125 (I-125) radioactive seed implantation. Methods: Sixteen patients with a total of 24 HCC lesions (average maximum diameter: 2.35 {+-} 1.03 cm) were pathologically confirmed by biopsy or clinically diagnosed received 1.5T MRI-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) treatment. Each patient had one lesion adjacent to large blood vessels ({>=}3 mm); after the ablation, I-125 radioactive seeds were implanted in the portions of the lesions that were adjacent to the blood vessels. Results: All the ablations and I-125 radioactive seed implantations were successful; a total of 118 seeds were implanted. The ablated lesions exhibited hypointense signals on the T2WI sequence with a thin rim of hyperintense signals; they also exhibited significant hyperintense signals on the T1WI sequence with clear boundaries. The average follow-up period was 11.1 {+-} 6.2 months. There were 23 complete responses and one partial response in the 24 lesions. The alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels of the patients significantly decreased. Conclusion: The 1.5T MRI-guided RFA combined with I-125 radioactive seed implantation for the treatment of HCC adjacent to large blood vessels is an effective technology.

  5. 3D proton MR spectroscopic imaging of prostate cancer using a standard spine coil at 1.5 T in clinical routine: a feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichy, Matthias P.; Pintaske, Joerg; Machann, Juergen; Schick, Fritz [Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Radiologic Diagnostics, Tuebingen (Germany); Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Section on Experimental Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Kottke, Raimund; Diergarten, Till; Claussen, Claus D.; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter [Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Radiologic Diagnostics, Tuebingen (Germany); Anastasiadis, Aristotelis; Hennenlotter, Joerg; Stenzl, Arnulf [Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Urology, Tubingen (Germany); Roell, Stefan [Siemens AG, Medical Solutions MR Application Development, Spectroscopy (MREA-MRS), Erlangen (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of 3D proton MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) of the prostate using a standard spine instead of a dedicated endorectal coil at 1.5 T. Twenty-eight patients (25 with biopsy proven prostate cancers and three patients with a benign prostate hyperplasia) were examined. MRI and MRSI were conducted with commercial array surface coils at 1.5 T. Ratios of choline (Cho), creatine (Cr) and citrate (Ci) were calculated for tumour, central and peripheral zone retrospectively, based on axial T2 weighed MR images and histology reports. Prostate cancer was characterized by significantly elevated (Cho+Cr)/Ci ratio compared with non-tumourous prostate tissue. The quality of all proton MR spectra was considered to be good or acceptable in 17/28 patients (61%) and poor in 11/28 (39%) examinations. In 20/25 patients with proven malignancy (80%), MRSI was considered to be helpful for the detection of prostate cancer. In 4/25 patients with proven malignancy (16%) who underwent seed implantation, radiotherapy or hormone deprivation before MR examination spectroscopy was of poor and non-diagnostic quality. MRSI of the prostate is feasible within clinical routine using the spine array surface coil at 1.5 T. It can consequently be applied to patients even with contraindications for endorectal coils. However, spectral quality and signal-to-noise ratio is clearly inferior to 3D MRSI examinations with endorectal coils. (orig.)

  6. In vitro assessment of MRI safety at 1.5 T and 3.0 T for bone-anchored hearing aid implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeon, Kyoo Jin; KIm, Hyun Soo; Lee, Seung Keun [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Tae Soo [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Magnetic Resonance Imaging safety by measuring the translational attraction, torque and susceptibility artifact for Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid (BAHA) implant at 1.5 T and 3.0 T MRI by standard criteria. In vitro assessment tools were made of acrylic-resin by American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) F2052-06 and F2119-07 standard. Translational attraction of BAHA implant was measured by the maximum deflection angle at 96 cm position, where the magnetically induced deflection was the greatest. The torque was assessed by the qualitative criteria of evaluating the alignment and rotation pattern, when the BAHA implant was positioned on a line with 45° intervals inside the circular container in the center of the bore. The susceptibility artifact images were obtained using the hanged test tool, which was filled with CuSO4 solution. And then the artifact size was measured using Susceptibility Artifact Measurement (SAM) software. In results, the translational attraction was 0 mm at both 1.5 T and 3.0 T and the torque was 0(no torque) at 1.5 T, and +1(mild torque) at 3.0 T. The size of susceptibility artifacts was between 13.20 mm and 38.91 mm. Therefore, The BAHA implant was safe for the patient in clinical MR environment.

  7. Fate of the herbicides 2,4,5-T, atrazine, and DNOC in a shallow, anaerobic aquifer investigated by in situ passive diffusive emitters and laboratory batch experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arildskov, N.P.; Pedersen, Philip Grinder; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    The fate of the three herbicides 2,4,5-T (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid), atrazine (6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-[1-methyl-ethyl]-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine), and DNOC (4,6-dinitro-2-methylphenol) in an anaerobic sandy aquifer was investigated. In the field, each of the herbicides was released...... simultaneously with tritiated water (HTO) as tracer in the depth interval 3 to 4 rubs (meters below surface) by use of passive diffusive emitters. Atrazine and 2,4,5-T were persistent during the approximately 18 days residence time in the aquifer. In contrast, DNOC was rapidly removed from the water phase....... In the other 2,4,5-T incubations and all the atrazine incubations, concentrations decreased linearly, but less than 25% was removed within 200 to 250 days. No degradation products could be detected, and slow sorption was the likely explanation. In all the laboratory incubations DNOC was degraded, following...

  8. Vaccination of renal cell cancer patients with modified vaccinia Ankara delivering the tumor antigen 5T4 (TroVax) alone or administered in combination with interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha): a phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Robert J; Shingler, William; Goonewardena, Madusha; de Belin, Jackie; Naylor, Stuart; Jac, Jaroslaw; Willis, James; Saxena, Somyata; Hernandez-McClain, Joan; Harrop, Richard

    2009-09-01

    Attenuated vaccinia virus, modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) has been engineered to deliver the tumor antigen 5T4 (TroVax). MVA-5T4 has been evaluated in an open-label phase 2 trial in metastatic renal cell cancer patients in which the vaccine was administered alone or in combination with interferon-alpha-2b (IFN-alpha). The safety, immunologic, and clinical efficacy of MVA-5T4 with or without IFN-alpha was determined. Twenty-eight patients with metastatic renal cell cancer were treated with MVA-5T4 alone (13) or plus IFN-alpha (15). The 5T4-specific cellular and humoral responses were monitored throughout the study. Clinical responses were assessed by measuring changes in tumor burden by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging scan. MVA-5T4 was well tolerated with no serious adverse event attributed to vaccination. Of 23 intent-to-treat patients tested for immune responses postvaccination, 22 (96%) mounted 5T4-specific antibody and/or cellular responses. One patient treated with MVA-5T4 plus IFN-alpha showed a partial response for >7 months, whereas an additional 14 patients (7 receiving MVA-5T4 plus IFN and 7 receiving MVA-5T4 alone) showed periods of disease stabilization ranging from 1.73 to 9.60 months. Median progression free survival and overall survival for all intent-to-treat patients was 3.8 months (range: 1 to 11.47 mo) and 12.1 months (range: 1 to 27 mo), respectively. MVA-5T4 administered alone or in combination with IFN-alpha was well tolerated in all patients. Despite the high frequency of 5T4-specific immune responses, it is not possible to conclude that patients are receiving clinical benefit. The results are encouraging and warrant further investigation.

  9. Long-term tumor regression induced by an antibody-drug conjugate that targets 5T4, an oncofetal antigen expressed on tumor-initiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapra, Puja; Damelin, Marc; Dijoseph, John; Marquette, Kimberly; Geles, Kenneth G; Golas, Jonathon; Dougher, Maureen; Narayanan, Bitha; Giannakou, Andreas; Khandke, Kiran; Dushin, Russell; Ernstoff, Elana; Lucas, Judy; Leal, Mauricio; Hu, George; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Tchistiakova, Lioudmila; Abraham, Robert T; Gerber, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) represent a promising therapeutic modality for the clinical management of cancer. We sought to develop a novel ADC that targets 5T4, an oncofetal antigen expressed on tumor-initiating cells (TIC), which comprise the most aggressive cell population in the tumor. We optimized an anti-5T4 ADC (A1mcMMAF) by sulfydryl-based conjugation of the humanized A1 antibody to the tubulin inhibitor monomethylauristatin F (MMAF) via a maleimidocaproyl linker. A1mcMMAF exhibited potent in vivo antitumor activity in a variety of tumor models and induced long-term regressions for up to 100 days after the last dose. Strikingly, animals showed pathologic complete response in each model with doses as low as 3 mg antibody/kg dosed every 4 days. In a non-small cell lung cancer patient-derived xenograft model, in which 5T4 is preferentially expressed on the less differentiated tumor cells, A1mcMMAF treatment resulted in sustained tumor regressions and reduced TIC frequency. These results highlight the potential of ADCs that target the most aggressive cell populations within tumors, such as TICs. In exploratory safety studies, A1mcMMAF exhibited no overt toxicities when administered to cynomolgus monkeys at doses up to 10 mg antibody/kg/cycle × 2 and displayed a half-life of 5 days. The preclinical efficacy and safety data established a promising therapeutic index that supports clinical testing of A1mcMMAF.

  10. Safety of retained microcatheters: an evaluation of radiofrequency heating in endovascular microcatheters with nitinol, tungsten, and polyetheretherketone braiding at 1.5 T and 3 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losey, Aaron D.; Lillaney, Prasheel; Martin, Alastair J.; Halbach, Van V.; Cooke, Daniel L.; Dowd, Christopher F.; Higashida, Randall T.; Saloner, David A.; Wilson, Mark W.; Saeed, Maythem; Hetts, Steven W.

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer for liquid embolization of cranial vascular lesions has resulted in microcatheter fragments entrapped in patients following endovascular procedures. Undergoing subsequent diagnostic MRI examinations poses a safety concern due to the possibility of radiofrequency heating of the metallic braid incorporated into the microcatheter. Heating of nitinol, tungsten, and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) braided microcatheters was assessed and compared using a phantom model. Methods Microcatheters coupled with fluoroptic temperature probes were embedded in a polyacrylamide gel within a head and torso phantom. Experiments were performed at 1.5 T and 3 T, analyzing the effects of different catheter immersion lengths, specific absorption rate (SAR) levels, short clinical scans, long clinical scans, and microcatheter fragment lengths. Results The maximal increase in temperature for the nitinol braided microcatheter during a 15 min scan was 3.06°C using the T1 fast spin echo sequence at 1.5 T and 0.45°C using the balanced steady state free precession sequence at 3 T. The same scans for fragment lengths of 9, 18, 36, and 72 cm produced maximal temperature rises of 0.68, 0.80, 1.70, and 1.07°C at 1.5 T, respectively. The temperature changes at 3 T for these fragment lengths were 0.66, 0.83, 1.07, and 0.72°C, respectively. The tungsten and PEEK braided microcatheters did not demonstrate heating. Conclusions Substantial heating of nitinol braided microcatheters occurred and was a function of SAR level and geometric considerations. SAR and time limitations on MR scanning are proposed for patients with this microcatheter entrapped in their vasculature. In contrast, tungsten and PEEK braided microcatheters showed potential safe use in MRI. PMID:23685793

  11. MR imaging of hyaline cartilage at 0.5 T: a quantitative and qualitative in vitro evaluation of three types of sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linden, E. van der; Kroon, H.M.; Doornbos, J.; Bloem, J.L. [Department of Radiology C2-S, Albinusdreef 2, Leiden University Medical Center, Postbus 9600, NL-2300 RC Leiden (Netherlands); Hermans, J. [Department of Medical Statistics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands)

    1998-06-01

    Objective. To identify an optimal pulse sequence for in vitro imaging of hyaline cartilage at 0.5 T. Materials and methods. Twelve holes of varying diameter and depth were drilled in cartilage of two pig knees. These were submerged in saline and scanned with a 0.5-T MR system. Sixteen T1-weighted gradient echo (GE), two T2-weighted GE, and 16 fast spin echo sequences were used, by varying repetition time (TR), echo time (TE), flip angle (FA), echo train length, profile order, and by use of fat saturation. Contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) of cartilage versus saline solution and cartilage versus subchondral bone were measured. Cartilaginous lesions were evaluated separately by three independent observers. Interobserver variability and correlation between the quantitative and qualitative analyses were calculated. Results. The mean CNRs of two specimens of cartilage versus saline solution ranged from 6.3 ({+-}2.1) to 27.7 ({+-}2.5), and those of cartilage versus subchondral bone from 0.3 ({+-}0.2) to 22.5 ({+-}1.4). The highest CNR was obtained with a T1-weighted spoiled 3D-GE technique (TR 65 ms, TE 11.5 ms, FA 45 ). The number of lesions observed per sequence varied from 35 to 69. Observer agreement was fair to good. The T1-weighted spoiled GE sequences with a TR of 65 ms, TE of 11.5 ms and FA of 30 and 45 were significantly superior to the other 34 sequences in the qualitative analysis. Conclusion. T1-weighted spoiled 3D-GE sequences with a TR of 65 ms, a TE of 11.5 ms, and a FA of 30-45 were found to be optimal for in vitro imaging of cartilage at 0.5 T. (orig.) With 8 figs., 1 tab., 31 refs.

  12. First-in-human trial of an anti-5T4 antibody-monomethylauristatin conjugate, PF-06263507, in patients with advanced solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Geoffrey I; Vaishampayan, Ulka N; LoRusso, Patricia; Barton, Jeremy; Hua, Steven; Reich, Steven D; Shazer, Ronald; Taylor, Carrie T; Xuan, Dawei; Borghaei, Hossein

    2017-01-09

    Background The antibody-drug conjugate PF-06263507 targets the cell-surface, tumor-associated antigen 5T4 and consists of a humanized IgG1 conjugated to the microtubule-disrupting agent monomethylauristatin-F by a non-cleavable maleimidocaproyl linker. In this first-in-human, dose-finding trial (NCT01891669), we evaluated safety, pharmacokinetics, and preliminary antitumor activity of PF-06263507 in pretreated patients with advanced solid tumors, unselected for 5T4 expression. starting at 0.05 mg/kg, with 25, 56, and 95% dose increments, depending on observed dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), applying a modified continual reassessment method. Results Twenty-six patients received PF-06263507 at 0.05 to 6.5 mg/kg. The first DLT, grade 3 photophobia, occurred at 4.34 mg/kg and two additional DLTs, grade 2 keratitis and grade 1 limbal stem cell deficiency (> 2-week dosing delay), at 6.5 mg/kg. The most common adverse events (AEs) were fatigue (38.5%), photophobia (26.9%), and decreased appetite, dry eye, nausea, and thrombocytopenia (23.1% each). No treatment-related grade 4-5 AEs were reported. Systemic exposure of PF-06263507 increased in a dose-related manner. At the maximum tolerated dose (MTD, 4.34 mg/kg), mean terminal half-life for PF-06263507 and unconjugated payload were ~6 and 3 days, respectively. Payload serum concentrations were substantially lower compared with PF-06263507. No objective responses were observed. Conclusions The MTD and recommended phase II dose were determined to be 4.34 mg/kg. Ocular toxicities accounted for the DLTs observed, as previously reported with monomethylauristatin-F payloads. Further studies are warranted to investigate clinical activity of this agent in patients with 5T4-expressing tumors.Trial registration ID: NCT01891669.

  13. Fate of the herbicides 2,4,5-T, atrazine, and DNOC in a shallow, anaerobic aquifer investigated by in situ passive diffusive emitters and laboratory batch experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arildskov, N P; Pedersen, P G; Albrechtsen, H J

    2001-01-01

    The fate of the three herbicides 2,4,5-T (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid), atrazine (6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-[1-methyl-ethyl]-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine), and DNOC (4,6-dinitro-2-methylphenol) in an anaerobic sandy aquifer was investigated. In the field, each of the herbicides was released simultaneously with tritiated water (HTO) as tracer in the depth interval 3 to 4 mbs (meters below surface) by use of passive diffusive emitters. Atrazine and 2,4,5-T were persistent during the approximately 18 days residence time in the aquifer. In contrast, DNOC was rapidly removed from the water phase following first-order kinetics. The removal mechanism was likely an abiotic reduction. At day 25, the first-order rate constant was 1.47 d(-1), but it decreased with time and seemed to stabilize at 0.35 d(-1) after 150 to 200 days. In the laboratory, batch experiments were conducted with sediments from 3 to 4 mbs and from 8 to 9 mbs. In these incubations, formation of Fe2+ and depletion of sulfate showed iron and sulfate reduction in sediment from 3 to 3.5 mbs and sulfate reduction in 3.5 to 4 mbs sediment. In sediment from 8 to 9 mbs, the dominant redox process was methane formation. In sediment from 3 to 3.5 mbs, only 27% to 52% of the 2,4,5-T remained after 196 days. 2,4,5-trichlorophenol was identified as the major metabolite. A lag period of at least 50 days was observed, and no degradation occurred in HgCl2 amended controls, verifying that the process was microbially mediated. In the other 2,4,5-T incubations and all the atrazine incubations, concentrations decreased linearly, but less than 25% was removed within 200 to 250 days. No degradation products could be detected, and slow sorption was the likely explanation. In all the laboratory incubations DNOC was degraded, following first-order kinetics, and when normalized to the sediment/water-ratio, the field and laboratory derived rate constants compared well. The DNOC degradation in the methanogenic incubations (8 to 9 mbs

  14. A novel unbalanced de novo translocation der(5t(4;5(q26;q21.1 in adult T-cell precursor lymphoblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjeldsen Eigil

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We here describe a novel unbalanced de novo translocation der(5t(4;5(q26;q21.1 in a 39-year-old male diagnosed with acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia. Bone marrow (BM was massively infiltrated with 85 % highly proliferative polymorphic T-cell precursors. Immunologically, the malignant cells stained positive for CD7, CD34, intracytoplasmic CD3+, TdT + and negative for CD3 and CD5. G-banded chromosome analysis of BM cells showed the normal karyotype 46,XY[25] whereas BAC-based aCGH analysis revealed partial gain of 4q and partial loss of 5q. Multicolor karyotyping confirmed the presence of an unbalanced der(5t(4;5 as the sole structural abnormality. Subsequent high-resolution oligonucleotide-based aCGH analysis showed that the der(5t(4;5(q26;q21.1 resulted in partial trisomy of 4q26qter (117,719,015-190,613,014 and partial monosomy of 5q21.1qter (100,425,442-180,857,866 and that there was no indication of any gene disruptions resulting from the breakages. Interphase FISH analysis using BAC-based specific probes for 4q26 and 5q21.1 confirmed the breakpoints and revealed approximately 80 % abnormal cells accordingly. At 4q26 the MIR1973 gene is located centromeric to the breakpoint in the copy number neutral region and the TRAM1L1 gene is located within the gained region. At 5q21.1 the genes ST8SIA4 and MIR548p are located centromeric to the breakpoint and no known genes up to approximately 1 Mb telomeric to the breakpoint in the copy number loss region. Interestingly, only the gene ST8SIA4 at 5q21.1 have been implicated in T-cell regulation as it encodes one of the key enzymes for polysialysation of surface proteins on dendritic cells which are important regulators for T-cell proliferation. The der(5t(4;5 is thought to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of acute T-ALL due to either gain of 4q, the loss of 5q, or deregulation of genes in proximity to the breakpoints.

  15. Prostate cancer: 1.5 T endo-coil dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and MR spectroscopy-correlation with prostate biopsy and prostatectomy histopathological data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, E.; Balslev, I.; Løgager, Vibeke Berg

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 43 patients, scheduled for radical...... prostatectomy, underwent prostate MR examination. Prostate cancer was identified by transrectal ultrasonographically (TRUS) guided sextant biopsy. MR examination was performed at 1.5T with an endorectal MR coil. Cancer localisation was performed on sextant-basis - for comparison between TRUS biopsy, MR...

  16. Index Measurement for 0.5T Permanent Magnet MRI System%0.5T永磁MRI系统参数测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤剑颖; 包尚联

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To set up a set of index for our own developed 0.5T C type permanent magnet MRI system as the progress evaluation and reception check, which has been compared with national standard and gave the own self evaluation.Materials and Methods: Synthesizing the national standard and referencing the international standards of AAPM and NEMA,we proposed a set of index to be the manufacturer's standard for our 0.5T C type permanent MRI system,which included the uniformity, signal to noise of the image, geometry deformation, slice thickness and its uncertainty, space resolution et al.Conclusions: The index measured can token as its performance of the 0.5T C type permanent MRI system.The measurement results showed that the index, such as the space resolution has not seen reported inside of China.%目的:建立一套测量方法检测本课题组完成的0.5T C型永磁型磁共振成像系统的研究进展检测并对成果验收,并将检测结果与相关国家医药行业标准中对质量参数所提示的要求进行比较,并做出评价.材料与方法:采用体模,综合考虑AAPM及HEMA国际组织的测量标准,以及国家医药行业标准,提出一套方法用于测量本组内0.5T磁共振产品的测量参数集作为我们的企业标准,包括图像均匀性、图像信噪比、几何畸变、层厚及误差、空间分辨率等.结论:经过分析和比较,我们建立的测试参数系统能够表征0.5T永磁型磁共振系统的性能,我们研发的系统达到的技术指标,例如空间分辨率等指标在国内未见报道.

  17. Trace elements in the statoliths of jumbo flying squid off the Costa Rica waters%哥斯达黎加外海茎柔鱼耳石的微量元素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建华; 陈新军; 刘必林; 方舟

    2013-01-01

    Jumbo flying squid, Dosidicus gigas, is the most important commercial fishery in east Pacific Ocean, and the statolith in statocyst is widely applied in the field of population identification, life history analysis and habitat environment. In this paper, we studied the trace element composition of statolith in Dosidicus gigas and its relationship with the corresponding sea surface temperature ( SST) by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry ( LA-ICP-MS) , then deduced the habitat in different life stages. The results showed that 54 kinds of elements were found in statolith of Dosidicus gigas, calcium ( Ca) ,sodium( Na) and strontium( Sr) are the major elements. Sr/Ca ratio in total statolith is higher than that in Todarodes pacificus ,Loligo gahi and Gonatus fabricii. Sr/Ca ratio is the highest in embryonic phase and declined by the age,and its relationship with SST shows a reciprocal ratio. There is no significant difference of Sr/Ca ratio between different hatching months in every life stage. Ba/Ca ratio shows a "U"form from larva to adult,this could be seen as the indicator of vertical movement with larva living in the surface and deep layer for adult. Nucleus is higher than peripheral zone in Mg/Ca ratio which presents positive correlation with SST, and this might be possible with the gradua decrease of growth rate in statolith. Meanwhile, this study also shows that Dosidicus gigas in embryonic phase used its own vitellicle as the nutrient substance, so the trace elements in this phase are related with genetic factor in parent rather than the water environment.%实验通过激光剥蚀电感等离子质谱法分析哥斯达黎加外海茎柔鱼耳石的微量元素,了解其微量元素组成及其与表温关系,推测其不同生活史阶段的栖息环境.结果表明,茎柔鱼耳石含有54种元素,其中Ca、Na和Sr为主要元素.总体耳石Sr/Ca大于太平洋褶柔鱼、巴塔哥尼亚枪乌贼和黵乌贼.胚胎期耳石Sr/Ca最

  18. MR-guided radiofrequency ablation using a wide-bore 1.5-T MR system: clinical results of 213 treated liver lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempp, Hansjoerg; Waibel, Lorenz; Hoffmann, Ruediger; Claussen, Claus D.; Clasen, Stephan [Eberhard Karls University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Pereira, Philippe L. [Clinic for Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Minimal Invasive Therapies, SLK-Clinics, Heilbronn (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    To evaluate the technical effectiveness, technical success and patient safety of MR-guided radiofrequency (RF) ablation of liver malignancies using a wide-bore 1.5-T MR system. In 110 patients, 56 primary liver lesions and 157 liver metastases were treated in 157 sessions using percutaneous RF ablation. Mean lesion diameter was 20 mm (range 4-54 mm). All planning, procedural and post-interventional control MR investigations were carried out using a wide-bore 1.5-T MR system. Technical success was assessed by a contrast-enhanced MR liver examination immediately after the intervention. Technique effectiveness was assessed by dynamic hepatic MR study 1 month post ablation; mean follow-up period was 24.2 months (range 5-44). Technical success and technique effectiveness were achieved in 210/213 lesions (98.6 %). In 18/210 lesions (8.6 %), local tumour progression occurred 4-28 months after therapy. Seven of these 18 lesions were treated in a second session achieving complete ablation, 6 other lesions were referred to surgery. Overall RF effectiveness rate was 199/213 (93.4 %); overall therapy success (including surgery) was 205/213 (96.2 %). Two major complications (1.3 %) (bleeding and infected biloma) and 14 (8.9 %) minor complications occurred subsequent to 157 interventions. Wide-bore MR-guided RF ablation is a safe and effective treatment option for liver lesions. (orig.)

  19. Electrochemical decontamination of waters by advanced oxidation processes (aops: Case of the mineralization of 2,4,5-t on bdd electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birame Boye

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, herbicide 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, more commonly known as 2,4,5-T herbicide, has been completely mineralized (i.e. transformed into CO2 and H2O in saturated aqueous solutions using a semi-industrial electrochemical cell that contains a boron doped diamond anode and a zirconium cathode. We have performed cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry and bulk electrolysis to give the optimization characteristics of the degradation of such a compound and its by-products. Bulk electrolysis in the potential region of electrolyte decomposition leads to the complete destruction of 2,4,5-T and its degradation intermediates by means of the electrogeneration of the highly reactive hydroxyl radicals. The evolution of the chemical oxygen demand (COD and the instant current efficiency (ICE during the degradation process is perfectly predicted by a theoretical mathematical model. HPLC and GC-MS have also been performed to highlight the evolution of the mother product and its degradation intermediates. Kinetic analysis of the obtained results has shown a fast destruction of the mother herbicide asserting a diffusion-controlled process. 2,4,5-trichlorophenol and quinone-based organic compounds have been depicted as aromatic intermediates, all of them transformed into short chains carboxylic acids before complete mineralization happens.

  20. Posterior fossa dural arteriovenous fistulas: diagnosis and follow-up with time-resolved imaging of contrast kinetics (TRICKS) at 1.5T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekkola, Johanna; Kangasniemi, Marko (Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)), email: johanna.pekkola@hus.fi

    2011-05-15

    Background Time-of-flight MR angiography (TOF MRA) is currently the most widely used non-invasive imaging tool to diagnose dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF). It is, however, not as sensitive as invasive digital subtraction angiography (DSA) for detecting the arteriovenous shunting inherent in DAVF. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR angiography allows separation of arterial and venous phases of contrast passage though the brain and can thus demonstrate early venous filling through the arteriovenous shunt. Purpose To compare the diagnostic value of TOF MRA and a commercially available dynamic contrast-enhanced MR angiography sequence (TRICKS) at 1.5T in detecting posterior fossa DAVF. Material and Methods We retrospectively collected image data for 19 patients who underwent TOF MRA, TRICKS, and DSA either for primary diagnosis or for follow-up of posterior fossa DAVF and assessed the performance of TOF MRA and TRICKS in demonstrating the arteriovenous shunt, with DSA as the reference standard. Results TRICKS detected early arterial filling at 94.4% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity. TOF MRA detected high flow-related signal within venous structures at 64.7% sensitivity and 80% specificity. Conclusion The commercially available dynamic MR angiography sequence TRICKS with fully automatic vendor postprocessing at 1.5T is more sensitive than TOF MRA in detecting the arteriovenous shunt in posterior fossa DAVF

  1. A multiscale and multiphysics model of strain development in a 1.5 T MRI magnet designed with 36 filament composite MgB2 superconducting wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Abdullah Al; Baig, Tanvir; Deissler, Robert J.; Yao, Zhen; Tomsic, Michael; Doll, David; Akkus, Ozan; Martens, Michael

    2016-05-01

    High temperature superconductors such as MgB2 focus on conduction cooling of electromagnets that eliminates the use of liquid helium. With the recent advances in the strain sustainability of MgB2, a full body 1.5 T conduction cooled magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnet shows promise. In this article, a 36 filament MgB2 superconducting wire is considered for a 1.5 T full-body MRI system and is analyzed in terms of strain development. In order to facilitate analysis, this composite wire is homogenized and the orthotropic wire material properties are employed to solve for strain development using a 2D-axisymmetric finite element analysis (FEA) model of the entire set of MRI magnet. The entire multiscale multiphysics analysis is considered from the wire to the magnet bundles addressing winding, cooling and electromagnetic excitation. The FEA solution is verified with proven analytical equations and acceptable agreement is reported. The results show a maximum mechanical strain development of 0.06% that is within the failure criteria of -0.6% to 0.4% (-0.3% to 0.2% for design) for the 36 filament MgB2 wire. Therefore, the study indicates the safe operation of the conduction cooled MgB2 based MRI magnet as far as strain development is concerned.

  2. Evaluation of the susceptibility artifacts and tissue injury caused by implanted microchips in dogs on 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Miyoko; Ono, Shin; Kayanuma, Hideki; Honnami, Muneki; Muto, Makoto; Une, Yumi

    2010-05-01

    Performing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with a metallic implant raises concern over the potential complications, including susceptibility artifacts, implant migration, and heat injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate these complications in dogs with implanted microchips by evaluating MR images and the histopathological changes after 1.5 Tesla (T) MRI. Five dogs underwent microchip implantation in the cervicothoracic area. One month later, the area was imaged using 1.5T MRI in three dogs. The microchips were removed surgically together with the surrounding tissue in all dogs. There was significant signal loss and image distortion over a wide range around the area where the microchip was implanted. This change was consistent with susceptibility artifacts, which rendered the affected area including the spinal cord undiagnostic. The artifact was more extensive in T2*-weighted images (gradient-echo) and less extensive in proton density-weighted images (fast spin-echo with short echo time). Histopathologically, all microchips were well-encapsulated with granulation tissue, and there were no evidence of migration of microchips. Cell debris and a moderate number of degenerated cells with fibrin were seen in the inner layer of the granulation tissue in each dog that underwent MRI. These changes were very subtle and did not seem to be clinically significant. The results of this study suggest that, in 1.5T MRI, susceptibility artifacts produced by implanted microchips can be marked, although the dogs with implants appeared to be scanned safely.

  3. Evaluation of sexual dimorphism by discriminant function analysis of toe length (1T-5T of adult Igbo populace in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A Alabi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sex determination is an important and one of the foremost criteria in establishing the identity of an individual, and this is achieved by investigating various anatomical structures to establish sex discriminatory features. The present study conducted baseline data for the toe with a view of finding discriminatory sex characteristics. Materials and Methods: A total of 420 subjects were studied by direct linear measurements of the toe length (big toe [1T] to the fifth toes [5T] of both feet using a digital Vernier caliper with accuracy of 0.01 mm. Statistical Package for Social Sciences  (IBM, version 23, Armonk, New York, USA, Levene′s ANOVA outcome informed the use of t-tests to compare mean differences. Discriminant function analysis (DFA was used to evaluate the possibility of sex categorization. The significance level was set at 95%. Results: The mean ± standard deviation values of the right (R toes for the males were 49.63 ± 4.43 mm (1T, 36.92 ± 5.14 mm (2T, 30.35 ± 4.95 mm (3T, 25.55 ± 3.97 mm (4T and 22.21 ± 2.94 mm (5T, whereas the female values were 45.73 ± 4.07 mm (1T, 33.31 ± 4.66 mm (2T, 26.63 ± 4.02 mm (3T, 22.89 ± 3.43 mm (4T, and 19.77 ± 2.70 mm (5T. The left male values were 49.16 ± 4.32 mm (1T, 36.82 ± 5.16 mm (2T, 30.88 ± 4.91 mm (3T, 26.13 ± 3.99 mm (4T, and 22.46 ± 3.24 mm (5T, whereas the female values were 45.33 ± 4.05 mm (1T, 33.05 ± 4.70 mm (2T, 27.27 ± 4.29 mm (3T, 23.10 ± 3.36 mm (4T, 19.81 ± 2.59 mm (5T. From the results, males displayed significantly higher mean values than females in all measured parameters (t = 2.405, P = 0.018 with no asymmetry (P > 0.05; although T3 and T4 were larger on the left foot. The DFA model when tested with the present data derived a significant "F" likelihood ratio test (P < 0.001, a Wilks′ lambda predictability value of 0.759 having a model accuracy of 69.5% with a better prediction for female (70% than males (69%. Conclusion: The use of toe length

  4. 3D Whole-Heart Coronary MR Angiography at 1.5T in Healthy Volunteers: Comparison between Unenhanced SSFP and Gd-Enhanced FLASH Sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gweon, Hye Mi; Kim, Sang Jin; Lee, Sang Min; Hong, Yoo Jin; Kim, Tae Hoon [Yensei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    To validate the optimal cardiac phase and appropriate acquisition window for three-dimensional (3D) whole-heart coronary magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with a steady-state free precession (SSFP) sequence, and to compare image quality between SSFP and Gd-enhanced fast low-angle shot (FLASH) MR techniques at 1.5 Tesla (T). Thirty healthy volunteers (M:F 25:5; mean age, 35 years; range, 24-54 years) underwent a coronary MRA at 1.5T. 3D whole-heart coronary MRA with an SSFP was performed at three different times: 1) at end-systole with a narrow (120-msec) acquisition window (ESN), 2) mid-diastole with narrow acquisition (MDN); and 3) mid-diastole with wide (170-msec) acquisition (MDW). All volunteers underwent a contrast enhanced coronary MRA after undergoing an unenhanced 3D true fast imaging with steady-state precession (FISP) MRA three times. A contrast enhanced coronary MRA with FLASH was performed during MDN. Visibility of the coronary artery and image quality were evaluated for 11 segments, as suggested by the American Heart Association. Image quality was scored by a five-point scale (1 = not visible to 5 = excellent). The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were evaluated at the proximal coronary arteries. The SSFP sequence rendered higher visibility coronary segments, higher image quality, as well as higher SNR and CNR than the Gd-enhanced FLASH technique at 1.5T (p < 0.05). The visibility of coronary segments, image quality, SNR and CNR in the ESN, MDN and MDW with SSFP sequence did not differ significantly. An SSFP sequence provides an excellent method for the 3D whole-heart coronary MRA at 1.5T. Contrast enhanced coronary MRA using the FLASH sequence does not help improve the visibility of coronary segments, image quality, SNR or CNR on the 3D whole-heart coronary MRA.

  5. Macrophages homing to metastatic lymph nodes can be monitored with ultrasensitive ferromagnetic iron-oxide nanocubes and a 1.5T clinical MR scanner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Rim Cho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Due to the ability of macrophages to specifically home to tumors, their potential use as a delivery vehicle for cancer therapeutics has been suggested. Tracking the delivery and engraftment of macrophages into human tumors with a 1.5T clinical MR scanner requires the development of sensitive contrast agents for cell labeling. Therefore, this study aimed to determine whether intravenously injected macrophages could target a primary tumor as well as metastatic LNs, and whether these cells could be detected in vivo by MRI. METHODOLOGY: Peritoneal macrophages were obtained from BALB/c nude mice. The viability, phagocytotic capacity and migratory activity of the macrophages were assessed. MR imaging was performed using a clinical 1.5 T MR scanner and we estimated the T2* of the labeled macrophages. Metastatic lymph nodes were produced in BALB/c nude mice. We administrated 2×10⁶ macrophages labeled with 50 µg Fe/mL FIONs intravenously into the mice. In the 3D T2* GRE MR images obtained one day after the injection of the labeled macrophages or FION solution, the percentages of pixels in the tumors or LNs below the minimum normalized SI (signal intensity threshold were summated and reported as the black pixel count (% for the FION hypointensity. Tumors in the main tumor model as well as the brachial, axillary and inguinal lymph nodes in the metastatic LN models were removed and stained. For all statistical analyses, single-group data were assessed using t test or the Mann-Whitney test. Repeated measurements analysis of variance (ANOVA with Tukey-Kramer post hoc comparisons were performed for multiple comparisons. CONCLUSIONS: The FION-labeled macrophages, which could be non-invasively monitored using a 1.5T clinical MR scanner, targeted both the main tumors and LN metastases. Overall, the results of this study suggest that the use of macrophages may have many future applications in the clinic for vectorizing therapeutic agents toward

  6. A little CFTR goes a long way: CFTR-dependent sweat secretion from G551D and R117H-5T cystic fibrosis subjects taking ivacaftor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E Char

    Full Text Available To determine if oral dosing with the CFTR-potentiator ivacaftor (VX-770, Kalydeco improves CFTR-dependent sweating in CF subjects carrying G551D or R117H-5T mutations, we optically measured sweat secretion from 32-143 individually identified glands in each of 8 CF subjects; 6 F508del/G551D, one G551D/R117H-5T, and one I507del/R117H-5T. Two subjects were tested only (- ivacaftor, 3 only (+ ivacaftor and 3 (+/- ivacaftor (1-5 tests per condition. The total number of gland measurements was 852 (- ivacaftor and 906 (+ ivacaftor. A healthy control was tested 4 times (51 glands. For each gland we measured both CFTR-independent (M-sweat and CFTR-dependent (C-sweat; C-sweat was stimulated with a β-adrenergic cocktail that elevated [cAMP]i while blocking muscarinic receptors. Absent ivacaftor, almost all CF glands produced M-sweat on all tests, but only 1/593 glands produced C-sweat (10 tests, 5 subjects. By contrast, 6/6 subjects (113/342 glands produced C-sweat in the (+ ivacaftor condition, but with large inter-subject differences; 3-74% of glands responded with C/M sweat ratios 0.04%-2.57% of the average WT ratio of 0.265. Sweat volume losses cause proportionally larger underestimates of CFTR function at lower sweat rates. The losses were reduced by measuring C/M ratios in 12 glands from each subject that had the highest M-sweat rates. Remaining losses were estimated from single channel data and used to correct the C/M ratios, giving estimates of CFTR function (+ ivacaftor  = 1.6%-7.7% of the WT average. These estimates are in accord with single channel data and transcript analysis, and suggest that significant clinical benefit can be produced by low levels of CFTR function.

  7. Prostate cancer: 1.5 T endo-coil dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and MR spectroscopy-correlation with prostate biopsy and prostatectomy histopathological data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chabanova, E.; Balslev, I.; Løgager, Vibeke Berg

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 43 patients, scheduled for radical...... prostatectomy, underwent prostate MR examination. Prostate cancer was identified by transrectal ultrasonographically (TRUS) guided sextant biopsy. MR examination was performed at 1.5T with an endorectal MR coil. Cancer localisation was performed on sextant-basis - for comparison between TRUS biopsy, MR......% and 69% for DCEMRI, and 46% and 78% for CSI. CONCLUSION: T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI in combination can identify prostate cancer. Further development of MR technologies for these MR methods is necessary to improve the detection of the prostate cancer...

  8. A novel interplanetary optical navigation algorithm based on Earth-Moon group photos by Chang'e-5T1 probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Yanlong; Zhang, Qiang; Ding, Chibiao; Tang, Geshi; Wang, Hang; Qiu, Rujin; Liang, Libo; Yin, Hejun

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents an interplanetary optical navigation algorithm based on two spherical celestial bodies. The remarkable characteristic of the method is that key navigation parameters can be estimated depending entirely on known sizes and ephemerides of two celestial bodies, especially positioning is realized through a single image and does not rely on traditional terrestrial radio tracking any more. Actual Earth-Moon group photos captured by China's Chang'e-5T1 probe were used to verify the effectiveness of the algorithm. From 430,000 km away from the Earth, the camera pointing accuracy reaches 0.01° (one sigma) and the inertial positioning error is less than 200 km, respectively; meanwhile, the cost of the ground control and human resources are greatly reduced. The algorithm is flexible, easy to implement, and can provide reference to interplanetary autonomous navigation in the solar system.

  9. Study on neutron irradiation effect of superconductors and installation of 15.5 T magnet in hot laboratory at IMR in Tohoku University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Arata; Takeuchi, Takao; Nishijima, Shigehiro; Ochiai, Kentaro; Nishijima, Gen; Watanabe, Kazuo; Narui, Minoru; Kurishita, Hiroaki; Shikama, Tatsuo

    2011-10-01

    A fusion reactor will yield a lot of high energy neutrons, and some of them will stream out of a plasma vacuum vessel and penetrate a blanket system and reach superconducting magnets which provide high magnetic field to confine high energy ionized particles. Under the neutron irradiation, the magnet materials will be activated and the properties will change. In this study, a research network on study of the irradiation effects is introduced and some data recently obtained are presented. By neutron irradiation, the critical current of the Nb 3Sn wire increased and the critical field did not change. The organic insulation materials were degraded at neutron fluence of 1 × 10 22 n/m 2. In addition, the outline of an installation plan of 15.5 T superconducting magnet into radiation control area is described and study issues are explained. The project is undergoing as a program of Nuclear Basic Infrastructure Strategic Study Initiative.

  10. Wide Variety of Experiments Using a Cryogen-Free 27.5 T Hybrid Magnet and a Cryogen-Free 18.1 T Superconducting Magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, K.; Awaji, S.; Oguro, H.

    2013-03-01

    A cryogen-free hybrid magnet without liquid helium for operation, generating 27.5 T in a 32 mm room temperature bore of an 8 MW water-cooled resistive insert magnet in an 8.5 T background field of a cryogen-free superconducting outsert magnet, is being operated for basic research at low temperatures down to 17 mK in combination with a dilution refrigerator. In addition, we are developing functional materials using a differential thermal analysis DTA at high temperatures up to 1473 K in high fields up to 27 T. This cryogen-free hybrid magnet will be upgraded to generate 29 T by improving the outer superconducting magnet. A cryogen-free 18.1 T superconducting magnet with a 52 mm room temperature experimental bore, consisting of a Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10 (Bi2223) insert coil, has been developed using a GM-JT cryocooler. Recently, bronze-tape-laminated Bi2223 has revealed excellent irreversible stress tolerance of 250 MPa at 77 K. In addition, the critical current properties for recent Bi2223 tapes are largely improved from 200 to 400 A/cm-width at 77 K in a self-field. Therefore, the stainless steel reinforcement tape incorporated for the previous Bi2223 insert coil is no longer needed for a new Bi2223 one. A new Bi2223 insert coil with almost the same size as the existing insert coil can generate two times higher fields at the elevated operation current from 162 to 191 A. An upgraded cryogen-free superconducting magnet can offer a long-term experiment at the constant magnetic field of 20 T for an in-field heat-treatment investigation.

  11. Specificity of choline metabolites for in vivo diagnosis of breast cancer using {sup 1}H MRS at 1.5 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanwell, Peter; Gluch, Laurence; Lean, Cynthia; Malycha, Peter; Mountford, Carolyn [Royal North Shore Hospital, Institute for Magnetic Resonance Research and Department of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, University of Sydney, St Leonards, NSW (Australia); Clark, David [Breast Centre, Waratah, NSW (Australia); Tomanek, Boguslaw [National Research Council Canada, Institute for Biodiagnostics, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Baker, Luke [Sydney Adventist Hospital, Department of Radiology, Wahroonga, NSW (Australia); Giuffre, Bruno [Royal North Shore Hospital, Department of Radiology, St Leonards, NSW (Australia)

    2005-05-01

    The purpose was to determine if in vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H MRS) at 1.5 T can accurately provide the correct pathology of breast disease. Forty-three asymptomatic volunteers including three lactating mothers were examined and compared with 21 breast cancer patients. Examinations were undertaken at 1.5 T using a purpose-built transmit-receive single breast coil. Single voxel spectroscopy was undertaken using echo times of 135 and 350 ms. The broad composite resonance at 3.2 ppm, which includes contributions from choline, phosphocholine (PC), glycerophosphocholine (GPC), myo-inositol and taurine, was found not to be a unique marker for malignancy providing a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 80.0 and 86.0%, respectively. This was due to three of the asymptomatic volunteers and all of the lactating mothers also generating the broad composite resonance at 3.2 ppm. Optimised post-acquisitional processing of the spectra resolved a resonance at 3.22 ppm, consistent with PC, in patients with cancer. In contrast the spectra recorded for three false-positive volunteers, and the three lactating mothers had a resonance centred at 3.28 ppm (possibly taurine, myo-inositol or GPC). This improved the specificity of the test to 100%. Careful referencing of the spectra and post-acquisitional processing intended to optimise spectral resolution of in vivo MR proton spectra from human breast tissue resolves the composite choline resonance. This allows the distinction of patients with malignant disease from volunteers with a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 100%. Therefore, resolution of the composite choline resonance into its constituent components improves the specificity of the in vivo {sup 1}H MRS method, but does not overcome the problem of 20% false-negatives. (orig.)

  12. Comparison of optimized 3D-SPACE and 3D-TSE sequences at 1.5T MRCP in the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudholt, P. [University Hospital Marburg (Germany). Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Zaehringer, C.; Tyndall, A.; Bongartz, G.; Hohmann, J. [University Hospital Basel (Switzerland). Clinic for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Urigo, C. [Ars Medica Clinic, Gravesano-Lugano (Switzerland). Radiology

    2015-06-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate whether or not MRCP using a 3D-SPACE sequence allows for better image quality and a higher level of diagnostic confidence than a conventional 3D-TSE sequence at 1.5T regarding the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis in a routine clinical setting. 3D-SPACE and 3D-TSE sequences were performed in 42 consecutive patients with suspected choledocholithiasis undergoing MRCP. Evaluation of image quality and diagnostic confidence was done on the pancreaticobiliary tree which was subdivided into 10 segments. They were scored and statistically evaluated separately for visibility and diagnostic certainty by three radiologists with differing levels of experience on a five-point scale of 1 to 5 and -2 to 2, respectively. Student t-test was performed, and the interobserver agreement was also calculated. Image quality for each segment was significantly better for the 3D-SPACE sequence compared to the 3D-TSE sequence (4.48±0.94 vs. 3.98±1.20; 5-point scale p<0.01). Diagnostic confidence for the reporting radiologist was also significantly better for 3D-SPACE than for 3D-TSE (1.68±0.56 vs. 1.46±0.70; 3-point scale; p<0.01). The interobserver agreement was high in both sequences, 0.62-0.83 and 0.64-0.82, respectively. The optimized 3D-SPACE sequence allows for better image quality in 1.5T MRCP examinations and leads to a higher diagnostic confidence for choledocholithiasis compared to the conventional 3D-TSE sequence.

  13. Morphological variation of statolith of the jumbo flying squid (Dosidicus gigas )in the eastern Pacific Ocean%东太平洋茎柔鱼耳石形态差异性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易倩; 陈新军; 贾涛; 刘必林; 李刚

    2012-01-01

    The jumbo flying squid(Dosidicus gigas) is one of important economic cephalopods with statolith providing important ecological information. According to the statolith morphology of the squid caught in waters off Chile,Peru and Costa Rica from May,2008 to Oct,2009,the differences of statolith morphology and growth patterns were analyzed. It was found that the statolith morphological characteristics in different areas had statistically significant differences (P <0.05). The length index and only the ventral dorsal dome angle (DDA) angle index had significant differences. The result of the principal component analysis was that total statolith length ( TSL) was the most significant indicator of statolith morphology. The significant indicator of statolith angle was rostrum angle ( RA) in waters off Chile and Peru, and rostrum lateral dome angle (RDA) in waters off Costa Rica. The growth of various parts was synchronized and allometric during the growth process, and the changing tendency of morphology was narrow body, long and narrow rostrum and large dorsal tallied with the characteristics of pelagic cephalopods statolith. Statolith growth consisted of two phases. According to the data of rostrum lateral dome length (RDL), there were marked differences in morphology between TSL smaller and larger than 1 600 μm. Based on the data of the angle, there were marked differences in RA between TSL smaller and larger than 2 000 μm in waters off Costa Rica, and 1 800 μm in waters off Peru, and there were marked differences in RA in waters off Chile. The angle increased later than the length of statolith, so TSL of 1 600 μm might be regarded as an valid indicator of changes in water layer.%茎柔鱼是大洋性重要经济头足类,其耳石包含着重要的生态信息.根据2008年5月—2009年10月智利、哥斯达黎加、秘鲁外海采集的茎柔鱼耳石样本,分析三海区间耳石外部形态特征及生长模式差异.研究认为,不同海区间耳

  14. Preclinical Development of an anti-5T4 Antibody-Drug Conjugate: Pharmacokinetics in Mice, Rats, and NHP and Tumor/Tissue Distribution in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Mauricio; Wentland, JoAnn; Han, Xiaogang; Zhang, Yanhua; Rago, Brian; Duriga, Nicole; Spriggs, Franklin; Kadar, Eugene; Song, Wei; McNally, James; Shakey, Quazi; Lorello, Leslie; Lucas, Judy; Sapra, Puja

    2015-11-18

    The pharmacokinetics of an antibody (huA1)-drug (auristatin microtubule disrupting MMAF) conjugate, targeting 5T4-expressing cells, were characterized during the discovery and development phases in female nu/nu mice and cynomolgus monkeys after a single dose and in S-D rats and cynomolgus monkeys from multidose toxicity studies. Plasma/serum samples were analyzed using an ELISA-based method for antibody and conjugate (ADC) as well as for the released payload using an LC-MS/MS method. In addition, the distribution of the Ab, ADC, and released payload (cys-mcMMAF) was determined in a number of tissues (tumor, lung, liver, kidney, and heart) in two tumor mouse models (H1975 and MDA-MB-361-DYT2 models) using similar LBA and LC-MS/MS methods. Tissue distribution studies revealed preferential tumor distribution of cys-mcMMAF and its relative specificity to the 5T4 target containing tissue (tumor). Single dose studies suggests lower CL values at the higher doses in mice, although a linear relationship was seen in cynomolgus monkeys at doses from 0.3 to 10 mg/kg with no evidence of TMDD. Evaluation of DAR (drug-antibody ratio) in cynomolgus monkeys (at 3 mg/kg) indicated that at least half of the payload was still on the ADC 1 to 2 weeks after IV dosing. After multiple doses, the huA1 and conjugate data in rats and monkeys indicate that exposure (AUC) increases with increasing dose in a linear fashion. Systemic exposure (as assessed by Cmax and AUC) of the released payload increased with increasing dose, although exposure was very low and its pharmacokinetics appeared to be formation rate limited. The incidence of ADA was generally low in rats and monkeys. We will discuss cross species comparison, relationships between the Ab, ADC, and released payload exposure after multiple dosing, and insights into the distribution of this ADC with a focus on experimental design as a way to address or bypass apparent obstacles and its integration into predictive models.

  15. Single-Shot Echo-Planar Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging at 3T and 1.5T for Differentiation of Benign Vertebral Fracture Edema and Tumor Infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Jin; Lee, So Yeon; Rho, Myung Ho; Chung, Eun Chul; Kim, Mi Sung; Kwon, Heon Ju; Youn, In Young [Department of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 03181 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    To compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value using single-shot echo-planar imaging sequences at 3T and 1.5T for differentiation of benign fracture edema and tumor infiltration of the vertebral body. A total of 46 spinal examinations were included in the 1.5T MRI group, and a total of 40 spinal examinations were included in the 3T MRI group. The ADC values of the lesion were measured and calculated. The diagnostic performance of the conventional MR image containing sagittal T2-weighted fat saturated image and each diffusion weighted image (DWI) with an ADC value with different b values were evaluated. The mean ADC value of the benign lesions was higher than that of the malignant lesions on 1.5T and 3T (p < 0.05). The sensitivity of the diagnostic performance was higher with an additional DWI in both 1.5T and 3T, but the sensitivities were similar with the addition of b values of 400 and 1000. The specificities of the diagnostic performances did not show significant differences (p value > 0.05). The diagnostic accuracies were higher when either of the DWIs (b values of 400 and 1000) was added to routine MR image for 1.5T and 3T. Statistical differences between 1.5T and 3T or between b values of 400 and 1000 were not seen. The ADC values of the benign lesions were significantly higher than those of the malignant lesions on 1.5T and 3T. There was no statistically significant difference in the diagnostic performances when either of the DWIs (b values of 400 and 1000) was added to the routine MR image for 1.5T and 3T.

  16. Signal-shot echo-planner diffusion-weighted MR imaging at 3T and 1.5T for differentiation of benign vertebral fracture edema and tumor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hee Jin; Lee, So Yeon; Rho, Myung Ho; Chung, Eun Chul; Kim, Mi Sung; Kwon, Heon Ju; Youn, In Young [Dept. of Radiology, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    To compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value using single-shot echo-planar imaging sequences at 3T and 1.5T for differentiation of benign fracture edema and tumor infiltration of the vertebral body. A total of 46 spinal examinations were included in the 1.5T MRI group, and a total of 40 spinal examinations were included in the 3T MRI group. The ADC values of the lesion were measured and calculated. The diagnostic performance of the conventional MR image containing sagittal T2-weighted fat saturated image and each diffusion weighted image (DWI) with an ADC value with different b values were evaluated. The mean ADC value of the benign lesions was higher than that of the malignant lesions on 1.5T and 3T (p < 0.05). The sensitivity of the diagnostic performance was higher with an additional DWI in both 1.5T and 3T, but the sensitivities were similar with the addition of b values of 400 and 1000. The specificities of the diagnostic performances did not show significant differences (p value > 0.05). The diagnostic accuracies were higher when either of the DWIs (b values of 400 and 1000) was added to routine MR image for 1.5T and 3T. Statistical differences between 1.5T and 3T or between b values of 400 and 1000 were not seen. The ADC values of the benign lesions were significantly higher than those of the malignant lesions on 1.5T and 3T. There was no statistically significant difference in the diagnostic performances when either of the DWIs (b values of 400 and 1000) was added to the routine MR image for 1.5T and 3T.

  17. Numerical simulation of quench protection for a 1.5 T persistent mode MgB2 conduction-cooled MRI magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deissler, Robert J.; Baig, Tanvir; Poole, Charles; Amin, Abdullah; Doll, David; Tomsic, Michael; Martens, Michael

    2017-02-01

    The active quench protection of a 1.5 T MgB2 conduction-cooled MRI magnet operating in persistent current mode is considered. An active quench protection system relies on the detection of the resistive voltage developed in the magnet, which is used to trigger the external energizing of quench heaters located on the surfaces of all ten coil bundles. A numerical integration of the heat equation is used to determine the development of the temperature profile and the maximum temperature in the coil at the origin, or ‘hot spot’, of the quench. Both n-value of the superconductor and magnetoresistance of the wire are included in the simulations. An MgB2 wire manufactured by Hyper Tech Research, Inc. was used as the basis to model the wire for the simulations. With the proposed active quench protection system, the maximum temperature was limited to 200 K or less, which is considered low enough to prevent damage to the magnet. By substituting Glidcop for the Monel in the wire sheath or by increasing the thermal conductivity of the insulation, the margin for safe operation was further increased, the maximum temperature decreasing by more than 40 K. The strain on the MgB2 filaments is calculated using ANSYS, verifying that the stress and strain limits in the MgB2 superconductor and epoxy insulation are not exceeded.

  18. Cyclic mismatch binding ligand CMBL4 binds to the 5'-T-3'/5'-GG-3' site by inducing the flipping out of thymine base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sanjukta; Dohno, Chikara; Asano, Kaori; Nakatani, Kazuhiko

    2016-09-01

    A newly designed cyclic bis-naphthyridine carbamate dimer CMBL4: with a limited conformational flexibility was synthesized and characterized. Absorption spectra revealed that two naphthyridines in CMBL4: were stacked on each other in aqueous solutions. The most efficient binding of CMBL4: to DNA was observed for the sequence 5'-T-3'/5'-GG-3' (T/GG) with the formation of a 1:1 complex, which is one of possible structural elements involved in the higher order structures of (TGG)n repeat DNA triggering the genome microdeletion. Surface plasmon resonance assay also showed the binding of CMBL4: with TGG repeat DNA. Potassium permanganate oxidation studies of CMBL4: -bound duplex containing the T/GG site showed that the CMBL4: -binding accelerated the oxidation of thymine at that site, which suggests the flipping out of the thymine base from a π-stack. Preferential binding was observed for CMBL4: compared with its acyclic variants, which suggests the marked significance of the macrocyclic structure for the recognition of the T/GG site.

  19. Prostate cancer: 1.5 T endo-coil dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI and MR spectroscopy-correlation with prostate biopsy and prostatectomy histopathological data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabanova, Elizaveta, E-mail: elcha@heh.regionh.dk [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev (Denmark); Balslev, Ingegerd [Department of Pathology, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev (Denmark); Logager, Vibeke [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev (Denmark); Hansen, Alastair [Department of Pathology, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev (Denmark); Jakobsen, Henrik; Kromann-Andersen, Bjarne; Norgaard, Nis [Department of Urology, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev, (Denmark); Horn, Thomas [Department of Pathology, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev (Denmark); Thomsen, Henrik S. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Copenhagen University Hospital at Herlev (Denmark)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To investigate diagnostic accuracy of detection of prostate cancer by magnetic resonance: to evaluate the performance of T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI and to correlate the results with biopsy and radical prostatectomy histopathological data. Materials and methods: 43 patients, scheduled for radical prostatectomy, underwent prostate MR examination. Prostate cancer was identified by transrectal ultrasonographically (TRUS) guided sextant biopsy. MR examination was performed at 1.5T with an endorectal MR coil. Cancer localisation was performed on sextant-basis - for comparison between TRUS biopsy, MR techniques and histopathological findings on prostatectomy specimens. Results: Prostate cancer was identified in all 43 patients by combination of the three MR techniques. The detection of prostate cancer on sextant-basis showed sensitivity and specificity: 50% and 91% for TRUS, 72% and 55% for T2WI, 49% and 69% for DCEMRI, and 46% and 78% for CSI. Conclusion: T2WI, DCEMRI and CSI in combination can identify prostate cancer. Further development of MR technologies for these MR methods is necessary to improve the detection of the prostate cancer.

  20. A high-field 3He Metastability Exchange Optical Pumping polarizer operating in a 1.5 T medical scanner for lung MRI

    CERN Document Server

    Collier, G; Wojna, A; Głowacz, B; Suchanek, M; Olejniczak, Z; Dohnalik, T

    2013-01-01

    After being hyperpolarized using the technique of Metastability Exchange Optical Pumping (MEOP), 3He can be used as a contrast agent for lung magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MEOP is usually performed at low magnetic field (~ 1 mT) and low pressure (~ 1 mbar), which results in a low magnetization production rate. A delicate polarization-preserving step of compression is also required. It was demonstrated in sealed cells that high nuclear polarization values can be obtained at higher pressures with MEOP, if performed at high magnetic field (non-standard conditions). In this work the feasibility of building a high-field polarizer that operates within a commercial 1.5 T scanner was evaluated. Preliminary measurements of nuclear polarization with sealed cells filled at different 3He gas pressures (1.33 to 267 mbar) were performed. The use of an annular shape for the laser beam increased by 25 % the achievable nuclear polarization equilibrium value (Meq) at 32 and 67 mbar as compared to a Gaussian beam shape. Meq...

  1. Contrast enhancement of intracranial lesions at 1.5 T: comparison among 2D spin echo, black-blood (BB) Cube, and BB Cube-FLAIR sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, SungWoon; Ashikaga, Ryuichiro; Yagyu, Yukinobu; Hyodo, Tomoko; Imaoka, Izumi; Kumano, Seishi; Ishii, Kazunari; Murakami, Takamichi [Kinki University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Osaka-Sayama, Osaka (Japan); Wakayama, Tetsuya; Miyoshi, Mitsuharu [GE Healthcare Japan, MR Applications and Workflow, Asia Pacific, Hino, Tokyo (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of T1W black-blood Cube (BB Cube) and T1W BB Cube fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (BB Cube-FLAIR) sequences for contrast-enhanced brain imaging, by evaluating flow-related artefacts, detectability, and contrast ratio (CR) of intracranial lesions among these sequences and T1W-SE. Phantom studies were performed to determine the optimal parameters of BB Cube and BB Cube-FLAIR. A clinical study in 23 patients with intracranial lesions was performed to evaluate the usefulness of these two sequences for the diagnosis of intracranial lesions compared with the conventional 2D T1W-SE sequence. The phantom study revealed that the optimal parameters for contrast-enhanced T1W imaging were TR/TE = 500 ms/minimum in BB Cube and TR/TE/TI = 600 ms/minimum/300 ms in BB Cube-FLAIR imaging. In the clinical study, the degree of flow-related artefacts was significantly lower in BB Cube and BB Cube-FLAIR than in T1W-SE. Regarding tumour detection, BB Cube showed the best detectability; however, there were no significant differences in CR among the sequences. At 1.5 T, contrast-enhanced BB Cube was a better imaging sequence for detecting brain lesions than T1W-SE or BB Cube-FLAIR. (orig.)

  2. Are rheumatoid arthritis patients discernible from other early arthritis patients using 1.5T extremity magnetic resonance imaging? a large cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomp, Wouter; Krabben, Annemarie; van der Heijde, Désirée; Huizinga, Tom W J; Bloem, Johan L; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H M; Reijnierse, Monique

    2014-08-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly used in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) research. A European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) task force recently suggested that MRI can improve the certainty of RA diagnosis. Because this recommendation may reflect a tendency to use MRI in daily practice, thorough studies on the value of MRI are required. Thus far no large studies have evaluated the accuracy of MRI to differentiate early RA from other patients with early arthritis. We performed a large cross-sectional study to determine whether patients who are clinically classified with RA differ in MRI features compared to patients with other diagnoses. In our study, 179 patients presenting with early arthritis (median symptom duration 15.4 weeks) underwent 1.5T extremity MRI of unilateral wrist, metacarpophalangeal, and metatarsophalangeal joints according to our arthritis protocol, the foot without contrast. Images were scored according to OMERACT Rheumatoid Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Scoring (RAMRIS) by 2 independent readers. Tenosynovitis was also assessed. The main outcome was fulfilling the 1987 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for RA. Test characteristics and areas under the receiver-operator-characteristic curves (AUC) were evaluated. In subanalyses, the 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria were used as outcome, and analyses were stratified for anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA). The ACR 1987 criteria were fulfilled in 43 patients (24.0%). Patients with RA had higher scores for synovitis, tenosynovitis, and bone marrow edema (BME) than patients without RA (p arthritis patients.

  3. Numerical study on the quench propagation in a 1.5 T MgB2 MRI magnet design with varied wire compositions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Charles; Baig, Tanvir; Deissler, Robert J.; Doll, David; Tomsic, Michael; Martens, Michael

    2016-04-01

    To reduce the usage of liquid helium in MRI magnets, magnesium diboride (MgB2), a high temperature superconductor, has been considered for use in a design of conduction cooled MRI magnets. Compared to NbTi wires the normal zone propagation velocity (NZPV) in MgB2 is much slower leading to a higher temperature rise and the necessity of active quench protection. The temperature rise, resistive voltage, and NZPV during a quench in a 1.5 T main magnet design with MgB2 superconducting wire was calculated for a variety of wire compositions. The quench development was modeled using the Douglas-Gunn method to solve the 3D heat equation. It was determined that wires with higher bulk thermal conductivity and lower electrical resistivity reduced the hot-spot temperature rise near the beginning of a quench. These improvements can be accomplished by increasing the copper fraction inside the wire, using a sheath material (such as Glidcop) with a higher thermal conductivity and lower electrical resistivity, and by increasing the thermal conductivity of the wire’s insulation. The focus of this paper is on the initial stages of quench development, and does not consider the later stages of the quench or magnet protection.

  4. Diagnostic performance of CT-arthrography and 1.5T MR-arthrography for the assessment of glenohumeral joint cartilage: a comparative study with arthroscopic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omoumi, Patrick [Cliniques Universitaires St Luc - Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Rubini, Alexandra; Berg, Bruno C. vande; Lecouvet, Frederic E. [Cliniques Universitaires St Luc - Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Radiology, Brussels (Belgium); Dubuc, Jean-Emile [Cliniques Universitaires St Luc - Universite Catholique de Louvain, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-04-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of multi-detector CT arthrography (CTA) and 1.5-T MR arthrography (MRA) in detecting hyaline cartilage lesions of the shoulder, with arthroscopic correlation. CTA and MRA prospectively obtained in 56 consecutive patients following the same arthrographic procedure were independently evaluated for glenohumeral cartilage lesions (modified Outerbridge grade ≥2 and grade 4) by two musculoskeletal radiologists. The cartilage surface was divided in 18 anatomical areas. Arthroscopy was taken as the reference standard. Diagnostic performance of CTA and MRA was compared using ROC analysis. Interobserver and intraobserver agreement was determined by κ statistics. Sensitivity and specificity of CTA varied from 46.4 to 82.4 % and from 89.0 to 95.9 % respectively; sensitivity and specificity of MRA varied from 31.9 to 66.2 % and from 91.1 to 97.5 % respectively. Diagnostic performance of CTA was statistically significantly better than MRA for both readers (all p ≤ 0.04). Interobserver agreement for the evaluation of cartilage lesions was substantial with CTA (κ = 0.63) and moderate with MRA (κ = 0.54). Intraobserver agreement was almost perfect with both CTA (κ = 0.94-0.95) and MRA (κ = 0.83-0.87). The diagnostic performance of CTA and MRA for the detection of glenohumeral cartilage lesions is moderate, although statistically significantly better with CTA. (orig.)

  5. Equilibrium-phase high spatial resolution contrast-enhanced MR angiography at 1.5T in preoperative imaging for perforator flap breast reconstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas Versluis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim was (i to evaluate the accuracy of equilibrium-phase high spatial resolution (EP contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA at 1.5T using a blood pool contrast agent for the preoperative evaluation of deep inferior epigastric artery perforator branches (DIEP, and (ii to compare image quality with conventional first-pass CE-MRA. METHODS: Twenty-three consecutive patients were included. All patients underwent preoperative CE-MRA to determine quality and location of DIEP. First-pass imaging after a single bolus injection of 10 mL gadofosveset trisodium was followed by EP imaging. MRA data were compared to intra-operative findings, which served as the reference standard. RESULTS: There was 100% agreement between EP CE-MRA and surgical findings in identifying the single best perforator branch. All EP acquisitions were of diagnostic quality, whereas in 10 patients the quality of the first-pass acquisition was qualified as non-diagnostic. Both signal- and contrast-to-noise ratios were significantly higher for EP imaging in comparison with first-pass acquisitions (p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: EP CE-MRA of DIEP in the preoperative evaluation of patients undergoing a breast reconstruction procedure is highly accurate in identifying the single best perforator branch at 1.5Tesla (T. Besides accuracy, image quality of EP imaging proved superior to conventional first-pass CE-MRA.

  6. Characterization of EstB, a novel cold-active and organic solvent-tolerant esterase from marine microorganism Alcanivorax dieselolei B-5(T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shanshan; Wu, Guojie; Liu, Zhixiang; Shao, Zongze; Liu, Ziduo

    2014-03-01

    A novel esterase gene, estB, was cloned from the marine microorganism Alcanivorax dieselolei B-5(T) and overexpressed in E. coli DE3 (BL21). The expressed protein EstB with a predicted molecular weight of 45.1 kDa had a distinct catalytic triad (Ser(211)-Trp(353)-Gln(385)) and the classical consensus motif conserved in most lipases and esterases Gly(209)-X-Ser(211)-X-Gly(213). EstB showed very low similarity to any known proteins and displayed the highest similarity to the hypothetical protein (46%) from Rhodococcus jostii RHA1. EstB showed the optimal activity around pH 8.5 and 20 °C and was identified to be extremely cold-adaptative retaining more than 95% activity between 0 and 10 °C. The values of kinetic parameters on p-NP caproate (K m, K cat and K cat/K m) were 0.15 mM, 0.54 × 10(3) s(-1) and 3.6 × 10(3) s(-1) mM(-1), respectively. In addition, EstB showed remarkable stability in several studied organic solvents and detergents of high concentrations with the retention of more than 70% activity after treatment for 30 min. The cold activity and its tolerance towards organic solvents made it a promising biocatalyst for industrial applications under extreme conditions.

  7. Cell surface display of cold-active esterase EstPc with the use of a new autotransporter from Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5(T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovskaya, L E; Novototskaya-Vlasova, K A; Kryukova, E A; Rivkina, E M; Dolgikh, D A; Kirpichnikov, M P

    2015-01-01

    We have cloned the gene coding for AT877-a new predicted member of the autotransporter protein family with an esterase passenger domain from permafrost bacterium Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5(T). Expression of AT877 gene in Escherichia coli resulted in accumulation of the recombinant autotransporter in the outer membrane fraction and at the surface of the induced cells. AT877 displayed maximum hydrolytic activity toward medium-chain p-nitrophenyl esters (C8-C10) at 50 °C and was resistant to the presence of several metal ions, organic solvents and detergents. Previously, we have described a cold-active esterase EstPc from the same bacterium which possesses high activity at low temperatures and relatively high thermal stability. To construct a cell surface display system for EstPc, the hybrid autotransporter gene coding for EstPc with the α-helical linker and the translocator domain from AT877 was constructed and expressed in E. coli. According to the results of the cell fractionation studies and esterase activity measurements, the EstPc passenger was successfully displayed at the surface of the induced cells. It demonstrated a temperature optimum at 15-25 °C and a substrate preference toward p-nitrophenyl butyrate (C4). Obtained results provide a new example of the biotechnologically relevant enzyme from the permafrost microbial community with potential applications for the conversion of short- and medium-chain ester substrates and a basis for the construction of a new cell surface display platform.

  8. The magnetization transfer effect in brain studies by 1.5 T magnetic resonance system. When the radiographer should apply it?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, M. Margarida, E-mail: margarida.ribeiro@estesl.ipl.p [Scientific Area of Radiology, Higher School of Health Technology, Polytechnic Institute of Lisbon (Portugal); Anatomy Department of Medicine Faculty, Medical Sciences University of Lisbon (Portugal); Farinha, Sara [Metelbea - Diagnostic and Therapeutic Centre of Lisbon (Portugal); Costa, Joana [Radiomedica, Lisbon (Portugal); Mauricio, J. Cruz [Anatomy Department of Medicine Faculty, Medical Sciences University of Lisbon (Portugal); Diamecon - Imaging Diagnostic Centre, Tomar (Portugal); O' Neill, J. Goyri [Anatomy Department of Medicine Faculty, Medical Sciences University of Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-05-15

    Purpose: The Magnetization Transfer (MT) obtained by applying a pre-saturation pulse is, in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), a technique that allows for additional enhancement of lesions on conventional T1 images after contrast administration. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of the technique measuring how MT could improve image quality and diagnostic values through the enhancement of lesions. Methods: Thirteen T1-weighted spin-echo (SE) sequences, obtained by the 1.5 T system after contrast media injection, were analyzed with and without MT. The contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR), as well as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) variables were compared in all sequences, according to the reference structures: lateral ventricles, white matter, gray matter, caudate nucleus and internal capsule. The MT ratio average was calculated using the ANOVA scale in order to assess the CNR and the magnetization transfer effect (MTE) for the different lesions and for both sequences (with and without MT). For the assessment of the flow artifact, clinical experts applied a Likert scale with 5 points. Results: For CNR values, the differences between conventional and MT-pulsed images were significant (Student t testp < 0,05), remaining significant for SNR in all structures except for the lateral ventricles. For the flow artifacts the differences found by the coefficient Kappa agreement were not significant as the differences found for the CNR and the MTE between the two sequences (p > 0,05). Conclusion: In identical conditions of acquisition, the MT does not produce significant differences in the enhancement of lesions, however, it allows a greater capacity to detect the multiple sclerosis plaques, comparing structures around basal nucleus versus gray and white matter.

  9. Orthodontic springs and auxiliary appliances: assessment of magnetic field interactions associated with 1.5 T and 3 T magnetic resonance systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemper, J.; Priest, A.N.; Adam, G. [University Medical Center of Hamburg-Eppendorf, Clinic of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Schulze, D. [University Hospital of Freiburg, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Freiburg (Germany); Kahl-Nieke, B.; Klocke, A. [University Medical Center of Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Orthodontics, Hamburg (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate magnetic field interactions at 1.5 and 3 T for 20 orthodontic devices used for fixed orthodontic therapy. Twenty springs and auxiliary parts made from varying ferromagnetic alloys were tested for magnetic field interactions in the static magnetic field at 1.5 and 3 T. Magnetic translational force F{sub z} (in millinewtons) was evaluated by determining the deflection angle {beta} [American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM standard test method)]. Magnetic-field-induced rotational force F{sub rot} was qualitatively determined using a five-point scale. {beta} was found to be >45 in 13(15) devices at 1.5(3) T and translational force F{sub z} exceeded gravitational force F{sub g} on the particular object [F{sub z} 10.17-261.4 mN (10.72-566.4 mN) at 1.5(3) T]. F{sub z} was found to be up to 24.1(47.5)-fold higher than F{sub g} at 1.5(3) T. Corresponding to this, F{sub rot} on the objects was shown to be high at both field strengths ({>=} +3). Three objects (at 1.5 T) and one object (at 3 T) showed deflection angles <45 , but F{sub rot} was found to be {>=} +3 at both field strengths. For the remaining objects, {beta} was below 45 and torque measurements ranged from 0 to +2. Of 20 objects investigated for magnetic field interactions at 1.5(3) T, 13(15) were unsafe in magnetic resonance (MR), based on the ASTM criteria of F{sub z}. The implications of these results for orthodontic patients undergoing MRI are discussed. (orig.)

  10. Polyethylene glycol-covered ultra-small Gd2O3 nanoparticles for positive contrast at 1.5 T magnetic resonance clinical scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Marc-André; Petoral, Rodrigo M., Jr.; Söderlind, Fredrik; Klasson, A.; Engström, Maria; Veres, Teodor; Käll, Per-Olof; Uvdal, Kajsa

    2007-10-01

    The size distribution and magnetic properties of ultra-small gadolinium oxide crystals (US-Gd2O3) were studied, and the impact of polyethylene glycol capping on the relaxivity constants (r1, r2) and signal intensity with this contrast agent was investigated. Size distribution and magnetic properties of US-Gd2O3 nanocrystals were measured with a TEM and PPMS magnetometer. For relaxation studies, diethylene glycol (DEG)-capped US-Gd2O3 nanocrystals were reacted with PEG-silane (MW 5000). Suspensions were adequately dialyzed in water to eliminate traces of Gd3+ and surfactants. The particle hydrodynamic radius was measured with dynamic light scattering (DLS) and the proton relaxation times were measured with a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Parallel studies were performed with DEG-Gd2O3 and PEG-silane-SPGO (Gd2O3,PEG-silane-US-Gd2O3 relaxation parameters were twice as high as for Gd-DTPA and the r2/r1 ratio was 1.4. PEG-silane-SPGO gave low r1 relaxivities and high r2/r1 ratios, less compatible with positive contrast agent requirements. Higher r1 were obtained with PEG-silane in comparison to DEG-Gd2O3. Treatment of DEG-US-Gd2O3 with PEG-silane provides enhanced relaxivity while preventing aggregation of the oxide cores. This study confirms that PEG-covered Gd2O3 nanoparticles can be used for positively contrasted MR applications requiring stability, biocompatible coatings and nanocrystal functionalization.

  11. Lactate and T{sub 2} measurements of synovial aspirates at 1.5 T: differentiation of septic from non-septic arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiener, Edzard; Zanetti, Marco; Hodler, Juerg; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A. [Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2008-08-15

    The aim of this study was to differentiate septic from non-septic arthritis by measuring lactate concentration with {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (HMRS) and by estimating total protein content with the assessment of T{sub 2} values. In 30 patients with acute arthritis, synovial fluid was aspirated. Lactate concentrations were analyzed with single voxel HMRS at 1.5 T. T{sub 2} relaxation times were mapped with a multi-spin echo sequence. All samples underwent microbiological testing and routine laboratory analysis to quantify lactate concentration and total protein content. Values obtained in septic and non-septic arthritis were compared with a Mann-Whitney U test. Synovial fluid from patients with septic arthritis (n=10) had higher concentrations of lactate (11.4 {+-} 4.0 mmol/L) and higher total protein content (51.8 {+-} 10.7 g/L) than fluid obtained in non-septic arthritis (n=20; 5.2{+-}1.1 mmol/L and 40.4{+-}6.9 g/L, respectively, p < 0.001 and <0.01, respectively). Measured lactate concentrations and T{sub 2} relaxation times (as an indicator of total protein content) were moderately correlated to laboratory-confirmed lactate concentration (r{sup 2}=0.71) and total protein content (r{sup 2}=0.73). Markedly increased lactate concentrations (>6 mmol/L) in combination with low T{sub 2} values (<550 ms) identify septic arthritis with a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity of 89%. Spectroscopic measurements of lactate concentration in combination with the estimation of protein content using T{sub 2} may be of value in the differentiation of septic from non-septic arthritis. (orig.)

  12. Reproducibility of pulmonary blood flow measurements by phase-contrast MRI using different 1.5 T MR scanners at two institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraha, Rin; Tsuchiya, Nanae; Yamashiro, Tsuneo; Iwasawa, Tae

    2017-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be beneficial for diagnosis of disease by offering quantitative information. However, reproducibility can be a major problem when there is a numerical threshold in multi-institution, multi-vendor situations. Purpose To measure pulmonary blood flow with phase-contrast (PC) imaging using two different MR scanners (1.5 T) at different institutions in the same participants and to examine the reproducibility of the measurements. Material and Methods Participants were 10 healthy volunteers (5 men; age range, 27–36 years). The measurements included the mean and maximal blood velocities, the mean blood flow volume, and the acceleration time and volume (AT and AV), derived from the time-flow curve of the PC-MRI. Simultaneously obtained maximal, minimal, and mean areas from regions of interest set in the pulmonary artery were also calculated. In order to calculate the reproducibility of the quantitative variables, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were employed. When an adequate ICC was obtained, Bland–Altman analysis was conducted to identify any systematic bias. Results The ICCs were almost perfect for the mean blood flow volume and the AV (r = 0.82 and 0.80), and were substantial in the mean and maximal areas, and the AT (r = 0.63, 0.74, and 0.64, respectively). However, there was a fixed bias in the area measurement between the two scanners. Also, the AV had a proportional bias. Conclusion Our results reveal that various indices derived from PC-MRI on different MR scanners are promising as common indices for pulmonary flow assessment. Research and clinical use of PC-MRI for the pulmonary artery is expected to extend to multi-institution situations. PMID:28210495

  13. Imaging of Herniated Discs of the Cervical Spine: Inter-Modality Differences between 64-Slice Multidetector CT and 1.5-T MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Ji Sook; Cha, Jang Gyu [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jong Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Joo [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    To assess inter-modality variability when evaluating cervical intervertebral disc herniation using 64-slice multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Three musculoskeletal radiologists independently reviewed cervical spine 1.5-T MRI and 64-slice MDCT data on C2-3 though C6-7 of 51 patients in the context of intervertebral disc herniation. Interobserver and inter-modality agreements were expressed as unweighted kappa values. Weighted kappa statistics were used to assess the extents of agreement in terms of the number of involved segments (NIS) in disc herniation and epicenter measurements collected using MDCT and MRI. The interobserver agreement rates upon evaluation of disc morphology by the three radiologists were in fair to moderate agreement (k = 0.39-0.53 for MDCT images; k = 0.45-0.56 for MRIs). When the disc morphology was categorized into two and four grades, the inter-modality agreement rates were moderate (k-value, 0.59) and substantial (k-value, 0.66), respectively. The inter-modality agreements for evaluations of the NIS (k-value, 0.78) and the epicenter (k-value, 0.79) were substantial. Also, the interobserver agreements for the NIS (CT; k-value, 0.85 and MRI; k-value, 0.88) and epicenter (CT; k-value, 0.74 and MRI; k-value, 0.70) evaluations by two readers were substantial. MDCT tended to underestimate the extent of herniated disc lesions compared with MRI. Multidetector-row computed tomography and MRI showed a moderate-to-substantial degree of inter-modality agreement for the assessment of herniated cervical discs. MDCT images have a tendency to underestimate the anterior/posterior extent of the herniated disc compared with MRI.

  14. Invasive placenta previa: Placental bulge with distorted uterine outline and uterine serosal hypervascularity at 1.5T MRI - useful features for differentiating placenta percreta from placenta accreta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Shan, Ruiqin; Zhao, Lianxin; Song, Qingxu; Zuo, Changting; Zhang, Xinjuan; Wang, Shanshan; Shi, Honglu; Gao, Fei; Qian, Tianyi; Wang, Guangbin; Limperopoulos, Catherine

    2017-08-02

    To characterise MRI features of invasive placenta previa and to identify specific features for differentiating placenta percreta (PP) from placenta accreta (PA). Forty-five women with PP and 93 women with PA who underwent 1.5T placental MRI were included. Two radiologists independently evaluated the MRI features of invasive placenta previa, including our novel type of placental bulge (i.e. placental bulge type-II, characterized by placental bulge with distorted uterine outline). Pearson's chi-squared or Fisher's two-sided exact test was performed to compare the MRI features between PP and PA. Logistic stepwise regression analysis and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were performed to select the optimal features for differentiating PP from PA. Significant differences were found in nine MRI features between women with PP and those with PA (P <0.05). Placental bulge type-II and uterine serosal hypervascularity were independently associated with PP (odds ratio = 48.618, P < 0.001; odds ratio = 4.165, P = 0.018 respectively), and the combination of the two MRI features to distinguish PP from PA yielded an AUC of 0.92 for its predictive performance. Placental bulge type-II and uterine serosal hypervascularity are useful MRI features for differentiating PP from PA. • Placental bulge type-II demonstrated the strongest independent association with PP. • Uterine serosal hypervascularity is a useful feature for differentiating PP from PA. • MRI features associated with abnormal vessels increase the risk of massive haemorrhage.

  15. Numerical analysis of the coupling loss induced quench protection for a 1.5 T whole-body MgB2 MRI magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Charles; Baig, Tanvir; Deissler, Robert J.; Martens, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Numerical simulations of a quench protection system using coupling loss induced quench (CLIQ) were performed on a conduction-cooled persistent mode ten coil 1.5 T MRI main magnet design with MgB2 wire. The temperature rise and currents through the coils were simulated in MATLAB to solve for the heat equation and the circuit equations associated with CLIQ. Many different parameters of the system can be varied to determine their impact on the quench protection performance: the number of CLIQ units, the capacitance and initial voltage of the CLIQ unit, the number of subdivisions per coil, and the wire’s twist pitch. While keeping the total stored energy in the CLIQ system constant, simulations were performed on varying the number of CLIQ units with a 10 mF capacitor and varying the CLIQ capacitor with 2 CLIQ units present. As the number of CLIQ units increased, the peak temperature and the charging voltage decreased, but the voltage across the coil increased. As the CLIQ unit capacitance increased, the peak temperature increased but the charging voltage and voltage across the coil decreased. The optimal twist of the wire increased as the CLIQ capacitance increased. From these simulations, a possible optimal design was obtained where each coil is divided into two subsections consisting of two CLIQ units, each with a capacitance of 15 mF and a 1.5 kV initial voltage and a wire with a twist pitch of 5.0 cm. Using these parameters, the simulated peak temperature was found to be 178 K, which is comparable to results from simulations on the same magnet design with the same wire using an external protection heater.

  16. How MRI Compatible is 'MRI Compatible'? A Systematic Comparison of Artifacts Caused by Biopsy Needles at 3.0 and 1.5 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzkofer, Tobias, E-mail: tpenzkofer@ukaachen.de [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Peykan, Nilufar [Klinikum Osnabrueck, Roentgen- und Strahlenklinik (Germany); Schmidt, Katja [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Krombach, Gabriele [Justus-Liebig University Giessen, Department of Radiology (Germany); Kuhl, Christiane K. [RWTH Aachen University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: This study was designed to systematically investigate artifacts caused by interventional needles recommended for use in MRI, with focus on field strength, needle/mandrin type, orientation and sequence. Methods: Eight different MRI compatible needles were placed in porcine tissue and examined at 1.5 and 3.0 T with balanced-steady-state-free-precession (B-SSFP) and T1-weighted-spoiled-gradient-echo (T1-SPGR) sequences in different orientations to B{sub 0}. Artifact diameters with regards to the primary, inner, and secondary, outer artifacts were assessed and statistically evaluated. Results: The types and degree of artifacts varied considerably, especially between different mandrin types even for the same needles. Orientation of the needle in the magnetic field was another main contributor to the artifact dimensions. Less important factors were the type of pulse sequence and field strength. Artifacts ranged from 0.7 mm (steel, 0 Degree-Sign , B-SSFP, 3.0 T, inner) to 71.4 mm (nitinol, 90 Degree-Sign , B-SSFP, 1.5 T, outer). Inner artifact diameters in B-SSFP were slightly larger (8.2 {+-} 5.7 mm) than those in T1-SPGR (7.6 {+-} 5.4 mm) and comparable between 1.5 and 3.0 T (e.g., 8.0 vs. 8.4 mm, B-SSFP). Conclusions: Although all were sold as 'MR compatible,' the artifacts differed greatly between needle types, and even more so for different mandrins. The results suggest an empirical approach to the needle choice based on lesion type and approach angle.

  17. Monitoring of VX2 tumor growth in rabbit liver using T2-weighted and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jao, Jo-Chi; Mac, Ka-Wai; Chang, Chiung-Yun; Wu, Yu-Chiuan; Hsiao, Chia-Chi; Chen, Po-Chou

    2017-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the VX2 tumor growth in rabbit liver using T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Five New Zealand white (NZW) rabbits were implanted with VX2 cell suspension in liver. Afterwards, MRI was performed 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after tumor implantation. A 1.5T clinical MRI scanner was used to perform scans. After 3-plane localizer, T1 weighted imaging (T1WI), T2WI, and DCE-MRI using a three-dimensional gradient echo pulse sequence was performed. After 4 pre-contrast images were acquired, each rabbit was injected i.v. with 0.1 mmol/kg Dotarem. The total scan time after Dotarem administration was 30 minutes. All acquired images were analyzed using ImageJ software. Several regions of interest were selected from the rims of tumor, liver, and muscle. The enhancement ratio (ER) was calculated by dividing the MR signal after Dotarem injection to the MR signal before Dotarem injection. The maximum ER (ER_max) value of tumor for each rabbit was observed right after the Dotarem injection. The T2W MR signal intensities (T2W_SI) and the ER_max values obtained 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after tumor implantation were analyzed with a linear regression algorithm. Both T2W_SI and ER_max of tumors increased with time. The changes for T2W_SI and ER_max of tumors between 7 and 28 days after tumor implantation were 32.66% and 18.14%, respectively. T2W_SI is more sensitive than ER_max for monitoring the growth of VX2 tumor in a rabbit liver model.

  18. Aortic Function's Adaptation in Response to Exercise-Induced Stress Assessing by 1.5T MRI: A Pilot Study in Healthy Volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Bal-Theoleyre

    Full Text Available Evaluation of the aortic "elastic reserve" might be a relevant marker to assess the risk of aortic event. Our aim was to compare regional aortic elasticity at rest and during supine bicycle exercise at 1.5 T MRI in healthy individuals.Fifteen volunteers (8 men, with a mean age of 29 (23-41 years, completed the entire protocol. Images were acquired immediately following maximal exercise. Retrospective cine sequences were acquired to assess compliance, distensibility, maximum rates of systolic distension and diastolic recoil at four different locations: ascending aorta, proximal descending aorta, distal descending aorta and aorta above the coeliac trunk level. Segmental aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV was assessed by through plane velocity-encoded MRI.Exercise induced a significant decrease of aortic compliance and distensibility, and a significant increase of the absolute values of maximum rates of systolic distension and diastolic recoil at all sites (p<10-3. At rest and during stress, ascending aortic compliance was statistically higher compared to the whole descending aorta (p≤0.0007. We found a strong correlation between the rate pressure product and aortic distensibility at all sites (r = - 0.6 to -0.75 according to the site, p<10-4. PWV measured at the proximal and distal descending aorta increased significantly during stress (p = 0.02 and p = 0.008, respectively.Assessment of regional aortic function during exercise is feasible using MRI. During stress, aortic elasticity decreases significantly in correlation with an increase of the PWV. Further studies are required to create thresholds for ascending aorta dysfunction among patients with aneurysms, and to monitor the impact of medication on aortic remodeling.

  19. Genome sequence of Phaeobacter inhibens type strain (T5T), a secondary metabolite producing representative of the marine Roseobacter clade, and emendation of the species description of Phaeobacter inhibens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogs, Marco; Voget, Sonja; Teshima, Hazuki; Petersen, Jörn; Davenport, Karen; Dalingault, Hajnalka; Chen, Amy; Pati, Amrita; Ivanova, Natalia; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Chain, Patrick; Detter, John C.; Standfest, Sonja; Rohde, Manfred; Gronow, Sabine; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Woyke, Tanja; Simon, Meinhard; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Göker, Markus; Brinkhoff, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    Strain T5T is the type strain of the species Phaeobacter inhibens Martens et al. 2006, a secondary metabolite producing bacterium affiliated to the Roseobacter clade. Strain T5T was isolated from a water sample taken at the German Wadden Sea, southern North Sea. Here we describe the complete genome sequence and annotation of this bacterium with a special focus on the secondary metabolism and compare it with the genomes of the Phaeobacter inhibens strains DSM 17395 and DSM 24588 (2.10), selected because of the close phylogenetic relationship based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences of these three strains. The genome of strain T5T comprises 4,130,897 bp with 3.923 protein-coding genes and shows high similarities in genetic and genomic characteristics compared to P. inhibens DSM 17395 and DSM 24588 (2.10). Besides the chromosome, strain T5T possesses four plasmids, three of which show a high similarity to the plasmids of the strains DSM 17395 and DSM 24588 (2.10). Analysis of the fourth plasmid suggested horizontal gene transfer. Most of the genes on this plasmid are not present in the strains DSM 17395 and DSM 24588 (2.10) including a nitrous oxide reductase, which allows strain T5T a facultative anaerobic lifestyle. The G+C content was calculated from the genome sequence and differs significantly from the previously published value, thus warranting an emendation of the species description. PMID:24976890

  20. Comparison of left ventricular function assessment using phonocardiogram- and electrocardiogram-triggered 2D SSFP CINE MR imaging at 1.5 T and 3.0 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Meike [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Humboldt-University, Experimental and Clinical Research Center (ECRC), Charite Campus Buch, Berlin (Germany); Frauenrath, Tobias; Hezel, Fabian [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility, Max-Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Krombach, Gabriele A.; Kremer, Ute; Koppers, Benedikt [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Butenweg, Christoph; Goemmel, Andreas [Chair of Structural Statics and Dynamics, RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Utting, Jane F. [MRI, NHS Grampian, Aberdeen Royal Infirmary, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Schulz-Menger, Jeanette [Humboldt-University, Working Group Cardiovascular MR, Franz-Volhard-Klinik, Department of Cardiology, HELIOS-Klinikum Berlin-Buch and Charite Campus Buch, Berlin (Germany); Niendorf, Thoralf [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Humboldt-University, Experimental and Clinical Research Center (ECRC), Charite Campus Buch, Berlin (Germany); Berlin Ultrahigh Field Facility, Max-Delbrueck Center for Molecular Medicine, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    As high-field cardiac MRI (CMR) becomes more widespread the propensity of ECG to interference from electromagnetic fields (EMF) and to magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) effects increases and with it the motivation for a CMR triggering alternative. This study explores the suitability of acoustic cardiac triggering (ACT) for left ventricular (LV) function assessment in healthy subjects (n = 14). Quantitative analysis of 2D CINE steady-state free precession (SSFP) images was conducted to compare ACT's performance with vector ECG (VCG). Endocardial border sharpness (EBS) was examined paralleled by quantitative LV function assessment. Unlike VCG, ACT provided signal traces free of interference from EMF or MHD effects. In the case of correct R-wave recognition, VCG-triggered 2D CINE SSFP was immune to cardiac motion effects - even at 3.0 T. However, VCG-triggered 2D SSFP CINE imaging was prone to cardiac motion and EBS degradation if R-wave misregistration occurred. ACT-triggered acquisitions yielded LV parameters (end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF) and left ventricular mass (LVM)) comparable with those derived from VCG-triggered acquisitions (1.5 T: ESV{sub VCG} = (56 {+-} 17) ml, EDV{sub VCG} = (151 {+-} 32) ml, LVM{sub VCG} = (97 {+-} 27) g, SV{sub VCG} = (94 {+-} 19) ml, EF{sub VCG} = (63 {+-} 5)% cf. ESV{sub ACT} = (56 {+-} 18) ml, EDV{sub ACT} = (147 {+-} 36) ml, LVM{sub ACT} = (102 {+-} 29) g, SV{sub ACT} = (91 {+-} 22) ml, EF{sub ACT} = (62 {+-} 6)%; 3.0 T: ESV{sub VCG} = (55 {+-} 21) ml, EDV{sub VCG} = (151 {+-} 32) ml, LVM{sub VCG} = (101 {+-} 27) g, SV{sub VCG} = (96 {+-} 15) ml, EF{sub VCG} = (65 {+-} 7)% cf. ESV{sub ACT} = (54 {+-} 20) ml, EDV{sub ACT} = (146 {+-} 35) ml, LVM{sub ACT} = (101 {+-} 30) g, SV{sub ACT} = (92 {+-} 17) ml, EF{sub ACT} = (64 {+-} 6)%). ACT's intrinsic insensitivity to interference from electromagnetic fields renders it suitable for clinical CMR. (orig.)

  1. Polyethylene glycol-covered ultra-small Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles for positive contrast at 1.5 T magnetic resonance clinical scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortin, Marc-Andre [Unite de Bioingenerie et de Biotechnologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Quebec (CHUQ) and Laval University, QC, G1K 7P4 (Canada); Jr, Rodrigo M Petoral [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linkoeping University, SE-58183 Linkoeping (Sweden); Soederlind, Fredrik [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linkoeping University, SE-58183 Linkoeping (Sweden); Klasson, A [Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linkoeping University/US, SE-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Engstroem, Maria [Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV), Linkoeping University/US, SE-58185 Linkoeping (Sweden); Veres, Teodor [National Research Council of Canada (CNRC-IMI) 75, boulevard de Mortagne, Boucherville, QC, J4B 6Y4 (Canada); Kaell, Per-Olof [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linkoeping University, SE-58183 Linkoeping (Sweden); Uvdal, Kajsa [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linkoeping University, SE-58183 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2007-10-03

    The size distribution and magnetic properties of ultra-small gadolinium oxide crystals (US-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}) were studied, and the impact of polyethylene glycol capping on the relaxivity constants (r{sub 1}, r{sub 2}) and signal intensity with this contrast agent was investigated. Size distribution and magnetic properties of US-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocrystals were measured with a TEM and PPMS magnetometer. For relaxation studies, diethylene glycol (DEG)-capped US-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocrystals were reacted with PEG-silane (MW 5000). Suspensions were adequately dialyzed in water to eliminate traces of Gd{sup 3+} and surfactants. The particle hydrodynamic radius was measured with dynamic light scattering (DLS) and the proton relaxation times were measured with a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Parallel studies were performed with DEG-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} and PEG-silane-SPGO (Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3},< 40 nm diameter). The small and narrow size distribution of US-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} was confirmed with TEM ({approx}3 nm) and DLS. PEG-silane-US-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} relaxation parameters were twice as high as for Gd-DTPA and the r{sub 2}/r{sub 1} ratio was 1.4. PEG-silane-SPGO gave low r{sub 1} relaxivities and high r{sub 2}/r{sub 1} ratios, less compatible with positive contrast agent requirements. Higher r{sub 1} were obtained with PEG-silane in comparison to DEG-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Treatment of DEG-US-Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} with PEG-silane provides enhanced relaxivity while preventing aggregation of the oxide cores. This study confirms that PEG-covered Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles can be used for positively contrasted MR applications requiring stability, biocompatible coatings and nanocrystal functionalization.

  2. Quantitative and qualitative comparison of 0.025 mmol/kg gadobenate dimeglumine for abdominal MRI at 1.5 T and 3 T MRI in patients with low estimated glomerular filtration rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramalho, Miguel; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Busireddy, Kiran K.; Altun, Ersan; Liu, Baodong; Semelka, Richard C., E-mail: richsem@med.unc.edu

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • Efficacy and adequacy of enhancement using quarter dose gadobenate dimeglumine at 1.5 T was studied in patients with low GFR. • A dose of 0.025 mmol/kg of gadobenate dimeglumine at 1.5 T showed diagnostic enhancement quality in the majority of patients. • There were no significant differences between the qualitative perception of enhancement between 1.5 T and 3 T. • Patients who have renal impairment may still be able to receive GBCAs, while maintaining adequate enhancement at 1.5 T. - Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the efficacy and adequacy of enhancement employing 0.025 mmol/kg of gadobenate dimeglumine at 1.5 Tesla (T), and to compare the extent of enhancement of this dosage between 1.5 T and 3 T systems. Materials and methods: Our final population included 116 consecutive patients who underwent 0.025 mmol/kg gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced abdominal MRI (78 men and 38 women; age, 64.1 ± 13.6 years). Sixty patients underwent imaging at 1.5 T and 56 patients underwent imaging at 3 T. Abdominal enhancement was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. The quality of enhancement was compared using Mann–Whitney U test. The percentage of enhancement of each organ was compared using Student t-test. Results: The mean quality rating of enhancement was at least “good” in all phases of enhancement for both 1.5 T and 3 T. There was a non-significant trend to higher mean ratings at 3 T. The liver showed a 1.3-fold higher arterial-phase percentage of enhancement at 3 T (p = 0.0138). There were no differences between the mean relative enhancement of the pancreas and aorta throughout all phases of enhancement. The percentage of enhancement of the renal cortex was significantly higher at 3 T (p < 0.0001 to p = 0.0293). Conclusion: A dose of 0.025 mmol/kg of gadobenate dimeglumine demonstrates diagnostic enhancement in the majority of patients at 1.5 T, without significant differences on qualitative evaluation compared to 3 T.

  3. Relationship between individual growth and statolith increment of jumbo flying squid (Dosidicus gigas) in the waters off Costa Rica%哥斯达黎加外海茎柔鱼个体与耳石间生长关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾涛; 陈新军; 李纲; 陆化杰; 刘必林; 马金

    2011-01-01

    根据2009年7-8月哥斯达黎加外海采集的茎柔鱼样本,利用多种统计方法分析了茎柔鱼耳石与个体生长之间的关系.研究认为,耳石各形态参数与胴长(ML)关系显著(P<0.01),其中背侧区间长(DDL)、耳石总长(TSL)与其相关性最大.耳石生长存在两个阶段,当ML小于26~30 cm时,其耳石生长迅速,之后耳石生长减慢.在生长过程中,耳石背区长(DL)、吻区内长(RIL)、DDL生长快于TSL,背侧区夹角(DDA)、吻侧区夹角(RDA)、吻区夹角(RA)则随着ML的增大出现减小趋势,侧区、吻区形态变化显著(P<0.05).耳石形态先于生长速度发生显著性变化,同时各形态参量发生显著性变化时间不同,但形态特征变化主要发生在ML为23~29cm个体中,之后趋于稳定.耳石生长及形态显著性变化与茎柔鱼栖息水层改变相关,茎柔鱼与中上层头足类耳石特征相符.%The growth relationship between statolith and individual of the jumbo flying squid (Dosidicus gigas) sampled in waters off Costa Rica from July to August in 2009 was studied with multiple statistical methods.It was found that the growth relationship between statohth and mantle length (ML) was significant (P < 0.01 ), and the biggest coefficient were ventral dorsal dome length (DDL) and total statolith length (TSL).Statolith growth contained two phases, rapid growth of statolith before ML was smaller than 26 -30 cm, and after that there has a slow growth of statolith.The dorsal length ( DL), rostrum inside length (RIL)and DDL grew faster than the TSL, but the ventral dorsal dome angle (DDA), rostrum lateral dome angle (RDA) and rostrum angle (RA) were reduced during the growth process.So the morphology of lateral dome and rostrum were changed significantly (P < 0.05 ).Although the significant changes of statolith morphology preceded the growth changes and the significant changes of various parts in morphology were not synchronized,the morphological changes

  4. 大臼杯在髋臼骨缺损患者的髋关节翻修术中的应用%Application of jumbo cups for acetabular deficiencies in hip revision procedures used in acetabulum defects of the hip revision procedures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王北岳; 周利武; 张志强; 郭亭; 赵建宁

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application of jumbo acetabular cups for Paprosky type II and type III A acetabular deifciencies after total hip arthroplasty ( THA ).Methods The clinical data of 24 patients who were diagnosed as acetabular deifciencies of Paprosky type II or type III A after THA from March 2007 to May 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 13 males and 11 females, whose average age was 61.46 years old ( range: 34-77 years ). As to the reason of acetabular revision, there were 21 cases caused by aseptic loosening, 2 cases by habitual hip dislocation and 1 case by low toxicity infection. Primary and unilateral revision was performed on all the patients. Cemented acetabular prostheses were used in 11 cases, cementless acetabular prostheses in 10 cases and artiifcaial femoral head arthrolasty in 3 cases. According to the Paprosky acetabular defect classiifcation, there were 7 hips of type II A, 6 hips of type II B, 5 hips of type II C and 6 hips of type III A. Jumbo acetabular cups or combined with bone grafts were used in acetabular revision with prostheses. For the patients with acetabular deifciencies of Paprosky type II, the acetabulum was reamed and enlarged on the premise that the stability of the prosthesis was not affected, and then morselized bone graft was performed or the acetabular prosthesis with a jumbo cup was directly put in. For the patients with acetabular deifciencies of Paprosky type III A, an appropriate amount of compacted and morselized bone graft was used. Structural bone graft or the acetabular notch sealing was carried out, so as to increase the bone mass. The implantation technique through the center of the high ball could be directly adopted, with jumbo acetabular cups embedded. The problems of the balance of both lower limbs and the eccentricity could be handled by adjusting the length of the prosthetic handle and neck. A regular follow-up was carried out after the operation. The Harris hip score and Visual Analogue

  5. Quantification and visualization of cardiovascular 4D velocity mapping accelerated with parallel imaging or k-t BLAST: head to head comparison and validation at 1.5 T and 3 T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ståhlberg Freddy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three-dimensional time-resolved (4D phase-contrast (PC CMR can visualize and quantify cardiovascular flow but is hampered by long acquisition times. Acceleration with SENSE or k-t BLAST are two possibilities but results on validation are lacking, especially at 3 T. The aim of this study was therefore to validate quantitative in vivo cardiac 4D-acquisitions accelerated with parallel imaging and k-t BLAST at 1.5 T and 3 T with 2D-flow as the reference and to investigate if field strengths and type of acceleration have major effects on intracardiac flow visualization. Methods The local ethical committee approved the study. 13 healthy volunteers were scanned at both 1.5 T and 3 T in random order with 2D-flow of the aorta and main pulmonary artery and two 4D-flow sequences of the heart accelerated with SENSE and k-t BLAST respectively. 2D-image planes were reconstructed at the aortic and pulmonary outflow. Flow curves were calculated and peak flows and stroke volumes (SV compared to the results from 2D-flow acquisitions. Intra-cardiac flow was visualized using particle tracing and image quality based on the flow patterns of the particles was graded using a four-point scale. Results Good accuracy of SV quantification was found using 3 T 4D-SENSE (r2 = 0.86, -0.7 ± 7.6% and although a larger bias was found on 1.5 T (r2 = 0.71, -3.6 ± 14.8%, the difference was not significant (p = 0.46. Accuracy of 4D k-t BLAST for SV was lower (p 2 = 0.65, -15.6 ± 13.7% compared to 3 T (r2 = 0.64, -4.6 ± 10.0%. Peak flow was lower with 4D-SENSE at both 3 T and 1.5 T compared to 2D-flow (p Conclusions The present study showed that quantitative 4D flow accelerated with SENSE has good accuracy at 3 T and compares favourably to 1.5 T. 4D flow accelerated with k-t BLAST underestimate flow velocities and thereby yield too high bias for intra-cardiac quantitative in vivo use at the present time. For intra-cardiac 4D-flow visualization, however, 1.5 T

  6. Part-body hyperthermia with a radiofrequency multiantenna applicator under online control in 1,5 T MR-tomograph; Teilkoerperhyperthermie mit einem Radiofrequenz-Multiantennen-Applikator unter on-line Kontrolle in einem 1,5 T MR-Tomographen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wust, P.; Gellermann, J.; Faehling, H.; Wlodarczyk, W.; Felix, R. [Charite, Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Berlin (Germany); Seebass, M. [Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum fuer Informationstechnologie, Berlin (Germany); Turner, P. [BSD Medical Corp., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Nadobny, J. [Charite, Klinik fuer Strahlenheilkunde, Berlin (Germany); Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum fuer Informationstechnologie, Berlin (Germany); Rau, B. [Charite, Medizinische Klinik m.S. Haematologie und Onkologie, Berlin (Germany); Hildebrandt, B.; Schlag, P.M. [Charite, Klinik fuer Chirurgie und Chirurgische Onkologie, Berlin (Germany); Oppelt, A. [Siemens Medical Solutions, Interventional MR, Erlangen (Germany)

    2004-03-01

    Objective of this study is the integration of a multiantenna applicator for part-body hyperthermia (BSD 2000/3D) in a 1.5 T MR-tomograph (Siemens Magnetom Symphony) in order to perform noninvasive MR monitoring in real time to increase safety and effectiveness of heat treatments. The positioning unit is mechanically coupled to the MR gantry from the back side and the body coil is utilised for imaging. For that purpose, the hyperthermia antenna system (100 MHz, 1.500 W) and the MR receiver(63.9 MHs) have to be decoupled in terms of high frequency (filter) and electromagnetically (emc). The processing of MR data sets is performed in a hyperthermia planning system. A simultaneous operation of radiofrequency hyperthermia and MR system is possible at clinically relevant power levels. MR imaging is used for tumor diagnostics (standard spin echo sequences), for hyperthermia planning (T1-weighted gradient echo sequences in equal- and opposed-phase techniques), and for temperature measurements according to the proton resonance frequency method (PRF method, phase evaluation registration using a gradient echo sequence with long echo time). In 33 patients with advanced pelvic and abdominal tumors we performed 150 heat sessions under MR monitoring. For 70% of these patients a visualisation of temperature sensitive data during treatment was possible. The evaluated difference images represent a superposition of real temperature increase and a (temperature-induced) perfusion elevation. The hybrid approach renders development of part body hyperthermia possible as an MR-controlled intervention in radiology. (orig.) [German] Ziel ist die Integration eines Multiantennen-Applikators fuer die Teilkoerperhyperthermie (BSD-2000/3D) in einen 1,5 T MR-Tomographen (Siemens Magnetom Symphony), um ein nicht-invasives MR-Monitoring in Echtzeit zu ermoeglichen und damit die Hyperthermie sicherer und effektiver durchfuehren zu koennen. Die Hyperthermie-Lagerungseinheit wird von der Rueckseite der

  7. First test results of the pilot plant for the pressure loaded vapour loaded fluidized bed drying process (DDWT) of brown coals. A pilot plant for 5 t/h dry coal and till 6 bar dryer pressure; Erste Testergebnisse von der Versuchsanlage zur Druckaufgeladenen Dampfwirbelschicht-Trocknung (DDWT) von Braunkohlen. Versuchsanlage fuer 5 t/h Trockenkohle und bis 6 bar Trocknerdruck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porsche, T.; Thannhaeuser, L.; Hoehne, O.; Martin, J.S. [Vattenfall Europe Generation AG, Cottbus (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Apart from other promising possibilities for the improvement of the efficiency of fossil fuelled power stations such as the improvement of the steam parameters and optimization of the equipment technology the preliminary drying of coal possesses a very high potential. This results from a more effective combustion of the dried coal in the power station boiler and from the energetic use of the condensation enthalpy of the coal water vapour during processing the power station. Especially, if the vapour steam is on a high level of pressure, the applied evaporation enthalpy completely can be led back into the power station process. Thereby, improvements of the net efficiency of power stations of about 4 to 5 % are attainable. Starting from October 2008, Vattenfall Europe AG (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) established a pilot plant for a vapour loaded fluidized bed drying process (DDWT) of brown coals at the site Schwarze Pumpe. The plant is laid out for a dryer performance of 5 t/h dry brown coal. This plant enables tests with a dryer system pressure between 1 and 6 bar. After start-up in the third quarter 2008, the operation of the pilot plant begun. Extensive tests of the plant and components were accomplished, and the procedure proof for DDWT of Lausitz brown coals was furnished. So far, up to 4 t/h dry coal were produced with the accomplished test campaigns. A dryer system pressure of up to 4.5 bar started. The target is to transfer the results and experiences from the test operation into planning and construction of a 250 MW{sub e}l Oxyfuel demonstration power station with upstream coal pressure drying process which is established by Vattenfall Europe AG at the location Jaenschwalde until 2015.

  8. Impact of an endorectal coil for 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the prostate at 3.0T in comparison to 1.5T: Do we need an endorectal coil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffner, Maximilian K M; Huebner, Frank; Scholtz, Jan Erik; Zangos, Stephan; Schulz, Boris; Luboldt, Wolfgang; Vogl, Thomas J; Bodelle, Boris

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the influence of endorectal coil (ERC) regarding spectral quality and diagnostic suitability and diagnostic performance in 3.0T 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging (MRSI) compared to 1.5T MRSI. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. MRSI of the prostate was performed on 19 patients at 1.5T with ERC (protocol 1), at 3.0T with a disabled ERC (protocol 2) and at 3.0T with ERC (protocol 3). Age, weight, body size, body-mass-index, prostate volume, time between measurements, diagnostic suitability of spectra, histopathological results after biopsy of cancer suspect lesions (CSL), sensitivity and specificity were evaluated. Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was calculated and compared using semiparametrical multiple Conover-comparisons. Correlations between SNR and prostate volume and BMI were indicated using Pearson correlation coefficient. Distribution of SNR was evaluated for prostate quadrants. Diagnostic suitable spectra were achieved in 76 % (protocol 1, 100% in CSL), 32 % (protocol 2, 59% in CSL) and 50 % (protocol 3, 80% in CSL) of the voxels. SNR was significantly higher in protocol 3 compared to protocol 2 and 1 (93,729 vs. 27,836 vs. 32,897, p<0.0001) with significant difference between protocol 2 and 1 (p<0.023). Highest SNR was achieved in the dorsal prostate (protocols 1 and 3; p<0.0001). Sensitivity at 3.0T was higher with use of ERC. Specificity was highest at 1.5T with ERC. The ERC improves the diagnostic suitability and the SNR in MRSI at 3.0T. Less voxels at 3.0T with disabled ERC are suitable for diagnosis compared to 1.5T with ERC. MRSI at 3.0T with ERC shows the highest SNR. SNR in dorsal quadrants of the prostate was higher using ERC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Porcine Pancreatic Islets Transplanted in the Kidney Capsules of Diabetic Mice Using a Clinically Approved Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide (SPIO) and a 1.5T MR Scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hoe Suk; Kim, Hyoung Su; Park, Kyong Soo; Moon, Woo Kyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    To evaluate transplanted porcine pancreatic islets in the kidney capsules of diabetic mice using a clinically approved superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) and a 1.5T MR scanner. Various numbers of porcine pancreatic islets labeled with Resovist, a carboxydextran-coated SPIO, were transplanted into the kidney capsules of normal mice and imaged with a 3D FIESTA sequence using a 1.5T clinical MR scanner. Labeled (n = 3) and unlabeled (n = 2) islets were transplanted into the kidney capsules of streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Blood glucose levels and MR signal intensities were monitored for 30 days post-transplantation. There were no significant differences in viability or insulin secretion between labeled and unlabeled islets. A strong correlation ({gamma} {sup 2} > 0.94) was evident between the number of transplanted islets and T{sub 2} relaxation times quantified by MRI. Transplantation with labeled or unlabeled islets helped restore normal sustained glucose levels in diabetic mice, and nephrectomies induced the recurrence of diabetes. The MR signal intensity of labeled pancreatic islets decreased by 80% over 30 days. The transplantation of SPIO-labeled porcine islets into the kidney capsule of diabetic mice allows to restore normal glucose levels, and these islets can be visualized and quantified using a 1.5T clinical MR scanner

  10. Diagnostic performance of 3D TSE MRI versus 2D TSE MRI of the knee at 1.5 T, with prompt arthroscopic correlation, in the detection of meniscal and cruciate ligament tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Abaeté Chagas-Neto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To compare the diagnostic performance of the three-dimensional turbo spin-echo (3D TSE magnetic resonance imaging (MRI technique with the performance of the standard two-dimensional turbo spin-echo (2D TSE protocol at 1.5 T, in the detection of meniscal and ligament tears. Materials and Methods: Thirty-eight patients were imaged twice, first with a standard multiplanar 2D TSE MR technique, and then with a 3D TSE technique, both in the same 1.5 T MRI scanner. The patients underwent knee arthroscopy within the first three days after the MRI. Using arthroscopy as the reference standard, we determined the diagnostic performance and agreement. Results: For detecting anterior cruciate ligament tears, the 3D TSE and routine 2D TSE techniques showed similar values for sensitivity (93% and 93%, respectively and specificity (80% and 85%, respectively. For detecting medial meniscal tears, the two techniques also had similar sensitivity (85% and 83%, respectively and specificity (68% and 71%, respectively. In addition, for detecting lateral meniscal tears, the two techniques had similar sensitivity (58% and 54%, respectively and specificity (82% and 92%, respectively. There was a substantial to almost perfect intraobserver and interobserver agreement when comparing the readings for both techniques. Conclusion: The 3D TSE technique has a diagnostic performance similar to that of the routine 2D TSE protocol for detecting meniscal and anterior cruciate ligament tears at 1.5 T, with the advantage of faster acquisition.

  11. Quantitative and qualitative comparison of 0.025 mmol/kg gadobenate dimeglumine for abdominal MRI at 1.5T and 3T MRI in patients with low estimated glomerular filtration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, Miguel; AlObaidy, Mamdoh; Busireddy, Kiran K; Altun, Ersan; Liu, Baodong; Semelka, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy and adequacy of enhancement employing 0.025 mmol/kg of gadobenate dimeglumine at 1.5 Tesla (T), and to compare the extent of enhancement of this dosage between 1.5T and 3T systems. Our final population included 116 consecutive patients who underwent 0.025 mmol/kg gadobenate dimeglumine-enhanced abdominal MRI (78 men and 38 women; age, 64.1 ± 13.6 years). Sixty patients underwent imaging at 1.5T and 56 patients underwent imaging at 3T. Abdominal enhancement was evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. The quality of enhancement was compared using Mann-Whitney U test. The percentage of enhancement of each organ was compared using Student t-test. The mean quality rating of enhancement was at least "good" in all phases of enhancement for both 1.5T and 3T. There was a non-significant trend to higher mean ratings at 3T. The liver showed a 1.3-fold higher arterial-phase percentage of enhancement at 3T (p=0.0138). There were no differences between the mean relative enhancement of the pancreas and aorta throughout all phases of enhancement. The percentage of enhancement of the renal cortex was significantly higher at 3T (pqualitative evaluation compared to 3T. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Diagnostic performance of 3D TSE MRI versus 2D TSE MRI of the knee at 1.5 T, with prompt arthroscopic correlation, in the detection of meniscal and cruciate ligament tears*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaeté; Nogueira-Barbosa, Marcello Henrique; Lorenzato, Mário Müller; Salim, Rodrigo; Kfuri-Junior, Maurício; Crema, Michel Daoud

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the diagnostic performance of the three-dimensional turbo spin-echo (3D TSE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique with the performance of the standard two-dimensional turbo spin-echo (2D TSE) protocol at 1.5 T, in the detection of meniscal and ligament tears. Materials and Methods Thirty-eight patients were imaged twice, first with a standard multiplanar 2D TSE MR technique, and then with a 3D TSE technique, both in the same 1.5 T MRI scanner. The patients underwent knee arthroscopy within the first three days after the MRI. Using arthroscopy as the reference standard, we determined the diagnostic performance and agreement. Results For detecting anterior cruciate ligament tears, the 3D TSE and routine 2D TSE techniques showed similar values for sensitivity (93% and 93%, respectively) and specificity (80% and 85%, respectively). For detecting medial meniscal tears, the two techniques also had similar sensitivity (85% and 83%, respectively) and specificity (68% and 71%, respectively). In addition, for detecting lateral meniscal tears, the two techniques had similar sensitivity (58% and 54%, respectively) and specificity (82% and 92%, respectively). There was a substantial to almost perfect intraobserver and interobserver agreement when comparing the readings for both techniques. Conclusion The 3D TSE technique has a diagnostic performance similar to that of the routine 2D TSE protocol for detecting meniscal and anterior cruciate ligament tears at 1.5 T, with the advantage of faster acquisition. PMID:27141127

  13. The association of three BACE1 gene polymorphisms (exon5 C/G, intron 5 T/G and 3'UTR T/A) with sporadic Alzheimer's disease susceptibility: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hai; Ling, Kang; Du, Xunping; Ge, Pingping; Wu, Shaowei; Wang, Xiaotong

    2015-01-01

    Despite biological support for a role of Beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD), studies about the BACE1 genetic polymorphisms in SAD are inconsistent. To explore whether the BACE1 polymorphisms confers susceptibility to SAD, the current meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the gene-disease association in relevant studies. The serious databases were researched to identify studies. The association between BACE1 (exon5 C/G, intron 5 T/G or 3'UTR T/A) polymorphism and SAD risk was evaluated by odds ratios (ORs) together with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The combined results showed no significant difference in all models on the basis of all studies for BACE1 (exon5 C/G, intron 5 T/G or 3'UTR T/A) polymorphisms. When subgroup analysis was performed based on ethnicity and the epsilon 4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOEε4) carriers status, significant associations were demonstrated (CC versus CG+GG: OR=1.37, 95% CI=1.04-1.82, P=0.03BACE1 (exon5 C/G, intron 5 T/G or 3'UTR T/A) polymorphism could be not a risk factor for SAD. However, individuals with CC genotype have higher risk of SAD with APOEε4 carrier status, and gene-gene interaction might affect on the association. Further studies with large sample size, especially in subgroup analysis, should be done to confirm these findings.

  14. Validation of highly accelerated real-time cardiac cine MRI with radial k-space sampling and compressed sensing in patients at 1.5T and 3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji-Valizadeh, Hassan; Rahsepar, Amir A; Collins, Jeremy D; Bassett, Elwin; Isakova, Tamara; Block, Tobias; Adluru, Ganesh; DiBella, Edward V R; Lee, Daniel C; Carr, James C; Kim, Daniel

    2017-09-17

    To validate an optimal 12-fold accelerated real-time cine MRI pulse sequence with radial k-space sampling and compressed sensing (CS) in patients at 1.5T and 3T. We used two strategies to reduce image artifacts arising from gradient delays and eddy currents in radial k-space sampling with balanced steady-state free precession readout. We validated this pulse sequence against a standard breath-hold cine sequence in two patient cohorts: a myocardial infarction (n = 16) group at 1.5T and chronic kidney disease group (n = 18) at 3T. Two readers independently performed visual analysis of 68 cine sets in four categories (myocardial definition, temporal fidelity, artifact, noise) on a 5-point Likert scale (1 = nondiagnostic, 2 = poor, 3 = adequate or moderate, 4 = good, 5 = excellent). Another reader calculated left ventricular (LV) functional parameters, including ejection fraction. Compared with standard cine, real-time cine produced nonsignificantly different visually assessed scores, except for the following categories: 1) temporal fidelity scores were significantly lower (P = 0.013) for real-time cine at both field strengths, 2) artifacts scores were significantly higher (P = 0.013) for real-time cine at both field strengths, and 3) noise scores were significantly (P = 0.013) higher for real-time cine at 1.5T. Standard and real-time cine pulse sequences produced LV functional parameters that were in good agreement (e.g., absolute mean difference in ejection fraction cine MRI pulse sequence using radial k-space sampling and CS produces good to excellent visual scores and relatively accurate LV functional parameters in patients at 1.5T and 3T. Magn Reson Med, 2017. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  15. Qinshan Nuclear Power Company 75/5T Crane --Mechanical Components' Reliability Analysis%秦山核电厂75/5T起重机机械部件可靠性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    边红丽; 张琴芳

    2003-01-01

    概率安全分析(PSA)中的故障树分析(FTA)是系统可靠性和安全性分析的工具之一.故障树分析包括定性分析和定量分析.介绍了秦山核电厂燃料厂房75/5T14.5M桥式起重机机械部件失效概率的估算方法,为该起重机的可靠性分析提供机械部件底事件发生的概率.

  16. Volvo XC90 2.5T

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林森

    2006-01-01

    安全!安全!再安全!Volvo公司里养着一帮梦想着把VOLVO打成安全代名词的“野心家”,所以他们发明了RSC(Roll Stability Control)防翻滚稳定系统,并率先运用在XC90的身上。

  17. Ultrafast carrier relaxation through Auger recombination in the topological insulator B i1.5S b0.5T e1.7S e1.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Yoshito; Ren, Zhi; Segawa, Kouji; Kaszub, Wawrzyniec; Lorenc, Maciej; Ando, Yoichi; Tanaka, Koichiro

    2015-02-01

    Ultrafast carrier dynamics have great significance for our understanding of the transport properties of the surface state in topological insulator (TI) materials. We report midinfrared pump-probe measurements on the intrinsic TI material B i1.5S b0.5T e1.7S e1.3 and show that the change in photoinduced reflectivity can be decomposed into a fast negative part and a slow positive part. Calculations of the dielectric function made at various carrier temperatures and densities reveal that the fast negative component corresponds to the disappearance of the phase-space filling effect due to hot carriers around the probe energy and the decay component corresponds to the recombination of carriers near the band edge. The ratio of the fast negative component to the slow positive component is larger in the excitations conducted at the higher carrier densities, which suggests that the carrier temperature increases through Auger recombination. A qualitative analysis using rate equations reinforces this assumption, so we conclude that Auger recombination is the main cause of the population relaxation at carrier densities higher than 1018c m-3 and that we determined the Auger coefficient for B i1.5S b0.5T e1.7S e1.3 as C =0.4 ×10-26c m6/s .

  18. Fuzzy logic structure analysis of trabecular bone of the calcaneus to estimate proximal femur fracture load and discriminate subjects with and without vertebral fractures using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 T and 3 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Priyesh V; Eckstein, Felix; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Phan, Catherine; Matsuura, Maiko; Lochmüller, Eva-Maria; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M

    2007-10-01

    Newly developed fuzzy logic-derived structural parameters were used to characterize trabecular bone architecture in high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI) of human cadaver calcaneus specimens. These parameters were compared to standard histomorphological structural measures and analyzed concerning performance in discriminating vertebral fracture status and estimating proximal femur fracture load. Sets of 60 sagittal 1.5 T and 3.0 T HR-MRI images of the calcaneus were obtained in 39 cadavers using a fast gradient recalled echo sequence. Structural parameters equivalent to bone histomorphometry and fuzzy logic-derived parameters were calculated using two chosen regions of interest. Calcaneal, spine, and hip bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were also obtained. Fracture status of the thoracic and lumbar spine was assessed on lateral radiographs. Finally, mechanical strength testing of the proximal femur was performed. Diagnostic performance in discriminating vertebral fracture status and estimating femoral fracture load was calculated using regression analyses, two-tailed t-tests of significance, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Significant correlations were obtained at both field strengths between all structural and fuzzy logic parameters (r up to 0.92). Correlations between histomorphological or fuzzy logic parameters and calcaneal BMD were mostly significant (r up to 0.78). ROC analyses demonstrated that standard structural parameters were able to differentiate persons with and without vertebral fractures (area under the curve [A(Z)] up to 0.73). However, none of the parameters obtained in the 1.5-T images and none of the fuzzy logic parameters discriminated persons with and without vertebral fractures. Significant correlations were found between fuzzy or structural parameters and femoral fracture load. Using multiple regression analysis, none of the structural or fuzzy parameters were found to add discriminative value to BMD

  19. Image quality assessment of a 1.5T dedicated magnetic resonance-simulator for radiotherapy with a flexible radio frequency coil setting using the standard American College of Radiology magnetic resonance imaging phantom test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Oi Lei; Yuan, Jing; Yu, Siu Ki; Cheung, Kin Yin

    2017-04-01

    A flexible RF coil setting has to be used on an MR-simulator (MR-sim) in the head and neck simulation scan for radiotherapy (RT) purpose, while the image quality might be compromised due to the sub-optimized flexible coil compared to the normal diagnostic radiological (DR) head coil. In this study, we assessed the image quality of an MR-sim by conducting the standard American College of Radiology (ACR) MRI phantom test on a 1.5T MR-sim under RT-setting and comparing it to DR-setting. A large ACR MRI phantom was carefully positioned, aligned and scanned 9 times for each under RT- and DR-setting on a 1.5T MR-sim, following the ACR scanning instruction. Images were analyzed following the ACR guidance. Measurement results under two coil settings were quantitatively compared. Inter-observer disagreements under RT-setting between two physicists were compared using Bland-Altman (BA) analysis and intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). The MR-sim with RT-setting obtained sufficiently good image quality to pass all ACR recommended criteria. No significant difference was found in phantom length accuracy, high-contrast spatial resolution, slice thickness accuracy, slice position accuracy, and percent-signal ghosting. RT-setting significantly under-performed in low-contrast object detectability, while better performed in image intensity uniformity. BA analysis showed that 95% limit of agreement and biases of phantom test measurement under RT-setting between two observers were very small. Excellent inter-observer agreement (ICC >0.75) was achieved in all measurements except for slice thickness accuracy (ICC =0.42, moderate agreement) under RT-setting. Very good and highly reproducible image quality could be achieved on a 1.5T MR-sim with a flexible coil setting as revealed by the standard ACR MRI phantom test. The flexible RT-setting compromised in image signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) compared to the normal DR-setting, and resulted in reduced low-contrast object detectability.

  20. Endothelial cell-driven regulation of CD9 or motility-related protein-1 expression in multiple myeloma cells within the murine 5T33MM model and myeloma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruyne, E; Levin Andersen, Thomas; De Raeve, H;

    2006-01-01

    The cell surface expression of CD9, a glycoprotein of the tetraspanin family influencing several processes including cell motility and metastasis, inversely correlates with progression in several solid tumors. In the present work, we studied the expression and role of CD9 in multiple myeloma (MM)...... interaction of the cells with BMEC and that CD9 is involved in transendothelial invasion, thus possibly mediating homing and/or spreading of the MM cells........ These findings were also confirmed by immunohistochemistry in MM patients. Neutralizing anti-CD9 antibodies inhibited transendothelial invasion of CD9-expressing human MM5.1 and murine 5T33MMvivo cells. In conclusion, we provide evidence that CD9 expression by the MM cells is upregulated in vivo by close...

  1. Was Aristotle an Exponent of Antiscientific Mumbo-Jumbo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koznjak, Boris

    2012-01-01

    During the past few decades, a wide consensus has been reached in the community of science educators that it is almost unimaginable to conduct a quality science education without including the history and philosophy of science in some form in the science curriculum, and this is especially the case for physics education (Matthews 1994). However, in…

  2. Jumbo Space Environment Simulation and Spacecraft Charging Chamber Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-09

    electron, ion and VUV sources . This allows some degree of control over the beam size and flux of each of the sources by taking advantage of geometric...in order to decrease the VUV output in a controlled fashion. 5.2 Electron Gun The prime electron source is a Kimball Physics EG8105-UD electron...including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources , gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing

  3. Comment on 'degradation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran contaminants in 2,4,5-T by photoassisted iron-catalyzed hydrogen peroxide by J.J. Pignatello and L.Q. Huang, Wat. Res. 27, 1731-1736 (1993)'

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.

    and PCDFs is not well illustrated. The entraction of triplicate samples of aqueous 2,4,5-T gave wide range of standard deviation which is statistically unaccetpable. No proper justification is provided to elucidate on unusual increase in concentration...

  4. Free-breathing radial volumetric interpolated breathhold examination vs breath-hold cartesian volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination magnetic resonance imaging of the liver at 1.5T

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sireesha Yedururi; HyunSeon C Kang; Wei Wei; Nicolaus A Wagner-Bartak; Leonardo P Marcal; R Jason Stafford; Brandy J Willis; Janio Szklaruk

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare breath-hold cartesian volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination(cVIBE) and freebreathing radial VIBE(rVIBE) and determine whether rVIBE could replace cVIBE in routine liver magnetic resonance imaging(MRI).METHODS: In this prospective study, 15 consecutive patients scheduled for routine MRI of the abdomen underwent pre- and post-contrast breath-hold cVIBE imaging(19 s acquisition time) and free-breathing rVIBE imaging(111 s acquisition time) on a 1.5T Siemens scanner. Three radiologists with 2, 4, and 8 years post-fellowship experience in abdominal imaging evaluated all images. The radiologists were blinded to the sequence types, which were presented in a random order for each patient. For each sequence, the radiologists scored the cVIBE and rVIBE images for liver edge sharpness, hepatic vessel clarity, presence of artifacts, lesion conspicuity, fat saturation, and overall image quality using a five-point scale. RESULTS: Compared to rVIBE, cVIBE yielded significantly(P < 0.001) higher scores for liver edge sharpness(mean score, 3.87 vs 3.37), hepatic-vessel clarity(3.71 vs 3.18), artifacts(3.74 vs 3.06), lesion conspicuity(3.81 vs 3.2), and overall image quality(3.91 vs 3.24). cVIBE and rVIBE did not significantly differ in quality of fat saturation(4.12 vs 4.03, P = 0.17). The inter-observer variability with respect to differences between rVIBE and cVIBE scores was close to zero compared to random error and inter-patient variation. Quality of rVIBE images was rated as acceptable for all parameters. CONCLUSION: rVIBE cannot replace cVIBE in routine liver MRI. At 1.5T, free-breathing rVIBE yields acceptable, although slightly inferior image quality compared to breath-hold cVIBE.

  5. WE-G-17A-07: Investigation of the Influence of the Electron Return Effect (ERE) On the Dose Distribution in Rectal Cancer Patients On a 1.5T MR-Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uilkema, S; Heide, U; Nijkamp, J [NKI, Amsterdam, Zuid Holland (Netherlands); Sonke, J [Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Moreau, M [Elekta, Inc, Verona, WI (Italy)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this planning study is to investigate the influence of the ERE on the day-to-day dose distribution in rectal cancer patients, where changes in gas-pockets frequently occur. Methods: Daily CT scans of 5 patients treated neo-adjuvant with 5x5Gy for rectal cancer were used. We optimized two plans on the planning CT (Monaco, 1 mm3 dosegrid), a conventional 7-field 6MV IMRT plan (Dconv) and a plan in the presence of a 1.5T field (Dmrl). We recalculated the plans on all repeat-CT scans and evaluated under/over-dosage of the daily CTVs. Changes of more than 1% were considered significant. In the bowel area, we investigated the relative dose changes due to the ERE, where the contribution of the ERE was separated from other effects such as attenuation. Results: Both plans were comparable and compliant with ICRU 62 for all patients. For 2 fractions in one patient under-dosage in the CTV was significant, due to a disappearing gas-pocket. Here the V95 was 96.82 and 97.36% in in Dmrl compared to 98.85 and 98.66% in Dconv, respectively. For 3 fractions in another patient appearing gas-pockets resulted in significant over-dosage of the CTV. In these fractions the V107 was 1.88–2.68% in Dmrl compared to 0.33–1.27% in Dconv. In the bowel area the dose changes attributable to the ERE were approximately ± 5% in 1cc, at low dose levels. Conclusion: We were able to calculate acceptable treatment plans with and without a magnetic field. The ERE was present in the Dmrl, but the volumetric effect within the CTV was limited. Outside the CTV relative dose differences were similar, but on small volumes at lower, less relevant dose levels. This suggests that there is no clinical relevant ERE on dose distributions in rectal cancer patients on a 1.5T MR-Linac.

  6. Measurement of vertebral bone marrow lipid profile at 1.5-T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and bone mineral density at dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: correlation in a swine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Leo, Giovanni; Fina, Laura [IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Unita di Radiologia, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Bandirali, Michele; Messina, Carmelo [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Milan (Italy); Sardanelli, Francesco [IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Unita di Radiologia, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    Bone marrow is mainly composed of red (hematopoietic) and yellow (fatty) components. Soon after the birth there is a physiological conversion of the bone marrow from red to yellow, so that the percentage of hematopoietic cells and adipocytes changes with aging. Although bone marrow adipogenesis is a physiologic process involving all mammals, recent studies showed an accelerated marrow adipogenesis associated with several chronic conditions, including osteoporosis [4] and diabetes mellitus. Moreover, this increased marrow fat is accompanied by a decrease in bone density. Marrow fat is therefore increasingly believed to influence the bone microenvironment. Diagnostic tools for quantitative measurement of bone marrow fat and bone mineral density (BMD) include proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and dual-energy Xray absorptiometry (DXA), respectively. Using MRS, an inverse relationship between vertebral bone marrow fat content and lumbar BMD has been demonstrated in patients affected with osteoporosis or with diabetes mellitus. In most studies, a quite standard MRS sequence has been used, with short echo times (TE) for the measurement of the bulk methylene. In this study we sought to optimize the MRS sequence in order to try to measure other fat components of the vertebral bone marrow at 1.5 T. For this purpose, we used an animal model that allowed long acquisition times and repeated measures. Moreover, we aimed at estimating in this model the relationship between vertebral bone marrow fat content at proton MRS and BMD at DXA.

  7. In Vivo Single Scan Detection of Both Iron-Labeled Cells and Breast Cancer Metastases in the Mouse Brain Using Balanced Steady-State Free Precession Imaging at 1.5 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribot, Emeline J.; Martinez-Santiesteban, Francisco M.; Simedrea, Carmen; Steeg, Patricia S.; Chambers, Ann F.; Rutt, Brian K.; Foster, Paula J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To simultaneously detect iron-labeled cancer cells and brain tumors in vivo in one scan, the balanced steady-state free precession (b-SSFP) imaging sequence was optimized at 1.5 T on mice developing brain metastases subsequent to the injection of micron-sized iron oxide particle-labeled human breast cancer cells. Materials and Methods b-SSFP sequence parameters (repetition time, flip angle, and receiver bandwidth) were varied and the signal-to-noise ratio, contrast between the brain and tumors, and the number of detected iron-labeled cells were evaluated. Results Optimal b-SSFP images were acquired with a 26 msec repetition time, 35° flip angle, and bandwidth of ±21 kHz. b-SSFP images were compared with T2-weighted 2D fast spin echo (FSE) and 3D spoiled gradient recalled echo (SPGR) images. The mean tumor-brain contrast-to-noise ratio and the ability to detect iron-labeled cells were the highest in the b-SSFP images. Conclusion A single b-SSFP scan can be used to visualize both iron-labeled cells and brain metastases. PMID:21698713

  8. Contrast-enhanced dynamic MRI protocol with improved spatial and time resolution for in vivo microimaging of the mouse with a 1.5-T body scanner and a superconducting surface coil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginefri, Jean-Christophe; Poirier-Quinot, Marie; Robert, Philippe; Darrasse, Luc

    2005-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is well suited for small animal model investigations to study various human pathologies. However, the assessment of microscopic information requires a high-spatial resolution (HSR) leading to a critical problem of signal-to-noise ratio limitations in standard whole-body imager. As contrast mechanisms are field dependent, working at high field do not allow to derive MRI criteria that may apply to clinical settings done in standard whole-body systems. In this work, a contrast-enhanced dynamic MRI protocol with improved spatial and time resolution was used to perform in vivo tumor model imaging on the mouse at 1.5 T. The needed sensitivity is provided by the use of a 12-mm superconducting surface coil operating at 77 K. High quality in vivo images were obtained and revealed well-defined internal structures of the tumor. A 3-D HSR sequence with voxels of 59x59x300 microm3 encoded within 6.9 min and a 2-D sequence with subsecond acquisition time and isotropic in-plane resolution of 234 microm were used to analyze the contrast enhancement kinetics in tumoral structures at long and short time scales. This work is a first step to better characterize and differentiate the dynamic behavior of tumoral heterogeneities.

  9. Cumulative "roof effect" in high-resolution in vivo 31P NMR spectra of human calf muscle and the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of ATP at 1.5 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Leif; Schmitz, Christian; Bachert, Peter

    2005-05-01

    NMR spectra of non-weakly coupled spin systems exhibit asymmetries in line intensities known as "roof effect" in 1D spectroscopy. Due to limited spectral resolution, this effect has not been paid much attention so far in in vivo spectroscopy. But when high-quality spectra are obtained, this effect should be taken into account to explain the quantum-mechanical fine structure of the system. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) represents a 31P spin system with multiple line splittings which are caused by J-couplings of medium strength at 1.5 T. We analyzed the ATP roof effect in vivo, especially for the beta-ATP multiplet. The intensities of its outer resonances deviate by ca. 12.5% from a symmetrical triplet. As this asymmetry reflects the transition from Paschen-Back to Zeeman effect with total spin that is largely broken up, the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of the system can be indicated in analogy to the hyperfine structure of hydrogen. Taking the roof effect into account, the chi2 of fitting in vivo ATP resonances is reduced by ca. 9% (p<0.005).

  10. Cumulative “roof effect” in high-resolution in vivo 31P NMR spectra of human calf muscle and the Clebsch Gordan coefficients of ATP at 1.5 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Leif; Schmitz, Christian; Bachert, Peter

    2005-05-01

    NMR spectra of non-weakly coupled spin systems exhibit asymmetries in line intensities known as "roof effect" in 1D spectroscopy. Due to limited spectral resolution, this effect has not been paid much attention so far in in vivo spectroscopy. But when high-quality spectra are obtained, this effect should be taken into account to explain the quantum-mechanical fine structure of the system. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) represents a 31P spin system with multiple line splittings which are caused by J-couplings of medium strength at 1.5 T. We analyzed the ATP roof effect in vivo, especially for the β-ATP multiplet. The intensities of its outer resonances deviate by ca. 12.5% from a symmetrical triplet. As this asymmetry reflects the transition from Paschen-Back to Zeeman effect with total spin that is largely broken up, the Clebsch-Gordan coefficients of the system can be indicated in analogy to the hyperfine structure of hydrogen. Taking the roof effect into account, the χ2 of fitting in vivo ATP resonances is reduced by ca. 9% ( p < 0.005).

  11. Augmented reality visualization with use of image overlay technology for MR imaging-guided interventions: assessment of performance in cadaveric shoulder and hip arthrography at 1.5 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Jan; U-Thainual, Paweena; Ungi, Tamas; Flammang, Aaron J; Fichtinger, Gabor; Iordachita, Iulian I; Carrino, John A

    2012-10-01

    To prospectively assess overlay technology in providing accurate and efficient targeting for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-guided shoulder and hip joint arthrography. A prototype augmented reality image overlay system was used in conjunction with a clinical 1.5-T MR imager. A total of 24 shoulder joint and 24 hip joint injections were planned in 12 human cadavers. Two operators (A and B) participated, each performing procedures on different cadavers using image overlay guidance. MR imaging was used to confirm needle positions, monitor injections, and perform MR arthrography. Accuracy was assessed according to the rate of needle adjustment, target error, and whether the injection was intraarticular. Efficiency was assessed according to arthrography procedural time. Operator differences were assessed with comparison of accuracy and procedure times between the operators. Mann-Whitney U test and Fisher exact test were used to assess group differences. Forty-five arthrography procedures (23 shoulders, 22 hips) were performed. Three joints had prostheses and were excluded. Operator A performed 12 shoulder and 12 hip injections. Operator B performed 11 shoulder and 10 hip injections. Needle adjustment rate was 13% (six of 45; one for operator A and five for operator B). Target error was 3.1 mm±1.2 (standard deviation) (operator A, 2.9 mm±1.4; operator B, 3.5 mm±0.9). Intraarticular injection rate was 100% (45 of 45). The average arthrography time was 14 minutes (range, 6-27 minutes; 12 minutes [range, 6-25 minutes] for operator A and 16 minutes [range, 6-27 min] for operator B). Operator differences were not significant with regard to needle adjustment rate (P=.08), target error (P=.07), intraarticular injection rate (P>.99), and arthrography time (P=.22). Image overlay technology provides accurate and efficient MR guidance for successful shoulder and hip arthrography in human cadavers. © RSNA, 2012.

  12. 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)- and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T)-degrading gene cluster in the soybean root-nodulating bacterium Bradyrhizobium elkanii USDA94.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shohei; Sano, Tomoki; Suyama, Kousuke; Itoh, Kazuhito

    2016-01-01

    Herbicides 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D)- and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T)-degrading Bradyrhizobium strains possess tfdAα and/or cadABC as degrading genes. It has been reported that root-nodulating bacteria belonging to Bradyrhizobium elkanii also have tfdAα and cadA like genes but lack the ability to degrade these herbicides and that the cadA genes in 2,4-D-degrading and non-degrading Bradyrhizobium are phylogenetically different. In this study, we identified cadRABCK in the genome of a type strain of soybean root-nodulating B. elkanii USDA94 and demonstrated that the strain could degrade the herbicides when cadABCK was forcibly expressed. cadABCK-cloned Escherichia coli also showed the degrading ability. Because co-spiked phenoxyacetic acid (PAA) could induce the degradation of 2,4-D in B. elkanii USDA94, the lack of degrading ability in this strain was supposed to be due to the low inducing potential of the herbicides for the degrading gene cluster. On the other hand, tfdAα from B. elkanii USDA94 showed little potential to degrade the herbicides, but it did for 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid and PAA. The 2,4-D-degrading ability of the cad cluster and the inducing ability of PAA were confirmed by preparing cadA deletion mutant. This is the first study to demonstrate that the cad cluster in the typical root-nodulating bacterium indeed have the potential to degrade the herbicides, suggesting that degrading genes for anthropogenic compounds could be found in ordinary non-degrading bacteria. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Augmented Reality Visualization with Use of Image Overlay Technology for MR Imaging–guided Interventions: Assessment of Performance in Cadaveric Shoulder and Hip Arthrography at 1.5 T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Jan; U-Thainual, Paweena; Ungi, Tamas; Flammang, Aaron J.; Fichtinger, Gabor; Iordachita, Iulian I.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To prospectively assess overlay technology in providing accurate and efficient targeting for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging–guided shoulder and hip joint arthrography. Materials and Methods: A prototype augmented reality image overlay system was used in conjunction with a clinical 1.5-T MR imager. A total of 24 shoulder joint and 24 hip joint injections were planned in 12 human cadavers. Two operators (A and B) participated, each performing procedures on different cadavers using image overlay guidance. MR imaging was used to confirm needle positions, monitor injections, and perform MR arthrography. Accuracy was assessed according to the rate of needle adjustment, target error, and whether the injection was intraarticular. Efficiency was assessed according to arthrography procedural time. Operator differences were assessed with comparison of accuracy and procedure times between the operators. Mann-Whitney U test and Fisher exact test were used to assess group differences. Results: Forty-five arthrography procedures (23 shoulders, 22 hips) were performed. Three joints had prostheses and were excluded. Operator A performed 12 shoulder and 12 hip injections. Operator B performed 11 shoulder and 10 hip injections. Needle adjustment rate was 13% (six of 45; one for operator A and five for operator B). Target error was 3.1 mm ± 1.2 (standard deviation) (operator A, 2.9 mm ± 1.4; operator B, 3.5 mm ± 0.9). Intraarticular injection rate was 100% (45 of 45). The average arthrography time was 14 minutes (range, 6–27 minutes; 12 minutes [range, 6–25 minutes] for operator A and 16 minutes [range, 6–27 min] for operator B). Operator differences were not significant with regard to needle adjustment rate (P = .08), target error (P = .07), intraarticular injection rate (P > .99), and arthrography time (P = .22). Conclusion: Image overlay technology provides accurate and efficient MR guidance for successful shoulder and hip arthrography in human cadavers.

  14. Lamellar magnetism and exchange bias in billion-year-old metamorphic titanohematite with nanoscale ilmenite exsolution lamellae - II: exchange-bias at 5 K after field-free cooling of NRM and after cooling in a +5 T field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Peter; McEnroe, Suzanne A.; Jackson, Mike

    2017-02-01

    experiments produced asymmetric shifted hysteresis loops with one opening always in the negative field. These observations indicate that the +5 T field applied at room temperature rotated the hematite lamellar magnetism in a positive direction, so that upon cooling all the ilmenite lamellae acquired negative magnetic moments, thus causing unimodal negatively shifted loops. Here, the largest exchange bias among the unimodal loops was only 0.7 T. These results will be used in paper III to build a better understanding of lamellar magnetism at the atomic layer scale.

  15. Detection and appearance of intraparenchymal haematomas of the brain at 1.5 T with spin-echo, FLAIR and GE sequences: poor relationship to the age of the haematoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alemany Ripoll, M. [Department of Radiology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Fundacion Rioja Salud, Avda de Portugal no. 7, Logrono, La Rioja (Spain); Stenborg, A.; Terent, A. [Department of Internal Medicine, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden); Sonninen, P. [Department of Radiology, Turku University Hospital, Turku (Finland); Raininko, R. [Department of Radiology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    The specific appearance of blood related to time at T1- and T2-weighted spin-echo (SE) sequences is generally accepted; thus, these sequences are classically used for estimating the age of haematomas. Magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 T, including T1- and T2-weighted SE fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T2*-weighted gradient-echo (GE) sequences, was performed on 82 intraparenchymal haematomas (IPHs) and 15 haemorrhagic infarcts (HIs) in order to analyse the appearance at different stages and with different sequences, and to investigate how reliably the age of hematomas can be estimated. The IPHs had been previously detected by CT, were spontaneous (n=72) or traumatic (n=10) in origin and were of different sizes (2 mm to 7 cm) and ages (from 7.5 h to 4 years after acute haemorrhagic event). The age of the lesion was calculated from the moment when clinical symptoms started or the traumatic event occurred. The 15 patients with HIs were patients with ischaemic stroke in whom there was either a suspicion of haemorrhagic transformation on CT, or haemorrhage was detected as an additional finding on MR performed for other indications. Patients with conditions that could affect the SI of blood, such as anticoagulant therapy or severe anaemia, were excluded. The signal intensity pattern of the lesions was analysed and related to their ages without prior knowledge of the clinical data. All lesions were detected with T2*-weighted GE. T1-weighted SE missed 13 haematomas and T2-weighted SE and FLAIR sequences missed five. Haemorrhagic transformation was missed in three infarcts by T1-, T2-weighted SE and FLAIR. The signal pattern on FLAIR was identical to that on T2-weighted SE. For all sequences, a wide variety of signal patterns, without a clear relationship to the age of the haematomas, was observed. There was a poor relationship between the real MR appearance of IPHs and the theoretical appearance on SE sequences. T2*-weighted GE was effective for detecting

  16. Characterization of Nyquist ghost in EPI-fMRI acquisition sequences implemented on two clinical 1.5 T MR scanner systems: effect of readout bandwidth and echo spacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannelli, Marco; Diciotti, Stefano; Tessa, Carlo; Mascalchi, Mario

    2010-07-12

    In EPI-fMRI acquisitions, various readout bandwidth (BW) values are used as a function of gradients' characteristics of the MR scanner system. Echo spacing (ES) is another fundamental parameter of EPI-fMRI sequences, but the employed ES value is not usually reported in fMRI studies. Nyquist ghost is a typical EPI artifact that can degrade the overall quality of fMRI time series. In this work, the authors assessed the basic effect of BW and ES for two clinical 1.5 T MR scanner systems (scanner-A, scanner-B) on Nyquist ghost of gradient-echo EPI-fMRI sequences. BW range was: scanner-A, 1953-3906 Hz/pixel; scanner-B, 1220-2894 Hz/pixel. ES range was: scanner-A, scanner-B: 0.75-1.33 ms. The ghost-to-signal ratio of time series acquisition (GSRts) and drift of ghost-to-signal ratio (DRGSR) were measured in a water phantom. For both scanner-A (93% of variation) and scanner-B (102% of variation) the mean GSRts significantly increased with increasing BW. GSRts values of scanner-A did not significantly depended on ES. On the other hand, GSRts values of scanner-B significantly varied with ES, showing a downward trend (81% of variation) with increasing ES. In addition, a GSRts spike point at ES = 1.05 ms indicating a potential resonant effect was revealed. For both scanners, no significant effect of ES on DRGSR was revealed. DRGSR values of scanner-B did not significantly vary with BW, whereas DRGSR values of scanner-A significantly depended on BW showing an upward trend from negative to positive values with increasing BW. GSRts and DRGSR can significantly vary with BW and ES, and the specific pattern of variation may depend on gradients performances, EPI sequence calibrations and functional design of radiofrequency coil. Thus, each MR scanner system should be separately characterized. In general, the employment of low BW values seems to reduce the intensity and temporal variation of Nyquist ghost in EPI-fMRI time series. On the other hand, the use of minimum ES value might

  17. 26 CFR 1.274-5T - Substantiation requirements (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... device with the aid of a logging program will constitute an adequate record. (D) Confidential information...) specifically designed and used to carry heavy tools, testing equipment, or parts if— (i) The shelves, racks,...

  18. 26 CFR 1.469-5T - Material participation (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of health, law, engineering, architecture, accounting, actuarial science, performing arts, or..., based on appointment books, calendars, or narrative summaries. (g) Material participation of trusts...

  19. 26 CFR 1.7872-5T - Exempted loans (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... conditions and which are consistent with the lender's customary business practice; (2) Accounts or... business, to an insured, under a loan right contained in a life insurance policy and in which the cash...

  20. 丙烯醛氧化催化剂及在6万吨/年工业装置上的应用%Performance of Mo-V Complex Oxide for Oxidation of Acrolein and Application on Industrial Installation of 6.0 ×10^5 t/a

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪梅; 冯世强; 蔡敏; 庄岩; 施凯敏; 吴通好; 马建学; 褚小东; 高滋

    2012-01-01

    制备了Mo-V体系复合氧化物,考察了其丙烯醛氧化性能和在6.0×10^5t/a工业装置上的应用情况.结果表明,催化剂为由MoO3,M5O14和(Sb2O)MeO18(M—Mo,W,V)晶相组成的粒径在1~5μm的复合氧化物,对丙烯醛氧化反应具有优良的催化性能,在6.0×10^5t/a工业生产装置上的反应性能与进口催化剂相当.%The Mo-V complex oxides were prepared and tested the performance of acrolein oxidation reaction on industrial plant of 6. 0×10^5t/a. Characterization result indicated that the catalyst was composed of MoO3, Mo5O14 and(Sb2O)M6O18 and the particle size is about 1-5μm. Running on industrial installation of 6.0×10^5t/a for the reaction of acrolein oxidation, the catalyst showed superior performance equivalent to the import catalyst.

  1. 临床医用1.5T磁共振对AD模型大鼠的颅脑MR成像研究%To Investigate the Brain MRI Imaging of Model Rats with Alzheimer’s Disease by Using 1.5 T Clinical Medical

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马伟琼; 谢琦; 陈明旺; 徐海侠; 张鼎旋; 汤间仪

    2014-01-01

    Objective The 1.5T MR imager was used to investigate the MRI imaging of model rats' brain which with Alzheimer's disease.Methods Ten female SD rats, aged 7-8 weeks,were selected randomly. Then induced Alzheimer's disease model basing on multi-effects factors. Finally, the MRI sequences of T1WI、T2WI、T2*WI and SWI were scanned by using 1.5T MR imager.Results Some round hypointensity focus can be detected in the cortex and hippocampus of the AD model rat brain,which appeared a overlap with the positive results of βimmunohistochemical staining、Thioflavin S staining and iron staining.Conclusion When the high field MRI imager which can be offered for animals exclusively are in the scarce case, the brain MR imaging of rat model with clinical medical 1.5T MR imager is feasible.%目的:使用临床医用1.5TMR成像仪对阿尔茨海默病(Alzheimer Disease,AD)大鼠模型的颅脑行MR成像研究。材料和方法随机选择健康雌性SD大鼠10只(7-8周),通过多影响因素建立SD大鼠的AD模型,然后使用临床医用1.5TMR成像仪对AD模型大鼠进行T1WI、T2WI、T2*WI、SWI成像。结果 AD模型大鼠大脑的颞顶叶皮质、腹侧海马下皮质区和海马区可以发现一些散在的类圆形的低信号区,并与脑实质Aβ免疫组化、Thioflavine S及铁染色阳性结果相重叠。结论在未有超高场小动物专用磁共振成像仪的情况下,临床医用磁共振对AD模型大鼠颅脑MR成像的研究是可行的。

  2. The Comparison Study of Three-dimensional Contrast-enhanced MR Angiography with Difference Doses Contrast Agents on 1.5T MR with Simultaneous Calf Compression%小腿加压下肢动脉1.5T三维对比增强MRA对比剂剂量的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢玉海; 范影; 钱银锋; 李曼曼; 赵雷; 史晓飞; 曹莉; 哈传传

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨采用小腿加压法1.5T MR上行下肢动脉三维对比增强MRA(3D CE-MRA)中减少对比剂用量的可行性。方法30例健康志愿者随机分为A、B、C三组,使用1.5T MR行腹主动脉至下肢动脉3D CE-MRA,A、B、C组使用钆对比剂剂量分别为0.25mmol/kg、0.20mmol/kg和0.15mmol/kg,比较三组患者最大密度投影(MIP)的图像质量,计算并比较原始增强图像腹主动脉、股动脉、腘动脉的信号强度(SI)、信噪比(SNR)和对比噪声比(CNR)。结果三组的MIP图像质量均符合诊断要求,盆腔动脉段图像质量A组和B组优于C组,膝以上动脉段A组和C组优于B组,膝以下动脉段图像质量三组间无统计学差异(P>0.05)。小腿静脉污染程度C组优于A、B两组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。A、B、C三组间腹主动脉SI、SNR、CNR及股动脉SNR水平均无统计学差异(P>0.05);C组股动脉SI和腘动脉SI、SNR、CNR均低于B组和A组(P<0.05),B组低于A组(P<0.05);C组和B组股动脉CNR水平低于A组(P<0.05),但C组和B组间无统计学差异(P>0.05)。结论1.5T MR行下肢动脉3D CE-MRA,使用0.15mmol/kg钆对比剂可以获得良好的图像质量并能满足临床的诊断要求。%Objective To explore the feasibility of reducing contrast medium dose in three-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography(3D CE-MRA) of lower extremity arteries at 1.5T MR system with calf compression.Methods Thirty healthy volunteers underwent 3D CE-MRA at 1.5T MR system with calf compression. The volunteers were divided into group A(n=10)、group B(n=10) and group C(n=10). The contrast medium doses of were 0.25mmol/kg、0.20 mmol/kg and 0.15 mmol/kg in three groups, respectively. The qualities of maximum intensity projection(MIP) images were assessed. The signal intensity(SI), signal-to-noise ratio(SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio(CNR) of the source images were calculated and compared among three groups. Results The MIP images

  3. The mitochondrial ND5 T12338C mutation may be associated with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy in two Chinese families%线粒体T12338C突变可能是与Leber遗传性视神经病变相关的突变位点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀延春; 刘晓玲; 赵福新; 张娟娟; 章豫; 周翔天; 瞿佳; 管敏鑫

    2011-01-01

    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) associated with mitochondrial DNA mutation is a matemally inherited eye disease.We reported here the clinical, genetic and molecular characterization of two Han Chinese families with Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.Ophthalmologic examinations revealed that the variable severity and age-of-onset in visual impairment among probands and other matrilineal relatives of these families.Strikingly, there were extremely low penetrances of visual impairment in these families.Sequence analysis of complete mitochondrial genomes in these pedigrees identified the homoplasmic ND4 G1 1696A and ND5 T12338C mutation and distinct sets of polymorphism belonging to haplogroups F2.It is well known that mitochondrial DNA ND4 G11696A is associated with LHON.The ND5 T12338C mutation resulted in replacement of the first amino acid, translation-initiating methionine with a threonine, and shortening two amino acids of ND5.This mutation also locates in two nucleotides adjacent to the 3' end of the tRNALLen(CUN).Thus, this mutation may alter structural formation and stabilization of functional tRNA, thereby leading to a failure in protein synthesis and mitochondrial dysfunction involved in visual impairment.Therefore, the ND4 G11696A and ND5 T12338C mutation is likely associated with LHON in these two Chinese families.But these families exhibited extremely low penetrances of visual impairment.It suggests that other factors, such as nuclear modifier gene(s) or environmental factor(s), may play a role in the phenotypic expression of the LHON-associated ND4 G1 1696A and ND5 T12338C mutation.%Leber遗传性视神经病变变(Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy,LHON)是一种与线粒体DNA (Mitochondrial DNA,mtDNA)突变相关的母系遗传性眼科疾病.文章报道了两例具有典型LHON临床、分子遗传特征的中国汉族家系.首先通过对家系先证者和其他成员进行眼科相关检查,发现两个家系

  4. Clinical Value of High Frequency Ultrasound and 1.5T Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in the Diagnosis of Breast Cancer%高频超声、1.5T磁共振(MRI)诊断乳腺癌的临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘伟

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the diagnostic value of high frequency ultrasound and 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in breast cancer.Methods The imaging data of 50 cases of patients with breast cancer confirmed by operation and pathology during January 2013 to April 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The high frequency ultrasound and MRI imaging findings were observed and were compared with surgical and pathological results. The accuracies of high frequency ultrasound, MRI alone and combined diagnosis were analyzed.Results With the surgical and pathological results as the gold standard, the dianostic accuracy of high frequency ultrasound in breast cancer was 84.0% while of MRI was 92.0% and of the combination of the two was 98.0%. The dianostic accuracy of high frequency ultrasound combined with MRI was significantly higher than that of high frequency ultrasound and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).ConclusionThe accuracy of 1.5T MRI in the diagnosis of breast cancer is higher than that of high frequency ultrasound. High frequency ultrasound combined with MRI can significantly improve the dianostic accuracy in breast cancer. In clinic, it is worthy of promotion.%目的:探讨高频超声、1.5T磁共振(MRI)对乳腺癌的诊断价值。方法回顾性分析我院2013年1月-2015年4月经手术病理证实50例乳腺癌患者影像学资料,观察高频超声、MRI影像学表现,同时与手术病理结果比较,分析高频超声、MRI单独、联合诊断正确率。结果以手术病理结果为金标准,高频超声诊断乳腺癌正确率为84.0%,MRI诊断正确率为92.0%,高频超声+MRI诊断正确率为98.0%。高频超声+MRI诊断正确率明显高于高频超声检查,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论1.5T MRI诊断乳腺癌正确率比高频超声高,高频超声+MRI检查能明显提高乳腺癌诊断准确率,临床值得推广。

  5. Development of a 0.5T MRI Scanner Control and Data Processing Software Based on Eclipse RCP%基于Eclipse RCP技术的0.5T磁共振成像仪控制和数据处理软件系统开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东山; 陈志伟

    2015-01-01

    MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) technology is currently one of the most important tool for clinical diagnosis. In this paper, a 0.5T MRI scanner control and data processing software was developed based on Eclipse RCP. Written in Java, the software provides a good user experience and has strong expandability. It implements the control of the MRI instruments, supports the design of pulse sequence based on GUI and also provides powerful data processing functions.%磁共振成像仪是临床医学最重要的诊断工具之一。本文介绍了基于Eclipse RCP技术开发的、可用于我国自主研制的0.5T磁共振成像仪的控制和数据处理的软件系统的研制过程。该系统采用Java语言编写,实现了对磁共振成像仪的控制,支持图形界面的脉冲序列设计,并提供了基本的DICOM图像处理功能,具有良好的用户体验和极强的可扩展性。

  6. Dynamic contrast-enhanced susceptibility-weighted perfusion MRI (DSC-MRI) in a glioma model of the rat brain using a conventional receive-only surface coil with a inner diameter of 47 mm at a clinical 1.5 T scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Stephan; Reeh, Matthias; Krause, Joerg; Herdegen, Thomas; Heldt-Feindt, Janka; Jansen, Olav; Rohr, Axel

    2008-07-30

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in animal models is usually performed in expensive dedicated small bore animal scanners of limited availability. In the present study a standard clinical 1.5 T MR scanner was used for morphometric and dynamic contrast-enhanced susceptibility-weighted MR imaging (DSC-MRI) of a glioma model of the rat brain. Ten male Wistar rats were examined with coronal T2-weighted, and T1-weighted images (matrix 128 x 128, FOV 64 mm) after implantation of an intracerebral tumor xenografts (C6) using a conventional surface coil. For DSC-MRI a T2*-weighted sequence (TR/TE=30/14 ms, matrix 64 x 64, FOV 90 mm; slice thickness of 1.5mm) was performed. Regions of interest were defined within the tumor and the non-affected contralateral hemisphere and the mean transit time (MTT) was determined. Tumor dimensions in MR predicted well its real size as proven by histology. The MTT of contrast agent passing through the brain was significantly decelerated in the tumor compared to the unaffected hemisphere (pscanners or dedicated custom-made coils.

  7. Analysis of MR image quality of echo planar diffusion -weighted imaging. Investigations at 1.5 Tesla with higher gradient field strength; Analyse der Bildqualitaet einer diffusionsgewichteten (EPI DWI) Sequenz. Untersuchungen an einem 1,5 T MRT mit hoeherer Gradientenfeldstaerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorenbeck, U. [Universitaetsklinik Bonn (Germany). Radiologische Klinik, FE Neuroradiologie; Universitaetsklinikum Regensburg (Germany). Inst. fuer diagnostische Radiologie; Zorger, N.; Feuerbach, S. [Universitaetsklinikum Regensburg (Germany). Inst. fuer diagnostische Radiologie

    2006-07-01

    Purpose: Single - shot echo planar Diffusion - weighted - Imaging (EPI DWI) requires extended gradient facilities with strong, fast switching gradients. Up to now the image quality of EPI DWI is enormously influenced by some kinds of artifacts. Therefore we evaluated the image quality of EPI DWI in demonstrating anatomical structures using a 1.5 T MR scanner with a higher gradient field strength of 40 mt/m, a risetime of 200 {mu}s and a slewrate of 200T/m/s. Materials and methods: Using an evaluation scale with four categories two independent readers evaluated 12 different infra - and supratentorial anatomic regions of the brain in 50 DWI images and compared them with the corresponding T2 turbospin echo image. Results: No region was judged to be undistinguishable. On axial DWI images the assessment of the brain stem was poor. In the level of the putamen and thalamus the image quality of DWI was judged to be from adequate to excellent. The central sulcus and the boundary of the white and grey matter was assessed to be adequately visible. The interobserver variability showed a good agreement between the two readers. Conclusion: The image quality of EPI DWI improves from a higher gradient field strength. The shortening rise time of 200 {mu}s and the slewrate of 200T/m/s will lead to a faster gradient switching. Single shot EPI DWI is less influenced by image artefacts and the presentation of different anatomical structures profits when a MR scanner with higher gradient field strength is used. (orig.)

  8. Standardisation and automation of blasting and drilling jumbos; Standardisierung und Automatisierung von Spreng- und Ankerbohrwagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thyrock, K.; Prinz, F. [Deutsche Steinkohle AG (DSK), Herne (Germany)

    2007-02-01

    Standardisation and innovation in the DSK are the aspects of a task with the aim of making powerful and cost-effective machines and tools available to the mines within the framework of a comprehensive technical strategy. Standardisation successfully reduces the costs of acquisitions, storage, logistics and maintenance. Innovations compensate for know-how losses, produce higher performances and increase the economic effects of standardisation e.g. in maintenance. (orig.)

  9. Hyllynpäätysijoittelu menekinedistäjänä : Case: Prisma Jumbo

    OpenAIRE

    Krokfors, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä tutkittiin hyllynpäätysijoittelun vaikutusta tuotteiden menekkiin Prisma Jumbossa. Tutkimuksen tavoitteena oli selvittää menekin muutos, kun kaupan normaalisti valikoimassa olevat tuotteet sijoitetaan hyllynpäätyyn. Tutkimuksessa vertailtiin vuoden 2014 syyskuun myyntiä edellisvuoden vastaavan ajanjakson myyntiin. Hyllynpäätyjen tuotteet olivat kaikki teollisia elintarvikkeita. Tavoitteena opinnäytetyössä on tarkastella kuluttajan ostokäyttäytymistä ja ostoprosessi...

  10. The jumbo squid, Dosidicus gigas (Ommastrephidae), living in oxygen minimum zones II: Blood-oxygen binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, Brad A.

    2013-10-01

    Dosidicus gigas is a large, metabolically active squid that migrates across a strong oxygen and temperature gradient in the Eastern Pacific. Here we analyze the oxygen-binding properties of the squid's respiratory protein (hemocyanin, Hc) that facilitate such activity. A high Hc-oxygen affinity, strong temperature dependence, and pronounced pH sensitivity (P50=0.009T2.03, pH 7.4; Bohr coefficient=ΔlogP50/ΔpH=-1.55+0.034T) of oxygen binding facilitate night-time foraging in the upper water column, and support suppressed oxygen demand in hypoxic waters at greater depths. Expanding hypoxia may act to alter the species habitable depth range. This analysis supports the contention that ocean acidification could limit oxygen carrying capacity in squids at warmer temperature leading to reduced activity levels or altered distribution.

  11. Proximal composition and functional properties of lyophilizated surimi of Dosidicus gigas “jumbo squid”

    OpenAIRE

    Solari-Godiño, Armando; Córdova-Ramos, Javier S.; Pilco-Quesada, Silvia; Cerrón-Mallqui, Luz M.; Albrecht-Ruiz, Miguel; Sánchez Hernández, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to determinate proximal composition and functional properties of the giant squid freeze-dried surimi (Dosidicus gigas). Surimi elaborated from giant squid and it lyophilized until obtaining surimi powder to evaluate its characteristics and functional properties. The protein content was 58.7% and carbohydrate 30.5%. Protein solubility in water and salt (3%) were 21.1% and 40.6% respectively, these values being higher than surimi powder of commercial species. The...

  12. Bonding trends traversing the tetravalent actinide series: synthesis, structural, and computational analysis of An(IV)((Ar)acnac)4 complexes (An = Th, U, Np, Pu; (Ar)acnac = ArNC(Ph)CHC(Ph)O; Ar = 3,5-(t)Bu2C6H3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnaars, David D; Gaunt, Andrew J; Hayton, Trevor W; Jones, Matthew B; Kirker, Ian; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; May, Iain; Reilly, Sean D; Scott, Brian L; Wu, Guang

    2012-08-06

    A series of tetravalent An(IV) complexes with a bis-phenyl β-ketoiminate N,O donor ligand has been synthesized with the aim of identifying bonding trends and changes across the actinide series. The neutral molecules are homoleptic with the formula An((Ar)acnac)(4) (An = Th (1), U (2), Np (3), Pu (4); (Ar)acnac = ArNC(Ph)CHC(Ph)O; Ar = 3,5-(t)Bu(2)C(6)H(3)) and were synthesized through salt metathesis reactions with actinide chloride precursors. NMR and electronic absorption spectroscopy confirm the purity of all four new compounds and demonstrate stability in both solution and the solid state. The Th, U, and Pu complexes were structurally elucidated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and shown to be isostructural in space group C2/c. Analysis of the bond lengths reveals shortening of the An-O and An-N distances arising from the actinide contraction upon moving from 1 to 2. The shortening is more pronounced upon moving from 2 to 4, and the steric constraints of the tetrakis complexes appear to prevent the enhanced U-O versus Pu-O orbital interactions previously observed in the comparison of UI(2)((Ar)acnac)(2) and PuI(2)((Ar)acnac)(2) bis-complexes. Computational analysis of models for 1, 2, and 4 (1a, 2a, and 4a, respectively) concludes that both the An-O and the An-N bonds are predominantly ionic for all three molecules, with the An-O bonds being slightly more covalent. Molecular orbital energy level diagrams indicate the largest 5f-ligand orbital mixing for 4a (Pu), but spatial overlap considerations do not lead to the conclusion that this implies significantly greater covalency in the Pu-ligand bonding. QTAIM bond critical point data suggest that both U-O/U-N and Pu-O/Pu-N are marginally more covalent than the Th analogues.

  13. Value of magnetic resonance mammographic at 1.5 T in the differential diagnosis of mastitis versus inflammatory carcinoma; Der Wert der MR-Mammographie in der Differentialdiagnostik von non-puerperaler Mastitis und inflammatorischem Mammakarzinom bei 1,5 Tesla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomczak, R. [Klinik fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Univ. Ulm (Germany); Rieber, A. [Klinik fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Univ. Ulm (Germany); Zeitler, H. [Klinik fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Univ. Ulm (Germany); Rilinger, N. [Klinik fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Univ. Ulm (Germany); Kreienberg, R. [Klinik fuer Frauenheilkunde, Univ. Ulm (Germany); Brambs, H.J. [Klinik fuer Roentgendiagnostik, Univ. Ulm (Germany)

    1996-08-01

    Purpose: The distinction between mastitis and inflammatory breast carcinoma is an important one. Current methods of evaluation including mammography, ultrasound and clinical examination do not enable this distinction. Dynamic magnetic resonance mammography (MRM) is a study with potential in this regard. Material and methods: 12 patients, in whom clinical examination, mammography and ultrasound could not distinguish between both diseases, were reviewed retrospectively by means of MRM using a 1.5 T Siemens Magnetom SP and a circular mamma coil. We used dynamic 3-D gradient echo sequences with a duration of one minute. Results: At present MRM cannot definitely distinguish between mastitis and inflammatory carcinoma, 80% of the inflammatory carcinomas were found to enhance more than 100% in the first minute, compared to 43% for mastitis. No other differences were seen. Conclusion: MRM proved useful in the follow-up of treated mastitis to demonstrate the success of antibiotic treatment of mastitis and to diagnose a histologically unconfirmed inflammatory carcinoma by means of a different follow-up. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Weder klinische Untersuchung, Ultraschall noch Mammographie erlauben die wichtige Unterscheidung zwischen non-puerperaler Mastitis und inflammatorischem Karzinom. Die Magnetresonanzmammographie (MRM) bietet sich als zusaetzliche Untersuchungsmethode zur Differenzierung an. Patienten und Methoden: Retrospektiv wurden 12 Patientinnen, bei denen klinische Untersuchung, Mammographie und Sonographie keine endgueltige Diagnose erbracht hatten, MR-mammographisch mit einem 1,5 Tesla Siemens Magnetom SP in der zirkulaeren Mammadoppelspule untersucht. Es wurden dynamische 3-D-Gradienten-Echo-Sequenzen von einer Minute Dauer verwendet. Ergebnisse: Auch die MRM leistete keinen sicheren Beitrag zur endgueltigen Diagnose. 80% der beobachteten inflammatorischen Karzinome gegenueber 43% der Mastitiden zeigten eine Kontrastmittelanreicherung ueber 100% in der ersten

  14. A Contrastive Analysis on Artifact Degree Caused by Oral Metal Crown with Four Sequences of 1. 5 T Magnetic Reso-nance Imaging%四种序列1.5 T磁共振成像口腔金属冠引起伪影程度的对比

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高岚; 廉云敏; 崔彩霞; 肖铁朋; 陈磊

    2014-01-01

    Objective To observe and evaluate the metallic artifacts caused by dental metal crowns with four se-quences of magnetic resonance imaging in T2*/GRE,T2W/IR,T2W/FSE and T1W/SE. Methods Crowns made from four different materials( Co-Gr,Ni-Gr,Ti alloy and Pure-Ti)were included in this study. The experimental animal was a ripe crossbreed dog and the crowns were fabricated for its upper right second premolar. Each mental crown was examined by a head MRI(1. 5 T)scan with four sequences of T2*/GRE,T2W/IR,T2W/FSE and T1W/SE,respectively. The existence and ex-tent of the artifacts were assessed and compared. Results All metal crowns produced artifacts. The sequence T2*/GRE exhibited significantly wider artifact than the others(P<0. 05). For any of the test alloy crown,artifacts were seen on more MRI slices in the sequence T2*/GRE than in other three sequences which produced similar artifact presentation(P<0. 05). Conclusion A-nalysis of the artifact size and artifact-related imaging slices demonstrated that among all the four sequences,T2*/GRE has the strongest influence while the other three sequences contributed equally to artifact generation.%目的:探讨在有金属冠存在的情况下,1.5 T磁共振成像T2*/梯度回波序列( GRE)、T2W/反转恢复自旋回波(IR)、T2W/快速自旋回波序列(FSE)、T1W/自旋回波序列(SE)4种序列产生伪影的程度。方法给实验犬依次佩戴钴铬合金、镍铬合金、低钛合金、纯钛金属4种金属冠,按序进行4种序列常规1.5 T磁共振成像的颅脑扫描,分别测量4种序列在4种金属冠存在下所产生伪影的最大面积并计数金属伪影涉及图像的层数,对测量结果进行统计分析。结果各金属冠在1.5 T磁共振成像4种序列均产生了伪影。4种序列钴铬合金、镍铬合金、低钛合金、纯钛金属伪影最大面积比较,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05);其中T2W/IR组、T2W/FSE组、T1W/SE组较T2*/GRE

  15. Interpolated finite impulse response sequence in observation of the shunt and course of hepatic portal vein from splenic vein and superior mesenteric vein with 1.5T MR%1.5T磁共振插入有限脉冲响应技术观察脾静脉与肠系膜上静脉在门静脉内的分流及走行

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢金子; 刘爱连; 王艺; 董越; 宁殿秀; 宋清伟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility of interpolated finite impulse response (IFIR) sequence in observation of the shunt and course of splenic vein (SV) and superior mesenteric vein (SMV) in portal vein (PV) with 1.5T MR. Methods Totally 36 subjects underwent MRI of coronal IFIR sequence 3 times. Three types of presaturation band were used.MIP reconstruction was made on ADW 4.4 workstation to observe and evaluate the shunt and course of SV and SMV in PV. Results Type 1: Both SV and SMV supplied blood to PV, but the shunt and course could not be clearly showed in all 36 subjects. Type 2: The shunt and course of PV and SMV from SV were clearly showed in 20 (20/36, 55. 56%) subjects, faintly showed in 8 (8/36, 22.22%) subjects, but unrecognized in 8 (8/36, 22.22%) subjects. In the identifiable 28 subjects, blood flow from SV of 12 subjects flowed in central of PV, 3 in peripheral, 10 in superior and 3 in inferior part of PV. Type 3: The shunt definition was similar to that of type 2. In the identifiable 28 subjects, blood flow from SMV of 3 subjects flowed in central, 12 in peripheral, 10 in superior and 3 in inferior part of PV. Conclusion It is feasible to show shunt and course of PV from SV and SMV on 1.5T MR system using IFIR sequence without contrast media.%目的 探讨1.5T MR插入有限脉冲响应(IFIR)序列评估脾静脉(SV)与肠系膜上静脉(SMV)在门静脉(PV)内的分流及走行的可行性.方法 通过3种不同的饱和带预加方式对36位受试者进行3次冠状位IFIR序列扫描.在ADW 4.4工作站上行MIP重建,观察SV及SMV在PV中的分流、走行情况,并对其进行分流清晰度及走行分型的评估.结果方式1:36位受试者均示SV与SMV共同供血PV,不能分辨SV与SMV血流的分流及走行.方式2:36位受试者中20人(20/36,55.56%)清晰分辨,8人(8/36,22.22%)隐约可辨,8人(8/36,22.22%)无法分辨出SV在PV中的分流与走行;28位可分辨者中,12人SV走行于PV中央,3人走行于PV周边,10人

  16. WISE Brown Dwarf Binaries: The Discovery of a T5+T5 and a T8.5+T9 System

    CERN Document Server

    Gelino, Christopher R; Cushing, Michael C; Eisenhardt, Peter R; Griffith, Roger L; Mainzer, Amanda K; Marsh, Kenneth A; Skrutskie, Michael F; Wright, Edward L

    2011-01-01

    The multiplicity properties of brown dwarfs are critical empirical constraints for formation theories, while multiples themselves provide unique opportunities to test evolutionary and atmospheric models and examine empirical trends. Studies using high-resolution imaging can not only uncover faint companions, but they can also be used to determine dynamical masses through long-term monitoring of binary systems. We have begun a search for the coolest brown dwarfs using preliminary processing of data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and have confirmed many of the candidates as late-type T dwarfs. In order to search for companions to these objects, we are conducting observations using the Laser Guide Star Adaptive Optics system on Keck II. Here we present the first results of that search, including a T5 binary with nearly equal mass components and a faint companion to a T8.5 dwarf with an estimated spectral type of T9.

  17. {sup 27}Al and {sup 45}Sc NMR spectroscopy on ScT{sub 2}Al and Sc(T{sub 0.5}T{sup '}{sub 0.5}){sub 2}Al (T = T{sup '} = Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au) Heusler phases and superconductivity in Sc(Pd{sub 0.5}Au{sub 0.5}){sub 2}Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benndorf, Christopher [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Niehaus, Oliver; Janka, Oliver [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany); Eckert, Hellmut [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster (Germany)

    2015-02-15

    The intermetallic Heusler compounds with ScT{sub 2}Al and Sc(T{sub 0.5}T{sup '}{sub 0.5}){sub 2}Al composition with T = T{sup '} = Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au were synthesized from the elements by arc melting. They crystallize in the cubic MnCu{sub 2}Al type structure, space group Fm anti 3m. The unit cell parameters were determined by powder X-ray diffraction and the structure of Sc(Pd{sub 0.5}Au{sub 0.5}){sub 2}Al was refined on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction. While the majority of the compounds show Pauli-paramagnetism, ScAu{sub 2}Al and the newly synthesized solid solution Sc(Pd{sub 0.5}Au{sub 0.5}){sub 2}Al exhibit superconductivity with transition temperatures of T{sub C} = 4.4 K and T{sub C} = 3.0(1) K, respectively. The superconducting state of Sc(Pd{sub 0.5}Au{sub 0.5}){sub 2}Al was also investigated by electrical resistivity measurements. All the synthesized compounds were furthermore studied by {sup 27}Al and {sup 45}Sc MAS-NMR spectroscopy. The resonance shifts of the synthesized compounds were determined and in Sc(Pd{sub 1-x}Au{sub x}){sub 2}Al a linear relationship between the resonance shifts and the composition was found. Line broadening effects and enhanced quadrupolar interaction strengths observed in the mixed samples can be attributed to the effect of Pd/Au mixing on the 8c Wyckoff site. The NMR spectroscopic data give no clear evidence for or against Sc/Al site disordering. (Copyright copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Optimization Design of Template of Tunnel Formwork Jumbo%隧道模板台车优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李社斌; 李颖; 陈奇

    2014-01-01

    主要研究了隧道衬砌过程中浇注混凝土对模板台车模板受力的影响,并对顶模面板进行了计算,校验了模板台车的模板选材是否合理;同时,通过此方法还可以优化了顶模面板选材,使模板台车更加灵活、轻巧,为类似模板台车的设计计算提供了依据和借鉴.

  19. Responses of Dendrobium 'darrenn glory' and Mokara 'calypso jumbo' orchids to 1-methylcyclopropene and aqueous ozone postharvest treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Almasi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractOrchids possess a very special place amongst ornamental plants. But high ethylene sensitivity and early flower senescence of orchid result in a short vase life and rapid quality deterioration which is of great concern for the growers, traders and consumers. An attempt was made to study the influence of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP (0 and 300 nL L–1 and аquеous ozone (0 and 5.2 nL L–1 in prolonging vase life and maintaining quality of two cut orchid hybrids Dendrobium 'Darren Glory' (DDG and Mokara “Calypso Jumbo” (MCJ. Results showed that orchid hybrids exhibited differences in their ethylene sensitivity, vase life, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC content and ACC oxidase activities. Pre-treatment with 1-MCP resulted in reduced ethylene production, vase life, ACC content and ACC oxidase activities, but increased bud opening %. Pre-treatment with аquеous ozone failed to influence all those parameters except bud opening %. Interaction effects of hybrid and 1-MCP were significant for ethylene production, hybrid and ozone for vas life, 1-MCP and ozone for bud opening %, and hybrid, 1-MCP and ozone for ethylene production and vase life. Aqueous ozone markedly contributed to the inhibition of microbial growth in vase solution. Pre-treatment of the cut orchid flowers with 300 nL L–11-MCP, followed by using 5.2 mg L–1 aqueous ozone as the vase solution could be recommended to maintain quality and extend vase life of both the DDG and MCJ orchid hybrids.

  20. Conformational changes in proteins recovered from jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) muscle through pH shift washing treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Ruiz, Juan A; Pacheco-Aguilar, Ramón; Ramírez-Suárez, Juan C; Lugo-Sánchez, Maria E; García-Orozco, Karina D; Sotelo-Mundo, Rogerio R; Peña-Ramos, Aida

    2016-04-01

    Conformational and thermal-rheological properties of acidic (APC) and neutral (NPC) protein concentrates were evaluated and compared to those of squid (Dosidicus gigas) muscle proteins (SM). Surface hydrophobicity, sulfhydryl status, secondary structure profile, differential scanning calorimetry and oscillatory dynamic rheology were used to evaluate the effect of treatments on protein properties. Acidic condition during the washing process (APC) promoted structural and conformational changes in the protein present in the concentrate produced. These changes were enhanced during the heat setting of the corresponding sol. Results demonstrate that washing squid muscle under the proposed acidic conditions is a feasible technological alternative for squid-based surimi production improving its yield and gel-forming ability.

  1. The jumbo squid, Dosidicus gigas (Ommastrephidae), living in oxygen minimum zones I: Oxygen consumption rates and critical oxygen partial pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueblood, Lloyd A.; Seibel, Brad A.

    2013-10-01

    Dosidicus gigas is a large, metabolically active, epipelagic squid known to undertake diel vertical migrations across a large temperature and oxygen gradient in the Eastern Pacific. Hypoxia is known to cause metabolic suppression in D. gigas. However, the precise oxygen level at which metabolic suppression sets in is unknown. Here we describe a novel ship-board swim tunnel respirometer that was used to measure metabolic rates and critical oxygen partial pressures (Pcrit) for adult squids (2-7kg). Metabolic rate measurements were validated by comparison to the activity of the Krebs cycle enzyme, citrate synthase, in mantle muscle tissue (2-17kg). We recorded a mean routine metabolic rate of 5.91μmolg-1h-1 at 10°C and 12.62μmolg-1h-1 at 20°C. A temperature coefficient, Q10, of 2.1 was calculated. D. gigas had Pcrits of 1.6 and 3.8kPa at 10 and 20°C, respectively. Oxygen consumption rate (MO2) varied with body mass (M) according to MO2=11.57M-0.12±0.03 at 10°C. Citrate synthase activity varied with body mass according to Y=9.32M-0.19±0.02.

  2. Interneuronal systems of the cervical spinal cord assessed with BOLD imaging at 1.5 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stracke, C.P.; Schoth, F.; Moeller-Hartmann, W.; Krings, T. [University Hospital of the University of Technology, Departments of Neuroradiology and Diagnostic Radiology, Aachen (Germany); Pettersson, L.G. [University of Goeteborg, Department of Physiology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if functional activity with spinal cord somatosensory stimulation can be visualized using BOLD fMRI. We investigated nine healthy volunteers using a somatosensory stimulus generator. The stimuli were applied in three different runs at the first, third, and fifth finger tip of the right hand, respectively, corresponding to dermatomes c6, c7, and c8. The stimuli gave an increase of BOLD signal (activation) in three different locations of the spinal cord and brain stem. First, activations could be seen in the spinal segment corresponding to the stimulated dermatome in seven out of nine volunteers for c6 stimulation, two out of eight for c7, and three out of eight for c8. These activations were located close to the posterior margin of the spinal cord, presumably reflecting synaptic transmission to dorsal horn interneurons. Second, activation in the medulla oblongata was evident in four subjects, most likely corresponding to the location of the nucleus cuneatus. The third location of activation, which was the strongest and most reliable observed was inside the spinal cord in the c3 and c4 segments. Activation at these spinal levels was almost invariably observed independently of the dermatome stimulated (9/9 for c6, 8/8 for c7, and 7/8 for c8 stimulation). These activations may pertain to an interneuronal system at this spinal level. The results are discussed in relation to neurophysiological studies on cervical spinal interneuronal pathways in animals and humans. (orig.)

  3. Reported Disposal of 2,4,5-T on Ottawa National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In March, 1986 Mr. Dornbusch supplied us with an old sample of the herbicide that he thought was buried. He said he had taken some of the material home before the...

  4. 26 CFR 1.892-5T - Controlled commercial entity (temporary regulations).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the requirements of paragraph (a)(1) or (a)(2) of this section are satisfied. (2) Central banks. Notwithstanding paragraph (a) of this section, a central bank of issue (as defined in § 1.895-1(b)) shall be... that owns all the stock of S, a U.S. operating company engaged in commercial activity....

  5. Quantitative NumART2* mapping in functional MRI studies at 1.5 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagberg, Gisela E; Bianciardi, Marta; Patria, Fabiana; Indovina, Iole

    2003-12-01

    Quantitative mapping of the effective transverse relaxation time, T2* and proton density was performed in a motor activation functional MRI (fMRI) study using multi-echo, echo planar imaging (EPI) and NumART2* (Numerical Algorithm for Real time T2*). Comparisons between NumART2* and conventional single echo EPI with an echo time of 64 ms were performed for five healthy participants examined twice. Simulations were also performed to address specific issues associated with the two techniques, such as echo time-dependent signal variation. While the single echo contrast varied with the baseline T2* value, relative changes in T2* remained unaffected. Statistical analysis of the T2* maps yielded fMRI activation patterns with an improved statistical detection relative to conventional EPI but with less activated voxels, suggesting that NumART2* has superior spatial specificity. Two effects, inflow and dephasing, that may explain this finding were investigated. Particularly, a statistically significant increase in proton density was found in a brain area that was detected as activated by conventional EPI but not by NumART2* while no such changes were observed in brain areas that showed stimulus correlated signal changes on T2* maps.

  6. TOWARDS A GLOBAL 2l5 T CENTURY AFRICAN POPULAR MUSIC

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    has come full circle with so many African musicians like Manu Dibango. (from Cameroun). ..... colonial period whenAfrica was labeled as a 'dark continent' with savage ... must have looked at African music from the eye of the West, without due.

  7. Non-invasive quantitative pulmonary V/Q imaging using Fourier decomposition MRI at 1.5T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjoerstad, Aasmund; Corteville, Dominique M.R.; Zoellner, Frank G.; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg Univ., Medical Faculty Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Henzler, Thomas [Heidelberg Univ., Medical Faculty Mannheim (Germany). Inst. of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Schmid-Bindert, Gerald [Heidelberg Univ., Medical Faculty Mannheim (Germany). Interdisciplinary Thoracic Oncology

    2015-07-01

    Techniques for quantitative pulmonary perfusion and ventilation using the Fourier Decomposition method were recently demonstrated. We combine these two techniques and show that ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) imaging is possible using only a single MR acquisition of less than thirty seconds. The Fourier Decomposition method is used in combination with two quantification techniques, which extract baselines from within the images themselves and thus allows quantification. For the perfusion, a region assumed to consist of 100% blood is utilized, while for the ventilation the zero-frequency component is used. V/Q-imaging is then done by dividing the quantified ventilation map with the quantified perfusion map. The techniques were used on ten healthy volunteers and fifteen patients diagnosed with lung cancer. A mean V/Q-ratio of 1.15±0.22 was found for the healthy volunteers and a mean V/Q-ratio of 1.93±0.83 for the non-afflicted lung in the patients. Mean V/Q-ratio in the afflicted (tumor-bearing) lung was found to be 1.61±1.06. Functional defects were clearly visible in many of the patient images, but 5 of 15 patient images had to be excluded due to artifacts or low SNR, indicating a lack of robustness. Conclusion Non-invasive, quantitative V/Q-imaging is possible using Fourier Decomposition MRI. The method requires only a single acquisition of less than 30 seconds, but robustness in patients remains an issue.

  8. 26 CFR 1.512(a)-5T - Questions and answers relating to the unrelated business taxable income of organizations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... apply to existing reserves for post-retirement medical or life insurance benefits? A-4: (a) Section 512... reserves for post-retirement medical or life insurance benefits will not be treated as unrelated business taxable income. An existing reserve for post-retirement medical or life insurance benefits (as defined...

  9. Modeling hemodynamic responses in auditory cortex at 1.5 T using variable duration imaging acoustic noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shuowen; Olulade, Olumide; Castillo, Javier Gonzalez; Santos, Joseph; Kim, Sungeun; Tamer, Gregory G; Luh, Wen-Ming; Talavage, Thomas M

    2010-02-15

    A confound for functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), especially for auditory studies, is the presence of imaging acoustic noise generated mainly as a byproduct of rapid gradient switching during volume acquisition and, to a lesser extent, the radiofrequency transmit. This work utilized a novel pulse sequence to present actual imaging acoustic noise for characterization of the induced hemodynamic responses and assessment of linearity in the primary auditory cortex with respect to noise duration. Results show that responses to brief duration (46 ms) imaging acoustic noise is highly nonlinear while responses to longer duration (>1 s) imaging acoustic noise becomes approximately linear, with the right primary auditory cortex exhibiting a higher degree of nonlinearity than the left for the investigated noise durations. This study also assessed the spatial extent of activation induced by imaging acoustic noise, showing that the use of modeled responses (specific to imaging acoustic noise) as the reference waveform revealed additional activations in the auditory cortex not observed with a canonical gamma variate reference waveform, suggesting an improvement in detection sensitivity for imaging acoustic noise-induced activity. Longer duration (1.5 s) imaging acoustic noise was observed to induce activity that expanded outwards from Heschl's gyrus to cover the superior temporal gyrus as well as parts of the middle temporal gyrus and insula, potentially affecting higher level acoustic processing.

  10. Texture analysis in quantitative MR imaging. Tissue characterisation of normal brain and intracranial tumours at 1.5 T

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, L; Ring, P; Thomsen, C

    1995-01-01

    of common first-order and second-order grey level statistics. Tissue differentiation in the images was estimated by the presence or absence of significant differences between tissue types. A fine discrimination was obtained between white matter, cortical grey matter, and cerebrospinal fluid in the normal...... brain, and white matter was readily separated from the tumour lesions. Moreover, separation of solid tumour tissue and peritumoural oedema was suggested for some tumour types. Mutual comparison of all tumour types revealed extensive differences, and even specific tumour differentiation turned out...

  11. Study of a 5T Research Dipole Insert-Magnet using an Anisotropic ReBCO Roebel Cable

    CERN Document Server

    Van Nugteren, J; De Rijk, G; Rossi, L; Ten Kate, H H J; Dhallé, M M J

    2015-01-01

    A design study is presented for the coil layout of the EuCARD-2 Fiver Tesla HTS Research (FeaTHeR) magnet. The angular dependence of the critical current in the used ReBCO Roebel cable is taken into account. This leads to a new coil layout named aligned block. This layout makes optimal use of the anisotropy of the ReBCO coated conductor, by aligning all tapes with the magnetic field lines. Both two dimensional cross sections and three dimensional coil layouts are presented. In the layouts the magnetic field angle is highest at the edges of the cable causing a large variation of the critical current over its width. Different approaches to the calculation of the critical current, with and without current sharing in and between the tapes, are presented. The values are compared to the values found using a non-linear network model of the cable, in which the electrical properties of the elements are calculated as a function of magnetic field and magnetic field angle. The model also includes electrical contact betwe...

  12. A Higher Frequency of CD4+CXCR5+ T Follicular Helper Cells in Adult Patients with Minimal Change Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. T follicular helper (TFH cells are involved in the humoral immune responses. This study is aimed at examining the frequencies of different subsets of CD4+CXCR5+ TFH cells in adult patients with minimal change disease (MCD. Methods. A total of 27 patients and 14 healthy controls (HC were characterized for the levels of sera cytokines, inducible T-cell costimulator (ICOS, and programmed death 1 (PD-1 of positive TFH cells by flow cytometry. The level of sera IL-21 was examined; 24 h urinary protein and eGFR were calculated. The potential correlation between the frequency of different subsets of TFH cells and the values of clinical measures in MCD patients were analyzed. Results. The frequency of circulating CD4+CXCR5+, CD4+CXCR5+ICOS+, and CD4+CXCR5+PD-1+ TFH cells and the levels of sera IL-17A, IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-10, IL-4, and IL-21 were significantly higher in MCD patients (P<0.05 than that in the HC group. Furthermore, the percentages of circulating CD4+CXCR5+ TFH cells were negatively correlated with the values of eGFR (r=-0.4849, P<0.05 and the percentages of CD4+CXCR5+PD-1+ TFH cells were correlated positively with the levels of serum IL-21 (r=0.6137, P<0.05 and 24 h urinary protein (r=0.1410, P<0.05 in those patients. Also, the percentages of CD4+CXCR5+ICOS+ TFH cells were correlated positively with the levels of serum IL-21 (r=0.6201, P<0.05 and 24 h urinary protein (r=0.7519, P<0.05. Following standard therapies, the percentages of circulating CD4+CXCR5+, CD4+CXCR5+PD-1+, and CD4+CXCR5+ICOS+ TFH cells and the levels of serum IL-21 were significantly reduced, but the levels of serum IL-4 and IL-10 were increased (P<0.05. Conclusions. A higher frequency of CD4+CXCR5+ TFH cells that existed in adult patients with MCD could be new target for intervention of MCD.

  13. Hyaline articular cartilage: relaxation times, pulse-sequence parameters and MR appearance at 1.5 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalkias, S.M. [Dept. of Radiology, A.H.E.P.A. General Hospital of the Aristotelian Univ., Thessaloniki (Greece); Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Trieste (Italy); Pozzi-Mucelli, M. [Orthopaedic Clinic, Univ. of Trieste (Italy); Frezza, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Trieste (Italy); Longo, R. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Trieste (Italy)

    1994-08-01

    In order to optimize the parameters for the best visualization of the internal architecture of the hyaline articular cartilage a study both ex vivo and in vivo was performed. Accurate T1 and T2 relaxation times of articular cartilage were obtained with a particular mixed sequence and then used for the creation of isocontrast intensity graphs. These graphs subsequently allowed in all pulse sequences (spin echo, SE and gradient echo, GRE) the best combination of repetition time (TR), echo time (TE) and flip angle (FA) for optimization of signal differences between MR cartilage zones. For SE sequences maximum contrast between cartilage zones can be obtained by using a long TR (> 1,500 ms) with a short TE (< 30 ms), whereas for GRE sequences maximum contrast is obtained with the shortest TE (< 15 ms) combined with a relatively long TR (> 400 ms) and an FA greater than 40 . A trilaminar appearance was demonstrated with a superficial and deep hypointense zone in all sequences and an intermediate zone that was moderately hyperintense on SE T1-weighted images, slightly more hyperintense on proton density Rho and SE T2-weighted images and even more hyperintense on GRE images. (orig.)

  14. The 5T mouse multiple myeloma model: Absence of c-myc oncogene rearrangement in early transplant generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radl, J.; Punt, Y.A.; Enden-Vieveen, M.H.M. van den; Bentvelzen, P.A.J.; Bakkus, M.H.C.; Akker T., W. van den; Benner, R.

    1990-01-01

    Consistent chromosomal translocations involving the c-myc cellular oncogene and one of the three immunoglobulin loci are typical for human Burkitt's lymphoma, induced mouse plasmacytoma (MPC) and spontaneously arising rat immunocytoma (RIC). Another plasma cell malignancy, multiple myeloma (MM), ari

  15. Wide, short bore magnetic resonance at 1.5 t: reducing the failure rate in claustrophobic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, C H; Wood, C P; Lane, J I; Bolster, B D; Bernstein, M A; Witte, R J

    2011-09-01

    Claustrophobic reactions in patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have a significant impact on the workflow, patient acceptance and ultimately the costs involved in obtaining a diagnostic scan. The purpose of this study was to determine if the use of a wide, short bore MRI scanner could reduce the need for general anesthesia assistance in these cases. Between September 2006 and March 2008, all patients for whom MRI examinations of the head and/or spine were canceled or prematurely terminated due to claustrophobia on a standard 60 cm bore, 1.5 T scanner were scheduled to be re-scanned on a 70 cm wide bore, 1.25 m long 1.5 T scanner. This re-scanning attempt was made 2 or more days prior to a scheduled anesthesia-assisted MRI appointment. If the patient successfully completed the wide bore MRI examination then the anesthesia-assisted MRI appointment was canceled. A total of 56 patients were included in this study. The examinations included individual body regions as well as combination examinations (head and cervical spine, entire spine etc.). A total of 72 body regions were examined in 56 patients. Of these regions, 65 (90%) were completed successfully, 50 patients (89%) successfully completed a diagnostic examination on the 70 cm scanner and 6 patients (11%), all of whom were scheduled for examinations which included the head, were unable to complete the examination on the wide bore scanner. A 1.5 T wide short bore scanner increases the examination success rate in patients with claustrophobia and substantially reduces the need for anesthesia-assisted MRI examinations even when claustrophobia is severe.

  16. Local structure and site occupancy of Cd and Hg substitutions in CeTIn_5 (T=Co, Rh, Ir)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, Corwin H.; Bauer, Eric. D.; Bianchi, Andrea D.; Ronning, Fillip; Thompson, Joe D.; Sarrao, John L.; Cho, Jung Young; Chan, Julia Y.; Capan, Cigdem; Fisk, Zachary

    2009-04-22

    The CeTIn_5 superconductors (T=Co, Rh, or Ir) have generated great interest due to their relatively high transition temperatures, non-Fermi liquid behavior, and their proximity to antiferromagnetic order and quantum critical points. In contrast to small changes with the T-species, electron doping in CeT(In_1-x M_x)_5 with $M$=Sn and hole doping with Cd or Hg have a dramatic effect on the electronic properties at very low concentrations. The present work reports local structure measurements usingthe extended x-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) technique that address the substituent atom distribution as a function of T, M, and x, in the vicinity of the superconducting phase. Together with previous measurements for M=Sn, the proportion of the $M$ atom residing on the In(1) site, f_\\textrm In(1), increases in the order M=Cd, Sn, and Hg, ranging from about 40\\percent to 70percent, showing a strong preference for each of these substituents to occupy the In(1) site (random occupation = 20percent). In addition, f_In(1) ranges from 70percent to 100percent for M=Hg in the order T=Co,Rh, and Ir. These fractions track the changes in the atomic radii of the various species, and help explain the sharp dependence of $T_c$ on substituting into the In site. However, it is difficult to reconcile the small concentrations of M with the dramatic changes in the ground state in the hole-doped materials with only an impurity scattering model. These results therefore indicate that while such substitutions have interesting local atomic structures with important electronic and magnetic consequences, other local changes in the electronic and magnetic structure are equally important in determining the bulk properties of these materials.

  17. Local structure and site occupancy of Cd and Hg substitutions in CeTIn5 (T=Co, Rh, Ir)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Eric D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ronning, Filip [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, J D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sarrao, J L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Booth, C H [LBNL; Bianchi, A D [UC, IRVINE; Cho, J Y [LSU; Chan, J Y [LSU; Capan, C [UC-IRVINE; Fisk, Z [UC-IRVINE

    2009-01-01

    The CeTIn{sub 5} superconductors (T = Co, Rh, or Ir) have generated great interest due to their relatively high transition temperatures, non-Fermi liquid behavior, and their proximity to antiferromagnetic order and quantum critical points. In contrast to small changes with the T-species, electron doping in CeT(In{sub 1-x}M{sub x}){sub 5} with M = Sn and hole doping with Cd or Hg have a dramatic effect on the electronic properties at very low concentrations. The present work reports local structure measurements using the extended x-ray absorption fine-structure (EXAFS) technique that address the substituent atom distribution as a function of T, M, and x, in the vicinity of the superconducting phase. Together with previous measurements for M = Sn, the proportion of the M atom residing on the In(1) site, f{sub 1n(1)}, increases in the order M = Cd, Sn, and Hg, ranging from about 40% to 70%, showing a strong preference for each of these substituents to occupy the In(1) site (random occupation = 20%). In addition, f{sub In(1)} ranges from 70% to 100% for M = Hg in the order T = Co, Rh, and Ir. These fractions track the changes in the atomic radii of the various species, and help explain the sharp dependence of T{sub c} on substituting into the In site. However, it is difficult to reconcile the small concentrations of M with the dramatic changes in the ground state in the hole-doped materials with only an impurity scattering model. These results therefore indicate that while such substitutions have interesting local atomic structures with important electronic and magnetic consequences, other local changes in the electronic and magnetic structure are equally important in determining the bulk properties of these materials.

  18. Current Status and Future Prospects of Proton MR Spectroscopy of the Breast with a 1.5T MR Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiro Tozaki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Proton MR spectroscopy of the mammary gland area is used to be considered in the realm of basic research, but as a result of the advances in MR techniques, it is now being performed in ordinary clinical practice. It is particularly noteworthy that useful clinical data are now being accumulated with 1.5T MR units, which are the standard units. We think that, at this point, it is very important to systematically review the techniques, clinical applications, and future prospects of proton MR spectroscopy. We have performed proton MR spectroscopy with a 1.5T MR unit in over 3000 cases at our hospital. In this paper, we will comment on the current status of proton MR spectroscopy of the breast, primarily in regard to differentiation between benign and malignant lesions and prediction of the efficacy of chemotherapy while describing the data obtained at our hospital.

  19. Myometrial invasion in endometrial cancer: diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted MR imaging at 1.5-T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechichi, Gilda; Sironi, Sandro [University of Milano-Bicocca, School of Medicine, Milan (Italy); H S. Gerardo Monza, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Milan (Italy); Galimberti, Stefania; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia [University of Milano-Bicocca, School of Medicine, Milan (Italy); University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Clinical Medicine and Prevention - Centre of Biostatistics and Clinical Epidemiology, Milan (Italy); Signorelli, Mauro [University of Milano-Bicocca, School of Medicine, Milan (Italy); H S. Gerardo Monza, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Milan (Italy); Perego, Patrizia [University of Milano-Bicocca, School of Medicine, Milan (Italy); H S. Gerardo Monza, Department of Pathology, Milan (Italy)

    2010-03-15

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy of diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the preoperative assessment of myometrial invasion by endometrial cancer. In this prospective study, 47 patients with histologically confirmed endometrial cancer underwent preoperative MR imaging and total hysterectomy. The MR protocol included spin-echo multishot T2-weighted, dynamic T1-weighted and DW images acquired with b-values of 0 and 500 s/mm{sup 2}. Myometrial tumour spread was classified as superficial (<50%) or deep ({>=}50% myometrial thickness). Postoperative histopathological findings served as a reference standard. Indices of diagnostic performance were assessed for each sequence. At histopathological examination, superficial myometrial invasion was found in 34 patients and deep myometrial invasion in 13. In the assessment of tumour invasion, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of T2-weighted images were 92.3%, 76.5%, 60.0% and 96.3%, respectively. The corresponding values for dynamic images were 69.2%, 61.8%, 40.9% and 84.0%, and for DW images 84.6%, 70.6%, 52.4% and 92.3%. T2-weighted and DW imaging proved to be the most accurate techniques for tumour spread determination. DW imaging proved to be accurate in assessing myometrial invasion, and it could replace dynamic imaging as an adjunct to routine T2-weighted imaging for preoperative evaluation of endometrial cancer. (orig.)

  20. Wheel loaders as a basis for shotfiring vehicles, drilling jumbos and rock-bolt setting vehicles; Radlader als Basis fuer Sprengfahrzeuge, Ankerbohr- und -setzwagen sowie Hilfsfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paus, Franz-Josef; Kaufmann, Martin [Hermann Paus Maschinenfabrik GmbH, Emsbueren (Germany); Rautenstrauch, Wolfgang [Moessinger+Wolter Maschinenbau GmbH, Bochum (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    Starting with a review of development of the Paus shotfiring vehicles a wheel loader serving as a basic machine for diverse applications in the mining industry is described in the contribution. (orig.)

  1. Safety Assessment of Formwork Jumbo of Tunnel Lining%隧道衬砌模板台车的安全评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡世金

    2014-01-01

    为保证隧道衬砌模板台车的施工安全,采用MIDAS/civil有限元分析软件建立台车模型并进行了计算,通过分析和实践检验得出模板台车是安全适用的;还分析了使用过程中模板台车存在的风险,并提出了相应的防范措施.

  2. Application of steel formwork jumbo in the second lining of tunnels%钢模台车在隧道二次衬砌中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐修梅; 崔秀玲

    2011-01-01

    以某工程为实例,描述了钢模台车衬砌施工工艺,从结构形式、结构优化、钢模、支撑位置等多个方面,对衬砌钢模台车的关键技术进行了探讨,并对衬砌钢模台车的衬砌效果进行了具体的描述.

  3. Experiments on Removing Off - flavour from Jumbo Flying Squid Dosidicus gigas%秘鲁鱿鱼肉异味脱除试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹俊

    2008-01-01

    随着海洋渔业资源的衰退和海洋环境的变化,海洋渔业资源的结构也发生了很大变化,头足类(章鱼、鱿鱼等)、虾蟹类及低值鱼类已成为我国主要的经济海产品,也是我国水产品加工和出口创汇的主要品种。2003年,冻鱼片与头足类软体动物在我国出口水产品中占有重要地位,出口量和出口额分别为45万t和10亿美元,位居出口水产品之首。

  4. Alkali- or acid-induced changes in structure, moisture absorption ability and deacetylating reaction of β-chitin extracted from jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) pens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jooyeoun; Zhao, Yanyun

    2014-01-01

    Alkali- or acid-induced structural modifications in β-chitin from squid (Dosidicus gigas, d'Orbigny, 1835) pens and their moisture absorption ability (MAA) and deacetylating reaction were investigated and compared with α-chitin from shrimp shells. β-Chitin was converted into the α-form after 3h in 40% NaOH or 1-3 h in 40% HCl solution, and α-chitin obtained from NaOH treatment had higher MAA than had native α-chitin, due to polymorphic destructions. In contrast, induced α-chitin from acid treatment of β-chitin had few polymorphic modifications, showing no significant change (P>0.05) in MAA. β-Chitin was more susceptible to alkali deacetylation than was α-chitin, and required a lower concentration of NaOH and shorter reaction time. These results demonstrate that alkali- or acid-treated β-chitin retained high susceptibility toward solvents, which in turn resulted in good biological activity of β-chitosan for use as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial substance or application as edible coatings and films for various food applications.

  5. Dynamic Interaction Behavior between Jumbo Container Crane and Pile-Supported Wharf under NearField and Far-Field Ground Motions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. LI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Playing an important role in local and national seaport activities, container wharves are susceptible to structural failure and damage during earthquake events. Therefore, factors that affect the seismic response of crane–wharf structures under different types of earthquake ground motions should be elucidated. In this paper, 3D finite element models were established to investigate the differences of natural vibration characteristics between the wharf and crane–wharf structures. The dynamic response of a typical pile-supported wharf structure and the interaction behavior of a crane and wharf structural system under seismic actions of near-field and far-field ground motions were studied by performing numerical simulation and time-history response analysis. Axial force–moment relation curves were adopted to analyze the elastic–plastic limit state of the wharf structure under different ground motions. Results showed that the consideration of the container crane increased the natural vibration period of the pile-supported wharf structure and affected the dynamic characteristics of the structure. Compared with the far-field earthquake ground motion, the nearfield earthquake exerted a more significant impact on the structural dynamic response that controlled the elastic–plastic limit state. With the presence of a crane, the moment and shear force of the pile-top decreased and the location of the extreme value moved down obviously. The findings demonstrated that considering the crane changed the failure mechanism of the wharf structure, and the eccentric effect of the crane may amplify the dynamic response as the peak ground acceleration increases. The results provide reference for the seismic design and the evaluation of the seismic response of container wharves.

  6. New aspects on URu2Si2 and CeTIn5 (T = Rh, Ir, Co) observed by high pressure NMR and NQR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Kohara

    2002-05-01

    NMR and NQR studies on two interesting systems (URu2Si2, CeTIn5) were performed under high pressure. (1) URu2Si2: In the pressure range 3.0 to 8.3 kbar, we have observed new 29Si NMR signals arising from the antiferromagnetic (AF) region besides the previously observed 29Si NMR signals which come from the paramagnetic (PM) region in the sample. This gives definite evidence for spatially-inhomogeneous development of AF ordering below 0 of 17.5 K. The volume fraction is enhanced by applied pressure, whereas the value of internal field (∼ 91 mT) remains constant up to 8.3 kbar. In the AF region, the ordered moment is about one order of magnitude larger than 0.03 . (2) CeTIn5: The pressure and temperature () dependences of nuclear spin-lattice relaxation rate 1/1 of 115In in CeTIn5 have shown that the superconductivity (SC) occurs close to an AF instability. From the dependences of 1/1 and Knight shift below c, CeTIn5 has been found to exhibit non- wave (probable wave) SC with even parity and line nodes in the SC energy gap.

  7. Post irradiation fatigue tests of type 316 LN stainless steel. Final report for the ITER Task T511, Subtask 1. European Technology Programme Task GB5-T217

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norring, K.; Koenig, M

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of this Subtask was to estimate the corrosion fatigue behaviour of 316L Stainless Steel (SS) and SS/SS joints, and to check among others the influence of irradiation. Joints were produced by solid Hot Isostatic Pressure (HIP) and powder HIP. Conventional material was used for comparison. The specimens were supplied by EFDA and were irradiated to 4 dpa in Dimitrovgrad (Russia). All specimens were tested at 150 deg C in hydrogenated high purity water. Testing was performed with a stepwise decrease in {delta}K keeping K{sub max} constant. The crack growth rates of irradiated as well as unirradiated specimens tested earlier are of the same magnitude, around 2x10{sup -5} mm/cycle at {delta}K= 18 MPa{radical}m. Thus, irradiation does not seem to enhance the fatigue crack growth rate, at least not up to irradiation levels of 4 dpa. But it is worth noting that the exponents in the da/dN versus {delta}K equation, also known as Paris' law, seems to fall within two areas, either around 3.5 or just below 2. Both Powder HIPed and Solid HIPed specimens are found in both groups. The reason for this is not evident. The fracture surfaces of the specimens show typical fatigue appearance.

  8. 9.5吨转向前轴分析设计%Analysis and Design of 9.5T Front Axle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙超

    2010-01-01

    通过设计计算和分析,将市场需求转化为公司产品,建立了前轴工字梁、转向节、主销等关键零部件设计计算公式.为今后同类产品的研发积累了一定的经验,提供了一定的思路和方法.

  9. Image reconstruction of gold- and poly markers on 1.5T and 3T diffusion-weighted MRI and CBCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rylander, Susanne; Haack, Søren; Muren, Ludvig

    Purpose Accurate co-registration with CT images is a necessity for the implementation of diffusion-weighted (DW) MR imaging for target delineation in radiotherapy (RT) for prostate cancer. Intraprostatic fiducial markers have generally been adopted in RT to improve the image registration precisio...

  10. Free magnesium levels in normal human brain and brain tumors: sup 31 P chemical-shift imaging measurements at 1. 5 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.S.; Vigneron, D.B.; Murphy-Boesch, J.; Nelson, S.J.; Kessler, H.B.; Coia, L.; Curran, W.; Brown, T.R. (Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    The authors have studied a series of normal subjects and patients with brain tumors, by using {sup 31}P three-dimensional chemical shift imaging to obtain localized {sup 31}P spectra of the brain. A significant proportion of brain cytosolic ATP in normal brain is not complexed to Mg{sup 2+}, as indicated by the chemical shift {delta} of the {beta}-P resonance of ATP. The ATP {beta}P resonance position in brain thus is sensitive to changes in intracellular free Mg{sup 2+} concentration and in the proportion of ATP complexed with Mg because this shift lies on the rising portion of the {delta} vs. Mg{sup 2+} titration curve for ATP. They have measured the ATP {beta}-P shift and compared intracellular free Mg{sup 2+} concentration and fractions of free ATP for normal individuals and a limited series of patients with brain tumors. In four of the five spectra obtained from brain tissue containing a substantial proportion of tumor, intracellular free Mg{sup 2+} was increased, and the fraction of free ATP was decreased, compared with normal brain.

  11. Image reconstruction of gold- and poly markers on 1.5T and 3T diffusion-weighted MRI and CBCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rylander, Susanne; Haack, Søren; Muren, Ludvig

    factor=2, 1.5/3T; b-values=600,1000s/mm2, TE=91/70ms, TR=2086-2514/1800ms, acquired resolution=2.31/2.25mm/pxl, slice thickness=4/4mm). A co-registration with CT images (image resolution=0.35mm/pxl, slice thickness=0.7mm) was performed to both T1W- and CBCT images (image resolution=0.88mm/pxl, slice...

  12. Ferritin as a reporter gene for in vivo tracking of stem cells by 1.5-T cardiac MRI in a rat model of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campan, Manuela; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Aquaro, Giovanni D; Forini, Francesca; Matteucci, Marco; Vannucci, Laura; Chiuppesi, Flavia; Di Cristofano, Claudio; Faggioni, Michela; Maioli, Margherita; Barile, Lucio; Messina, Elisa; Lombardi, Massimo; Pucci, Angela; Pistello, Mauro; Recchia, Fabio A

    2011-06-01

    The methods currently utilized to track stem cells by cardiac MRI are affected by important limitations, and new solutions are needed. We tested human ferritin heavy chain (hFTH) as a reporter gene for in vivo tracking of stem cells by cardiac MRI. Swine cardiac stem/progenitor cells were transduced with a lentiviral vector to overexpress hFTH and cultured to obtain cardiospheres (Cs). Myocardial infarction was induced in rats, and, after 45 min, the animals were subjected to intramyocardial injection of ∼200 hFTH-Cs or nontransduced Cs or saline solution in the border zone. By employing clinical standard 1.5-Tesla MRI scanner and a multiecho T2* gradient echo sequence, we localized iron-accumulating tissue only in hearts treated with hFTH-Cs. This signal was detectable at 1 wk after infarction, and its size did not change significantly after 4 wk (6.33 ± 3.05 vs. 4.41 ± 4.38 mm(2)). Cs transduction did not affect their cardioreparative potential, as indicated by the significantly better preserved left ventricular global and regional function and the 36% reduction in infarct size in both groups that received Cs compared with control infarcts. Prussian blue staining confirmed the presence of differentiated, iron-accumulating cells containing mitochondria of porcine origin. Cs-derived cells displayed CD31, α-smooth muscle, and α-sarcomeric actin antigens, indicating that the differentiation into endothelial, smooth muscle and cardiac muscle lineage was not affected by ferritin overexpression. In conclusion, hFTH can be used as a MRI reporter gene to track dividing/differentiating stem cells in the beating heart, while simultaneously monitoring cardiac morpho-functional changes.

  13. Diagnostic accuracy of diffusion-weighted imaging with conventional MR imaging for differentiating complex solid and cystic ovarian tumors at 1.5T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ping

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preoperative characterization of complex solid and cystic adnexal masses is crucial for informing patients about possible surgical strategies. Our study aims to determine the usefulness of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC for characterizing complex solid and cystic adnexal masses. Methods One-hundred and 91 patients underwent diffusion-weighted (DW magnetic resonance (MR imaging of 202 ovarian masses. The mean ADC value of the solid components was measured and assessed for each ovarian mass. Differences in ADC between ovarian masses were tested using the Student’s t-test. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC was used to assess the ability of ADC to differentiate between benign and malignant complex adnexal masses. Results Eighty-five patients were premenopausal, and 106 were postmenopausal. Seventy-four of the 202 ovarian masses were benign and 128 were malignant. There was a significant difference between the mean ADC values of benign and malignant ovarian masses (p -3 mm2/s may be the optimal one for differentiating between benign and malignant tumors. Conclusions A high signal intensity within the solid component on T2WI was less frequently in benign than in malignant adnexal masses. The combination of DW imaging with ADC value measurements and T2-weighted signal characteristics of solid components is useful for differentiating between benign and malignant ovarian masses.

  14. Effect of b value and pre-admission of contrast on diagnostic accuracy of 1.5-T breast DWI: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorrius, Monique D.; Dijkstra, Hildebrand [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging - North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); University of Groningen / University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Radiology, EB44, Groningen (Netherlands); Oudkerk, Matthijs [University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging - North East Netherlands, Groningen (Netherlands); Sijens, Paul E. [University of Groningen / University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Radiology, EB44, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2014-11-15

    To evaluate the effect of the choice of b values and prior use of contrast medium on apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of breast lesions derived from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and on the discrimination between benign and malignant lesions. A literature search of relevant DWI studies was performed. The accuracy of DWI to characterize lesions by using b value ≤600 s/mm{sup 2} and b value >600 s/mm{sup 2} was presented as pooled sensitivity and specificity, and the ADC was calculated for both groups. Lesions were pooled as pre- or post-contrast DWI. Of 198 articles, 26 met the inclusion criteria. Median ADCs were significantly higher (13.2-35.1 %, p < 0.001) for the group of b values ≤600 s/mm{sup 2} compared to >600 s/mm{sup 2}. The sensitivity in both groups was similar (91 % and 89 %, p = 0.495) as well as the specificity (75 % and 84 %, p = 0.237). Contrast medium had no significant effects on the ADCs (p ≥ 0.08). The differentiation between benign and malignant lesions was optimal (58.4 %) for the combination of b = 0 and 1,000 s/mm{sup 2}. The wide variety of b value combinations applied in different studies significantly affects the ADC of breast lesions and confounds quantitative DWI. If only a couple of b values are used, those of b = 0 and 1,000 s/mm{sup 2} are recommended for the best improvement of differentiating between benign and malignant lesions. (orig.)

  15. 26 CFR 1.367(a)-5T - Property subject to section 367(a)(1) regardless of use in trade or business (temporary).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... included by the taxpayer in its taxable income. (d) Foreign currency, etc.—(1) In general. Regardless of use in an active trade or business, section 367(a)(1) shall apply to the transfer of foreign currency or other property denominated in foreign currency, including installment obligations,...

  16. Diagnostic performance of 64-MDCT and 1.5-T MRI with high-resolution sequences in the T staging of gastric cancer: a comparative analysis with histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzidei, M; Napoli, A; Zaccagna, F; Di Paolo, P; Zini, C; Cavallo Marincola, B; Geiger, D; Catalano, C; Passariello, R

    2009-10-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the accuracy of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (64-MDCT) in the T staging of gastric carcinoma in comparison with histopathology. Forty patients with an endoscopic diagnosis of gastric carcinoma underwent preoperative MR imaging and 64-MDCT, both of which were performed after i.v. injection of scopolamine and water distension of the stomach. In the MR imaging protocol, we acquired T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) sequences, true fast imaging steady-state free precession (true-FISP) and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) 3D sequences. Contrastenhanced CT scans were obtained in the arterial and venous phases. Two groups of radiologists independently reviewed the MR and 64-MDCT images. The results were compared with pathology findings. In the evaluation of T stage, 64-MDCT had 82.5% and MR imaging had 80% sensitivity. Accuracy of MR imaging was slightly higher than that of 64-MDCT in identifying T1 lesions (50% vs 37.5%), whereas the accuracy of 64-MDCT was higher in differentiating T2 lesions (81.2% vs 68.7%). The accuracy of MR imaging and 64-MDCT did not differ significantly in the evaluation of T3-T4 lesions (p>0.05). Understaging was observed in 20% of cases with MR imaging and in 17.5% with 64-MDCT. MR imaging and 64-MDCT accuracy levels did not differ in advanced stages of disease, whereas MR imaging was superior in identifying early stages of gastric cancer and can be considered a valid alternative to MDCT in clinical practice.

  17. Analysis of random noise, coil inhomogeneity, and ghost artifacts in spin echo imaging on a 1.5 T commercial magnetic resonance imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Ramesh; Rusinek, Henry

    1990-05-01

    Noise in spin echo (SE) images in MRI consists of random and structured components Structured noise arises mainly from the non-uniformity of the B1 field. We have studied these errors using a cylindrical phantom. Random noise analysis by subtraction of a 4,9, or 25 points smoothed image from the original image showed small but significant differences between the three methods, though it was uniform over the phantom and changed little with time over a span of 8 months. The rf coil nonuniformity ( coefficient of variation,CV) in two areas of interest (ROI). a central area (40 cm2) and a ring outside the central region (130 cm2) was measured to be 21% and 45% respectively for the saddle coil and 1 5% and 6.0% respectively for the bird cage coil Using the first day flood image for correction of the later images. CV in the two ROI's of the corrected images were 1.3% and 2.2% for the saddle coil respectively and 0.9% and 1.6% respectively.

  18. Analysis of the mechanical behaviour of a 11.5 T Nb3Sn LHC dipole magnet according to the ring collar concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouden, den A.; Kate, ten H.H.J.; Avest, ter D.; Emden, van W.; Daum, C.

    1992-01-01

    According to the CERN-LHC (Large Hadron Collider) reference design, 10-tesla twin-aperture NbTi dipoles will be built with split collars that enclose both apertures. As part of the development program towards an experimental 11.5-tesla Nb3Sn LHC dipole magnet, the mechanical implications of an alter

  19. From static to dynamic 1.5T MRI-linac prototype: impact of gantry position related magnetic field variation on image fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crijns, Sjoerd; Raaymakers, Bas

    2014-07-07

    Recently, the MRI-linac prototype at UMC Utrecht was upgraded with a ring-based gantry, where all linac components are mounted on a ring around the MR scanner. Although adaptations have been made to both linac and MR magnets in order to account for mutual magnetic interference, interference problems cannot be ruled out completely. Therefore, in this paper the impact of gantry position dependent magnetic field inhomogeneity variation on the geometrical accuracy of acquired MR images is quantified. Magnetic field maps were acquired in a large field of view for static gantry positions in shimmed and un-shimmed conditions. Reproducibility of the shim settings was assessed. From the fieldmaps, a minimum gradient strength needed to acquire images with geometric distortions of, at most, 1 mm was derived. Moreover, imaging during gantry rotation was performed for a range of imaging parameters and rotation speeds. From the measurements we conclude that images with good geometric fidelity can be obtained for all static gantry positions, provided that shimming is performed for each new gantry position. This indicates that the present prototype is suitable for static IMRT scenarios. Shim settings are highly reproducible, suggesting that shimming via look-up tables is feasible. Finally, imaging during gantry rotation may produce severely distorted images at present and is likely to require advanced compensation methods such as dynamic shimming or higher order reconstruction.

  20. WISE J072003.20-084651.2: an Old and Active M9.5 + T5 Spectral Binary 6 pc from the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Gillon, Michaël; Melis, Carl; Bowler, Brendan P.; Michelsen, Eric L.; Bardalez Gagliuffi, Daniella; Gelino, Christopher R.; Jehin, E.; Delrez, L.; Manfroid, J.; Blake, Cullen H.

    2015-03-01

    We report observations of the recently discovered, nearby late-M dwarf WISE J072003.20-084651.2. New astrometric measurements obtained with the TRAPPIST telescope improve the distance measurement to 6.0 ± 1.0 pc and confirm the low tangential velocity (3.5 ± 0.6 km s-1) reported by Scholz. Low-resolution optical spectroscopy indicates a spectral type of M9.5 and prominent Hα emission ( = -4.68 ± 0.06), but no evidence of subsolar metallicity or Li i absorption. Near-infrared spectroscopy reveals subtle peculiarities that can be explained by the presence of a T5 binary companion, and high-resolution laser guide star adaptive optics imaging reveals a faint (ΔH = 4.1) candidate source 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 14 (0.8 AU) from the primary. With high-resolution optical and near-infrared spectroscopy, we measure a stable radial velocity of +83.8 ± 0.3 km s-1, indicative of old disk kinematics and consistent with the angular separation of the possible companion. We measure a projected rotational velocity of v sin i = 8.0 ± 0.5 km s-1 and find evidence of low-level variabilty (˜1.5%) in a 13 day TRAPPIST light curve, but cannot robustly constrain the rotational period. We also observe episodic changes in brightness (1%-2%) and occasional flare bursts (4%-8%) with a 0.8% duty cycle, and order-of-magnitude variations in Hα line strength. Combined, these observations reveal WISE J0720-0846 to be an old, very low-mass binary whose components straddle the hydrogen burning minimum mass, and whose primary is a relatively rapid rotator and magnetically active. It is one of only two known binaries among late M dwarfs within 10 pc of the Sun, both of which harbor a mid T-type brown dwarf companion. We show that while this specific configuration is rare (≲1.6% probability), roughly 25% of binary companions to late-type M dwarfs in the local population are likely low-temperature T or Y brown dwarfs. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  1. WISE J072003.20-084651.2: An Old and Active M9.5 + T5 Spectral Binary 6 pc from the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Burgasser, Adam J; Melis, Carl; Bowler, Brendan P; Michelsen, Eric L; Gagliuffi, Daniella Bardalez; Gelino, Christopher R; Jehin, E; Delrez, L; Manfroid, J; Blake, Cullen H

    2014-01-01

    [Abridged] We report observations of the recently discovered, nearby late-M dwarf WISE J072003.20-084651.2. Astrometric measurements obtained with TRAPPIST improve the distance measurement to 6.0$\\pm$1.0 pc and confirm the low tangential velocity (3.5$\\pm$0.6 km/s) reported by Scholz. Low-resolution optical spectroscopy indicates a spectral type of M9.5 and prominent H$\\alpha$ emission ( = -4.68$\\pm$0.06), but no evidence of subsolar metallicity or Li I absorption. Near-infrared spectroscopy reveals subtle peculiarities indicating the presence of a T5 binary companion, and high-resolution laser guide star adaptive optics imaging reveals a faint ($\\Delta$H = 4.1) candidate source 0"14 (0.8 AU) from the primary. We measure a stable radial velocity of +83.8$\\pm$0.3 km/s, indicative of old disk kinematics and consistent with the angular separation of the possible companion. We measure a projected rotational velocity of v sin i = 8.0$\\pm$0.5 km/s, and find evidence of low-level variability (~1.5%) in a 13-day TRAP...

  2. Feasibility of three-dimensional ultrashort echo time magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 T for the diagnosis of skull fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Hao; Zhong, Yu-min; Zhang, Hong; Lin, Yi; Zhu, Ming [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Shanghai (China); Nie, Quan-min; Guo, Lie-mei; Yang, Xi [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery Ren Ji Hospital, Shanghai (China); Chen, Wei-bo; Dai, Yong-ming [Philips Healthcare, Shanghai (China); Xu, Jian-rong [Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ren Ji Hospital, Shanghai (China)

    2016-01-15

    To investigate the feasibility of ultrashort echo time (UTE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of skull fractures. The skull fracture models of ten Bama pigs and 364 patients with craniocerebral trauma were subjected to computed tomography (CT), UTE and conventional MRI sequences. The accuracy of UTE imaging in skull fracture diagnosis was analysed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, McNemar's test and Kappa values. Differences among CT, UTE imaging and anatomical measurement (AM) values for linear fractures (LFs) and depressed fractures (DFs) were compared using one-way ANOVA and a paired-samples t-test. UTE imaging clearly demonstrated skull structures and fractures. The accuracy, validity and reliability of UTE MRI were excellent, with no significant differences between expert readings (P > 0.05; Kappa, 0.899). The values obtained for 42 LFs and 13 DFs in the ten specimens were not significantly different among CT, UTE MRI and AMs, while those obtained for 55 LFs and ten DFs in 44 patients were not significantly different between CT and UTE MRI (P > 0.05). UTE MRI sequences are feasible for the evaluation of skull structures and fractures, with no radiation exposure, particularly for paediatric and pregnant patients. (orig.)

  3. Design and use of arch formwork jumbo for forming double-track arch tunnel shed%双线拱形明洞拱架车设计及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田家琳

    2007-01-01

    在既有正线上增建双线明洞,如何在限界净空非常紧张的条件下,不中断行车灌筑拱部混凝土,是个难题.文章介绍了明洞拱部施工用模板-拱架车的设计及应用效果.该拱架车结构简单、安全可靠,各部刚度及稳定性能够满足使用要求,为在限界净空紧张的双线地段增建明洞,提供了可借鉴的范例.

  4. On the Control of the Construction Technology of Secondary Jumbo for Tunnel Lining in Jiuling Mountain%浅谈九岭山隧道二衬施工工艺控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬梅

    2012-01-01

      This paper mainly introduces the Jiuling Mountain Tunnel by self-propel ed hydraulic formwork trol ey pouring two lining concrete, According to the characteristics of equi-pment structure structure tunnel and self-propel ed hydraulic formwork trol ey, mixture ratio selection, selection of raw material, quality control of concrete, construction technology of concrete construction of the site proposed key problems should be paid attention to from the concrete.%  本文主要介绍了九岭山隧道采用自行式全液压模板台车浇筑二衬混凝土,针对隧道的结构形式和自行式全液压模板台车的设备构造特点,从混凝土配合比选取、原材料选取、混凝土质量控制、施工工艺等方面提出该部位混凝土施工时应该注意的关键问题。

  5. “8.8”舟曲特大泥石流天气背景分析%Analysis of Weather Background of "8.8" Jumbo Debris Flow at Zhouqu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄潇泓; 吉惠敏; 肖玮; 冀兰芝

    2013-01-01

    By using the data of automatic weather stations,satellite images,sounding,etc,the short-term strong rainfall weather process were analyzed which cause a large debris flow at Zhouqu of Gansu Province on Aug.8,2010.The results showed that meteorological elements of the automatic station changes can reflect the small and medium scale weather system.A tail of frontal cloud into the east of South Asia high stimulates the convective clouds,the humid conditions,unstable stratification and the larger upper wind vertical shear,made cloud cluster in rapid development and merge into the MαCS,in the direction of the right rear edge temperature gradient of the place appear short-term strong precipitation.The edge of the subtropical high vapour conveyor belt make south Gansu have convection development potential,500 hPa small groove,200 hPa divergence,ground front,stimulate mesoscale convective system (MCS),make it to development.Favorable stratification conditions and high altitude wind vertical shear make MCS to strengthen,resulting short local strong rainfall at Zhouqu,and trigger large flash flood debris flow.%利用自动站、卫星云图、探空等常规和非常规资料,对2010年8月8日凌晨造成舟曲特大泥石流的短时强降水天气过程的天气背景、形成机理、物理成因、卫星云图特征进行了较为深入细致的研究.结果表明,自动站气象要素变化能反映中小尺度天气系统的信息;卫星云图上,东移锋面云系尾部在顺时针旋转的南亚高压东部激发起对流云团,对流云团在有利的温湿条件、不稳定的层结、较大的高空风垂直切变下,迅速发展、合并成中α对流系统,在其前进方向右后方边缘亮温梯度大的地方出现短时强降水;副高边缘的高能水汽输送带使甘肃南部具备对流发展的潜势,500 hPa小槽、200 hPa辐散区、地面冷锋的配合,激发中尺度对流系统(MCS),使其得以发展;有利的层结条件和高空风垂直切变使MCS得以加强,最终造成舟曲短时局地强降水,并引发特大山洪泥石流.

  6. 级联型PLL时钟处理器对系统定时影响最小%Real Data Cuts Timing Mumbo-jumbo for Cascaded PLL Designs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Craig McKelvey

    2004-01-01

    伴随着通信市场的飞速发展,用于时钟分配的复杂树状结构得到了广泛的运用。为了给许多被时钟分配及其他设计用来传送数据(通过众多具有数字时域精度的不同功能设计组合单元)的节点馈送信号,时钟树是必需的。由于需要采用大量的时钟来对系统中的多个节点进行定时,因此,在严格且非常精确和受限的窗口时间内生成这些定时时钟也就成了当务之急。

  7. 超高压对秘鲁鱿鱼肌原纤维蛋白凝胶特性的影响%Effect of ultra-high pressure on Gel properties of myofibril of jumbo squid,Dosidicus gigas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆海霞; 张蕾; 李学鹏; 励建荣

    2010-01-01

    秘鲁鱿鱼(Dosidicus gigas)是一种高产量、低价格、低品质的海洋渔业资源,由于其肉质粗糙,还有酸、苦、涩等不良风味,使秘鲁鱿鱼的资源化利用成为一个难点问题.本研究以秘鲁鱿鱼为研究对象,通过测定肌原纤维蛋白凝胶的硬度、弹性、电泳图谱等,研究了超高压对其凝胶特性的影响,并比较了其与热诱导凝胶的差异.结果表明,超高压300 Mpa、10 min时,秘鲁鱿鱼肌原纤维蛋白凝胶弹性达到最大值1.43;超高压300 Mpa、25 min时凝胶弹性为1.42;超高压400 Mpa、25 min时凝胶硬度达到最大值52.5 g;300 Mpa、保压25 min时凝胶强度达到最高值68.4 g.不添加TG-B型谷氨酰胺转氨酶(Tgase)时,秘鲁鱿鱼肌原纤维难以形成热诱导凝胶;添加了2%Tgase的热诱导凝胶硬度较高,可达到74.74g,但凝胶弹性仅为0.90,凝胶强度为67.0 g,与超高压诱导凝胶的强度相近.研究表明,超高压具有促进凝胶形成和改善凝胶特性尤其是凝胶弹性的作用,可以成为替代热处理的一种秘鲁鱿鱼鱼糜制品生产的新技术.

  8. 哥斯达黎加外海茎柔鱼耳石形态学分析%Morphological analysis of statolith for jumbo flying squid (Dosidicus gigas)in the waters off Costa Rica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾涛; 陈新军; 李纲; 陆化杰; 刘必林; 马金

    2010-01-01

    茎柔鱼是大洋性重要经济头足类,其耳石包含着重要的生态信息.根据2009年7-8月哥斯达黎加外海采集的茎柔鱼耳石样本,分析其耳石外部形态,探讨耳石形态差异及生长模式.研究认为,茎柔鱼左右耳石及其分区间的形态差异均不显著(P>0.05).主成分分析认为,耳石总长(TSL)、吻侧区间长(RDL)、吻侧区夹角(RDA)可表征左耳石形态特征,TSL、吻区基线长(RBL)、RDA可表征右耳石形态特征.在整个生长过程中耳石各部分均异速生长,其形态变化趋势为整体狭长、吻区长窄、背区宽大,符合中上层头足类耳石特征.耳石生长表现为两个阶段,TSL为1 600μm前后其耳石形态出现显著差异.RDL/TSL由上升变为下降(P<0.05),RBL生长速度迅速上升(P<0.01),RDA由下降变为上升(P<0.05),TSL=1 600 μm可作为栖息水层变化的重要标志.

  9. 东太平洋赤道公海茎柔鱼生物学特性%Study on the Biological Characteristics of Jumbo Flying Squid Dosidicus gigas in the High Seas Nearby the Equator of Eastern Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆化杰; 王从军; 陈新军

    2014-01-01

    根据2013年4~6月在赤道公海探捕期间采集茎柔鱼样本,研究赤道公海茎柔鱼渔业生物学特性.结果表明,不同性别、不同月份,茎柔鱼胴长和体质量组成不同.雌、雄性样本的胴长范围分别为93~495 mm和94~406 mm,优势胴长组分别为260 ~ 340 mm和240~320 mm,分别占样本总数72.53%和70.26%;雌、雄性样本体质量范围分别为25~3 900 g和33~ 2170 g,优势体质量组分别为400~1 200 g和200~1 000 g,分别占样本总数82.71%和87.82%.雌、雄性茎柔鱼净体质量比例分别介于31.69%~ 80.51%和37.05%~81.35%之间,平均值分别为60.45%和62.73%.协方差分析表明,茎柔鱼胴长与体质量、胴长与净体质量的生长均存在性别间差异,胴长与体质量的生长都最适合用幂函数表示,而胴长与净体质量的生长,雌、雄性样本分别最适合用幂函数和指数函数表示.不同月份茎柔鱼性别比例构成不同,4月、5月和6月性别比例分别为1.87∶1、1.61∶1和1.17∶1,全部样本的性别比例为1.61∶1.不同月份茎柔鱼性腺成熟度的组成不同.不同性别、不同月份间茎柔鱼胃含物等级组成存在差异.

  10. 秘鲁外海茎柔鱼胴长组成及性成熟初步研究%Study of mantle length composition and sex maturity of jumbo flying squid (Dosidicus gigas) in fishing ground off Peru

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶旭昌; 陈新军

    2007-01-01

    根据2001年6-8月我国鱿钓船对秘鲁外海(79°~90° W、5°~16° S)茎柔鱼资源的调查,对其胴长组成和性成熟作了初步分析.结果表明,渔获物胴长范围为200~880 mm,优势胴长为240~480 mm,约占总数的80%左右.依据胴长组成和性成熟度,调查海域茎柔鱼存在3个群体.雌雄性别比为2.52∶1.00.渔获物中,雄性个体的性成熟度高于雌性,雄性Ⅲ和Ⅳ期占总数84.3%,雌性仅占47.5%.同一性成熟阶段,雌性个体的胴长范围均大于雄性.经估算,雌性和雄性个体的初次性成熟胴长分别为374 mm、228 mm.

  11. STATOLITH MORPHOLOGY OF JUMBO FLYING SQUID DOSIDICUS GIGAS IN THE HIGH SEA WATERS OFF CHILE%智利外海茎柔鱼(Dosidicus gigas)耳石外部形态特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆化杰; 陈新军; 刘必林

    2010-01-01

    根据2008年1-5月智利外海茎柔鱼资源调查中随机采集的663尾样本(雌性464尾,雄性199尾1,对其耳石形态特征进行观察与测量.观测表明,茎柔鱼耳石具有长窄的吻区和宽大的翼区.对耳石10项形态参数进行主成分分析,结果显示,耳石总长(TSL)、吻侧区长(RLL)、翼区长(WL)可以作为耳石长度特征的代表,最大宽度(MW)则可代表耳石宽度特征.雌性个体TSL、RLL、WL和MW与胴长(ML)之间为线性关系(y=a+b×ML)(P<0.05),生长系数b在1.9358-2.9607间,其中MW的最小,WL的最大,耳石各区为均匀生长.雄性个体TSL、RLL、WL和MW与ML之间为幂函数关系(y=C×MLd)(P<0.05),生长系数d在0.9165-1.1877间,其中TSL生长速度慢于ML,RLL和MW基本与ML一致,WL则快于ML,耳石各区为非均匀生长.

  12. 秘鲁鱿鱼皮明胶抗氧化肽的制备及其分子质量分布%Preparation and Molecular Weight Distribution of Gelatin Antioxidant Peptides from Jumbo Flying Squid (Dosidicus Gigas) Skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    茅宇虹; 杨文鸽; 徐大伦; 谢果凰; 张进杰

    2014-01-01

    目的:基于鱿鱼皮明胶肽的抗氧化活性,优化制备工艺,探究其分子质量分布.方法:分别使用4种蛋白酶水解鱿鱼皮明胶.通过测定体外抗氧化活性来确定最适水解用酶.以DPPH自由基清除率为指标,利用单因素及响应面法优化明胶抗氧化肽的制备工艺,通过Tricine-SDS-PAGE及Sephadex G-25凝胶过滤层析测定明胶肽的分子质量分布.结果:碱性蛋白酶为最适水解用酶,最适水解温度55℃,酶添加量7 000 u/g(E/S),时间109 min,底物明胶质量分数6%,pH 6.66.此条件下明胶肽的DPPH自由基清除率达93.18%.90%明胶肽的分子质量介于1.4~10 ku之间.

  13. 9-10月秘鲁外海茎柔鱼摄食习性的初步研究%Preliminary study on feeding behavior of jumbo flying squid (Dosidicus gigas)off Peru during September and October

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾涛; 李纲; 陈新军; 刘必林; 钱卫国

    2010-01-01

    茎柔鱼(Dosidicus gigas)是大洋性重要经济头足类之一,在食物链中起着重要作用.通过对2009年9-10月秘鲁外海采集的383尾茎柔鱼胃含物进行分析与研究,以了解调查期间茎柔鱼摄食习性的时空变化特性.研究认为,摄食等级在9-10月份间存在极显著差异(P0.05).但昼夜消化水平差异极显著(P0.05).

  14. 鱿鱼皮胶原蛋白的提取条件优化及其特性分析%Optimization of Extraction Conditions of Collagen and Its Characterization from Skin of Jumbo flying squid (Dosidicus gigas)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    茅宇虹; 刘俊豪; 杨文鸽; 徐大伦; 张进杰

    2014-01-01

    本研究旨在优化秘鲁鱿鱼皮胶原蛋白的提取方法,并表征其主要特性,为鱿鱼皮的高值化利用、胶原蛋白的制备提供基础.采用醋酸结合胃蛋白酶法提取秘鲁鱿鱼皮中胶原蛋白,通过单因素及响应面分析法优化提取条件,结果表明:胃蛋白酶添加量2% (w/w)、提取时间53 h、醋酸浓度0.70 mol·L-1、固液比1∶240(w/v),胶原蛋白提取率可达51.47%,并通过盐析及超滤对胶原蛋白进行纯化.SDS-PAGE结果显示鱿鱼皮胶原蛋白主要由α1,α2及β链组成,为Ⅰ型胶原蛋白;氨基酸组成分析表明其甘氨酸含量最高(281残基/1000残基),亚氨酸含量为167残基/1000残基.

  15. Value of different MR techniques in diagnosis of degenerative disorders of the hyaline cartilage - in vitro study on 50 joint specimens of the knee with 1.5 T; Vergleich von verschiedenen MRT-Techniken in der Diagnose von degenerativen Knorpelerkrankungen - in-vitro-Studie an 50 Gelenkpraeparaten des Knies bei 1,5 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachmann, G. [Klinikum der Univ. Giessen (Germany). Abt. Diagnostische Radiologie; Heinrichs, C. [Klinikum der Univ. Giessen (Germany). Inst. fuer Pathologie; Juergensen, I. [Klinikum der Univ. Giessen (Germany). Orthopaedische Klinik; Rominger, M. [Klinikum der Univ. Giessen (Germany). Abt. Diagnostische Radiologie; Scheiter, A. [Klinikum der Univ. Giessen (Germany). Abt. Diagnostische Radiologie; Rau, W.S. [Klinikum der Univ. Giessen (Germany). Abt. Diagnostische Radiologie

    1997-05-01

    Purpose: An experimental study was performed on joint specimens of the knee to assess the advantages and disadvantages of 14 generally available sequences in cartilage imaging. Methods: Each of the 50 surgically exposed cadaveric joints of the knee was examined by the following sequences: T{sub 1}, proton- and T{sub 2} weighted spin echo(SE) sequences, proton- and T{sub 2} weighted Turbo-SE, T{sub 1} weighted SE with fat suppression, MTC combined with T{sub 1}-weighted SE and T{sub 2} weighted FLASH-2 D, STIR, FISP-3 D, FLASH-3 D (with fat suppression), and MR arthrography. We assessed the image quality by a scale, signal to noise-ratio of cartilage and joint fluid, and the accuracy in detection of cartilage lesions. Pathology and arthroscopy were reference methods to MRI, and demonstrated grade 1-4 lesions on 186 of 300 joint facettes. Results: Advanced stages of cartilage lesions (65 grade 3 and 4 lesions) were detected by standard SE sequences in 67-94%. Application of volume techniques (FISP-3 D, FLASH-3 D), high definition matrix (512 pixel), MTC with FLASH-2 D and MR-arthrography improved the sensitivity up to 82-100%. Superficial lesions (65 grade 2 lesions) were demonstrated in 3-38%, and on MR arthrography in 45%. Structural changes (56 Grade 1 lesions) were recorded on MRI in only 10%. Conclusions: With regard to standard SE sequences, the detectability of cartilage lesions can be improved by techniques that use 512 matrices, selective cartilage imaging, and volume acquisition. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: In einer experimentellen Studie an Gelenkpraeparaten des Knies wurden die Vor- und Nachteile von 14 allgemein verfuegbaren MRT-Sequenzen in der Knorpeldiagnostik dargestellt. Methode: 50 chirurgisch exstirpierte Kniegelenkpraeparate wurden nacheinander mit folgenden Techniken untersucht: Klassische Spin-Echo(SE)-Sequenz in T{sub 1}-, Protonen- und T{sub 2}-Wichtung, Turbo-SE in Protonen- und T{sub 2}-Wichtung, Fettsuppression mit T{sub 1}-gew. SE, MTC in Verbindung mit T{sub 1}-gew. SE und T{sub 2}-gew. FLASH-2D, die STIR, FISP-3 D, FLASH-3 D mit Fettsuppression und die MR-Arthrographie. Fuer jede Sequenz wurden subjektive Qualitaetskriterien, Signal-Rausch-Verhaeltnisse von Knorpel und Gelenkfluessigkeit und Nachweisraten fuer Knorpellaesionen bestimmt. Als Referenz zur MRT dienten pathologische und arthroskopische Untersuchungen, die an 186 der 300 Knorpelflaechen degenerative Veraenderungen Grad 1-4 nachwiesen. Ergebnisse: Die Defektstadien Grad 3 und 4 (65 Laesionen) waren mit den klassischen SE-Sequenzen in 67-94% nachweisbar. Die Volumentechniken (FISP-3 D und FLASH-3 D), Sequenzen mit 512er Matrix, der MTC (mit FLASH-2 D) und die MR-Arthrographie fuehrten zu einer Verbesserung der Sensitivitaet auf 82-100%. Oberflaechliche Defekte Grad 2 (65 Laesionen) hatten Nachweisraten von 3-38%, in der MR-Arthrographie betrug sie 45%. Die rein strukturellen Knorpelveraenderungen Grad 1 (56 Faelle) wurden in ca. 10% diagnostiziert. Schlussfolgerung: Die Diagnostik von Knorpelerkrankungen laesst sich gegenueber den klassischen SE-Sequenzen mit grosser Bildmatrix, verbessertem Knorpelkontrast und Volumentechnik verwenden. (orig.)

  16. MASIH RELEVANKAH STRATEGI MARKETING MIX MENINGKATKAN KEPUASAN PELANGGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tondano (Jalan kampus UNIMA, Manado, In Juliana Ohy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis pengaruh marketing mix strategy terhadap kepuasan pelanggan Pasar Swalayan Jumbo di Manado. Sampel diambil secara acak sebanyak 100 pelanggan dengan metode pengumpulan data berupa kuesioner dan studi dokumen. Selanjutnya, data dianalisis menggunakan path analysis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkkan bahwa keseluruhan unsur-unsur marketing mix yaitu produk, harga, tempat/lokasi dan promosi secara simultan maupun secara parsial berpengaruh signifikan terhadap kepuasan pelanggan pasar swalayan Jumbo di Manado. Implikasi manajerialnya adalah bauran pemasaran yang dilakukan oleh pasar swalayan Jumbo penting untuk ditingkatkan dan dimantapkan perannya untuk mengurangi gap antara harapan dan kinerja pasar swalayan Jumbo. Swalayan Jumbo perlu melakukan perbaikan agar dapat meningkatkan kepuasan pelanggan yang pada akhirnya dapat meningkatkan hasil penjualan. Perbaikan yang dapat dilakukan antara lain dengan melaksanakan Retensi Pelanggan- berupa loyality program, yang terbukti secara signifikan mampu meningkatkan retensi pelanggan dan jumlah pembelian. This study aims to analyze the influence of marketing mix strategy toward customer satisfaction of Jumbo Supermarket in Manado. Samples were taken randomly from 100 customers. Meanwhile, questionnaire and study of documents are the method that is used to collect the data. Furthermore, the data were analyzed using path analysis. The results indicate that the overall marketing mix’s elements which are consist of product, price, place and promotion, simultaneously and partially has a significant effect toward customer satisfaction of Jumbo Supermarket in Manado. In addition, managerial implications of marketing mix which is made by Jumbo supermarket is important to be improved and to be strengthened in its role to reduce the gap between expectations and performance of the Jumbo Supermarket. The improvements of customer satisfaction is also necessary to increase sales

  17. MASIH RELEVANKAH STRATEGI MARKETING MIX MENINGKATKAN KEPUASAN PELANGGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tondano (Jalan kampus UNIMA, Manado, In Juliana Ohy

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan menganalisis pengaruh marketing mix strategy terhadap kepuasan pelanggan Pasar Swalayan Jumbo di Manado. Sampel diambil secara acak sebanyak 100 pelanggan dengan metode pengumpulan data berupa kuesioner dan studi dokumen. Selanjutnya, data dianalisis menggunakan path analysis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkkan bahwa keseluruhan unsur-unsur marketing mix yaitu produk, harga, tempat/lokasi dan promosi secara simultan maupun secara parsial berpengaruh signifikan terhadap kepuasan pelanggan pasar swalayan Jumbo di Manado. Implikasi manajerialnya adalah bauran pemasaran yang dilakukan oleh pasar swalayan Jumbo penting untuk ditingkatkan dan dimantapkan perannya untuk mengurangi gap antara harapan dan kinerja pasar swalayan Jumbo. Swalayan Jumbo perlu melakukan perbaikan agar dapat meningkatkan kepuasan pelanggan yang pada akhirnya dapat meningkatkan hasil penjualan. Perbaikan yang dapat dilakukan antara lain dengan melaksanakan Retensi Pelanggan- berupa loyality program, yang terbukti secara signifikan mampu meningkatkan retensi pelanggan dan jumlah pembelian. This study aims to analyze the influence of marketing mix strategy toward customer satisfaction of Jumbo Supermarket in Manado. Samples were taken randomly from 100 customers. Meanwhile, questionnaire and study of documents are the method that is used to collect the data. Furthermore, the data were analyzed using path analysis. The results indicate that the overall marketing mix’s elements which are consist of product, price, place and promotion, simultaneously and partially has a significant effect toward customer satisfaction of Jumbo Supermarket in Manado. In addition, managerial implications of marketing mix which is made by Jumbo supermarket is important to be improved and to be strengthened in its role to reduce the gap between expectations and performance of the Jumbo Supermarket. The improvements of customer satisfaction is also necessary to increase sales

  18. 78 FR 27271 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; BOX Options Exchange LLC; Order Granting Approval of Proposed Rule...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... studied analysis of the marketplace's reception to and any possible confusion that could result from... that intermarket trade-through protection would apply to Jumbo SPY Options to the extent that they...

  19. Puitpilvelõhkuja!

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Londonisse ehitatava 9-korruselise korterelamu projektist. Hoone ehitatakse ristlamineeritud puitpaneelidest (jumbo plywood), fassaadidel olevad pikseldatud mustrid on inspireeritud Gerhard Richteri maalikunstist. Arhitektid: Sophie Goldhill, Chris Gray, Kristen Haggart, Andrew Waugh. Projekteerija: Waugh Thistleton

  20. Randomized comparison of 3 different-sized biopsy forceps for quality of sampling in Barrett's esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Susana; Yu, Woojin M; Smith, Michael S; Slack, Kristen N; Rotterdam, Heidrun; Abrams, Julian A; Lightdale, Charles J

    2010-11-01

    Several types of forceps are available for use in sampling Barrett's esophagus (BE). Few data exist with regard to biopsy quality for histologic assessment. To evaluate sampling quality of 3 different forceps in patients with BE. Single-center, randomized clinical trial. Consecutive patients with BE undergoing upper endoscopy. Patients randomized to have biopsy specimens taken with 1 of 3 types of forceps: standard, large capacity, or jumbo. Specimen adequacy was defined a priori as a well-oriented biopsy sample 2 mm or greater in diameter and with at least muscularis mucosa present. A total of 65 patients were enrolled and analyzed (standard forceps, n = 21; large-capacity forceps, n = 21; jumbo forceps, n = 23). Compared with jumbo forceps, a significantly higher proportion of biopsy samples with large-capacity forceps were adequate (37.8% vs 25.2%, P = .002). Of the standard forceps biopsy samples, 31.9% were adequate, which was not significantly different from specimens taken with large-capacity (P = .20) or jumbo (P = .09) forceps. Biopsy specimens taken with jumbo forceps had the largest diameter (median, 3.0 mm vs 2.5 mm [standard] vs 2.8 mm [large capacity]; P = .0001). However, jumbo forceps had the lowest proportion of specimens that were well oriented (overall P = .001). Heterogeneous patient population precluded dysplasia detection analyses. Our results challenge the requirement of jumbo forceps and therapeutic endoscopes to properly perform the Seattle protocol. We found that standard and large-capacity forceps used with standard upper endoscopes produced biopsy samples at least as adequate as those obtained with jumbo forceps and therapeutic endoscopes in patients with BE. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lamellar magnetism and exchange bias in billion-year-old metamorphic titanohematite with nanoscale ilmenite exsolution lamellae: II. Exchange-bias at 5 K after field-free cooling of NRM and after cooling in a +5 T field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Peter; McEnroe, Suzanne A.; Jackson, M.

    2016-11-01

    This is the second of three papers investigating properties of titanohematite-bearing quartzo-feldspathic rocks that create a significant remanent magnetic anomaly in the Modum District, South Norway. The first paper provided initial magnetic results, mineralogical characterization and evidence for the presence of lamellar magnetism. In this paper, knowledge of lamellar magnetic properties is explored through experiments where ilmenite lamellae were magnetized below 57 K, and interact magnetically along interfaces with the titanohematite host. Samples with known NRM directions were placed in specific orientations in an MPMS then cooled in zero field to 5 K, where hysteresis loops were measured in fields up to 5 Tesla. This assured that results were ultimately related to the natural lamellar magnetism produced during cooling ˜ 1 billion years ago. In a second set of experiments the same oriented samples, were subjected to a +5 Tesla field then field cooled to 5 K before hysteresis experiments. The first experiments consistently produced asymmetric shifted hysteresis loops with two loop separations, one in a positive field and one in a negative field. Without exception, when the NRM was oriented toward the negative field end of the MPMS, the bimodal loop showed a dominant loop separation in a positive field. By contrast, when the NRM was oriented toward the positive field end of the MPMS, the bimodal loop showed a dominant loop separation in a negative field. Both observations are consistent with antiferromagnetic coupling between the hard magnetization of ilmenite and the more easily shifted lamellar magnetism of the hematite. The bimodal nature of the loops indicates that the NRMs are vector sums of natural lamellar moments, which are oriented both positively and negatively, and that these opposite moments control the orientations of ilmenite magnetizations when cooling through 57 K. Here, extreme exchange biases up to 1.68 Tesla were measured. The second set of experiments produced asymmetric shifted hysteresis loops with one opening always in the negative field. These observations indicate that the +5 Tesla field applied at room temperature rotated the hematite lamellar magnetism in a positive direction, so that upon cooling all the ilmenite lamellae acquired negative magnetic moments, thus causing unimodal negatively shifted loops. Here, the largest exchange bias among the unimodal loops was only 0.7 Tesla. These results will be used in paper III to build a better understanding of lamellar magnetism at the atomic layer scale.

  2. 9.5T、13T客车前桥刮蹄机的设计%Design of 9.5T, 13T Bus Front Axle Scraping Shoes Machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张汝贵

    2012-01-01

    大型货车和客车一般都采用鼓式刹车,但由于零部件制造及装配误差等原因,常使车桥两端刹车鼓与刹车蹄之间受力不均,造成刹车跑偏.文章所设计的刮蹄机,较好地解决了上述刹车弊病.其刮蹄精度高,是一项实用、可靠的设计.

  3. Fast T2 mapping of the patellar articular cartilage with gradient and spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging at 1.5 T: validation and initial clinical experience in patients with osteoarthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaia, Emilio; Ukmar, Maja; Rossi, Alexia; Cova, Maria A. [University of Trieste, Department of Radiology, Cattinara Hospital, Trieste (Italy); Toffanin, Renato [ARCHES, Castellana, Grotte (Italy); Guglielmi, Giuseppe [University of Foggia, Department of Radiology, Foggia (Italy); Scientific Institute ' Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza' , Department of Radiology, San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy); Martinelli, Bruno [University of Trieste, Department of Traumatology and Orthopaedics, Trieste (Italy)

    2008-06-15

    To evaluate the T2 mapping of patellar articular cartilage in patients with osteoarthritis using gradient and spin-echo (GRASE) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. After the imaging of a phantom consisting of two sealed 50-ml test objects with different concentrations (30% and 90% weight/volume) of copper sulphate, the T2 mapping of patellar articular cartilage was performed in 35 patients (21 male and 14 female; mean age {+-} SD 42 {+-} 17 years) with moderate degree of patellar osteoarthritis. Turbo-spin-echo (TSE) (TR milliseconds/minimum-maximum TE milliseconds 3,000/15-120; total acquisition time 5 min 52 s) and GRASE (TR milliseconds/minimum-maximum TE milliseconds 3,000/15-120; total acquisition time 1 min 51 s) were employed. In each patient patellar cartilage was segmented at nine locations (three superior, three central, and three inferior) by manually defined regions of interest. T2 relaxation times were calculated using a linear fit applied to the logarithm of signal intensity decay. In the phantom the T2 values measured by GRASE were similar to those measured by MR spectroscopy (test object 1: 48.1 ms vs 51 ms; test object 2: 66.8 ms vs 71 ms; P>0.05, Wilcoxon test). In patients GRASE and TSE-derived T2 values demonstrated good agreement (mean difference {+-} SD, 1.81 {+-} 3.63 ms). The within-patient coefficient of variation was 22% for TSE and 23% for GRASE. Fast T2 mapping of the patellar articular cartilage can be performed with GRASE within a third of the time of that of standard sequences. (orig.)

  4. Correlation of signal intensity ratio on orbital MRI-TIRM and clinical activity score as a possible predictor of therapy response in Graves' orbitopathy - a pilot study at 1.5 T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirsch, Eberhard C.; Kaim, Achim H. [Hirslanden Clinic Aarau, Neuroradiology and Cranio-Facial-Center Hirslanden, Aarau (Switzerland); Oliveira, Marion Gregorio de [University Eye Clinic Basel, Basel (Switzerland); Arx, Georg von [basedow.ch, Interdiscipinary Centre for Graves' Orbitopathy, Olten (Switzerland)

    2010-02-15

    This study seeks to describe the predictive value of the signal intensity ratio (SIR) in magnetic resonance imaging-turbo inversion recovery magnitude (MRI-TIRM) in patients with Graves' orbitopathy (GO) with regard to predictability of therapy response. Included in this prospective pilot study were 36 consecutive patients with GO and 25 control subjects. Patients were clinically assessed according to the European Group on Graves' Orbitopathy recommendations with active GO defined by a clinical activity score (CAS) {>=} 3. On magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, muscle inflammation was measured with a region of interest set within the brightest extra-ocular muscle both on coronal turbo inversion recovery magnitude (TIRM) and on fat suppressed gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted sequences. To calculate the SIR, the measured signal intensity was set in proportion to that of the ipsilateral temporalis muscle. Signal intensity ratio in coronal T2-weighted TIRM sequences in either group ranged from 1.22 to 4.92 (mean 2.04) in patients with GO and from 1.18 to 2.4 (mean 1.63) in controls without GO. The observed differences were significant on the TIRM sequences (right eye p = 0.023; left eye p = 0.022), whereas, no significant differences could be detected on the T1-weighted sequences (right eye p = 0.396; left eye p = 0.498). A cut off value of SIR > 2.5 for a CAS {>=} 4 to discriminate active from inactive patients was statistically calculated. T2 relaxation time is a reliable tool in detecting active GO. The difference in T2-SIR versus T1-SIR is helpful to distinguish inflammatory oedema of the extra ocular muscles from intra-orbital congestion due to reduced venous outflow. (orig.)

  5. Microstructural evaluation of Ti-35Nb-7,5 T alloy deformed by cold rolling and annealed; Avaliacao microestrutural da liga Ti-35Nb-7,5Ta deformada por laminacao a frio e recozida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giudice, M.L.C.; Hayama, A.O.F.; Button, S.T.; Caram, R., E-mail: mlcgiudice@fem.unicamp.b [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DEMA/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia de Materiais

    2010-07-01

    This work presents the main results of microstructural characterization of Ti- 35Nb-7.5Ta (% in weight) deformed by cold rolling and annealed. Samples were obtained by electric arc melting, heat treated at 1000 deg C for 8 hours and water quenched. Samples were deformed by cold rolling in multiple passes up to a maximum reduction of 84%. Deformed samples were encapsulated in quartz under vacuum and annealed at 600, 700 e 800 deg C, in variable times and water quenched. Characterization was carried out using light optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Vickers hardness test and acoustic emission measurements to determine the Young's modulus. The results show the orientation occurrence of the martensitic phase in relation to the cold rolling direction in deformed samples. In samples annealed at 600 deg C recovery is predominant and samples annealed at 800 deg C for 60 min are fully recrystallized. (author)

  6. Effect of the microstructure on tribological phenomena occurring on the surface of a mill roll made of SA5T cast iron (GJSL-HV600 - GJSL-330NiMoCr12-8-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Krawczyk

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the role of the microstructure in the tribological wear processes occurring in a cast iron mill roll. For this purpose, a piece of a broken roll, made in Italy, was collected. Its microstructure consisted of modular graphite, transformed ledeburite and a matrix composed of bainite and martensite. Metallographic investigations were performed on the roll working surface in conjunction with metallographic tests effected within its surface layer. There was established the relation between the microstructure of the roll and the process of its tribological wear. The following was ascertained: micro-shrinkages or graphite precipitations nearby the working area cause cracks between those places and the working area; in the surface layer, cracks occur usually in the zone of ledeburitic cementite. At places of considerable precipitations of ledeburitic cementite, the tribological wear intensity of the roll is lower. A banded layout of precipitations of ledeburitic cementite facilitates a selective spalling of some parts of the roll material. The results of this study allow broadening the data base related to the effect of the microstructure on tribological wear of mill rolls, which in future will permit one to design their proper microstructure of cast iron mill rolls.

  7. CCDC 1441886: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : (5,12-dimethyldibenzo[c,pqr]tetraphene-7,14-diyl)bis((5-t-butylbenzene-2,1,3-triyl)bis(methylene)) tetraacetate

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Wangdong

    2016-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  8. CCDC 1024818: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : 5-(((t-Butyl(dimethyl)silyl)oxy)(diphenyl)methyl)-2-phenyl-2,5,6,7-tetrahydro-3H-pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,2,4]triazole-3-selenone

    KAUST Repository

    Vummaleti, Sai V. C.

    2015-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  9. CCDC 969738: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : catena-(hexakis(mu4-5-t-Butylisophthalato)-hexakis(mu3-isonicotinato)-(mu3-oxo)-diaqua-hydroxy-tri-chromium-hexa-zinc dimethylformamide solvate)

    KAUST Repository

    Schoedel, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  10. CCDC 1441885: Experimental Crystal Structure Determination : 5-t-butyl-2-(14-(4-t-butyl-2,6-diformylphenyl)-5,12-dimethyldibenzo[c,pqr]tetraphen-7-yl)isophthalaldehyde chloroform solvate

    KAUST Repository

    Zeng, Wangdong

    2016-01-01

    An entry from the Cambridge Structural Database, the world’s repository for small molecule crystal structures. The entry contains experimental data from a crystal diffraction study. The deposited dataset for this entry is freely available from the CCDC and typically includes 3D coordinates, cell parameters, space group, experimental conditions and quality measures.

  11. 大跨变断面隧道穿行式混凝土液压小模板衬砌台车设计方案%Design of hydraulic formwork jumbo for the lining of tunnel with large span and versatile cross sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常学峰

    2002-01-01

    三线大跨变断面隧道,不仅断面变化频繁,而且其中线向左、右偏移很不规则,这就要求衬砌台车既要解决隧道断面的变化问题,又要保证大跨整体的衬砌质量.文章所介绍的衬砌台车设计方案巧妙地利用了分解式的台车拱部结构,将大跨变断面结构、衬砌外观质量、经济技术论证与工期安排等因素处理到了最佳状态.

  12. Effect of sexual maturity and size on statolith growth of jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas in the high sea waters off Chile%性成熟和个体大小对智利外海茎柔鱼耳石生长的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈新军; 陆化杰; 刘必林; 钱卫国; 田思泉

    2010-01-01

    根据2007-2008年智利外海茎柔鱼资源调查期间采集的样本,以耳石最大宽度MW与其总长TSL之比作为表征耳石生长的指标,利用方差分析研究性成熟和个体大小对耳石生长的影响.分析认为,雌性个体的耳石MW/TSL与性腺成熟度存在相关性,性成熟度I级与Ⅲ级、Ⅱ级与Ⅲ级个体的耳石MW/TSL存在显著差异(P<0.05);而雄性个体的耳石MW/TSL与性腺成熟度无关.雌性个体的耳石MW/TSL与胴长也存在着相关性,胴长300~400 mm的个体与500~600 mm和600~700 mm、胴长400~500 mm与500~600 mm和600-700mm的雌性个体,它们耳石MW/TSL差异显著(P<0.05),胴长为400~500 mm至500~600mm的个体,其MW/TSL增加迅速,差异极显著(P<0.01).胴长350~400 mm与400~500mm、400~450 mm与450~500 mm的雄性个体,它们耳石MW/TSL也存在显著差异(P<0.05),胴长400~450 mm时的MW/TSL值为最小.研究表明,性成熟和个体大小对智利外海茎柔鱼耳石的生长有影响,但雌雄个体有差别.

  13. 秘鲁外海茎柔鱼渔场分布和水温结构的关系%Distribution of fishing ground of jumbo flying squid (Dosidicus gigas) and its relationship with structure of sea water temperature in the waters off Peru

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡振明; 陈新军; 周应祺

    2009-01-01

    分布在东南太平洋海域的茎柔鱼是重要的经济性头足类,是我国鱿钓船队的主要捕捞对象之一.研究茎柔鱼渔场分布及其与水温的水平、垂直结构等关系,是探索渔场形成机制及其规律的重要内容.本文根据2006年1-12月我国鱿钓船在秘鲁外海的渔捞记录、表温(SST)和5~180 m垂直水温等资料,用3种方法计算SST的水平梯度(Dmax,Dsquare和Dmean),用ArcGIS 9.0和Sufer8.0软件分析绘制单船平均日产量(CPUE)和SST、SST水平梯度关系的分布图、水温垂直结构分布图,分析茎柔鱼渔场分布及其与水温结构的关系.结果表明,全年中心渔场分布在80-85°W、10~17°S,SST为18~28℃,产量分布呈现明显的空间变化.其中,6-8月为全年最高产时期,其中心渔场分布在81~83°W、12~13°S,相应的SST为18~23℃.SST水平梯度与渔场分布关系密切,水平梯度Dsquare和产量的拟合度为最优(P<0.001),中心渔场相应的Dsquare为0.6-1.7℃.水温垂直结构分析认为,6-8月通常在81°W、12-13°S附近形成上升流中心,中心渔场基本位于上升流冷水团边缘81°30'~82°30'W.研究认为,该渔场因上升流而形成,主要分布在上升流引起冷水与外洋暖水的交汇区,与SST、SST水平结构、水温垂直结构关系极为密切.

  14. 个体生长对秘鲁外海茎柔鱼角质颚形态变化的影响%Effect of individual growth on beak morphometry of jumbo flying squid, Dosidicus gigas off the Peruvian Exclusive Economic Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡贯宇; 陈新军; 方舟

    2016-01-01

    为研究个体生长对茎柔鱼角质颚形态变化的影响,本研究根据2009-2014年中国鱿钓船在秘鲁外海(79°22′~84°30′W、10°00′~18°16′S)采集的茎柔鱼样本,提取出1208尾茎柔鱼的角质颚,对角质颚的12项外部形态进行测量,并利用角质颚微结构的生长纹来估算茎柔鱼的日龄,采用方差分析法(ANOVA)分析了不同胴长组、不同日龄组以及不同性成熟阶段角质颚主要外部形态特征的差异.结果表明,角质颚各形态参数在雌、雄个体间的差异性极显著(P<0.01),且雌性个体的角质颚大于雄性个体.最小显著差多重比较法(LSD)结果显示,在不同胴长组、不同日龄组和不同性成熟阶段,雌、雄个体角质颚的生长存在差异,相同性别个体角质颚不同部位的生长也不同;在胴长大于400 mm、雌性个体大于300日龄、雄性个体大于250日龄以及性腺成熟度在Ⅲ期以后时,角质颚的生长较为缓慢.研究表明,个体大小、日龄和性成熟对茎柔鱼角质颚的形态变化有一定的影响.

  15. 秘鲁外海茎柔鱼渔场分布与表温及表温距平值关系的初步探讨%DISTRIBUTION OF FISHING GROUND OF JUMBO FLYING SQUID (DOSIDICUS GIGAS) AND ITS RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SST AND SSTA IN THE WATERS OFF PERU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡振明; 陈新军

    2008-01-01

    根据2006年6~11月我国远洋船队秘鲁茎柔鱼生产统计及其表温(SST)、表温距平值(SSTA)数据,利用GIS软件ArcGIS9.0,对各月平均日产量(CPUE)和SST、SSTA关系的分布图进行绘制并分析,计算作业渔场重心.结果表明,6~8月的产量和CPUE比其他月份高.6~11月作业渔场在80°W~85°W,10°S~15°S,渔场重心在81°W~84°W,11°S~14°S.产量主要集中在12°~14°S海域,约占年总产量的72.72%,与2004-2005年有较大差异.6月作业渔场的SST为21~23℃,7、8月分别为19~21℃和18~20℃,9~11月为18~21℃.6月作业渔场的SSTA为0.1~0.2℃,7、8月分别为0.5~0.7℃,9~11月分别为0.2~0.6℃、1.0~1.4℃和0.4~0.7℃.研究认为,茎柔鱼渔场分布与SST、SSTA关系密切,可作为寻找中心渔场的海洋环境指标.

  16. Observation of reproductive system and gonad development of male jumbo flying squid Dosidicus gigas in south-east Pacific Ocean%东南太平洋茎柔鱼雄性生殖系统的解剖与性腺发育的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许泓民; 陈新军; 管卫兵

    2013-01-01

    采用解剖学和组织切片技术对东南太平洋茎柔鱼Dosidicus gigas雄性生殖系统进行观察.结果表明:茎柔鱼雄性生殖系统由精巢、输精管、储精囊、前列腺、精荚囊、阴茎、生殖孔等组成,其中精巢由众多精小叶组成,精小叶间彼此紧密相连,精小叶中分布着各种不同发育阶段的生殖细胞,生殖细胞在精小叶中由外向内发育,成熟精子分布在精小叶中央(小叶腔),通过小叶腔把精子输送至精荚;茎柔鱼雄性性腺发育分为5个时期,Ⅰ、Ⅱ为未成熟期,Ⅲ、Ⅳ、Ⅴ为成熟期,茎柔鱼雄性性腺为不同步发育,性腺发育成熟后仍存在早期阶段的生殖细胞.研究表明,用传统的肉眼判别方法与组织切片判别方法得出的茎柔鱼雄性性腺发育期结果存在一定差异,其差异主要体现在性腺发育的未成熟时期.

  17. 萝峰隧道三臂凿岩台车与手持式凿岩机钻爆法掘进施工技术比较%Technology Comparison Between Tri-arm Rock Drilling Jumbo and Hand Rock Breaker Used in Drilling and Blasting Construction of Luofeng Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴连雄; 张兴来

    2003-01-01

    较为全面地介绍了三臂凿岩台车与手持式凿岩机钻爆法掘进在萝峰隧道施工中的应用,对其在质量、投资和进度3方面的优、缺点进行了比较,提出了其各自的适用范围.

  18. [A study on feeding ecology and migration patterns of Dosidicus gigas off Peru using stable isotope analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yi; Chen, Xin-jun; Li, Yun-kai; Han, Meng-jie

    2015-09-01

    As a pelagic cephalopod and one of the main target species of Chinese distant water fishery, jumbo squids (Dosidicus gigas) play a major role in the marine ecosystems of the eastern Pacific. Understanding the feeding ecology and migration patterns of jumbo squids is of importance for better utilizing the resources. The isotopic signatures of gladius, have been proved to be a powerful tool to reveal high resolution and ontogenic variations in individual foraging strategies of squids; which is an archival tissue with no elemental turnover after formation. In this study, the growth equation of gladius proostracum was established based on the age information determined by statolith. Gladius was cut successionally by the growth curve of gladius proostracum, the stable isotopic values of the gladius profiles were determined, and the feeding ecology and migration patterns of jumbo squids during its growth process were investigated. Results showed that the jumbo squids began to migrate after 180 days of postnatal, and their trophic levels tended to decrease throughout the life span. These results demonstrated the feasibility of using continuous sampling hard tissue to study the feeding ecology and habitat transfer of jumbo squids.

  19. Famas-NewCon: A generator program for stacking in the reference case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Voogd; R. Dekker (Rommert); P.J.M. Meersmans

    1999-01-01

    textabstractThe FAMAS-Newcon project aims at developing new logistic control structures for a container terminal capable of handling jumbo container ships within 24 hours. In one of the subprojects stacking aspects is studied. This report describes a generator model in which on the basis of a global

  20. Pärnu linnavolikogule seoses erahuvialakoolide tulevikuga : avalik pöördumine

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Erahuvikoolide (Pärnu Vanalinna koolituskeskus, tantsukeskus MP-Dance, Merle Mõmmila, Jumbo, Cultor, Gabriele moe- ja tantsukool, tantsukool WAF Dance, koolituskeskus Rütmirüblik ja Eliisabeti kristlik huvikool) avalik pöördumine Pärnu linnavolikogu poole

  1. Understanding Apex Predator and Pelagic Fish Habitat Utilization in the California Current System by Integrating Animal Tracking with in situ Oceanographic Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    in Press Benoit-Bird, K. J., Gilly, W. F., Au, W. W. L. and Mate, B. 2008. Controlled and in situ target strengths of the jumbo squid Dosidicus ... gigas and identification of potential acoustic scattering sources. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., in Press. Costa, D.P. and Shaffer. S.A. 2008. Physiological

  2. Chemical and Functional Characterization of Sarcoplasmic Proteins from Giant Squid (Dosidicus gigas Mantle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Linda Lopez-Enriquez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Modification of pH and NaCl concentration changed the physicochemical properties of sarcoplasmic proteins (SP from jumbo squid mantle and consequently their functional properties. Better results of emulsifying activity index (EAI and foam capacity (FC were exhibited at pH 11 in NaCl absence due to higher solubility. But better emulsifying stability index (ESI was obtained at pH 11 in 0.5 M NaCl, while, foaming stability (FS was better at pH near to isoelectric point (pI. These results suggest that SP from jumbo squid may be a promising ingredient, whose functional properties can be manipulated by changing pH and NaCl concentration.

  3. Power marketing; Il commercio di elettricita`

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sioshansi, F.P. [Convector Consulting NA Inc., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Altman, A.M. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1998-12-01

    One of the most significant developments in the US electric power industry in recent years has been the phenomenal growth of power marketing. What was barely a blimp on the radar screen in 1992 has turned out to be a jumbo jet. This article explains what is power marketing who are power marketers, what role play these players and what will be their longer-term impact on the traditional industry. [Italiano] Lo straordinario sviluppo del commercio di elettricita` negli ultimi anni e` uno dei fenomeni piu` significativi del mercato elettrico degli Stati Uniti. Cio` che nel 1992 appariva sugli schermi radar come un piccolo dirigibile si e` trasformato in un jumbo jet. Questo articolo illustra cos`e` il commercio di elettricita`, chi sono i power marketers e che ruolo hanno, quale potra` essere l`impatto delle loro attivita` sull`industria tradizionale nel piu` lungo periodo.

  4. 24-Epibrassinolide regulates photosynthesis, antioxidant enzyme activities and proline content of Cucumis sativus under salt and/or copper stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariduddin, Q; Khalil, Radwan R A E; Mir, Bilal A; Yusuf, M; Ahmad, A

    2013-09-01

    Brassinosteroids have been extensively used to overcome various abiotic stresses. But its role in combined stress of salt and excess copper remains unexplored. Seeds of two cultivars (Rocket and Jumbo) of Cucumis sativus were grown in sand amended with copper (100 mg kg(-1)), and developed seedlings were exposed to salt stress in the form of NaCl (150 mM) at the 30-day stage of growth for 3 days. These seedlings were subsequently sprayed with 0 or 0.01 μM of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) at the 35-day stage. The plants exposed to NaCl and Cu in combination exhibited a significant decline in fresh and dry mass of plant, chlorophyll content, activities of carbonic anhydrase, net photosynthetic rate and maximum quantum yield of the PSII primary photochemistry followed by NaCl and Cu stress alone, more severely in Jumbo than in Rocket. However, the follow-up treatment with EBL to the stressed and nonstressed plant improved growth, chlorophyll content, carbonic anhydrase activity and photosynthetic efficiency, and further enhanced the activity of various antioxidant enzymes viz. catalase, peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and content of proline at the 40-day stage of growth, and the response of the hormone was more effective in Rocket than in Jumbo. The elevated level of antioxidant enzymes as well as proline could have conferred tolerance to the NaCl- and/or Cu-stressed plants resulting in improved growth, water relations and photosynthetic attributes. Furthermore, antioxidant enzyme activity and proline content were more enhanced in Rocket than in Jumbo cultivar.

  5. The central part of CMS is lowered

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    On 28 February 2007, the CMS central piece containing the magnet and weighing as much as five Jumbo jets (1920 tonnes) was gently lowered into place. Only 20 cm separated the detector, which was suspended by four huge cables, each with 55 strands and sophisticated monitoring to minimize sway and tilt, from the walls of the shaft. The entire process took about 10 hours to complete.

  6. P.S. Bond, The Clausewitz of Combat Engineering: Does Assured Mobility Follow His Principles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    highway bridges, jumbo jets or cars, are totally alien to many people. Yet as noted author and engineering professor Henry Petroski stated in his book...14 Bond - The Engineer in War, 11 15 Petroski , Henry , To Engineer is Human: The Role of Failure in...structures, but it has created pitfalls as well. In his book, To Engineer is Human, Henry Petroski called this "the misuse of computers".23 Computers can be

  7. Investigation to Study the Aerodynamic Ship Wake Turbulence Generated by a DD963 Destroyer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    115 Appendices A Run Log for Ship A9roynantc Wake Turbulenc Test - BYWT 242/243 . . . . . . . . . . . .......... 117 B Steady State...ground- plane and shedding a large powerful vortex into the flow field (which then corkscrews around like the tip vortices of a jumbo jet with flaps...identification only. Full inter- pretation of this tape requires use of the Test Run Log (Appendix A), and Table 3 presented in Appendix B. e A second edited tape

  8. Singapore Airlines to Fly A380 to Beijing Due to Olympics Demand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Customers will enjoy exhilarating sporting action,exciting moments when they fly with Singapore Airlincs during the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing.To satisfy higher demand on its flights during the of the Olympic Games,Singapore Airlines will fly the Airbus A380 super-jumbo,the world's largest passenger plane,on one of its three daily flights between Singapore and Beijing for one week in early August.

  9. MELHORAMENTO DO TOMATEIRO: II. PROCEDIMENTO DE GARDNER E EBERHART NA ANÁLISE HETERÓTICA DE CARACTERÍSTICAS MORFOAGRONÔMICAS E DA QUALIDADE DOS FRUTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMARAL JÚNIOR ANTÔNIO TEIXEIRA DO

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Cinco cultivares de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. - Ângela I.5100, Floradade, IPA-05, Jumbo AG-592 e Santa Clara - e seus p (p - 1/2 cruzamentos foram avaliados quanto a dez características morfoagronômicas e cinco relacionadas à qualidade dos frutos, pelo método de Gardner e Eberhart. Os resultados evidenciaram suficiente variabilidade entre os parentais para a maioria das características, indicando uma situação favorável à aplicação do melhoramento genético. A potencialização das características `teor de carotenóides totais' e `conteúdo de beta-caroteno' nos frutos poderá ser alcançada por meio dos intercruzamentos envolvendo os cultivares Ângela I.5100, Floradade e Jumbo AG-592, enquanto apenas a combinação Jumbo AG-592 x Ângela I.5100 revelou possibilidade de incrementos nos teores de vitamina C. Considerando-se conjuntamente as características morfoagronômicas e as relacionadas à qualidade dos frutos, conclui-se que os cultivares Ângela I.5100, Floradade e Santa Clara são os de maior potencial para compor intercruzamentos.

  10. Effects of thermal processing and various chemical substances on formaldehyde and dimethylamine formation in squid Dosidicus gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junli; Li, Jianrong; Jia, Jia

    2012-09-01

    Trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) in squid is demethylated to dimethylamine (DMA) and formaldehyde (FA) during storage and processing. This study examined the effects of thermal processing and various chemical substances on FA and DMA formation in squid. The thermal conversion of TMAO was assessed by analysing four squid and four gadoid fish species, which revealed that FA, DMA and trimethylamine (TMA) were gradually produced in squid, whereas TMA increased and FA decreased in gadoid fish. A significant increase in both FA and DMA levels was observed in the supernatant of jumbo squid with increased heating temperature and extended heating time at pH 6-7. Ferrous chloride combined with cysteine and/or ascorbate had a significantly positive effect on FA formation in the heated supernatant of jumbo squid. No significant difference was observed in the levels of Cu and Fe in squid and gadoid fish. The capability of Fe(2+) to promote the formation of FA and DMA was not completely attributable to its reducing power in squid. Non-enzymatic decomposition of TMAO was a key pathway during the thermal processing of jumbo squid, and Fe(2+) was a crucial activator in the formation of FA and DMA. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Initial growth and tolerance of melon cultivars under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erbia Bressia Gonçalves Araujo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The melon crop is normally developed in semiarid regions, where water resources are limited. This scarcity of water is a strong stressor on the crops, and requires the supplementation of existing water supplies with poor quality water, especially saline water. This can impede the growth and production of plants; however, the use of tolerant genotypes may minimize this problem. Thus, a greenhouse experiment was developed at the Federal University of Campina Grande - UFCG, Pombal Campus, Paraiba State, Brazil, in order to study the emergence, initial growth, and tolerance of melon cultivars irrigated with waters of different salt content. We studied three melon cultivars (Gaúcho Redondo, Gaúcho Casca de Carvalho and Halles Best Jumbo irrigated with five levels of saline water (0.6; 1.2; 1.8; 2.4; and 3.0 dS m-1, arranged in a 3 x 5 factorial scheme, with the treatments distributed in a randomized block design with four replications. The plants seeds were monitored for 30 days after sowing, and at 30 days the growth and salinity tolerance index was evaluated. Cultivar Halles Best Jumbo was the most tolerant to saline water during initial stage of growth, while the Gaucho Redondo was more sensitive to salinity. It was found that saline waters up to 1.8 dS m-1 were suitable for irrigation of melon plants round Gaucho and waters up to 2.4 dS m-1 could be used for irrigation of Gaucho Casca de Carvalho and Halles Best Jumbo crops during the initial growth phase.

  12. Rectal forceps biopsy procedure in cystic fibrosis: technical aspects and patients perspective for clinical trials feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servidoni, Maria F; Sousa, Marisa; Vinagre, Adriana M; Cardoso, Silvia R; Ribeiro, Maria A; Meirelles, Luciana R; de Carvalho, Rita B; Kunzelmann, Karl; Ribeiro, Antônio F; Ribeiro, José D; Amaral, Margarida D

    2013-05-20

    Measurements of CFTR function in rectal biopsies ex vivo have been used for diagnosis and prognosis of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) disease. Here, we aimed to evaluate this procedure regarding: i) viability of the rectal specimens obtained by biopsy forceps for ex vivo bioelectrical and biochemical laboratory analyses; and ii) overall assessment (comfort, invasiveness, pain, sedation requirement, etc.) of the rectal forceps biopsy procedure from the patients perspective to assess its feasibility as an outcome measure in clinical trials. We compared three bowel preparation solutions (NaCl 0.9%, glycerol 12%, mannitol), and two biopsy forceps (standard and jumbo) in 580 rectal specimens from 132 individuals (CF and non-CF). Assessment of the overall rectal biopsy procedure (obtained by biopsy forceps) by patients was carried out by telephone surveys to 75 individuals who underwent the sigmoidoscopy procedure. Integrity and friability of the tissue specimens correlate with their transepithelial resistance (r = -0.438 and -0.305, respectively) and are influenced by the bowel preparation solution and biopsy forceps used, being NaCl and jumbo forceps the most compatible methods with the electrophysiological analysis. The great majority of the individuals (76%) did not report major discomfort due to the short procedure time (max 15 min) and considered it relatively painless (79%). Importantly, most (88%) accept repeating it at least for one more time and 53% for more than 4 times. Obtaining rectal biopsies with a flexible endoscope and jumbo forceps after bowel preparation with NaCl solution is a safe procedure that can be adopted for both adults and children of any age, yielding viable specimens for CFTR bioelectrical/biochemical analyses. The procedure is well tolerated by patients, demonstrating its feasibility as an outcome measure in clinical trials.

  13. Growth evaluation of Lentinula edodes in solid medium cultures for mycelium production as inoculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Villegas E Valeska

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Shitake (Lentinula edodes Pegler jumbo strain growth was evaluated in different solid mediums and growth substrates for spawn production. Mycelium growth was tested in three culture mediums (MYA, OMYA, PDYA at two pHs (5, 5.5, using two eucalyptus sawdust percentages (0.3%, 0.2%. Analysing variance revealed significant differences in culture medium (P0.05. The liquid inoculation technique was used for evaluating mushroom spawn production using five different combinations of eucalyptus sawdust and wheat grain, finding significant differences between treatments, the best combination for shiitake growth being 80% wheat grain and 20% eucalyptus sawdust.

  14. Effect of reinforcement probability and prize size on cocaine and heroin abstinence in prize-based contingency management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghitza, Udi E; Epstein, David H; Schmittner, John; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Lin, Jia-Ling; Preston, Kenzie L

    2008-01-01

    Although treatment outcome in prize-based contingency management has been shown to depend on reinforcement schedule, the optimal schedule is still unknown. Therefore, we conducted a retrospective analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial (Ghitza et al., 2007) to determine the effects of the probability of winning a prize (low vs. high) and the size of the prize won (small, large, or jumbo) on likelihood of abstinence until the next urine-collection day for heroin and cocaine users (N=116) in methadone maintenance. Higher probability of winning, but not the size of individual prizes, was associated with a greater percentage of cocaine-negative, but not opiate-negative, urines.

  15. Electric Propulsion of a Different Class: The Challenges of Testing for MegaWatt Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ALTA , Italy, IV1047 20 ft diameter, 33 ft long 710,000 1.96E-04 Dry, oil free: scroll, turbo and cryopumps JUMBO, Giessen, Germany48 10 ft...2) a high-power testing phase at NASA GRC’s VF5. Table 2 below summarizes the power ranges for each of the test campaigns: Table 2. X3 Test Plan ...Facility Power Range PEPL LVTF 2-65 kW GRC VF5 2-200 kW The logic underlying the test plan is based on a stepped approach to testing the highest

  16. Netting and conventional tagging used to study movements of ringed seals (Phoca hispida in Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn O Kapel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Seven studies of netting and tagging of ringed seals (Phoca hispida in Greenland 1976-1997 are described. The areas of operation were: northern part of the Upernavik area (Northwest Greenland, Kong Oscars Fjord (Northeast Greenland, and Avanersuaq (Thule, North Greenland. Altogether, 135 seals were caught, of which 99 were tagged and released with Dalton Jumbo rototags. Recapture of 38 tagged seals has been reported to date. The recaptures demonstrate movements of ringed seals in Greenland of more than 100km within districts, as well as long-distance movementsof more than 1000km from the site of release.

  17. Relativity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Stannard, F Russell

    2008-01-01

    Relativity: A Very Short Introduction makes the theory of relativity understandable and accessible. 100 years ago, Einstein's theory of relativity shattered the world of physics. Our comforting Newtonian ideas of space and time were replaced by bizarre and counterintuitive conclusions: if you move at high speed, time slows down, space squashes up and you get heavier; travel fast enough and you could weigh as much as a jumbo jet, be squashed thinner than a CD without feeling a thing - and live forever. And that was just the special theory. With the general theory came even stranger ideas of curved space-time, which changed our understanding of gravity and the cosmos.

  18. Inferências genéticas na produção e qualidade de tomateiro sob cruzamento dialélico Genetic inferences on yield and quality of tomato in a diallel cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Teixeira do Amaral Júnior

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Inferências genéticas sobre o desempenho de cinco cultivares de tomateiro (Ângela I.5100, Floradade, IPA-05, Jumbo AG-592 e Santa Clara e seus p(p -1/2 híbridos dialélicos foram obtidas com base em três características de produção e quatro características relacionadas à qualidade dos frutos, empregando-se a metodologia de Hayman (1954. Os resultados evidenciaram a possibilidade de ganhos genéticos relativos às características de produção. O mesmo não ocorreu com os teores de sólidos solúveis, carotenóides totais e betacaroteno. Isto denota a reduzida variabilidade nas características da qualidade dos frutos avaliados.Genetic inferences on the performance of five tomato cultivars (Ângela I.5100, Floradade, IPA-05, Jumbo AG-592 and Santa Clara and their p(p - 1/2 hybrids for production characteristics and fruit quality were obtained through Hayman's methodology (1954. The results showed a favorable situation for breeding to production characteristics, but not for content of soluble solids, total carotenoids, and content of betacarotene. The data evidenced low variability in the cultivars studied.

  19. 35 years of drilling technology in the drivage of roadways and tunnels; 35 Jahre Bohrtechnik im Strecken- und Tunnelvortrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wennmohs, Karl-Heinz [Atlas Copco MCT GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    The period of 35 years in the development of drilling technology in roadway and tunnel drivage was characterised by the developments in hydraulic hammer drill technology. This is clearly illustrated by the comparison of the percussive power of 8 to 10 kW in the 1970's with 30 kW in 2011. This trend is also underlined by the increase in the gross drilling rates of the drilling jumbos. Further development has been virtually overlooked on the supported pneumatic hammer drills, which are still widely used all over the world. The hammer drills used 35 years ago are still being built with a virtually unchanged technology. However the hydraulic hammer drills and the carrier components will undergo further development. In the next few years the maximum percussive power will exceed a further threshold, which is currently 40 kW. The use of powerfull computer systems permits further increases in the automation, precision and speed also on drilling jumbos. This opens up new possibilities in the interlinking of drilling and blasting technology as a system module of conventional tunnel drivage. (orig.)

  20. Cleanup Summary Report for the Defense Threat Reduction Agency Fiscal Year 2007, Task 6.7, U12u-Tunnel (Legacy Site), Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-04-28

    This letter serves as notice of completion for cleanup of the U12u-Tunnel (Legacy Site) as specified in the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) Fiscal Year 2007 Statement of Work, Task 6.7. The U12u-Tunnel Legacy Site is located near the intersection of the U12u-Tunnel access road and the U12n-Tunnel access road in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site (see Figure 1). The site encompasses 1.2 acres and was used to store miscellaneous mining equipment and materials that were used to support DTRA testing in Area 12. Field activities commenced February 11, 2008, and were completed February 20, 2008. Radiological surveys were performed on a drill jumbo and all material stored at the site. The drill jumbo was relocated to U12p-Tunnel portal and consolidated with other critical mining equipment for future use or storage. Ten truck loads of solid waste (53 tons) were shipped to the Nevada Test Site, Area 9 U10c Sanitary Landfill for disposal. No hazardous or radiological waste was generated at this site.

  1. Perforación automática de galerías y técnica de sostenimiento suspendido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vié, G.

    1969-09-01

    Full Text Available A description is given of the automatic, electronically controlled, operation of «jumbos», which carry out all drilling operations without human labour. This equipment, which has been recently adopted in the hydroelectric and iron mining projects in eastern France, is highly advantageous. Its ease of operation is especially significant in drilling operations where no internal supports or formwork is used, i.e., when the system adopted is that of internal support by means of anchorage bolts and synthetic resins.Se hace la descripción del funcionamiento de «jumbos» automáticos con mando electrónico, que efectúan todas las operaciones de perforación sin intervención de la mano de obra humana. Estos aparatos, recientemente adoptados en instalaciones hidroeléctricas y minas de hierro del E. de Francia, reportan grandes ventajas, acrecentándose su facilidad de maniobra para perforaciones y carga de escombros cuando no existen entibaciones ni puntales, es decir, cuando se emplea la técnica del sostenimiento suspendido mediante pernos, anclajes y resinas sintéticas.

  2. Biomagnification of mercury and its antagonistic interaction with selenium in yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacares in the trophic web of Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordiano-Flores, Alfredo; Rosíles-Martínez, Rene; Galván-Magaña, Felipe

    2012-12-01

    Mercury and selenium concentrations were determined in muscle of 37 yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) captured aboard of Mexican purse-seiners boats off western coast of Baja California Sur, between Punta Eugenia and Cabo Falso, from October to December 2006. Also, its prey (mainly, jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas and pelagic red crab Pleuroncodes planipes) were analyzed from the stomach contents. All the mercury values obtained were lower that mercury content recommended by standard legal limits for seafood adopted by Mexican norms (typically 0.5-1.0μg g(-1)). Mercury concentrations vary between 0.06 and 0.51μg g(-1) in yellowfin tuna, and from 0.01 to 0.20μg g(-1) in its prey, suggesting that mercury can accumulate in prey tissues and that of their predator. Biomagnification factors (BMF) between predator-prey associations were calculated. The BMFs were >1, indicating that mercury biomagnifies along the food web of yellowfin tuna. In all species studied there was a molar excess of selenium over mercury. The rank order of mean selenium/mercury molar ratios was for pufferfish (42.62)> diamond squid (15.09)>yellowfin tuna (10.29)>pelagic red crab (10.05)>panama lightfish (9.54)> jumbo squid (8.91). The selenium health benefit value (Se-HBV) was calculated to have an improved understanding of the health benefits and risk of fish consumption.

  3. Isolation of Ralstonia solanacearum-infecting bacteriophages from tomato fields in Chiang Mai, Thailand, and their experimental use as biocontrol agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunchoth, A; Phironrit, N; Leksomboon, C; Chatchawankanphanich, O; Kotera, S; Narulita, E; Kawasaki, T; Fujie, M; Yamada, T

    2015-04-01

    To isolate and characterize novel bacteriophages infecting the phytopathogen, Ralstonia solanacearum, and to evaluate them as resources with potential uses in the biocontrol of bacterial wilt. Fourteen phages infecting R. solanacearum were isolated from soil samples collected in Chiang Mai, Thailand. The phages showed different host ranges when tested against 59 R. solanacearum strains isolated from Thailand and Japan. These phages were characterized as nine podoviruses and five myoviruses based on their morphology. Podovirus J2 in combination with another podovirus (φRSB2) lysed host cells very efficiently in contaminated soil. J2 treatment prevented wilting of tomato plants infected with a highly virulent R. solanacearum strain. Treatment with J2 effectively reduced the amount of the bacterial wilt pathogen in contaminated soil and prevented bacterial wilt of tomato in pot experiments. Myovirus J6 possessed jumbo phage features, giving a unique opportunity to study its utilization as a biocontrol agent. As exemplified by J2, the phages isolated in this study represent valuable resources with potential uses in biocontrol of bacterial wilt. A rare jumbo phage J6 served as a valuable subject to understand and utilize this new group of phages. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. 三万方级巨型耙吸船在我国的发展前景%Developing Prospect of 30000m3 TSHD in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯晓明; 朱荣

    2012-01-01

    跨入世纪之交,随着疏浚技术、社会环境的发展变化,疏浚理念已发生重大变化:疏浚领域的范围大大拓宽,临港工业、人居工程等大型疏浚项目此起彼伏,市场重心也明显移向亚洲.为应对日益激烈的国际市场竞争,国外四大疏浚集团不失时机地造就了一大批大型、超大型高效疏浚装备,国内有识之士呼吁:自主研制超大型耙吸挖泥船刻不容缓.%With the development of dredging technologies and social environment at the turn of the century, the dredging concept has undergone great changes. The scope of the dredging field has been greatly broadened. Large-scale dredging projects of port industry and habitation have emerged all around the world. And the center of the dredging market has shifted to Asia. To deal with the increasingly severe market competition, the big-four foreign dredging groups have seized the chance to build a lot of large and jumbo efficient dredging equipment. Professionals of insight urge that the independent development of jumbo TSHD allows no delay.

  5. An Application-Based Performance Evaluation of NASAs Nebula Cloud Computing Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Subhash; Heistand, Steve; Jin, Haoqiang; Chang, Johnny; Hood, Robert T.; Mehrotra, Piyush; Biswas, Rupak

    2012-01-01

    The high performance computing (HPC) community has shown tremendous interest in exploring cloud computing as it promises high potential. In this paper, we examine the feasibility, performance, and scalability of production quality scientific and engineering applications of interest to NASA on NASA's cloud computing platform, called Nebula, hosted at Ames Research Center. This work represents the comprehensive evaluation of Nebula using NUTTCP, HPCC, NPB, I/O, and MPI function benchmarks as well as four applications representative of the NASA HPC workload. Specifically, we compare Nebula performance on some of these benchmarks and applications to that of NASA s Pleiades supercomputer, a traditional HPC system. We also investigate the impact of virtIO and jumbo frames on interconnect performance. Overall results indicate that on Nebula (i) virtIO and jumbo frames improve network bandwidth by a factor of 5x, (ii) there is a significant virtualization layer overhead of about 10% to 25%, (iii) write performance is lower by a factor of 25x, (iv) latency for short MPI messages is very high, and (v) overall performance is 15% to 48% lower than that on Pleiades for NASA HPC applications. We also comment on the usability of the cloud platform.

  6. Performance Evaluation of Button Bits in Coal Measure Rocks by Using Multiple Regression Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Okan

    2016-02-01

    Electro-hydraulic and jumbo drills are commonly used for underground coal mines and tunnel drives for the purpose of blasthole drilling and rock bolt installations. Not only machine parameters but also environmental conditions have significant effects on drilling. This study characterizes the performance of button bits during blasthole drilling in coal measure rocks by using multiple regression analyses. The penetration rate of jumbo and electro-hydraulic drills was measured in the field by employing bits in different diameters and the specific energy of the drilling was calculated at various locations, including highway tunnels and underground roadways of coal mines. Large block samples were collected from each location at which in situ drilling measurements were performed. Then, the effects of rock properties and machine parameters on the drilling performance were examined. Multiple regression models were developed for the prediction of the specific energy of the drilling and the penetration rate. The results revealed that hole area, impact (blow) energy, blows per minute of the piston within the drill, and some rock properties, such as the uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) and the drilling rate index (DRI), influence the drill performance.

  7. Prevalence of Preventable Causes of Low Vision in Different Ages and Genders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Akhgary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Much of the vision loss from age-related eye disease can be prevented. The purpose of this study is to determine 5Tthe prevalence5T 5Tof preventable5T 5Tcauses5T 5Tof low5T 5Tvision. Materials and Methods: In this study, files of 204 patients were evaluated5T.5T Low vision was defined as best-corrected visual acuity in the better eye between 20/70 to 20/200. Diagnosis of anterior and posterior segment disease was based on the eye examination that performed with Topcon slit-lamp biomicroscope and direct and indirect ophthalmoscope examination7T. Results: The prevalence of 5Tpreventable5T 5Tcauses of5T 5Tlow 5Twas respectively:5T diabetic retinopathy,5T 5Tin 335T 5Tpatients (5T16.18%, 5Tglaucoma 5Tin 6 5Tpatients (5T2.94%, 5Tand amblyopia5T in 5T2 patients (1%5T. Conclusion: The majority of cases have treatable and/or preventable causes; reduction of low vision or blindness can be achieved by appropriate screening strategies.

  8. Métodos modernos de excavación de galerías y túneles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vié, Georges

    1967-07-01

    Full Text Available The outstanding progress in recent years in the field of public works is basically due to the massive use of machinery at any working site. An obvious example is that of underground excavation, where the progressive use of more advanced machinery has made it possible to attain exceptional performances and reductions in cost. Among the equipment items that have been recently introduced mention should be made of the Jumbos, which are selfpropelled mobile devices, and serve as supporting platforms for the drilling hammers. As the operators are no longer obliged to handle directly the drilling machines, these can now be made much heavier and can attain much higher drilling rates. These devices have a number of features that are directly related to the nature of the work and the cross section to be excavated, but their general design is common to all of them. This article describes some variants of these Jumbos, which have been successfully employed at various working sites in France.El avance extraordinario registrado en los últimos años en el campo de las obras públicas se debe, fundamentalmente, al empleo masivo de maquinaria auxiliar en cualquier tajo de una obra. Como muestra evidente tenemos el ejemplo de las excavaciones subterráneas, en las que la adopción progresiva de elementos auxiliares ha permitido rendimientos y economías insospechados. Entre los elementos auxiliares de reciente introducción figuran los JUMBOS, aparatos móviles autopropulsados, o no, que sirven de soporte a los martillos perforadores. Al no exigir del obrero un esfuerzo físico directo, se ha podido llegar a pesos notables en los martillos, con velocidades de perforación elevadas. Estas máquinas presentan una serie de características directamente relacionadas con la naturaleza de la obra y la forma de la sección a excavar, pero sus características esenciales son siempre las mismas. El presente artículo describe algunas variantes de estas máquinas, que se

  9. 基于外部形态特征的东南太平洋茎柔鱼种群结构研究%POPULATION STRUCTURE OF DOSIDICUS GIGAS BASED ON THE MORPHOLOGCIAL ANALYSIS IN THE SOUTHEASTERN PACIFIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易倩; 陈新军; 贾涛; 刘必林

    2012-01-01

    茎柔鱼是大洋性重要经济头足类,分布范围广泛,种群结构复杂.本文根据2008年5月~2009年10月对智利、秘鲁2个海区采集的茎柔鱼生物学样本,利用胴宽、鳍长、触腕长等11个外部形态指标与胴长之比,分析东南太平洋茎柔鱼种群结构组成及其差异,并建立相应的判别函数.研究认为,采集的渔获物样本中,初步可分为大型和小型2个种群.2个海区间大型群和小型群的外部形态特征差异显著,2个海区利用外部形态特征对种群判别正确率均在60%以上.研究认为,研究认为,外部形态特征可作为划分茎柔鱼种群结构的有效方法之一.%The jumbo flying squid (Dosidicus gigas) is one of the important economic cepha-lopods, and the range of distribution is wide and the population structure is complex. According to the biological samples which caught in waters off Chile and Peru from May in 2008 to October in 2009 by Chinese squid flying fleets, the population structure of the jumbo flying squid in the southeastern Pacific was studied on the basis of the external morphology characteristics of the sampled squid. It was found that the sampled squid in the southeastern Pacific were mainly Large group and Small group. There was significantly different for both the large group and small group between the waters off Chile and Peru. It is found that the i-dentification accuracy of these populations were over 60% on the basis of the established i-dentifying equations. This finding suggested that population structure of the jumbo flying squid could be identified by using of used morphological analysis.

  10. Would Aluminum and Nickel Content of Apricot Pose Health Risk to Human?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamhossein DAVARYNEJAD

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Higher demands of food production for human consumption increased uses of fertilizers and other chemicals that arise in a major public problem and heavy-metal pollution. Levels of Aluminum and Nickel which affect mankind health in exact doses, were determined in fresh and dried samples of Jumbo Cot, Tom Cot, Gold Strike, Gold Bar, Bergeron, Bergarouge, Sweet Cot, Yellow cot and Zebra apricot cultivars to assess possible health risk of apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. consumption. Highest content of Al and Ni among all cultivars, where 9.71 and 2.14 mg/kg of dehydrated apricot samples. Fresh fruit samples maximally contain 2.9 and 0.425 mg/kg of Aluminum and Nickel respectively. Data analysis showed significant differences between cultivars for Al and Ni. Furthermore, to reveal the health-risk possibility of dried and fresh fruit consumption daily intake of elements and health-risk index were calculated and compared.

  11. The genetics of resistance to powdery mildew in cultivated oats (Avena sativa L.): current status of major genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsam, Sai L K; Mohler, Volker; Zeller, Friedrich J

    2014-05-01

    The genetics of resistance to powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. avenae of four cultivated oats was studied using monosomic analysis. Cultivar 'Bruno' carries a gene (Pm6) that shows a recessive mode of inheritance and is located on chromosome 10D. Cultivar 'Jumbo' possesses a dominant resistance gene (Pm1) on chromosome 1C. In cultivar 'Rollo', in addition to the gene Pm3 on chromosome 17A, a second dominant resistance gene (Pm8) was identified and assigned to chromosome 4C. In breeding line APR 122, resistance was conditioned by a dominant resistance gene (Pm7) that was allocated to chromosome 13A. Genetic maps established for resistance genes Pm1, Pm6 and Pm7 employing amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers indicated that these genes are independent of each other, supporting the results from monosomic analysis.

  12. Sinking blind shaft G272 at the West colliery of RAG by means of an innovative sinking technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenmans, Karl-Heinz [RAG Aktiengesellschaft, Kamp-Lintfort (Germany). West Colliery; Reith, Dietmar [Induberg Produktionsgesellschaft GmbH, Ahlen (Germany)

    2008-08-21

    With the shaft jumbo an innovative sinking technology is being used for the first time in the German coal mining industry. The drilling equipment originating from French shaft sinking was modified to meet the requirements of operation at the West colliery. The equipment is to be used to drill the shot holes and bolt holes for sinking a 535 m blind shaft. The first 50 m have already been sunk, and provides an opportunity to report on the experience so far acquired and describe the further procedure. The work on the site was considerably exacerbated by the inflow of large quantities of water, the impact of which was increased by the upward ventilation in the advance borehole. The new shaft is highly important in the development of the reserves in the Girondelle 5 seam. The specialist mining company Induberg was qualified for this task not least of all because of its references in the field of drivage of mine workings. (orig.)

  13. Time Domain Simulation of Transient Responses of Very Large Floating Structures Under Unsteady External Loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Liu-chao; LIU Hua

    2005-01-01

    A time domain finite element method (FEM) for the analysis of transient elastic response of a very large floating structure (VLFS) subjected to arbitrary time-dependent external loads is presented. This method is developed directly in time domain and the hydrodynamic problem is formulated based on linear, inviscid and slightly compressible fluid theory and the structural response is analyzed on the thin plate assumption. The time domain finite element procedure herein is validated by comparing numerical results with available experimental data. Finally, the transient elastic response of a pontoon-type VLFS under the landing of an airplane is computed by the proposed time domain FEM. The time histories of the applied force and the position and velocity of an airplane during landing are modeled with data from a Boeing 747-400 jumbo jet.

  14. Perforación de túneles de grande y pequeña sección

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vié, Georges

    1968-05-01

    Full Text Available French engineers have designed and made the necessary machinery and equipment to develop a roadway network of the best possible quality and efficiency. The effectiveness of this machinery has been tested in the extension of the «Flowers Motor Road», which runs from the Italian frontier to Nice. Tunnel drilling equipment is of the «jumbo» type, and the size and power of these machines varies with the cross section of the tunnels to be excavated and the nature of the rock. Working conditions may make it necessary to adopt rotary drilling, the use of explosives, or percussion techniques. Whenever possible, it is preferable to make use of the first method. Jumbos derive their power from an auxiliary hydro electric power station. They are easy to handle, and two or three men are an adequate working crew. The machinery can be adapted to severe inclinations. Along other sections of the Canal de Provence it has been possible to collect water in the conduits to alleviate the lack of water that is suffered along this coastal region, since the tunnels have cut through considerable underground water currents, which have provided new permanent sources of water.Los ingenieros franceses han estudiado y preparado las máquinas necesarias para conseguir una red de autopistas que reúna las mejores condiciones. El funcionamiento y rendimiento de estas máquinas se ha experimentado en la prolongación de la «Autopista de las Flores» italiana y que va desde la frontera hasta cerca de Niza. Las máquinas empleadas en la perforación de túneles son del tipo Jumbo, y su tamaño y potencia varía con la sección del túnel a excavar y la naturaleza de la roca. Las condiciones de la obra también pueden obligar a una perforación rotatoria, con colocación de barrenos, o por percusión. Siempre que se pueda, es preferible emplear el primer método. Los jumbos reciben la energía necesaria por medio de una central hidráulica (de compresión de aceite auxiliar. Su

  15. Résistance matérielle

    OpenAIRE

    Lähdeoja, Otso

    2010-01-01

    Je suis Hasse Poulsen, je suis guitariste. On peut dire que je joue du jazz… du jazz contemporain. Une musique basée sur l’improvisation, je suis aussi compositeur. Comment approches-tu la guitare ? Hasse Poulsen : Je joue une guitare qui est à la fois acoustique et électrique, une guitare acoustique amplifiée. Précisément c’est une Guild jumbo F-50, achetée en 1991. Quand j’avais 22 ans, je faisais partie d’un groupe de salsa, il y avait un autre guitariste qui jouait de la guitare flamenco....

  16. Metabolic physiology of the Humboldt squid, Dosidicus gigas: Implications for vertical migration in a pronounced oxygen minimum zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rui; Seibel, Brad A.

    2010-07-01

    The Humboldt (or jumbo) squid, Dosidicus gigas, is an active predator endemic to the Eastern Pacific that undergoes diel vertical migrations into a pronounced oxygen minimum layer (OML). Here, we investigate the physiological mechanisms that facilitate these migrations and assess the associated costs and benefits. Exposure to hypoxic conditions equivalent to those found in the OML (∼10 μM O 2 at 10 °C) led to a significant reduction in the squid’s routine metabolic rate (RMR), from 8.9 to 1.6 μmol O 2 g -1 h -1 ( p gigas may repay any oxygen debt accumulated during the daytime. The dive to deeper water may minimize exposure to stressful surface temperatures when most prey have migrated to depth during the daytime. The physiological and ecological strategies demonstrated here may have facilitated the recent range expansion of this species into northern waters where expanding hypoxic zones prohibit competing top predators.

  17. Infiltration of chitin by protein coacervates defines the squid beak mechanical gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, YerPeng; Hoon, Shawn; Guerette, Paul A; Wei, Wei; Ghadban, Ali; Hao, Cai; Miserez, Ali; Waite, J Herbert

    2015-07-01

    The beak of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas is a fascinating example of how seamlessly nature builds with mechanically mismatched materials. A 200-fold stiffness gradient begins in the hydrated chitin of the soft beak base and gradually increases to maximum stiffness in the dehydrated distal rostrum. Here, we combined RNA-Seq and proteomics to show that the beak contains two protein families. One family consists of chitin-binding proteins (DgCBPs) that physically join chitin chains, whereas the other family comprises highly modular histidine-rich proteins (DgHBPs). We propose that DgHBPs play multiple key roles during beak bioprocessing, first by forming concentrated coacervate solutions that diffuse into the DgCBP-chitin scaffold, and second by inducing crosslinking via an abundant GHG sequence motif. These processes generate spatially controlled desolvation, resulting in the impressive biomechanical gradient. Our findings provide novel molecular-scale strategies for designing functional gradient materials.

  18. Feeding of blue marlin Makaira nigricans off Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico Alimentación del marlin azul Makaira nigricans del área de Mazatlán, Sinaloa, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Abitia-Cárdenas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed the stomach contents of 52 blue marlins caught between October 2002 and October 2004 by the sport-fishing fleet of Mazatlan, Sinaloa, in the gulf of California, Mexico. Blue marlin feed on 15 food items. According to the index of relative importance (IRI, the most important prey were the frigate or bullet mackerel Auxis spp. (52% and jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (30%.Se analiza el contenido estomacal de 52 marlines azules capturados por la flota de pesca deportiva que operó en el área de Mazatlan, Sinaloa, en el golfo de California, México, durante el periodo octubre 2002 a octubre 2004. El marlin azul se alimenta de 15 categorías alimenticias (ítemes, de las cuales las más importantes de acuerdo al índice de importancia relativa (IRI, fueron el pez melva Auxis spp. (52% y el calamar gigante Dosidicus gigas (30%.

  19. Marine nekton off Oregon and the 1997 98 El Nino

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearcy, W. G.

    2002-09-01

    Several species of migratory, warm-water, oceanic fishes invaded Oregon waters during the summer of 1997. Also, the jumbo squid ( Dosidicus gigas), common in the eastern tropical Pacific, was reported for the first time in 1997 and was caught in large numbers. The occurrence of these oceanic nekton was associated with inshore advection of anomalously warm water. During 1998, after arrival of the main El Niño signal, some warm-water coastal fishes appeared off Oregon. However, unlike observations off California, fewer species of warm-water coastal fishes were noted during the 1997-98 El Niño than during the 1982-83 El Niño.

  20. Effect of Bovine Plasma Protein on Autolysis and Gelation of Protein Extracted from Giant Squid (Dosidicus gigas Mantle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Raquel Marquez-Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of bovine plasma protein (BPP on the inhibition of autolytic activity and its effect on the gelling properties of a protein concentrate (PC obtained from jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas mantle were investigated. Sols and gels were prepared from the PC by adding different amounts of BPP (0, 1, and 2%. Dynamic oscillatory measurements indicated that systems with 1% BPP had a higher elastic modulus (G′, in which hydrophobic interactions were favored. Concerning the technological and textural quality of the gels, BPP caused a greater water holding capacity (WHC, force, cohesiveness, and elasticity, probably due to improvement of the electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions during gel formation. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM allowed visualization of the formation of more rigid and ordered gels with less porosity when BPP was added. Therefore, the addition of BPP improved the gelling capacity of proteins extracted from giant squid.

  1. Combined climate- and prey-mediated range expansion of Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas), a large marine predator in the California Current System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Julia S; Hazen, Elliott L; Bograd, Steven J; Byrnes, Jarrett E K; Foley, David G; Gilly, William F; Robison, Bruce H; Field, John C

    2014-06-01

    Climate-driven range shifts are ongoing in pelagic marine environments, and ecosystems must respond to combined effects of altered species distributions and environmental drivers. Hypoxic oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in midwater environments are shoaling globally; this can affect distributions of species both geographically and vertically along with predator-prey dynamics. Humboldt (jumbo) squid (Dosidicus gigas) are highly migratory predators adapted to hypoxic conditions that may be deleterious to their competitors and predators. Consequently, OMZ shoaling may preferentially facilitate foraging opportunities for Humboldt squid. With two separate modeling approaches using unique, long-term data based on in situ observations of predator, prey, and environmental variables, our analyses suggest that Humboldt squid are indirectly affected by OMZ shoaling through effects on a primary food source, myctophid fishes. Our results suggest that this indirect linkage between hypoxia and foraging is an important driver of the ongoing range expansion of Humboldt squid in the northeastern Pacific Ocean.

  2. Phages Preying on Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus thuringiensis: Past, Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Gillis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Many bacteriophages (phages have been widely studied due to their major role in virulence evolution of bacterial pathogens. However, less attention has been paid to phages preying on bacteria from the Bacillus cereus group and their contribution to the bacterial genetic pool has been disregarded. Therefore, this review brings together the main information for the B. cereus group phages, from their discovery to their modern biotechnological applications. A special focus is given to phages infecting Bacillus anthracis, B. cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis. These phages belong to the Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae and Tectiviridae families. For the sake of clarity, several phage categories have been made according to significant characteristics such as lifestyles and lysogenic states. The main categories comprise the transducing phages, phages with a chromosomal or plasmidial prophage state, γ-like phages and jumbo-phages. The current genomic characterization of some of these phages is also addressed throughout this work and some promising applications are discussed here.

  3. Engineering systems reliability, safety, and maintenance an integrated approach

    CERN Document Server

    Dhillon, B S

    2017-01-01

    Today, engineering systems are an important element of the world economy and each year billions of dollars are spent to develop, manufacture, operate, and maintain various types of engineering systems around the globe. Many of these systems are highly sophisticated and contain millions of parts. For example, a Boeing jumbo 747 is made up of approximately 4.5 million parts including fasteners. Needless to say, reliability, safety, and maintenance of systems such as this have become more important than ever before.  Global competition and other factors are forcing manufacturers to produce highly reliable, safe, and maintainable engineering products. Therefore, there is a definite need for the reliability, safety, and maintenance professionals to work closely during design and other phases. Engineering Systems Reliability, Safety, and Maintenance: An Integrated Approach eliminates the need to consult many different and diverse sources in the hunt for the information required to design better engineering syste...

  4. Gas cogeneration system in Sapporo Therme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanematsu, Michihiko

    1988-06-01

    Sapporo Therme is a multi-purpose resort including a hot-water jumbo swimming pool having an area of about 130,000m/sup 2/ and a circumference of 800 m, 13 additional swimming pools with additional sizes, a hot-water slider, 16 types of saunas, an artificial sunbathing system, an athletic system, a restaurant, a cinema, tennis courts, and other outdoor facilities. Sapporo Therme uses a cogeneration system consisting of using LP gas(95% or more propane gas) to drive a 1,200 PS gas engine and supply motive power and lightening. At the same time, the cogeneration system collects gas engine waste heat and combines this heat with that from hot-water and steam boilers to supply hot water to swimming pools, roads, and room heaters. The ratio of waste heat collection rate to power generation efficiency is about 5.0. Sapporo Therme is thus the optimal facilities for cogeneration. (1 figs, 3 photos)

  5. Excavación de túneles en sección total y perforación en roca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vié, G.

    1971-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a continuous increase in the size and importance of tunnels made in connection with public works, such as motor roads, and water supply systems, and also in other fields of engineering. The author reviews the new machinery now being used to excavate full section tunnels. He studies the various types of Jumbo machinery, helicoidal screw drilling equipment. Tunnellers, and similar devices, and their suitability in various types of rock. A description is given of projects where such equipment has been utilized, and the results are evaluated. Finally, the article deals with modern type hydraulic breaking super hammers, used in rock drilling.Cada día es mayor el número y la importancia de los túneles que se realizan tanto en el sector de las obras públicas (autopistas, abastecimientos de agua... como en los demás campos de la ingeniería. El autor pasa revista a la nueva maquinaria que actualmente se utiliza en la excavación de túneles a plena sección, examinando las características de diversos tipos de jumbos, perforadoras de tornillo helicoidal, «tunnelers», y su adecuación a los diferentes terrenos. Se describen algunas realizaciones en las que han intervenido estas máquinas, analizando los resultados por ellas obtenidos. Finalmente, el artículo se ocupa de los modernos supermartillos rompedores hidráulicos empleados en la perforación en roca.

  6. Design of large Francis turbine using optimal methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, E.; Bornard, L.; Tomas, L.; Liu, J.; Couston, M.

    2012-11-01

    Among a high number of Francis turbine references all over the world, covering the whole market range of heads, Alstom has especially been involved in the development and equipment of the largest power plants in the world : Three Gorges (China -32×767 MW - 61 to 113 m), Itaipu (Brazil- 20x750 MW - 98.7m to 127m) and Xiangjiaba (China - 8x812 MW - 82.5m to 113.6m - in erection). Many new projects are under study to equip new power plants with Francis turbines in order to answer an increasing demand of renewable energy. In this context, Alstom Hydro is carrying out many developments to answer those needs, especially for jumbo units such the planned 1GW type units in China. The turbine design for such units requires specific care by using the state of the art in computation methods and the latest technologies in model testing as well as the maximum feedback from operation of Jumbo plants already in operation. We present in this paper how a large Francis turbine can be designed using specific design methods, including the global and local optimization methods. The design of the spiral case, the tandem cascade profiles, the runner and the draft tube are designed with optimization loops involving a blade design tool, an automatic meshing software and a Navier-Stokes solver, piloted by a genetic algorithm. These automated optimization methods, presented in different papers over the last decade, are nowadays widely used, thanks to the growing computation capacity of the HPC clusters: the intensive use of such optimization methods at the turbine design stage allows to reach very high level of performances, while the hydraulic flow characteristics are carefully studied over the whole water passage to avoid any unexpected hydraulic phenomena.

  7. Girls' Tobacco and Alcohol Use during Early Adolescence: Prediction from Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms across Two Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leve, Leslie D.; Harold, Gordon T.; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Elam, Kit; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Associations between trajectories of depressive symptoms and subsequent tobacco and alcohol use were examined in two samples of girls assessed at age 11.5 (T1), 12.5 (T2), and 13.5 (T3). Two samples were examined to ascertain if there was generalizability of processes across risk levels and cultures. Study 1 comprised a United States-based sample…

  8. UniProt search blastx result: AK288692 [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AK288692 J090060K04 Q13641|TPBG_HUMAN Trophoblast glycoprotein precursor (5T4 oncofetal... trophoblast glycoprotein) (5T4 oncotrophoblast glycoprotein) (5T4 oncofetal antigen) (M6P1) - Homo sapiens (Human) 0 ...

  9. Studies on Using Cattle and Sheep Hydatid Cyst Fluid Instead of the Fetal Calf Serum in Leishmania Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Rezvan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leishmania is a single cell parasite causing leishmaniasis, which is a common disease between humans and animals. Due to the importance of in-vitro culture of the parasite in leishmania research, developing new methods for in-vitro cultivation of the parasite has always been a goal for leishmania researchers. The main objective of7T 5T7Tthis study was to use sheep and bovine hydatid cyst fluids as alternatives for fetal calf serum (FCS in leishmania in-vitro5T culture5T. Materials and Methods: 7TA total of 5T7T1 million leishmania promastigotes were added to 4 flasks as follow5T7T. A f5T7Tlask containing DMEM medium with 105T7T% 5T7Tfetal bovine serum5T7T, a f5T7Tlask containing DMEM and 10% sheep hydatid cyst fluid5T7T, a f5T7Tlask containing DMEM medium with 105T7T% 5T7Tbovine hydatid cyst fluid and a5T7T f5T7Tlask containing DMEM medium alone. After 2, 45T7T, 5T7T7, 95T7T, 11, 5T7T21 and 24 days, the number of parasites were counted and compared5T7T. Results: The result of this study showed that, DMEM medium enriched with 10% sheep hydatid cyst fluid in 168 hours and medium enriched with 10% bovine hydatid cyst fluid in 96 hours can act as a good alternative for fetal bovine serum in the culture Leishmania major. Conclusion: 5TThe results showed that sheep and bovine hydatid cyst fluid can be used as alternatives to FCS for dense cultivation of leishmania. The results also showed that5T, 5Tthe growth of promastigotes in medium enriched with bovine cyst fluid is more rapid than the medium enriched with sheep5T c5Tyst fluid5T in5T the beginning of cultivation.

  10. Primary studies on the population genetic structure of Dosidicus gigas in the high seas of eastern Pacific Ocean%东太平洋公海茎柔鱼种群遗传结构初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫杰; 许强华; 陈新军; 李纲; 刘必林

    2011-01-01

    The jumbo flying squid(Dosidicus gigas)is commercially important fishery species in the world. Assessment of population genetic diversity levels of jumbo flying squid is fundamental to the conservation and management of this species. The samples derived from the Chinese squid jigging vessel were collected from the eastern Pacific waters(81.9°-94.9°W,8.9°N -11.3°S)from July to October 2009. By using 724 bp fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene ( Cyt b), we analyzed the sequence variations and population genetic structures for 155 samples collected from seven sites of Peru and three sites of Costa Rica. In total, 16 variable sites were acquired, and all of them were parsimony sites. 43 haplotypes were identified from 155 individuals. Analysis of mtDNA Cyt b sequences of jumbo flying squids from the ten localities revealed that the mean haplotypic diversity was 0. 873, while the nucleotide diversity was 0.003 69. 6 haplotypes were shared by all the populations, while Peru population possessed the highest haplotypes (n = 20). The AMOVA test of D. Gigas revealed that 82. 70% of the genetic variation occurred within populations. FST analysis suggested that significant genetic differentiations were found between the partial Peru populations and the Costa Rica populations, and even between partial Peru populations. However, no significant genetic differentiations were detected between Costa Rica populations.%根据2009年7月到10月我国大型鱿钓渔船在东太平洋(81.9°~94.9°W,8.9°N~11.3°S)秘鲁和哥斯达黎加外海作业期间采集的样本,利用线粒体DNA细胞色素b基因的724 bp部分序列,分析了采自秘鲁7个采样点和哥斯达黎加3个采样点的155个个体的序列多样性与种群遗传结构.结果显示,724 bp片段中发现了16个变异位点,155个个体出现43个单倍型.序列多样性分析结果揭示,155个个体的平均单倍型多样性指数为0.873,核苷酸多样性指数为0.003 69.群体间共享6

  11. Análise dialélica da capacidade combinatória de cultivares de tomateiro Diallel analysus of the combining ability of tomato cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Teixeira do Amaral Júnior

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Os cultivares de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. Ângela I.5100, Floradade, IPA-05, IPA-06, Jumbo e Santa Clara, e os 15 possíveis híbridos F1s foram avaliados quanto à produção de frutos comerciáveis (PFC, espessura média da polpa (EMP, número médio de lóculos por fruto (NML e teor de sólidos solúveis (TSS, com o objetivo de identificar parentais e híbridos promissores para programas de melhoramento. A análise dialélica, com base no método de Griffing, revelou a predominância dos efeitos gênicos não aditivos para o caráter PFC, ao contrário de EMP, enquanto NML acusou equivalência para os efeitos aditivos e não aditivos. Em decorrência das estimativas da capacidade geral de combinação (Gi os cultivares Ângela I.5100, IPA-05 e IPA-06 são indicados para o desenvolvimento de programas de melhoramento.The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cultivars Ângela I.5100, Floradade, IPA-05, IPA-06, Jumbo and Santa Clara and their diallelic crosses were evaluated for commercial fruit weight (CFW, average thickness of the pule (ATP, average number of loculi per fruit (NLF and content of soluble solids (CSS. The objective was to identify the superior progenitors and the promising hybrids for plant breeding programs. The diallel analysis based on Griffings Methodology, showed a prevailing non-additive genic effects for CFW, the opposite being observed for ATP meanwhile NLF showed an equal value for additive and non-additive effects. Based on general combining ability estimates, the cultivars Ângela I.5100, IPA-05 and IPA-06, are indicated to plant breeding programs.

  12. Insight of the fusion behavior of volcanic ash: Implications for Volcanic ash Hazards to Aircraft Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wenjia; Hess, Kai-Uwe; Küppers, Ulrich; Scheu, Bettina; Cimarelli, Corrado; Lavallée, Yan; Sohyun, Park; Gattermann, Ulf; Müller, Dirk; Dingwell, Donald Bruce

    2014-05-01

    The interaction of volcanic ash with jet turbines during via ingestion of ash into engines operating at supra-volcanic temperatures is widely recognized as a potentially fatal hazard for jet aircraft. In the past 12 years, more than 60 modern jet airplanes, mostly jumbo jets, have been damaged by drifting clouds of volcanic ash that have contaminated air routes and airport facilities. Seven of these encounters are known to have caused in flight loss of engine power to jumbo jets carrying a total of more than 2000 passengers. The fusibility of volcanic ash is believed to impact strongly its deposition in the hotter parts of jet engines. Despite this, explicit investigation of ash sintering using standardized techniques is in its infancy. Volcanic ash may vary widely in its physical state and chemical composition between and even within explosive volcanic eruptions. Thus a comparative study of the fusibility of ash which involves a standard recognized techniques would be highly desirable. In this work, nine samples of fine ash, deposited from co-pyroclastic offrom nine different volcanoes which cover a broad range of chemical composition, were investigated. Eight of them were collected from 2001-2009 eruptions. Because of the currently elevated level of eruptive activity and its potential hazards to aircraft safety and the remaining one sample was collected from a 12,121 ± 114 yr B.P. eruption. We used the method of accessing the behavior of deposit-forming impurities in high temperature boiler plants on the basis of observations of the change in shape and size of a cylindrical coal ash to study the fusion phenomena as well as determine the volcanic ash melting behavior by defining four characteristic temperatures (shrinkage temperature, deformation temperature, hemispherical temperature, and flow temperature) by means of heating microscope instrument and different thermal analysis methods. Here, we find that there are similar sticking ability and flow behavior of

  13. Melting Behavior of Volcanic Ash relevant to Aviation Ash Hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.; Hess, K.; Lavallee, Y.; Cimarelli, C.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic ash is one of the major hazards caused by volcanic eruptions. In particular, the threat to aviation from airborne volcanic ash has been widely recognized and documented. In the past 12 years, more than 60 modern jet airplanes, mostly jumbo jets, have been damaged by drifting clouds of volcanic ash that have contaminated air routes and airport facilities. Seven of these encounters are known to have caused in-flight loss of engine power to jumbo jets carrying a total of more than 2000 passengers. The primary cause of engine thrust loss is that the glass in volcanic ash particles is generated at temperatures far lower than the temperatures in the combustion chamber of a jet engine ( i.e. > 1600 oC) and when the molten volcanic ash particles leave this hottest section of the engine, the resolidified molten volcanic ash particles will be accumulated on the turbine nozzle guide vanes, which reduced the effective flow of air through the engine ultimately causing failure. Thus, it is essential to investigate the melting process and subsequent deposition behavior of volcanic ash under gas turbine conditions. Although few research studies that investigated the deposition behavior of volcanic ash at the high temperature are to be found in public domain, to the best our knowledge, no work addresses the formation of molten volcanic ash. In this work, volcanic ash produced by Santiaguito volcano in Guatemala in November 8, 2012 was selected for study because of their recent activity and potential hazard to aircraft safety. We used the method of accessing the behavior of deposit-forming impurities in high temperature boiler plants on the basis of observations of the change in shape and size of a cylindrical coal ash to study the sintering and fusion phenomena as well as determine the volcanic ash melting behavior by using characteristic temperatures by means of hot stage microscope (HSM), different thermal analysis (DTA) and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) to

  14. Ordenación hidráulica, en Provenza (Francia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vié, Georges

    1967-06-01

    Full Text Available French Provence has an irregular rainfall and a large need of water, both for urban use and for the irrigation of its fertile soil. Local needs, the general progress and the development of the Electricité de France (E.D.F. have led to the formation of the Canal Society of Provence, from which important improvements in the existing canal network are to be expected, and also in the provision of new sources of water. As the number of works and reforms are large, the author has limited himself to a description of the more outstanding ones. In relation to the construction machinery used in these works, special mention should be made of a jumbo which drills and clears away the debris after firing the charges. This is a very important problem, which appears to be finally solved, so that in the near future the rate of drilling in galleries will be substantially improved. Another important feature, which could be usefully applied to hydraulic projects with shortage of water, is the use of pressurized irrigation networks and aspersion type watering.La Provenza francesa es una región de régimen pluvial irregular y muy necesitada de aguas, tanto para usos urbanos como para la irrigación de sus fértiles tierras. Las necesidades locales, la evolución de los tiempos y la aparición de Electricité de France (E.D.F. en Francia se han conjugado para crear la Sociedad del Canal de Provenza, de la que se espera grandes mejoras de la red de canalizaciones existentes y nuevas aportaciones de agua. Como el número de obras y reformas es numeroso, el autor se ha limitado a describir las más destacadas. Merece particular atención la presencia, entre la maquinaria auxiliar de construcción, de un «jumbo» que perfora y limpia el escombro después de la pega, problema de sumo interés que, actualmente, parece se halla en vías de solución definitiva, con lo que, en un futuro próximo, se podrán mejorar los avances medios diarios en la perforación de galer

  15. Perforaciones de los grandes subterráneos y los métodos y máquinas modernos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vié, G.

    1973-11-01

    Full Text Available The drilling of large underground tunnels, either for mines or public works, should be approached according to patterns characteristic in all these large projects, which are: safety, strength, economy, etc. Because of the differing techniques and use of the various machines in existence for such an end, the one most advantageous in each case should be chosen. Experience obtained in several years of work and testing teaches us that when the ground is soft, we obtain the best results with the rotary drill; otherwise, it is advisable to use the rotary-percussion drill. Finally, the automatic jumbo has been successfully used, which is very maneuverable and eliminates many of the inconveniences produced by drills, such as: noise, high air consumption and frequent jam-ups. It can be fed with electricity, diesel or diesel-electrical power. It is frequently used, especially in turnpikes.La perforación de los grandes subterráneos, bien sea para trabajos de minas o de obras públicas, debe acometerse bajo unos patrones característicos en todas estas grandes obras, como son: la seguridad, resistencia, economía, etc. Debido a la diferente técnica y utilización de las diversas máquinas existentes para tal fin, deben elegirse las más ventajosas en cada caso. La experiencia de varios años de trabajo y ensayos nos dice que cuando el terreno es blando los mejores resultados los obtenemos con la perforadora rotativa; en caso contrario, conviene utilizar la perforadora roto-percutiva. Últimamente se viene empleando, con éxito, el jumbo automático, el cual tiene una gran maniobrabilidad y elimina parte de los inconvenientes producidos por las perforadoras, tales como: ruido, elevado consumo de aire y blocajes frecuentes. Puede alimentarse con energía eléctrica, diésel o diésel-eléctrica. Su utilización es frecuente, sobre todo en la construcción de autopistas.

  16. Hábitos alimentarios de Dosidicus gigas (D' Orbigny, 1835 (Cephalopoda: Teuthoidea frente a la costa centro-sur de Chile Feeding habits of Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835 (Cephalopoda: Teuthoidea in the central-south coast off Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PATRICIO ULLOA

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron los hábitos alimentarios del calamar rojo Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835 frente a la costa de Chile centro-sur, durante el invierno del año 2005. Se examinaron un total de 52 estómagos, en todos los cuales había contenido alimentario. Los ejemplares provenían de pescas efectuadas por la flota arrastrera industrial que opera entre 36°39' S y 38°55'S sobre la merluza común Merluccius gayi (Guichenot 1848 y a una profundidad media de 290 m sobre la plataforma continental. Para la descripción del espectro trófico, alimento principal y el establecimiento de las eventuales diferencias sexuales u ontogenéticas en la frecuencia de aparición de los ítemes presa, se utilizaron los métodos numérico, gravimétrico, de frecuencia de ocurrencia, índice de importancia relativa (IIR e índice de similitud porcentual (ISP. No se observaron diferencias sexuales ni ontogenéticas en la frecuencia de aparición de los ítemes presa. Los resultados muestran que D. gigas es un depredador oportunista, principalmente ictiófago, y secundariamente malacófago (incluye el canibalismo y carcinófago. Se discuten los eventuales motivos e implicancias de tal conductaA study on the feeding habits of the jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas (D'Orbigny, 1835 was carried out during the winter season 2005, in waters of the Chilean central and southern Pacific. A total of 52 jumbo squid stomachs from the fishing of the continental slope were collected and examined, in the Eighth and Ninth regions, between 36°40' S and 38°55'S, at an average depth of 290 m. To determine the trophic spectrum, the feeding preferences and the importance of the sex and ontogenetic condition in the diet, the numeric, gravimetric, frequency of occurrence methods, and the index of relative importance and dietary similarity were utilized. The frequency of the prey did not vary with relation to the sex and ontogenetic conditions, and was besides a hight trophic similarity in such

  17. Prostate magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging at 1.5tesla with endorectal coil versus 3.0tesla without endorectal coil: comparison of spectral quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Visschere, Pieter; Nezzo, Marco; Pattyn, Eva; Fonteyne, Valérie; Van Praet, Charles; Villeirs, Geert

    2015-01-01

    To compare the spectral quality of prostate magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) at 1.5Tesla with endorectal coil (ER-1.5T) to MRSI at 3.0Tesla without coil (3.0T). In 30 patients, the spectral quality of 6107 voxels at ER-1.5T and that of 5667 at 3.0T were visually evaluated by three radiologists. There were 57.6% good quality voxels at ER-1.5T versus 64.3% at 3.0T (P=.121). The posterior two rows showed better quality at ER-1.5T (P=.047). There is no significant difference in overall spectral quality between ER-1.5T and 3.0T, although ER-1.5T shows better quality close to the endorectal coil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Bacillus cecembensis sp. nov., isolated from the Pindari glacier of the Indian Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, G S N; Uttam, Anarasi; Shivaji, S

    2008-10-01

    Strain PN5(T) is a Gram-positive, aerobic, motile, rod-shaped, peritrichously flagellated bacterium that was isolated from the Pindari glacier using nutrient agar medium. Cells of PN5(T) are catalase-positive and oxidase-negative and contain lysine, glutamic acid and alanine in the peptidoglycan (peptidoglycan type A4alpha). Further, the cells are characterized by the presence of iso-C(15 : 0) and iso-C(16 : 1) as the predominant fatty acids and MK-7 as the isoprenoid quinone. Based on the above characteristics, strain PN5(T) was assigned to the genus Bacillus. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence indicated that strain PN5(T) clustered with the type strain of Bacillus silvestris with a sequence similarity of 97.2 %. DNA-DNA hybridization between PN5(T) and B. silvestris DSM 12223(T) resulted in a relatedness of only 15 %, clearly indicating that strain PN5(T) represents a novel species. Further, PN5(T) was different from B. silvestris with respect to various phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics. Therefore, strain PN5(T) is identified as a representative of a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus cecembensis sp. nov. is proposed. Bacillus cecembensis is unique among psychrotolerant Bacillus species in containing l-Lys-d-Glu in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. The type strain is PN5(T) (=LMG 23935(T) =MTCC9127(T) =JCM 15113(T)).

  19. Tolerância a baixas temperaturas de cultivares de abacate (Persea americana Mill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soares Nilberto Bernardo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Em experimento realizado no Núcleo de Agronomia do Sudoeste/IAC, em Capão Bonito (SP, observou-se o comportamento de 13 cultivares de abacate com seis anos de idade: Geada, Pollock e Simmonds (raça antilhana; Antoniolli, Breda, Campinas, Ermor, Jumbo, Margarida, Ouro verde, Reis e Solano (híbridos de antilhana x guatemalense e Fuerte (híbrido de mexicana x guatemalense em relação às baixas temperaturas. As temperaturas do ar registradas no posto meteorológico do local foram: -2,8degreesC; -0,4degreesC; -0,2degreesC e -1,8degreesC, respectivamente, nos dias 17; 18; 20 e 21 de julho de 2000. A cultivar Fuerte mostrou-se mais tolerante às baixas temperaturas, não apresentando injúrias nas plantas nem queda de frutos; as cultivares híbridas de antilhana x guatemalense apresentaram diferenças de tolerância ao frio; enquanto as antilhanas foram severamente injuriadas.

  20. 2011 Ground Testing Highlights Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, James C.; Buchholz, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Two tests supporting development of the launch abort system for the Orion MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle were run in the NASA Ames Unitary Plan wind tunnel last year. The first test used a fully metric model to examine the stability and controllability of the Launch Abort Vehicle during potential abort scenarios for Mach numbers ranging from 0.3 to 2.5. The aerodynamic effects of the Abort Motor and Attitude Control Motor plumes were simulated using high-pressure air flowing through independent paths. The aerodynamic effects of the proximity to the launch vehicle during the early moments of an abort were simulated with a remotely actuated Service Module that allowed the position relative to the Crew Module to be varied appropriately. The second test simulated the acoustic environment around the Launch Abort Vehicle caused by the plumes from the 400,000-pound thrust, solid-fueled Abort Motor. To obtain the proper acoustic characteristics of the hot rocket plumes for the flight vehicle, heated Helium was used. A custom Helium supply system was developed for the test consisting of 2 jumbo high-pressure Helium trailers, a twelve-tube accumulator, and a 13MW gas-fired heater borrowed from the Propulsion Simulation Laboratory at NASA Glenn Research Center. The test provided fluctuating surface pressure measurements at over 200 points on the vehicle surface that have now been used to define the ground-testing requirements for the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle.

  1. Penetration, Post-penetration Development, and Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Cucumis melo var. texanus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faske, T R

    2013-03-01

    Cucumis melo var. texanus, a wild melon commonly found in the southern United States and two accessions, Burleson Co. and MX 1230, expressed resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in preliminary experiments. To characterize the mechanism of resistance, we evaluated root penetration, post-penetration development, reproduction, and emigration of M. incognita on these two accessions of C. melo var. texanus. Additionally, we evaluated 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus for their reaction against M. incognita in a greenhouse experiment. Fewer (P ≤ 0.05) J2 penetrated the root system of C. melo var. texanus accessions (Burleson Co. and MX 1230) and C. metuliferus (PI 482452) (resistant control), 7 days after inoculation (DAI) than in C. melo 'Hales Best Jumbo' (susceptible control). A delayed (P ≤ 0.05) rate of nematode development was observed at 7, 14, and 21 DAI that contributed to lower (P ≤ 0.05) egg production on both accessions and C. metuliferus compared with C. melo. Though J2 emigration was observed on all Cucumis genotypes a higher (P ≤ 0.05) rate of J2 emigration was observed from 3 to 6 DAI on accession Burleson Co. and C. metuliferus than on C. melo. The 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus varied relative to their reaction to M. incognita with eight supporting similar levels of nematode reproduction to that of C. metuliferus. Cucumis melo var. texanus may be a useful source of resistance against root-knot nematode in melon.

  2. RENDIMIENTO DE 12 HÍBRIDOS COMERCIALES DE ZANAHORIA (Daucus carota L. EN EL CAMPO Y EN LA PLANTA DE EMPAQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Richmond-Zumbado

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron 12 híbridos comerciales de zanahoria (Daucus carota L. en Cot de Oreamuno, Cartago, Costa Rica, con el objetivo de evaluar el rendimiento en el campo y la planta de empaque, de junio a octubre del 2007. Los híbridos evaluados fueron: Bangor F1, Big Sur, Bolero F1, Concerto F1 (VAC 03 F1, XCR3688, Esperanza, Nandrin F1, Napoli F1, S-505, Spearhead, Trinity y Sirkana. Se obtuvo el número y peso de las raíces de los híbridos comerciales clasificadas en raíces totales, comerciales y diferentes variables de rechazo; en el campo y en la planta de empaque. Los híbridos con el mayor rendimiento comercial en campo y en planta empacadora, en orden decreciente, fueron: Bangor F1, Esperanza, Concerto F1, Nandrin F1 y Sirkana. Los materiales con menor rechazo en campo fueron Nandrin F1, Sirkana y Bangor F1, y en planta empacadora fueron: Big Sur, Sirkana, Napoli F1, Bolero F1 y XCR3688. Las principales causas de rechazo de la zanahoria en el campo y en la planta empacadora fueron: raíces bifurcadas, con rajadura, raíz pequeña y tamaño jumbo.

  3. Klebsiella phage vB_KleM-RaK2 - a giant singleton virus of the family Myoviridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenijus Simoliūnas

    Full Text Available At 346 kbp in size, the genome of a jumbo bacteriophage vB_KleM-RaK2 (RaK2 is the largest Klebsiella infecting myovirus genome sequenced to date. In total, 272 out of 534 RaK2 ORFs lack detectable database homologues. Based on the similarity to biologically defined proteins and/or MS/MS analysis, 117 of RaK2 ORFs were given a functional annotation, including 28 RaK2 ORFs coding for structural proteins that have no reliable homologues to annotated structural proteins in other organisms. The electron micrographs revealed elaborate spike-like structures on the tail fibers of Rak2, suggesting that this phage is an atypical myovirus. While head and tail proteins of RaK2 are mostly myoviridae-related, the bioinformatics analysis indicate that tail fibers/spikes of this phage are formed from podovirus-like peptides predominantly. Overall, these results provide evidence that bacteriophage RaK2 differs profoundly from previously studied viruses of the Myoviridae family.

  4. Sorbent-coated diffusion denuders for direct measurement of gas/particle partitioning by semi-volatile organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gundel, L.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Lane, D.A. [Atmospheric Environment Service, North York, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-01-01

    Sorbent-coated annular denuder-based samplers have been developed for direct determination of both gaseous and particulate semi-volatile organic species. The first such sampler, the Integrated Organic Vapor/Particle Sampler, has been validated for sampling semi-volatile PAH in ambient air and environmental tobacco smoke. Multi-channel versions of the IOVPS have been used successfully for investigation of gas/particle partitioning of a variety of semi-volatile organic species in combustion source-enriched environmental chambers. Subsequent improvements have resulted in two new higher-capacity samplers, the IOGAPS and the jumbo-IOGAPS, that use the same sorbent for sampling trace organics in the ambient atmosphere for 24--48 hr periods over a wide temperature range. Construction of these new samplers began by incorporating the IOVPS coating technology onto the gas collection surfaces of the higher capacity GAP sampler. Substantial design effort aims to ensure that vapor phase components as volatile as naphthalene can be trapped efficiently and retained by the sorbent-coated surface while the particles pass through to the filter.

  5. Construction Techniques for the Trumpet Section of Fanjiaping Tunnel%范家坪隧道喇叭口段施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春奎; 杜立新

    2011-01-01

    范家坪隧道为典型的由双线经喇叭口段过渡为两单线型式的大跨铁路隧道,为了提高施工效率、实现隧道两个掌子面同时掘进,施工中采用了喇叭口段由双线向单线反向施工方案,同时采取了可变式整体大模板液压台车台架配合小模板进行大跨段二次衬砌的施工技术.文章重点介绍了施工方案比选、施工步骤、施工效果.%Fanjiaping tunnel is a large -span railway tunnel typically transformed from double-track to two single-track section by means of a trumpet section. The project adopted the reverse excavation from single-track to double -track section, combined with the section -variable rack of integral hydraulic jumbo to cast the secondary lining at large-span section with the help of small formwork.. The paper focuses on the construction option comparison, construction procedure and construction effect of the project.

  6. 拉法山隧道斜切式洞门施工技术%Construction Technology for Bamboo-truncated Portal of Lafashan Tunnel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡永强; 豆小天

    2013-01-01

    为解决利用现有模板台车一次性将洞门斜切段浇筑成型的问题,以拉法山隧道等环宽斜切式洞门施工为例,分别从经济性和实用性等方面对以往类似隧道洞门施工方法进行综合对比分析,采用在台车端头自制加长段模板的方法,并通过对模板放样、模板加工与安装等环节加以改进和控制,以达到快速施工和整体浇筑的目的.%Comparison and contrast is made among different tunnel portal construction technologies in terms of economical efficiency and practicability,so as to select proper construction technologies for the bamboo-truncated portals of Lafashan tunnel.In the end,technologies,including preparing formworks for the extended section of the tunnel portal,setting-out of the formworks,fabrication of the formworks and installation of the formworks,are adopted for the tunnel.In this way,integral portal is cast rapidly by means of the existing formwork jumbo.

  7. Concrete construction technology of spillway tunnels on right bank of Xiluodu Hydropower Station%溪洛渡水电站右岸泄洪洞混凝土施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣耀久; 覃壮恩; 孙峰; 周燚

    2013-01-01

    溪洛渡水电站右岸2条泄洪洞长度分别为1 433.550 m及1 633.624 m,由进水塔、有压洞、工作闸门室、无压洞平段、龙落尾段、出口明渠及挑流坎等段组成.通过本工程的技术、设备、工艺等创新,有效解决了大型水工隧洞衬砌混凝土温度控制、体型控制、表观质量及大坡度大型台车运行安全等技术难题.%Two spillway tunnels are there on the right bank of Xiluodu Hydropower Station with the lengths of 1 433. 550 m and 1 633.624 m respectively, which consist of intake tower, pressure section, working gate chamber, horizontal non-pressure section , tail section, open channel of outlet and flip bucket Through the innovations made on the techniques, equipment and technologies adopted in this project, the technical problems from the temperature control, shape control and apparent quality of the lining concrete of large hydraulic tunnel as well as the operation safety of large steel formwork jumbo running on large slope are effectively solved.

  8. North Atlantic Storm Activity During the Younger Dryas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, M.

    2015-12-01

    The risks posed to cities along the Eastern Seaboard by a potential intensification of tropical cyclone activity over the coming decades remain poorly constrained, in part, due to a lack of available storm proxy records that extend beyond the relatively stable climates of the late Holocene. Previous work in the Bahamas shows that coarse-grained, high-energy event layers in carbonate bank margin sediments: (1) closely track recent historic hurricane events and (2) that the sensitivity of this proxy may be less affected by the deglacial changes in sea level that have limited our ability to reconstruct past hurricane activity using overwash records from back-barrier beach settings. Here we present a record of storm triggered turbidite deposition from a suite of well dated (e.g. Lynch-Stieglitz et al., 2011, Paleoceanography) jumbo piston cores taken offbank (300-500 mbsl) the Dry Tortugas, Florida, that spans abrupt transitions in North Atlantic sea surface temperature and thermohaline circulation during the Younger Dryas (12.9 - 11.5 kyr BP). This record, along with General Circulation Model output (TraCE: NCAR-CGD), indicates strong hurricane activity may have occurred along Southeastern US coasts through this interval despite considerably colder North Atlantic SSTs.

  9. Phloem-Mobile Aux/IAA Transcripts Target to the Root Tip and Modify Root Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michitaka Notaguchi; Shmuel Wolf; William J. Lucas

    2012-01-01

    In plants,the phloem is the component of the vascular system that delivers nutrients and transmits signals from mature leaves to developing sink tissues.Recent studies have identified proteins,mRNA,and small RNA within the phloem sap of several plant species.It is now of considerable interest to elucidate the biological functions of these potential long-distance signal agents,to further our understanding of how plants coordinate their developmental programs at the whole-plant level.In this study,we developed a strategy for the functional analysis of phloem-mobile mRNA by focusing on IAA transcripts,whose mobility has previously been reported in melon (Cucumis melo cv.Hale's Best Jumbo).Indoleacetic acid (IAA) proteins are key transcriptional regulators of auxin signaling,and are involved in a broad range of developmental processes including root development.We used a combination of vasculature-enriched sampling and hetero-grafting techniques to identify IAA18 and IAA28 as phloemmobile transcripts in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana.Micro-grafting experiments were used to confirm that these IAA transcripts,which are generated in vascular tissues of mature leaves,are then transported into the root system where they negatively regulate lateral root formation.Based on these findings,we present a model in which auxin distribution,in combination with phloem-mobile AuxIIAA transcripts,can determine the sites of auxin action.

  10. Niobium Titanium and Copper wire samples

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    A comparison of the LHC magnet wire that carries 13kA and the equivalent in copper that would be needed to carry such a current. About LHC superconducting wiring: The high magnetic fields needed for the LHC can only be reached using superconductors. At very low temperatures, superconductors have no electrical resistance and therefore no power loss. The LHC will be the largest superconducting installation ever built and, at 1.9 degrees above absolute zero (300 degrees below room temperature), one of the the coldest objects in the universe! Magnet coils are made of copper-clad niobium–titanium cables — each wire in the cable consists of 9000 niobium–titanium filaments ten times finer than a hair. The cables carry up to 12 500 amps and must withstand enormous electromagnetic forces. At full field, the force on one metre of magnet is comparable to the weight of a jumbo jet. Coil winding requires great care to prevent movements as the field changes. Friction can create hot spots which “quench” the mag...

  11. Comportement agronomique d'une collection de pois (Pisum sativum L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouslama, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Agronomical Behaviour of a Pea Collection (Pisum sativum L.. This experience was achieved under greenhouse conditions. Twelve genotypes of pea were used (Asgrow, Jumbo, Lincoln, Merveille de Kelvedon, Purser, Rajai Torpe, Snajor Kosep, Korai,Wando, Rondo, local genotype, Major Kosep Korai and Surgevil. They were cultivated on peat during 5.5 months (from October to April. Some agronomical parameters were studied: resistance to diseases, (Powdery-mildew, mildew, top yellow virus, anthracnose, browning, fresh matter, number of branches/plant, number of flowers/plant, number of pods/ plant and the yield of grains /plant. Results showed that only the genotype Purser is resistant to all diseases and Surgevil is sensitive only to the Top Yellow virus. The local genotype is sensitive to three frequent diseases (Powdery-mildew, mildew and Anthracnose. With regard to vegetative growth, the highest yield of fresh matter do not contribute towards a high fertility rate. In fact, only the genotypes having a weak yield of fresh matter (Snajor Kosep Korai, Asgrow, Major Kosep Korai, Rajai Torpe and Purser have the most important rate of fertility (> 30%. Within this group, the most important yield (> 9 g/plant is a result of high: number of pods/plant (7.5 to 21.6 and of grains/pod (2.8 to 4.92. Finally, genotype Purser should be retained for farmers and programs of genetic amelioration for its resistance to diseases and agronomical performances.

  12. White Spot Syndrome Virus vulnerability of Tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon cultured in the coastal ponds of Cox’s Bazar region, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad M. Monwar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Jumbo tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon is the world’s most popular cultivable species for itsfast growth, hardy nature, delicious taste and market demand. During the last three decades shrimpculture has been expanded rapidly. White spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV is a great treat to this cultureexpansion. In this research, WSSV free fries were stocked in four coastal ponds with different salinities.The stocking density was kept low and constant. Water parameters, fish growth, and WSSVcontamination were recorded fortnightly. The WSSV contamination was primarily detected by using EnbioShrimp Virus Detection Test Kit, ‘Shrimple’ and further confirmed by the PCR test. Among the ponds,Pond A, B, and C were in completely controlled environmental condition where as pond D was traditionalone that exposed to tidal variations. Physico-chemical parameter varied from as, temperature 29 to32ºC, salinity 0 to 31‰, water pH 7.1 to 8.3, dissolved oxygen 3.8 to 6.3 mL L-1, alkalinity 80-122 mg L-1,ammonia 0 to 1.5 mg L-1 and transparency 23 to 50 cm. The WSSV was found positive in the pond D justafter hundred days, when the average weight of the shrimps was 26.69 g. It is observed that rapidchange in the salinity and temperature, poor environmental conditions and uncontrolled exchange ofwater made the shrimp more vulnerable to the WSSV.

  13. CROSS-FRONTIER PUBLIC TRANSPORT: Y BUS

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Housing Service

    2002-01-01

    'Y' buses cover the journey between Val Thoiry in France (shopping centre including'Migros' and other stores) and Blandonnet in Switzerland, where they stop outside the 'Jumbo' shop, now renamed 'Carrefour'. In France, the buses connect up Thoiry, Sergy and St. Genis, then cross the border to stop outside CERN, Meyrin, before continuing towards Geneva along the 'Route de Meyrin', stopping outside the 'La Tour' hospital, then at the terminus Blandonnet. The normal fare on French territory with a slight incursion into Switzerland for this purpose as far as CERN, Meyrin, is 1.20 Euros per single journey (ticket valid for one hour). The same amount is charged for any single journey in Switzerland. For example, the cost of a single journey between St. Genis and the 'La Tour' hospital would be 2.40 Euros. The season ticket ('Abonnement de Travail') opens the right to purchase a ticket valid over any period of seven days which entitles the holder to as many journeys as required between the bus stop nearest to the pl...

  14. Synergistic effects of climate-related variables suggest future physiological impairment in a top oceanic predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Rui; Seibel, Brad A

    2008-12-30

    By the end of this century, anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO(2)) emissions are expected to decrease the surface ocean pH by as much as 0.3 unit. At the same time, the ocean is expected to warm with an associated expansion of the oxygen minimum layer (OML). Thus, there is a growing demand to understand the response of the marine biota to these global changes. We show that ocean acidification will substantially depress metabolic rates (31%) and activity levels (45%) in the jumbo squid, Dosidicus gigas, a top predator in the Eastern Pacific. This effect is exacerbated by high temperature. Reduced aerobic and locomotory scope in warm, high-CO(2) surface waters will presumably impair predator-prey interactions with cascading consequences for growth, reproduction, and survival. Moreover, as the OML shoals, squids will have to retreat to these shallower, less hospitable, waters at night to feed and repay any oxygen debt that accumulates during their diel vertical migration into the OML. Thus, we demonstrate that, in the absence of adaptation or horizontal migration, the synergism between ocean acidification, global warming, and expanding hypoxia will compress the habitable depth range of the species. These interactions may ultimately define the long-term fate of this commercially and ecologically important predator.

  15. Chromogenic behaviors of the Humboldt squid (Dosidicus gigas) studied in situ with an animal-borne video package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Hannah; Gilly, William; Bell, Lauren; Abernathy, Kyler; Marshall, Greg

    2015-01-15

    Dosidicus gigas (Humboldt or jumbo flying squid) is an economically and ecologically influential species, yet little is known about its natural behaviors because of difficulties in studying this active predator in its oceanic environment. By using an animal-borne video package, National Geographic's Crittercam, we were able to observe natural behaviors in free-swimming D. gigas in the Gulf of California with a focus on color-generating (chromogenic) behaviors. We documented two dynamic displays without artificial lighting at depths of up to 70 m. One dynamic pattern, termed 'flashing' is characterized by a global oscillation (2-4 Hz) of body color between white and red. Flashing was almost always observed when other squid were visible in the video frame, and this behavior presumably represents intraspecific signaling. Amplitude and frequency of flashing can be modulated, and the phase relationship with another squid can also be rapidly altered. Another dynamic display termed 'flickering' was observed whenever flashing was not occurring. This behavior is characterized by irregular wave-like activity in neighboring patches of chromatophores, and the resulting patterns mimic reflections of down-welled light in the water column, suggesting that this behavior may provide a dynamic type of camouflage. Rapid and global pauses in flickering, often before a flashing episode, indicate that flickering is under inhibitory neural control. Although flashing and flickering have not been described in other squid, functional similarities are evident with other species.

  16. Cross-linking chemistry of squid beak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miserez, Ali; Rubin, Daniel; Waite, J Herbert

    2010-12-03

    In stark contrast to most aggressive predators, Dosidicus gigas (jumbo squids) do not use minerals in their powerful mouthparts known as beaks. Their beaks instead consist of a highly sclerotized chitinous composite with incremental hydration from the tip to the base. We previously reported l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa)-histidine (dopa-His) as an important covalent cross-link providing mechanical strengthening to the beak material. Here, we present a more complete characterization of the sclerotization chemistry and describe additional cross-links from D. gigas beak. All cross-links presented in this report share common building blocks, a family of di-, tri-, and tetra-histidine-catecholic adducts, that were separated by affinity chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and identified by tandem mass spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR). The data provide additional insights into the unusually high cross-link density found in mature beaks. Furthermore, we propose both a low molecular weight catechol, and peptidyl-dopa, to be sclerotization agents of squid beak. This appears to represent a new strategy for forming hard tissue in animals. The interplay between covalent cross-linking and dehydration on the graded properties of the beaks is discussed.

  17. The role of water on the structure and mechanical properties of a thermoplastic natural block co-polymer from squid sucker ring teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieu, Clément; Bertinetti, Luca; Schuetz, Roman; Salinas-Zavala, Cesar Ca; Weaver, James C; Fratzl, Peter; Miserez, Ali; Masic, Admir

    2016-09-02

    Hard biological polymers exhibiting a truly thermoplastic behavior that can maintain their structural properties after processing are extremely rare and highly desirable for use in advanced technological applications such as 3D-printing, biodegradable plastics and robust composites. One exception are the thermoplastic proteins that comprise the sucker ring teeth (SRT) of the Humboldt jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas). In this work, we explore the mechanical properties of reconstituted SRT proteins and demonstrate that the material can be re-shaped by simple processing in water and at relatively low temperature (below 100 °C). The post-processed material maintains a high modulus in the GPa range, both in the dry and the wet states. When transitioning from low to high humidity, the material properties change from brittle to ductile with an increase in plastic deformation, where water acts as a plasticizer. Using synchrotron x-ray scattering tools, we found that water mostly influences nano scale structure, whereas at the molecular level, the protein structure remains largely unaffected. Furthermore, through simultaneous in situ x-ray scattering and mechanical tests, we show that the supramolecular network of the reconstituted SRT material exhibits a progressive alignment along the strain direction, which is attributed to chain alignment of the amorphous domains of SRT proteins. The high modulus in both dry and wet states, combined with their efficient thermal processing characteristics, make the SRT proteins promising substitutes for applications traditionally reserved for petroleum-based thermoplastics.

  18. A preliminary analysis of trace-elemental signatures in statoliths of different spawning cohorts for Dosidicus gigas off EEZ waters of Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bilin; Chen, Xinjun; Fang, Zhou; Hu, Song; Song, Qian

    2015-12-01

    We applied solution-based ICP-MS method to quantify the trace-elemental signatures in statoliths of jumbo flying squid, Dosidius gigas, which were collected from the waters off northern and central Chile during the scientific surveys carried out by Chinese squid jigging vessels in 2007 and 2008. The age and spawning date of the squid were back-calculated based on daily increments in statoliths. Eight elemental ratios (Sr/Ca, Ba/Ca, Mg/Ca, Mn/Ca, Na/Ca, Fe/Ca, Cu/Ca and Zn/Ca) were analyzed. It was found that Sr is the second most abundant element next to Ca, followed by Na, Fe, Mg, Zn, Cu, Ba and Mn. There was no significant relationship between element/Ca and sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS), although weak negative or positive tendency was found. MANOVA analysis showed that multivariate elemental signatures did not differ among the cohorts spawned in spring, autumn and winter, and no significant difference was found between the northern and central sampling locations. Classification results showed that all individuals of each spawned cohorts were correctly classified. This study demonstrates that the elemental signatures in D. gigas statoliths are potentially a useful tool to improve our understanding of its population structure and habitat environment.

  19. NO and NO2 emission ratios measured from in-use commercial aircraft during taxi and takeoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, Scott C; Shorter, Joanne H; Zahniser, Mark S; Nelson, David D; Jayne, John; Brown, Robert C; Miake-Lye, Richard C; Waitz, Ian; Silva, Phillip; Lanni, Thomas; Demerjian, Ken; Kolb, Charles E

    2004-11-15

    In August 2001, the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory simultaneously measured NO, NO2, and CO2 within 350 m of a taxiway and 550 m of a runway at John F. Kennedy Airport. The meteorological conditions were such that taxi and takeoff plumes from individual aircraft were clearly resolved against background levels. NO and NO2 concentrations were measured with 1 s time resolution using a dual tunable infrared laser differential absorption spectroscopy instrument, utilizing an astigmatic multipass Herriott cell. The CO2 measurements were also obtained at 1 s time resolution using a commercial non-dispersive infrared absorption instrument. Plumes were measured from over 30 individual planes, ranging from turbo props to jumbo jets. NOx emission indices were determined by examining the correlation between NOx (NO + NO2) and CO2 during the plume measurements. Several aircraft tail numbers were unambiguously identified, allowing those specific airframe/engine combinations to be determined. The resulting NOx emission indices from positively identified in-service operating airplanes are compared with the published International Civil Aviation Organization engine certification test database collected on new engines in certification test cells.

  20. Porous Flanging Process Analysis and Dies Design on the Moderate Thickness Plate%中厚板多孔翻边工艺分析及模具设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卫; 王勤家

    2012-01-01

    以某出口车型外观件封板为例,结合现场生产环境,改进工艺方法,设计了中厚板大尺寸多内孔整体翻边模,实现封板的整体内孔翻边,提高工件局部强度,解决了焊接带来的变形及平面度超差问题,提高生产效率,满足了制件的批量生产需求。%Set the shrouding of the appearance plate on one of the exported wagons as an example, incorporated with the onsite production environment, with improved processing methods to design the jumbo size of entire flanging dies with inner porous for the moderate thickness plate, aims to achieve the entire inner porous flanging of the shrouding. As a result, the local strength of the working pieces has been enhanced and solved the deformation and over proof of the flatness by welding, then the production rate is raised, meet the mass production requirements.

  1. Comparison of winter hardiness and growth of Actinidia arguta and A. kolomikta cultivars grown in central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Marosz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment with Actinidia arguta and A. kolomikta cultivars purchased from a commercial nursery was conducted in Skierniewice, central Poland. Both Actinidia arguta and A. kolomikta cultivars were planted in June 2005 at a spacing of 3 × 2.2 m. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of climate conditions on the growth of eight cultivars of small kiwi fruit and to evaluate their usefulness for orchard culture in central Poland. After three years of growth in different climate conditions, including one of the coldest winters (2005/06 during the last years, and also severe late spring frosts (2007, some conclusion can be drawn. Two cultivars of Actinidia kolomikta have shown quite good resistance to winter and spring frosts, but the growth rate of these plants was rather slow. All the cultivars of Actinidia arguta were damaged by frost during the 2005/06 winter due to the snow-cover level, which was rather thick (24 cm. One year later all new shoots and leaves of Actinidia arguta cultivars were damaged completely by late spring frosts, which deleted flowering and fruit setting for at least one year. After three years of growth observations, the growth rate of small kiwi cultivars can be divided into three groups: fast growing with 'Jumbo' and 'Genewa'; moderate growing with 'Issai', 'Ken's Red' and 'Weiki' - male and female, and slow growing with A. kolomikta cultivars Dr Szymanowski and Sientiabrskaja.

  2. Transcription Profiling of Bacillus subtilis Cells Infected with AR9, a Giant Phage Encoding Two Multisubunit RNA Polymerases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Lavysh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophage AR9 is a recently sequenced jumbo phage that encodes two multisubunit RNA polymerases. Here we investigated the AR9 transcription strategy and the effect of AR9 infection on the transcription of its host, Bacillus subtilis. Analysis of whole-genome transcription revealed early, late, and continuously expressed AR9 genes. Alignment of sequences upstream of the 5′ ends of AR9 transcripts revealed consensus sequences that define early and late phage promoters. Continuously expressed AR9 genes have both early and late promoters in front of them. Early AR9 transcription is independent of protein synthesis and must be determined by virion RNA polymerase injected together with viral DNA. During infection, the overall amount of host mRNAs is significantly decreased. Analysis of relative amounts of host transcripts revealed notable differences in the levels of some mRNAs. The physiological significance of up- or downregulation of host genes for AR9 phage infection remains to be established. AR9 infection is significantly affected by rifampin, an inhibitor of host RNA polymerase transcription. The effect is likely caused by the antibiotic-induced killing of host cells, while phage genome transcription is solely performed by viral RNA polymerases.

  3. Asparagus chain: Fifth year production of different genotypes and postharvest behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Kirschenbilder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this investigation was to study greenhouse precocious spears yield of three genotypes of asparagus on its fifth harvest season. The trial was established at the Faculty of Agricultural, Pontifical Catholic University of Argentina, on November, 15, 2006. 19 different harvests were made from 04/09/2012 to 22/10/2012, one every two days. A multifactor ANOVA-LSD test (P>0.05 was performed. Variables analyzed were: total productivity and commercial productivity (PFT and PFC, total number of spears and commercial number of spears (NTT and NTC; caliber distribution (DC: Jumbo (J, Extra-Large (XL, Large (L, Medium (M and Small (S and finally, quality defects (D: spiked spears (TE; short spears (TC and other defects (OD. During the post-harvest period, bundles (A, trays (BA and polyethylene bags were used to study fresh weight evolution (EPF; daily fresh weight loss (PPFD and average fresh weight during the post-harvest period (PPFP. Italian breeds yielded above 9 t/ha, twice the Argentinean national average. According to the production results, Giove stood out regarding PFT, PFC, NTT, NTC and a proper DC, where the 70% of spears measured L and XL. With regard to postharvest behavior, it was found that the lowest degree of dehydration was obtained by using bags and trays.

  4. Quantifying grain shape with MorpheoLV: A case study using Holocene glacial marine sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charpentier, Isabelle; Staszyc, Alicia B.; Wellner, Julia S.; Alejandro, Vanessa

    2017-06-01

    As demonstrated in earlier works, quantitative grain shape analysis has revealed to be a strong proxy for determining sediment transport history and depositional environments. MorpheoLV, devoted to the calculation of roughness coefficients from pictures of unique clastic sediment grains using Fourier analysis, drives computations for a collection of samples of grain images. This process may be applied to sedimentary deposits assuming core/interval/image archives for the storage of samples collected along depth. This study uses a 25.8 m jumbo piston core, NBP1203 JPC36, taken from a 100 m thick sedimentary drift deposit from Perseverance Drift on the northern Antarctic Peninsula continental shelf. Changes in ocean and ice conditions throughout the Holocene recorded in this sedimentary archive can be assessed by studying grain shape, grain texture, and other proxies. Ninety six intervals were sampled and a total of 2319 individual particle images were used. Microtextures of individual grains observed by SEM show a very high abundance of authigenically precipitated silica that obscures the original grain shape. Grain roughness, computed along depth with MorpheoLV, only shows small variation confirming the qualitative observation deduced from the SEM. Despite this, trends can be seen confirming the reliability of MorpheoLV as a tool for quantitative grain shape analysis.

  5. A new dawn for CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Supported by a gigantic crane and a factory-size room full of enthusiasm, the central barrel of CMS made its final journey underground on 28 February. The central section of the CMS detector starts its dramatic 10-hour descent underground.Several hours (and 100 metres) later, the massive barrel rests on the cavern floor. CMS scientists, journalists, photographers and members of the transport crew basked in the final rays of the 'solenoid-set' on 28 February as the central barrel of the CMS detector sinks below the horizon and began its ten-hour descent into the cavern 100 metres below. Thirteen metres long and weighing as much as five jumbo jets (1920 tonnes), the barrel is the largest of the 15 chunks of CMS detector that are being lowered one by one into the cavern. 'This is a challenging feat of engineering, as there are just 20 cm of leeway between the detector and the walls of the shaft,' said Austin Ball, Technical Coordinator of CMS. The section of the detector, which contains the solenoid of the magne...

  6. 3,5-Diiodothyronine in vivo maintains euthyroidal expression of type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase, growth hormone, and thyroid hormone receptor beta1 in the killifish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-G, C; López-Bojorquez, L; Nuñez, J; Valverde-R, C; Orozco, A

    2007-08-01

    Until recently, 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T(2)) has been considered an inactive by-product of triiodothyronine (T(3)) deiodination. However, studies from several laboratories have shown that 3,5-T(2) has specific, nongenomic effects on mitochondrial oxidative capacity and respiration rate that are distinct from those due to T(3). Nevertheless, little is known about the putative genomic effects of 3,5-T(2). We have previously shown that hyperthyroidism induced by supraphysiological doses of 3,5-T(2) inhibits hepatic iodothyronine deiodinase type 2 (D2) activity and lowers mRNA levels in the killifish in the same manner as T(3) and T(4), suggesting a pretranslational effect of 3,5-T(2) (Garcia-G C, Jeziorski MC, Valverde-R C, Orozco A. Gen Comp Endocrinol 135: 201-209, 2004). The question remains as to whether 3,5-T(2) would have effects under conditions similar to those that are physiological for T(3). To this end, intact killifish were rendered hypothyroid by administering methimazole. Groups of hypothyroid animals simultaneously received 30 nM of either T(3), reverse T(3), or 3,5-T(2). Under these conditions, we expected that, if it were bioactive, 3,5-T(2) would mimic T(3) and thus reverse the compensatory upregulation of D2 and tyroid receptor beta1 and downregulation of growth hormone that characterize hypothyroidism. Our results demonstrate that 3,5-T(2) is indeed bioactive, reversing both hepatic D2 and growth hormone responses during a hypothyroidal state. Furthermore, we observed that 3,5-T(2) and T(3) recruit two distinct populations of transcription factors to typical palindromic and DR4 thyroid hormone response elements. Taken together, these results add further evidence to support the notion that 3,5-T(2) is a bioactive iodothyronine.

  7. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10847-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _GS-28-01-01-1... 56 2e-07 4 ( FF434801 ) G142P60183RE5.T0 Acorn worm juvenile pCMVSport6 l... 50 2e-07 4 ( ...4RD5.T0 Acorn worm juvenile pCMVSport6 l... 50 2e-07 4 ( EJ993905 ) 1093023072306 Global-Ocean-Sampling_GS-3

  8. BIODEGRATION OF 2,4,5-TRICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID IN LIQUID CULTURE AND IN SOIL BY THE WHITE ROT FUNGUS PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive biodegradation of [14C]-2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid ([[14C]-2,4,5-T) by the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium was demonstrated in nutrient nitrogen-limited aqueous cultures and in [14C]-2,4,5-T-contaminated soil inoculat...

  9. Evidence favoring the involvement of CC chemokine receptor (CCR) 5 in T-lymphocyte accumulation in optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Ransohoff, R M; Jensen, J;

    2003-01-01

    To define the relationships between levels of chemokine receptor (CCR)5+ T-cells in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of optic neuritis (ON) and control patients (CON).......To define the relationships between levels of chemokine receptor (CCR)5+ T-cells in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of optic neuritis (ON) and control patients (CON)....

  10. Signal abnormalities on 1.5 and 3 Tesla brain MRI in multiple sclerosis patients and healthy controls. A morphological and spatial quantitative comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Perri, Carol; Dwyer, Michael G; Wack, David S; Cox, Jennifer L; Hashmi, Komal; Saluste, Erik; Hussein, Sara; Schirda, Claudiu; Stosic, Milena; Durfee, Jacqueline; Poloni, Guy U; Nayyar, Navdeep; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Zivadinov, Robert

    2009-10-01

    Previous studies in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) revealed increased lesion count and volume on 3 T compared to 1.5 T. Morphological and spatial lesion characteristics between 1.5 T and 3 T have not been examined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of changing from a 1.5 T to a 3 T MRI scanner on the number, volume and spatial distribution of signal abnormalities (SA) on brain MRI in a sample of MS patients and normal controls (NC), using pair- and voxel-wise comparison procedures. Forty-one (41) MS patients (32 relapsing-remitting and 9 secondary-progressive) and 38 NC were examined on both 1.5 T and 3 T within one week in random order. T2-weighted hyperintensities (T2H) and T1-weighted hypointensities (T1H) were outlined semiautomatically by two operators in a blinded fashion on 1.5 T and 3 T images. Spatial lesion distribution was assessed using T2 and T1 voxel-wise SA probability maps (SAPM). Pair-wise analysis examined the proportion of SA not simultaneously outlined on 1.5 T and 3 T. A posteriori unblinded analysis was conducted to examine the non-overlapping identifications of SA between the 1.5 T and 3 T. For pair-wise T2- and T1-analyses, a higher number and individual volume of SA were detected on 3 T compared to 1.5 T (pmap (SAPM) analysis revealed significantly more regionally distinct spatial SA differences on 3 T compared to 1.5 T in both groups (pmorphological and spatial differences between data acquired using 1.5 T and 3 T protocols at the two scanner field strengths.

  11. Paracoccus fistulariae sp. nov., a lipolytic bacterium isolated from bluespotted cornetfish, Fistularia commersonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Ok; Kong, Hee Jeong; Park, Sooyeon; Kang, So-Jung; Kim, Kyung-Kil; Moon, Dae Yeon; Oh, Tae-Kwang; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2010-12-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, non-spore-forming and short rod- or rod-shaped bacterial strain, designated 22-5(T), was isolated from a bluespotted cornetfish, Fistularia commersonii, and subjected to taxonomic study. Strain 22-5(T) grew optimally at 30 °C and in the presence of 2-5 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain 22-5(T) belonged to the genus Paracoccus and joined the cluster comprising Paracoccus homiensis DD-R11(T) and Paracoccus zeaxanthinifaciens ATCC 21588(T), with which strain 22-5(T) exhibited 97.4 and 96.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, respectively. Strain 22-5(T) exhibited 94.0-96.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the other type strains of species of the genus Paracoccus. Strain 22-5(T) contained Q-10 as the predominant menaquinone and C(18 : 1)ω7c as the predominant fatty acid. In this study, P. zeaxanthinifaciens KCTC 22688(T) also contained Q-10 as the predominant isoprenoid quinone. The DNA G+C content of strain 22-5(T) was 63.6 mol%. Strain 22-5(T) exhibited 44 and 32 % DNA-DNA relatedness to P. homiensis KACC 11518(T) and P. zeaxanthinifaciens KCTC 22688(T), respectively. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic and genetic data, strain 22-5(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Paracoccus, for which the name Paracoccus fistulariae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is 22-5(T) (=KCTC 22803(T) =CCUG 58401(T)).

  12. MR angiography in moyamoya disease under the different magnetic field strengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Matsushima, Toshio; Ikezaki, Kiyonobu; Inoue, Tooru; Fukui, Masashi; Hasuo, Kanehiro [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Nakayama, Taku

    1995-06-01

    MR angiography (MRA) has been developing rapidly as a clinically useful modality. Currently, MRA studies are performed with the range of 0.5 to 1.5T MR units. We compared the MRA findings obtained under different magnetic field strengths in eight patients (16 sides) with moyamoya disease in order to evaluate their accuracy in comparison with the conventional cerebral angiographic findings on these individuals. 3D-TOF MRA with 1.5T demonstrated almost the same steno-occlusive changes of the main trunk of Willis` circle as did conventional cerebral angiography. However, 0.5T MRA tended to overestimate these changes as occlusive lesions. Basal moyamoya vessels were detected by 1.5T 3D-TOF MRA in 12 of 16 sides (75%) and in 7 of 16 sides (44%) by 0.5T 3D-TOF MRA. We could diagnose moyamoya disease in 50% of the patients with 1.5T and in 25% of them with 0.5T 3D-TOF MRA alone. In combination with other imaging methods, such as 2D-TOF and PC, the rate of diagnoses increased to up to 75% and 38% with 1.5T and 0.5T MR units, respectively. MRA with higher magnetic field strength had greater sensitivity and could detect more accurately two different vascular abnormalities such as steno-occlusive changes and basal moyamoya vessels in moyamoya disease. One third of our patients, however, could be diagnosed as having moyamoya disease with 0.5T MRA alone. (author).

  13. Paenibacillus sonchi sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing species isolated from the rhizosphere of Sonchus oleraceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yuan-Yuan; Ma, Yu-Chao; Zhou, Yu-Guang; Gao, Fei; Liu, Hong-Can; Chen, San-Feng

    2009-11-01

    A nitrogen-fixing bacterium, designated strain X19-5(T), was isolated from rhizosphere soil of Sonchus oleraceus. Phylogenetic analysis based on a fragment of the nifH gene and the full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence revealed that strain X19-5(T) was a member of the genus Paenibacillus. Strain X19-5(T) showed the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (98.8 %) with Paenibacillus graminis RSA19(T) and below 97 % similarity with other recognized members of the genus. The level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain X19-5(T) and P. graminis RSA19(T) was 45.7 %. The DNA G+C content of strain X19-5(T) was 46.8 mol%. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C(15 : 0), C(16 : 0) and iso-C(16 : 0). On the basis of its phenotypic characteristics and the level of DNA-DNA hybridization, strain X19-5(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus sonchi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is X19-5(T) (=CCBAU 83901(T)=LMG 24727(T)).

  14. In vivo and ex vivo proton MR spectroscopy of primary and secondary melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourne, Roger M.; Stanwell, Peter; Stretch, Jonathan R.; Scolyer, Richard A.; Thompson, John F.; Mountford, Carolyn E.; Lean, Cynthia L

    2005-03-01

    In vivo magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopy at 1.5T was performed on a large polypoid cutaneous melanoma, and two enlarged lymph nodes containing metastatic melanoma, from three patients. Spectra were acquired in vivo from voxels wholly within the primary tumour or secondary lymph node and were thus uncontaminated by signals from adjacent tissue. Tissue biopsies taken after resection of primary tumours and secondary lymph nodes were examined by 8.5T magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and the results compared with the in vivo spectra, and with spectra from normal skin and a benign skin lesion. There was good agreement between the dominant features of 1.5T spectra acquired in vivo and 8.5T spectra acquired from resected tissue. However, less intense resonances observed at 8.5T in malignant biopsy tissue were not consistently observed at 1.5T in vivo. In vivo spectra from primary and metastatic melanoma showed high levels of choline metabolites. An intense lactate resonance was also present in the in vivo spectrum of primary melanoma. All 8.5T spectra of biopsies from primary and secondary melanoma showed high levels of choline metabolites and lactate, and additional resonances consistent with elevated levels of taurine, alanine, lysine, and glutamate/glutamine relative to normal and benign tissue. Elevated levels of choline, lactate, taurine, and amino acids appear to be clinically useful markers for identifying the pathology of primary and metastatic melanoma.

  15. Herbage Production, Nutritive Value and Grazing Preference of Diploid and Tetraploid Perennial Ryegrass Cultivars (Lolium perenne L. Producción de Fitomasa, Calidad Nutritiva y Preferencia de Pastoreo de Cultivares Diploides y Tetraploides de Ballica Perenne (Lolium perenne L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar A Balocchi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine, under the soil and climatic conditions of Southern Chile, the effect of the ploidy of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. cultivars on herbage production, nutritive value, grazing preference and utilization of pasture produced. This study was conducted in southern Chile, Valdivia Province, and was evaluated for 3 years. The tetraploid cultivars used were Quartet (4n, Gwendal (4n, Pastoral (4n and Napoleon (4n. The diploid cultivars were Anita (2n, Jumbo (2n, Aries (2n, and Yatsyn 1 (2n.When the average sward height reached 20 cm, all plots were simultaneously grazed by dairy cows for a period of 24 h. Before and after grazing, sward height, dry matter availability and nutritive value were evaluated. Grazing preference was visually assessed every 5 min for a period of 2.5 h after the afternoon milking. During the 3-year period 20 grazing events were evaluated. A randomized complete block design, with eight cultivars and three replicates, was used. Diploid cultivars showed greater herbage mass accumulation than tetraploid cultivars (P ≤ 0.05. No significant differences were obtained in the annual average crude protein content. Nevertheless, tetraploid cultivars showed a greater D value than diploid cultivars, except during the third year when the difference was not statistically significant. Dairy cows grazed more time on tetraploid cultivars. Considering, additionally, the residual herbage mass after grazing and the percentage of pasture utilization, diploid cultivars were less intensively grazed, suggesting a lower consumption by the cows.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar, bajo las condiciones edafoclimáticas del sur de Chile, el efecto de la ploidía de cultivares de ballica perenne (Lolium perenne L. sobre el rendimiento de fitomasa, calidad nutricional, preferencia de pastoreo y porcentaje de utilización del forraje producido. El ensayo se realizó en el sur de Chile, provincia de

  16. Similaridade genética entre cultivares de cebola de diferentes tipos e origens, baseada em marcadores AFLP Genetic similarity among onion cultivars of different types and origins, based on AFLP markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAF Santos

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi estimada a similaridade genética entre cultivares de cebola de diferentes tipos e regiões geográficas, de forma a orientar programas de recursos genéticos e melhoramento da espécie no Nordeste brasileiro. Foram analisadas 41 cultivares, adotando-se para a visualização da similaridade genética o fenograma UPGMA gerado da matriz de distâncias genéticas estimadas pelo coeficiente de Jaccard e baseadas em 146 bandas polimórficas de Pst1 e Mse1 de AFLP. A correlação cofenética foi de 0,91, indicando boa confiabilidade da representação gráfica para a interpretação dos resultados. Foram observados dois grupos principais no fenograma, no ponto de corte de 0,55 de similaridade: 1 grupo formado por cultivares predominantemente brasileiras, com algumas inclusões de cultivares estrangeiras; e 2 grupo formado por três cultivares estrangeiras (Mercedes, Perfect e TEG 502 PRR. Rijnsburger Jumbo e IPA 8 apresentaram a maior similaridade (85%, enquanto Madrugada foi a mais divergente em relação às demais cultivares. As cultivares da série IPA se dividiram em subgrupos no grupo das cultivares brasileiras (IPA 8, IPA 10 e IPA 11; IPA 12, IPA 7, IPA 2 e IPA 6; IPA 3, IPA 4 e IPA 9, indicando haver variabilidade genética a ser explorada entre aquelas situadas em subgrupos distintos. Bola Precoce e BRS Cascata apresentaram a maior similaridade entre as cultivares de origem brasileira. Foi observada similaridade superior a 39%, refletindo a alta variabilidade genética da coleção de cebola estudada. A introdução de novos acessos deve considerar procedências outras que não norte americanas, para aumentar a variabilidade de germoplasma de cebola disponível no Nordeste do Brasil.The genetic similarity among onion cultivars of different origins was evaluated, in order to carry out genetic resources and breeding programs for this species on the Brazilian Northeast. Forty-one onion cultivars were analyzed for 146 polymorphic Pst1/Mse1

  17. Daily food intake of Kajikia audax (Philippi, 1887 off Cabo San Lucas, Gulf of California, Mexico Tasa de consumo diario de alimento de Kajikia audax (Philippi, 1887 frente a Cabo San Lucas, golfo de California, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo A Abitia-Cárdenas

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The daily food intake rates of the striped marlin, Kajikia audax (Perciformes: Istiophoridae, were estimated using qualitative and quantitative analyses of their trophic spectrum. We analyzed the stomach contents of 505 striped marlin caught by the sport fishing fleet off Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, Mexico, sampled from October 1987 through December 1989. The most important preys were chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus, California pilchard (Sardinops caeruleus, and jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas; together these represented ~55% of the striped marlin diet. The daily food consumption was estimated to be 2 kg per day, or ~3.6% of the mean body weight of K. audax. The total biomass of the prey consumed by the striped marlin during the 27 months of sampling around Los Cabos was estimated at 24.8 ton, of which the chub mackerel represented ~29% (7.2 ton, California pilchard just under 16% (3.9 ton, and jumbo squid ~10% (2.5 ton. The feeding habits of K. audax are discussed in terms of the distribution of the epipelagic (neritic and oceanic zones, demersal, and benthic prey, confirming that striped marlin migrate vertically and horizontally in search of their food.Se estimó la tasa de consumo diario de alimento del marlín rayado Kajikia audax (Perciformes: Istiophoridae, sobre la base de análisis cualitativos y cuantitativos de su espectro trófico. Se analizó el contenido estomacal de 505 ejemplares capturados por la flota deportiva frente a Cabo San Lucas, Baja California Sur, México muestreados de octubre 1987 a diciembre 1989. Las presas más importantes fueron la macarela del Pacífico (Scomber japonicus, sardina monterrey (Sardinops caeruleus y calamar gigante (Dosidicus gigas, que en conjunto representaron aproximadamente el 55% de la dieta. La tasa de consumo de alimento fue estimado en 2 kg diarios, lo cual representó aproximadamente el 3,6% del peso corporal de K. audax. La biomasa total de presas consumidas por el marlín rayado

  18. 秘鲁外海茎柔鱼渔场时空分布分析%Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Fishing Ground for Dosidicus giga s in the Offshore Waters of Peru

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐冰; 陈新军; 钱卫国; 田思泉

    2011-01-01

    Jumbo flying squid, Dosidicus gigas, distributed in the waters of Peru, is an important economic squid. Understanding of the spatial and temporal variations in the distribution of this squid is useful to rational utilization of its resources. In this study, based on the fishing data and sea surface temperature (SST) collected by Chinese squid fleets in the waters off Peru from 2003 to 2004 and from 2006 to 2009, the methods of spatial distance and aggregative analysis were used to study the spatial and temporal variations in fishing ground for Dosidicus gigas. The result indicated that there were some differences on the gravity between years. It was found that the position of longitude showed westward move with months, whereas its latitude showed northward shift from January to June and southward shift from July to December. The cluster analysis showed that four groups are divided, I. E. (2003, (2006 and 2008)), (2004, (2007 and 2009)) respectively. The results indicated that the gravities of catch between 2006 and 2009 are different. The former's weight position of catch is 82°23'W and 12°53'S and the tatter's weight position of catch is 81°47 W and 14°27' S, which have 1. 5 degrees of latitude difference. The results showed that the monthly difference in fishing ground may be caused by the migration of jumbo flying squid, and the annual difference in fishing ground may be related to the changes of marine environment.%秘鲁外海茎柔鱼是重要的经济性种类,掌握其渔场时空分布规律有助于资源的合理利用.本文根据2003-2004年和2006-2009年我国鱿钓船在秘鲁外海的生产统计和海洋表面温度(SST)等资料,使用空间距离和聚类分析的方法,对其各年间渔场时空分布进行分析比较.结果表明,各年产量重心的分布都存在一定差异,产量重心在经度上随月份整体上呈现向西移动的趋势,在纬度方向上1~6月整体上呈向北移动的趋势,7~12月则表现出向南移

  19. Avaliação de genótipos de tomateiro tipo Santa Cruz no período de ver��o, em Araguari, MG Evaluation of tomato genotypes (Santa Cruz type during the summer season, in Araguari, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Peixoto

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi desenvolvido na fazenda Jordão (município de Araguari, MG, na época do verão (período das águas, com o objetivo de verificar o desempenho agronômico de genótipos de tomateiro tipo Santa Cruz. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental blocos casualizados, com 16 tratamentos (genótipos e quatro repetições. A parcela experimental foi constituída por duas fileiras com 12 plantas cada, no espaçamento de 1,00 m entre linhas e 0,55 m entre plantas (1 planta/cova. Efetuaram-se 17 colheitas, sendo a primeira aos 69 dias após o transplante. Vários genótipos apresentaram um bom desempenho agronômico, principalmente Saladinha, Débora Plus, SM-16 e Atlas, podendo ser cultivados no período de verão. Apenas Saladinha e Atlas ultrapassaram 140 g de peso médio, destacando-se também em frutos do tipo extra AA. Observou-se uma correlação significativa e negativa com r = -0,52 e -0,54 na primeira avaliação, e r = -0,55 e -0,45 na segunda avaliação para a produção total e produção comercial, respectivamente, em relação à incidência de geminivírus nos diferentes genótipos. Os híbridos Saladinha e SM-16 apresentaram o menor número de plantas viróticas, enquanto Santa Clara Importada, Santa Clara, Jumbo AG-592 e IAC Santa Clara, apresentaram o maior número.A field experiment was carried out in the Jordão farm in Araguari, MG, Brazil, during the summer season, to evaluate the agronomic potential of genotypes (Santa Cruz type of tomato. A randomized block design was used with 16 treatments (genotypes and four replicates. The experimental plot was made up of two lines (1.00 m between lines and 0.55 m between plants with 12 plants each (1 plant/pit. Seventeen harvests were made, starting 69 days after transplanting. Several genotypes as Saladinha, Débora Plus, SM-16 and Atlas had a good agronomic performance, being recommended to be cultivated in the region, in the summer season. Classified as AA type, the Saladinha

  20. EFEITO DO NITRATO DE POTÁSSIO NA REDUÇÃO DO ESTRESSE SALINO NO MELOEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WALDEMAR PEREIRA DE ANDRADE JÚNIOR

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to evaluated the effect of the use of potassium nitrate on the reduction of stress on the melon plants exposed to excess salt in the irrigation water. The experiment was carried out at the Centro de Ciências e Tecnologia Agroalimentar (CCTA/UFCG Pombal-PB, from 19/09/2009 to 20/10/2009, using the hybrid melon 'Hales Best Jumbo'. The treatments consisted of two levels of of salinity of the irrigation water (0.3 and 5.0 dS m-1 and rates of N in the form of potassium nitrate (5.5; 6.25; 7.0 and 8.5g per plant. The experimental design was randomized blocks, on the factorial scheme 2x4, with four replications. The highest rates of photosynthesis, stomatic conductivity, transpiration, leaf area, total dry mass and the fruit yield per plant were observed on melon plants irrigated with low salinity water (0.3 dS m-1 compared to the ones with the high saline water (5.0 dS m-1, and on rates of N between 6.10 and 7.8g of N per plant for both levels of salinity. The supply of N in the form of potassium nitrate was effective on reducing the melon plant the stressing effect caused by the salinity of the irrigation water up to the rate of 6.85g of N per plant. On absolute terms we can affirm that the best performance of the melon plant was achieved with the rate of 7.0g of N per plan when irrigated with normal water and 6.25 of N per plant when irrigated with saline water.

  1. Marine Invertebrates: Communities at Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Mather

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Our definition of the word ‘animal’ centers on vertebrates, yet 99% of the animals on the planet are invertebrates, about which we know little. In addition, although the Census of Marine Life (COML.org has recently conducted an extensive audit of marine ecosystems, we still do not understand much about the animals of the seas. Surveys of the best-known ecosystems, in which invertebrate populations often play a key role, show that the invertebrate populations are affected by human impact. Coral animals are the foundation of coral reef systems, which are estimated to contain 30% of the species in the ocean. Physical impact and chemical changes on the water severely damage these reefs, and may lead to the removal of these important habitats. Tiny pteropod molluscs live in huge numbers in the polar seas, and their fragile shells are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. Their removal would mean that fishes on which we depend would have a hugely diminished food supply. In the North Sea, warming is leading to replacement of colder water copepods by warmer water species which contain less fat. This is having an effect on the birds which eat them, who enrich the otherwise poor land on which they nest. Conversely, the warming of the water and the loss of top predators such as whales and sharks has led to an explosion of the jumbo squid of the Pacific coast of North America. This is positive in the development of a squid fishery, yet negative because the squid eat fish that have been the mainstay of the fishery along that coast. These examples show how invertebrates are key in the oceans, and what might happen when global changes impact them.

  2. Impact of the structural differences between α- and β-chitosan on their depolymerizing reaction and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jooyeoun; Zhao, Yanyun

    2013-09-18

    The polymeric structure characteristics of β-chitosan from jumbo squid (Dosidicus gigas) pens and α-chitosan from shrimp shells during depolymerization by cellulase hydrolysis at different degrees of deacetylation (DDA) (60, 75, and 90%) were investigated by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Antibacterial activity of β-chitosan against Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua was compared with that of α-chitosan at similar Mw and degrees of deacetylation (DDA) by studying inhibition ratio and minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) and was coordinated with the structural characteristics of the two forms of chitosan. β-Chitosan was more reactive to cellulase hydrolysis than α-chitosan due to its relatively lower crystallinity (CI) and loose crystal property, and the 75% DDA chitosan was more susceptible to cellulase than the 90% DDA ones with the 75% DDA of β-chitosan mostly reactive. Both forms of chitosan showed more inhibition against E. coli than against L. innocua, and no difference against L. innocua between the two forms of chitosan was observed. However, the two forms of chitosan exhibited different levels of antibacterial activity against E. coli, in which 75% DDA/31 kDa β-chitosan demonstrated significantly higher inhibition (lower MIC) than that of 75% DDA/31 kDa α-chitosan, whereas 90% DDA/74-76 kDa α-chitosan had a higher inhibition ratio than that of 90% DDA/74-76 kDa of β-chitosan. This result may be explained by the impact of the different structural properties between α- and β-chitosan on chitosan conformations in the solution. This study provided new information about the biological activities of β-chitosan, a bioactive compound with unique functionalities and great potential for food and other applications.

  3. Effect of pulsed ultrasound on the physicochemical characteristics and emulsifying properties of squid (Dosidicus gigas) mantle proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuera-Barraza, O A; Torres-Arreola, W; Ezquerra-Brauer, J M; Cinco-Moroyoqui, F J; Rodríguez Figueroa, J C; Marquez-Ríos, E

    2017-01-12

    Food technologists are always looking to improve the functional properties of proteins. In this sense, in last years ultrasound has been used to improve some functional properties. For this reason, and considering that jumbo squid is an important fishery in northwest Mexico, the purpose of this research was to determine the effect of pulsed ultrasound on the physicochemical characteristics and emulsifying properties of squid (Dosidicus gigas) mantle proteins. Pulsed ultrasound (20kHz, 20, and 40% amplitude) was applied for 30, 60, and 90s to a protein extract prepared from giant squid mantle causing an increase (p<0.05) in surface hydrophobicity (So) from 108.4±1.4 to 239.1±2.4 after application of pulsed ultrasound at 40% of amplitude for 90s. The electrophoretic profile and the total and reactive sulfhydryl contents were not affected (p⩾0.05) by the ultrasound treatment. The emulsifying ability of the protein solution was improved (p<0.05), whereas the Emulsifier Activity Index (EAI) varied from123.67±5.52m(2)/g for the control and increased up to 217.7±3.8m(2)/g after application of the ultrasound. The Stability Emulsifier Index (EEI) was improved at 40% of amplitude by 60 and 90s. The results suggested that pulsed ultrasound used as pretreatment induced conformational changes in giant squid proteins, which improved the interfacial association between protein-oil phases, thus contributing to the improvement of their emulsifient properties.

  4. The LARsen Ice Shelf System, Antarctica, LARISSA a Model for Antarctic Integrated System Science (AISS) Investigations using Marine Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domack, E. W.; Huber, B. A.; Vernet, M.; Leventer, A.; Scambos, T. A.; Mosley-Thompson, E. S.; Smith, C. R.; de Batist, M. A.; Yoon, H.; Larissa

    2010-12-01

    The LARISSA program is the first interdisciplinary project funded in the AISS program of the NSF Office of Polar Programs and was officially launched in the closing days of the IPY. This program brings together investigators, students, and media to address the rapid and fundamental changes taking place in the region of the Larsen Ice Shelf and surrounding areas. Scientific foci include: glaciologic and oceanographic interactions, the response of pelagic and benthic ecosystems to ice shelf decay, sedimentary record of ice shelf break disintegration, the geologic evolution of ice shelf systems over the last 100,000 years, paleoclimate/environmental records from marine sediment and ice cores, and the crustal response to ice mass loss at decade to millennial time scales. The first major field season took place this past austral summer aboard the NB Palmer (cruise NBP10-01) which deployed with a multi-layered logistical infrastructure that included: two Bell 220 aircraft, a multifunctional deep water ROV, video guided sediment corer, jumbo piston core, and an array of oceanographic and biological sensors and instruments. In tandem with this ship based operation Twin Otter aircraft supported an ice core team upon the crest of the Bruce Plateau with logistic support provided by the BAS at Rothera Station. Although unusually heavy sea ice prevented much of the original work from being completed in the Larsen Embayment the interdisciplinary approach proved useful. Further the logistical model of ship based aircraft to support interdisciplinary work proved viable, again despite an unusually severe summer meterologic pattern across the northern Antarctic Peninsula. As the program moves forward other vessels will come into play and the model can be applied to interdisciplinary objectives in other regions of Antarctica which are remote and lack land based infrastructure to support coastal field programs in glaciology, geology, or meteorology. This work could then be completed

  5. The gastric acid pocket is attenuated in H. pylori infected subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, David R; Derakhshan, Mohammad H; Wirz, Angela A; Orange, Clare; Ballantyne, Stuart A; Going, James J; McColl, Kenneth E L

    2017-09-01

    Gastric acid secretory capacity in different anatomical regions, including the postprandial acid pocket, was assessed in Helicobacter pylori positive and negative volunteers in a Western population. We studied 31 H. pylori positive and 28 H. pylori negative volunteers, matched for age, gender and body mass index. Jumbo biopsies were taken at 11 predetermined locations from the gastro-oesophageal junction and stomach. Combined high-resolution pH metry (12 sensors) and manometry (36 sensors) was performed for 20 min fasted and 90 min postprandially. The squamocolumnar junction was marked with radio-opaque clips and visualised radiologically. Biopsies were scored for inflammation and density of parietal, chief and G cells immunohistochemically. Under fasting conditions, the H. pylori positives had less intragastric acidity compared with negatives at all sensors >1.1 cm distal to the peak lower oesophageal sphincter (LES) pressure (ppylori positives at sensors 2.2, 3.3 and 4.4 cm distal to the peak LES pressure (ppylori positives. The H. pylori positives had a lower density of parietal and chief cells compared with H. pylori negatives in 10 of the 11 gastric locations (ppylori positives were CagA-seropositive and showed a more marked reduction in intragastric acidity and increased mucosal inflammation. In population volunteers, H. pylori positives have reduced intragastric acidity which most markedly affects the postprandial acid pocket. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Performance and Meat Quality of Broilers Infected with Escherichia coli and Administered with Bio Additive, Probiotic, and Antibiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Istiqomah

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to determine the efficacy of bio additive administration (a mixture of Lumbricus rubellus extract, Morinda citrifolia leaves extract and lactic acid bacteria, probiotic, and antibiotic to the performance and meat quality of broiler infected with Avian Pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC. In this study, 140 Jumbo 747 unsexed one-day old chicks were distributed randomly into 20 units of cages, each filled with 7 broilers. Twenty cages were assigned into 5 treatment groups, each treatment in 4 equal replicates. The treatments were as follows: A= E. coli infection (positive control, B= E. coli infection + bio additive, C= E. coli infection + probiotic, D= E. coli infection + antibiotic, E= No E. coli infection (negative control. A commercial corn-soybean-based broiler diet was formulated as the basal diets. The experimental period was 35 d and at 21st d of age the broilers were infected with E. coli except the E treatment. The result showed that bio additive administration (B increased the final body weight (1,659.52 g and body weight gain (1,616.81 g and resulted in less FCR (1.87 among other treatments. The lowest mortality rate was recorded in B treatment (3.57% and D treatment (3.57%. Probiotic (C treatment and antibiotic (D treatment decreased (P<0.05 meat pH and tenderness compared to other treatments. Meanwhile bio additive administration did not affect the meat quality (pH, cooking loss, water-holding capacity, tenderness, and fat compared to positive and negative controls. The lowest meat cholesterol content was observed in B treatment (54.02 mg/100 g. It is concluded that bio additive administration on broiler infected with E. coli increased the broiler performance and decreased the meat cholesterol compared to other treatments.

  7. Possibilities of production of smokeless fuel via carbonization of Czech coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchtele, J.; Straka, P. [Inst. of Rock Structure and Mechanics, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    It was consumed 48 -51 % of hard coal (total output 28 - 30 Mt/year) in a long period for the production of coke. It appears to be anomaly in comparison with other coke producers in Europe and in the world, it was predeterminated by {open_quotes}steel conception{close_quotes} of state`s economics. The production of coke reached 10-11 Mt/year in former Czechoslovakia in the period 1970-1990. A considerable quantity 1.2 - 1.7 Mt/year of produced coke was utilized for heating. In comparison, 7-5.4 Mt coke/year was it in Poland for the heating. Al coke production is realized on the basis of Czech hard coals mined in the southern part of Upper Silesian Coal District. The coke production is operated in multi-chamber system with full recovery of chemical products (gas, raw tar, raw benzene, amonium etc.). The future trend of smokeless fuel production in Czech Republic makes for to the non-recovery coke oven, it means to two-product processes (coke + reduction gas, coke + electricity and so on). Jewell--Thompson coke oven (hard coal) and Salem oven (ignites) represent nonrecovery nowadays. The possibility of it`s application in Czech Republic are discussed. Jumbo coking reactor system (European project No. 500 to the Eureka programme) produces primarily metallurgical coke. The strong Clean Air Act suspends the production of smokeless fuel in multi-chamber system also in Czech Republic for the future period 2010-2020.

  8. The effects of deifcit irrigation on nitrogen consumption, yield, and quality in drip irrigated grafted and ungrafted watermelon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seluk zmen; Rza Kanber; Nebahat Sar; Mustafa nl

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of deifcit irrigation on nitrogen consumption, yield, and quality in grafted and ungrafted watermelon. The study was conducted in Çukurova region, Eastern Mediterranean, Turkey, between 2006 and 2008, and employed 3 irrigation rates (ful irrigation (I100) with no stress, moderate irrigation (DI70), and low irrigation (DI50);DI70 and DI50 were considered deifcit irrigation) on grafted (CTJ, Crimson Tide+Jumbo) and the ungrafted (CT, Crim-son Tide) watermelon. The amount of irrigation water (IR) applied to the study plots were calculated based on cumulative pan evaporation that occurred during the irrigation intervals. Nitrogen consumption was 16%lower in CTJ plants than in CT plants. On the other hand, consumption of nitrogen was 28%high