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Sample records for juliet popper shaffer

  1. Profiles in Research: Juliet Popper Shaffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Robinson interviews Juliet Popper Shaffer, a scientist, who graduated from Swarthmore College in 1953 and Stanford in 1957 with degrees in psychology and concentrations in math, philosophy, and statistics. In 2004 she received the second Florence Nightingale David award given biannually by the Committee of Presidents of Statistical Societies to a…

  2. Popper's Fallibilism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkinson, Henry

    1978-01-01

    Describes the theories of Karl Popper regarding scientific knowledge and scientific methodology; tells how the Popper-Darwinian theory of growth of knowledge offers an alternative nonauthoritarian conception of the educational process, and thus an alternative conception of the functions of the teacher and the school. (GT)

  3. Bouncing Poppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Michael; Möllmann, Klaus-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Toys are known to attract interest in physics and they are therefore often used in physics teaching of various topics. The present paper deals with a simple toy, the so-called "hopper popper," which, similar to superballs, can be used when teaching mechanics. We suggest some experiments and describe the basic physics of this toy, also…

  4. Poppers retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis, Joshua; Virdi, Meena; Nabili, Shahriar

    2016-03-07

    We present a case of a 52-year-old man with sudden, bilateral central loss of vision as a result of inhalation of 'poppers'. He was found to have characteristic changes on optical coherence tomography. With conservative treatment, the patient's vision improved marginally at 3 months follow-up. An overview of previous published cases is also included. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  5. A Tragedy of Love-Romeo and Juliet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱燕

    2016-01-01

    Romeo and Juliet is one of the most famous dramas of William Shakespeare. I like the novel very much and will give some ideas and comments from the three points: first, the difference between Romeo and Juliet & Butterfly Lovers; Second, the analysis of Romeo and Juliet's characters; Third, the great significance of the novel.

  6. Understanding "Romeo and Juliet": A Thematic Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koveleski, Erin

    This curriculum unit for Grade 9 combines the classic Shakespeare play "Romeo and Juliet" with three young adult novels: "The Outsiders" (S.E. Hinton), "Summer of My German Soldier" (Bette Greene), and "The Witch of Blackbird Pond" (Elizabeth George Speare). To complete the unit, all students will be…

  7. Prokofiev. "Romeo and Juliet" - Suites / Iran March

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    March, Iran

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Prokofiev. "Romeo and Juliet" - Suites: N 1 Op. 64 bis a; N 2 Op. 64 ter b; N 3 Op. 101 c. Royal Scottish National Orchestra /Neeme Järvi" Chandos cassette ABTD 1536; CD CHAN 8940 (78 minutes) etc

  8. Popper's Thought Experiment Reinvestigated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Chris; Dowling, Jonathan

    2012-02-01

    Karl Popper posed an interesting thought experiment in 1934. With it, he meant to question the completeness of quantum mechanics. He claimed that the notion of quantum entanglement leads to absurd scenarios that cannot be true in real life and that an implementation of his thought experiment would not give the results that QM predicts. Unfortunately for Popper, it has taken until recently to perform experiments that test his claims. The results of the experiments do not refute QM as Popper predicted, but neither do they confirm what Popper claimed QM predicted. Kim and Shih implemented Popper's thought experiment in the lab. The results of the experiment are not clear and have instigated many interpretations of the results. The results show some correlation between entangled photons, but not in the way that Popper thought, nor in the way a simple application of QM might predict. A ghost-imaging experiment by Strekalov, et al. sheds light on the physics behind Popper's thought experiment, but does not try to directly test it. I will build the physics of Popper's thought experiment from the ground up and show how the results of both of these experiments agree with each other and the theory of QM, but disprove Popper.

  9. Understanding Popper's experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Tabish

    2005-06-01

    An experiment proposed by Karl Popper is considered by many to be a crucial test of quantum mechanics. Although many loopholes in the original proposal have been pointed out, they are not crucial to the test. We use only the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics to point out what is fundamentally wrong with the proposal, and demonstrate that Popper's basic premise was faulty.

  10. Godiva and Juliet Diagnostics CED-1 (IER-176)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scorby, J C

    2011-12-21

    A suite of diagnostics are being proposed for use in the Juliet experiment (IER-128). In order to calibrate and test the diagnostics prior to use, the LLNL calibration facility and Godiva pulsed reactor will be used to provide intense sources of neutrons and gammas. Due to the similarities of the Godiva and Juliet radiation fields, the diagnostics being developed and tested for Juliet can also play an on-going role in diagnostics for Godiva as well as, perhaps, other critical assembly experiments. Similar work is also being conducted for IER-147 for the purpose of characterizing the Godiva radiation field in support of an upcoming international nuclear accident dosimetry exercise. Diagnostics developed and fielded under IER-147 can provide valuable data with respect to the neutron and gamma energy spectrums in the vicinity of Godiva which is relevant to the calibration of Juliet diagnostics.

  11. Prokofiev: Romeo and Juliet - Suite N1 / Ivan March

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    March, Ivan

    1990-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Prokofiev: Romeo and Juliet - Suite N1, Op.64b, N2, Op.64c. Philharmonia Orchestra, Barry Wordsworth" Collins Classics cassette 1116-4. CD. Võrreldud Neeme Järvi plaadistustega 1116-2

  12. Poppers "Kritischer Rationalismus"

    OpenAIRE

    Obermeier, Otto P.

    1980-01-01

    Poppers "Kritischer Rationalismus" : e. Auseinandersetzung über d. Reichweite seiner Philosophie. - München : Vögel, 1980. - 213 S. - Zugl.: Augsburg, Univ., Diss., 1979. - (Schriften der Philosophischen Fakultäten der Universität Augsburg ; 19)

  13. Pop in a Popper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article describes Pop in a Popper, an effective lesson for teaching students how to choose and use words to give their writing fluency and flair. Pop in a Popper introduces the appositive: a group of words inserted after a noun to modify that noun. In simplest terms, writers pop this group of words into a sentence to tell more about a noun.…

  14. [Poppers-associated maculopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlitzsch, M; Draghici, S; Mehrinfar, B M; Merinfhar, B M

    2013-07-01

    Poppers are a common drug belonging to the alkyl nitrite group and in use for several decades. They can be legally purchased for air freshening, but are illegal to buy for inhalation. Abuse is associated with maculopathy and visual loss as a rare side effect. A case series of 27 male, homosexual patients with poppers abuse presenting to a single eye clinic in Berlin, Germany, is described. Four patients with visual impairment and maculopathy associated with the inhalation of poppers were found. Four patients experienced subacute visual loss over 2-6 months, one patient can no longer read without a magnifying glass. The median age is 40.25 years (28-45 years). Three patients are HIV-positive (known since 10-22 years, HAART), a patient is also hepatitis C-positive. No other ocular and systemic diseases are known. Poppers have been inhaled for about 1.5, 12, 15 and 25 years (3-4 ×/week); all patients have a mixed use with the brands Jungle Juice, Rush and Amsterdam. Three patients noticed a simultaneous change in colour and shade. Clinical signs on fundoscopy ranged from normal foveal appearance to yellowish, dull macula. Optical coherence tomography (HD-OCT) showed varying degrees of disruption of the presumed inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junction; 3 cases bilaterally symmetrical. Although poppers have been in use for several decades, in 2007 in England, the popper composition was changed by law from isobutyl nitrite to isopropyl nitrite. It is hard to distinguish whether a specific nitrite group triggers the maculopathy or whether it is the dose level, thus suggesting the existence of a cumulative dose-response relationship. We postulate that a major factor of the manifestation of maculopathy is the individual limit of vulnerability. Despite decades of use, the majority of our series does not present any pathology. Limits of our patient population represents the HIV disease: three maculopathies of our series are HIV-associated and controlled by

  15. Karl Popper's Quantum Ghost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, William

    2004-05-01

    Karl Popper, though not trained as a physicist and embarrassed early in his career by a physics error pointed out by Einstein and Bohr, ultimately made substantial contributions to the interpretation of quantum mechanics. As was often the case, Popper initially formulated his position by criticizing the views of others - in this case Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg. Underlying Popper's criticism was his belief that, first, the "standard interpretation" of quantum mechanics, sometimes called the Copenhagen interpretation, abandoned scientific realism and second, the assertion that quantum theory was "complete" (an assertion rejected by Einstein among others) amounted to an unfalsifiable claim. Popper insisted that the most basic predictions of quantum mechanics should continue to be tested, with an eye towards falsification rather than mere adding of decimal places to confirmatory experiments. His persistent attacks on the Copenhagen interpretation were aimed not at the uncertainty principle itself and the formalism from which it was derived, but at the acceptance by physicists of an unclear epistemology and ontology that left critical questions unanswered. In 1999, physicists at the University of Maryland conducted a version of Popper's Experiment, re-igniting the debate over quantum predictions and the role of locality in physics.

  16. Against Popperized epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, M

    1976-03-01

    The recommendation of Popper's philosophy of science should be adopted by epidemiologists is disputed. Reference is made to other authors who have shown that the most constructive elements in Popper's ideas have been advocated by earlier philosophers and have been used in epidemiology without abandoning inductive reasoning. It is argued that Popper's denigration of inductive methods is particularly harmful to epidemiology. Inductive reasoning and statistical inference play a key role in the science; it is suggested that unfamiliarity with these ideas contributes to widespread misunderstanding of the function of epidemiology. Attention is drawn to a common fallacy involving correlations between three random variables. The prevalence of the fallacy may be related to confusion between deductive and inductive logic.

  17. Popper and Free Will

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Frederick

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Determinism seems incompatible with free will. However, even indeterminism seems incompatible with free will, since it seems to make free actions random. Popper contends that free agents are not bound by physical laws, even indeterministic ones, and that undetermined actions are not random if they are influenced by abstract entities. I argue that Popper could strengthen his account by drawing upon his theories of propensities and of limited rationality; but that even then his account would not fully explain why free actions are not random. I offer a solution to this problem which draws on Hornsby's analysis of action. I then borrow an idea of Kant about self-consciousness to distinguish free agents from sub-human animals. I make a brief evaluation of Popper's contribution.

  18. Clearinghouse: alcohol and poppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Ten articles from magazines and journals are referenced on the subjects of alcohol and poppers. Topics include alcohol consumption and HIV/AIDS-related risky sexual behavior, alcohol and drug abuse, and self-esteem, gender, and alcohol use. Contact information is provided.

  19. Chemistry and Popperism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeroyd, F. Michael

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of Karl Popper's theories to chemistry, examining scientific statements and verisimilitude (which indicates that newer theories should have a higher degree of truth content compared with older theories). Also provides examples illustrating the use of Agassi's criteria for assessing currently fashionable theories. (JN)

  20. Tights vs. Tattoos: Filmic Interpretations of "Romeo and Juliet."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jennifer L.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests students will view film adaptations of Shakespeare plays more critically by carefully analyzing the same scene from several different film versions. Discusses relevant scenes from "Romeo and Juliet" for classroom interpretation. Suggests that by providing students the vocabulary to discuss the film, educators can encourage them…

  1. A South African Romeo and Juliet : gender identity in Minky ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article examines how gender identity is represented in a filmic adaptation of Shakespeare's play text Romeo and Juliet within South Africa's postcolonial context, thereby positioning identity politics as crucial in the decolonial project. This article focuses on Minky Schlesinger's South African adaptation of Romeo and ...

  2. Sir Karl Popper and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Sir Karl Popper is one of England's most distinguished contemporary philosophers and it is surprising that his thought has not permeated and informed educational discussion. This paper suggests that educationists have much to learn from Karl Popper's writings and explores ways in which his ideas can illuminate and advance discussion about…

  3. The first quarto of Romeo and Juliet / William Shakespeare

    OpenAIRE

    Erne, Lukas Christian

    2007-01-01

    Two different versions of Romeo and Juliet were published during Shakespeare's lifetime: the second quarto of 1599, on which modern editions are usually based, and the first quarto of 1597. The latter version was long denigrated as a 'bad' quarto', but recent scholarship sees in it a crucial witness for the theatrical practices of Shakespeare and his company. The shorter of the two versions by about one quarter, the first quarto has high-paced action, fuller stage directions than the second q...

  4. The poppers-HIV connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, H

    1999-03-01

    Nitrite inhalants called "poppers" are receiving renewed attention by researchers regarding the drug's role in the gay community, its contribution to risky sexual behavior, and its ability to fuel the AIDS epidemic. Research shows the effects of poppers cause a euphoria that can reduce inhibitions, increase sexual drive, and intensify the sensations of orgasm. Poppers have been associated with a decrease in condom use. In addition, research has found that popper use suppresses natural killer (NK) cell function, which increases vulnerability to infectious agents, produces sustained alterations in the immune system, and may be a Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) cofactor. The combined data implicate that the use of poppers may well pose as a significant risk factor for seroconversion.

  5. 16 CFR 1507.11 - Party poppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Party poppers. 1507.11 Section 1507.11... FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.11 Party poppers. Party poppers (also known by other names such as “Champagne Party Poppers,” and “Party Surprise Poppers,”) shall not contain more than 0.25 grains of pyrotechnic...

  6. Exploring Romeo and Juliet. ArtsEdge Curricula, Lessons and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullard, Barbara Lois; Karsten, Jayne

    This curriculum unit examines William Shakespeare's tragic play, "Romeo and Juliet." The unit calls the play "one of the greatest and saddest love stories of all time," and notes that artists across centuries and oceans have retold the tale of "Romeo and Juliet" in various forms and incarnations. It first presents…

  7. Popper's Experiment: A Modern Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabish Qureshi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Karl Popper had proposed an experiment to test the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics. The proposal survived for many year in the midst of no clear consensus on what results it would yield. The experiment was realized by Kim and Shih in 1999, and the apparently surprising result led to lot of debate. We review Popper's proposal and its realization in the light of current era when entanglement has been well studied, both theoretically and experimentally. We show that the "ghost-diffraction" experiment, carried out in a different context, conclusively resolves the controversy surrounding Popper's experiment. Quanta 2012; 1: 19–32.

  8. Romeo and Juliet: Play about love and death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrejević Ana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the play Romeo and Juliet, which has become the synonym for the love tragedy, death is represented as the ultimate, all-consuming, and almost nihilistic power that cannot be conquered even by the most pure and passionate love. But, its devastating effect is reduced by the strong, transcendent, and the idealistic vision of love of the two young creatures who became immortal as the materialistic golden monuments, due to the power of the eternal art and the word of Shakespeare. Presenting it in the traditional frame of the Dance of Death and memento mori iconography, Shakespeare is showing us the different aspects of the Renaissance thought of death. The older generation sees it as the natural progression of life that cannot and must not stop everyday activities, but the younger hopes to find in death the salvation and escape from the insupportable and pragmatic world. Although there are religiously guided thoughts about life after death in the play, secular statements about death as a flight from the unbearable reality and the cure for the impossible love are more present. Even suicide is not conventionally represented as the sinful and devilish enterprise that must be condemned, but as the sacrifice and radical attempt to protect and preserve love. Shakespeare makes his lovers the owners of death, despite the rigid patriarchal effort to control both life and its opposite force. Love of Romeo and Juliet thus becomes victorious in death.

  9. The Second Law and Karl R. Popper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Guenri E.

    2002-11-01

    Popper's ideas are briefly presented on philosophy of Science hierarchy of particular sciences and his emergence principle. Main points of Popper's cognition theory are emphasized. Popper's thoughts are given in connection with struggle of scientific ideas in the XX century. The projection on the Second Law is done.

  10. Karl Popper and the Copenhagen interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Asher

    Popper conceived an experiment whose analysis led to a result that he deemed absurd. Popper wrote that his reasoning was based on the Copenhagen interpretation and therefore invalidated it. Many authors who have examined Popper's analysis have found in it various technical flaws which are briefly summarized here. However, the aim of the present article is not technical. My concern is to redress logical flaws in Popper's argument: the terminology he uses is ambiguous, his analysis involves counterfactual hypotheses, and it violates Bohr's complementarity principle. Therefore, the absurdity of Popper's result only confirms Bohr's approach.

  11. Analysis of Popper's Experiment and Its Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, T.

    2012-04-01

    An experiment proposed by Karl Popper to test the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics was realized by Kim and Shih. We use a quantum mechanical calculation to analyze Popper's proposal, and find a surprising result for the location of the virtual slit. We also analyze Kim and Shih's experiment, and demonstrate that although it ingeniously overcomes the problem of temporal spreading of the wave-packet, it is inconclusive about Popper's test. We point out that another experiment which (unknowingly) implements Popper's test in a conclusive way, has actually been carried out. Its results are in contradiction with Popper's prediction, and agree with our analysis.

  12. REPRESENTASI FANATISME SUPPORTER DALAM FILM ROMEO DAN JULIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Rizky Gunanto

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Romeo and Juliet movie tells the story of love between two mutually hostile angggota supporters. Rangga as a staunch supporter of Persija FC, and Dessy as a staunch supporter of Arsenal FC In unite their love, Rangga and Dessy faced with a problem, so they decided to get married and plan to escape to a neutral city where their competition is not a problem. But brother Dessy not bend over backwards to stop it. A true love story of two people has been the biggest supporter of the affairs of the two organizations .The theory used in this study is the theory of semiotics by Charles Sanders Peirce. Semiotics is the study of signs, meanings and proper functioning of the production of meaning. Charles Sanders Peirce's theory of meaning called triangle (triangle of meaning, including signs, objects (reference mark, and interpretant (users sign This type of research uses descriptive qualitative approach. Research methods with semiotic analysis that focuses on the meaning of each sign in the form of an icon, index, and symbol. The unit of analysis is a picture of a sign in the movie "Romeo Juliet". Research scope fanaticism of supporters who will be studied focusing on any scene that contains elements of fanaticism were analyzed through semotika Peirce.   Film Romeo dan Juliet menceritakan tentang percintaan antara dua angggota supporter yang saling bermusuhan. Rangga sebagai pendukung setia Persija FC, dan Dessy sebagai pendukung setia Persib FC Dalam mempersatukan cinta mereka, Rangga dan Dessy dihadapkan pada suatu masalah, sehingga mereka memutuskan untuk menikah dan merencanakan untuk melarikan diri ke sebuah kota netral di mana persaingan mereka tidak masalah. Tapi kakak Dessy tidak sekuat tenaga untuk menghentikannya. Sebuah kisah cinta sejati dua orang telah menjadi urusan dua organisasi pendukung terbesar. Teori yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah teori semiotika menurut Charles Sanders Peirce. Semiotika adalah ilmu yang mempelajari

  13. National Theatre of China's Romeo and Juliet and Its Rituals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Lim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the “Chinese-ness” of this brand new production of Romeo and Juliet by the National Theatre of China, from a ritual perspective. Three main areas were discussed. Firstly, this play has got several religious connotations. The absence of religion in this play’s setting is relevant to China’s current high percentage of atheists. Despite that, several religions, such as Buddhism, Daoism and Christianity, are mentioned in this play. Secondly, the play has also incorporated several Chinese culture and traditions. The use of bicycles as one of the main props can be linked to the cultural significance of bicycles in China. The play also incorporated other cultural and traditional elements such as wedding customaries in China, Xinjiang dance, as well as the Chinese tongue twisters. Finally, the play has incorporated multiple Brechtian moments. Perhaps the Brechtian moments can lead audience to think about the current religious and cultural developments in modern China.

  14. Lamb–Shaffer syndrome, deferred outside not described by SOX5 mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Sharkova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and genetic characteristics of a patient with Lamb–Shaffer syndrome due to the newly discovered heterozygous missense mutation p.1868A>C in the 14 exon of the SOX5 gene are presented in the next generation sequencing of exom. It is shown that, in contrast to the previously described patients due to the presence of a deletion in the region of the gene or segment of chromosome 12p12.1, in the presence of missense mutation, the intellectual deficit and the dysmorphic features of the structure are not pronounced sharply and there is no anomaly in the development of other organs and systems.

  15. [Methemoglobinemia after inhalation of poppers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, U; Hillen, S; Janssens, T; Grafe, J

    2018-04-17

    This case report presents a case of symptomatic methemoglobinemia (MetHb 31.6%) after inhalation of volatile nitrites (poppers). The patient's medical history and symptoms are discussed together with pathophysiology of methemoglobinemia, diagnostics, and antidote therapy. Pulse oxymetry, arterial blood gas analysis, and CO-oximetry receive particular attention as well as antidote therapy with methylene blue. The patient was treated successfully with intravenous methylene blue. Within 60 min methemoglobinemia returned to normal values (MetHb 0.6%). Stimulating compounds such as volatile nitrites (poppers) may lead to potentially fatal methemoglobinemia. Swift and accurate diagnosis and targeted therapy with methylene blue can lead to rapid recovery.

  16. Constructivism, Socioculturalism, and Popper's World 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereiter, Carl

    1994-01-01

    Examines the concept of learning from both constructivist and sociocultural perspectives and introduces a third perspective based on K. R. Popper's philosophy of science. It is argued that constructivism cannot adequately account for the immaterial objects that Popper located in his World 3--abstract mathematical and scientific objects. (GLR)

  17. In memoriam : Karl R. Popper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Tohăneanu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dedicated to Karl Popper’s memory, this essay aims at following the echo of his critical rationalism and how it has been received by Mario Bunge, one of the most prominent contemporary philosopher of science – an admirer, later a critic of Popper’s social and political philosophy. The main goal of such an endeavor is to find out where could have been Popper wrong – from Bunge’s view point – and take note of the arguments of both of them, thus hoping to get closer to the truth, as Sir Karl said.

  18. "Music with Her Silver Sound": An Introduction to "Romeo and Juliet."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheaffer, Lloyd E.

    1992-01-01

    Asserts that the key to incorporating music effectively into the English classroom is to provide a context for the music. Describes a teacher's introduction to Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" that demonstrates one way to use music and which helps accomplish the goals of the literary unit. (PRA)

  19. Challenging Normative Sexual and Gender Identity Beliefs through Romeo and Juliet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressler, Paula

    2005-01-01

    Paula Ressler, an English teacher, suggests unconventional ways to work with William Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" in the secondary school English curriculum to challenge normative sexual and gender identity beliefs. Reading queerly to explore non-normative sex and gender identities and reading for social justice have the potential to…

  20. Psychoanalysis, science and the seductive theory of Karl Popper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Don C; Harari, Edwin

    2005-06-01

    To present a critique of the ideas of Karl Popper, the philosopher of science, whose depiction of psychoanalysis as a pseudoscience is often used to justify attacks on psychoanalysis. Published sources are used to provide a brief intellectual biography of Popper, a summary of his concept of science and a summary of criticisms of Popper's view of science. His depiction of psychoanalysis and Freud's reply are presented. Clinical, experimental and neurobiological research which refutes Popper's view is summarized. There is a vast scholarly published work critical of Popper's falsifiability criterion of science. Less recognized is Popper's misunderstanding and misrepresentation of psychoanalysis; his argument against it is logically flawed and empirically false. Even if Popper's theory of science is accepted, there is considerable clinical, experimental and neurobiological research in psychoanalysis which meets Popper's criterion of science. Attacks on psychoanalysis based on Popper's theory of science are ill-founded and reflect inadequate scholarship.

  1. An Analysis of the Way in Deciding Between Love and Self Esteem in Gnomeo and Juliet Movie

    OpenAIRE

    CHRISNARI, SISKA TYAS

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: Psychological, self esteem.This research is focus on psychological conflict that underwent by the main characters on Gnomeo and Juliet Movie Cartoon. This movie cartoon tells about the two families, The Blues and The Reds that are rival. They always be the best and reach a higher social class to show their self esteem. But, unintentionally their children met and fallen in love each other. Finally, their children named Gnomeo and Juliet have promises' to live together.Because of tha...

  2. Adverse ophthalmic reaction in poppers users: case series of ‘poppers maculopathy'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A J; Kelly, S P; Naylor, S G; Bhatt, P R; Mathews, J P; Sahni, J; Haslett, R; McKibbin, M

    2012-01-01

    Background Poppers are a recreational substance of abuse belonging to the alkyl nitrite family of compounds. In the United Kingdom, where they are legal to purchase but illegal to sell for human consumption, 10% of the general population have tried them. They are considered low risk to physical and mental health. Two recent case series from France demonstrated foveal pathology in individuals associated with poppers use. Method A case series of seven patients presenting to four hospitals in the United Kingdom with visual impairment and maculopathy associated with inhalation of poppers. Results All patients experienced visual symptoms associated with poppers use. The majority had impaired visual acuity, central scotomata, distortion, or phosphenes. Clinical signs on fundoscopy ranged from normal foveal appearance to yellow, dome-shaped lesions at the foveola. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) showed varying degrees of disruption of the presumed inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junction. Discussion Although poppers have been in use for several decades, in 2007, following legislative changes, there was a change in the most commonly used compound from isobutyl nitrite to isopropyl nitrite. There were no reports of ‘poppers maculopathy' before this. Poppers maculopathy may be missed if patients are not directly questioned about their use. The disruption or loss of the presumed IS/OS junction on SD-OCT are a characteristic feature. Further study of maculopathy in poppers users is now needed. Raising public awareness of the ocular risks associated with their use may be necessary. PMID:23079752

  3. The Rejectability of Karl Popper: Why Popper's Ideas Have Had So Little Influence on Social Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Tyrrell; Swann, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    Addresses the question of why Karl Popper's work has been disregarded or rejected for educational improvement and suggests a series of impediments to an acceptance of Popper's ideas. Outlines a set of principle which if adopted as a basis for practice could lead to significant improvement. (EV)

  4. Adverse ophthalmic reaction in poppers users: case series of 'poppers maculopathy'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, A J; Kelly, S P; Naylor, S G; Bhatt, P R; Mathews, J P; Sahni, J; Haslett, R; McKibbin, M

    2012-11-01

    Poppers are a recreational substance of abuse belonging to the alkyl nitrite family of compounds. In the United Kingdom, where they are legal to purchase but illegal to sell for human consumption, 10% of the general population have tried them. They are considered low risk to physical and mental health. Two recent case series from France demonstrated foveal pathology in individuals associated with poppers use. A case series of seven patients presenting to four hospitals in the United Kingdom with visual impairment and maculopathy associated with inhalation of poppers. All patients experienced visual symptoms associated with poppers use. The majority had impaired visual acuity, central scotomata, distortion, or phosphenes. Clinical signs on fundoscopy ranged from normal foveal appearance to yellow, dome-shaped lesions at the foveola. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) showed varying degrees of disruption of the presumed inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junction. Although poppers have been in use for several decades, in 2007, following legislative changes, there was a change in the most commonly used compound from isobutyl nitrite to isopropyl nitrite. There were no reports of 'poppers maculopathy' before this. Poppers maculopathy may be missed if patients are not directly questioned about their use. The disruption or loss of the presumed IS/OS junction on SD-OCT are a characteristic feature. Further study of maculopathy in poppers users is now needed. Raising public awareness of the ocular risks associated with their use may be necessary.

  5. Godiva IV and Juliet Diagnostics CED-1, Rev. 1 (IER-176)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scorby, J C; Myers, W L

    2012-04-11

    The Juliet experiment is currently in preliminary design (IER-128). This experiment will utilize a suite of diagnostics to measure the physical state of the device (temperature, surface motion, stress, etc.) and the total and time rate of change of neutron and gamma fluxes. A variety of potential diagnostics has been proposed in this CED-1 report. Based on schedule and funding, a subset of diagnostics will be selected for testing using the Godiva IV pulsed reactor as a source of neutrons and gammas. The diagnostics development and testing will occur over a two year period (FY12-13) culminating in a final set of diagnostics to be fielded for he Juliet experiment currently proposed for execution in FY15.

  6. "What is it else?" Love's (Con-Text in Romeo and Juliet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliakbari H.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reading Romeo and Juliet from Jacques Derrida's perspective provides us with new insight to Shakespeare's portrayal of love. As an early tragedy, Romeo and Juliet is a study of the nature of love. Many believe that the play still follows the lead of the comedies in presenting its major theme. However, drawing upon Derrida's deconstruction of the play, we have shown that love as an idea, a word, or a nomenclature, follows the same aporetic law of the proper name in that it is split, not unified, contradictory, not lucidly meaningful. We have demonstrated the multiplicity of love's identity despite the universally unifying attributes attached to it by the individual characters inside the play. In short, this reading reveals that identity in general, and the identity of love in particular, is not fixed, that they are products of textuality.

  7. The Reference Process and the Philosophy of Karl Popper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, S. D.

    1985-01-01

    Two aspects of Karl Popper's philosophy are applied to reference process: process is viewed as series of problem-solving situations amenable to analysis using Popper's problem-solving schema. Reference interview is analyzed in context of Popper's postulate that books contain autonomous world of ideas existing apart from mind of knower. (30…

  8. Two Wooers and their Sonnets: On Poetic Forms in Romeo and Juliet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Haltrin-Khalturina

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at the semiotics of the sonnet form used by Shakespeare in his tragedy Romeo and Juliet. Particular attention is paid to two sonnets, of Paris and of Romeo, in which different manners of courting are played out. The poetic “gift” from Romeo to Juliet, their shared sonnets, one complete and one interrupted (Act 1, Sc. 5, ls. 92–109, is a notorious and much discussed piece of Shakespeare’s dramatic poetry. However, the other wooing sonnet representing desires of Paris and mouthed by Lady Capulet (Act 1, Sc. 3, ls. 80–95, seems to lack that kind of attention. Our essay juxtaposes the two sonnets in question, which are built around extended metaphors (conceits. Romeo’s sonneteering is endowed with dramatic power that quickens the debate and inspires accord between the title’s heroes. The semantic charge of this shared sonnet resonates in the heroes’ scenic gestures, prompting the play’s outcome. By contrast, the rather inert sonnet of Paris is like a dead letter of bookish instruction, which neither inspires amorous response, nor moves Juliet. The article also places Romeo’s and Paris’s pieces against Shakespeare’s sonnets 128 and 126 of the 1609 edition.

  9. Foveal damage in habitual poppers users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audo, Isabelle; El Sanharawi, Mohamed; Vignal-Clermont, Catherine; Villa, Antoine; Morin, Annie; Conrath, John; Fompeydie, Dominique; Sahel, José-Alain; Gocho-Nakashima, Kiyoko; Goureau, Olivier; Paques, Michel

    2011-06-01

    To describe foveal damage in habitual use of poppers, a popular recreational drug. Retrospective observational case series. Six patients with bilateral vision loss after chronic popper inhalation were seen in 4 university-based ophthalmology departments. Symptoms, medical history, ophthalmic examination, and functional and morphological tests are described. All patients experienced progressive bilateral vision loss, with central photopsia in 2 cases. Initial visual acuities ranged from 20/50 to 20/25. In all patients, a bilateral yellow foveal spot was present that, by optical coherence tomography, was associated with disruption of the outer segments of foveal cones. Functional and anatomical damage was restricted to the fovea. The poppers involved were identified as isopropyl nitrite in 3 cases. Four patients showed anatomical and/or functional improvement over several months after discontinuing popper inhalation. Repeated inhalation of poppers may be associated with prolonged bilateral vision loss due to the disruption of foveal cone outer segments. Retinal damage may progressively improve following drug discontinuation.

  10. [Multifocal Electroretinography in Patients with Poppers Maculopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlitzsch, Milena; Salchow, Daniel; Rossel, Mirjam; Bergholz, Richard

    2017-10-12

    Background Maculopathy is a potential side effect of amyl nitrite or "poppers" abuse. It is characterized by a sudden, painless decrease in visual acuity. While the funduscopic changes are subtle, optical coherence tomography shows alterations of the outer retinal layers in the fovea. However, the extent of retinal dysfunction remains poorly understood. Materials/Methods We compared the multifocal electroretinogram of 6 patients with poppers maculopathy to that of a control group consisting of 6 healthy subjects. Response densities and implicit times of N1 and P1 were analyzed. Results Response densities and implicit times of both N1 and P1 were lower in the patients with poppers maculopathy than in the control group, particularly in ring 1 and rings 4 and 5. The only statistically significant finding, however, was a reduced N1 response density of one hexagon in the patient group. No significant differences were found considering the sum response or the averaged rings 1 to 5. Conclusion Compared to a healthy control group, the multifocal electroretinogram of patients with poppers maculopathy shows no relevant impairment. This contrasts the marked effect of the disease on visual acuity. In clinical practice, poppers maculopathy cannot be diagnosed by multifocal electroretinography. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Nd:Yag laser iridotomy in Shaffer-Etienne grade 1 and 2:angle widening in our case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Cinzia Carlesimo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To obtain widening of a potentially occludable angle, in according to Kanski’s indications, through preventive Nd:Yag laser iridotomy. The observational study was performed by using gonioscopy for the selection and follow-up of 1165 treated eyes and exploiting Shaffer-Etienne gonioscopic classification as a quality/quantity test of the angle recession.METHODS:Between September 2000 and July 2012, 586 patients were selected at the Outpatients’ Ophthalmological Clinic of the Policlinico Umberto I of Rome in order to undergo Nd:Yag laser iridotomy. A Goldmann type contact lens, Q-switched mode, 2-3 defocus, and 7-9 mJ intensity with 2-3 impulse discharges were used for surgery.RESULTS:From as early as the first week, a whole 360° angle widening were evident in the patients, thus showing the success of Nd:Yag laser iridotomy in solving relative pupil block. The angle remained narrow by 270° in 14 eyes only, despite repetitions of further treatment with laser iridotomy in a different part of the iris, twice in 10 eyes and three times in 4 eyes.CONCLUSION:Nd:Yag laser iridotomy revealed itself as being a safe and effective treatment in widening those critical Shaffer-Etienne grade 1 and 2 potentially occludable angles.

  12. Between autobiography and reality : Popper's inductive years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Hark, M.R.M.

    On the basis of his unpublished thesis 'Gewohnheit und Gesetzerlebnis in der Erziehung' (1926-7) a historical reconstruction is given of the genesis of Popper's ideas on induction and demarcation which differs radically from his own account in Unended quest. It is shown not only that he

  13. [Popper's critical rationalism and the biomedical sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlícek, J

    1993-11-08

    Popper's rationalism makes an important contribution of the 20th century philosophy to the methodology of natural sciences. Through its criterion of falsification, it enabled the scientists to take a critical but constructive view on hypotheses, conjectures and theories. This attitude found its application also in medicine.

  14. Popper and Postmodernism. Similar Targets, Different Solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parusniková, Zuzana

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2006), s. 7-30 ISSN 1743-4912 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA401/05/2064 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90090514 Keywords : Popper * postmodernism * foundationalism Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  15. Karl Popper: antes y después de Kyoto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanotti, Gabriel

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available.En su último libro sobre Karl Popper, Mariano Artigas plantea una hermenéutica revolucionaria: muestra que la ética de Popper es el fundamento de su epistemología, y que el fundamento de esa ética está lejos del «conjeturalismo» que suele atribuirse a Popper. Artigas analiza qué significa en Popper la «fe irracional en la razón» y utiliza, como fuente inédita, el dramático relato que hace Popper de su relación con W. W. Bartley, por primera vez, en Kyoto, en 1992. Sea cual fuere la opinión del lector, el libro de Artigas divide la hermenéutica de Popper en un antes y un después.

  16. Sir Karl Popper and his philosophy of physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammer, Max

    1991-12-01

    The eminent mathematical physicist Sir Hermann Bondi once said: “There is no more to science than its method, and there is no more to its method than Popper has said.” Indeed, many regard Sir Karl Raimund Popper the greatest philosopher of science in our generation. Much of what Popper “has said” refers to physics, but physicists, generally speaking, have little knowledge of what he has said. True, Popper's philosophy of science and, in particular, his realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics deviates considerably from the generally accepted doctrine. But as Popper, rightly I think, points out, it is precisely the proliferation of divergent theories which promotes the growth of scientific knowledge; it would be a danger for physics if physicists were dogmatically tied to a single theory or would not test their theory against alternatives. It is for this purpose that, on the occasion of the nonagenarian celebration of Popper's birthday, the present essay has been written.

  17. Poppers regulation for public sale: No measure in France yet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victorri-Vigneau, Caroline; Trewick, David; Dejoie, Thomas; Masson, Damien; Bulteau, Samuel; Rousselet, Morgane; Sauvaget, Anne; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Jolliet, Pascale

    2017-10-23

    Poppers have become legal in France since June 2013. Is their liberalisation associated with an increase of severe side effects observed? To identify elevated methaemoglobinaemia related to poppers abuse, we reviewed all methaemoglobin concentrations measured in Nantes university hospital, during 12 months. Methaemoglobin concentrations were superior to 25% in three cases of poppers consumption that occurred after the legalisation. Evaluating the prevalence of elevated methaemoglobinaemia could help to monitor severe complications of poppers use in France. Copyright © 2017 Société française de pharmacologie et de thérapeutique. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. From Romeo and Juliet to Rosaline & Benvolio: Refashioning Shakespearean Teenage Lovers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tosi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I analyse a number of narrative retellings of Romeo and Juliet for a Young Adult audience. I focus on three novels which, interestingly, replace the star-crossed lovers, with a couple of minor characters, Benvolio and Rosaline: Lisa Fiedler’s Romeo’s Ex. Rosaline’s Story (2006, Melinda Traub’s Still Star Crossed (2013 and Rachel Caine’s Prince of Shadows (2014. In thse versions Rosaline and Benvolio are given centre stage and narrative voices which open up new narrative possibilities; they end up playing a different and a bigger part than in the original play, but firmly refuse that of the victim to the old generation’s decisions and actions. By exploring motivation, establishing new links between the characters, and having narrators pass authoritative moral judgements, all these texts negotiate with well-established critical interpretations of the central characters, often challenging and channeling them into unexpected critical directions. In a way, these retellings “fix” the original “dangerous” characters Romeo and Juliet, by bringing in new characters as mediators, or expand existing secondary characters in order to make them fit into contemporary notions of teenage role models.

  19. Claire Danes's Star-Body, Teen Female Viewers and the Pluralisation of Authorship in Baz Luhrmann's "William Shakespeare's Romeo + Juliet"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keam, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Teaching William Shakespeare's canonical tragedy "Romeo and Juliet" to teenagers in the context of the English classroom in Australia is not a particularly new pedagogical practice. In the year 2008, when many teachers (particularly those with a feminist bent such as I) are intent on guiding their students to decipher the ideological…

  20. On Popper's new EPR-Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedford, D.; Selleri, F.

    1985-01-01

    It is scientifically reasonable to search for particular statistical ensembles to which the standard quantum rules (like Heisenberg relations) do not apply: these rules would instead be applicable to more general statistical ensembles (which might be called ''standard quantum ensembles''). Along these lines, Popper has recently proposed what he calls ''a new version of the EPR experiment'' in which the Copenhagen and statistical interpretations of quantum mechanics apparently lead to distinguishably different predictions

  1. Truth, Representation and Interpretation: The Popper Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Stan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine several points of reference regarding the way in which Karl Popper built up his philosophical discourse. I locate two specific ways in which Popper interpreted and used ideas belonging to other philosophers. Thus I distinguish in Popper between a projective hermeneutics (where the author uses a thesis that forms a part of his own philosophy in order to reconstruct and understand the ideas of another philosopher and anideological hermeneutics (where he uses a statement expressing an interest of the community whereof he is a member in order to interpret and reconstruct the text of another philosopher. In so doing I also highlight the considerable asymmetry between a representationalist hermeneutics, and a projective and, respectively, an ideological one. Whereas in the first case the interpreter wishes to unveil a truth about the philosophical text, in the other two he israther expressing a desire to talk about himself, his own beliefs and convictions, or about the beliefs of his community of reference.

  2. Karl Popper and Jean Piaget: A Rationale for Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Steve; Cummings, Rhoda; Aberasturi, Suzanne M.

    2006-01-01

    The current faddish use of the term constructivism has taken on as many different definitions as the number of people attempting to define it. This essay clarifies the meaning of constructivism through an examination of Karl Popper's and Jean Piaget's theories. The authors provide a rationale for the use of Popper's paradigm of "Three Worlds" and…

  3. Falsifications and corroborations: Karl Popper's influence on systematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfenbein, Kevin G; DeSalle, Rob

    2005-04-01

    Over the last three decades, the philosophy of Karl Raimund Popper has had a strong influence on the field of systematic biology. Unequivocally, no other philosopher's work has had such an influence during this formative period in systematics. Much, but not all, of the early discourse on Popper and systematics dealt with the philosophical basis of systematics as a science. More recently Popper's work has been discussed in the systematics literature in relation to specific methodologies such as parsimony and maximum likelihood. In this paper, we provide the reader with a concise summary of Popper's ideas relevant to systematics, review the systematic literature invoking or declining Popper's importance to the field, and make a recommendation for the future course of philosophical thinking in systematics. We try to make clear various authors' interpretations of Popper's work and how those interpretations have impacted systematic thought. Although the reader may come away from this review with a clearer idea of Popper's relevance or lack thereof, our primary hope is that the reader will be compelled to question him- or herself about the philosophical basis of the systematic work that he or she does, and to delve into the literature herein cited. We begin by presenting a synopsis of Popper's philosophical views to allow those views to be placed in the context of systematics.

  4. Popper, laws, and the exclusion of biology from genuine science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamos, David N

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to argue that biologists should stop citing Karl Popper on what a genuinely scientific theory is. Various ways in which biologists cite Popper on this matter are surveyed, including the use of Popper to settle debates on methodology in phylogenetic systematics. It is then argued that the received view on Popper--namely, that a genuinely scientific theory is an empirically falsifiable one--is seriously mistaken, that Popper's real view was that genuinely scientific theories have the form of statements of laws of nature. It is then argued that biology arguably has no genuine laws of its own. In place of Popperian falsifiability, it is suggested that a cluster class epistemic values approach (which subsumes empirical falsifiability) is the best solution to the demarcation problem between genuine science and pseudo- or non-science.

  5. Popper e o "efeito Édipo" Popper and the Oedipus effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Barbosa de Oliveira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O tópico do trabalho é o fenômeno denominado por Popper "efeito Édipo", e suas implicações para a epistemologia analítico-positivista, em particular para o Princípio de Unidade da Ciência. Com referência a Popper, a tese defendida é a de que ele não teve sucesso na tentativa de resolver as inconsistências geradas em sua obra pelo reconhecimento da possibilidade do "efeito Édipo" nas ciências humanas.The theme of the paper is the phenomenon which Popper labelled `Oedipus effect', and its implications for the anlytical-positivist epistemology, especially for the Principle of the Unity of Science. As far as Popper is concerned, it is claimed that he was unsuccessful in his attempt to overcome the inconsistencies generated in his work by the acknowledgement of the possibility of the Oedipus effect in the human sciences.

  6. Parody and the gas station in William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avital G. Cykman

    2017-01-01

    Baz Luhrmann’s 1996 film, William Shakespeare'sRomeo and Juliet, is a pop-culture adaptation of the late sixteenth-century play. The cross-references and transgression of allusions and their postmodern subversive statement along with the extreme intensity with which these elements appear in act one, scene one, and especially in the scene placed at a gas station produce a self-directed irony, a cutting-edge, if playful combination of references that define it as parody in the postmodern sense. Hence, this article examines act one, scene one with a special attention to the gas station sequence, and analyzes it in the light of scholarly definitions of postmodern parody by Linda Hutcheon, John W. Duvall and Douglas Lanier, and of pastiche by Fredric Jameson. Once the hypothesis of parody is established, the article analyzes what the film parodies and in what ways, and what the objective and the impact of the applied humor are.

  7. Rheumatoid arthritis, Proteus, anti-CCP antibodies and Karl Popper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebringer, Alan; Rashid, Taha; Wilson, Clyde

    2010-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a crippling joint disease affecting over 20 million people worldwide. The cause of RA is most probably linked to the triad of microbial trigger, genetic association and autoimmunity and can be explained using the philosophical method of Karl Popper or Popperian sequences. Ten "Popper sequences" have been identified which point to the urinary microbe Proteus mirabilis as the cause of RA: Popper sequence 1 establishes that HLA-DR4 lymphocytes injected into a rabbit evoke specific antibodies against Proteus bacteria. Popper sequence 2 establishes that antibodies to Proteus bacteria are present in RA patients from 14 different countries. Popper sequence 3 establishes that antibodies to Proteus bacteria in RA patients are disease specific since no such antibodies are found in other conditions. Popper sequence 4 establishes that when RA patients have high titres of antibodies to Proteus such bacteria are found in urinary cultures. Popper sequence 5 establishes that only Proteus bacteria and no other microbes evoke significantly elevated antibodies in RA patients. Popper sequence 6 establishes that the "shared epitope" EQR(K)RAA shows "molecular mimicry" with the sequence ESRRAL found in Proteus haemolysin. Popper sequence 7 establishes that Proteus urease contains a sequence IRRET which has "molecular mimicry" with LRREI found in collagen XI of hyaline cartilage. Popper sequence 8 establishes that sera obtained from RA patients have cytopathic properties against sheep red cells coated with the cross-reacting EQR(K)RAA and LRREI self-antigen peptides. Popper sequence 9 establishes that Proteus sequences in haemolysin and urease as well as the self antigens, HLA-DR1/4 and collagen XI, each contain an arginine doublet, thereby providing a substrate for peptidyl arginine deiminase (PAD) to give rise to citrulline, which is the main antigenic component of CCP, antibodies to which are found in early cases of RA. Popper sequence 10 establishes that

  8. Poppers: large cancer increase and immune suppression in animal tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1999-04-16

    A study on mice injected with cancer cells and then exposed to isobutyl nitrite (poppers) revealed that inhalant-treated mice developed tumors more readily and rapidly than control mice. The control mice were also injected with cancer cells, but only breathed air. Related studies found that poppers suppress certain immune functions involved in killing tumor cells. These studies suggest that further research of persons with HIV/AIDS who use poppers is needed to determine if they are at a high risk for developing malignancies.

  9. La Délinquance Idéologique: Sony Labou Tansi and the Political Love Story of Romeo and Juliet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah Bale

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses an adaptation of William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, (La Résurrection Rouge et Blanche de Romeo et Juliette- 'The Red and White Revival of Romeo and Juliet' by the Congolese writer Sony Labou Tansi. It examines the consequences of a focus on the political frame of the narrative. Sony's version is an indictment of a monstrous and hyper-violent political system in which the only choice left is the manner of one’s death. Sony uses the play as a means to interrogate a society that focuses on the political fetishization of violent dictatorships and nihilistic choices. With a radical shift in focus, Sony’s work also requires the audience / reader to consider the necessity of theatre and, by extension, the power under which it operates. Sony’s language in this adaptation gives the story of Romeo and Juliet, a post-colonial framework as well as an urgent political message. The analysis concludes that the adaptation presents the conventional love story as a political tragedy of the post-colonial condition.

  10. Poppers: legal highs with questionable contents? A case series of poppers maculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rewbury, Rebecca; Hughes, Edward; Purbrick, Robert; Prior, Stephen; Baron, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Poppers are volatile alkyl nitrite compounds that are inhaled to enhance sexual experience and for their psychoactive effects. A less well-known side effect is foveal maculopathy, which has emerged following changes in their chemical composition. It is unclear if certain individuals are more susceptible to retinal damage or if there is a relationship between pattern of inhalation and brands used. A case series of 12 patients presenting to Sussex Eye Hospital, Brighton, with poppers-related visual impairment. Follow-up data were available in 10 cases, at a median time interval of 5 months (range 0-31 months). Eight samples of poppers were analysed using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Patients presented with disrupted central vision occurring soon after inhalation. All demonstrated disruption of the inner segment/outer segment junction on spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Six of the brands implicated in causing visual symptoms contained isopropyl nitrite, while Jungle Juice Plus varieties, used without side effects in one case, contained amyl nitrite, 2-methyl butyl nitrite and isobutyl alcohol. In general, symptomatic resolution, alongside partial, if not full, recovery of foveal architecture was observed following abstention. On the basis of the products tested here, it seems that isopropyl nitrite is toxic to the fovea and can cause significant visual disturbance. The production of poppers is unregulated and their popularity is concerning, particularly given their exemption from the Psychoactive Substances Act 2016, which might suggest that they are harmless chemicals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Exploring "Extreme" Physics with an Inexpensive Plastic Toy Popper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapp, David R.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an activity that can be performed with an inexpensive plastic toy popper. The activity builds skill at analysing motion and results in the calculation of a surprisingly extreme acceleration. (Contains 1 figure.)

  12. Karl Popper at ninety: Highlights of a lifelong intellectual quest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleri, Franco; van der Merwe, Alwyn

    1991-12-01

    On the occasion of his ninetieth birthday, Karl Popper's lifelong pursuit of answers in several areas of scientific and philosophical thinking is briefly traced, mainly with reference to excerpts from his own writings.

  13. Realism in the Realized Popper's Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Geoffrey

    2002-12-01

    The realization of Karl Popper's EPR-like experiment by Shih and Kim (published 1999) produced the result that Popper hoped for: no ``action at a distance'' on one photon of an entangled pair when a measurement is made on the other photon. This experimental result is interpretable in local realistic terms: each photon has a definite position and transverse momentum most of the time; the position measurement on one photon (localization within a slit) disturbs the transverse momentum of that photon in a non-predictable way in accordance with the uncertainty principle; however, there is no effect on the other photon (the photon that is not in a slit) no action at a distance. The position measurement (localization within a slit) of the one photon destroys the coherence (entanglement) between the photons; i.e. decoherence occurs. This realistic (albeit retrodictive) interpretation of the Shih-Kim realization of what Popper called his ``crucial experiment'' is in accord with Bohr's original concept of the nature of the uncertainty principle, as being an inevitable effect of the disturbance of the measured system by the measuring apparatus. In this experiment the impact parameter of an incident photon with the centerline of the slit is an uncontrollable parameter of each individual photon scattering event; this impact parameter is variable for every incident photon, the variations being a statistical aspect of the beam of photons produced by the experimental arrangement. These experimental results are also in accord with the proposition of Einstein, Podolski and Rosen's 1935 paper: that quantum mechanics provides only a statistical, physically incomplete, theory of microscopic physical processes, for the quantum mechanical description of the experiment does not describe or explain the individual photon scattering events that are actually observed; the angle by which an individual photon is scattered is not predictable, because the photon's impact parameter with the

  14. Karl R. Popper, 1992: About the EPR controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combourieu, Marie-Christine

    1992-10-01

    Sir K. R. Popper's experimental schemes challenge the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory, principally Heisenberg's indeterminacy relations and the EPR paradox. “The so-called Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox is not a paradox. It is a theoretical statement in expectation of an interpretation,” says K. R. Popper in this interview. “My experiment ought to be a classical experiment. It is very simple and free from any additional assumption. It should really be done.”

  15. The Carl Popper's Philosophy and Some Implications for Hometown study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑朗翁姆; 姚佳

    2017-01-01

    Karl Popper explained the scientific knowledge heads from the problem, proposed criteria of demarcation of scientific knowledge is falsifiability and reveals the scientific knowledge growth from problem to problem. Hometown study is one of the characteristics of anthropology in China, its particularity brings certain advantages and disadvantages. In this study, first, try to explain of the two, then try to get some revelations from Popper's philosophy to hometown study.

  16. 76 FR 315 - Sisters Ranger District; Deschutes National Forest; Oregon; Popper Vegetation Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ...; Oregon; Popper Vegetation Management Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of intent to... submit to [email protected] . Please put ``Popper Vegetation... work to the local and regional economy; and reintroduce fire in fire dependent ecosystems in the Popper...

  17. "Johnny Poppers": a cause of serious ocular injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacAndie, K; Kyle, P

    1998-07-01

    The causes of blunt ocular trauma are many and diverse. We present two cases of ocular injury caused by an unusual form of weapon called a "Johnny Popper". There follows a theoretical and experimental evaluation of the velocity of the projectiles fired by this device. A Johnny Popper was constructed under expert guidance. The elastic properties of the device were measured and this allowed calculation of a theoretical exit velocity of the projectiles fired. The weapon was subsequently fired under test conditions which permitted the exit velocity of the projectiles fired to be measured directly. The theoretical velocity of the projectiles was calculated as 80 ms-1 and the experimentally measured velocity was 57 ms-1. Johnny Poppers are a previously undescribed and unique form of home made weapon. They are intended for playful mischief, but have the potential to cause serious ocular trauma.

  18. Experimental Realization of Popper's Experiment: Violation of Uncertainty Principle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Ho; Yu, Rong; Shih, Yanhua

    An entangled pair of photon 1 and 2 are emitted in opposite directions along the positive and negative x-axis. A narrow slit is placed in the path of photon 1 which provides precise knowledge about its position along the y-axis and because of the quantum entanglement this in turn provides precise knowledge of the position y of its twin, photon 2. Does photon 2 experience a greater uncertainty in its momentum, i.e., a greater Δpy, due to the precise knowledge of its position y? This is the historical thought experiment of Sir Karl Popper which was aimed to undermine the Copenhagen interpretation in favor of a realistic viewpoint of quantum mechanics. Thispaper reports an experimental realization of the Popper's experiment. One may not agree with Popper's position on quantum mechanics; however, it calls for a correct understanding and interpretation of the experimental results.

  19. XAS study of brownmillerites and Ruddlesden-Popper manganites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szczerba, W.; Oates, C.J.; Sikora, M.; Borowiec, M.; Kapusta, C.; Spalek, L.; Allix, M.; Rosseinsky, M.R.; Ruiz-Bustos, R.; Battle, P.D.

    2005-01-01

    X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy study of selected compounds of the Ruddlesden-Popper and the browmillerite families is presented. Experiments were carried out at the beamline A1 in HASYLAB/DESY, Hamburg. The n = 1 and n = 2 compounds of the Ruddlesden Popper series, Sr 2 Mn 0.5 Ru 0.5 O 4 and Sr 3 MnRuO 7 as well as oxygen nonstoichiometric and gallium doped brownmillerite compounds, Ca 2.5 Sr 0.5 Ga 1+x Mn 2-x O 8- δ have been studied. Polycrystalline powder samples were measured at room temperature in transmission mode

  20. Stability of Ruddlesden-Popper-structured oxides in humid conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtimäki, M.; Yamauchi, H.; Karppinen, M.

    2013-08-01

    Some of layered transition-metal oxides are known to react with atmospheric humidity to form through topotactic intercalation reactions new water-containing layered structures. Here we investigate the influence of oxygen content (7-δ) of the Ruddlesden-Popper-structured Sr3FeMO7-δ (M=Ni, Mn, Ti) oxides on the water-intercalation reaction. It is found that their oxygen contents influence greatly the reactivity of the phases with water. Other factors possibly affecting the reactivity are discussed on the basis of the present data in combination with a comprehensive review of previous works on Ruddlesden-Popper and related layered oxide phases.

  1. A fórmula do mundo segundo Karl Popper

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Julio Cesar Rodrigues

    2009-01-01

    Essa tese pretende defender o seguinte argumento: a filosofia de Popper, devido ao seu interesse primordialmente cosmológico, somente pode ser corretamente compreendida enquanto sistema, isto é, enquanto explicação global da realidade entendida em seus dois pontos basilares: Metafísica e Teoria do Conhecimento. No Capítulo I argumentaremos que na base da ciência moderna temos Copérnico e Galileu. O primeiro não parte de problemas concretos nem de dados observacionais, na linguagem de Popper o...

  2. Popper's Fact-Standard Dualism Contra "Value Free" Social Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidlin, Fred H.

    1983-01-01

    Noncognitivism, the belief that normative statements (unlike empirical statements) do not convey objective knowledge is contrasted to Karl Popper's "critical dualism," which maintains that science is imbued with values and value judgments. Noncognitivism impedes the development of a social scientific method which would integrate…

  3. [Methaemoglobinaemia and respiratory tract irritation connected with poppers inhalation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasik-Głebocka, Magdalena; Matuszkiewicz, Eryk

    2010-01-01

    "Poppers" is the street name for volatile nitrites offered by online shops and sex-shops for their aphrodisiac and euphoric properties. Although nitrites have been abused since the late 1960s, recently they became popular in Poland. Recreational poppers using was associated with homosexual men at first. Currently they are commonly reported among heterosexual men and regular dicso participants. Advertisements of these substances tempt potential buyers with the promise of a legal narcotic high. Easy access and the sense of safety make these products the reason of acute toxicity. Volatile nitrites relaxes smooth muscle, the consequent intense peripheral vasodilatation produces flushing, a fall in blood pressure, and reflex increase in heart rate. These effects are accompanied by feeling of warmth, euphoria and intensifying of sexual pleasure. Serious poisoning results in severe methaemoglobinaemia, coma, respiratory and cardiovascular failure, and even death. Skin and mucous contact with poppers can produce a crusty lesion at the site. This article presents the case of 44-years old male hospitalized three times in Toxicology Department after history of poppers abusing. Methaemoglobinaemia (26.4%) and tracheobronchial irritation were the main symptoms observed. Patient was given specific therapy with methylene blue.

  4. [Poppers at top: alkyl nitrites use in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, François; Guignard, Romain; Richard, Jean-Baptiste

    2014-10-01

    Poppers is the usual name of various forms of alkyl nitrites. They are used as recreational drugs to intensify sexual intercourses and provoke a short euphoria just after their inhalation. In spite of several periods of ban in the 2000s, poppers' use sharply rose between 2000 and 2010. In the adult population as in teenagers, it is the second product consumed after cannabis among illicit drugs, confirming that it concerns circles wider than gays and lesbians who are sometimes depicted as emblematic users. The lifetime use of poppers concerns 5.3% of 18-64 years in 2010, men (7.2%) more than women (3.4%). At the end of the adolescence, its lifetime prevalence is 8.8% for girls and 9.2% for boys. In the general population and especially among young people, poppers is favourably considered. Nevertheless, this product is not without danger, even if the risk of dependence is extremely low. Several avenues of interventions may be outlined, mainly based on information and a regular follow-up of users which can allow to avoid an intensification of the consumption. © 2014 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  5. Popper's Third World: Moral Habits, Moral Habitat and Their Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolins, Janis Talivaldis

    2010-01-01

    If we accept Popper's idea that the human habitat is described in terms of three worlds, and that there are overlaps between these three worlds, our moral actions and values will also be subject to the same kinds of consideration as a repertoire of behaviours exhibited in a physical environment. We will develop moral habits in a moral habitat and…

  6. [Methemoglobinemia due to ingestion of isobutyl nitrite ('poppers')].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruijm, M T C; de Meijer, P H E M

    2002-12-07

    Two male students, aged 20 and 21 years, developed central cyanosis shortly after drinking 5 ml of 'poppers' (isobutyl nitrite). They presented with methaemoglobinaemia and were hospitalised. After treatment with oxygen and intravenous fluids they could be discharged in good health the following day. Poppers are alkyl nitrites with vasdilative and oxidizing properties. They are used as party drugs (i.e. inhaled) because of their short-lived euphoric effect. Overdose can result in methaemoglobinaemia: the presence of oxidized haemoglobin which is unable to transport oxygen. Depending on the serum level of methaemoglobin this may result in central cyanosis, unconsciousness, coma and even death. Patients with high methaemoglobin levels should be treated with i.v. methylene blue.

  7. The Analysis of Differences and Similarities of Eastern and Western Women’s Images in Liang Sanbo Yu Zhu Yingtai and Romeo and Juliet Novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Yenny

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sanpek Engtay and Romeo Juliet are the two famous classic love novels from Eastern and Western countries. They are liked by many generation of eastern and western readers. Both novels describe the image of women at each decade. Engtay represents the image of women at feudalism era while Juliet represents it Renainsance era. In this article, the writer did research at education, marriage, love, women's personality, and women's position at each decade. Library research was done in this study with the purpose of letting people know the differences and similarities of women's images between those two decades It can be concluded that in both writings, they have some similarities when describing love, mindset, and women's personality. The differences are about education, marriage, and women's position at feudalism and Renainsance decades.

  8. Stability of Ruddlesden–Popper-structured oxides in humid conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtimäki, M.; Yamauchi, H.; Karppinen, M.

    2013-01-01

    Some of layered transition-metal oxides are known to react with atmospheric humidity to form through topotactic intercalation reactions new water-containing layered structures. Here we investigate the influence of oxygen content (7−δ) of the Ruddlesden–Popper-structured Sr 3 FeMO 7−δ (M=Ni, Mn, Ti) oxides on the water-intercalation reaction. It is found that their oxygen contents influence greatly the reactivity of the phases with water. Other factors possibly affecting the reactivity are discussed on the basis of the present data in combination with a comprehensive review of previous works on Ruddlesden–Popper and related layered oxide phases. - Graphical abstract: Many of the Ruddlesden–Popper-structured A 3 B 2 O 7−δ oxides readily react with water via intercalation reactions. Three possible factors affecting the water intercalation are identified: oxygen content of the phase, ionic radius of cation A and valence state of cation B. The resultant layered water-derivative phases can be categorised into two groups, depending on the crystal symmetry of the phase. Highlights: • Ruddlesden–Popper oxides A 3 B 2 O 7−δ often accommodate water via intercalation reaction. • The lower the oxygen content 7−δ is the more readily the intercalation reaction occurs. • The second factor promoting the reaction is the large size of cation A. • The third possible factor is the high valence state of cation B. • Resultant water-derivatives can be categorised into two groups depending on symmetry

  9. Viagra warning re "poppers" and notice re protease inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1998-05-01

    Pfizer, Inc., manufacturer of Viagra (sildenafil), is warning patients that Viagra is contraindicated with nitrate inhalers (poppers). Nitrates in any form or nitric oxide donors can potentially cause hypotension. Pfizer also recommends that patients using protease inhibitors, particularly ritonavir, use a lower dose of Viagra (25 mg) because they interfere with the elimination of Viagra. This interaction does not pose a significant risk to the patient.

  10. Stability of Ruddlesden–Popper-structured oxides in humid conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtimäki, M.; Yamauchi, H.; Karppinen, M., E-mail: maarit.karppinen@aalto.fi

    2013-08-15

    Some of layered transition-metal oxides are known to react with atmospheric humidity to form through topotactic intercalation reactions new water-containing layered structures. Here we investigate the influence of oxygen content (7−δ) of the Ruddlesden–Popper-structured Sr{sub 3}FeMO{sub 7−δ} (M=Ni, Mn, Ti) oxides on the water-intercalation reaction. It is found that their oxygen contents influence greatly the reactivity of the phases with water. Other factors possibly affecting the reactivity are discussed on the basis of the present data in combination with a comprehensive review of previous works on Ruddlesden–Popper and related layered oxide phases. - Graphical abstract: Many of the Ruddlesden–Popper-structured A{sub 3}B{sub 2}O{sub 7−δ} oxides readily react with water via intercalation reactions. Three possible factors affecting the water intercalation are identified: oxygen content of the phase, ionic radius of cation A and valence state of cation B. The resultant layered water-derivative phases can be categorised into two groups, depending on the crystal symmetry of the phase. Highlights: • Ruddlesden–Popper oxides A{sub 3}B{sub 2}O{sub 7−δ} often accommodate water via intercalation reaction. • The lower the oxygen content 7−δ is the more readily the intercalation reaction occurs. • The second factor promoting the reaction is the large size of cation A. • The third possible factor is the high valence state of cation B. • Resultant water-derivatives can be categorised into two groups depending on symmetry.

  11. Progresso Científico e Verdade em Popper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth de Assis Dias

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho pretende mostrar que, para solucionar a questão da possibilidade do progresso científico, Popper precisou introduzir a ideia de verdade no âmbito de sua teoria da ciência. Essa concepção de progresso, em termos da noção de verdade, só será delineada na obra Conjectura e refutações (1963, pois a ideia de que o alvo da ciência é a verdade ainda não aparece teorizada em suas primeiras obras. Quando Popper escreveu sua A lógica da pesquisa científica(1934, a ciência era definida em termos de regras lógico-metodológicas e não de suas metas. O avanço científico é concebido a partir das noções de testabilidade e de corroborabilidade das teorias, exigências lógicometodológicas para que uma teoria seja considerada como científica. Popper não relacionou a questão do progresso científico à noção de verdade, nessa obra, porque, quando a escreveu, não dispunha de uma consistente teoria da verdade. Foi somente após Tarski ter escrito seu artigo sobre a concepção semântica da verdade que Popper, tendo por base essa concepção de verdade, pôde complementar as suas teses sobre o progresso da ciência, expostas em sua A lógica da pesquisa cientifica, com uma teoria acerca do conteúdo de verdade e da aproximação da verdade.

  12. luz de la filosofía de Popper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Harada Olivares

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se sostiene que Karl R. Popper planteó la ‘tesis de la carga teórica de la observación’ antes que algunos de los filósofos de la ciencia considerados ‘pospositivistas’ (Hanson, Kuhn y Feyerabend, pues en Lógica de la investigación (1934 presenta argumentos a favor de esta tesis basados en la práctica científica real y de tipo lógico-lingüístico. De hecho, esta tesis se puede encontrar desde Los dos problemas fundamentales de la teoría del conocimiento (1930-1933, pues en ese manuscrito, apoyado en psicólogos biologicistas, Popper presenta algo semejante a su posterior ‘epistemología evolutiva’. Se explica que Popper al plantear un enfoque pragmático y biológico del conocimiento llega a la conclusión de que existe una ‘carga valorativa en la observación’ y que, por tanto, no es posible una ‘neutralidad valorativa’ en el conocimiento o la ciencia, pues los valores son, precisamente, su condición de posibilidad.

  13. Poppers: epidemiology and clinical management of inhaled nitrite abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanelli, Frank; Smith, Kelly M; Thornton, Alice C; Pomeroy, Claire

    2004-01-01

    Commonly referred to as "poppers," inhaled nitrites have a long history of abuse. Poppers are rapid-onset, short-acting potent vasodilators that produce a rush characterized by warm sensations and feelings of dizziness. Poppers sometimes are used to facilitate anal intercourse because of their actions on the anal sphincter. Epidemiologically, the frequent use of nitrites by men who have sex with men has led some experts to implicate these chemicals in the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Controlled clinical trials to examine this potential correlation have not been conducted, and the use of nitrites simply may be a marker for other high-risk behaviors such as unprotected sex. Although regulated in the United States, many nitrite compounds and isomers are sold at various venues including bars, bookstores, and over the Internet. Adverse effects associated with these products vary from mild allergic reactions to life-threatening methemoglobinemia. The potential for drug-drug interactions and a propensity toward unsafe sex also exist. Clinicians should be familiar with the populations most likely to abuse these agents and with the clinical effects and management guidelines for acute ingestions.

  14. SKINNER, POPPER E O SUPOSTO ESTATUTO DETERMINISTA DO COMPORTAMENTALISMO RADICAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Antonio Alves da Rocha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A relação entre Comportamentalismo Radical edeterminismo é anunciada por Skinner e diversos comentadores desua obra. Contudo, há alguns autores que questionam essa relação,defendendo que a ciência do comportamento skinneriana estariamais próxima do indeterminismo. Dado tal dissenso, este trabalhocotejou a suposta compatibilidade entre o ComportamentalismoRadical de B. F. Skinner com as definições de determinismo eindeterminismo científicos apresentadas pelo filósofo da ciência KarlPopper. Primeiramente, são descritas as definições e os argumentosde Popper. Em seguida, são examinados excertos da obra de Skinnerrelacionados ao assunto. Os resultados sugerem não só que háelementos do discurso skinneriano incompatíveis com o que Popperclassifica como determinismo científico, como também que hámomentos em que as proposições de Skinner coincidem com o quePopper conceitua como indeterminismo científico.

  15. Over de werkelijkheid van drie werelden : een pleidooi voor en een herziening van Poppers Driewereldentheorie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veening, Eite Pieter

    1998-01-01

    This book is an attempt to present a coherent and relevant reconstruction, expansion and revision of Karl Popper's Three-World-Theory (abbreviated to 3Wt). This theory is part of Popper's (rare) metaphysical work; he developed it in the sixties and he referred to it in a number of his later

  16. The Work of Popper and Kuhn on the Nature of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, James

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the work of T. S. Kuhn and Sir Karl Popper. Current views on the nature of science and some current ideology of scientific education are also analyzed with regard to the views of science due to Kuhn and Popper. (HM)

  17. Popper's Theory of the Searchlight : A Historical Assessment of Its Significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Hark, Michel; Parusnikova, Z; Cohen, R

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of a correspondence between Karl Popper and the Dutch psychologist Adriaan de Groot, it is argued that the former's epistemology of the searchlight is historically rooted in early cognitive psychology of Otto Selz. It is furthermore argued that Popper's later critique of information

  18. Use of Poppers (Amyl Nitrite: Unpleasant Side Effects in a Brothel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Kofler

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Various agents can lead to an acquired methaemoglobinaemia (MHB with potentially fatal consequences. There is a lack of literature on the formation of methaemoglobin (MH in the blood after the intake of poppers (amyl nitrite. Poppers are a popular aphrodisiac agent. Case description: A 56-year-old diabetic called an ambulance after using poppers in a brothel with subsequent associated acrocyanosis, confusion and headache. The paramedics reported tachycardia and blood glucose of 3.8 mmol/l. The arterial blood gas analysis in the Emergency Department (ED revealed a MHB of 23.1%. MH levels decreased rapidly without antidotal therapy. The patient was discharged the next day free of symptoms. Discussion: This case illustrates the potential risks of taking poppers. A wide spectrum of symptoms were present in our patient. For the differential diagnosis of acquired MHB, poppers should be considered.

  19. Public health assessment for petitioned public health assessment, Shaffer Equipment Company, Minden, Fayette County, West Virginia, Region 3. CERCLIS No. WVD981038300. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The Shaffer Equipment Company (SEC) site, located in Fayette County, Minden, West Virginia constructed electrical substations for area coal mines from the period 1970 to 1984. The site is approximately one acre and has one building (SEC Equipment Building) that served as both a warehouse and office. Electrical equipment such as transformers, switches, circuit breakers, and capacitors were stored on the site. Dielectric oils that contained polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene were found in on- and off-site soils and sediments. Because PCBs are on site and PCB-contaminated oils reportedly were burned as starter fuel in the warehouse/office building, on- and off-site soil samples and on-site sediment samples were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-furans (PCDFs). One present potential pathway of exposure that has been identified as past, present, and future concerns involve trespassers onto the SEC site, children playing in yards and Arbuckle Creek, on-site workers in the SEC Equipment Building, and persons that eat snapping turtles from the area

  20. [Methaemoglobinaemia induced by ingestion of alkyl nitrite, "poppers"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kragsfeldt, Celina Thelberg; Nissen, Christoffer B; Brandt, Frans

    2016-08-22

    We present a case report of an 18-year-old male who was referred to the emergency department with evidence of methaemoglobinaemia. He presented with classic symptoms with peripheral cyanosis and hypoxia. Arterial blood gas showed a methaemoglobin level of 36%. This was caused by ingestion of alkyl nitrate, a widespread party drug called "poppers". When inhaled it causes euphoria, reduced pain and relaxation of the anal sphincter, but oral use may induce life-threatening methaemoglobinaemia. The treatment of choice is the antidote methylene blue. After treatment the patient regained full recovery and was discharged on the following day. We discuss classic symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of intoxication with methylene blue.

  1. El racionalismo crítico de Karl Popper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis María Delio Machado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo, pretende acercar algunos de los aspectos más importantes del pensamiento de uno de los filósofos más destacados de nuestro tiempo: Sir Karl Popper. Su presencia atraviesa nuestro siglo, presentándose como una de las voces visionarias y anticipadoras que se alzaron críticamente, contra toda actitud o acción que estuviese fundada en lo dogmático y que tuviese como finalidad, el olvido o la superación del individuo, aunque dicho olvido estuviese "justificado" por oraculares "bienes o fines superiores". (... 

  2. Popper, Rationality and the Possibility of Social Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Frederick

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Social science employs teleological explanations which depend upon the rationality principle, according to which people exhibit instrumental rationality. Popper points out that people also exhibit critical rationality, the tendency to stand back from, and to question or criticise, their views. I explain how our critical rationality impugns the explanatory value of the rationality principle and thereby threatens the very possibility of social science. I discuss the relationship between instrumental and critical rationality and show how we can reconcile our critical rationality with the possibility of social science if we invoke Popper’s conception of limited rationality and his indeterminism.

  3. The prevalence of visual symptoms in poppers users: a global survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Andrew J; Borschmann, Rohan; Kelly, Simon P; Ramsey, John; Ferris, Jason; Winstock, Adam R

    2017-01-01

    The use of 'poppers' (volatile alkyl nitrites) has been associated with the development of visual symptoms secondary to the development of maculopathy. There are currently no data regarding the prevalence of this condition among poppers users. The aim of this study was to quantify the presence of visual symptoms among poppers users from a global cohort. The Global Drug Survey (GDS) conducts annual anonymous online surveys of drug and alcohol use. Within the 2012 GDS, questions were inserted regarding the presence of visual symptoms in poppers users. The GDS received a total of 21 575 valid responses, with a total of 17 479 from the UK, Australia, USA and Eurozone. Within these areas, 5152 (29.5%) had used poppers within their lifetime and 1322 (7.6%) within the previous year. Of the 'last year' users, when asked the question: 'Do you think poppers use has affected your eyesight?', 29 (2.2%) people responded 'yes', 130 (10.0%) responded 'maybe' and 1146 (87.8%) responded 'no (17 people did not answer). Both multiple choice and free-text responses regarding the nature of visual symptoms correlated with the central visual disturbance that would be expected from maculopathy. There was significant increased symptom prevalence with age (likelihood ratio (χ 2 )=19.0; ppoppers users have visual symptoms. Clinical correlation is required to determine whether these reported symptoms are due to poppers associated maculopathy, or an alternative cause.

  4. Poppers use and risky sexual behaviors among men who have sex with men in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Teng, Tao; Lu, Hongyan; Zhao, Yuejuan; Liu, Hongjie; Yin, Lu; Sun, Zheya; He, Xiong; Qian, Han-Zhu; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming; Vermund, Sten H

    2016-03-01

    Although poppers are increasingly popular among MSM in China, little is known about the patterns of poppers use. The objectives of this study were to describe the patterns of poppers use and examine its association with sexual behaviors and HIV infection among MSM in Beijing, China. As part of a multi-component HIV intervention trial, 3588 MSM were surveyed between March 2013 and March 2014 in Beijing, China. Blood samples were collected and tested for HIV and syphilis. The questionnaire collected information about socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the correlates of poppers use. Over a quarter of men (27.5%) reported having used at least one type of drugs in the past three months. Poppers were the most popular one (26.8%). Poppers use was correlated with a higher HIV prevalence [odds ratio (OR): 1.38, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-1.70]. Demographic and sexual behavioral factors associated with poppers use included: younger age [adjusted OR (AOR): 1.56, 95% CI: 1.25-1.94], higher education (AOR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.33-1.96), alcohol use (AOR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.10-1.60), seeking male partners mainly via the internet (AOR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.28-2.00), multiple male sex partnership (AOR: 2.22, 95% CI: 1.90-2.60), and unprotected receptive anal intercourse (AOR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.28-1.81). In this study, poppers use was positively associated with HIV infection and unprotected anal intercourse. Intervention efforts should be devoted to promote safer sex and HIV testing and counseling among MSM who use poppers. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Testing the null hypothesis: the forgotten legacy of Karl Popper?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mick

    2013-01-01

    Testing of the null hypothesis is a fundamental aspect of the scientific method and has its basis in the falsification theory of Karl Popper. Null hypothesis testing makes use of deductive reasoning to ensure that the truth of conclusions is irrefutable. In contrast, attempting to demonstrate the new facts on the basis of testing the experimental or research hypothesis makes use of inductive reasoning and is prone to the problem of the Uniformity of Nature assumption described by David Hume in the eighteenth century. Despite this issue and the well documented solution provided by Popper's falsification theory, the majority of publications are still written such that they suggest the research hypothesis is being tested. This is contrary to accepted scientific convention and possibly highlights a poor understanding of the application of conventional significance-based data analysis approaches. Our work should remain driven by conjecture and attempted falsification such that it is always the null hypothesis that is tested. The write up of our studies should make it clear that we are indeed testing the null hypothesis and conforming to the established and accepted philosophical conventions of the scientific method.

  6. A soul of truth in things erroneous: Popper's "amateurish" evolutionary philosophy in light of contemporary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchi, Davide; Baravalle, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    This paper will critically assess Popper's evolutionary philosophy. There exists a rich literature on the topic with which we have many reservations. We believe that Popper's evolutionary philosophy should be assessed in light of the intriguing theoretical insights offered, during the last 10 years or so, by the philosophy of biology, evolutionary biology and molecular biology. We will argue that, when analysed in this manner, Popper's ideas concerning the nature of selection, Lamarckism and the theoretical limits of neo-Darwinism can be appreciated in their full biological and philosophical value.

  7. An Assesment on the Three Worlds Theories of Karl Popper and Jürgen Habermas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vildan İyigüngör

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is aimed to outline “three world theories” of Karl Popper and Jürgen Habermas comparatively. In this context, it is also aimed to assess Habermas’ critics as “positivist” to Karl Popper who is an opponent to positivism inside it and his abstraction on the “three world theory” under the influence of Karl Popper. The differences between their opinions stem from their main arguments about the methodology of natural and social sciences.

  8. Popper and Dingle on special relativity and the issue of symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Allen Clark

    2012-02-01

    Karl Popper and Herbert Dingle engaged in a fascinating debate concerning the kind of theory the special theory of relativity is. One of the issues was whether applications of the theory could be made consistent with the principle of relativity, a cornerstone of the theory itself. The principle of relativity seems to imply some sort of symmetry in results obtained for similar experiments as observed in two different inertial reference frames. Peter Hayes has recently dealt with the Dingle-Popper debate on this matter, as well as other issues. The present paper seeks to clarify what kind of symmetry is appropriate in a situation discussed by Popper, Dingle, and Hayes.

  9. The Mother, Who Is Not One: Reflections Of Motherhood In Shakespeare's Romeo And Juliet, The Tempest, And The Taming Of The Shrew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARAMAN HATICE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The lack of proper motherhood in Shakespeare's plays has been a point of attraction for many feminist critics actively engaged in emphasizing the patriarchal aspect of Shakespeare's plays. This paper aims to analyze motherhood and the lack of mother/mother-figure in The Tempest, Romeo and Juliet and The Taming of the Shrew through Luce Irigaray's theory of gender and the work of other feminist critics. The issues of gender, father-daughter relations and the reflections of the absent mothers will be discussed. Male/Female Subjectivity will also be questioned, in view of Irigaray's conceptualization of gender by relating it to Subject.

  10. Some epistemology ́s elements of Social Science by Karl PopperAlguns elementos da Epistemolgia da Ciências Sociais de Karl Popper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Rodrigues Pereira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the main elements of the epistemology of human sciences of Karl Popper. It was organized as follows. First, we positioned ourselves in the Popper-Adorno controversy. Then weestablished the parameters of discussion, particularly in regards to the idea of “scientific explanation”. Some elements of Popper’s Theory of Knowledge are then analyzed. The final part discusses thescientific parameters of Social Sciences.Este artigo discute os principais elementos da epistemologia das ciências humanas de Karl Popper. Foi organizado como segue. Em primeiro lugar, nos posionamos sobre a  polêmica Popper-Adorno. Então, nós estabelecemos os parâmetros de discussão, nomeadamente no que respeita a idéia de "explicação científica". A seguir são analisados alguns elementos da Teoria do Conhecimento de Popper. A parte final discute os parâmetros científicos de Ciências Sociais

  11. FILSAFAT ILMU KARL R. POPPER DAN THOMAS S. KUHN SERTA IMPLIKASINYA DALAM PENGAJARAN ILMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slamet Subekti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses about philosophy of science according to Karl R. Popper and Thomas S. Kuhn. There are similarities and differences between their views about how progress and what function of science.Apparently both Popper and Kuhn agree that science does not proceed by induction. However Kuhn disagrees with the view that science progresses by falsifiability through conjectures and refutations, but occurance by paradigm shift. Popper and Kuhn’s disagreement amounted to a distinction between two functions within the practice of science, one of criticism (Popper and one of puzzle solving (Kuhn.Science education implies the teaching and learning of science interesting and fruitful in one hand, and teachers should be role models to students in the other hand

  12. The Devaluation of the Subject in Popper's Theory of World 3

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parusniková, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 3 (2016), s. 304-317 ISSN 0048-3931 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : Karl Popper * World 3 * objective knowledge * criticism * creativity Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion Impact factor: 0.392, year: 2016

  13. Popper's Epistemology as a Pedagogic and Didactic Principle, or: Let Them Make More "Mistakes."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkse, W.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the relationship of Popper's theory of knowledge to chemistry instruction. Suggests that students be allowed to learn from their mistakes and presents five experiments with an implicit falsification purpose. (JN)

  14. Alles Leben ist Problemlösen: Zum 100. Geburtstag von Karl Raimund Popper

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchgässner, Gebhard

    2002-01-01

    Karl Popper wäre im Juli 2002 hundert Jahre alt geworden. Prof. Dr. Gebhard Kirchgässner würdigt den politischen Philosophen, der als bedeutendster Wissenschaftstheoretiker des 20. Jahrhunderts gilt.

  15. "Bewitching" or confusing methaphysics? The demarcation between science and metaphysics according to Karl Popper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elaine Botha

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available The problems of both classical and modern theory of knowledge, according to Popper, reside in the problem of demarcation: a problem closely re­ lated to the problem of induction. The paper argues the view that Popper's view of metaphysics is ambiguous, requiring another criterion to distinguish between "good " and "bad " metaphysics. The sources of the problem are pinpointed, and Popper's distinction between three types of theory outlined. The article then explores the distinction between types of theories and the issues of falsification, testability and refutation, before going on to a consideration of the relationship between science and metaphysics, and w eighing up the issue of good ancid metaphysics. From this emerges clearly that the second "criterionot demarcation" is needed to make precisely this distinction; also in view of Popper's u n ­ clear, even ambiguous, view of metaphysics.

  16. The psychology of thinking, animal psychology, and the young Karl Popper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Hark, Michel

    2004-01-01

    In the 1920s, Karl Popper wrote two large manuscripts on psychology that he never published. In his autobiography, Unended Quest, he attempts to reduce the importance of his work in psychology as much as possible, and in his philosophical work he is an antipsychologist. However, in this article, it is argued that Popper's early psychology has been pivotally important for the development of his philosophy. In particular, it is shown that Popper's views on psychology underwent a radical shift, one that paved the way for his characteristic deductive stance in philosophy. Popper's views shifted from an inductive and associationistic psychology toward a noninductive psychology of problem solving. Tracing the historical background of Popper's early work reveals how he integrated various parts of the psychology of Karl Groos into his analysis of the childish phenomenon of dogmatic thinking and how he shortly after appropriated various elements of the animal psychology of Hans Volkelt and Herbert Jennings in his biological approach to (dogmatic) thinking. In the monumental works of Otto Selz, however, Popper finally found the roots of a noninductive and biological approach to the growth of individual and scientific knowledge. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. “Dreamers Often Lie”: On “Compromise”, the subversive documentation of an Israeli- Palestinian political adaptation of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Munk

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Is Romeo and Juliet relevant to a description of the Middle-East conflict? This is the question raised in Compromise, an Israeli documentary that follows the Jerusalem Khan Theater's production of the play in the mid-1990's. This paper describes how the cinematic documentation of a theatrical Shakespeare production can undermine the original intentions of its creators. This staging of the play was carefully planned in order to demonstrate to the country and the world that Israelis and Palestinians are willing to search for a peaceful solution in the Middle East: Two directors - Israeli -Eran Baniel and Palestinian Fuad Awad - co-directed both Israeli and Palestinian actors, using both languages: Arabic and Hebrew. This seemingly balanced solution was acclaimed on European television but for Israeli director Even, this was only a façade. Following backstage situation,  Compromise reveals the truth behind the mask in order to denounce the manipulative use of what Italian philosopher Giorgio Agamben defines as state of emergency, which is the hegemonic mechanism that deprives people of the elementary civil rights. Questioning the issue of co-existence against the political background of the 1990's (including bomb attacks and the signing of the Camp David Treaty in 1993, the film plays on the discrepancy between the denouement of Romeo and Juliet and the unsolvable situation in which people in the Middle-East - amongst them the actors themselves- are condemned to live.

  18. Karl Raimund Popper: Problem Neopositivistik dan Teori Kritis Falsifikasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Syamsul Huda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Karl Popper once criticizes the positivistic paradigm by means of what he calls the theory of falsification. To him, the positivistic paradigm constitutes a failure simply because it cannot distinguish between science and prude science, that is, between empirical method and non-empirical method. In the scientific knowledge, empirical science, mathematics and logic must be differentiated, something that the positivistic paradigm has failed to do. This paradigm furthermore, did not have a clear picture what logic-based science is, empirical knowledge and psychology of knowledge. It also fails to properly understand knowledge that springs from tradition, emotion, authority and so forth. All positivistic paradigms such as that of Karl Max’s Historicism, Freud’s theory of Psycho Analysis, Adler’s theory of Individual Analysis and Newton’s theory of Gravitation fall into this trap of failure.

  19. A concepção de ciência de Popper e o ensino de ciências Popper's conception of science and the teaching of sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Rufatto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se identificar as consequências mais importantes da concepção de ciência de Popper, que deu origem a um rico debate na Filosofia das Ciências, para o Ensino de Ciências. O acompanhamento deste debate permite perceber a riqueza do processo científico, reconhecendo as contribuições daqueles que debateram com Popper; bem como a importância dos aspectos da ciência que Popper valorizou e procurou preservar. As críticas e os debates em torno das abordagens de mudança conceitual contribuíram para a percepção da riqueza e complexidade desse processo. Quando considerados os objetivos institucionais das escolas e as expectativas sociais em torno da compreensão adequada e da procura de superação dos paradigmas vigentes a manutenção de certos aspectos, inerentes ao processo de mudança conceitual, pode se mostrar relevante. Neste sentido, a obra de Popper pode oferecer importante apoio para valorizar aspectos racionais que poderiam presidir o processo de aprender Ciências.This work aimed at identifying the most important consequences of Popper's conception of science education, which started a fertile debate in the Philosophy of Science. By following this debate, it is possible to notice the richness of the cientific process, recognizing the contributions brought by those who debated with Popper, and the importance of aspects of science that Popper valued and attempted to preserve. The criticism and the debate over the approaches towards conceptual change contributed to the perception of the wide extent and complexity of this process. However, the maintenance of certain aspects, inherent in the process of conceptual change, may be relevant when the institutional objectives of the schools and the social expectations over the appropriate understanding and over the attempt to overcome current paradigms are considered. In this way, Popper's work may offer important support to valuing rational aspects that could inform the process

  20. Democracy, Justice, and Peace in Popper's Critical Rationalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahangir Bagheri Ilkhchi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to explain the relationship between the concepts of democracy, justice and peace in political thought. Popper's critical and liberalist approach toward democracy impelled us to utilize this twenties-century's political philosopher's view in explaining democracy, justice and peace. Popper's critical view in the field of philosophy of science has shown its reflection in social context. Criticizing the intellectual foundations of violence, dictatorship and authoritarianism, Popper considers the democracy based on open society as a proper ground for promoting justice and peace. On the other hand, Popper's view on peace and justice and, at a higher level, democracy, is very close to that of the international organizations engaged in promoting human rights. Therefore, Popper's critical rationalism offers an appropriate framework for explaining the relationship between democracy, justice, and peace. مقاله حاضر به دنبال تشریح رابطه مفاهیم دموکراسی، صلح و عدالت در اندیشه سیاسی است. در این بین نگرش لیبرالیستی و انتقادی پوپر به دموکراسی ما را بر آن داشت تا از رویکرد این فیلسوف سیاسی قرن 20 در توضیح مقوله‌های دموکراسی، عدالت و صلح استفاده کنیم. نگرش انتقادی پوپر در حوزه فلسفه علم بازتاب خود را در حوزه اجتماعی نشان داده است. او با نقد مبانی فکری خشونت، دیکتاتوری و اقتدارگرایی بستر مناسب برای ترویج عدالت و صلح را دموکراسی مبتنی بر جامعه باز می‌داند. از طرفی همان‌طور که در متن نشان داده شده است نگرش پوپر به صلح، عدالت و فراتر از آن دموکراسی به رویکرد نهادها و سازمان‌های

  1. A Way Forward Beyond Karl Popper's and Donald T. Campbell's Dead-End Evolutionary Epistemologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettersten, John

    2016-01-01

    Theories of natural thought processes have traditionally served as foundations for philosophies of science. The source of all knowledge is passively received observations; these are combined to produce certain knowledge. After David Hume showed that this was not possible, deductivist alternatives, that is, theories that find a source of knowledge in ideas not derived from observations, from Immanuel Kant to William Whewell in the mid-1 9th century, were introduced. In response, traditional associationist and inductivist views were refurbished; a deductivist alternative was developed by the W6rzburg School. Much later Karl Popper in philosophy and Donald T. Campbell in psychology integrated this view with evolutionary theory. Campbell wanted thereby to find a justificationist view, which would reduce philosophy of science to cognitive psychology; Popper rejected both justificationism and the reduction of philosophy of science to psychology. Campbell thought all rational processes were innate psychological processes; Popper thought psychological processes were used to develop various rational processes. Campbell could not show that all rational thought was reducible to innate psychological processes, nor how some justification of scientific theories was possible. Popper could not show how evolutionary theory contributed to our knowledge of psychological thought processes. Both failed to observe that cognitive processes are social; people have learned how to think by learning how to interact in social groups seeking understanding. When innate thought processes are studied as social characteristics, evolutionary theory can contribute to both cognitive psychology and the theory of rationality, as both Popper and Campbell wanted it to do.

  2. Research on Poppers Used as Electrical Connectors in High Speed Textile Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leśnikowski Jacek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of research on poppers used as electrical connectors connecting fragments of textile signal lines. These lines can be used in intelligent clothing for connecting electronic modules implemented in it. Intelligent (smart clothing can be used, among others, in the health monitoring of the elderly, newborn babies, or people working in hazardous conditions, for example, firefighters and soldiers. The aim of the present study was to examine the usefulness of poppers, widely used in clothing, as electrical connectors connecting parts of the textile signal lines designed for transmission of high-speed digital signals. The paper presents examples of measured parameters characterizing transmission properties of two fragments of the coplanar, textile transmission line connected to each other using conventional poppers. The presented measurement results contain the so-called s parameters, characteristic impedance of the poppers, and eye measurements characterizing distortions of digital signals passing through the tested line. In the article, the effect of temperature and humidity of air surrounding the tested poppers on their characteristic impedance was also presented. This property and its stability are important in signal lines designed for high-speed data transmission.

  3. Learning within the Worlds of Reifications, Selves, and Phenomena: Expanding on the Thinking of Vygotsky and Popper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, David Wei Loong; Chen, Der-Thanq

    2008-01-01

    A framework, termed the RSP, is proposed. It is mainly for analyzing and explaining how learning occurs. This framework is grounded in the social-cultural perspective, in particular, in the thinking of both Vygotsky and Popper. Although the thinking of Popper is generally not referred to as having a social-cultural orientation, mostly due to…

  4. Creating Ruddlesden-Popper phases by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haislmaier, Ryan C.; Stone, Greg; Alem, Nasim; Engel-Herbert, Roman

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of a 50 unit cell thick n = 4 Sr_n_+_1Ti_nO_3_n_+_1 (Sr_5Ti_4O_1_3) Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phase film is demonstrated by sequentially depositing SrO and TiO_2 layers in an alternating fashion using hybrid molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), where Ti was supplied using titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). A detailed calibration procedure is outlined for determining the shuttering times to deposit SrO and TiO_2 layers with precise monolayer doses using in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) as feedback. Using optimized Sr and TTIP shuttering times, a fully automated growth of the n = 4 RP phase was carried out over a period of >4.5 h. Very stable RHEED intensity oscillations were observed over the entire growth period. The structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that a constant periodicity of four SrTiO_3 perovskite unit cell blocks separating the double SrO rocksalt layer was maintained throughout the entire film thickness with a very little amount of planar faults oriented perpendicular to the growth front direction. These results illustrate that hybrid MBE is capable of layer-by-layer growth with atomic level precision and excellent flux stability.

  5. Controlling Oxygen Mobility in Ruddlesden–Popper Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongkyu Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Discovering new energy materials is a key step toward satisfying the needs for next-generation energy conversion and storage devices. Among the various types of oxides, Ruddlesden–Popper (RP oxides (A2BO4 are promising candidates for electrochemical energy devices, such as solid oxide fuel cells, owing to their attractive physicochemical properties, including the anisotropic nature of oxygen migration and controllable stoichiometry from oxygen excess to oxygen deficiency. Thus, understanding and controlling the kinetics of oxygen transport are essential for designing optimized materials to use in electrochemical energy devices. In this review, we first discuss the basic mechanisms of oxygen migration in RP oxides depending on oxygen nonstoichiometry. We then focus on the effect of changes in the defect concentration, crystallographic orientation, and strain on the oxygen migration in RP oxides. We also briefly review their thermal and chemical stability. Finally, we conclude with a perspective on potential research directions for future investigation to facilitate controlling oxygen ion migration in RP oxides.

  6. Creating Ruddlesden-Popper phases by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haislmaier, Ryan C.; Stone, Greg; Alem, Nasim; Engel-Herbert, Roman, E-mail: rue2@psu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2016-07-25

    The synthesis of a 50 unit cell thick n = 4 Sr{sub n+1}Ti{sub n}O{sub 3n+1} (Sr{sub 5}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 13}) Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phase film is demonstrated by sequentially depositing SrO and TiO{sub 2} layers in an alternating fashion using hybrid molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), where Ti was supplied using titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). A detailed calibration procedure is outlined for determining the shuttering times to deposit SrO and TiO{sub 2} layers with precise monolayer doses using in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) as feedback. Using optimized Sr and TTIP shuttering times, a fully automated growth of the n = 4 RP phase was carried out over a period of >4.5 h. Very stable RHEED intensity oscillations were observed over the entire growth period. The structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that a constant periodicity of four SrTiO{sub 3} perovskite unit cell blocks separating the double SrO rocksalt layer was maintained throughout the entire film thickness with a very little amount of planar faults oriented perpendicular to the growth front direction. These results illustrate that hybrid MBE is capable of layer-by-layer growth with atomic level precision and excellent flux stability.

  7. «Poppers maculopathy?» in Spain. A new ophthalmological disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bella, J; Donate, J; Gallego-Pinazo, R; Benítez Del Castillo, J M

    2016-08-01

    The term «poppers» refers to products made of volatile alkyl nitrites used for recreational practices. 40 year old man reported blurred vision in both eyes and photophobia, and admitted regular use of «poppers». Best corrected visual acuity was 0.63/1 in both eyes. Bilateral yellowish vitelliform macular lesions were present in both eyes in the funduscopy, as well as a disruption of the IS/OS line in the optical coherence tomography. This is the first case of «poppers maculopathy» registered in Spain. Clinical findings and symptoms are similar to previous reported cases. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Sir Peter Medawar: science, creativity and the popularization of Karl Popper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calver, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Sir Peter Medawar was respected by scientists and literati alike. It was perhaps not surprising, then, that he would choose to involve himself in the ‘two cultures’ debate of 1959 and beyond. The focus of his intervention was the philosophy of Sir Karl Popper. However, Medawar's Popper was not the guru of falsification familiar from philosophy textbooks. Medawar's distinctive interpretation of Popper treated him instead as the source of insights into the role of creativity and imagination in scientific inquiry. This paper traces the context for Medawar's adoption of Popperian philosophy, together with its application before the debate. It then examines, within the context of the debate itself, the way in which Medawar attempted to reconcile scientific inquiry with literary practice. Medawar became increasingly convinced that not only was induction epistemologically unsound, but it was also damaging to the public role of the scientist. His construction of Popperianism would, he envisaged, provide a worthy alternative for scientists’ self-image.

  9. [Case report - a dangerous intoxication after ingestion of alkyl nitrite ("poppers")].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernasconi, Barbara; Konrad, Christoph; Fischer, Simon

    2014-12-01

    This case report describes the inadvertent poisoning of a young man with "poppers" after having ingested an unknown amout of the drug. "Poppers" (alkyl nitrite) were made famous in the 1960s as a party drug, and during certain sexual practices, and are still in use today. The drug's inhalation leads to a short-lived rush, vasodilation and relaxtion of smooth muscles. An accidental ingestion can lead to a significant build-up of methemoglobin with dire consequences. The therapy consists of the intravenous administration of methylene blue. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  10. [Popper and the problem of induction in epidemiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banegas, J R; Rodríguez Artalejo, F; del Rey Calero, J

    2000-01-01

    In this article we are discussing a few of the contributions by the Austro-British philosopher Karl R. Popper, one of our most influential contemporary thinkers, whose epistemological and socio-political theories have also penetrated the sphere of epidemiology. We are focusing mainly on the so-called problem of induction. We sustain, in line with Popper, that the scientific method does not use inductive reasoning, but rather hypothetical-deductive reasoning. Although the movement from the data evaluating a hypothesis to a conclusion on the latter goes from the specific to the general, that is, in an inductive direction, the induction does not exist as a reasoning process or inference. That is, there is no method that enables us to infer or to verify hypotheses or theories (we cannot explore all of the possible situations to see whether the theory stands up), or even to render them very probable. Besides, scientists look for highly informative theories, not highly probable ones. What we actually do is to propose a hypothesis as a tentative solution to a problem, to confront the prediction deduced from the hypothesis with actual experience, and evaluate whether the hypothesis is rejected or not by the facts. As theories cannot be verified, we can only accept them if they withstand an attempt to reject them. Consequently, the test of a theory consists of criticism or a serious attempt at falsification, that is, the elimination of error within a theory, in order to reject it if it is false. The objective is, thus, the search for true theories. For this purpose, the scientific method uses a systematic set of methodological (not logical) rules, that is, decisions. These methodological rules or principles can be summed up in two: [symbol: see text]be inventive and critical!, that is, propose bold hypotheses and subject them to severe tests of experience. Logic plays its role mainly by allowing us to deduce from a hypothesis the predictions to be confronted with the facts

  11. Philosophy and phylogenetic inference: a comparison of likelihood and parsimony methods in the context of Karl Popper's writings on corroboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, K; Poe, S

    2001-06-01

    Advocates of cladistic parsimony methods have invoked the philosophy of Karl Popper in an attempt to argue for the superiority of those methods over phylogenetic methods based on Ronald Fisher's statistical principle of likelihood. We argue that the concept of likelihood in general, and its application to problems of phylogenetic inference in particular, are highly compatible with Popper's philosophy. Examination of Popper's writings reveals that his concept of corroboration is, in fact, based on likelihood. Moreover, because probabilistic assumptions are necessary for calculating the probabilities that define Popper's corroboration, likelihood methods of phylogenetic inference--with their explicit probabilistic basis--are easily reconciled with his concept. In contrast, cladistic parsimony methods, at least as described by certain advocates of those methods, are less easily reconciled with Popper's concept of corroboration. If those methods are interpreted as lacking probabilistic assumptions, then they are incompatible with corroboration. Conversely, if parsimony methods are to be considered compatible with corroboration, then they must be interpreted as carrying implicit probabilistic assumptions. Thus, the non-probabilistic interpretation of cladistic parsimony favored by some advocates of those methods is contradicted by an attempt by the same authors to justify parsimony methods in terms of Popper's concept of corroboration. In addition to being compatible with Popperian corroboration, the likelihood approach to phylogenetic inference permits researchers to test the assumptions of their analytical methods (models) in a way that is consistent with Popper's ideas about the provisional nature of background knowledge.

  12. Bühler and Popper: Kantian therapies for the crisis in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    I analyze the historical background and philosophical considerations of Karl Bühler and his student Karl Popper regarding the crisis of psychology. They share certain Kantian questions and methods for reflection on the state of the art in psychology. Part 1 outlines Bühler's diagnosis and therapy for the crisis in psychology as he perceived it, leading to his famous theory of language. I also show how the Kantian features of Bühler's approach help to deal with objections to his crisis diagnosis and to aspects of his linguistic theory. Part 2 turns to Popper's dissertation, completed in 1928 under Bühler. I analyze Popper's disapproval of Schlick's physicalism in psychology, as well as Popper's attempt to extend Bühler's Kantian strategy to the domain of the psychology of thinking. In conclusion, I indicate how these approaches to the crisis in psychology differ from Thomas Kuhn's notions of crisis and revolution, which are still all too popular in current philosophical discussions of psychology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Psychology of Thinking, Animal Psychology, and the Young Karl Popper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Hark, M.R.M.

    2004-01-01

    In the 1920s, Karl Popper wrote two large manuscripts on psychology that he never published. in his autobiography, Unended Quest, he attempts to reduce the importance of his work in psychology as much as possible, and in his philosophical work he is an antipsychologist. However, in this article, it

  14. Scientific Paradigms and Falsification: Kuhn, Popper, and Problems in Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery James

    2010-01-01

    By examining the respective contributions of Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn to the philosophy of science, the author highlights some prevailing problems in this article with the methods of so-called scientific research in education. The author enumerates a number of reasons why such research, in spite of its limited tangible return, continues to gain…

  15. De emergentie en evolutie van drie werelden : tweede revisie van Poppers driewereldentheorie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, André de

    2009-01-01

    De driewereldentheorie (3Wt) van Karl Popper is een metafysische theorie die de pretentie heeft alle entiteiten uit de werkelijkheid op een geordende manier een plaats te geven. De ordening komt tot stand op basis van de fysische, mentale of abstracte status die entiteiten bezitten. Deze status is

  16. Is Popper's Falsificationist Heuristic a Helpful Resource for Developing Critical Thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chi-Ming

    2007-01-01

    Based on a rather simple thesis that we can learn from our mistakes, Karl Popper developed a falsificationist epistemology in which knowledge grows through falsifying, or criticizing, our theories. According to him, knowledge, especially scientific knowledge, progresses through conjectures (i.e. tentative solutions to problems) that are controlled…

  17. Poppers, Kaposi's sarcoma, and HIV infection: empirical example of a strong confounding effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, A

    1995-01-01

    Are there empirical examples of strong confounding effects? Textbooks usually show examples of weak confounding or use hypothetical examples of strong confounding to illustrate the paradoxical consequences of not separating out the effect of the studied exposure from that of second factor acting as a confounder. HIV infection is a candidate strong confounder of the spuriously high association reported between consumption of poppers, a sexual stimulant, and risk of Kaposi's sarcoma in the early phase of the AIDS epidemic. To examine this hypothesis, assumptions must be made on the prevalence of HIV infection among cases of Kaposi's sarcoma and on the prevalence of heavy popper consumption according to HIV infection in cases and controls. Results show that HIV infection may have confounded the poppers-Kaposi's sarcoma association. However, it cannot be ruled out that HIV did not qualify as a confounder because it was either an intermediate variable or an effect modifier of the association between popper inhalation and Kaposi's sarcoma. This example provides a basis to discuss the mechanism by which confounding occurs as well as the practical importance of confounding in epidemiologic research.

  18. Research shows 'poppers' use in connected with infection among MSM. Little is done to address problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    Researchers and experts on the use of inhaled nitrates among men who have sex with men (MSM) say clinicians, public health officials, and AIDS groups are ignoring the impact of poppers, a popular party inhalant, on HIV risk behaviors and even seroconversion.

  19. Questioning Clerkship: Applying Popper's Evolutionary Analysis of Learning to Medical Student Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitpin, Jeremy Sebastian; Chitpin, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Through a series of critical discussions on Karl Popper's evolutionary analysis of learning and the non-authoritarian values it promotes, the purpose of this paper is to advocate a Popperian approach for building medical student knowledge. Specifically, it challenges positivist assumptions that permeate the design and management of many…

  20. A Historical Survey of Sir Karl Popper's Contribution to Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M. Shields

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994, though not trained as a physicist and embarrassed early in his career by a physics error pointed out by Einstein and Bohr, ultimately made substantial contributions to the interpretation of quantum mechanics. As was often the case, Popper initially formulated his position by criticizing the views of others - in this case Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg. Underlying Popper's criticism was his belief that, first, the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics abandoned scientific realism and second, the assertion that quantum theory was complete (an assertion rejected by Einstein among others amounted to an unfalsifiable claim. Popper insisted that the most basic predictions of quantum mechanics should continue to be tested, with an eye towards falsification rather than mere adding of decimal places to confirmatory experiments. His persistent attacks on the Copenhagen interpretation were aimed not at the uncertainty principle itself and the formalism from which it was derived, but at the acceptance by physicists of an unclear epistemology and ontology that left critical questions unanswered. Quanta 2012; 1: 1–12.

  1. Genesis of Karl Popper's EPR-like experiment and its resonance amongst the physics community in the 1980s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Santo, Flavio

    2018-05-01

    I present the reconstruction of the involvement of Karl Popper in the community of physicists concerned with foundations of quantum mechanics, in the 1980s. At that time Popper gave active contribution to the research in physics, of which the most significant is a new version of the EPR thought experiment, alleged to test different interpretations of quantum mechanics. The genesis of such an experiment is reconstructed in detail, and an unpublished letter by Popper is reproduced in the present paper to show that he formulated his thought experiment already two years before its first publication in 1982. The debate stimulated by the proposed experiment as well as Popper's role in the physics community throughout 1980s is here analysed in detail by means of personal correspondence and publications.

  2. Natural Selection or Problem Solving. Critical Re-evaluation of Karl Popper's Evolutionism

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    Boldachev Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the philosophers and the educated audience the name of Sir Karl Popper is usually associated with the critical method, evolutionary epistemology, falsification as a criterion for the demarcation of scientific knowledge, the concept of the third world and with his dislike to dialectics and contradictions. This article is aimed to show in what way all these things are connected in the evolutionary researches of the philosopher and the new conceptions, which he contributed to studying the mechanisms of evolution. Also there is an attempt to comprehend the evolutionary views of Popper, test them for falsification, relate his epistemology with his claims, which he puts forward to the theory of objective knowledge evolution and show the obvious contradiction between them.

  3. No more than conjectures: Popper and the ethics of scientific enterprise.

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    Doria, Nilson Guimarães

    2009-06-01

    Karl Popper dealt with both problems Yurevich (Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 43(2), 2009, doi: 10.1007/s12124-008-9082-7 ) deals: the crisis in Psychology and in the discourse about the nature of science. Although he failed to provide a complete response for both problems, his proposals can yet be fruitful to the reflection on these matters in the context of the present discussion. He offers some tentative answers to what could be considered a healthy epistemic activity, something Yurevich does not provide. More interestingly, some of the Popper proposals seem to fit, and in some extent correct, the quest for "collaborative work" proposed by Zittoun et al. (Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 43(2), 2009, doi: 10.1007/s12124-008-9082-7 ) as a way of transforming crisis in development.

  4. Rationalism and traditionalism in politics. The correspondence between Karl R. Popper and Michael Oakeshott

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    Spartaco Pupo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The correspondence of 1948 between Karl Popper and Michael Oakeshott, translated for the first time in Italian and published in the appendix to this paper, demonstrates the existence of two different ways of thinking about politics: the rationalist approach, founded on the “argumentation” as a rational means for the non-violent solution of problems (Popper, and the traditionalist mode, inspired by the method of “conversation” as a guarantee of constant openness to the diversity of identities (Oakeshott. To rise from the letters is a mutual influence on the interpretation of the key concepts that characterize the thought of the two authors, which however does not cancel the fundamental divergence of their political orientation.

  5. Science and Politics in the Philosophy of Science of Popper, Polanyi, and Kuhn

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    Nye, Mary Jo

    2006-05-01

    The names of Karl Popper, Michael Polanyi, and Thomas Kuhn are well-known among scientists and among historians and philosophers of science. Around 1960 they published books that excited considerable discussion because of their independent rejection of the philosophical tradition that uses simple empiricism or positivism to differentiate science from religion, metaphysics, ideology, or pseudo-science. Popper's original field of expertise was scientific education and psychology. Polanyi had a distinguished career in physical chemistry and chemical physics, while Kuhn worked briefly in solid-state physics before turning to the philosophy of science. Their descriptions of scientific practices and values have roots not only in their scientific educations and experiences, but also in the political questions of their time. This paper focuses on political dimensions in the philosophical work of these three twentieth-century figures.

  6. Os Fundamentos do Conhecimento na Modernidade: o Método Científico em Popper

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    Alexcina Oliveira Cirne Vieira da Cunha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo apresentar os postulados teóricos, em especial o conceito de falseacionismo, do racionalismo crítico de Popper. Inicia com suas críticas ao positivismo lógico, bem como a sua recusa de fornecer cientificidade aos princípios do historicismo e seu entendimento sobre a posição da metafísica na construção dos postulados científicos. Conclui com a crítica de Popper ao método indutivo e com reflexões sobre a importância das refutações e conjecturas na busca por um equilíbrio nas conclusões científicas, que não devem ser definitivas e dogmáticas.

  7. Poppers Maculopathy: Complete Restitution of Macular Changes in OCT after Drug Abstinence.

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    Pahlitzsch, Milena; Mai, Christian; Joussen, Antonia M; Bergholz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    "Poppers" is a slang term for a group of alkyl nitrites that are used as recreational drugs. Their inhalative intoxication leads to muscle relaxation, analgesia, and euphoria. Maculopathy is a rare but serious side-effect. Clinical, imaging, and electrophysiological findings of seven patients with maculopathy after consumption of poppers were presented. All seven patients were male with a median age of 35 years (range 28-45 years), the median duration of periodical poppers use until the onset of symptoms was 9.8 years (one day to 25 years). Five of seven patients were HIV-positive, one patient was negative, and the HIV-status of one patient was unknown. Median average of visual acuity at presentation was 20/30 in each eye. In all patients, optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed pathognomonic alterations of the outer foveal retina. One patient showed an almost complete restitution of the maculopathy six months after cessation of drug use and following the oral intake of Lutein. Imaging alterations returned to normal and visual acuity recovered from 20/50 and 20/30 (right and left eye, respectively) to 20/20 on both eyes. Follow up of two other cases showed no relevant functional decline or improvement. Toxic maculopathy due to the consumption of poppers is an important differential diagnosis in acute visual loss without clinico-morphological correlate. Optical coherence tomography is the only reliable diagnostic tool in these cases. Complete recovery of visual function and macular morphology is rare, even after cessation of drug abuse. Oral lutein therapy may have a beneficial effect.

  8. A tale of three theories: Feyerabend and Popper on progress and the aim of science.

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    Tambolo, Luca

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, three theories of progress and the aim of science are discussed: (i) the theory of progress as increasing explanatory power, advocated by Popper in The logic of scientific discovery (1935/1959); (ii) the theory of progress as approximation to the truth, introduced by Popper in Conjectures and refutations (1963); (iii) the theory of progress as a steady increase of competing alternatives, which Feyerabend put forward in the essay "Reply to criticism. Comments on Smart, Sellars and Putnam" (1965) and defended as late as the last edition of Against method (1993). It is argued that, contrary to what Feyerabend scholars have predominantly assumed, Feyerabend's changing attitude towards falsificationism-which he often advocated at the beginning of his career, and vociferously attacked in the 1970s and 1980s-must be explained by taking into account not only Feyerabend's very peculiar view of the aim of science, but also Popper's changing account of progress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A pluralist challenge to "integrative medicine": Feyerabend and Popper on the cognitive value of alternative medicine.

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    Kidd, Ian James

    2013-09-01

    This paper is a critique of 'integrative medicine' as an ideal of medical progress on the grounds that it fails to realise the cognitive value of alternative medicine. After a brief account of the cognitive value of alternative medicine, I outline the form of 'integrative medicine' defended by the late Stephen Straus, former director of the US National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Straus' account is then considered in the light of Zuzana Parusnikova's recent criticism of 'integrative medicine' and her distinction between 'cognitive' and 'opportunistic' engagement with alternative medicine. Parusnikova warns that the medical establishment is guilty of 'dogmatism' and proposes that one can usefully invoke Karl Popper's 'critical rationalism' as an antidote. Using the example of Straus, I argue that an appeal to Popper is insufficient, on the grounds that 'integrative medicine' can class as a form of cognitively-productive, critical engagement. I suggest that Parusnikova's appeal to Popper should be augmented with Paul Feyerabend's emphasis upon the role of 'radical alternatives' in maximising criticism. 'Integrative medicine' fails to maximise criticism because it 'translates' alternative medicine into the theories and terminology of allopathic medicine and so erodes its capacity to provide cognitively-valuable 'radical alternatives'. These claims are then illustrated with a discussion of 'traditional' and 'medical' acupuncture. I conclude that 'integrative medicine' fails to exploit the cognitive value of alternative medicine and so should be rejected as an ideal of medical progress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Poisoning with "poppers", a rare cause of methemoglobinemia observed in emergency cases].

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    Staïkowsky, F; Perret, A; Péviriéri, F; Zanker, C; Zerkak, D; Pelloux, P; Danhiez, F

    1997-10-04

    Methemoglobulinemia should be entertained as a differential diagnosis in patients with cyanosis. Recently in France there has been an increase in the number of cases of acquired methemoglobulinemia due to inhalation of poppers. Four patients were admitted to the emergency room of a Paris hospital in a state of unconsciousness with cyanosis. All four patients had inhaled poppers shortly before admission. The clinical course was rapidly favorable after intravenous infusion of methylene blue in 3 cases. Poppers are inorganic aliphatic nitrites used for their relaxing effect on smooth muscle and for their aphrodisiac effect. One poorly recognized effect is the development of methemoglobulinemia. Tissue hypoxia results because methemoglobulin cannot bind oxygen, leading to a brown or blue coloration of the blood. Methemoglobulin usually results from exposure to a wide variety of oxidizing compounds including certain drugs. Methylene blue is the specific treatment for symptomatic methemoglobulinemia. These four cases emphasize the toxic effect of products sold in sex shops and calls attention to the life-threatening risks involved.

  11. The role of Acinetobacter in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis examined by using Popper sequences.

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    Ebringer, Alan; Rashid, Taha; Wilson, Clyde

    2012-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune neurological disorder. The role of 'Acinetobacter' has been examined using the method of Karl Popper and involves nine "Popper sequences". (1) The frequency of MS increases with latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, and the reverse is found in the Southern Hemisphere. (2) Sinusitis is found frequently at colder latitudes. (3) Sinusitis occurs frequently in patients with MS. (4) Specific sequences of bovine myelin when injected into experimental animals will produce a neurological disorder resembling MS which is called "experimental allergic encephalomyelitis". (5) Computer analysis of myelin shows molecular mimicry with sequences found in Acinetobacter. (6) Antibodies to Acinetobacter bacteria are found in MS patients. (7) Acinetobacter bacteria are located on human skin and in the nasal sinuses. (8) IgA antibodies are preferentially elevated in the sera of MS patients, thereby suggesting the trigger microbe is acting across a mucosal surface probably located in the nasal sinuses. (9) Only Acinetobacter bacteria and no other microbes evoke statistically significant titres of antibodies in MS patients. These nine Popper sequences suggest that MS is most probably caused by infections with Acinetobacter bacteria in the nasal sinuses, and this could have therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994): in memoriam, 15 years later.

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    Notturno, Mark Amadeus

    2009-12-01

    September 17th, 2009 marks the 15th anniversary of Sir Karl Popper's death. Popper was an outspoken champion of critical rationalism, and a constant critic of authoritarian tendencies in science and society. He was also one of the spiritual founders of this journal and served on its first editorial advisory board. Popper was recognized around the world as one of the 20th century's greatest philosophers of science and one of its most articulate and influential critics of Marxism and closed society. When he died, the contemporary wisdom among professional philosophers was that his philosophy was generally right-but somehow obsolete. Some commentators said that it was now obvious that scientific theories cannot be shown to be true. Others said that we had witnessed the end of history and that his critique of closed societies, while no doubt important in its day, had been fully assimilated into Western thinking and still had meaning, if at all, only for the democracies in transition that were trying to emerge from the former Soviet Union. But 15 years after his death, a look at science and society around the world gives us good reason to remember his philosophy.

  13. Karl Popper versus Theodor Adorno: lições de um confronto histórico

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    Angela Ganem

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Karl Popper versus Theodor Adorno: Lessons from a historical confrontation. In 1961, during the Congress of the German Society of Sociology, two great theoretical references of the XX century faced in a historical debate about the logic of the social sciences. In addition to methodological issues strict sense, the confrontation became known as a debate between positivism and dialectic. The article first deals with the theoretical trajectories of Popper and Adorno and the relation of their theories with their political and ideological certainties. On one hand, the trajectory of the Popperian epistemology is examined, its contributions and vigorous attacks on Marx in what he called 'poverty of historicism" and false predictive Marxist world, and, on the other hand, the role of Adorno in the Frankfurt School, his criticism of totalitarianism and the defense of a critical emancipatory reason. The article also deals with the confrontation itself, the exposure of Popper's twenty-seven theses that culminate with the situation logic and the method of the economy as exemplary for the social sciences and Adorno's critical perspective of sociology and society as non-separable objects. In conclusion we show how the articulation of theory with the weltanschauung of each author helps to clarify the terms of the debate and how the confrontation contributed unequivocally to the dynamics of scientific progress and for the critical history of the ideas.

  14. A análise situacional de Karl Popper: alguma analogia com a lógica da situação na economia? Karl Popper's social analysis: some analogy with the logic of situation in economics?

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    Solange Regina Marin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A contribuição metodológica de Popper se estende para a aplicação do seu método crítico nas práticas científicas e sociais, ou seja, vai além do falsificacionismo e do diálogo socrático como mostrado nas diferentes interpretações dos metodólogos da economia. Com o objetivo de descrever a prática científica e social de Popper, como resultado de sua ênfase na busca e no crescimento do conhecimento, e investigar se existe alguma analogia entre ela e a lógica da situação na economia, este artigo apresenta: i a prática científico-social popperiana na forma da análise situacional (seção 1, ii as discussões de alguns críticos e comentadores que identificam problemas na proposta de Popper (seção 2, iii argumentos sobre a análise situacional de Popper e a lógica da situação na economia (seção 3 e iv as considerações finais.Popper's methodological contribution could be extended in order to include the use of his critical method in social and scientific practices, that is, it is not related only to falsificationism and socratic dialogue as it has been presented by different economic methodologists. With the aim of describing Popper's social and scientific practice, as a result of his emphasis on search and growth of knowledge, and investigating whether exists some analogy between this practice and the logic of situation in Economics, this paper presents: i Popper's social-scientific practice represented by his situational analysis (section 1, ii discussions of some researchers who identify problems in Popper's proposal (section 2, iii arguments about Popper's situational analysis and the situational logic of Economics (section 3 and iv final comments.

  15. [Status and influencing factors of rush poppers use and HIV infection among men who have sex with men in Changsha].

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    Lei, Yunxiao; Wang, Honghong; Xiao, Xueling; Chen, Jia; Li, Xianhong

    2016-02-01

    To explore the relationship between use of rush poppers and HIV infection, and associated factors among men who have sex with men in Changsha. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Changsha from April to December, 2014. Men who have sex with men who came for HIV counseling and testing services were invited to fill out a survey. A total of 608 MSM were finally recruited. The survey included socio-demographic characteristics, sexual roles, sexual behaviors in last 6 months and rush poppers use, HIV infection among MSM. After finishing the questionnaire, 5 ml blood was also drawn for HIV testing. Chi-square test or Fisher probabilities was used to compare usage of rush poppers and HIV antibody positive rate among MSM who had different characteristics and sexual behaviors. Multi-factor unconditioned logistic regression model was used to explore related factors about rush poppers use and HIV infection of MSM. Among 608 MSM, 29.8% (181) said they ever used rush poppers, and 13.3% (81 cases) were HIV positive. Among MSM who ever used rush poppers, 18.8% (34/181) were HIV positive; While among those who never used rush poppers, 10.5% (45/427) were HIV positive (χ(2)=7.65,P=0.006). Compared with MSM who had no For One Night sex in the last 6 months,OR (95% CI) value of MSM who had 6-10 times For One Night sexes in last 6 months to use rush poppers was 4.32 (1.77-10.57). Compared with MSM who self-identified as top,OR (95% CI) value of MSM who self-identified as bottom or versatile using rush poppers were 2.99 (1.53-5.86), or 3.60 (2.13-6.09). Compared with MSM who self-identified as top, OR (95% CI) value of MSM who self-identified as bottom or versatile to infect HIV were 3.19 (1.35-7.58), or 2.33 (1.12-4.85). Compared with MSM who used condoms at every anal sex,OR (95% CI) value of MSM who used condoms sometimes or never used to infect HIV were 1.93 (1.12-3.35) or 1.87 (0.64-5.50). Compared with MSM who never used rush poppers,OR (95% CI) value of MSM who ever used

  16. KEBENARAN ILMIAH DALAM PEMIKIRAN THOMAS S. KUHN DAN KARL R. POPPER: SUATU KAJIAN HERMENEUTIKA DAN KONTRIBUSINYA BAGI MASA DEPAN ILMU

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    Fuad Fuad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The scientific truth can be identified on the Kuhn's normal science as a period of scientific progress, and on the Popper's verisimilitude (the truthlikeness. The Kuhn's thought is a phenomenological hermeneutics due to his understanding of the scientific truth according to the phenomenon of scientific progress, and otherwise, the Popper's is an ontological hermeneutics which acknowledges the absolute truth beyond the scientific explanation. The essential similarity of Kuhn and Popper's hermeneutics is justifying the scientific truth as a relative ideal one (never be the absolute one, and the fundamental difference of both of them caused by Kuhn's hermeneutics based on a descriptive approach and Popper's by the normative one. The Kuhn and Popper's hermeneutics can be contributed to be a philosophical foundation of science, namely: the scientific investigation area (ontological foundation, the dialectic of scientific progress (epistemological foundation, and toward the absolute-transcendental truth (axiological foundation. The hermeneutics can also be contributed to reintegrate science and philosophy, as a correlation and interconnection entity of empirical and metaphysical dimension, and can spontaneously be an understanding frame of the demarcation of science (a system of empirical knowledge and philosophy (a system of metaphysical one. The hermeneutics can be contributed to implement the integration of Natural Sciences and Humanities (and Social Sciences in Indonesia, as an IPTEK development strategy which is relevant to the ethical values of the Pancasila's.

  17. Atomic mapping of Ruddlesden-Popper faults in transparent conducting BaSnO3-based thin films.

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    Wang, W Y; Tang, Y L; Zhu, Y L; Suriyaprakash, J; Xu, Y B; Liu, Y; Gao, B; Cheong, S-W; Ma, X L

    2015-11-03

    Doped BaSnO3 has arisen many interests recently as one of the promising transparent conducting oxides for future applications. Understanding the microstructural characteristics are crucial for the exploration of relevant devices. In this paper, we investigated the microstructural features of 0.001% La doped BaSnO3 thin film using both conventional and aberration corrected transmission electron microscopes. Contrast analysis shows high densities of Ruddlesden-Popper faults in the film, which are on {100} planes with translational displacements of 1/2a  . Atomic EELS element mappings reveal that the Ruddlesden-Popper faults are Ba-O layer terminated, and two kinds of kink structures at the Ruddlesden-Popper faults with different element distributions are also demonstrated. Quantitative analysis on lattice distortions of the Ruddlesden-Popper faults illustrates that the local lattice spacing poses a huge increment of 36%, indicating that large strains exist around the Ruddlesden-Popper faults in the film.

  18. The Relationship between Popper's Philosophy and the Acceptance of the Vitamin Theory: A Case Study of the Methodology of Scientific Research.

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    Akeroyd, F. Michael

    1985-01-01

    Analyzes the relationship between Karl Popper's philosophy and a 1912 paper by F. G. Hopkins which was instrumental in convincing scientists about merits of the vitamin theory. Concludes that Hopkins' work was convincing because it subjected a theory (which was the center of attention) to the severest possible tests, supporting Popper's position.…

  19. [Cross-sectional surveys on the use of recreational drug nitrous-acid-ester rush-poppers in men who have sex with men, Nanjing].

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    Zhu, Z P; Zhang, M; Xu, Y Y; Xu, W J; Liu, L; Wu, S S; Guo, L; Li, X

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To investigate the situation of recreational drug nitrous acid ester inhaler-rush poppers use in men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods: From April to June in 2014, October to December in 2014, April to June in 2015, three round cross-sectional surveys were conducted in MSM recruited in Nanjing by means of serum test and questionnaire survey. Results: Of the 1 721 MSM surveyed in three round, 19.3% (332/1 721) had ever used rush poppers, the proportions of MSM who used rush poppers in three round surveys showed an increasing trend (liner by liner χ (2)= 14.879, P =0.000), which was 12.6% (86/681), 27.6% (121/439) and 20.8% (125/601) respectively. Rush poppers use was associated with HIV infection significantly ( OR =1.676, 95 %CI : 1.201-2.339, P =0.002). Compared with MSM without rush poppers use, the MSM with rush poppers use were mainly aged poppers use. Conclusion: Rush poppers use was related with HIV infection in MSM in Nanjing.

  20. Natureza e liberdade: a questão ética a posição indeterminista de Karl Popper

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    Paulo Eduardo de Oliveira

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the indeterministic view of the epistemology of Karl Popper. Since the unit understanding of Critical Rationalism, as epistemology and political philosophy at the same time, the article shows in what sense the Popper's proposal reveals an ethical issue of broad scope and interest in contemporary philosophy, particularly in the analysis of the crisis of modern scientism.

  1. Resenha do livro: 'Ensayos de filosofia de la ciencia en torno a la obra de Sir Karl R. Popper'

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    Raquel Glezer

    1976-12-01

    Full Text Available (primeiro parágrafo do texto Este livro é uma coletânea de trabalhos apresentados no Simpósio sobre Fílosofia da Ciência, realizado em Burgos, entre 23 e 25 de setembro de 1968, em homenagem à Karl R. Popper. A finalidade do simpósio era a de permitir a discussão das idéias de Popper, as interpretações complementares e críticas feitas por diversos autores à essas idéias. A apresentação do livro escolhida foi a de publicar um artigo e o debate gravado sobre o artigo do autor com Popper e os outros participantes.

  2. O pluralismo da tese dos três mundos de Popper e a crítica de Habermas

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    João Batista C. Sieczkowski

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study approaches the three world thesis (TWT, by Karl Popper. The TWT as pluralist and interactionist opposes to monism and some dualist conceptions. We also intend to focus on Jürgen Habermas critique when he tries to apply the TWT and W3 (World 3 to obtain a justification of the theory of action for sociology. In his critique, Habermas neglects many of the clear objectives of the TWT and the W3 described by Popper, specially when he does not consider the TWT a metaphysical thesis and an answer to the body-mind problem.

  3. Bärbel Inhelder procura falsear o modelo piagetiano; antes da teoria de Popper (? Bärbel Inhelder tries to falsify the piagetian model; prior to Popper's theory (?

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    Zelia Ramozzi-Chiarottino

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, buscamos trazer à luz um dos aspectos desconhecidos do trabalho de uma das maiores psicólogas do século XX: Bärbel Inhelder. Até hoje apenas reconhecida como a maior colaboradora de Piaget, tem sido ignorada como a criadora de um método científico capaz de refutar (em vez de confirmar um modelo hipotético-dedutivo na área da Psicologia, antes ou simultaneamente à idéia de Popper. Partiu do modelo matemático de Piaget, o agrupamento, e realizou seu estudo com oligofrênicos. Demonstra que quanto mais severo o comprometimento cerebral menor a presença de esboços dos agrupamentos subjacentes às ações e ao discurso das crianças e vice-versa.In this article we search to bring to light one of the unknown aspects of the work of one of the 20th century's greatest psychologists: Bärbel Inhelder. Thus far recognized only as the most remarkable Piaget collaborators, she has been ignored as the creator of a scientific method apt to refute (instead of corroborating a hypothetical-deductive model in the realm of Psychology, prior or simultaneously to Popper's idea. Based on Piaget's mathematical model, the grouping, she did her study on oligophrenics. She demonstrates that the more severe the brain lesions, the lesser the presence of the groupings' structural sketches underlying the children's actions and speech, and vice-versa.

  4. Popper e o processo de ensino-aprendizagem pela resolução de problemas Popper and the teaching-learning process for troubleshooting

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    Horácio Wanderlei Rodrigues

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo propõe um método de ensino e uma estrutura curricular construídos com base na obra epistemológica de Karl Popper e também em elementos presentes no Problem Based Learning (PBL. O processo de Ensino-Aprendizagem pela Resolução de Problemas (EARP apresentado neste trabalho está divido em método EARP e projeto pedagógico EARP. No plano do método a proposta está centrada em uma estratégia composta de quatro etapas, todas elas envolvendo o estudo de problemas, buscando a sua solução por meio de tentativas e eliminação de erros. No plano do projeto pedagógico a proposta inclui a eliminação da tradicional organização do currículo por disciplinas e apresenta uma estrutura modular por grandes temas interdisciplinares. O texto contém, para melhor visualização da proposta, uma grade hipotética e as possibilidades de organização do quadro de horários.The paper proposes a method of teaching and a curriculum structure constructed on the epistemological work of Karl Popper and also elements in Problem Based Learning (PBL. the Teaching-Learning Process for Troubleshooting (EARP presented in this paper is divided into Method and Pedagogical Project (EARP. the proposed method focuses on a strategy consisting of four stages, all involving the study of issues, seeking a solution through trial and elimination of errors. The Pedagogical Project includes the elimination of traditional disciplines by organizing the curriculum and has a modular structure for interdisciplinary topics. The text contains, for better visualization of the proposal, a hypothetical grade and the possibilities of organizing time frame.

  5. On Some Implications of the Local Theory Th(ℊ) and of Popper'Sexperiment

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    Angelidis, Thomas D.

    Writing this paper in honour of Jean-Pierre Vigier's 80th birthday, brings to mind the time when I was first introduced to him by my late friend Karl Popper in 1979 at a seminar. Since then I found in Vigier not only a most captivating person, but also a thinker utterly devoted to his problems. We both, I trust, belong to the fraternity of critical rationalists, the fraternity of those who are eager to argue, to learn from one another, and who have the intellectual courage in changing their mind, under the influence of criticism, even on points of fundamental importance to their cherished conjectures and beliefs.

  6. Poppers use and Sexual Partner Concurrency Increase the HIV Incidence of MSM: a 24-month Prospective Cohort Survey in Shenyang, China.

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    Chu, Zhen-Xing; Xu, Jun-Jie; Zhang, Yong-Hui; Zhang, Jing; Hu, Qing-Hai; Yun, Ke; Wang, Hong-Yi; Jiang, Yong-Jun; Geng, Wen-Qing; Shang, Hong

    2018-01-08

    The use of poppers is highly prevalent in MSM, but little is known about the association between their use and HIV incidence in China. A prospective cohort study was conducted from 2011 to 2013 in MSM in Shenyang. 475(79.6%) of eligible HIV-negative MSM participated in this prospective survey and near one fourth MSM (23.4%) ever used poppers. About one-third of the participants had condomless anal intercourse, half had multiple sexual partners and 10.5% were syphilis positive. The HIV incidence densities were15.5 (95% CI:9.4-23.4)/100 PY[person-years]) and 4.6 (95% CI:2.9-7.0)/100 PY in poppers-users and non-poppers-users, respectively. Predictors of HIV seroconversion included poppers-using-behavior, having had more than two male partners, practicing group sex, unprotected anal intercourse(UAI) with male partners, and baseline syphilis positivity (all P poppers, high-risk-sexual behaviors and syphilis infection significantly increase the HIV incidence among Shenyang MSM. It is essential for policy makers to add poppers to the official controlled illicit drug list to reduce HIV transmission among the MSM community. A comprehensive strategy should also be implemented to control both their high-risk-sexual behaviors and risk of syphilis infection, since these may represent novel ways to prevent new HIV infections in these MSM.

  7. “Dreamers Often Lie”: On “Compromise”, the subversive documentation of an Israeli- Palestinian political adaptation of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet

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    Yael Munk

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Is Romeo and Juliet relevant to a description of the Middle-East conflict? This is the question raised in Compromise, an Israeli documentary that follows the

  8. Turismo e cinema a Verona: dal mito di Giulietta e Romeo riflessioni geografiche su vecchie e nuove location cinematografiche / Tourism and cinema in Verona: geographical considerations about old and new cinematographic locations from Romeo and Juliet myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura Pappalardo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo analizza, in chiave geografica, le dinamiche che legano il turismo e il cinema a Verona, città meta consolidata di turismo urbano. Consapevoli che il mito di Giulietta e Romeo svolga un ruolo considerevole all’interno delle motivazioni che inducono il turista a soggiornare nella città veneta, risulta utile soffermarsi sulla funzione svolta dai film, di “antica” e recente realizzazione, nella conoscenza dei luoghi. In virtù delle sempre mutevoli richieste dei visitatori, pare interessante riflettere se sia “conveniente” per Verona, non tanto e non solo economicamente ma, soprattutto, in una logica di sostenibilità, continuare a proporre al turista il cliché della città degli innamorati o se non si debba, al contrario, pensare a nuove esperienze emozionali attraverso la promozione di itinerari le cui tappe non siano solo il balcone di Giulietta, la casa di Romeo, la tomba di Giulietta ma luoghi decisamente più veri quali le piazze storiche della città, i negozi tipici, i centri culturali. The paper analyzes, in geographical key, the dynamics that bind tourism and film in Verona, the city consolidated urban tourism destination. Aware that the myth of Romeo and Juliet plays a considerable role in the reasons for the tourist to stay in the Venetian city, it is useful to focus on the role played by "old" and recently shot films in the knowledge of the places. By virtue of the ever-changing demands of visitors, it seems interesting to consider whether it is “convenient” for Verona, not so much and not only economically but, above all, in a logic of sustainability, to continue to offer to the tourist the cliché of the city of lovers or if it is better to hink of new emotional experiences through the promotion of itineraries whose stages are not just Juliet's balcony, the house of Romeo, Juliet's tomb but places much more real as the historical squares of the city, the local shops and the cultural centers.

  9. Phase Transition Control for High Performance Ruddlesden-Popper Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xu; Munir, Rahim; Xu, Zhuo; Liu, Yucheng; Tsai, Hsinhan; Nie, Wanyi; Li, Jianbo; Niu, Tianqi; Smilgies, Detlef-M.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Mohite, Aditya D.; Zhao, Kui; Amassian, Aram; Liu, Shengzhong Frank

    2018-01-01

    Ruddlesden-Popper reduced-dimensional hybrid perovskite (RDP) semiconductors have attracted significant attention recently due to their promising stability and excellent optoelectronic properties. Here, the RDP crystallization mechanism in real time from liquid precursors to the solid film is investigated, and how the phase transition kinetics influences phase purity, quantum well orientation, and photovoltaic performance is revealed. An important template-induced nucleation and growth of the desired (BA)(MA)PbI phase, which is achieved only via direct crystallization without formation of intermediate phases, is observed. As such, the thermodynamically preferred perpendicular crystal orientation and high phase purity are obtained. At low temperature, the formation of intermediate phases, including PbI crystals and solvate complexes, slows down intercalation of ions and increases nucleation barrier, leading to formation of multiple RDP phases and orientation randomness. These insights enable to obtain high quality (BA)(MA)PbI films with preferentially perpendicular quantum well orientation, high phase purity, smooth film surface, and improved optoelectronic properties. The resulting devices exhibit high power conversion efficiency of 12.17%. This work should help guide the perovskite community to better control Ruddlesden-Popper perovskite structure and further improve optoelectronic and solar cell devices.

  10. Phase Transition Control for High Performance Ruddlesden-Popper Perovskite Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xu

    2018-04-03

    Ruddlesden-Popper reduced-dimensional hybrid perovskite (RDP) semiconductors have attracted significant attention recently due to their promising stability and excellent optoelectronic properties. Here, the RDP crystallization mechanism in real time from liquid precursors to the solid film is investigated, and how the phase transition kinetics influences phase purity, quantum well orientation, and photovoltaic performance is revealed. An important template-induced nucleation and growth of the desired (BA)(MA)PbI phase, which is achieved only via direct crystallization without formation of intermediate phases, is observed. As such, the thermodynamically preferred perpendicular crystal orientation and high phase purity are obtained. At low temperature, the formation of intermediate phases, including PbI crystals and solvate complexes, slows down intercalation of ions and increases nucleation barrier, leading to formation of multiple RDP phases and orientation randomness. These insights enable to obtain high quality (BA)(MA)PbI films with preferentially perpendicular quantum well orientation, high phase purity, smooth film surface, and improved optoelectronic properties. The resulting devices exhibit high power conversion efficiency of 12.17%. This work should help guide the perovskite community to better control Ruddlesden-Popper perovskite structure and further improve optoelectronic and solar cell devices.

  11. Rheumatoid arthritis is caused by Proteus: the molecular mimicry theory and Karl Popper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebringer, Alan; Rashid, Tasha

    2009-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a crippling and disabling joint disease affecting over 20 million people. It occurs predominantly in women and smokers, and affects the HLA-DR1/4 individuals who carry the "shared epitope" of amino acids EQRRAA. The cause of this disease was investigated by the methods of the philosopher of science Karl Popper who suggested that scientific research should be based on bold conjectures and critical refutations. The "Popper sequences" generate new facts which then change or alter the original problem. The new facts must then be explained by any new theory. Using the "molecular mimicry" model, it was found that Proteus bacteria possess an amino acid sequence ESRRAL in haemolysin which resembles the, shared epitope, and another sequence in urease which resembles type XI collagen. Antibodies to Proteus bacteria have been found in 14 different countries. It would appear that rheumatoid arthritis is caused by an upper urinary tract infection by Proteus bacteria. Anti-Proteus therapy should be assessed in the management of this disease separately or in conjunction with existing modalities of therapy.

  12. Phase Transition Control for High Performance Ruddlesden-Popper Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Munir, Rahim; Xu, Zhuo; Liu, Yucheng; Tsai, Hsinhan; Nie, Wanyi; Li, Jianbo; Niu, Tianqi; Smilgies, Detlef-M; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G; Mohite, Aditya D; Zhao, Kui; Amassian, Aram; Liu, Shengzhong Frank

    2018-05-01

    Ruddlesden-Popper reduced-dimensional hybrid perovskite (RDP) semiconductors have attracted significant attention recently due to their promising stability and excellent optoelectronic properties. Here, the RDP crystallization mechanism in real time from liquid precursors to the solid film is investigated, and how the phase transition kinetics influences phase purity, quantum well orientation, and photovoltaic performance is revealed. An important template-induced nucleation and growth of the desired (BA) 2 (MA) 3 Pb 4 I 13 phase, which is achieved only via direct crystallization without formation of intermediate phases, is observed. As such, the thermodynamically preferred perpendicular crystal orientation and high phase purity are obtained. At low temperature, the formation of intermediate phases, including PbI 2 crystals and solvate complexes, slows down intercalation of ions and increases nucleation barrier, leading to formation of multiple RDP phases and orientation randomness. These insights enable to obtain high quality (BA) 2 (MA) 3 Pb 4 I 13 films with preferentially perpendicular quantum well orientation, high phase purity, smooth film surface, and improved optoelectronic properties. The resulting devices exhibit high power conversion efficiency of 12.17%. This work should help guide the perovskite community to better control Ruddlesden-Popper perovskite structure and further improve optoelectronic and solar cell devices. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Popper y Darwin: Evolucionismo Bio-Cosmológico y Epistemología Evolucionista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Arana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available La capacidad de generalizar es uno de los rasgos más característicos de Popper como filósofo. Propone un lamarckismo sin Lamarck, un vitalismo sin principios vitales ni entelequias, y un animismo sin alma. En el fondo, es lo mismo que hizo Darwin con la teleología gracias a la selección natural: patrocinar un finalismo sin fines. La especulación es atrevida pero en modo alguno rechazable. El problema de Popper es que a veces no sabe contenerse y se implica demasiado en el debate científico de primera línea. Le ocurrió algo parecido con las discusiones que siguieron al desarrollo de la mecánica cuántica: en lugar de moverse con cautela en el terreno de la reflexión metateórica, tuvo que proponer un «experimento mental» para mediar en la controversia Einstein-Bohr.

  14. Genetics Home Reference: Potocki-Shaffer syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PubMed Central Montgomery ND, Turcott CM, Tepperberg JH, McDonald MT, Aylsworth AS. A 137-kb deletion within ... 10 All Bulletins Features What is direct-to-consumer genetic testing? What are genome editing and CRISPR- ...

  15. A Ruddlesden-Popper-type layered perovskite, Na2Ca2Nb4O13

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, K.; Ishizawa, N.; Oishi, S.

    1999-01-01

    Single crystals of disodium dicalcium tetraniobium tridecaoxide, Na 2 Ca 2 Nb 4 O 13 , were grown by the flux method. The structure was determined in space group Bb2 1 m. Perovskite-type layers with the formula [(Ca 2 Na)Nb 4 O 13 ] - are concatenated by Na + cations near the interlayer, forming a Ruddlesden-Popper-type structure. The interlayer structure, composed of Na and O atoms, can be regarded as a rocksalt-type. NbO 6 octahedra are tilted about [010] and [001]. The off-centre displacement of Nb atoms suggests a ferroelectric nature along [010], with a calculated magnitude of polarization of 0.12 C m -2 . (orig.)

  16. Synthesis and characterization of a Ruddlesden-Popper compound: Sr3FeMoO7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhaofei; Li Guobao; Sun Junliang; You Liping; Loong, Chun-K.; Wang Yingxia; Liao Fuhui; Lin Jianhua

    2005-01-01

    A powder sample of Sr 3 FeMoO 7 was synthesized by solid-state reaction in reduced atmosphere (5% H 2 /Ar). At room temperature, Sr 3 FeMoO 7 crystallizes in a typical Ruddlesden-Popper (n=2) structure in the space group I4/mmm, a=3.9309(2)A and c=20.435(2)A. The structure refinement indicates that the Fe and Mo ions are randomly distributed in a single B-site with small fraction of B-site and oxygen vacancies. At low temperature, long-range magnetic interaction was observed. The antiferromagnetic magnetic interaction can be described with a large unit cell, a m =b m =2a n and c m =c n , in the magnetic space group An'

  17. Pop goes the O2: a case of popper-induced methaemoglobinamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Aileen; McCann, Brendan; Kelly, Paul

    2012-01-01

    A 39-year-old man presented to the emergency department after falling downstairs after he consumed a large quantity of alcohol. On examination, he had altered mental state (GCS 14), central cyanosis and low oxygen saturation of 86%, despite 100% oxygen being administered. His arterial blood gas confirmed diagnosis of methaemoglobinaemia with a methaemoglobin percentage of 14.08. He was treated successfully with methylthioninium chloride. The patient later admitted to use of recreational poppers (amyl nitrates) the previous evening. The emergency physician is challenged by the presentation of a patient with altered mental state and unexplained low oxygen saturation with concurrent alcohol intoxication but must have a high index of suspicion for methaemoglobinaemia particularly with a history of recreational drug ingestion. PMID:23175012

  18. Karl Popper: La explicación en la disciplina histórica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holbein Giraldo-Paredes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el siguiente artículo se revisan los argumentos enunciados en la obra La miseria del historicismo, en la cual Karl Popper realiza una crítica a la concepción historicista emanada de la filosofía de autores como Platón, Hegel y Marx. Crítica que realiza aludiendo a argumentos de orden epistemológico, para demostrar que el modelo nomológico deductivo de la explicación no aplica a la disciplina histórica, y en este sentido negando una de las tesis más fuertes que él había defendido toda su vida: la del monismo metodológico o unificacionismo metodológico de la ciencia, heredada del positivismo lógico.

  19. Pop goes the O2: a case of popper-induced methaemoglobinamia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCabe, Aileen

    2012-01-01

    A 39-year-old man presented to the emergency department after falling downstairs after he consumed a large quantity of alcohol. On examination, he had altered mental state (GCS 14), central cyanosis and low oxygen saturation of 86%, despite 100% oxygen being administered. His arterial blood gas confirmed diagnosis of methaemoglobinaemia with a methaemoglobin percentage of 14.08. He was treated successfully with methylthioninium chloride. The patient later admitted to use of recreational poppers (amyl nitrates) the previous evening. The emergency physician is challenged by the presentation of a patient with altered mental state and unexplained low oxygen saturation with concurrent alcohol intoxication but must have a high index of suspicion for methaemoglobinaemia particularly with a history of recreational drug ingestion.

  20. [Predictors of rush popper use among 825 men who have sex with men in education in Guangdong Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M Q; Cheng, W B; Xu, H F; Cai, Y S; Fan, L R; Zhong, F; Chen, X; Jin, W; Chen, X B; Li, J Y

    2016-11-06

    Objective: To explore prevalence and predictors of the use of Rush poppers among men who have sex with men in education in Guangdong Province. Methods: An internet survey was conducted via a gay website from March to August 2014 and a sample of 833 male respondents over 16 years who had ever had anal sex with a male, studied in Guangdong Province and who had completed an online questionnaire was identified- of which 93.4% ( n =825) provided valid responses and were included in the study. Respondents provided information on their socio-demographic characteristics, HIV testing history, sexual activity in last 3 months, Rush poppers use and time since first sexual encounter with a male. We used the Chi-squared test and multivariate logistic regression modeling to identify the predictors of Rush poppers use in this population group. Results: Among our sample of 825 MSM, whose ages ranged from 21-27 years, 14.8% ( n =122) reported having used Rush poppers in the past 3 months. Rates of use were higher among those who had ever been tested for HIV (16.7% vs. 10.9%, χ 2 =4.80, P= 0.028), had anal intercourse in the last 3 months (16.8% vs. 10.7%, χ 2 =5.48, P= 0.019), had multiple sexual partners in the past 3 months (19.3% vs. 13.1%, χ 2 =5.14, P= 0.023), had a casual partner (18.0% vs. 12.1%, χ 2 =5.68, P= 0.017) or had a sexually transmitted infection (23.4% vs. 14.0%, χ 2 =4.85, P= 0.028). Those who reported having had their first sexual encounter with another male over 5 years prior had higher rates of use (18.0%) than for those who had been sexually active ≤1 year (10.7%) or 2-4 years (12.5%, χ 2 =6.41, P= 0.041). HIV testing ( OR : 1.70, 95% CI: 1.07-2.70), having a casual partner ( OR : 1.67, 95% CI: 1.12-2.50) and being sexually active with other males for over 5 years ( OR : 1.87, 95% CI: 1.05-3.31) were significantly associated with Rush poppers use. Conclusion: A large proportion of student MSM in Guangdong Province used Rush poppers. Proxy measures of

  1. O pluralismo da tese dos três mundos de Popper e a crí­tica de Habermas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Batista C. Sieczkowski

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo abordará a tese dos três mundos, TTM, de Karl Popper. A TTM como pluralista e interacionista opõe-se ao monismo e a algumas concepções dualistas. Em uma segunda parte, pretendemos enfocar a crítica de Jürgen Habermas quando tenta aplicar a TTM e o M3 (mundo três na obtençáo de uma justificaçáo da teoria da açáo para a sociologia. Nesta crítica Habermas acaba negligenciando muitos objetivos claros da TTM e do M3 descritos por Popper, principalmente quando náo considera a TTM como uma tese metafísica e como resposta ao problema corpo-mente.

  2. Detection of methaemoglobinaemia and its application in 'poppers' abuse: maintaining the right balance between reduction and autooxidation during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo, Olwen; Stöver, Andreas; Roider, Gabriele; Graw, Matthias

    2017-03-01

    In our study, we analysed the effect of a variety of storage conditions on the methaemoglobin (MetHb) content of blood samples obtained from altogether 110 deceased subjects with diverse causes of death, including three 'poppers'-related fatalities. The obtained results were compared to data from blood samples of six living, healthy subjects. Results obtained from the spectrophotometric measurement of blood MetHb content suggest that storage at room temperature (RT) and storage at -20 °C result in either highly fluctuating values, as was the case for the RT samples, or values much higher than the initial MetHb concentrations when stored at -20 °C. Blood samples at 4 °C showed more stable MetHb levels, which, however, increased with up to 4 % of the initial value after only 3 weeks of storage. These factors pose a problem in forensic toxicology, especially in nitrite abuse cases, where the involvement of such substance abuse is often unknown at the time of blood sampling and thus often requires longer storage times. Nevertheless, even after the storage of blood samples over several months at 4 and -20 °C, 'poppers' cases still show a significantly higher MetHb concentration as compared to non-'poppers' samples that were stored for the same time period under identical conditions.

  3. Use of poppers and HIV risk behaviours among men who have sex with men in Paris, France: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrick, H Rhodes; Park, Su Hyun; Palamar, Joseph J; Estreet, Anthony; Schneider, John A; Duncan, Dustin T

    2018-06-01

    The use of inhaled nitrites, or poppers, among men who have sex with men (MSM) is prevalent, yet has been associated with HIV seroconversion. We surveyed 580 MSM from a geosocial networking smartphone application in Paris, France, in 2016. Of the respondents, 46.7% reported popper use within the previous 3 months. Regression models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics found that the use of poppers was significantly (P<0.05) associated with the following during the prior 3 months: condomless anal intercourse (adjusted relative risk (aRR) 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.50), use of alcohol and/or drugs during sex once or twice (adjusted relative risk ratio (aRRR) 2.33, 95% CI 1.44-2.03), three to five times (aRRR 5.41, 95% CI 2.98-9.84) or six or more times (aRRR 4.09, 95% CI 2.22-7.56), participation in group sex (aRRR 3.70, 95% CI 2.33-5.90) and self-reported diagnosis with any sexually transmissible infection over the previous year (aRR 1.63, 95% CI 1.18-2.27), specifically chlamydia (aRR 2.75, 95% CI 1.29-4.29) and syphilis (aRR 2.27, 95% CI 1.29-4.29).

  4. K. Popper: racionalismo crítico, metafísica y metodología de lo inverificable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Ruiz Velasco N.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a survey of a series of fundamental notions on the philosophy of Karl Popper that enable to understand the quid and the status of metaphysics towards the critiques of the Vienna Circle in a post-kantian epoch. Elemental concerns of the philosophy of science of Popper are traced out, highlighting the importance of kantian influence, the reformulation of critique as the rational process of testing and finding errors, the grievance of theories as interpretations of facts, the modification of traditional methodology, the dimenssions of compatibility and validity regarding scientific knowledge in is empirical or speculative flavors, among others. At the same time, it is pointed out a series of throughly philosophical errors, particularly regarding the inconcruity of vage and neglected use of language that Popper, formerly severe on this topic, employed. The paper concludes with an analysis of popperian metaphysics understood as a rational knowledge of a non-verifiable, non-refutable, yet argumentable type which belongs to the sphere of science, though in a special and subordinate way: as the methodology of the unverifiable.

  5. Failed refutations: further comments on parsimony and likelihood methods and their relationship to Popper's degree of corroboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Kevin; Poe, Steven

    2003-06-01

    Kluge's (2001, Syst. Biol. 50:322-330) continued arguments that phylogenetic methods based on the statistical principle of likelihood are incompatible with the philosophy of science described by Karl Popper are based on false premises related to Kluge's misrepresentations of Popper's philosophy. Contrary to Kluge's conjectures, likelihood methods are not inherently verificationist; they do not treat every instance of a hypothesis as confirmation of that hypothesis. The historical nature of phylogeny does not preclude phylogenetic hypotheses from being evaluated using the probability of evidence. The low absolute probabilities of hypotheses are irrelevant to the correct interpretation of Popper's concept termed degree of corroboration, which is defined entirely in terms of relative probabilities. Popper did not advocate minimizing background knowledge; in any case, the background knowledge of both parsimony and likelihood methods consists of the general assumption of descent with modification and additional assumptions that are deterministic, concerning which tree is considered most highly corroborated. Although parsimony methods do not assume (in the sense of entailing) that homoplasy is rare, they do assume (in the sense of requiring to obtain a correct phylogenetic inference) certain things about patterns of homoplasy. Both parsimony and likelihood methods assume (in the sense of implying by the manner in which they operate) various things about evolutionary processes, although violation of those assumptions does not always cause the methods to yield incorrect phylogenetic inferences. Test severity is increased by sampling additional relevant characters rather than by character reanalysis, although either interpretation is compatible with the use of phylogenetic likelihood methods. Neither parsimony nor likelihood methods assess test severity (critical evidence) when used to identify a most highly corroborated tree(s) based on a single method or model and a

  6. Crystal chemistry of Ruddlesden-Popper type structures in high Tc ceramic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, Anurag; Cormack, A.N.

    1991-01-01

    Similar structural patterns have been noticed in the systems La-Cu-O, La-Ni-O and Bi and Tl-containing superconducting oxides. The formation of Ruddlesden-Popper type layers (alternating slabs of rocksalt and perovskite strucutres) is seen in these oxides which is similar in many respects to what is seen in the system Sr-Ti-O. However, there are some significant differences, for example the rocksalt and perovskite blocks in new superconducting compounds are not necessarily electrically neutral, unlike in the Sr-Ti-O system. It, thus, becomes necessary to create oxygen vacancies in the basic perovskite structure of Bi-containing compounds, when the width of the perovskite slab changes on addition of extra Cu-O planes. Results of atomistic simulations suggest that these missing oxygen ions allows the Cu-O planes to buckle in Bi-series of compounds. This is also supported by the absence of buckling in the Sr-Ti-O series of compounds and the first member of Bi-containing compounds in which there are no missing oxygen ions. Additional results on the phase stability of polytypoid structure in la-Cu-O system and defect chemistry of compounds of La N i-O system are presented. (author). 14 re fs., 7 figs., 4 tabs

  7. A falseabilidade de Popper nas pesquisas em contabilidade no Brasil de 2009-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Vigo de Lima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las publicaciones brasileñas en Ciencias Contables en el período 2009- 2014. Por lo tanto, se discute teóricamente la Contabilidad como ciencia conforme a la visión de desarrollo científico de Karl Popper. La metodología del estudio es el análisis de los artículos publicados en revistas nacionales clasificadas como Qualis/Capes en el estrato "A" en el área de Administración, Contabilidad y Turismo, contenida en la Base de Scielo - Ciencias Sociales Aplicadas. La selección de artículos se lleva a cabo con las siguientes palabras clave y frases: contabilidad, teoría de la contabilidad, contabilidad de gestión, contabilidad de costes, contabilidad pública/gubernamental, contabilidad corporativa, contabilidad financiera, contabilidad ambiental y contraloría, que implica el período comprendido entre años 2009 y 2014. Se concluye que no se usan los preceptos popperianos del cientificismo y que teorías y estudios previos han conducido las investigaciones en las ciencias contables en Brasil.

  8. [Note on the epistemology of clinical pharmacology: comparison with the approach of Karl Popper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissel, J P

    1999-01-01

    Is clinical pharmacology a science or only an application of science? Karl Popper suggested a method to identify science and to sort it out from other logical activities such as metaphysics, whereby the falsification criterion he proposed can apply to the theory in such a way that the theory could be refuted. The clinical pharmacologist's approach requires the build-up of a therapeutic model on the basis of two other models: the physiopathologic and the pharmacological. The three-model construct is a theory. Is it scientific in the Popperian sense? From the therapeutic model, one can predict the efficacy of a drug, and the corresponding statement is tested by a clinical trial. Whatever the original statement, it is modified into a refutable one because of the use of the statistical approach in clinical trials. Furthermore, the predicate represents a hypothesis of the model validity, which will then be confronted with 'reality' through clinical experiment. As the therapeutic model is refutable, clinical pharmacology is a science in the Popperian sense.

  9. Atomic scale imaging of competing polar states in a Ruddlesden–Popper layered oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Greg; Ophus, Colin; Birol, Turan; Ciston, Jim; Lee, Che-Hui; Wang, Ke; Fennie, Craig J.; Schlom, Darrell G.; Alem, Nasim; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2016-01-01

    Layered complex oxides offer an unusually rich materials platform for emergent phenomena through many built-in design knobs such as varied topologies, chemical ordering schemes and geometric tuning of the structure. A multitude of polar phases are predicted to compete in Ruddlesden–Popper (RP), An+1BnO3n+1, thin films by tuning layer dimension (n) and strain; however, direct atomic-scale evidence for such competing states is currently absent. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy with sub-Ångstrom resolution in Srn+1TinO3n+1 thin films, we demonstrate the coexistence of antiferroelectric, ferroelectric and new ordered and low-symmetry phases. We also directly image the atomic rumpling of the rock salt layer, a critical feature in RP structures that is responsible for the competing phases; exceptional quantitative agreement between electron microscopy and density functional theory is demonstrated. The study shows that layered topologies can enable multifunctionality through highly competitive phases exhibiting diverse phenomena in a single structure. PMID:27578622

  10. Atomic scale imaging of competing polar states in a Ruddlesden-Popper layered oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Greg; Ophus, Colin; Birol, Turan; Ciston, Jim; Lee, Che-Hui; Wang, Ke; Fennie, Craig J; Schlom, Darrell G; Alem, Nasim; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2016-08-31

    Layered complex oxides offer an unusually rich materials platform for emergent phenomena through many built-in design knobs such as varied topologies, chemical ordering schemes and geometric tuning of the structure. A multitude of polar phases are predicted to compete in Ruddlesden-Popper (RP), An+1BnO3n+1, thin films by tuning layer dimension (n) and strain; however, direct atomic-scale evidence for such competing states is currently absent. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy with sub-Ångstrom resolution in Srn+1TinO3n+1 thin films, we demonstrate the coexistence of antiferroelectric, ferroelectric and new ordered and low-symmetry phases. We also directly image the atomic rumpling of the rock salt layer, a critical feature in RP structures that is responsible for the competing phases; exceptional quantitative agreement between electron microscopy and density functional theory is demonstrated. The study shows that layered topologies can enable multifunctionality through highly competitive phases exhibiting diverse phenomena in a single structure.

  11. POPPER, a simple programming language for probabilistic semantic inference in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Our previous reports described the use of the Hyperbolic Dirac Net (HDN) as a method for probabilistic inference from medical data, and a proposed probabilistic medical Semantic Web (SW) language Q-UEL to provide that data. Rather like a traditional Bayes Net, that HDN provided estimates of joint and conditional probabilities, and was static, with no need for evolution due to "reasoning". Use of the SW will require, however, (a) at least the semantic triple with more elaborate relations than conditional ones, as seen in use of most verbs and prepositions, and (b) rules for logical, grammatical, and definitional manipulation that can generate changes in the inference net. Here is described the simple POPPER language for medical inference. It can be automatically written by Q-UEL, or by hand. Based on studies with our medical students, it is believed that a tool like this may help in medical education and that a physician unfamiliar with SW science can understand it. It is here used to explore the considerable challenges of assigning probabilities, and not least what the meaning and utility of inference net evolution would be for a physician. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Preferential orientation relationships in Ca2MnO4 Ruddlesden-Popper thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacotte, M.; David, A.; Prellier, W.; Rohrer, G. S.; Salvador, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    A high-throughput investigation of local epitaxy (called combinatorial substrate epitaxy) was carried out on Ca 2 MnO 4 Ruddlesden-Popper thin films of six thicknesses (from 20 to 400 nm), all deposited on isostructural polycrystalline Sr 2 TiO 4 substrates. Electron backscatter diffraction revealed grain-over-grain local epitaxial growth for all films, resulting in a single orientation relationship (OR) for each substrate-film grain pair. Two preferred epitaxial ORs accounted for more than 90% of all ORs on 300 different microcrystals, based on analyzing 50 grain pairs for each thickness. The unit cell over unit cell OR ([100][001] film ∥ [100][001] substrate , or OR1) accounted for approximately 30% of each film. The OR that accounted for 60% of each film ([100][001] film ∥ [100][010] substrate , or OR2) corresponds to a rotation from OR1 by 90° about the a-axis. OR2 is strongly favored for substrate orientations in the center of the stereographic triangle, and OR1 is observed for orientations very close to (001) or to those near the edge connecting (100) and (110). While OR1 should be lower in energy, the majority observation of OR2 implies kinetic hindrances decrease the frequency of OR1. Persistent grain over grain growth and the absence of variations of the OR frequencies with thickness implies that the growth competition is finished within the first few nm, and local epitaxy persists thereafter during growth

  13. O modelo de Karl Popper sob a ótica das Ciências Sociais Aplicadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton de Abreu Campanario

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8077.2012v14n32p124 Karl Popper é o principal filósofo da ciência na modernidade, disputando com Thomas Kuhn a primazia de interpretação do método científico. Claramente há diferentes visões para uma leitura desse importante autor que cunhou o método chamado de dedutivo com teste. O texto reconhece a relevância da visão de Karl Popperno desenvolvimento de trabalhos científicos das ciências exatas e biológicas, onde é amplamente aceita. No entanto, nota-se que essa formulação é pouco sistematizada na área das ciências sociais aplicadas. Este é um ensaio que busca resgatar a sua contribuição, numa tentativa de traduzir os conceitos por ele desenvolvidos de forma didática. Para tanto, será feita uma introdução aos fundamentos da ciência como forma específica de conhecimento, buscando contrastar os métodos dedutivo e indutivo e os procedimentos da ciência formal, básica e aplicada. Uma tentativa de classificar a formulação de proposições a serem testadas ou falseadas é feita com a utilização de diferentes critérios, utilizando exemplos da administração e da economia para ilustração.

  14. Sobre o estatuto epistemológico da racionalidade econômica segundo Karl Popper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brena Paula Magno Fernandez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Três tipos de críticas são comumente levantadas contra a utilização do postulado da racionalidade na ciência econômica. A primeira delas associa-se ao argumento da circularidade, a segunda diz respeito à blindagem da teoria contra a refutação e a terceira - e mais importante delas - refere-se à inadequação empírica. O presente artigo busca encaminhar esta última, à luz do tratamento dado por Popper ao longo de sua carreira para a questão de qual seria o estatuto epistemológico do princípio da racionalidade nas teorias econômicas. Três possíveis respostas a esta questão são aqui examinadas, explicitando-se suas respectivas estruturas lógicas. A primeira delas propõe que o postulado da racionalidade desempenhe o papel de lei geral do comportamento humano. A segunda requer que ele funcione como um axioma da teoria. Finalmente, a terceira proposta sugere que o postulado da racionalidade seja entendido como regra metodológica. Conclui-se o artigo sugerindo que esta última solução satisfaz ao apelo que o tipo de crítica aqui examinada faz ao conceito de racionalidade. Não obstante, ao situar-se no contexto metateórico, o postulado da racionalidade mantém importância inegável na teoria econômica. Sem ele, não se disporia de instrumentos que conduzissem à seleção de dados empíricos voltados ao teste das teorias.

  15. Poppers and PrEP: Use of Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Among Men Who Have Sex with Men Who Use Inhaled Nitrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrick, H Rhodes; Park, Su Hyun; Schneider, John A; Mayer, Kenneth H; Carrico, Adam W; Sherman, Scott E; Duncan, Dustin T

    2018-05-09

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) commonly use inhaled nitrites, or poppers, though their use is a risk factor HIV seroconversion. Pre-exposure prophylaxis, or PrEP, is effective for HIV prevention, but is not widely used, and little is known regarding PrEP use and acceptability among MSM who use inhaled nitrites. We surveyed 580 MSM in Paris, France in 2016 about popper use, sexual behaviors including condomless anal intercourse (CAI), serosorting, and sexual positioning, PrEP use, PrEP candidacy, and interest in alternate PrEP delivery modalities. We included 444 HIV negative participants for the current study. 46.2% reported popper use in the prior 3 months. Using multivariate adjusted logistic regression, we found that popper users were more likely than non-users to consider themselves candidates for PrEP [adjusted relative risk ratio (aRRR) = 2.73; 95% CI 1.54-4.83], but they were not more likely to be current (aRRR = 1.54; 95% CI 0.71-3.33) or past (aRRR = 1.37; 95% CI 0.44-4.28) PrEP users. Mediation analyses indicated that increased CAI and serosorting partly explained the relationship between popper use and PrEP candidacy. There was considerable interest in alternate proposed PrEP delivery modalities, particularly long-acting injectable PrEP [adjusted risk ratio (aRR) = 1.43; 95% CI 1.15-1.79].

  16. Popper y el problema de la inducción en epidemiología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banegas José R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo discutimos algunas aportaciones del filósofo austro-británico Karl R. Popper, uno de los más influyentes pensadores contemporáneos, cuyas teorías epistemológicas y sociopolíticas han llegado también al ámbito de la epidemiología. Nos centramos principalmente en el llamado problema de la inducción. Sostenemos, siguiendo a Popper, que el método científico no usa un razonamiento inductivo, sino hipotético-deductivo. Aunque el paso desde los datos que evalúan una hipótesis a una conclusión sobre ésta va de lo particular a lo general, e.d., en dirección inductiva, no existe la inducción como razonamiento o inferencia. Es decir, no existe un método que permita inducir o verificar las hipótesis o teorías (no es posible explorar todas las situaciones posibles para ver si la teoría se mantiene, ni siquiera hacerlas muy probables. Además, los científicos buscan teorías altamente informativas, no altamente probables. Lo que se hace realmente es proponer una hipótesis como solución tentativa de un problema, confrontar la predicción deducida de la hipótesis con la experiencia, y evaluar si la hipótesis queda rechazada o no por los hechos. Al no poder verificarse las teorías sólo podemos aceptarlas si resisten el intento de rechazarlas. Por tanto, la contrastación consiste en la crítica o intento serio de falsación, es decir, la eliminación de error dentro de una teoría, para rechazarla si es falsa. El objetivo es, pues, la búsqueda de teorías verdaderas. Para ello, el método científico utiliza un conjunto sistemático de reglas metodológicas (no lógicas, es decir, decisiones. Estas reglas o principios metodológicos se resumen en dos: ¡sea inventivo y crítico!, e.d., proponga hipótesis audaces y sométalas a tests rigurosos de la experiencia. La lógica juega principalmente su papel al permitir deducir de la hipótesis las predicciones que se confrontarán con los hechos o evidencias. Esto es

  17. The Application of Karl Popper's Three Worlds Schema to Questions about Information in the Fields of Complexity, Cybernetics, and Informatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D. Nugent

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available More technically leaning disciplines such as informatics, complexity theory, and cybernetics often make simplifying assumptions about human beings and their causal/informational roles within larger techo-social systems. This paper employs the philosopher Karl Popper's three worlds schema to explore in depth the unique ways in which conscious human subjects process and create knowledge and information. The three worlds represent the physical world, the subjective world of the conscious subject, and the world of language, models, and schemas. The works of major philosophers are invoked to consider what makes conscious human subjects unique in the context of information systems. Context-based understandings, the expressive facet of consciousness, and experience-based valuing emerge as key themes that we believe could strengthen the fields of informatics, complexity theory, and cybernetics.

  18. XANES study on Ruddlesdan-Popper phase, Lan+1NinO3n+1 (n = 1, 2 and ∞)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jung-Chul; Kim, Dong-Kuk; Byeon, Song-Hu; Kim, Don

    2001-01-01

    Ruddlesden-Popper phase, La n+1 Ni n O 3n+ 1 (n = 1, 2, and ∞) compounds were prepared by citrate sol-gel method. We revealed the origin of the variation of the electrical conductivities in La n+1 Ni n O 3n+1 (n= 1, 2, and ∞) using resistivity measurements, Rietveld analysis, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. According to the XANES spectra, it is found that the degree of 4pπ - 4pσ energy splitting between 8345 eV and 8350 eV is qualitatively proportional to the elongation of the out-of-plane Ni-O bond length. With the decrease of 4pπ-4pσ splitting, the strong hybridization of the σ-bonding between Ni-3d and O-2p orbitals creates narrow antibonding σ bands, which finally results in the lower electrical resistivity. (au)

  19. Interplay of oxygen octahedral rotations and electronic instabilities in strontium ruthenate Ruddlesden-Poppers from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Johannes; Fennie, Craig J.

    2011-03-01

    The Ruddlesden-Popper ruthenates Sr n+1 Ru n O3 n + 1 display a broad range of electronic phases including p -wave superconductivity, electronic nematicity, and ferromagnetism. Elucidating the role of the number of perovskite blocks, n , in the realization of these differently ordered electronic states remains a challenge. Additionally dramatic experimental advances now enable the atomic scale growth of these complex oxide thin films on a variety of substrates coherently, allowing for the application of tunable epitaxial strain and subsequently the ability to control structural distortions such as oxygen octahedral rotations. Here we investigate from first principles the effect of oxygen octahedral rotations on the electronic structure of Sr 2 Ru O4 and Sr 3 Ru 2 O7 . We discuss possible implications for the physics of the bulk systems and point towards new effects in thin films.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) type phase LaSr2MnCrO7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Devinder; Singh, Rajinder

    2010-01-01

    New Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) type phase LaSr 2 MnCrO 7 has been synthesized by ceramic method. Rietveld profile analysis shows that the phase crystallizes with tetragonal unit cell in the space group 14/mmm. The electrical resistivity of the phase has been measured in the temperature range of 10-300 K using Leybold closed cycle helium cryostat. The phase shows insulator-metal (I-M) transition at low temperature, the phenomenon often associated with giant magnetoresistance. 3D variable range hopping governs the electrical conduction in the insulator region above the I-M transition temperature. Magnetic susceptibility of the phase has been measured in the temperature range of 100-300 K. Magnetic studies suggest that the phase is ferromagnetic. (author)

  1. Magnetism and structural chemistry of the n=2 Ruddlesden-Popper phase La3LiMnO7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battle, Peter D.; Burley, Jonathan C.; Gallon, Daniel J.; Grey, Clare P.; Sloan, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    Polycrystalline samples of the n=2 Ruddlesden-Popper phase La 3 LiMnO 7 have been prepared and characterized. X-ray and neutron diffraction suggest that the structure is tetragonal with a disordered distribution of Li and Mn cations over the octahedral sites, but 6 Li MAS NMR shows that the Li and Mn are 1:1 ordered locally. Electron microscopy shows that the stacking of the cation-ordered, perovskite-like bilayers along the crystallographic z-axis is disordered on the distance scale sampled by X-ray and neutron diffraction. Magnetometry data and neutron diffraction data collected at 2 K together suggest that the Mn cations within each structural domain order antiferromagnetically at 14 K, but that the disorder along z prevents the establishment of long-range magnetic order

  2. Phase transition in the Ruddlesden-Popper layered perovskite Li2SrTa2O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagnier, T.; Rosman, N.; Galven, C.; Suard, E.; Fourquet, J.L.; Le Berre, F.; Crosnier-Lopez, M.P.

    2009-01-01

    The crystal structure of the Ruddlesden-Popper layered perovskite Li 2 SrTa 2 O 7 has been characterized at various temperatures between -185 and 300 deg. C by several techniques: X-ray and neutron powder diffraction, single crystal diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The low temperature structure has been confirmed to be orthorhombic Cmcm with a small octahedra antiphase tilting (ΦΦ0) (ΦΦ0) inside the perovskite blocks. With temperature, the tilting progressively vanishes leading around 230 deg. C to a tetragonal symmetry (S.G. I4/mmm). This reversible phase transition, followed by X-ray and neutron thermodiffraction and thermal Raman measurements, is considered as of second order. An attribution of the Raman bands based on normal mode analysis is proposed. - Graphical abstract: Thermal evolution of Li 2 SrTa 2 O 7 X-ray powder diffraction patterns showing the structural transformation from orthorhombic to tetragonal cell

  3. Low-Threshold Lasing from 2D Homologous Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Ruddlesden-Popper Perovskite Single Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Chinnambedu Murugesan; Chen, Tzu-Pei; Li, Shao-Sian; Chen, Wei-Liang; Lo, Chao-Yuan; Liao, Yu-Ming; Haider, Golam; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Chen, Chia-Chun; Sankar, Raman; Chang, Yu-Ming; Chou, Fang-Cheng; Chen, Chun-Wei

    2018-05-09

    Organic-inorganic hybrid two-dimensional (2D) perovskites have recently attracted great attention in optical and optoelectronic applications due to their inherent natural quantum-well structure. We report the growth of high-quality millimeter-sized single crystals belonging to homologous two-dimensional (2D) hybrid organic-inorganic Ruddelsden-Popper perovskites (RPPs) of (BA) 2 (MA) n-1 Pb n I 3 n+1 ( n = 1, 2, and 3) by a slow evaporation at a constant-temperature (SECT) solution-growth strategy. The as-grown 2D hybrid perovskite single crystals exhibit excellent crystallinity, phase purity, and spectral uniformity. Low-threshold lasing behaviors with different emission wavelengths at room temperature have been observed from the homologous 2D hybrid RPP single crystals. Our result demonstrates that solution-growth homologous organic-inorganic hybrid 2D perovskite single crystals open up a new window as a promising candidate for optical gain media.

  4. La teoría de la ciencia de Karl Popper y la econometría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redman Deborah A.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo mostraré que la teoría de la falsación ejerció su principalimpacto en los primeros desarrollos de la macroeconomía, quein fortunadamente su impacto a largo plazo no ha sido productivo y que el seguimiento de este desarrollo ayuda a explicar muchos de los actuales escándalos en la econometría y la macroeconomía. Dado que la literatura ha difundido muchos mitos sobre la teoría de la ciencia de Popper, primero revisaré sus teorías de las ciencias naturales y sociales y explicaré por qué la falsación fracasa en ambas ramas antes de exponer la conexión con la econometría.

  5. Is the surface oxygen exchange rate linked to bulk ion diffusivity in mixed conducting Ruddlesden-Popper phases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkiewicz, Alex C; Tamimi, Mazin A; Huq, Ashfia; McIntosh, Steven

    2015-01-01

    The possible link between oxygen surface exchange rate and bulk oxygen anion diffusivity in mixed ionic and electronic conducting oxides is a topic of great interest and debate. While a large body of experimental evidence and theoretical analyses support a link, observed differences between bulk and surface composition of these materials are hard to reconcile with this observation. This is further compounded by potential problems with simultaneous measurement of both parameters. Here we utilize separate techniques, in situ neutron diffraction and pulsed isotopic surface exchange, to examine bulk ion mobility and surface oxygen exchange rates of three Ruddlesden-Popper phases, general form A(n-1)A(2)'B(n)O(3n+1), A(n-1)A(2)'B(n)X(3n+1); LaSrCo(0.5)Fe(0.5)O(4-δ) (n = 1), La(0.3)Sr(2.7)CoFeO(7-δ) (n = 2) and LaSr3Co(1.5)Fe(1.5)O(10-δ) (n = 3). These measurements are complemented by surface composition determination via high sensitivity-low energy ion scattering. We observe a correlation between bulk ion mobility and surface exchange rate between materials. The surface exchange rates vary by more than one order of magnitude with high anion mobility in the bulk of an oxygen vacancy-rich n = 2 Ruddlesden-Popper material correlating with rapid oxygen exchange. This is in contrast with the similar surface exchange rates which we may expect due to similar surface compositions across all three samples. We conclude that experimental limitations lead to inherent convolution of surface and bulk rates, and that surface exchange steps are not likely to be rate limiting in oxygen incorporation.

  6. ELNES study of chemical solution deposited SrO(SrTiO3)n Ruddlesden-Popper films: Experiment and simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedl, T.; Gemming, T.; Weissbach, T.; Seifert, G.; Gutmann, E.; Zschornak, M.; Meyer, D.C.; Gemming, S.

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes electron energy-loss near-edge fine structures of the SrO(SrTiO 3 ) n=1 Ruddlesden-Popper system and of the parent compounds SrTiO 3 and SrO by comparison with first principles calculations. For that, the fine structures of chemical solution deposited Ruddlesden-Popper films have been experimentally recorded by means of transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, density of states computations using an all-electron density-functional code have been performed. It is shown that the appearance and shape of the experimental O-K and Ti-L 2,3 fine structure features result from the crystallography-dependent electronic structure of the investigated oxides, which display technologically interesting dielectric as well as lattice-structural properties.

  7. Synthesis, crystal structure, and photocatalytic activity of a new two-layer Ruddlesden-Popper phase, Li2CaTa2O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Zhenhua; Tang Kaibin; Shao Qian; Li Guocan; Zeng Suyuan; Zheng Huagui

    2008-01-01

    A new two-layer Ruddlesden-Popper phase Li 2 CaTa 2 O 7 has been synthesized for the first time. The detailed structure determination of Li 2 CaTa 2 O 7 performed by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron microscopy (ED) shows that it crystallizes in the space group Fmmm [a∼5.5153(1), b∼5.4646(1), c∼18.2375(3)A]. UV-visible diffuse reflection spectrum of the prepared Li 2 CaTa 2 O 7 indicates that it had absorption in the UV region. The photocatalytic activity of the Li 2 CaTa 2 O 7 powders was evaluated by degradation of RhB molecules in water under ultra visible light irradiation. The results showed that Li 2 CaTa 2 O 7 has high photocatalytic activity at room temperature. Therefore, the preparation and properties studies of Li 2 CaTa 2 O 7 with a two-layer Ruddlesden-Popper structure suggest potential future applications in photocatalysis. - Graphical abstract: Crystal structure of a two-layer Ruddlesden-Popper phase Li 2 CaTa 2 O 7 A new two-layer Ruddlesden-Popper phase Li 2 CaTa 2 O 7 has been synthesized for the first time. Li 2 CaTa 2 O 7 crystallizes in the space group Fmmm determined by powder X-ray and electron diffraction. UV-visible diffuse reflection spectra and the photocatalytic degradation of RhB molecules in water under ultra visible light irradiation show that Li 2 CaTa 2 O 7 is a potential material in photocatalysis

  8. Crystal and magnetic structure of the Ca3Mn2O7 Ruddlesden-Popper phase: neutron and synchrotron x-ray diffraction study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobanov, Maxim V; Greenblatt, Martha; Caspi, El'ad N; Jorgensen, James D; Sheptyakov, Denis V; Toby, Brian H; Botez, Cristian E; Stephens, Peter W

    2004-01-01

    The crystallographic and magnetic structures of Ca 3 Mn 2 O 7 Ruddlesden-Popper phase have been determined by a combination of neutron and synchrotron x-ray diffraction. Two-phase behaviour observed at room temperature is attributed to an incomplete structural phase transition. The magnetic structure was solved in the Cm'c2 1 ' Shubnikov group with dominant G-type antiferromagnetic order in the perovskite bilayers. The temperature evolution of the structural and magnetic parameters is presented

  9. Aberration corrected STEM of defects in epitaxial n=4 Ruddlesden-Popper phase Can+1MnnO3n+1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, P; Bleloch, A L; Goodhew, P J; Yan, L; Niu, H J; Rosseinsky, M J; Chalker, P R

    2008-01-01

    Defects in Ruddlesden-Popper phase CaO·[(CaMnO 3 )] 4 epitaxial films grown on SrTiO 3 (001) by pulsed laser deposition have been investigated using high angle annular dark field imaging in an aberration-corrected STEM. The stacking faults perpendicular and parallel to the substrate formed during the growth are discussed in detail. The desired n = 4 RP phase is imaged and chemically analyzed at the atomic scale using electron energy loss spectroscopy.

  10. On the Legitimacy of Popper's “Open Society”%论波普“开放社会”的正当性问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伟

    2014-01-01

    Normally in the political philosophy ,legitimacy refers to moral justification .But according to Karl Popper's critical rationalism , its value and facts are dualistic . T hus in Popper's theories , the justification of open society goes to be a problem . As for this , Popper thought that the open society is the logic extension of his critical rationalism . Popper tried to justify the open society with non-moral method . T his paper points out that the essence of the critical rationalism is some kind of faith . T herefore , the open society is a sort of choice of value and has to be justified with his own effectiveness and extrinsic purposes . From this sense , Popper can be considered as a utilitarian .%正当性就是在道德上被证成。由于波普坚持事实与价值两分的“二元论”,波普“开放社会”的证成性就成为问题,即不能以设定某种外在目的的方式来论证“开放社会”的合理。波普“开放社会”理论是其批判理性主义在社会政治领域的逻辑引申,并以非道德评价的方式来论证“开放社会”的正当性。波普的批判理性主义的实质依然是信仰,“开放社会”本身就是一种价值选择的结果,波普论证“开放社会”的正当性也只能诉诸外在的目的与自身的效用,这就意味着被其所批判的功利主义的“效果原则”依然构成波普“开放社会”的正当性依据。

  11. METODOLOGIA CERCETĂRII ŞTIINŢIFICE – MODELE REPREZENATIVE INTERDISCIPLINARE LANSATE DE K.POPPER ŞI G.BACHELARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile ŢAPOC

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available În articol sunt abordate posibilităţile investigaţionale ale modelelor elaborate de K.Popper şi G.Bachelard, ce se înscriu în orizontul cercetării interdisciplinare. Atât metoda raţionalismului critic a lui K.Popper, cât şi metoda recurentă a lui G.Bachelard utilizează din plin resursele cunoaşterii raţionale, obiective. Anume natura acesteia a permis transfor­marea metodologiei interdisciplinare în tehnologie de producere a cunoştinţelor prin computere, fapt ce a dus la pro­gresul civilizaţiei, concomitent cu criza culturii. Specialistul, în inter­de­pendenţă cu computerul, a devenit instrument comod în rezolvare a problemelor civilizaţionale, omul, însă, cu problemele sale legate de cultură: finalitatea existenţei, realizarea de sine spirituală ş.a., este pus în sarcina­ cercetărilor transdisciplinare.THE METHODOLOGY OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH – REPRESENTATIVE INTERDISCIPLINARY MODELS, INTRODUCED BY K.POPPER AND G.BACHELARDThe current article focuses on possibilities of research offered by the models, developed by K.Popper and G.Bachelard, as placed in the sphere of interdisciplinary study. Both the method of critical rationalism by K.Popper, as well as the recurrent method of G.Bachelard use abundantly the resources of rational, objective knowledge. It is the nature of the latter that allowed for the transformation of interdisciplinary methodology into a technology of knowledge production by computers, which lead to the progress of civilization, along with the crisis of culture. A specialist in computer interdependency has become a convenient tool in solving civilization problems, whereas the man overwhelmed by his cultural problems – the finality of his existence and others – falls into the realm of interdisciplinary research.

  12. Enhanced Exciton and Photon Confinement in Ruddlesden-Popper Perovskite Microplatelets for Highly Stable Low-Threshold Polarized Lasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingjie; Wei, Qi; Muduli, Subas Kumar; Yantara, Natalia; Xu, Qiang; Mathews, Nripan; Mhaisalkar, Subodh G; Xing, Guichuan; Sum, Tze Chien

    2018-06-01

    At the heart of electrically driven semiconductors lasers lies their gain medium that typically comprises epitaxially grown double heterostuctures or multiple quantum wells. The simultaneous spatial confinement of charge carriers and photons afforded by the smaller bandgaps and higher refractive index of the active layers as compared to the cladding layers in these structures is essential for the optical-gain enhancement favorable for device operation. Emulating these inorganic gain media, superb properties of highly stable low-threshold (as low as ≈8 µJ cm -2 ) linearly polarized lasing from solution-processed Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) perovskite microplatelets are realized. Detailed investigations using microarea transient spectroscopies together with finite-difference time-domain simulations validate that the mixed lower-dimensional RP perovskites (functioning as cladding layers) within the microplatelets provide both enhanced exciton and photon confinement for the higher-dimensional RP perovskites (functioning as the active gain media). Furthermore, structure-lasing-threshold relationship (i.e., correlating the content of lower-dimensional RP perovskites in a single microplatelet) vital for design and performance optimization is established. Dual-wavelength lasing from these quasi-2D RP perovskite microplatelets can also be achieved. These unique properties distinguish RP perovskite microplatelets as a new family of self-assembled multilayer planar waveguide gain media favorable for developing efficient lasers. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Thermodynamics of irreversible structural transformation in Raddlesden-Popper perovskite-like layered Li-containing phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reznitskij, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    The parameters of crystal units of the perovskite-like layer La 2 La 0.833 Nb 1.5 Ti 0.5 O 7 , Li 2 La 1.78 Nb 0.66 Ti 2.34 O 10 , Li 2 Sr 1.5 Nb 3 O 10 and Li 2 La 2.25 Nb 1.25 Ti 2.75 O 13 compounds ranked among the Raddlesden-Popper phases of the general formula Li 2 La x Nb 2n-3x Ti 3x-n O 3n+1 (n = 2, 3, 4; x = 0.833, 1.78, 2.25 correspondingly) and Li 2 Sr 1.5 Nb 3-x Fe x O 10-x (n = 3, x = 0) are shown before and after investigation by means of high resolution electron microscopy. Calculated volumes of formula units, changes in volumes after transformation, evaluations of specific heat C p of the compounds are demonstrated. Changing of transformation entropies, enthalpies and Gibbs energies of monotropic structural transformation were calculated [ru

  14. Surface modeling and chemical solution deposition of SrO(SrTiO3)n Ruddlesden-Popper phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zschornak, M.; Gemming, S.; Gutmann, E.; Weissbach, T.; Stoecker, H.; Leisegang, T.; Riedl, T.; Traenkner, M.; Gemming, T.; Meyer, D.C.

    2010-01-01

    Strontium titanate (STO) is a preferred substrate material for functional oxide growth, whose surface properties can be adjusted through the presence of Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases. Here, density functional theory (DFT) is used to model the (1 0 0) and (0 0 1) surfaces of SrO(SrTiO 3 ) n RP phases. Relaxed surface structures, electronic properties and stability relations have been determined. In contrast to pure STO, the near-surface SrO-OSr stacking fault can be employed to control surface roughness by adjusting SrO and TiO 2 surface rumpling, to stabilize SrO termination in an SrO-rich surrounding or to increase the band gap in the case of TiO 2 termination. RP thin films have been epitaxially grown on (0 0 1) STO substrates by chemical solution deposition. In agreement with DFT results, the fraction of particular RP phases n = 1-3 changes with varying heating rate and molar ratio Sr:Ti. This is discussed in terms of bulk formation energy.

  15. Synthesis and electronic properties of Ruddlesden-Popper strontium iridate epitaxial thin films stabilized by control of growth kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoran; Cao, Yanwei; Pal, B.; Middey, S.; Kareev, M.; Choi, Y.; Shafer, P.; Haskel, D.; Arenholz, E.; Chakhalian, J.

    2017-12-01

    We report on the selective fabrication of high-quality Sr2IrO4 and SrIrO3 epitaxial thin films from a single polycrystalline Sr2IrO4 target by pulsed laser deposition. Using a combination of x-ray diffraction and photoemission spectroscopy characterizations, we discover that within a relatively narrow range of substrate temperature, the oxygen partial pressure plays a critical role in the cation stoichiometric ratio of the films, and triggers the stabilization of different Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases. Resonant x-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements taken at the Ir L edge and the O K edge demonstrate the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling, and reveal the electronic and orbital structures of both compounds. These results suggest that in addition to the conventional thermodynamics consideration, higher members of the Srn+1IrnO3n+1 series can possibly be achieved by kinetic control away from the thermodynamic limit. These findings offer an approach to the synthesis of ultrathin films of the RP series of iridates and can be extended to other complex oxides with layered structure.

  16. „Amadeusz”. Miloš Forman i Peter Shaffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Choczaj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is devoted to Miloš Forman’s film, a story about Mozart’s life, taken from Peter Shaffer’s drama. The author proposes a detailed analysis of Forman’s film as an autonomous work in the production of which the film was a medium. The film was an effect of collaboration between the author of the play and the director. The effect of the work is a film which is an example of a close connection of the form and the content – harmony between picture and music, which becomes almost one of the main characters. Individual compositions of Mozart form a network of motives closely connected with the visual aspect and make its sense deeper according to several rules of showing music as a part of the film medium, such as musical motives, explaining the music by the composer or music which uses media. Connecting the music and the aesthetics of the film make Amadeus a harmonious audio-visual performance.

  17. Cómo usar la epistemología crítica de Popper para mejorar los procesos pedagógicos en la enseñanza del derecho

    OpenAIRE

    Aristizábal Botero, Mónica; García Duque, Carlos Emilio

    2012-01-01

    En este artículo se muestra la manera de aprovechar ciertas tesis de la epistemología de Popper para construir una propuesta de enseñanza-aprendizaje destinada a mejorar estos procesos en los programas de Derecho. Se argumentará que las sentencias de inexequibilidad de la Corte Constitucional constituyen un caso especial del uso del principio de falsabilidad de Popper y que es posible trasladar las nociones centrales de su epistemología a la didáctica y la pedagogía. En la parte central del a...

  18. La lógica situacional de Karl Popper y la metodología de la investigación social y educativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Ballester

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The reflection on the methodology of the investigation can not forget the contributions to Popper, especially by his formulation to a specific model for the educational and social sciences, that of the situational logic. It is considered a form of methodology based on detailed explanations of the initial conditions (analysis of the social situation: context and subject, the theoretical and empirical models elaboration, and the consideration of the rationality principle. A methodology based in the situational logic is able of rationalising the methodology of the educational theories, as well as recognize the paradigms not positivists so important in the educational investigation

  19. Growth of Ca2MnO4 Ruddlesden-Popper structured thin films using combinatorial substrate epitaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacotte, M.; David, A.; Pravarthana, D.; Prellier, W.; Grygiel, C.; Rohrer, G. S.; Salvador, P. A.; Velazquez, M.; Kloe, R. de

    2014-01-01

    The local epitaxial growth of pulsed laser deposited Ca 2 MnO 4 films on polycrystalline spark plasma sintered Sr 2 TiO 4 substrates was investigated to determine phase formation and preferred epitaxial orientation relationships (ORs) for isostructural Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) heteroepitaxy, further developing the high-throughput synthetic approach called Combinatorial Substrate Epitaxy (CSE). Both grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction patterns of the film and substrate were indexable as single-phase RP-structured compounds. The optimal growth temperature (between 650 °C and 800 °C) was found to be 750 °C using the maximum value of the average image quality of the backscattered diffraction patterns. Films grew in a grain-over-grain pattern such that each Ca 2 MnO 4 grain had a single OR with the Sr 2 TiO 4 grain on which it grew. Three primary ORs described 47 out of 49 grain pairs that covered nearly all of RP orientation space. The first OR, found for 20 of the 49, was the expected RP unit-cell over RP unit-cell OR, expressed as [100][001] film ||[100][001] sub . The other two ORs were essentially rotated from the first by 90°, with one (observed for 17 of 49 pairs) being rotated about the [100] and the other (observed for 10 of 49 pairs) being rotated about the [110] (and not exactly by 90°). These results indicate that only a small number of ORs are needed to describe isostructural RP heteroepitaxy and further demonstrate the potential of CSE in the design and growth of a wide range of complex functional oxides

  20. Energetics and crystal chemistry of Ruddlesden-Popper type structures in high T(sub c) ceramic superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Anurag; Cormack, A. N.

    1990-01-01

    The formation of Ruddlesden-Popper type layers (alternating slabs of rocksalt and perovskite structures) is seen in these oxides which is similar in many respects to what is seen in the system Sr-Ti-O. However, it was observed that there are some significant differences, for example the rocksalt and perovskite blocks in new superconducting compounds are not necessarily electrically, unlike in Sr-Ti-O systems. This will certainly render an additional coulombic bonding energy between two different types of blocks and may well lead to significant differences in their structural chemistry. In the higher order members of the various homologous series, additional Cu-O planes are inserted in the perovskite blocks. In order for the unit cell to electrically neutral the net positive charge on rocksalt block (which remains constant throughout the homologous series) should be balanced by an equal negative charge on perovskite block. It, thus becomes necessary to create oxygen vacancies in the basic perovskite structure, when width of the perovskite slab changes on addition of extra Cu-O planes. Results of atomistic simulations suggest that these missing oxygen ions allow the Cu-O planes to buckle in these compounds. This is also supported by the absence of buckling in the first member of Bi-containing compounds in which there are no missing oxygen ions and the Sr-Ti-O series of compounds. Additional results are presented on the phase stability of polytypoid structures in these crystal chemically complex systems. The studies will focus on the determination of the location of Cu(3+) in the structures of higher order members of the La-Cu-O system and whether Cu(3+) ions or oxygen vacancies are energetically more favorable charge compensating mechanism.

  1. Preferential orientation relationships in Ca{sub 2}MnO{sub 4} Ruddlesden-Popper thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacotte, M.; David, A.; Prellier, W., E-mail: wilfrid.prellier@ensicaen.fr [Laboratoire CRISMAT, CNRS UMR 6508, ENSICAEN, Université de Basse-Normandie, 6 Bd Maréchal Juin, F-14050 Caen Cedex 4 (France); Rohrer, G. S.; Salvador, P. A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

    2015-07-28

    A high-throughput investigation of local epitaxy (called combinatorial substrate epitaxy) was carried out on Ca{sub 2}MnO{sub 4} Ruddlesden-Popper thin films of six thicknesses (from 20 to 400 nm), all deposited on isostructural polycrystalline Sr{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} substrates. Electron backscatter diffraction revealed grain-over-grain local epitaxial growth for all films, resulting in a single orientation relationship (OR) for each substrate-film grain pair. Two preferred epitaxial ORs accounted for more than 90% of all ORs on 300 different microcrystals, based on analyzing 50 grain pairs for each thickness. The unit cell over unit cell OR ([100][001]{sub film} ∥ [100][001]{sub substrate}, or OR1) accounted for approximately 30% of each film. The OR that accounted for 60% of each film ([100][001]{sub film} ∥ [100][010]{sub substrate}, or OR2) corresponds to a rotation from OR1 by 90° about the a-axis. OR2 is strongly favored for substrate orientations in the center of the stereographic triangle, and OR1 is observed for orientations very close to (001) or to those near the edge connecting (100) and (110). While OR1 should be lower in energy, the majority observation of OR2 implies kinetic hindrances decrease the frequency of OR1. Persistent grain over grain growth and the absence of variations of the OR frequencies with thickness implies that the growth competition is finished within the first few nm, and local epitaxy persists thereafter during growth.

  2. Epitaxial growth of mixed conducting layered Ruddlesden–Popper Lan+1NinO3n+1 (n = 1, 2 and 3) phases by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Kuan-Ting; Soh, Yeong-Ah; Skinner, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • High quality epitaxial thin films of layered Ruddlesden–Popper nickelates were prepared. • For the first time this has been achieved by the PLD process. • n = 1, 2 and 3 films were successfully deposited on SrTiO 3 and NdGaO 3 substrates. • c-Axis oriented films were confirmed by XRD analysis. • In-plane and out-of-plane strain effects on lattice are discussed. - Abstract: Layered Ruddlesden–Popper phases of composition La n+1 Ni n O 3n+1 (n = 1, 2 and 3) have been epitaxially grown on SrTiO 3 (0 0 1) or NdGaO 3 (1 1 0) single crystal substrates using the pulsed laser deposition technique. X-ray diffraction analyses (θ/2θ, rocking curves, and φ-scans) and atomic force microscopy confirms the high-quality growth of the series of films with low surface roughness values (less than 1 nm). In particular, epitaxial growth of the higher order phases (n = 2 and 3) of lanthanum nickelate have been demonstrated for the first time

  3. Synthesis and structural properties of n = 1 Ruddlesden-Popper manganites Nd1-xCa1+xMnO4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, T.; Yamazaki, A.; Kimoto, K.; Matsui, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Polycrystalline samples of n = 1 Ruddlesden-Popper manganites Nd 1-x Ca 1+x MnO 4 (0.55 ≤ x ≤ 1.00) were synthesized by a solid-state reaction. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron diffraction (ED) measurements confirmed that the fundamental crystal structure at room temperature consists of three distorted K 2 NiF 4 -types: orthorhombic Bmab (64) phase in 0.55 ≤ x 1 /acd (142) phase in 0.85 ≤ x ≤ 1.00. Furthermore, in a whole range of 0.55 ≤ x ≤ 0.75, low-temperature magnetic and ED measurements revealed charge-orbital ordering (COO) states, which are accompanied by suppression of magnetization and structural modulations with q = (1 - x)a*. The COO transition temperatures are high with a maximum of ∼330 K at x = 0.67, and then higher than those in non-distorted n = 1 Ruddlesden-Popper manganites. The observations suggest that COO states are much stabilized by the distortion in the fundamental structures

  4. Epitaxial thin-film growth of Ruddlesden-Popper-type Ba3Zr2O7 from a BaZrO3 target by pulsed laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butt, Shariqa Hassan; Rafique, M.S.; Siraj, K.; Latif, A.; Afzal, Amina; Awan, M.S.; Bashir, Shazia; Iqbal, Nida

    2016-01-01

    Ruddlesden-Popper Ba 3 Zr 2 O 7 thin films have been synthesized via pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The optimization of deposition parameters in PLD enables the formation of thin film of metastable Ba 3 Zr 2 O 7 phase from BaZrO 3 target. In order to see the post-annealing effects on the structural and optical properties, the deposited Ba 3 Zr 2 O 7 thin films were annealed at 500, 600 and 800 C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals the formation of Ba 3 Zr 2 O 7 phase with tetragonal structure. The changes in the surface of the deposited films were analysed by FE-SEM and AFM. The thin film post-annealed at 500 C exhibited the best structural, optical and surface properties. Furthermore, the chemical states and chemical composition of the films were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) near the surface. The XPS results show that Ba, Zr and O exist mainly in the form of Ba 3 Zr 2 O 7 Ruddlesden-Popper-type perovskite structure. (orig.)

  5. Oriented growth of Sr n+1Ti n O3n+1 Ruddlesden-Popper phases in chemical solution deposited thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutmann, Emanuel; Levin, Alexandr A.; Reibold, Marianne; Mueller, Jan; Paufler, Peter; Meyer, Dirk C.

    2006-01-01

    Oriented thin films of perovskite-related Sr n +1 Ti n O 3 n +1 Ruddlesden-Popper phases (n=1, 2, 3) were grown on (001) single-crystalline SrTiO 3 substrates. Preparation of the films was carried out by wet chemical deposition from metalorganic Sr-Ti solutions (rich in Sr) and subsequent conversion into the crystalline state by thermal treatment in air atmosphere at a maximum temperature of 700 deg. C. Solutions were prepared by a modified Pechini method. The films were investigated by wide-angle X-ray scattering and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The phase content of powders prepared from the dried solutions and annealed under similar conditions differed from that present in the films, i.e. only polycrystalline SrTiO 3 was detected together with oxides of Ti and Sr. - Graphical abstract: Cross-sectional image of an oriented chemical solution deposited thin film obtained by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Periodical spacings corresponding to SrTiO 3 substrate (right) and Sr 2 TiO 4 Ruddlesden-Popper phase (n=1) film region (left) are marked

  6. CÓMO USAR LA EPISTEMOLOGÍA CRÍTICA DE POPPER PARA MEJORAR LOS PROCESOS PEDAGÓGICOS EN LA ENSEÑANZA DEL DERECHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Aristizábal Botero

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se muestra la manera de aprovechar ciertas tesis de la epistemología de Popper para construir una propuesta de enseñanza-aprendizaje destinada a mejorar estos procesos en los programas de Derecho. Se argumentará que las sentencias de inexequibilidad de la Corte Constitucional constituyen un caso especial del uso del principio de falsabilidad de Popper y que es posible trasladar las nociones centrales de su epistemología a la didáctica y la pedagogía. En la parte central del artículo, se sugiere aprovechar el principio de la epistemologíacrítica en acción, implícito en algunas sentencias de inexequibilidad de la Corte Constitucional –período 1993-2000–, para introducir cambios que promuevan una actitud crítica en los estudiantes de los programas de Derecho.

  7. A Provisoriedade do Conhecimento Científico: Uma Reflexão sobre a Filosofia da Ciência de Karl Popper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Siqueira Caropreso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A concepção de ciência de Karl Popper nos mostra que esta, embora indubitavelmente nos forneça um conhecimento muito mais seguro do que aquele do senso comum, jamais poderá alcançar um conhecimento verdadeiro, definitivo. A aspiração de verdade da ciência consiste em uma impossibilidade lógica e empírica, portanto, o conhecimento científico deve ser conhecimento falsificável e não falsificado, que se desenvolve a partir de um processo de eliminação de erros. O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar a concepção de ciência de Popper, o que parece se justificar por nos lembrar da provisoriedade das teorias científicas, em uma época em que há uma confiança muitas vezes ingênua nos dados científicos, principalmente nos meios não acadêmicos.

  8. XMCD study of the Ruddlesden-Popper phase La1.2Nd0.2Sr1.6Mn2O7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weigand, F.; Goering, E.; Geissler, J.; Justen, M.; Ruck, K.; Schuetz, G.; Doerr, K.

    2001-01-01

    X-ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD) measurements of the Ruddlesden-Popper Phase La 1.2 Nd 0.2 Sr 1.6 Mn 2 O 7 are reported. The Mn K, La and Nd L 2 , 3 edges have been measured on a powder sample at two different magnetic fields at low temperature. The analysis of the spectra at B = 1T indicates a large orbital moment of the Nd 5d-states and a significant spin-polarization of the La 5d-band. Furthermore at the Mn Κ-edge a XMCD-signal is observed, showing a polarization of the Mn 4p-band. At lower field (0.2T) all XMCD-signals are about two times smaller corresponding to the lower total magnetization. The signal at the Nd L 2 edge vanishes completely at 0.2T. (au)

  9. Synthesis, structures, and magnetic properties of novel Roddlesden-Popper homologous series Srn+1ConO3n+1 (n=1,2,3,4, and ∞)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.L.; Sakurai, H.; Takayama-Muromachi, E.

    2005-01-01

    Roddlesden-Popper homologous series Sr n+1 Co n O 3n+1 (n=1,2,3,4, and ∞) compounds were successfully synthesized by a high pressure and high temperature technique. Structure refinement revealed that these compounds crystallize in tetragonal structures, while the compound n=∞ is cubic. These compounds are ferromagnetic with the Curie temperature decreasing from 255 K for n=1 to about 200 K for n=2-4 and down to 175 K for SrCoO 3 . Co 4+ ions present as intermediate spin states for n=1-4, but in the low spin state in SrCoO 3 . Negative magnetoresistance was observed for Sr 2 CoO 4 and found to be larger than that for SrCoO 3

  10. The proposals that perhaps Karl Popper had propelled facing the enemies the open society of nowadays: for the XXI century, the reformism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Guillermo Estay Sepúlveda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During his complete work, the philosopher Karl Popper criticized in a strongly way the totalitarianism of the XX century, which was lived by him directly. We do not have any doubt that nowadays, he would speak with a louder tone in front of the other bad situation in politics which is observed in the horizon ad portas of the third decade of the new millennium, that is to say the fundamentalism. Although it is true, the Austrian philosopher attacks the political totalitarian regimes with the democracy, he is also a critic of it and at the same time, being a defender to the death of dialogue, he does not doubt in putting in front of the tyranny, the principles of tyrannicide.

  11. Atomic structures of Ruddlesden-Popper faults in LaCoO3/SrRuO3 multilayer thin films induced by epitaxial strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Shen, Xi; Guan, Xiangxiang; Yao, Yuan; Wang, Yanguo; Sun, Jirong; Yu, Richeng

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, scanning transmission electron microscopy is used to study the microstructures of the defects in LaCoO3/SrRuO3 multilayer films grown on the SrTiO3 substrates, and these films have different thickness of SrRuO3 (SRO) layers. Several types of Ruddlesden-Popper (R.P.) faults at an atomic level are found, and these chemical composition fluctuations in the growth process are induced by strain fields originating from the film-film and film-substrate lattice mismatches. Furthermore, we propose four types of structural models based on the atomic arrangements of the R.P. planar faults, which severely affect the functional properties of the films.

  12. Formation of Ruddlesden-Popper Faults and Their Effect on the Magnetic Properties in Pr0.5Sr0.5CoO3 Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Hong-Mei; Cheng, Sheng; Mi, Shao-Bo; Lu, Lu; Liu, Ming; Cheng, Shao-Dong; Jia, Chun-Lin

    2018-01-10

    Epitaxial Pr 0.5 Sr 0.5 CoO 3 thin films have been grown on single-crystalline (La 0.289 Sr 0.712 )(Al 0.633 Ta 0.356 )O 3 (001) substrates by the pulsed laser deposition technique. The magnetic properties and microstructure of these films are investigated. It is found that Ruddlesden-Popper faults (RP faults) can be introduced in the films by changing the laser repetition rate. The segregation of Pr at the RP faults is characterized by atomic-resolution chemical mapping. The formation of the RP faults not only contributes to the epitaxial strain relaxation but also significantly decreases the ferromagnetic long-range order of the films, resulting in lower magnetizations than those of the fault-free films. Our results provide a strategy for tuning the magnetic properties of cobalt-based perovskite films by modifying the microstructure through the film growth process.

  13. Synthesis and characterisation of the n = 2 Ruddlesden–Popper phases Ln2Sr(Ba)Fe2O7 (Ln = La, Nd, Eu)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurusinghe, Nicola N.M.; Figuera, Juand de la; Marco, José F.; Thomas, Michael F.; Berry, Frank J.; Greaves, Colin

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Some Ruddlesden–Popper phases have been characterised. • Substitution on the A site influences cationic order. • The magnetic moment redirects with temperature - Abstract: A series of n = 2 Ruddlesden–Popper phases A 2 B 2 O 7 of composition Ln 2 Sr(Ba)Fe 2 O 7 (Ln = La, Nd, Eu) have been prepared. La 2 SrFe 2 O 7 and La 2 BaFe 2 O 7 crystallise in the tetragonal space group I4/mmm. The structures of Eu 2 SrFe 2 O 7 and Nd 2 SrFe 2 O 7 are best described in space group P4 2 /mnm. Substitution on the A site with smaller lanthanide- and larger alkaline metal- ions leads to enhanced cationic order in these phases and reflects increasing differences in cationic radii. All the compounds are antiferromagnetically ordered between 298 and 2 K. In La 2 SrFe 2 O 7 the magnetic moment lies along [1 1 0] at all temperatures between 298 and 2 K whereas in La 2 BaFe 2 O 7 the magnetic moment at 298 K lies along the crystallographic x-axis but redirects from the [1 0 0] to the [1 1 0] direction between 210 and 190 K and is retained in this direction until 2 K. In Nd 2 SrFe 2 O 7 the magnetic moment at 298 K lies along [1 1 0] but rotates from [1 1 0] to [0 0 1] between 17 and 9 K. A series of 57 Fe Mössbauer spectra recorded from La 2 SrFe 2 O 7 between 290 and 600 K indicate a magnetic ordering temperature of T N ≥ 535 K

  14. Poppering the Newell Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taatgen, Niels A.

    2003-01-01

    The Newell Test as it is proposed by Anderson & Lebiere (A&L) has the disadvantage of being too positivistic, stressing areas a theory should cover, instead of attempting to exclude false predictions. Nevertheless, Newell's list can be used as the basis for a more stringent test with a stress on the

  15. Structure and magnetic properties of the orthorhombic n=2 Ruddlesden-Popper phases Sr3Co2O5+δ (δ=0.91, 0.64 and 0.38)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viciu, L.; Zandbergen, H.W.; Xu, Q.; Huang, Q.; Lee, M.; Cava, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    The reduced Ruddlesden-Popper phases, Sr 3 Co 2 O 5+δ with δ=0.91, 0.64 and 0.38, have been prepared in a nitrogen atmosphere. The crystal structures were determined by powder neutron diffraction. Oxygen vacancies are found both in O(3) and O(4) sites but the majority are along one crystallographic axis in the CoO 2 plane, inducing an orthorhombic distortion of the normally tetragonal n=2 Ruddelsden-Popper structure. Superstructures due to oxygen ordering are observed by electron microscopy. The magnetic measurements reveal complex behavior with some ferromagnetic interactions present for Sr 3 Co 2 O 5.91 and Sr 3 Co 2 O 5.64 . 64

  16. Mechanosynthesis and mechanical activation processes to the preparation of the Sr2[Srn-1TinO3n+1] Ruddlesden-Popper family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungria, Teresa; Hungria, A.-B.; Castro, Alicia

    2004-01-01

    A novel mechanochemical activation route has been applied in order to obtain the n=1-4 and ∞ members of the Sr 2 [Sr n-1 Ti n O 3n+1 ] Ruddlesden-Popper series. The evolution of the (n+1)SrO:nTiO 2 powder mixtures during mechanical treatment was followed by X-ray powder diffraction in all cases. Except for the 2SrO:TiO 2 composition, SrTiO 3 was always mechanosynthesized. High-energy milling of 2SrO:TiO 2 sample resulted in the formation of nanosized Sr 2 TiO 4 , which is the only K 2 NiF 4 -type oxide prepared by mechanical treatment until now. The mechanical treatment was followed by annealing at different temperatures to establish the optimized protocol for synthesis of each member of the series. SrTiO 3 , Sr 2 TiO 4 and Sr 3 Ti 2 O 7 were obtained with very important decreases in the formation temperatures and reaction times as compared with the traditional ceramic method. Final and milled products were studied by X-ray powder diffraction at room and increasing temperatures, and by thermal analysis and scanning and high resolution transmission electron microscopy

  17. Ruddlesden-Popper compounds (SrO)(LaFeO3)n (n = 1 and 2) as p-type semiconductors for photocatalytic hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hongmei; Sun, Xiaoqin; Xu, Xiaoxiang

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Two layered ferrites LaSrFeO 4 and La 2 SrFe 2 O 7 have been investigated which demonstrate interesting p-type semconductivity and efficient hydrogen production from water. Display Omitted -- Abstract: Here we report two Ruddlesden-Popper type ferrite perovskites (SrO)(LaFeO 3 ) n (n = 1 and 2) which demonstrate p-type semiconductivity. Their crystal structure, optical absorption and other physicochemical properties have been systematically explored. Our results show that both ferrites crystallize in tetragonal symmetry with structural lamination along c axis. Efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production has been achieved for both samples under full range and visible light illumination. Better performance is noticed for LaSrFeO 4 with apparent quantum efficiency approaches 0.31% and 0.19% under full range and visible light illumination, respectively. The p-type semiconductivity is verified by their cathodic photocurrent as well as negative Mott-Schottky slop during Photoelectrochemical measurement. The relative lower activity for La 2 SrFe 2 O 7 compared to LaSrFeO 4 is likely due to its higher defect concentration which facilitates charge recombination. Both compounds exhibit anisotropic phenomenon for charge migrations according to theoretical calculations. Their p-type semiconductivity, strong visible light absorption, chemical inertness and high abundance of constituent elements signify promising applications in the field of solar energy conversion and optoelectronics.

  18. Aurivillius-Popper mixed superconductors in BiO--CuO--(Sr/sub 0.5/, Ca/sub 0.5/)O system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuhara, M.; Bhalla, A.S.; Mulay, L.N.; Newnham, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    We report the effect of inhomogeneities on the electric resistivity and ac magnetic susceptibility in Aurivillius-like bismuth mixed phase oxides of the BiO--Cuo--(Sr/sub 0.5/, Ca/sub 0.5/)O system and propose a crystal structure of the major phase having highest T/sub c/. Nominal Aurivillius compositions with molar ratios of BiO/(Sr/sub 0.5/, Ca/sub 0.5/)O = 1/2 are superconductors with T/sub c/ ranging from 83 to 107 K, and are accompanied by a large expansion during sintering due to the formation of Kirkendall voids. T/sub c/ increases with decreasing of the c lattice parameter. An oxide BiSrCaCu 2 O/sub x/ (n = 2) shows a maximum T/sub c/ value of 107 K and an onset of superconductivity at a much higher temperature. It seems that the structure of Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O/sub x/ consists of an Aurivillius-like phase having two perovskite layers and a Popper mixed phase. The ac magnetic susceptibility showed an overall decrease in susceptibility with time up to 220 days. This appears to be related to the relief of intralattice strain

  19. The oxygen deficient Ruddlesden-Popper La3Ni2O7-δ (δ = 0.65) phase: Structure and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poltavets, Viktor V.; Lokshin, Konstantin A.; Egami, Takeshi; Greenblatt, Martha

    2006-01-01

    La 3 Ni 2 O 7-δ (δ = 0.65) was synthesized by hydrogen reduction of the parent La 3 Ni 2 O 7 Ruddlesden-Popper nickelate. The crystal structure of La 3 Ni 2 O 6.35 (space group: I4/mmm, a = 3.8742 (1) A and c = 20.055 (1) A) has been determined from powder neutron diffraction data by the Rietveld method for the first time. The oxygen vacancies are located in the LaO x planes between two of the NiO 2 layers. Removal of these oxygen atoms from the parent phase results in a significant (∼0.4 A) shrinkage of the perovskite block along c-direction and splitting of the Ni position. The major part of Ni cations is surrounded by five oxygen atoms forming square pyramids, while the rest are coordinated to six octahedrally arranged oxygen atoms. Over the 170-400 K temperature range, the conductivity of La 3 Ni 2 O 6.35 follows Mott's variable range hopping model modified for a 2D case

  20. Atomic layer epitaxy of Ruddlesden-Popper SrO(SrTiO3)n films by means of metalorganic aerosol deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungbauer, M.; Hühn, S.; Moshnyaga, V.; Egoavil, R.; Tan, H.; Verbeeck, J.; Van Tendeloo, G.

    2014-01-01

    We report an atomic layer epitaxial growth of Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) thin films of SrO(SrTiO 3 ) n (n = ∞, 2, 3, 4) by means of metalorganic aerosol deposition (MAD). The films are grown on SrTiO 3 (001) substrates by means of a sequential deposition of Sr-O/Ti-O 2 atomic monolayers, monitored in-situ by optical ellipsometry. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveal the RP structure with n = 2–4 in accordance with the growth recipe. RP defects, observed by TEM in a good correlation with the in-situ ellipsometry, mainly result from the excess of SrO. Being maximal at the film/substrate interface, the SrO excess rapidly decreases and saturates after 5–6 repetitions of the SrO(SrTiO 3 ) 4 block at the level of 2.4%. This identifies the SrTiO 3 substrate surface as a source of RP defects under oxidizing conditions within MAD. Advantages and limitations of MAD as a solution-based and vacuum-free chemical deposition route were discussed in comparison with molecular beam epitaxy

  1. Competing Structural Instabilities in the Ruddlesden–Popper Derivatives HRTiO4 (R = Rare Earths): Oxygen Octahedral Rotations Inducing Noncentrosymmetricity and Layer Sliding Retaining Centrosymmetricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen Gupta, Arnab; Akamatsu, Hirofumi; Brown, Forrest G.; Nguyen, Minh An T.

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of noncentrosymmetry in the family of HRTiO 4 (R = Eu, Gd, Dy) layered oxides possessing a Ruddlesden-Popper derivative structure, by second harmonic generation and synchrotron x-ray diffraction with the support of density functional theory calculations. These oxides were previously thought to possess inversion symmetry. Here, inversion symmetry is broken by oxygen octahedral rotations, a mechanism that is not active in simple perovskites. We discover a competition between oxygen octahedral rotations and sliding of the octahedral perovskite blocks at the OH layers. For the smaller rare earth ions, R = Eu, Gd, Dy, which favor the octahedral rotations, noncentrosymmetry is present but the sliding at the OH layer is absent. For the larger rare earth ions, R = Nd and Sm, the octahe-dral rotations are absent, but sliding of the octahedral blocks at the OH layer is present, likely to optimize the hydrogen bond length arising from the directional nature of these bonds in the crystal structure. The study reveals a new mechanism for inducing noncentrosymmetry in layered oxides, and chemical-structural effects related to rare earth ion size and hydrogen bonding that can turn this mechanism on and off. In conclusion, we construct a complete phase diagram of temperature versus rare earth ionic radius for the HRTiO 4 family.

  2. Karl Popper Y Friedrich Hayek: una luz sobre la naturaleza, objeto y método de la administración

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco López Gallego

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Con base en el reconocimiento de la existencia de un conocimiento objetivo sin sujeto cognoscente, propio del llamado “tercer mundo” poperiano, en primera instancia se intenta someter a examen el discurso administrativo –en tanto sistema de conocimientos– para determinar hasta qué punto es susceptible de ser construido mediante un método válido, con lo cual se aspira a establecer una discusión en torno a su naturaleza. En un segundo momento, se continúa con la presentación del método que Popper reclama para las ciencias sociales en general, devenido de la economía, el cual sería también el apropiado para nuestra disciplina. Finalmente, se pretende delimitar un objeto de estudio propio de dicho sistema de conocimientos, a partir de la diferencia que F. Hayek establece entre los órdenes sociales artificiales y espontáneos.

  3. Atomic layer epitaxy of Ruddlesden-Popper SrO(SrTiO{sub 3}){sub n} films by means of metalorganic aerosol deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungbauer, M.; Hühn, S.; Moshnyaga, V. [Erstes Physikalisches Institut, Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Egoavil, R.; Tan, H.; Verbeeck, J.; Van Tendeloo, G. [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2014-12-22

    We report an atomic layer epitaxial growth of Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) thin films of SrO(SrTiO{sub 3}){sub n} (n = ∞, 2, 3, 4) by means of metalorganic aerosol deposition (MAD). The films are grown on SrTiO{sub 3}(001) substrates by means of a sequential deposition of Sr-O/Ti-O{sub 2} atomic monolayers, monitored in-situ by optical ellipsometry. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveal the RP structure with n = 2–4 in accordance with the growth recipe. RP defects, observed by TEM in a good correlation with the in-situ ellipsometry, mainly result from the excess of SrO. Being maximal at the film/substrate interface, the SrO excess rapidly decreases and saturates after 5–6 repetitions of the SrO(SrTiO{sub 3}){sub 4} block at the level of 2.4%. This identifies the SrTiO{sub 3} substrate surface as a source of RP defects under oxidizing conditions within MAD. Advantages and limitations of MAD as a solution-based and vacuum-free chemical deposition route were discussed in comparison with molecular beam epitaxy.

  4. CONTRIBUTIONS OF PHILOSOPHY OF SCIENCE, IN THE PERSPECTIVE OF POPPER AND LAKATOS, FOR THE STUDY OF INNOVATION: AN ANALYSIS OF THE NEOCLASSICAL SCHUMPETERIAN AND NEO-SCHUMPETERIAN THEORIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FABRÍCIO BARON MUSSI

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es investigar –a partir de dos criterios de delimitación (Popper y Laka- tos – la cientificidad de la teoría de la innovación. La innovación se analiza a partir de tres temas macro: (i la corriente neoclásica de la teoría económica; (ii la introducción de la teoría de la inno- vación y los manuscritos más recientes de Schumpeter; y (iii las contribuciones aportadas por la corriente neo-chumpeteriana de la innovación. Se concluye que el tema de la innovación responde a los criterios para categorizar la cientificidad, encontrándose que esto tiene implicaciones en el campo de los estudios sobre el tema en aspectos como: la construcción / transmisión del cono- cimiento, la evasión del “sentido común”, y el uso del “método” como recurso para construir el conocimiento científico.

  5. Ab-initio calculations of the Ruddlesden-Popper phases CaMnO3, CaO(CaMnO3) and CaO(CaMnO3)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, C; Borges, R P; Gasche, T; Godinho, M

    2008-01-01

    The present work reports ab-initio density functional theory calculations for the Ruddlesden-Popper phase CaO(CaMnO 3 ) n compounds. In order to study the evolution of the properties with the number of perovskite layers, a detailed analysis of the densities of states calculated for each compound and for several magnetic configurations was performed. The effect of distortions of the crystal structure on the magnetic ground state is also analysed and the exchange constants and transition temperatures are calculated for the three compounds using a mean field model. The calculated magnetic ground state structures and magnetic moments are in good agreement with experimental results and previous calculations

  6. New representatives of the Raddlesden-Popper homologous series: anion-deficient oxides Sr3Co2-xZnxO6+δ (x=0.5, 0.7)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chupakhina, T.I.; Zajtseva, N.A.; Melkozerova, M.A.; Bazuev, G.V.

    2006-01-01

    New complex oxides Sr 3 Co 2-x Zn x O 6+δ (x=0.5, 0.7) of the Raddlesden-Popper homologous series are synthesized; structural characteristics and magnetic properties are investigated. Lattice parameters are determined. It is established that Sr 3 Co 1.5 Zn 0.5 O 6.25 magnetic susceptibility dependence on temperature follows Curie-Weiss law only within 250-300 K temperature range. In low temperature range the compound has spin glass properties with characteristic phenomena of magnetic and temperature hysteresis [ru

  7. Transport and thermoelectric properties of n-type Ruddlesden-Popper phase (Sr1-xGdx)3(Ti1-yTay)2O7 oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, R R; Qin, X Y; Li, L L; Li, D; Zhang, J; Wang, Q Q

    2012-01-01

    The transport and thermoelectric properties of (Sr 1-x Gd x ) 3 (Ti 1-y Ta y ) 2 O 7 (x = 0.05, y = 0.05-0.15; x = 0.1, y = 0.05-0.1) compounds with Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phase, prepared by a conventional solid-state reaction method plus spark plasma sintering (SPS), were investigated in the temperature range from 300 to 1000 K. The results indicate that the electrical resistivity ρ for all compounds increases with temperature, and has a relation ρ ∝ T M (i.e. the mobility μ ∝ T -M ) with M = 1.58-1.92 at T ≳ 650 K, indicating that the phonon scattering is predominant. Basically, the absolute value of the Seebeck coefficient |S| increases almost linearly with temperature above ∼400 K, showing degenerated semiconducting behaviour. Moreover, both ρ and |S| decrease with the increase in both Ta and Gd content, which can be attributed to an increase in the carrier concentration. The lattice thermal conductivity κ L of the compounds decreases monotonically with an increase in both Ta and Gd content due to mass-defect phonon scattering, and the lowest κ L (κ L = 3.3 W K -1 m -1 at room temperature and 2.0 W K -1 m -1 at 1000 K) is achieved in (Sr 0.9 Gd 0.1 ) 3 (Ti 0.9 Ta 0.1 ) 2 O 7 . Among all the compounds investigated here, the largest dimensionless figure of merit ZT = 0.08 (at 1000 K) is obtained in the compound (Sr 0.9 Gd 0.1 ) 3 (Ti 0.95 Ta 0.05 ) 2 O 7 .

  8. Growth of Ca{sub 2}MnO{sub 4} Ruddlesden-Popper structured thin films using combinatorial substrate epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacotte, M.; David, A.; Pravarthana, D.; Prellier, W., E-mail: wilfrid.prellier@ensicaen.fr [Laboratoire CRISMAT, CNRS UMR 6508, ENSICAEN, Université de Basse-Normandie, 6 Bd Maréchal Juin, F-14050 Caen Cedex 4 (France); Grygiel, C. [Laboratoire CIMAP, CEA, CNRS UMR 6252, ENSICAEN, Université de Basse-Normandie, 6 Bd Maréchal Juin, F-14050 Caen Cedex 4 (France); Rohrer, G. S.; Salvador, P. A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Velazquez, M. [CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Kloe, R. de [AMETEK B.V, EDAX Application Laboratory, Tilburg (Netherlands)

    2014-12-28

    The local epitaxial growth of pulsed laser deposited Ca{sub 2}MnO{sub 4} films on polycrystalline spark plasma sintered Sr{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} substrates was investigated to determine phase formation and preferred epitaxial orientation relationships (ORs) for isostructural Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) heteroepitaxy, further developing the high-throughput synthetic approach called Combinatorial Substrate Epitaxy (CSE). Both grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction patterns of the film and substrate were indexable as single-phase RP-structured compounds. The optimal growth temperature (between 650 °C and 800 °C) was found to be 750 °C using the maximum value of the average image quality of the backscattered diffraction patterns. Films grew in a grain-over-grain pattern such that each Ca{sub 2}MnO{sub 4} grain had a single OR with the Sr{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} grain on which it grew. Three primary ORs described 47 out of 49 grain pairs that covered nearly all of RP orientation space. The first OR, found for 20 of the 49, was the expected RP unit-cell over RP unit-cell OR, expressed as [100][001]{sub film}||[100][001]{sub sub}. The other two ORs were essentially rotated from the first by 90°, with one (observed for 17 of 49 pairs) being rotated about the [100] and the other (observed for 10 of 49 pairs) being rotated about the [110] (and not exactly by 90°). These results indicate that only a small number of ORs are needed to describe isostructural RP heteroepitaxy and further demonstrate the potential of CSE in the design and growth of a wide range of complex functional oxides.

  9. Low Thermal Conductivity of RE-Doped SrO(SrTiO3)1 Ruddlesden Popper Phase Bulk Materials Prepared by Molten Salt Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, Yulia Eka; Said, Suhana Mohd; Refinel, Refinel; Ohtaki, Michitaka; Syukri, Syukri

    2018-04-01

    The SrO(SrTiO3)1 (Sr2TiO4) Ruddlesden Popper (RP) phase is a natural superlattice comprising of alternately stacking perovskite-type SrTiO3 layers and rock salt SrO layers along the crystallographic c direction. This paper discusses the properties of the Sr2TiO4 and (La, Sm)-doped Sr2TiO4 RP phase synthesized via molten salt method, within the context of thermoelectric applications. A good thermoelectric material requires high electrical conductivity, high Seebeck coefficient and low thermal conductivity. All three conditions have the potential to be fulfilled by the Sr2TiO4 RP phase, in particular, the superlattice structure allows a higher degree of phonon scattering hence resulting in lowered thermal conductivity. In this work, the Sr2TiO4 RP phase is doped with Sm and La respectively, which allows injection of charge carriers, modification of its electronic structure for improvement of the Seebeck coefficient, and most significantly, reduction of thermal conductivity. The particles with submicron size allows excessive phonon scattering along the boundaries, thus reduces the thermal conductivity by fourfold. In particular, the Sm-doped sample exhibited even lower lattice thermal conductivity, which is believed to be due to the mismatch in the ionic radius of Sr and Sm. This finding is useful as a strategy to reduce thermal conductivity of Sr2TiO4 RP phase materials as thermoelectric candidates, by employing dopants of differing ionic radius.

  10. Epitaxial thin-film growth of Ruddlesden-Popper-type Ba{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} from a BaZrO{sub 3} target by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butt, Shariqa Hassan; Rafique, M.S.; Siraj, K.; Latif, A.; Afzal, Amina [University of Engineering and Technology, Laser and Optronics Centre, Department of Physics, Lahore (Pakistan); Awan, M.S. [Ibn-e-Sina Institute of Science and Technology (ISIT), Islamabad (Pakistan); Bashir, Shazia [Government College University, Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, Lahore (Pakistan); Iqbal, Nida [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Medical Devices and Technology Group (MEDITEG), Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2016-07-15

    Ruddlesden-Popper Ba{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} thin films have been synthesized via pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The optimization of deposition parameters in PLD enables the formation of thin film of metastable Ba{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} phase from BaZrO{sub 3} target. In order to see the post-annealing effects on the structural and optical properties, the deposited Ba{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} thin films were annealed at 500, 600 and 800 C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals the formation of Ba{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} phase with tetragonal structure. The changes in the surface of the deposited films were analysed by FE-SEM and AFM. The thin film post-annealed at 500 C exhibited the best structural, optical and surface properties. Furthermore, the chemical states and chemical composition of the films were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) near the surface. The XPS results show that Ba, Zr and O exist mainly in the form of Ba{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} Ruddlesden-Popper-type perovskite structure. (orig.)

  11. Epitaxial growth of mixed conducting layered Ruddlesden–Popper La{sub n+1}Ni{sub n}O{sub 3n+1} (n = 1, 2 and 3) phases by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kuan-Ting; Soh, Yeong-Ah; Skinner, Stephen J., E-mail: s.skinner@imperial.ac.uk

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • High quality epitaxial thin films of layered Ruddlesden–Popper nickelates were prepared. • For the first time this has been achieved by the PLD process. • n = 1, 2 and 3 films were successfully deposited on SrTiO{sub 3} and NdGaO{sub 3} substrates. • c-Axis oriented films were confirmed by XRD analysis. • In-plane and out-of-plane strain effects on lattice are discussed. - Abstract: Layered Ruddlesden–Popper phases of composition La{sub n+1}Ni{sub n}O{sub 3n+1} (n = 1, 2 and 3) have been epitaxially grown on SrTiO{sub 3} (0 0 1) or NdGaO{sub 3} (1 1 0) single crystal substrates using the pulsed laser deposition technique. X-ray diffraction analyses (θ/2θ, rocking curves, and φ-scans) and atomic force microscopy confirms the high-quality growth of the series of films with low surface roughness values (less than 1 nm). In particular, epitaxial growth of the higher order phases (n = 2 and 3) of lanthanum nickelate have been demonstrated for the first time.

  12. Why Popper can't resolve the debate over global warming: Problems with the uses of philosophy of science in the media and public framing of the science of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, David

    2018-02-01

    A notable feature in the public framing of debates involving the science of Anthropogenic Global Warming are appeals to uncritical 'positivist' images of the ideal scientific method. Versions of Sir Karl Popper's philosophy of falsification appear most frequently, featuring in many Web sites and broader media. This use of pop philosophy of science forms part of strategies used by critics, mainly from conservative political backgrounds, to manufacture doubt, by setting unrealistic standards for sound science, in the veracity of science of Anthropogenic Global Warming. It will be shown, nevertheless, that prominent supporters of Anthropogenic Global Warming science also often use similar references to Popper to support their claims. It will also be suggested that this pattern reflects longer traditions of the use of Popperian philosophy of science in controversial settings, particularly in the United States, where appeals to the authority of science to legitimize policy have been most common. It will be concluded that studies of the science of Anthropogenic Global Warming debate would benefit from taking greater interest in questions raised by un-reflexive and politically expedient public understanding(s) of the philosophy of science of both critics and supporters of the science of Anthropogenic Global Warming.

  13. Duhem como precursor de Popper, Kuhn e Lakatos sobre a metodologia da escolha racional de teorias: da dualidade à trialidade metodológica = Duhem as forerunner of Popper, Kuhn and Lakatos on the Theory of Rational Choice: from methodological duality to triality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiappin, José Raymundo Novaes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A tese é de que a concepção de Duhem da ciência antecipa, entre outros elementos, o modelo de escolha de teorias científicas associado com as concepções de Popper, Lakatos e Kuhn. No contexto do seu debate com Poincaré, Duhem propõe um modelo metodológico de escolha racional de teorias formado, também, de componentes extralógicos. O modelo substitui a metodologia bipartida, teoria e natureza, por uma tripartida, confrontação entre duas teorias e natureza. Tal metodologia verifica-se adequada para descrever o processo de escolha de teoria formado das etapas da refutação e rejeição. Ambas as propostas revelam seu enfoque histórico-crítico cuja tese é a interdependência entre história e teoria da ciência. A interdependência configura-se num laboratório para a elaboração, a avaliação e teste das propostas metafísicas e metodológicas para a construção de uma teoria da ciência

  14. Fleet Battle Experiment Juliet Final Reconstruction and Analysis Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    8000 tons 145 Selected Vessel Statistics Joint Venture Sea SLICE Ship particulars Wave Piercing Catamaran ( CAT ) Small Waterplane Area Twin Hull (SWATH...and broadcasting capabilities. NSWC Corona used a built-in function within GCCS-M to broadcast all OTH Gold Contact (CTC) messages to a file. These...example would be the prohibition of e-mail from electronically accessing the e- 309 mail address book; thus denying many self-propagating viruses

  15. "Facebooked: Romeo and Juliet" as Educational Theatre: An Improbable Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdriluk, Helen

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses intersections of digital technology and Drama Education, with attention to an undergraduate playbuilding project focused on digital citizenship. It explores the challenges involved in structuring a technologically interactive presentation, as well as the positive impact of the piece achieved through the interplay of two…

  16. Theatre Review: Romeo and Juliet | van Schalkwyk | Shakespeare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shakespeare in Southern Africa. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 22 (2010) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. Sr3Fe5/4Mo3/4O6.9, an n = 2 Ruddlesen-Popper Phase: Synthesis and Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, L.; Lobanov, M.; Sehptyakov, D.; Croft, M.; Ramanujachary, K.; Lofland, S.; Stephens, P.; Her, J.; Van Tendeloo, G.

    2006-01-01

    In a systematic search for an oxygen-stoichiometric phase, Sr 3 (FeMo)O 7 , in a range of iron-to-molybdenum ratios greater than 1:1 that typically give phase mixtures, we have found an n = 2 Ruddlesden-Popper phase, Sr 3 Fe 5/4 Mo 3/4 O 6.9 , as supported by synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction (SPXD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HREM), and powder neutron diffraction (PND) results. By SPXD, this oxygen-deficient, B-site disordered, two-dimensional analogue of Sr2FeMoO6 adopts tetragonal I4/mmm symmetry (a = b = 3.92449(5) Angstroms; c = 20.3423(3) Angstroms) with vacancies at the O(1) oxygen site and with a composition that refines to a nominal stoichiometry Sr 3 Fe 5/4 Mo 3/4 O 6.9 . The two-phase SPXD refinement includes Sr 3 Fe 5/4 Mo 3/4 O 6.9 (95.7%) and a double-perovskite (DP) intergrowth, Sr 2 FeMoO 6 (4.3%), consistent with HREM studies in which DP intergrowths but no individual DP grains were found. The G-type antiferromagnetically (AFM)-ordered structure of the phase, with the magnetic cell a m = √2a ∼ 5.548 Angstroms, c m = c ∼ 20.35 Angstroms, derived from PND data, displays a saturated moment of 2.17(1) μ B at 9 K and an asynchronous decrease of the in-plane component of the Fe/Mo moment (μ xy ), with respect to the out-of-plane moment (μ z ) upon increasing temperature from 9 K up to the Neel temperature, TN ∼ 150 K. No structural transitions were observed over the entire temperature range studied: from 1.5 to 500 K. The temperature-dependent resistivity is consistent with Efros-Shklovskii variable-range hopping, applicable to two ranges of temperature (189 K RT ∼ 3 μ(Omega)·cm). A small negative magnetoresistance is observed (∼2.5%) at 5 T near the ordering temperature (∼150 K). The temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility shows an inflection between 125 and 150 K, consistent with the AFM ordering temperature (∼150 K) observed by PND. X-ray near-edge spectroscopy data are consistent with formal

  18. Crystal structure and high-temperature properties of the Ruddlesden–Popper phases Sr3−xYx(Fe1.25Ni0.75)O7−δ (0≤x≤0.75)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samain, Louise; Amshoff, Philipp; Biendicho, Jordi J.; Tietz, Frank; Mahmoud, Abdelfattah; Hermann, Raphaël P.; Istomin, Sergey Ya.; Grins, Jekabs; Svensson, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    Ruddlesden–Popper n=2 member phases Sr 3−x Y x Fe 1.25 Ni 0.75 O 7−δ , 0≤x≤0.75, have been investigated by X-ray and neutron powder diffraction, thermogravimetry and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Both samples as-prepared at 1300 °C under N 2 (g) flow and samples subsequently air-annealed at 900 °C were studied. The as-prepared x=0.75 phase is highly oxygen deficient with δ=1, the O1 atom site being vacant, and the Fe 3+ /Ni 2+ ions having a square pyramidal coordination. For as-prepared phases with lower x values, the Mössbauer spectral data are in good agreement with the presence of both 5- and 4-coordinated Fe 3+ ions, implying in addition a partial occupancy of the O3 atom sites that form the basal plane of the square pyramid. The air-annealed x=0.75 sample has a δ value of 0.61(1) and the structure has Fe/Ni ions in both square pyramids and octahedra. Mössbauer spectroscopy shows the phase to contain only Fe 3+ , implying that all Ni is present as Ni 3+ . Air-annealed phases with lower x values are found to contain both Fe 3+ and Fe 4+ . For both the as-prepared and the air-annealed samples, the Y 3+ cations are found to be mainly located in the perovskite block. The high-temperature thermal expansion of as-prepared and air-annealed x=0.75 phases were investigated by high-temperature X-ray diffraction and dilatometry and the linear thermal expansion coefficient determined to be 14.4 ppm K −1 . Electrical conductivity measurements showed that the air-annealed samples have higher conductivity than the as-prepared ones. - Highlights: • Ruddlesden–Popper, n=2, Sr 3−x Y x Fe 1.25 Ni 0.75 O 7−δ , 0≤x≤0.75, have been synthesised. • The crystal structures of the phases have been determined. • Sr 2.25 Y 0.75 Fe 1.25 Ni 0.75 O 6 , made in N 2 (g) has Fe 3+ /Ni 2+ in square pyramides. • Sr 2.25 Y 0.75 Fe 1.25 Ni 0.75 O 6.4 , made in air has Fe 3+ /Ni 3+ in square pyramides and octahedra. • Air annealed samples have higher electrical

  19. Synthesis and characterisation of the n = 2 Ruddlesden–Popper phases Ln{sub 2}Sr(Ba)Fe{sub 2}O{sub 7} (Ln = La, Nd, Eu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurusinghe, Nicola N.M. [School of Chemistry, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Figuera, Juand de la; Marco, José F. [Instituto de Quimica-Fisica “Rocasolano”, CSIC, Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Thomas, Michael F. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool. L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Berry, Frank J., E-mail: f.j.berry.1@bham.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Greaves, Colin [School of Chemistry, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Some Ruddlesden–Popper phases have been characterised. • Substitution on the A site influences cationic order. • The magnetic moment redirects with temperature - Abstract: A series of n = 2 Ruddlesden–Popper phases A{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7} of composition Ln{sub 2}Sr(Ba)Fe{sub 2}O{sub 7} (Ln = La, Nd, Eu) have been prepared. La{sub 2}SrFe{sub 2}O{sub 7} and La{sub 2}BaFe{sub 2}O{sub 7} crystallise in the tetragonal space group I4/mmm. The structures of Eu{sub 2}SrFe{sub 2}O{sub 7} and Nd{sub 2}SrFe{sub 2}O{sub 7} are best described in space group P4{sub 2}/mnm. Substitution on the A site with smaller lanthanide- and larger alkaline metal- ions leads to enhanced cationic order in these phases and reflects increasing differences in cationic radii. All the compounds are antiferromagnetically ordered between 298 and 2 K. In La{sub 2}SrFe{sub 2}O{sub 7} the magnetic moment lies along [1 1 0] at all temperatures between 298 and 2 K whereas in La{sub 2}BaFe{sub 2}O{sub 7} the magnetic moment at 298 K lies along the crystallographic x-axis but redirects from the [1 0 0] to the [1 1 0] direction between 210 and 190 K and is retained in this direction until 2 K. In Nd{sub 2}SrFe{sub 2}O{sub 7} the magnetic moment at 298 K lies along [1 1 0] but rotates from [1 1 0] to [0 0 1] between 17 and 9 K. A series of {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra recorded from La{sub 2}SrFe{sub 2}O{sub 7} between 290 and 600 K indicate a magnetic ordering temperature of T{sub N} ≥ 535 K.

  20. Novel protonated and hydrated n=1 Ruddlesden-Popper phases, HxNa1-xLaTiO4.yH2O, formed by ion-exchange/intercalation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Shunsuke; Matsuda, Motohide; Miyake, Michihiro

    2005-01-01

    New derivatives of layered perovskite compounds with H 3 O + ions, H + ions and water molecules in the interlayer, H x Na 1-x LaTiO 4 .yH 2 O, were successfully synthesized by an ion-exchange/intercalation reaction with dilute HCl solution, using an n=1 member of Ruddlesden-Popper phase, NaLaTiO 4 . Powder X-ray diffraction revealed that the layered structure changed from space group P4/nmm with a=3.776(1) and c=13.028(5)A to I4/mmm with a=3.7533(3) and c=28.103(4)A after the ion-exchange/intercalation reaction at pH 5. The change of space group indicates that the perovskite layers are transformed from staggered to an eclipsed configuration through the ion-exchange/intercalation reaction. Thermogravimetric analysis and high-temperature powder X-ray diffraction suggested the existence of the secondary hydrated phase by dehydrating H x Na 1-x LaTiO 4 .yH 2 O at 100 o C

  1. The Sr2.75Ce0.25Co2O7-δ oxide, n=2 member of the Ruddlesden-Popper series: Structural and magnetic evolution depending on oxygen stoichiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demont, A.; Hebert, S.; Pelloquin, D.; Maignan, A.

    2008-01-01

    The second member of the Ruddlesden-Popper series, n=2 in Sr n+1 Co n O 3n+1 , has been stabilized by substituting cerium for strontium leading to the pure compound Sr 2.75 Ce 0.25 Co 2 O 7-δ . The oxygen vacancies of this phase can be partially filled by a post-annealing oxidizing treatment with δ decreasing from 1.1 to 0.3 for the as-prepared and oxidized phases, respectively. As the samples are oxidized from δ∼1.1 to 0.3, the a and b unit cell parameters decrease from 3.836 to 3.815 A and from 20.453 to 20.047 A, respectively. Despite the average value of the cobalt valence state, V Co ∼+3.5, obtained in the oxidized Sr 2.75 Ce +4 0.25 Co 2 O 6.7 phase, a clear ferromagnetic state wit T C =175 K and M S =0.8 μB/Co is reached. - Graphical abstract: Temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility of as-prepared and PO 2 annealing Sr 2.75 Ce 0.25 Co 2 O 7-δ RP2-type structures

  2. Synthesis, crystal structure, and ionic conductivity of novel Ruddlesden-Popper related phases, Li4Sr3Nb5.77Fe0.23O19.77 and Li4Sr3Nb6O20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhuvanesh, N.S.P.; Crosnier-Lopez, M.P.; Bohnke, O.; Emery, J.; Fourquet, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have synthesized two new lithium-containing oxides which are related to Ruddlesden-Popper phases, Li 4 Sr 3 Nb 5.77 Fe 0.23 O 19.77 and Li 4 Sr 3 Nb 6 O 20 , with partial occupancy of the 12-coordinated sites by Sr, for the first time by direct solid-state reaction. While the single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction data indicate that these oxides crystallize in tetragonal cells (space group I4/mmm; a = 3.9585(2) angstrom, c = 25.915(3) angstrom and a = 3.953(2) angstrom, c = 26.041(5) angstrom for the respective oxides), the electron diffraction of some of the crystallites shows supercell reflections with a ∼ √2a p , c ∼ 25.9 angstrom, probably indicating a twisting of the NbO 6 octahedra in the ab-plane. Although, these oxides show no significant lithium ionic conduction at room temperature, they show distinct conductivity values at elevated temperatures

  3. Transforming n=1 members of the Ruddlesden-Popper phases to a n=3 member through metathesis: synthesis of a new layered perovskite, Ca2La2CuTi2O10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivakumar, T.; Lofland, S.E.; Ramanujachary, K.V.; Ramesha, K.; Subbanna, G.N.; Gopalakrishnan, J.

    2004-01-01

    We report the formation of a new n=3 Ruddlesden-Popper (R-P) layered perovskite oxide, Ca 2 La 2 CuTi 2 O 10 (I), in the metathesis reaction between NaLaTiO 4 and Ca 2 CuO 2 Cl 2 (n=1 R-P phases) at 700 deg. C in air. Rietveld refinement of powder XRD data shows that I is isostructural with Sr 4 Ti 3 O 10 (space group I4/mmm; a=3.8837(5), c=27.727(6) A), consisting of triple perovskite CuTi 2 O 10 sheets wherein Cu and Ti are ordered at the central and terminal octahedral sites, respectively. Magnetization data provide support for the presence of strong antiferromagnetically coupled CuO 2 sheets in the structure. I is metastable decomposing at higher temperatures (∼950 deg. C) to a mixture of perovskite-like CaLa 2 CuTi 2 O 9 and CaO. Interestingly, the reaction between NaLaTiO 4 and Sr 2 CuO 2 Cl 2 follows a different metathesis route, 2NaLaTiO 4 +Sr 2 CuO 2 Cl 2 →La 2 CuO 4 +2SrTiO 3 +2NaCl, revealing multiplicity of reaction pathways for solid-state metathesis reactions

  4. 略论波普尔和库恩科学哲学的影响%On the Impact of Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn's Philosophies of Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗力群

    2011-01-01

    本文考察了波普尔和库恩科学哲学在科学哲学界、科学界及人文社科界的影响。本文的情境分析根据波普尔和库恩作品的特点、社会联系、社会情境、个性因素来解释他们的影响。文章的考察实际上触及了思想史上的社会建构因素,而此因素应该广泛作用于各学科的历史。%This article examines the impact of Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn's philosophies of science in the communities of philosophy of science, natural sciences, and arts and social sciences. The situational analysis has recourse to the characteristics of their works, their social ties and personalities, and social context, to explain their influences. This paper actually catches hold of the social construction factor in the history of thought, which should widely act upon a variety of disciplines.

  5. Pursuing Reason with Critique --A Discussion on Karl Popper's Methodology of Scientific Discovery%在批判中追求理性——谈波普的科学发现方法论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨成光

    2012-01-01

    Karl Popper's methodology of scientific discovery is a school of philosophy of science based on the critique of logical positivism, and its core is conjectures and refutations. His "deductive method" and "four phase formula" of scientific discovery has some theoretical value, and his methodology of science plays positive role in the development of science. And of course, it has obvious deficiencies because of many limitations.%波普的科学发现方法论是在批判逻辑实证主义基础上建立起来的科学哲学流派之一,其核心是猜测与反驳。他提出的“演绎法”和科学发现的“四段图式”具有一定的理论价值,他的科学方法论在科学发展中有一定的积极作用,又因为种种局限又表现出明显的不足。

  6. The cation-deficient Ruddlesden-Popper oxysulfide Y2Ti2O5S2 as a layered sulfide: topotactic potassium intercalation to form KY2Ti2O5S2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutt, Oliver J; Hill, Timothy L; Gál, Zoltán A; Hayward, Michael A; Clarke, Simon J

    2003-12-01

    Potassium intercalation into the cation-deficient n = 2 Ruddlesden-Popper oxysulfide Y(2)Ti(2)O(5)S(2) to form KY(2)Ti(2)O(5)S(2) has been carried out by reaction of the oxysulfide with potassium vapor in sealed metal tubes at 400 degrees C, potassium naphthalide in THF at 50 degrees C, or potassium in liquid ammonia at temperatures as low as -78 degrees C. Insertion of potassium is topotactic, and although a site 12-coordinate by oxide ions is vacant in the perovskite-type oxide slabs of the structure, potassium is too large to enter this site via the 4-coordinate window, and instead enters the rock-salt-type sulfide layers of the structure which necessitates a 30% increase in the lattice parameter c normal to the layers. In contrast with one of the sodium intercalates of Y(2)Ti(2)O(5)S(2) (beta-NaY(2)Ti(2)O(5)S(2)) in which sodium occupies a tetrahedral site in the sulfide layers, potassium favors an 8-coordinate site which necessitates a relative translation of adjacent oxide slabs. KY(2)Ti(2)O(5)S(2) is tetragonal: P4/mmm, a = 3.71563(4) A, c = 14.8682(2) A (at 298 K), Z = 1. Although the resistivity (3.4(1) x 10(3) Omega cm) is larger than would be expected for a metal, temperature independent paramagnetism dominates the magnetic susceptibility, and the material is electronically very similar to the analogous sodium intercalate beta-NaY(2)Ti(2)O(5)S(2) which features reduced-titanium-containing oxide layers of very similar geometry and electron count.

  7. Effect of Ca substitution on the electrochemical properties of the Ruddlesden-Popper oxides Sr3.2-xCaxLn0.8Fe1.5Co1.5O10-δ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmasree, K. P.; Lai, Ke-Yu; Kaveevivitchai, Watchareeya; Manthiram, Arumugam

    2018-01-01

    The Ruddlesden-Popper (R-P) oxides Sr3.2-xCaxLn0.8Fe1.5Co1.5O10-δ with x = 0 and 0.4 and Ln = La, Pr, and Nd, have been synthesized and the effect of Ca on their electrochemical properties as cathodes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) has been investigated. The substitution of Ca for Sr in Sr3.2-xCaxLn0.8Fe1.5Co1.5O10-δ decreases the amount of oxygen loss on heating and the thermal expansion coefficient (TEC). The phase instability of these materials at high temperature is a significant issue that restricts their application as SOFC cathodes, and the substitution of Ca effectively stabilizes the Sr3.2-xCaxLn0.8Fe1.5Co1.5O10-δ phase at 800 °C. Among the different lanthanides with and without Ca in Sr3.2-xCaxLn0.8Fe1.5Co1.5O10-δ, the Ln = Nd samples exhibit an enhancement in cathode performance in SOFC compared to Ln = La and Pr samples, which may be attributed to the higher concentration of oxygen vacancies in the Ln = Nd samples. Comparing the various compositions studied, the Sr2.8Ca0.4Nd0.8Fe1.5Co1.5O10-δ cathode material exhibits superior performance in SOFC with good phase stability.

  8. The Earliest Transmission and Influence of Karl Popper' s Doctrine in China%波普尔学说在中国的早期传播与影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王公

    2016-01-01

    卡尔·波普尔(Karl R Popper)是20世纪著名的科学哲学家,其学说曾引起世界学术界轰动,对当代社会产生了重要影响.关于中国学界早期引介波普尔学说的科学思想史研究中,一直延续着大量的模糊说法,对于波普尔学说引介入中国的时间、路径、领域和影响等问题尚缺乏了解.查找到的文献证据表明:第一,在时间上,波普尔学说进入中国始于“文革”之前,而不是“文革”之后、改革之初;第二,在数量上,“文革”前至少有近20篇文章引介波普尔学说,并非“仅有几篇”;第三,波普尔哲学的核心内容“分界问题”和“证伪主义”早在1959年就被完整地介绍到中国;第四,波普尔学说最初进入中国学界的领域是历史哲学而不是西方哲学;第五,波普尔学说最初在中国是作为反马克思主义历史哲学的反面教材进行批判的对象.

  9. In situ X-ray and neutron diffraction of the Ruddlesden-Popper compounds (RE2-xSrx)0.98(Fe0.8Co0.2)1-yMgyO4-δ (RE=La, Pr): Structure and CO2 stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Hauback, B.C.; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structure of the Ruddlesden-Popper compounds (La 1.0Sr1.0)0.98Fe0.8Co 0.2O4-δ and (La1.2Sr0.8) 0.98(Fe0.8Co0.2)0.8Mg 0.2O4-δ was investigated at 1000 °C in N 2 (aO2=1×10-4) by in-situ powder neutron diffraction. In-situ powder X-ray diffraction (PXD) was also employed to investigate....... The equivalent pseudo-cubic thermal and chemical expansion coefficients are in agreement with values determined by dilatometry. The chemical stability in CO2 containing environments of various Ruddlesden-Popper compounds with chemical formula (RE2-xSr x)0.98(Fe0.8Co0.2) 1-yMgyO4-δ (RE=La, Pr), as well...

  10. 介于科学和哲学之间的科学哲学--基于对波普尔和费耶阿本德的思想比较%The Philosophy of Science between Science and Philosophy:Comparing the Thoughts of Popper and Feyerabend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛

    2015-01-01

    波普尔与费耶阿本德均是科学哲学的代表人物,但经过哲学社会学的考察发现,这两位学者均不是专业的科学家。波普尔在讨论科学划界时所关注的“科学”更接近于人文社会科学,他所坚持的“猜想与反驳”的严格演绎逻辑其实是“普遍怀疑”的变种,因此他更多是从哲学的角度来看待科学。波普尔的严格证伪主义是缺乏内容和历史性的,费耶阿本德则把波普尔的这种逻辑推向极致,得出了怎么都行的方法论。通过梳理发现,两者所持有的社会态度和政治立场对他们的思想都产生了根本性的影响。通过对两者思想的比较,可以发现科学哲学中所存在的科学倾向和哲学倾向,这种结论迫使科学哲学重新反思自身的适用范围、目的和意义。%Karl R. Popper and Paul Feyerabend are both important scholars in the history of philosophy of science. After the inspection of their knowledge backgrounds in the view of philosophical sociology, it is found that neither of them are professional scientists. The science that Popper concerns in the discussion of the demarcation of science is much similar to humanity and social science. Strict deductive logic of"conjecture and refutations"that he adhered to is actually a"general suspicion"variant, and therefore his idea is more of a philosophical perspective on science. Popper's falsificationism lacks rigorous content and historic;while Feyerabend put this logic to the extreme and obtained a"whatever"methodology. Discussion has found that both their social attitudes and political positions had a fundamental impact on their ideas. Comparison of their respective ideas has revealed that in the philosophy of science there are scientific and philosophic tendencies, which forces the philosophy of science to rethink its scope, purpose and meaning.

  11. Reversible tuning of a series of intergrowth phases of the Ruddlesden-Popper type SrO(SrTiO3)n in an (001) SrTiO3 single-crystalline plate by an external electric field and its potential use for adaptive X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, D.C.; Levin, A.A.; Leisegang, T.; Gutmann, E.; Paufler, P.; Reibold, M.; Pompe, W.

    2006-01-01

    Reversible structural changes of near-electrode regions of an (001) SrTiO 3 (STO) single-crystal plate with perovskite-type of structure in an external electric field are described as the tunable and reversible formation of a significant volume of domains containing Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases of composition SrO(SrTiO 3 ) n with variable n. Compositional changes are discussed to be caused by electromigration of ion complexes in the static electric field, i.e., by solid state electrolysis of the perovskite STO. Electromigration is initiated by the electric field which then stabilizes the RP domains formed. The RP domains can be described as coherently intergrown with the surrounding perovskite matrix. The X-ray scattering behaviour of these intergrowths, compared with the perovskite STO, suggests the technical use of the phenomenon for adaptive X-ray optics. (orig.)

  12. Translocations disrupting PHF21A in the Potocki-Shaffer-syndrome region are associated with intellectual disability and craniofacial anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Hyung-Goo; Kim, Hyun-Taek; Leach, Natalia T

    2012-01-01

    development, and suppression of the latter led to both craniofacial abnormalities and neuronal apoptosis. Along with lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), PHF21A, also known as BHC80, is a component of the BRAF-histone deacetylase complex that represses target-gene transcription. In lymphoblastoid cell lines...... from two translocation subjects in whom PHF21A was directly disrupted by the respective breakpoints, we observed derepression of the neuronal gene SCN3A and reduced LSD1 occupancy at the SCN3A promoter, supporting a direct functional consequence of PHF21A haploinsufficiency on transcriptional...

  13. Analytisch speculeren mag zelfs van Popper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, G. 't

    2003-01-01

    The gravitational force harbours a fundamental instability against collapse. In standard General Relativity without Quantum Mechanics, this implies the existence of black holes as natural, stable solutions of Einstein's equations. If one attempts to quantize the gravitational force, one should also

  14. Dynamics of snapping beams and jumping poppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A.; Moulton, D. E.; Vella, D.; Holmes, D. P.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the dynamic snapping instability of elastic beams and shells. Using the Kirchhoff rod and Föppl-von Kármán plate equations, we study the stability, deformation modes, and snap-through dynamics of an elastic arch with clamped boundaries and subject to a concentrated load. For parameters typical of everyday and technological applications of snapping, we show that the stretchability of the arch plays a critical role in determining not only the post-buckling mode of deformation but also the timescale of snapping and the frequency of the arch's vibrations about its final equilibrium state. We show that the growth rate of the snap-through instability and its subsequent ringing frequency can both be interpreted physically as the result of a sound wave in the material propagating over a distance comparable to the length of the arch. Finally, we extend our analysis of the ringing frequency of indented arches to understand the “pop” heard when everted shell structures snap-through to their stable state. Remarkably, we find that not only are the scaling laws for the ringing frequencies in these two scenarios identical but also the respective prefactors are numerically close; this allows us to develop a master curve for the frequency of ringing in snapping beams and shells.

  15. Poppers: more evidence of suppressed immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1999-08-20

    Evidence from studies in mice shows that exposure to isobutyl nitrite suppresses the immune system. This immune suppression allows for bacterial growth in the lungs and livers of infected mice and can inhibit the ability of mediastinal lymph nodes to respond to antigen-specific stimulation. The mechanism for immune suppression may be a reduction in CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations in the mediastinal lymph nodes following pulmonary infection with Listeria monocytogenes.

  16. Information Systems Foundations - Karl Popper's third world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig McDonald

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The various information professions have matured separately over the years, developing different bodies of theory and practice to meet their evolving purposes and needs. A problem arises however, when different information professions address the same knowledge domain and there is no explicit correspondence between the conceptual structures embedded independently in each. In this situation, a knowledge worker involved in the domain is faced with a range of possibly incompatible structures presented in different forms by a range of information professions. This is a common problem that is being exacerbated by the explosion in information production and the widening access to information distribution technology, notably the World Wide Web. Information Systems now need to combine the best of what the information professions in a domain have to offer the domain’s knowledge workers. This paper examines the problem by exploring one of the foundations of the information disciplines - Karl Popper’s 3 Worlds theory, applying it to a case study and suggesting that the Information Systems discipline alone has a sufficiently broad agenda to integrate the various Informatics themes needed to support today’s knowledge workers.

  17. Karl Popper and the English Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, Brian

    1974-01-01

    Analyzes the role of the English teacher in the open society, suggesting a need for greater awareness of wider issues which could inform debate about curriculum development and future patterns of education in a changing society. (RB)

  18. In situ X-ray and neutron diffraction of the Ruddlesden–Popper compounds (RE2−xSrx)0.98(Fe0.8Co0.2)1−yMgyO4−δ (RE=La, Pr): Structure and CO2 stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzichristodoulou, C.; Hauback, B.C.; Hendriksen, P.V.

    2013-01-01

    The crystal structure of the Ruddlesden–Popper compounds (La 1.0 Sr 1.0 ) 0.98 Fe 0.8 Co 0.2 O 4−δ and (La 1.2 Sr 0.8 ) 0.98 (Fe 0.8 Co 0.2 ) 0.8 Mg 0.2 O 4−δ was investigated at 1000 °C in N 2 (a O2 =1×10 −4 ) by in-situ powder neutron diffraction. In-situ powder X-ray diffraction (PXD) was also employed to investigate the temperature dependence of the lattice parameters of the compounds in air and the oxygen activity dependence of the lattice parameters at 800 °C and 1000 °C. The thermal and chemical expansion coefficients, determined along the two crystallographic directions of the tetragonal unit cell, are highly anisotropic. The equivalent pseudo-cubic thermal and chemical expansion coefficients are in agreement with values determined by dilatometry. The chemical stability in CO 2 containing environments of various Ruddlesden–Popper compounds with chemical formula (RE 2−x Sr x ) 0.98 (Fe 0.8 Co 0.2 ) 1−y Mg y O 4−δ (RE=La, Pr), as well as their stability limit in H 2 /H 2 O=4.5 were also determined by in-situ PXD for x=0.9, 1.0 and y=0, 0.2. - Graphical abstract: Influence of electronic configuration on bond length, lattice parameters and anisotropic thermal and chemical expansion. Highlights: ► The thermal and chemical expansion coefficients are largely anisotropic. ► The expansion of the perovskite layers is constrained along the a direction. ► The studied compositions show remarkable thermodynamic stability upon reduction. ► The thermal and chemical expansion coefficients are lower than related perovskites. ► The investigated materials decompose in CO 2 containing atmospheres

  19. Self-archiving of Our Own Articles: Romeo and Juliet Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Kachooei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ree access to the articles is becoming more popular since it gives thousands of researchers access to millions of publications resulting in higher visibility and receiving much more citations, which often times might be the ultimate goal. For this reason, authors may seek a way to make the papers easily accessible to other researchers via uploading the full text to their personal website and/or scientific social networks such as the ResearchGate, which is legally considered a personal website of the users (1. This looks simple and naïve, but on the other hand it seems to be in contrast to the policy of the subscription-based journals, which may violate the granted signed copyright to the publisher (2. There are two concerns with letting others access the article for free: 1 A friend or a colleague may request the paper and the author is going to send the article via email. 2 The author uploads the full text on to a personal or scientific website available to every researcher. Regarding the first issue, do not hesitate to do so. It is accepted ethically and legally to send a requested paper to a researcher who is asking for it. As far as there is no commercial advantage by having the paper, any scientific use is encouraged and permitted. The second concern is currently a hot topic. On the bright side, providing free access to every paper might endanger the monetary benefits of the publishers. However, on the flip side of the coin, publishers are also gaining greater income, although indirect but significant via receiving more visibility and subsequent citations to the exposed papers. Having said that, to create a balance between the appeals for free access while avoiding the breach to the copyright system, publishers have come up with new policies in this regards, which is different from the Copyright without violating the subscription-based journals. The publisher copyright policies for self-archiving is called SHERPA/RoMEO. Within this, the copyright agreement policies and the retained author rights are obviated. SHERPA established in the UK universities as the SHERPA project to support open access institutional repositories, which further grew and is now comprised of fairly all research institutions as the partners. SHERPA is involved in full or advisory partner of some projects including the SHERPA/RoMEO (3. Self-archiving permissions vary between publishers and journals. Details about publisher and journal can be found onhttp://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/(4. For most of the journals and publishers, Resaerchgate pages are linked to the correct publisher condition and can be seen by clicking ‘show self-archiving restrictions’. Permission is classified using colors: green means you can generally upload a full-text, blue or yellow means you should check your individual article conditions, and white means self-archiving is generally not permitted. It is the author’s responsibility to check for the RoMEO color and make sure he/she is not breaching the copyright conditions. However, do not forget that in case you are not permitted to post the full text to public, you are always allowed to send the article in a private message to another researcher or colleague.

  20. Self-archiving of Our Own Articles: Romeo and Juliet Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Kachooei

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ree access to the articles is becoming more popular since it gives thousands of researchers access to millions of publications resulting in higher visibility and receiving much more citations, which often times might be the ultimate goal. For this reason, authors may seek a way to make the papers easily accessible to other researchers via uploading the full text to their personal website and/or scientific social networks such as the ResearchGate, which is legally considered a personal website of the users (1. This looks simple and naïve, but on the other hand it seems to be in contrast to the policy of the subscription-based journals, which may violate the granted signed copyright to the publisher (2. There are two concerns with letting others access the article for free: 1 A friend or a colleague may request the paper and the author is going to send the article via email. 2 The author uploads the full text on to a personal or scientific website available to every researcher. Regarding the first issue, do not hesitate to do so. It is accepted ethically and legally to send a requested paper to a researcher who is asking for it. As far as there is no commercial advantage by having the paper, any scientific use is encouraged and permitted. The second concern is currently a hot topic. On the bright side, providing free access to every paper might endanger the monetary benefits of the publishers. However, on the flip side of the coin, publishers are also gaining greater income, although indirect but significant via receiving more visibility and subsequent citations to the exposed papers. Having said that, to create a balance between the appeals for free access while avoiding the breach to the copyright system, publishers have come up with new policies in this regards, which is different from the Copyright without violating the subscription-based journals. The publisher copyright policies for self-archiving is called SHERPA/RoMEO. Within this, the copyright agreement policies and the retained author rights are obviated. SHERPA established in the UK universities as the SHERPA project to support open access institutional repositories, which further grew and is now comprised of fairly all research institutions as the partners. SHERPA is involved in full or advisory partner of some projects including the SHERPA/RoMEO (3. Self-archiving permissions vary between publishers and journals. Details about publisher and journal can be found onhttp://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/(4. For most of the journals and publishers, Resaerchgate pages are linked to the correct publisher condition and can be seen by clicking ‘show self-archiving restrictions’. Permission is classified using colors: green means you can generally upload a full-text, blue or yellow means you should check your individual article conditions, and white means self-archiving is generally not permitted. It is the author’s responsibility to check for the RoMEO color and make sure he/she is not breaching the copyright conditions. However, do not forget that in case you are not permitted to post the full text to public, you are always allowed to send the article in a private message to another researcher or colleague.

  1. The Kama Sutra, Romeo and Juliet, and Mathematics: Studying Mathematics for Pleasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Janice

    2005-01-01

    The motivation of students is of great import to mathematics teachers. Such an abstract powerful language needs to be valued or students will not wish to study it. This article argues that mathematics may be better appreciated through the beauty of the language in which problems are written, respect for the cultures of others and through relevance…

  2. What Kinds of play is Romeo and Juliet ? | Jeffery | Shakespeare in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This story was well known in Shakespeare's day, and he uses it as cover for the third kind, which is covertly political, concerned with pressing issues arising from Tudor rule. With the passage of time awareness of the first and third kinds faded, so that the play has come to be understood simply as a wonderful sad love-story.

  3. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of La2−x(Sr0.5Ca0.5)1+xMn2O7 (x=0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) Ruddlesden–Popper manganites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, K.; Song, M.S.; Lee, J.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Double layer perovskite (Ruddlesden–Popper) manganites with the nominal composition of La 2−x (Sr 0.5 Ca 0.5 ) 1+x Mn 2 O 7 (x=0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) were synthesized via a solid state reaction route. X-ray and neutron diffraction were performed at room temperature and the crystal structure was refined using the Rietveld method based on the space group, I4/mmm. The temperature variation of the susceptibility revealed a spin glass transition at 28 K for x=0.6, a charge ordering transition at 245 K and a Neel transition at 170 K for x=1.0. - Highlights: • Lanthanum based double layered manganites were prepared by doping with the same amounts of Sr and Ca. • X-ray and neutron diffraction were performed and the crystal structure was refined using the Rietveld method. • Different magnetic transitions were observed depending upon the doping concentration. • Qualitative explanation for the various observed phenomena was given

  4. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of La{sub 2−x}(Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}){sub 1+x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7} (x=0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) Ruddlesden–Popper manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, K.; Song, M.S.; Lee, J.Y., E-mail: jylee@yu.ac.kr

    2014-05-01

    Double layer perovskite (Ruddlesden–Popper) manganites with the nominal composition of La{sub 2−x}(Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}){sub 1+x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7} (x=0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) were synthesized via a solid state reaction route. X-ray and neutron diffraction were performed at room temperature and the crystal structure was refined using the Rietveld method based on the space group, I4/mmm. The temperature variation of the susceptibility revealed a spin glass transition at 28 K for x=0.6, a charge ordering transition at 245 K and a Neel transition at 170 K for x=1.0. - Highlights: • Lanthanum based double layered manganites were prepared by doping with the same amounts of Sr and Ca. • X-ray and neutron diffraction were performed and the crystal structure was refined using the Rietveld method. • Different magnetic transitions were observed depending upon the doping concentration. • Qualitative explanation for the various observed phenomena was given.

  5. Crystal structure and high-temperature properties of the Ruddlesden–Popper phases Sr{sub 3−x}Y{sub x}(Fe{sub 1.25}Ni{sub 0.75})O{sub 7−δ} (0≤x≤0.75)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samain, Louise; Amshoff, Philipp [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Biendicho, Jordi J. [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); The ISIS Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Tietz, Frank [Institute of Energy and Climate Research, IEK-1, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Mahmoud, Abdelfattah [Jülich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS and Peter Grünberg Institut PGI, JARA-FIT, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Hermann, Raphaël P. [Jülich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS and Peter Grünberg Institut PGI, JARA-FIT, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Faculty of Science, University of Liège, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); Istomin, Sergey Ya. [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Grins, Jekabs [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Svensson, Gunnar, E-mail: gunnar.svensson@mmk.su.se [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-07-15

    Ruddlesden–Popper n=2 member phases Sr{sub 3−x}Y{sub x}Fe{sub 1.25}Ni{sub 0.75}O{sub 7−δ}, 0≤x≤0.75, have been investigated by X-ray and neutron powder diffraction, thermogravimetry and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Both samples as-prepared at 1300 °C under N{sub 2}(g) flow and samples subsequently air-annealed at 900 °C were studied. The as-prepared x=0.75 phase is highly oxygen deficient with δ=1, the O1 atom site being vacant, and the Fe{sup 3+}/Ni{sup 2+} ions having a square pyramidal coordination. For as-prepared phases with lower x values, the Mössbauer spectral data are in good agreement with the presence of both 5- and 4-coordinated Fe{sup 3+} ions, implying in addition a partial occupancy of the O3 atom sites that form the basal plane of the square pyramid. The air-annealed x=0.75 sample has a δ value of 0.61(1) and the structure has Fe/Ni ions in both square pyramids and octahedra. Mössbauer spectroscopy shows the phase to contain only Fe{sup 3+}, implying that all Ni is present as Ni{sup 3+}. Air-annealed phases with lower x values are found to contain both Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+}. For both the as-prepared and the air-annealed samples, the Y{sup 3+} cations are found to be mainly located in the perovskite block. The high-temperature thermal expansion of as-prepared and air-annealed x=0.75 phases were investigated by high-temperature X-ray diffraction and dilatometry and the linear thermal expansion coefficient determined to be 14.4 ppm K{sup −1}. Electrical conductivity measurements showed that the air-annealed samples have higher conductivity than the as-prepared ones. - Highlights: • Ruddlesden–Popper, n=2, Sr{sub 3−x}Y{sub x}Fe{sub 1.25}Ni{sub 0.75}O{sub 7−δ}, 0≤x≤0.75, have been synthesised. • The crystal structures of the phases have been determined. • Sr{sub 2.25}Y{sub 0.75}Fe{sub 1.25}Ni{sub 0.75}O{sub 6}, made in N{sub 2}(g) has Fe{sup 3+}/Ni{sup 2+} in square pyramides. • Sr{sub 2.25}Y{sub 0.75}Fe{sub 1.25}Ni

  6. A Comparison of the English and Vietnamese Translation of Romeo and Juliet in Terms of Rhythm and Speech Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Nhan V. Luong

    2015-01-01

    Translation is the bridge connecting languages, cultures, and people around the world throughout history, from past to present, in time and space. The quality of translation affects the closeness and tightness of those connections. A translation can cause misconceptions, contort tone, and misinterpret cultural references, while a translation can also bring a positive impression to foreign readers not only of the text, but also of the country, people, and culture of origin. In Translation Stud...

  7. Synthesis and characterization of Ruddlesden–Popper (RP) type ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Bendersky L A, Greenblatt M and Chen R 2003. J. Solid State Chem. 174 418. 3. Zhang Z, Greenblatt M and Goodenough J B 1994. J. Solid State Chem. 108 402. 4. Sreedhar K, McElfresh M, Perry D, Kim D, Metcalf. P and Honig J M 1994 J. Solid State Chem. 110. 208. 5. Rao C N R, Ganguly P, Singh K K and Mohan Ram.

  8. Leading School Improvement: Using Popper's Theory of Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitpin, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Leadership is a highly complex activity, as leaders respond to increasing diversity and external accountability. Additionally, there is increased recognition that leadership is deeply contextual, sensitive to macro-politics of systems and micro-politics of individual schools. In Ontario, Canada, the school improvement effort is focused on raising…

  9. Lógica y ética en Karl Popper

    OpenAIRE

    Artigas, M. (Mariano)

    2005-01-01

    Popper’s philosophy is usually interpreted as a fallibilist episte-mology that, when applied to the social theory, serves as the foun-dation of the open society. It is argued here that the reverse is also true, namely that Popper’s theory of knowledge has some ethical roots whose analysis provides us with a better understanding of Popper’s thought.

  10. Rethinking Critically Reflective Research Practice: Beyond Popper's Critical Rationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Werner

    2006-01-01

    We all know that ships are safest in the harbor; but alas, that is not what ships are built for. They are destined to leave the harbor and to confront the challenges that are waiting beyond the harbor mole. A similar challenge confronts the practice of research. Research at work cannot play it safe and stay in whatever theoretical and…

  11. Use of nitrite inhalants ("poppers") among American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Schlenger, William E; Ringwalt, Chris L

    2005-07-01

    We examined the patterns and correlates of nitrite inhalant use among adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Study data were drawn from the 2000 and 2001 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse. Logistic regression was used to identify the characteristics associated with nitrite inhalant use. Among adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, 1.5% reported any lifetime use of nitrite inhalants. The prevalence of lifetime nitrite inhalant use increased to 12% and 14% among adolescents who were dependent on alcohol and any drug in the past year, respectively. Many nitrite inhalant users used at least three other types of inhalants (68%) and also met the criteria for alcohol (33%) and drug (35%) abuse or dependence. Increased odds of nitrite inhalant use were associated with residing in nonmetropolitan areas, recent utilization of mental health services, delinquent behaviors, past year alcohol and drug abuse and dependence, and multi-drug use. Adolescents who had used nitrite inhalants at least once in their lifetime tend to engage in delinquent activities and report co-occurring multiple drug abuse and mental health problems in the past year.

  12. [Diuretics in heart failure and Karl Popper's turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cice, Gennaro

    2015-12-01

    Heart failure and renal failure often coexist in the same patient. This condition is commonly referred to as cardiorenal syndrome. When this occurs, patient survival worsens significantly with increasing degree of renal dysfunction. Management of this complex patient poses treatment challenges because of unstable hemodynamics (the problem is to reduce congestion without affecting organ perfusion) and very high mid-term in-hospital mortality. Congestion is a typical feature of this syndrome, and use of diuretics is mandatory. Loop diuretics should be administered first. However, poor attention to pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of loop diuretics may contribute to the development of diuretic resistance leading to iatrogenic hyponatremia. Accordingly, emphasis is given to the importance of sequential nephron blockade to reduce the number of non-responder patients to diuretics and to recognize a possible role for acquaretics.

  13. Karl Popper's Conception of Metaphysics and its Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Ribeiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2014v18n2p209 In this paper I intend to thoroughly analyse Karl Popper’s relation to metaphysics. I start with his first writings, where he states the differences between science, pseudoscience and metaphysics. I then describe how his thoughts on the subject evolved to culminate in his reflection on metaphysical research programmes and the need for a revival of natural philosophy. A major concern is Popper’s famous testability criterion to set apart science from non-science. I point at the problems of the conception of metaphysics as non-testable theories (which are similar to the problems of the conception of metaphysics as theories involving unobservables and, in order to avoid these problems, I propose to retain nothing but the traditional conception of metaphysics as the general theories about the nature of the world. This leads me to the conclusion that science is not only an empirical task but also, and in a very important sense, a speculative one.

  14. Learning according to Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Borja-Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The author presents in a short introduction the organization of this paper. Then he refers, in the first chapter, the popperian model of learning and its implications in the austrian philosopher's ideas about scientific evolution. Secondly, the author presents the kuhnian model with a special focus in the theories about paradigms and scientific evolution. Finally, there is a short chapter about the main similarities and differences between the two philosophers in these matters.

  15. How Oedipus falsifies Popper: psychoanalysis as a normative science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wax, M L

    1983-05-01

    The scientific status of psychoanalysis has been the subject of continual debate. Influential philosophers of science have challenged the form of its theories and the nature of the evidence offered on their behalf. Some have concluded that the theories are beyond testing--i.e., they can neither be confirmed nor refuted, and psychoanalysis is thus intrinsically unscientific, akin to pseudosciences such as astrology. From that body of criticism, I have chosen for examination and rebuttal the issue of falsifiability. I refute the charge that psychoanalysis is not scientific because its theories are not "falsifiable." On the contrary, I show that psychoanalysis contains theories which make strong and unequivocal statements that are subject to the test of possible falsification. This capacity has been concealed and the falsifiability criticism rendered plausible because of the normative judgments which are latent in discussions of human development and human society. In explicating these judgments, I will move from the philosophy of science to the anthropology and sociology of science (and of the professions). The normative character of psychoanalytic science reinforces the ethical code of the therapeutic profession, a combination which imposes a disciplinary rigidity of the theoretical system.

  16. Neyman

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, Constance

    1998-01-01

    This book is the result of a suggestion made to me by Erich Lehmann of the Department of Statistics of the University of California at Berkeley. Throughout the writing of it I have enjoyed his assistance and companion­ ship and that of his wife, Juliet Shaffer. In the beginning, writing about a man like Neyman, who was alive and still very active, I planned to limit myself to his recollections and records and to my personal observations of him during his eighty-fifth year. It soon became apparent, however, that I would need to supplement these with the recollections of his colleagues and former students. With his consent I consulted them. I am most grateful for the time and effort which so many people expended in talking and writing to me. I would like to mention especially the assistance I received from Lucien Le Cam and Elizabeth Scott and the very friendly cooperation of Egon S. Pearson. Without the latter's careful preservation of Neyman's early letters I would have found it impossible to write in any de...

  17. Statement Testimony of Mr. Alan R. Shaffer, Principal Deputy, Defense Research and Engineering Before the United States House of Representatives Committee on Armed Services, Subcommittee on Terrorism, Unconventional Threats and Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-20

    Advanced Composite Cargo Aircraft ( ACCA ) platform to assess and validate the structural behavior and cost impact of using large out-of-autoclave...capabilities to fight the current and future wars 3. Improving our acquisition capabilities and accountability . The Department of Defense S&T budget...In fact, the S&T program fared well in comparison to many other discretionary accounts . For instance, the RDT&E budget categories of Advanced

  18. The E-prints and The Popper: Falsifying Some Recent Cosmological Models with Pencil and Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandora, McCullen

    Various recent experiments indicate that the pace of our universe's present expansion is accelerating. This comes as a surprise, since this is not possible for normal matter obeying Einstein's equations of general relativity. Various mechanisms that alter the behavior of gravity on very large distance scales have since been proposed to explain this observation, to the point where new ideas appear in the literature faster than the old ones may be fully appraised. This dissertation aims to find new ways to test some of these proposed explanations, using a variety of methods. The first strategy is to look for signatures the models would imprint in arenas where the behavior of gravity is well understood. We use this to place strong constraints on nondynamical negative energy fields, as well as extra degrees of freedom that would be able to screen a large vacuum energy. We also develop ways to check the mathematical consistency of massive gravity theories, and rule out partially nonlinear massless theories.

  19. Dealing "Competently with the Serious Issues of the Day": How Dewey (and Popper) Failed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    In "Reconstruction in Philosophy," John Dewey issued an eloquent call for contemporary philosophy to become more relevant to the pressing problems facing society. Historically, the philosophy of a period had been appropriate to social conditions (indeed, this is why it had developed as a discipline), but despite the vast changes in the…

  20. The Development of Adult and Community Education Policy in New Zealand: Insights from Popper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the process by which all post-compulsory education in New Zealand has become integrated under one administrative structure, the Tertiary Education Commission (TEC), with the intention of developing a single coordinated system of tertiary education. In particular, adult and community education (ACE), the least formal and…

  1. 波普尔的社会哲学%On Karl Popper's social philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖辉亮

    2002-01-01

    在社会哲学方面,波普尔把他的科学方法应用于分析社会问题,指出了历史主义与乌托邦社会工程的内在联系,并加以批判,提出了零星社会工程,阐发了他的民主社会的重建原则,倡导一种自由的开放社会.

  2. Karl popper's architectural legacy : An intertextual reading of collage city (1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komez-Daglioglu, E.

    2016-01-01

    Colin Rowe and Fred Koetter's book Collage City has been one of the most inspiring works in the field of architecture with its elaborate and stimulating critique of Modernist and Post-war architecture and city planning. Published first as an article in 1975 and later as a book in 1978, Collage

  3. Karl Popper's Open Society%论波普尔的开放社会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾肃

    2002-01-01

    波普尔从批判理性主义和试错法出发,批评了乌托邦主义和完美主义的虚妄和危害,指出人们无法预测社会的长期发展规律,而应立足于逐步的社会改良工程.封闭社会是巫术的部落的禁忌的社会,而开放社会则是向批评和个人判断开放、提倡理性、反对盲从的社会.政治自由主义的一个基本原则不是奢望完美的好人统治,而是通过自由的批评限制政府权力,通过合理的权力制衡来防止坏人做坏事.

  4. What would Karl Popper say? Are current psychological theories of ADHD falsifiable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katherine A; Wiersema, Jan R; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2009-03-03

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common and highly heritable neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder. Here, we critically review four major psychological theories of ADHD - the Executive Dysfunction, the State Regulation, the Delay Aversion and the Dynamic Developmental - on their abilities to explain all the symptoms of ADHD, their testability and their openness to falsification. We conclude that theoreticians should focus, to a greater extent than currently practiced, on developing refutable theories of ADHD.

  5. What would Karl Popper say? Are current psychological theories of ADHD falsifiable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntsi Jonna

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a common and highly heritable neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder. Here, we critically review four major psychological theories of ADHD – the Executive Dysfunction, the State Regulation, the Delay Aversion and the Dynamic Developmental – on their abilities to explain all the symptoms of ADHD, their testability and their openness to falsification. We conclude that theoreticians should focus, to a greater extent than currently practiced, on developing refutable theories of ADHD.

  6. 波普历史哲学评析%Comment on Karl Popper's Historical Phylosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄开华; 周统权

    2001-01-01

    对波普历史观的代表作中的历史哲学进行了评价.简述了波普历史哲学的基本观点,即历史无规律、历史不可预测、责难整体主义、推崇"渐进社会工程”;剖析了波普的逻辑论证;从历史规律问题、整体主义问题及人的能动性问题等三个方面对波普的理论论述作了评析.总的看来,波普的历史哲学是错误的,但从反面也给我们某些启示.

  7. Speech on Antarctica of the Minister of Foreign Affairs Mr. Raúl Juliet Gómez in the Chilean Senate, in extraordinary session of January 21th, 1947

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Juliet Gómez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Al conmemorarse 70 años desde el establecimiento de la primera base chilena antártica, entonces llamada Base Soberanía, hoy Base Prat, ha parecido relevante publicar el texto de la exposición hecha ante el Senado el 21 de enero de 1947 por el entonces Canciller del gobierno del Presidente Gabriel González Videla. En ella se hace una revisión general tanto de los fundamentos de los derechos antárticos chilenos como de las actividades realizadas al respecto en aquellos años, entre otras, la expedición que establecería la citada base. En 1948, el Presidente González Videla sería el primer Jefe de Estado del mundo en llegar hasta la Antártica, visitaría la Base Soberanía e inauguraría una segunda estación chilena, la Base O’Higgins.

  8. Oxygen Evolution at Manganite Perovskite Ruddlesden-Popper Type Particles: Trends of Activity on Structure, Valence and Covalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Ebrahimizadeh Abrishami

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An improved understanding of the correlation between the electronic properties of Mn-O bonds, activity and stability of electro-catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER is of great importance for an improved catalyst design. Here, an in-depth study of the relation between lattice structure, electronic properties and catalyst performance of the perovskite Ca1−xPrxMnO3 and the first-order RP-system Ca2−xPrxMnO4 at doping levels of x = 0, 0.25 and 0.5 is presented. Lattice structure is determined by X-ray powder diffraction and Rietveld refinement. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of Mn-L and O-K edges gives access to Mn valence and covalency of the Mn-O bond. Oxygen evolution activity and stability is measured by rotating ring disc electrode studies. We demonstrate that the highest activity and stability coincidences for systems with a Mn-valence state of +3.7, though also requiring that the covalency of the Mn-O bond has a relative minimum. This observation points to an oxygen evolution mechanism with high redox activity of Mn. Covalency should be large enough for facile electron transfer from adsorbed oxygen species to the MnO6 network; however, it should not be hampered by oxidation of the lattice oxygen, which might cause a crossover to material degradation. Since valence and covalency changes are not entirely independent, the introduction of the energy position of the eg↑ pre-edge peak in the O-K spectra as a new descriptor for oxygen evolution is suggested, leading to a volcano-like representation of the OER activity.

  9. Rutile IrO2/TiO2 superlattices: A hyperconnected analog to the Ruddelsden-Popper structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Jason K.; Baek, David; Paik, Hanjong; Nair, Hari P.; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Schlom, Darrell G.; Shen, Kyle M.

    2018-05-01

    Dimensionality and connectivity among octahedra play important roles in determining the properties, electronic structure, and phase transitions of transition-metal oxides. Here we demonstrate the epitaxial growth of (110)-oriented alternating layers of IrO2 and TiO2, both of which have the rutile structure. These (IrO2)n/(TiO2)2 superlattices consist of IrO6 and TiO6 octahedra tiled in a hyperconnected, edge- and corner-sharing network. Despite the large lattice mismatch between constituent layers (Δ d∥=-2.1 % and Δ c =+6.6 % ), our reactive molecular-beam epitaxy-grown superlattices show high structural quality as determined by x-ray diffraction and sharp interfaces as observed by transmission electron microscopy. The large strain at the interface is accommodated by an ordered interfacial reconstruction. The superlattices show persistent metallicity down to n =3 atomic layers, and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements reveal quantized sub-bands with signatures of IrO2-IrO2 interlayer coupling.

  10. 论波普尔对马克思的批评%Karl Popper's Criticism on Karl Marx

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪琛

    2010-01-01

    英国现代哲学家卡尔·波普尔从批判理性主义角度,对马克思主义的理论与实践展开了令人耳目一新的分析与批判.他认为,马克思主义的理论贡献之一在于它的历史主义.但事实上,历史主义只是一种致力于对社会实践进行整体规划与长远安排的不可证伪的教条式科学.我们应该倡导一种“零星社会工程”理念,在“猜想—反驳”的基础上遵循社会演进的本来规律.不过,波普尔同时又区别了马克思主义与马克思本人的理论,并对后者表达了自己由衷的敬佩之情.在思想史的意义上,这是审慎的理性对“理性的自负”的一次胜出,富于积极的理论价值,值得我们加以关注.

  11. Comment on Karl Popper's Theory of Democracy%卡尔·波普尔民主理论述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢广宽

    2011-01-01

    波普尔不仅是著名的科学哲学家,也是一位具有广泛影响的政治哲学家。波普尔在他的民主理论中贯彻了批判理性主义和证伪主义思想,善于站在批判的立场从反面来思考问题,对民主问题提出了许多令人耳目一新的论述。他把政治学的基本问题由“谁应当统治”转换为如何“通过制度设计防止坏的或无能的统治者带来太多的伤害”,揭示了传统民主理论的悖论,提出民主的本质特征是能够不流血地实现政府更替,民主的价值主要体现在对自由的保护;在政治实践方面,波普尔认为英美的民主模式比西欧的比例代表制更为可取,两党制可能是最好的民主形式。

  12. Commentary on Karl Popper's historical epistemology%卡尔·波普尔历史认识论述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张白

    2009-01-01

    在历史认识论方面,波普尔解答了历史学的性质;提出了历史学的任务--解释和描述;指出了历史学的选择性和历史认识的相对性;阐述了历史的客观性和历史意义.波普尔的历史认识论内涵丰富,有不少有益的见解,也存在不足之处.

  13. GnRH Neurons on LSD: A Year of Rejecting Hypotheses That May Have Made Karl Popper Proud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moenter, Suzanne M

    2018-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are critical to many aspects of fertility regulation, from producing episodic release critical to both sexes, to providing a central signal to induce the ovulatory cascade in females. This year saw progress through the rejection, and occasional support, of hypotheses in understanding how GnRH neurons contribute to these processes. This brief review provides one laboratory's view of new insights into possible roles for these cells in development, adult reproductive function, and what may go wrong with GnRH neurons in some cases of infertility. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society.

  14. Exploration to Karl Popper's Historical Methodology%波普尔历史方法论探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宝祥; 张业兵

    2008-01-01

    一、证伪标准论证伪标准论是波普尔哲学逻辑的基础,也是其历史方法论的前提。波普尔的伪证理论是与他的"划界"理论密切联系的。波普尔所说的"划界"是指科学与非科学的划界。他说:"找到一个标准,使我们能够做到以实验科学为一方,以数学、逻辑、形而上学系统为另一方而区分开来。这个问题我称之为划界问题。"[1](p11)

  15. Exploring into Karl Popper's Historical Methodology%波普尔历史方法论探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宝祥

    2009-01-01

    英国著名的历史哲学家波普尔提出了证伪标准论,这一科学与非科学的划界标准,成为其历史方法论的哲学基石.由此延伸开来,波普尔以猜想-反驳法为历史研究方法,其具体表现是问题境况分析法,并与柯林武德的主观重演法进行了对比.波普尔还把"试错法"的自然科学方法运用于历史研究,产生了"零碎工程学"理论.关于历史因果关系问题,波普尔主张它由普遍规律和初始条件共同作出说明.

  16. Discussing the Karl Popper's Thought About Truth%波普尔真理思想探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭扬芳

    2004-01-01

    波普尔真理思想主要包括:1.坚持真理的客观性,强调真理不以人的主观意志为转移.2.不仅真理不可知,而且谈论真理也没有给予我们任何寻求真理的方法.3.其中最重要、最有价值的则是"逼真性"真理观.因此,在他看来,科学的任务是探索真理,但真理并不是科学的唯一目标.

  17. Electronic band structure and optical properties of Srn+1TinO3n+1 Ruddlesden-Popper homologous series

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Reshak, Ali H; Auluck, S.; Kityk, I.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 7 (2008), s. 5516-5520 ISSN 0021-4922 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : electronic structure * optical properties Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.309, year: 2008

  18. O True Apothecary: How Forensic Science Helps Solve a Classic Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper-Leatherman, Amanda S.; Miecznikowski, John R.

    2012-01-01

    As part of a university-wide project to explore Shakespeare's classic play, "Romeo and Juliet," from a variety of perspectives, an interdisciplinary talk was presented to the university community on the chemistry of the potions and poisons referenced in "Romeo and Juliet." To draw the multidisciplinary audience in and to teach…

  19. Abareshi Maryam Non-isothermal crystallization kinetics of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    A new sonochemical method for preparation of different morphologies of CuInS2 .... aluminium- and gallium- doped zinc oxide transparent conducting sol–gel thin films ... heterojunction for optoresponse applications. 1509. Dalagan Juliet Q.

  20. The healthy ancestor: embodied inequality and the revitalization of native Hawaiian health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McMullin, Juliet Marie

    2010-01-01

    ..." enjoyed by the "mainstream" population. Challenging this dominant approach to indigenous health, Juliet McMullin shows how it masks more fundamental inequalities that become literally embodied in Native Americans, shifting blame...

  1. The influence of peers and other significant persons on sexuality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use among young adults in northern Tanzania. Bernard Njau, Sabina Mtweve, Longin Barongo, Rachel Manongi, Juliet Chugulu, Marcelina Msuya, Stella Mwampeta, Bertha Kiwale, Joseph Lekule, Hector Jalipa ...

  2. 77 FR 61755 - Performance Review Board Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... JULIET COHEN GARY CONNOR SUZI COX VIRGINIA DANIEL KATHERINE DEL VECCHIO PAOLO DELPHIN-RITTMON MIRIAM DEVOSS ELIZABETH DICKINSON ELIZABETH ERNEY JOAN GABRIEL EDWARD GOLDHABER BEN GOTTLICH VICKI HENDERSON...

  3. An evidence-based approach to medication preparation for the surgical patient at risk for latex allergy: is it time to stop being stopper poppers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitz, James W; Bader, Stephen O

    2010-09-01

    The prevalence of latex allergy is increasing in surgical patient populations. Avoidance of exposure to the allergen is essential to minimizing perioperative complications in patients suspected to be at risk. Natural rubber latex has historically been ubiquitous in medical devices containing rubber. In 1998, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) began to require the labeling of medical devices made from natural rubber latex; since that time substantial progress has been made in identifying latex-free alternatives. However, the rubber stoppers commonly found in pharmaceutical vial closures are exempt from FDA labeling requirements. Examination of the clinical and basic science literature regarding pharmaceutical vial closures supports limiting the rubber stopper to a single needle puncture as a safer practice, with the caveat that no strategy exists for the complete elimination of risk as long as stoppers made from natural rubber latex are used in pharmaceutical vials intended for human use. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Pill-poppers and dopers: a comparison of non-medical prescription drug use and illicit/street drug use among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jason A; Arrastia, Meagan C

    2008-07-01

    Data from the 2001 College Alcohol Study, a national sample of U.S. college students, were used to conduct multinomial logistic regression analysis examining correlates of substance use. Students were divided into three groups based on their lifetime substance use: non-users, non-medical prescription drug use only, and illicit/street drug use only. The purpose of this analytic strategy was to examine the similarities/differences in the correlates of non-medical prescription drug use and illicit/street drug use. Findings indicate that race, age, G.P.A., sexual activity, health, binge drinking, marijuana use, social bonding and social learning measures are correlates of non-medical prescription drug use. Correlates of illicit/street drug use include gender, Hispanic ethnicity, sexual activity, binge drinking, marijuana use, social bonding and social learning measures. Finally, the focus of the paper is a comparison of students who report only non-medical prescription drug use to students who report only illicit/street drug use. Findings indicate that gender, race, marital status, sexual activity, marijuana use, and social bonding measures significantly distinguish illicit/street drug use from non-medical prescription drug use. Important implications, limitations, and future research needs were discussed.

  5. 评波普尔《历史主义的贫困》%On Karl Popper's The Poverty of Historicism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何兆武

    2011-01-01

    波普尔把历史主义严格地限定为历史决定论,而他本人是反对这种历史主义的.波普尔认为,历史是没有规律可循的,因而也是无法预言的,历史的解释不是科学,因为它是不可检验的,历史主义的错误就在于它把历史的解释误认为是科学.他力图把自然科学和社会人文打通,其方法论也被称为"证伪标准论".波普尔反历史主义的理论有很多疏漏和缺陷,其中主要论点虽大部分是可疑的,但其贡献在于提出了一个新问题和一种新的思想方法.

  6. On Karl Popper's social technology outlook%试论卡尔·波普尔的社会技术观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田鹏颖

    2005-01-01

    卡尔·波普尔不仅是一位科学(自然科学)哲学家,而且是一位社会科学(技术)哲学家.波普尔从"封闭社会"向"开放社会"转化视角提出"逐步的社会工程"理论;从社会科学"有限理性"视角提出"社会技术"范畴,并把"社会技术"视为"政治的科学基础";从社会本体的主体际性视角分析了"社会技术"(社会工程)与"物理技术"(物理工程)的关系.

  7. 波普尔量子力学的倾向性解释%Survey of Karl Popper's Propensity Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伟

    2007-01-01

    波普尔的量子力学的倾向性解释是波普尔对物理学哲学的重大贡献.首先介绍波普尔量子理论产生的依托哥本哈根学派对于量子理论的正统的解释,然后阐述波普尔是如何形成他对于量子理论的倾向性解释及波普尔理论受到的批判.

  8. Karl Popper's falsificationism technological alienation revelation%卡尔·波普尔的证伪主义对技术异化的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原亚纳

    2012-01-01

    卡尔·波普尔的技术观试图通过对问题否定式的思考,进而拿起证伪的工具进行反思和批判.卡尔·波普尔把科学技术发展看作一个永无止境、不断完善的过程,认为科学的发展是从大胆的怀疑开始,然后提出问题,通过证伪与反驳,不断革命,形成新的科学技术.科学技术的发展促使我们重新认识世界,推动社会发展.

  9. 卡尔·波普尔的反乌托邦思想批判%Critique on Karl Popper's Anti-utopian Thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈庆超

    2011-01-01

    进入20世纪以后,反乌托邦思想得到了极大的发展,卡尔·波普尔对乌托邦思想的批判尤其激烈.他认为:乌托邦工程的哲学基础和立足点是站不住脚的"本质主义",它蕴涵着通往极权主义的危险因素.卡尔·波普尔对乌托邦思想的批判存在诸多问题,他对乌托邦思想也存在一些误会.事实上,卡尔·波普尔仅仅是对极权主义进行批判而已,它并不能构成人们去反对乌托邦的充分理由.甚至,在他的思想里,依然存有着浓厚的乌托邦色彩.

  10. Methodology Analysis Relevant to Karl Popper's Anti-historical Determinism%对波普尔反历史决定论的方法论评析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢德友

    2010-01-01

    波普尔对各种历史决定论所做的批评,有着先在性的方法论因由.在波普尔看似严谨的论证过程中,仍然存在着诸多可被"证伪"之处.深入到波普尔论证的方法与过程之中,指出其存在的缺陷及其导致的反历史决定论观点,进而重申马克思主义历史决定论的科学性,是每个马克思主义研究者义不容辞的责任.

  11. 对波普尔反本质主义的方法论反思%Methodological Reflection on Karl Popper's Anti-Essentialism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎平

    2011-01-01

    本文从方法论角度,对波普尔的反本质主义进行了反思.首先介绍了渡普尔如何通过对本质主义的批判,进而把马克思等人的思想归为本质主义予以否定.其次,提出如何在理论上正确认识本质主义,分析了本质的词源和历史上探讨本质和本质主义的典型观点.最后,指出现实中如何正确判断本质主义.对柏拉图、马克思等人在重要理论的建立中所用方法进行了分析,提出波普尔的不当之处和如何正确对待社会历史观的新看法.

  12. Analysis of the Theory of Karl Popper's Three Worlds%"三个世界"理论:波普尔的本体论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱高建

    2002-01-01

    关于"三个世界"的理论是西方当代著名哲学家--英国人卡尔·波普尔在本体论问题上的一个宣言.我们不仅要看到波普尔的"三个世界"理论在本体论方面的意义,而且应同时重视它在认识论方面的价值.我相信,从这个理论本身的矛盾和和局限性中,我们可以得到不少有益的启示.

  13. On Karl· Popper's Viewpoint of Opposing Historical Determinism%评卡尔·波普尔的反历史决定论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄世虎; 赵建梅

    2002-01-01

    在历史哲学中,卡尔·波普尔针对马克思的历史决定论提出了"反历史决定论"的观点.本文主要对波普尔反历史决定论中的历史规律虚无论和科技决定论两个主要观点加以批判,并进一步指出了其理论错误的根源之所在.

  14. 卡尔·波普尔的民主理论及当代启示%Karl Popper's Theory of Democracy and its Contemporary Revelation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖洪莉

    2007-01-01

    西方传统的民主理论把民主定义为大多数人或全体人民的统治.波普尔对此进行了否定,他强调民主是一种被统治者能够有效地控制统治者,从而防止滥用权力,以实现权力制衡的制度或程序.民主制度的真正重要可取之处不在于其政策比专制政体下的政策更完美无缺,而在于民主的方法,主要体现为能有效地牵制权力的制度、程序和技术.

  15. A Review of Karl Popper's Theory of Democracy%现代化背景下对中国文化转型的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温素丽

    2011-01-01

    中国要实现现代化,这就需要塑造具有现代意识的现代人。人的思想意识受到文化的影响,要实现中国文化的现代化,最根本的是必须将中国传统文化与西方文化有机融合。

  16. 波普哲学在中国的早期境遇%The Earliest Experience of Karl Popper's Philosophy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏宏晋

    2006-01-01

    在中国学界译介波普哲学的早期历史研究中,存在着大量流传甚广的史实错误和似是而非的说法.本文依据文献证据,发现:第一,波普哲学进入中国始于"文革"之前而不是"文革"之后;第二,波普哲学最初进入中国学界的领域是西方哲学而不是自然辩证法;第三,波普哲学最初在中国被错归入了逻辑实证主义而非批判理性主义;第四,在中国出版的第一部有波普署名的著作并不是其科学方法论著作,而是他与马库塞合著的;第五,波普思想进入中国的进程是从政治哲学到科学哲学而不是相反.

  17. Comments on Karl Popper's viewpoint of Anti- Historical Determinism%评卡尔·波普尔的反历史决定论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄世虎; 赵建梅

    2001-01-01

    在历史哲学中,卡尔·波普尔针对马克思的历史决定论提出了"反历史决定论"的观点.波普尔认为,社会历史不存在客观发展规律.波普尔试图从自然过程和历史过程的差异性,社会现象非重复性、人为性特点入手来否定社会历史规律的存在,这是片面地、机械地来理解规律性.波普尔把科学知识视为历史进程的决定因素,颠倒了社会实践与科学知识的关系.波普尔的历史规律虚无论和科技决定论的错误根源在于它是唯心主义的认识论.

  18. Karl Raimund Popper's "Open Society" Theory%卡尔·波普尔的"开放社会"思想述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴翔

    2006-01-01

    卡尔·波普尔力主人类应当从批判理性的角度建立一个民主、自由的"开放社会".在这样的社会中,人们通过制定和执行一系列制度来阻止极权及其不良后果的出现.

  19. Evolutionism and the Philosophy System of Karl Popper%卡尔·波普尔与生物进化论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋功成

    2003-01-01

    与其它自然科学理论相比较,生物进化论在卡尔 * 波普尔哲学体系中占据着特别重要的位置.波普尔既继承了达尔文进化论的基本观念,又试图通过把进化引入人类认知领域来进一步发展它.波普尔总是试图对进化论的性质作出特定的解释和评价,不同时期他的解释策略是不同的,这些解释总是引起人们在生物学哲学研究中的广泛争论,这种现象的存在足以说明波普尔进化论思想在当代哲学认知中的重要性.

  20. "Refsdal" Meets Popper: Comparing Predictions of the Re-appearance of the Multiply Imaged Supernova Behind MACSJ1149.5+2223

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treu, T.; Brammer, G.; Diego, J. M.; Grillo, C.; Kelly, P. L.; Oguri, M.; Rodney, S. A.; Rosati, P.; Sharon, K.; Zitrin, A.; Balestra, I.; Bradač, M.; Broadhurst, T.; Caminha, G. B.; Halkola, A.; Hoag, A.; Ishigaki, M.; Johnson, T. L.; Karman, W.; Kawamata, R.; Mercurio, A.; Schmidt, K. B.; Strolger, L.-G.; Suyu, S. H.; Filippenko, A. V.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Patel, B.

    2016-01-01

    Supernova “Refsdal,” multiply imaged by cluster MACS1149.5+2223, represents a rare opportunity to make a true blind test of model predictions in extragalactic astronomy, on a timescale that is short compared to a human lifetime. In order to take advantage of this event, we produced seven gravitational lens models with five independent methods, based on Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Hubble Frontier Field images, along with extensive spectroscopic follow-up observations by HST, the Very Large and the Keck Telescopes. We compare the model predictions and show that they agree reasonably well with the measured time delays and magnification ratios between the known images, even though these quantities were not used as input. This agreement is encouraging, considering that the models only provide statistical uncertainties, and do not include additional sources of uncertainties such as structure along the line of sight, cosmology, and the mass sheet degeneracy. We then present the model predictions for the other appearances of supernova “Refsdal.” A future image will reach its peak in the first half of 2016, while another image appeared between 1994 and 2004. The past image would have been too faint to be detected in existing archival images. The future image should be approximately one-third as bright as the brightest known image (I.e., {H}{{AB}}≈ 25.7 mag at peak and {H}{{AB}}≈ 26.7 mag six months before peak), and thus detectable in single-orbit HST images. We will find out soon whether our predictions are correct.

  1. Hybrid improper ferroelectricity in Ruddlesden-Popper Ca{sub 3}(Ti,Mn){sub 2}O{sub 7} ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X. Q., E-mail: xqliu@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: xmchen59@zju.edu.cn; Wu, J. W.; Shi, X. X.; Zhao, H. J.; Zhou, H. Y.; Chen, X. M., E-mail: xqliu@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: xmchen59@zju.edu.cn [Laboratory of Dielectric Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Qiu, R. H.; Zhang, W. Q. [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2015-05-18

    The hybrid improper ferroelectricity (HIF) has been proposed as a promising way to create multiferroic materials with strong magnetoelectric coupling by the first-principle calculation, and the experimental evidences of HIF in Ruddlesden-Poper Ca{sub 3}(Ti{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 7} (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.15) ceramics have been shown in the present work. The room temperature ferroelectric hysteresis loops are observed in these ceramics, and a polar orthorhombic structure with two oxygen tilting modes has been confirmed by the X-ray powder diffraction. A first-order phase transition around 1100 K in Ca{sub 3}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} was evidenced, and the temperatures of phase transitions decrease linearly with increasing of the contents of Mn{sup 4+} ions. Based on the result of first-principle calculations, the polarization should be reversed by switching through the mediated Amam phase in Ca{sub 3}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} ceramics.

  2. 16 CFR 1507.2 - Prohibited chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... party poppers. (3) In those small items (such as ground spinners) wherein the total powder content does... permissible in caps and party poppers. (h) Picrates or picric acid. (i) Thiocyanates. (j) Titanium, except in...

  3. 心理学と科学方法論:ポパーと二人の心理学者(K.ビューラー.A.アドラー)

    OpenAIRE

    立花, 希一; TACHIBANA, Kiichi

    2012-01-01

    There were two psychologists, Karl Buhler and Alfred Adler, who had taught Popper. Popper rarely confessed his intellectual debt, but he exceptionally said that he owed to Karl Buhler. On the other hand, Popper condemned Adler's Individual Psychology as a pseudo-science. However, as we read Adler, we are surprised to find that Popper was greatly influenced by Adler in various points such as the logic of social situation, optimism, the regulative idea of the absolute truth, the view of science...

  4. Common agents used in parasuicide in Buffalo City

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-09-17

    Sep 17, 2009 ... Parasuicide is defined in the World Health Organization. (WHO)'s ... Shaffer4 reported that suicide attempts are more common ... the adolescent population. .... and maintenance care for patients with depression could be.

  5. Picture Memory Improves with Longer On Time and Off Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tversky, Barbara; Sherman, Tracy

    1975-01-01

    Both recognition and recall of pictures improve as picture presentation time increases and as time between picture increases. This experiment was compared with an earlier one by Shaffer and Shiffrin (1972). (Editor/RK)

  6. Isolation and characterization of microsatellites for jumbo squid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of California, 100 Shaffer Road, Santa Cruz, CA 95060, USA. 3National Marine Fisheries Service, .... British Columbia. PICES Press 13, 30–31. Dakin E. E. and Avise J. C. 2004 ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: 16p12.2 microdeletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorder Outreach March of Dimes: Chromosomal Conditions The Arc: for People with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Unique: ... BC, Shaffer LG, Graves TA, Wilson RK, Schwartz DC, Eichler EE. A large and complex structural polymorphism ...

  8. Eliminative Argumentation: A Basis for Arguing Confidence in System Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    why a system works (cf. Popper’s critical rationalism [ Popper 1963]). In short, with eliminative induction, we learn something concrete about why a...Cambridge University Press, 2008. [ Popper 1963] Popper , K. Conjectures and Refutations: The Growth of Scientific Knowledge. Routledge, 1963

  9. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Popper-Kuhn Debate on the Nature of Scientific Development. In 1965, three years after the publication of Kuhn's classic, The structure of scientific revolutions, Imre. Lakatos, a distinguished colleague of Karl Popper, organized a conference aimed at an exchange of ideas between Popper and Kuhn and their respective ...

  10. “Factors associated with medication adherence in school-aged children with asthma.” Amy H.Y. Chan, Alistair W. Stewart, Juliet M. Foster, Edwin A. Mitchell, Carlos A. Camargo Jr and Jeff Harrison. ERJ Open Research 2016; 2: 00087-2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Unfortunately, a production error in the above article meant that the incorrect shareline (short abstract was presented alongside the main text of this article. The article has been corrected and republished with the following short abstract:

  11. Quantum theory and the schism in physics from the postscript to the logic of scientific discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Popper, Karl Raimund

    1982-01-01

    Quantum Theory and the Schism in Physics is one of the three volumes of Karl Popper's Postscript to the Logic of scientific Discovery. The Postscript is the culmination of Popper's work in the philosophy of physics and a new famous attack on subjectivist approaches to philosophy of science.Quantum Theory and the Schism in Physics is the third volume of the Postscript. It may be read independently, but it also forms part of Popper's interconnected argument in the Postscript. It presents Popper's classic statement on quantum physics a

  12. Ln28Ti2O7 (Ln = La, Nd, Sm, Gd): a novel series of defective Ruddlesden–Popper phases formed by topotactic dehydration of HLnTiO4

    OpenAIRE

    Thangadurai, V; Subbanna, GN; Gopalakrishnan, J

    1998-01-01

    Topotactic dehydration of HLnTiO4 (Ln = La, Nd, Sm or Gd) around 480–500 °C yields a new series of metastable layered perovskite oxides, Ln28Ti2O7, that possess a defective Sr3Ti2O7 structure, where the cubooctahedral sites within the double-perovskite layers are most likely vacant.

  13. First-principles energy band calculation of Ruddlesden–Popper compound Sr{sub 3}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} using modified Becke–Johnson exchange potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamimura, Sunao, E-mail: kamimura-sunao@che.kyutech.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 1-1 Sensuicho, Tobata, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8550 (Japan); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 807-1 Shuku-machi, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga Kouen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 Japan (Japan); Obukuro, Yuki [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Agriculture and Engineering, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuenkibanadai-nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Matsushima, Shigenori, E-mail: smatsu@kct.ac.jp [Department of Creative Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu College, 5-20-1 Shii, Kokuraminami-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 802-0985 (Japan); Nakamura, Hiroyuki [Department of Creative Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu College, 5-20-1 Shii, Kokuraminami-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 802-0985 (Japan); Arai, Masao [Computational Materials Science Unit (CMSU), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Xu, Chao-Nan, E-mail: cn-xu@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 807-1 Shuku-machi, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga Kouen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 Japan (Japan); International Institute for Carbon Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    The electronic structure of Sr{sub 3}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} is evaluated by the scalar-relativistic full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW+lo) method using the modified Becke–Johnson potential (Tran–Blaha potential) combined with the local density approximation correlation (MBJ–LDA). The fundamental gap between the valence band (VB) and conduction band (CB) is estimated to be 3.96 eV, which is close to the experimental value. Sn 5s states and Sr 4d states are predominant in the lower and upper CB, respectively. On the other hand, the lower VB is mainly composed of Sn 5s, 5p, and O 2p states, while the upper VB mainly consists of O 2p states. These features of the DOS are well reflected by the optical transition between the upper VB and lower CB, as seen in the energy dependence of the dielectric function. Furthermore, the absorption coefficient estimated from the MBJ–LDA is similar to the experimental result. - Graphical abstract: Calculated energy band structure along the symmetry lines of the first BZ of Sr{sub 3}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} crystal obtained using the MBJ potential. - Highlights: • Electronic structure of Sr{sub 3}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} is calculated on the basis of MBJ–LDA method for the first time. • Band gap of Sr{sub 3}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} is determined accurately on the basis of MBJ–LDA method. • The experimental absorption spectrum of Sr{sub 3}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} produced by MBJ–LDA is more accurate than that obtained by GGA method.

  14. Magnetic properties of Ruddlesden-Popper phases Sr3 -xYx(Fe1.25Ni0.75) O7 -δ : A combined experimental and theoretical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Samara; Kontos, Sofia; Wardecki, Dariusz; Kvashnin, Yaroslav O.; Pereiro, Manuel; Panda, Swarup K.; Sanyal, Biplab; Eriksson, Olle; Grins, Jekabs; Svensson, Gunnar; Gunnarsson, Klas; Svedlindh, Peter

    2018-04-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the magnetic properties of Sr3 -xYx(Fe1.25Ni0.75) O7 -δ (0 ≤x ≤0.75 ). Experimentally, the magnetic properties are investigated using superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry and neutron powder diffraction (NPD). This is complemented by a theoretical study based on density functional theory as well as the Heisenberg exchange parameters. Experimental results show an increase in the Néel temperature (TN) with an increase of Y concentrations and O occupancy. The NPD data reveal that all samples are antiferromagnetically ordered at low temperatures, which has been confirmed by our theoretical simulations for the selected samples. Our first-principles calculations suggest that the three-dimensional magnetic order is stabilized due to finite interlayer exchange couplings. The latter give rise to finite interlayer spin-spin correlations, which disappear above TN.

  15. 卡尔·波普的科学哲学对进化生物学的影响%Evaluating Karl Popper's Philosophy of Science Influence on Evolutionary Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅静

    2002-01-01

    卡尔·波普是为数不多的对科学界有重大影响的科学哲学家之一.但是,他从早期到晚年的关于进化生物学的言论严重阻碍了进化生物学的发展,他把进化论作为一个形而上学的研究纲领导致了许多科学家对进化论的误解,他否认进化定律的存在从而否认了进化生物学的科学地位.同时,我们指出了他关于进化论的新见解并没有任何新意.

  16. 卡尔·波普尔的第三世界理论及现代意义%The Third World Theory of Karl Popper and Its Modern Sense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔诚亮

    2008-01-01

    卡尔·波普尔是现代西方最伟大的科学哲学家之一,他提出的第三世界理论在西方哲学界和科学界引起了强烈的反响.文章试图从第三世界理论的内涵、客观性、自主性、实在性等特征对其进行透视,从认识论、知识经济等方面揭示其理论创新和现实意义.

  17. 波普历史非决定论思想的证立逻辑及其批判%On the Logic of Argumentation and its Criticism of Karl Popper's Non-Historicism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵庆元; 姜惠莉

    2008-01-01

    波普以证伪主义科学知识增长模式为逻辑支柱的历史非决定论思想是现代西方历史哲学中独具特色的一支.通过对猜测-反驳方法极端否定证实的逻辑学分析和对科学知识内在规律的科学揭示,深刻地批判了波普的历史非决定论思想,说明了历史决定论的深刻基础只能是人们的"实际生活过程".

  18. On the Philosophical Meanings of "Virtual Technology"--Based on the Analysis of Karl. Poppers 'Theree Worlds Theory'%“虚拟技术”在“三个世界”中的位置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷

    2003-01-01

    本文总结和分析了几种对虚拟技术的主要定义,认为:卡尔@波普尔的"三个世界"理论,可以用来认识和把握技术的涵义,虚拟技术作为一种特殊的技术存在形态,其本身不是虚拟的,它是以网络技术、多媒体技术等具有物理实体的信息技术为物质基础,建构虚拟场域的技术中介手段.我们应该从多角度、全面地认识虚拟技术的哲学意蕴.

  19. The prejudice of "open society"--Comments on Karl Popper's Open Society%"开放社会"的偏见--卡尔·波普《开放社会及其敌人》评析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海平; 刘保春

    2002-01-01

    是当代西方哲学家卡尔·波普的政治哲学的主要代表作.它向人们展现了一幅"开放社会"的美好蓝图.然而,透过现象我们却发现,其中有许多歪曲和偏见,当然也有某些可取之处.

  20. Cause of the Effect Produced by Karl Popper's Historic Indeterminism%波普尔"历史非决定论"思想产生影响的原因探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易杰雄

    2008-01-01

    作为批判理性主义最著名的代表人物卡尔·波普尔,其一生主要的精力都放在批判马克思主义的唯物史观特别是他的历史决定论上.波普尔对马克思主义历史决定论的驳斥,即他的"历史非决定论"思想从总体上讲是站不住脚的.但他的这些错误思想在世界上却产生了广泛的影响,在人们中间得到了相当广泛的认同.究其原因,我认为这首先与国际共产主义运动的理论与实践本身存在严重问题有关;其次与他批判的特点有关--用貌似纯科学的方法作纯学术的批判;三是其批判锋芒所指虽然也包括马克思主义的唯物史观,但主要是指17-18世纪历史决定论,特别是指被教条化、庸俗化和曲解了的马克思主义的社会历史理论;更深层的原因是,马克思主义的历史决定论是在实践中运用辩证逻辑概括出来的,而波普尔的批判主要运用的是形式逻辑和自然科学的方法,这样的逻辑和方法是人们通常比较容易理解和接受的方法.

  1. Dualism of "Fact" and "Value" in Karl Popper's Critical Reason%波普尔的批判理性主义的"事实"与"价值"二元论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云鹏

    2005-01-01

    波普尔认为,以柏拉图、黑格尔、马克思为代表的历史决定论把"是"与"应当"混在一起,是事实与价值一元论,在理论方法上是错误的.波普尔本人主张事实与价值的二元论,认为无论历史还是外在自然都不能替我们决定什么、选择什么,道德决定不可能从社会事实或对这些事实的描述中推导出来,而是源于我们的自由选择.对"休谟问题"中的"事实"与"应当",马克思持一元论和二元论的辩证观点,由此坚持了历史决定论中的辩证法.

  2. On the academic innovation in the viewpoint of Karl Popper's critical idealism%波普尔批判理性主义视域中的学术创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐松林; 王静

    2007-01-01

    波普尔批判理性主义把理论系统的可证伪性作为科学与非科学的划界标准,主张科学知识依靠人的批判理性而发展,猜测和反驳成为学术的基本方法.其所具有的学术创新功能是:信奉怀疑与批判是研究过程的本质,消解迷信学术权威的教条主义,还原人人都是研究主体的学术生态环境;其所引发的学术价值取向是:实用与创新是学术的逻辑起点,学术自觉与学者自立是学术的基本人格,"批判问题"与"容忍错误"是学术的基本范式.

  3. Composition dependence of the lattice vibrations in Sr.sub.n+1./sub.Ti.sub.n./sub.O.sub.3n+1./sub. Ruddlesden-Popper homologous series

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kamba, Stanislav; Samoukhina, Polina; Kadlec, Filip; Pokorný, Jan; Petzelt, Jan; Reaney, I. M.; Wise, P. L.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 23, - (2003), s. 2639-2645 ISSN 0955-2219 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/01/0612; GA ČR GA203/99/0067 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : dielectric properties * perovskites * spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.248, year: 2003

  4. A System for Fast Navigation of Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    AD-A243 523 4, jj A System for Fast Navigation of Autonomous Vehicles Sanjiv Singh, Dai Feng, Paul Keller, Gary Shaffer, Wen Fan Shi, Dong Hun Shin...FUNDING NUMBERS A System for Fast Navigation of Autonomous Vehicles 6. AUTHOR(S) S. Singh, D. Feng, P. Keller, G. Shaffer, W.F. Shi, D.H. Shin, J. West...common in the control of autonomous vehicles to establish the necessary kinematic models but to ignore an explicit representation of the vehicle dynamics

  5. Footy, Gangs and Love: Using Auto-Ethnography to Problematise Practice on a Practicum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Roz

    2017-01-01

    This article was written as an auto ethnography, which allowed for a complex and personal exploration of professional standards, teachers' professional identities, neoliberal reforms, and approaches to literacy and creativity. This article reflects on a practicum which involved teaching Romeo and Juliet to two year nine classes at an all boys'…

  6. Metaphors as Second Labels: Difficult for Preschool Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Fernández, Paula; Grassmann, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the development of two cognitive abilities that are involved in metaphor comprehension: implicit analogical reasoning and assigning an unconventional label to a familiar entity (as in Romeo's "Juliet is the sun"). We presented 3- and 4-year-old children with literal object-requests in a pretense setting (e.g.,…

  7. Starting with Shakespeare: Successfully Introducing Shakespeare to Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Pauline; Daubert, Todd

    By immersing young learners in the life and times of Shakespeare and his characters, this book motivates students and helps them learn. It contains everything teachers need to introduce elementary students to four plays: "A Midsummer Night's Dream,""Macbeth,""Hamlet," and "Romeo and Juliet." For each play,…

  8. How the Fair Test Nearly Killed Enquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickels, Juliet

    2016-01-01

    In this article, Juliet Nickels explores the importance of content and exploration in a child- and enquiry-led curriculum. During British Science Week, Nickels runs science week at Coten End Primary School, culminating in an exhibition. Leading up to the school's science week in 2015, she ran staff meetings to clarify purpose and logistics, and…

  9. Introduction to Shakespeare: English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargraves, Richard

    The "Introduction to Shakespeare" course in the Quinmester Program involves the careful study of the tragedy "Romeo and Juliet" and the comedy "The Taming of the Shrew," emphasizing language, development of character and theme. The course also includes the study of biographical data relevant to the evolution of…

  10. Filtering Shakespeare Teaching through Curricular Commonplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Mary

    2012-01-01

    Schwab (1978) argued that curriculum emerged in the commonplaces of teacher, learner, subject matter and milieu. It was in these four frames that I narratively explored my own development as an English teacher and curriculum planner around Shakespeare's work, particularly "The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet." In this narrative, I relate four…

  11. Student Voices: How Has Performing Shakespeare Helped You Appreciate His Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almansouri, Orubba; Balian, Aram S.; Sawdy, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    In this article, three students share how performing in Shakespearean plays have helped them appreciate his work. Orubba Almansouri describes how acting out the play "Romeo and Juliet" allowed him to understand the whole story better. While rehearsing and performing "A Midsummer Night's Dream," Aram S. Balian became a true Shakespeare fan,…

  12. What's in a name? : Why these proteins are intrinsically disordered: Why these proteins are intrinsically disordered

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dunker, A Keith; Babu, M Madan; Barbar, Elisar; Blackledge, Martin; Bondos, Sarah E; Dosztányi, Zsuzsanna; Dyson, H Jane; Forman-Kay, Julie; Fuxreiter, Monika; Gsponer, Jörg; Han, Kyou-Hoon; Jones, David T; Longhi, Sonia; Metallo, Steven J; Nishikawa, Ken; Nussinov, Ruth; Obradovic, Zoran; Pappu, Rohit V; Rost, Burkhard; Selenko, Philipp; Subramaniam, Vinod; Sussman, Joel L; Tompa, Peter; Uversky, Vladimir N

    2013-01-01

    "What's in a name? That which we call a rose By any other name would smell as sweet." From "Romeo and Juliet", William Shakespeare (1594) This article opens a series of publications on disambiguation of the basic terms used in the field of intrinsically disordered proteins. We start from the

  13. Some Days Are Golden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lee Bolton

    1993-01-01

    Describes an approach to teaching William Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" utilizing a dramatic sequence of events and focusing on grudges and hatred. Outlines eight steps to be undertaken in presenting this dramatic work. Ends with workshop participant comments, all favorable. (HB)

  14. Single-cycle Optical Pulses and Isolated Attosecond Pulse Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    picosecond green light from a frequency-doubled hybrid cryogenic Yb:YAG laser system,” 36 UFO /HFSW 2009 (Arcachon, France, Aug. 31-Sept. 4, 2009...High Fields Short Wavelength,” ( UFO VII – HFSW XIII), Arcachon, France, August 31 – September 4, 2009 (invited). 25) Kyung-Han Hong, Juliet Gopinath

  15. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In his philosophical analysis of the nature of scientific knowledge Popper differentiated between scientific theories and metaphysical theories or research programmes in terms of their testability. Popper felt that only such theories could be legitimately termed scientific which could be tested and refuted by experience.

  16. Falsification and Demarcation in Astronomy and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovacool, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    This work inaugurates a critical inquiry into whether the ideas of Karl Popper, a philosopher of science, are used by astronomers and astrophysicists, a practicing community of scientists. It examines four basic components of Karl Popper's philosophy falsification, prohibition, simplicity, and risk taking and the extent that these themes become…

  17. The Precautionary Principle and statistical approaches to uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Niels; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2003-01-01

    Bayesian model averaging; Benchmark approach to safety standards in toxicology; dose-response relationship; environmental standards; exposure measurement uncertainty; Popper falsification......Bayesian model averaging; Benchmark approach to safety standards in toxicology; dose-response relationship; environmental standards; exposure measurement uncertainty; Popper falsification...

  18. The Precautionary Principle and Statistical Approaches to Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Niels; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2005-01-01

    Bayesian model averaging; Benchmark approach to safety standars in toxicology; dose-response relationships; environmental standards; exposure measurement uncertainty; Popper falsification......Bayesian model averaging; Benchmark approach to safety standars in toxicology; dose-response relationships; environmental standards; exposure measurement uncertainty; Popper falsification...

  19. Gluten-Free Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tofu and Shrimp Curry Irish Soda Bread Jalapeño Poppers Key Lime Pie Key Lime Pie Shooters Knorr’s ... Dill Dip Gruyere Crustinis Hot Chili Dip Jalapeño Poppers Knorr’s Vegetable Dip Lemon Dipping Sauce Meatballs for ...

  20. Information er sølv ..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren

    del 2: Træk af moderne naturvidenskabsteori med særlig vægt på forholdet mellem Popper og Kuhn......del 2: Træk af moderne naturvidenskabsteori med særlig vægt på forholdet mellem Popper og Kuhn...

  1. Analysis of a proposed crucial test of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collett, M.J.; Loudon, R.

    1987-01-01

    An experiment based on an extension of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen argument has been proposed by Popper as a crucial test of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. Here the authors show, by a slightly more complete version of Popper's analysis, although still at a relatively primitive level of sophistication, that the proposed experiment does not in fact provide such a test. (author)

  2. Discovery of Sound in the Sea 2015 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    Harvard University Medical School, and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution), and Arthur N. Popper (University of Maryland). MAI and GSO make all...on Aquatic Life (Arthur N. Popper and Anthony Hawkins, eds.). Springer, New York. Vigness-Raposa, K.J., Scowcroft, G., Knowlton, C., and Worcester

  3. Behavioural science in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, D R

    1979-10-01

    Dr Peter Sowerby has written an important criticism of Michael Balint's work based on his understanding of Karl Popper's writings. I dispute Sowerby's interpretation of Popper and disagree with his conclusions, which I suggest would lead general practice into a retreat. I believe Balint made a major contribution to general practice and has helped us towards practising whole-person medicine.

  4. Popperi ärkamine / Marju Lepajõe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepajõe, Marju, 1962-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Popper, Karl. Avatud ühiskond ja selle vaenlased. [I, Platoni lummus]. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2010 ; Popper, Karl. Avatud ühiskond ja selle vaenlased. II köide, Prohvetluse kõrgaeg: Hegel, Marx ja järellainetused. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2011

  5. Why Should One Want to Participate in a Religious Tradition?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarot, M.

    2003-01-01

    In this article, I apply the theory of tradition Karl Popper developed in an article on the rationalist tradition to Christianity. Popper helps us to distinguish between four functions of the Christian tradition. (1) The Christian tradition helps people to order their perceptions by suggesting

  6. Mendelian Genetics: Paradigm, Conjecture, or Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, V.; Brouwer, W.

    1984-01-01

    Applies Kuhn's model of the structure of scientific revolutions, Popper's hypothetic-deductive model of science, and Lakatos' methodology of competing research programs to a historical biological episode. Suggests using Kuhn's model (emphasizing the nonrational basis of science) and Popper's model (emphasizing the rational basis of science) in…

  7. 75 FR 39206 - Marine Mammals; File Nos. 87-1851 and 555-1870

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ..., Long Marine Laboratory, 100 Shaffer Road, Santa Cruz, CA, has applied for an amendment to Scientific... Landing Road, Moss Landing, CA, has applied for an amendment to Scientific Research Permit No. 555-1870-01.... 555-1870-01 authorizes research on the biology and ecology of harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) in...

  8. Integrating Game-Based Learning Initiative: Increasing the Usage of Game-Based Learning within K-12 Classrooms through Professional Learning Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, André R.; Mayben, Robert; Boman, Terri

    2016-01-01

    In the past 15 to 20 years there has been an increased interest in the use of games for learning. A considerable amount of work has already been done by educational researchers and theorists (Gee, Squire, Malone, Lepper, Shaffer, etc.) to identify and to operationalize the native affordances of games that make them good for learning. Unfortunately…

  9. University ESL Teachers' Socialization in School Workplace toward Teaching Culturally Diverse Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiang-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Employing interpretive theory, this study investigated 331 university ESL teachers' socialization in language programs for international students. Looking beyond teacher preparatory education, in-service teachers' workplace experiences are essential to study because experience is instrumental in the shaping of belief systems (Wu and Shaffer,…

  10. 11p Microdeletion including WT1 but not PAX6, presenting with cataract, mental retardation, genital abnormalities and seizures: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baekgaard Peter

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract WAGR syndrome (Wilms' tumor, aniridia, genitourinary abnormalities and mental retardation and Potocki-Shaffer syndrome are rare contiguous gene deletion syndromes caused by deletions of the 11p14-p12 chromosome region. We present a patient with mental retardation, unilateral cataract, bilateral ptosis, genital abnormalities, seizures and a dysmorphic face. Cytogenetic analysis showed a deletion on 11p that was further characterized using FISH and MLPA analyses. The deletion (11p13-p12 located in the area between the deletions associated with the WAGR and Potocki-Shaffer syndromes had a maximum size of 8.5 Mb and encompasses 44 genes. Deletion of WT1 explains the genital abnormalities observed. As PAX6 was intact the cataract observed cannot be explained by a deletion of this gene. Seizures have been described in Potocki-Shaffer syndrome while mental retardation has been described in both WAGR and Potocki-Shaffer syndrome. Characterization of this patient contributes further to elucidate the function of the genes in the 11p14-p12 chromosome region.

  11. The Behavior and Dissolution of Gas Bubble Clouds in an Ocean Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-08

    William T. Shaffer, Class of 1992 U. S. Naval Academy Annapolis, Maryland Dr. Mare~ti Crza Naval Architechture , Ocean, & Marine Engineering Acccepted for... ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md. U.S.N.A. - TSPR; 198 (1992) 9. SPONSORING

  12. The Efficacy of the Theory of Reasoned Action to Explain Gambling Behavior in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, Robert G.; Andrew, Damon P. S.; Mahony, Daniel F.

    2007-01-01

    Shaffer and Hall (1997) have estimated college student gambling to be three times as high as their adult counterparts. Despite a considerable amount of research on gambling, researchers have struggled to develop a universal theory that explains gambling behavior. This study explored the potential of Ajzen and Fishbein's (1980) Theory of Reasoned…

  13. Book Review: Flora of Tropical East Africa | Bytebier | Journal of East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flora of Tropical East Africa Edited by H.J. Beentje & S.A. Ghazanfar. Polygalaceae by J. Paiva. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK, 2007. ISBN- 978 1 84246 191 4 (softbound). 61 pages. Dryopteridaceae by J.P. Roux, M. Shaffer-Fehre & B. Verdcourt. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK, 2007.

  14. 11p Microdeletion including WT1 but not PAX6, presenting with cataract, mental retardation, genital abnormalities and seizures: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almind, Gitte J; Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen; Bangsgaard, Regitze

    2009-01-01

    , bilateral ptosis, genital abnormalities, seizures and a dysmorphic face. Cytogenetic analysis showed a deletion on 11p that was further characterized using FISH and MLPA analyses. The deletion (11p13-p12) located in the area between the deletions associated with the WAGR and Potocki-Shaffer syndromes had...

  15. Maculopathy due to drug inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio-Sánchez, V M; Gonzalez-Buendia, L; Marcos-Fernández, M

    2014-08-01

    A case of maculopathy due to "poppers" is described. Poppers is a drug composed of various forms of alkyl nitrite. A 39 year-old man, who had been using poppers for years, was seen in the clinic with phosphenes, reduced visual acuity and central scotoma. The SD-OCT in the right eye showed disruption at the level of the IS/OS junction line. The SD-OCT scan in the left eye showed an outer rectangular retinal hole and an outer retinal cyst. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. ¿Qué queda de la distinción entre contexto de descubrimiento y contexto de justificación?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rosa Pérez Ransanz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se destacan dos sentidos distintos de ‘descubrimiento’ en The Logic of Scientific Discovery (Popper 1959, con miras a reforzar la interpretación poco ortodoxa que hace Aliseda (2006 de la posición de Popper frente a la lógica del descubrimiento. A partir de dicha interpretación, Aliseda rastrea ciertos acuerdos básicos entre los modelos de Popper y H. Simon (1973, los cuales permiten mostrar el carácter artificial de la dicotomía descubrimiento-justificación.

  17. Keskendudes protsessile = Focus on Process

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2004-01-01

    1996. a. arhitektide Juliet Bidgoodi ja Liza Fiori ning kunstnik Katherine Clarke'i loodud Inglise arhitektuuribüroo muf tutvustus ja intervjuu Liza Fioriga. Naistest koosnev büroo tegeleb avaliku sfääriga. muf-i töödest tutvustatakse muuseumipaviljoni St Albansis, 1997. a. alguse saanud Londoni Southwarki tänava ümberkujundamise projekti, ruumiinstallatsiooni "Purity and Tolerance", 2003. a. alustatud Londoni Tilbury linnaosa pargi projekti. 4 ill

  18. From West to East: Romeo Must Die but Shakespeare is the Sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frenţiu Luminiţa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a mini survey of the hallmark English language motion pictures which are explicitly based on William Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet. The selection of the six films under investigation takes into account various criteria such as aspects of chronology, culture, impact or novelty of approach. The analysis is based on four categories: genre, auteurism (authorship, reception and verisimilitude.

  19. On Time-II: Newton's Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, C. K.

    1991-01-01

    A study of time in Newtonian physics is presented. Newton's laws of motion, falsifiability and physical theories, laws of motion and law of gravitation, and Laplace's demon are discussed. Short bibliographic sketches of Laplace and Karl Popper are included. (KR)

  20. 4 -C EMEDOLU-FT-4-2-2015-

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions. P age. 6 .... Chimakonam that, “A science which does not include the metaphysical in its map of .... In African magic, which Popper might classify as a pseudo-science,.

  1. Research Article Special Issue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-15

    May 15, 2016 ... on storytelling and using Philip Cam (1998) thinking stories books. Data were analyzed ... strong sense critical thinking for Paul related to each other. ..... Tools. Dillon Beach, CA: Foundation for Critical Thinking. [15]Popper, K.

  2. Evolutionary epistemology, rationality, and the sociology of knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Bartley, W W

    1993-01-01

    This collection of essays in support of the theory of evolutionary epistemology includes articles by Karl Popper, Peter Munz and Gerhard Vollmer. This volume attempts to show how an evolutionary and non-justificational approach affects the sociology of knowledge.

  3. 5-O T AFISI-IS AFRICAN SCIENCE A TRUE SCIENCE-FT- VOL 5 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    extinguishes the idea of a single self-consistent mode of rationality that could be universalized. .... verification principle to demarcate science from non-science. ... true scientific attitude, according to Popper, is witnessed in Newton's theory of.

  4. Popperian and Inductivist Views of Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Barry J.

    1977-01-01

    Illustrates that a view of the nature of science is dependent upon underlying assumptions concerning scientific proof. Compares the inductive view of science with the non-inductive viewpoint of Karl Popper. (CP)

  5. Social Models: Blueprints or Processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Graham R.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the nature and implications of two different models for societal planning: (1) the problem-solving process approach based on Karl Popper; and (2) the goal-setting "blueprint" approach based on Karl Marx. (DC)

  6. UJAH: Unizik Journal of Arts and Humanities - Vol 15, No 2 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Quest for a Sure Foundation of Cognitive Beliefs: Karl Popper's Fallibilist Critique of Rationalism and Empirisism · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. I Ndianefo ...

  7. Evolutionary Epistemology and the Educative Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkinson, Henry J.

    2003-01-01

    Uses Karl Popper's theory that knowledge is produced through continual trial conjectures and error elimination to argue that students are fallible creators of knowledge and that the primary role of the teacher is as a critic. (EV)

  8. A Fallibilistic Model for Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, A. J.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses models in inquiry and of instruction based on critical Fallibilistic philosophy, developed by Karl R. Popper, which holds that all knowledge grows by conjecture and refutation. Classroom applications of strategies which result from the model are presented. (JP)

  9. Adding Nonlinear Tools to the Strategist’s Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-06-01

    between interests. Idealists base their arguments on the pioneers like Hugo Grotius (1583-1645) and Immanuel Kant (1724-1804). The Idealist school based...12Blupete, [website]: available from http://www.blupete.com/Literature/ Biographies / Philosophy/Popper.htm; Internet. 13Glesne and Peshkin, 24. 39...www.blupete.com/Literature/ Biographies / Philosophy/Popper.htm. Internet. Dean Robbins, Brent. Mythos and Logos. Available from http://www.geocities.com/ Athens

  10. Zygmunta Spiry uwagi o metodologii K.R. Poppera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Polak

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an outline of the reception of Popper's thought in Poland in the period between two World Wars. The most important paper in this period is doubtlessly the one published by Zygmunt Spira entitled 'Remarks on Popper's methodology and epistemology'. Spira was a student of Z. Zawirski. He lived and worked in Cracow, and was killed during the Nazi occupation. His paper is by now forgotten. We critically present his main ideas, showing his innovatory style of thinking.

  11. Videnskabens ø

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren

    træk af moderne videnskabsteoris diskussion om forholdet mellem induktion, objektivitet og sandhed i naturvidenskaberne med særlig vægt på forholdet mellem Karl Poppers og Thomas Kuhns teorier......træk af moderne videnskabsteoris diskussion om forholdet mellem induktion, objektivitet og sandhed i naturvidenskaberne med særlig vægt på forholdet mellem Karl Poppers og Thomas Kuhns teorier...

  12. Videnskabens ø

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren

    træk af moderne videnskabsteoris diskussion af forholdet mellem induktion, objektivitet og sandhed i naturvidenskaberne med særlig vægt på forholdet mellem Karl Poppers og Thomas Kuhns teorier......træk af moderne videnskabsteoris diskussion af forholdet mellem induktion, objektivitet og sandhed i naturvidenskaberne med særlig vægt på forholdet mellem Karl Poppers og Thomas Kuhns teorier...

  13. Preparation and Electrocatalytic Activity of Gold Nanoparticles Immobilized on the Surface of 4-Mercaptobenzoyl-Functionalized Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    thiolate -Au bonds,30 and so GNP/MB-MWCNT hybrids were synthesized using a modified literature procedure.31 The SEM images show sequential...4 The electrocatalytic stability of GNP/MB-MWCNT supposes to be originated from the formation of stable thiolate -Au bonds that prevent aggregation of...Moon, K.-S.; Wong, C. P. Carbon 2007, 45, 655–661. (19) Sandler, J.; Shaffer, M. S. P.; Prasse, T.; Bauhofer, W.; Schulte, K.; Windle, A. H. Polymer

  14. Soldier Beliefs about the Readiness of Military Personnel with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-19

    Those who suffer an mTBI may experience neuropsychological difficulties following the injury lasting typically a few days to a few weeks (Hanna... Schizophrenia Bulletin. 30: 511-541. MacGregor, A. J., Shaffer, R. A., Dougherty, A. L., Galarneau, M. R., Raman, R., et al. 2010. Prevalence and...Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. 16: 705- 710. Mittal, D., Drummond, K. L., Blevins, D., Curran, G. C., Corrigan, P., and

  15. Commission on the National Guard and Reserves: Strengthening America’s Defenses in the New Security Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Guard would reduce its ability to respond effectively to state missions.10 Governor Ruth Ann Minner of Delaware testified before the Commission that the...2118 and 2216 Rayburn House Office Building, Washington DC June 15, 2006 9:00 a.m. • The Honorable Ruth Ann Minner, Governor of Delaware and Lead...2006 Arlington, VA Mr. Terrell Parker October 27, 2006 Arlington, VA Lieutenant Colonel Angel Perez October 27, 2006 Arlington, VA Ms. Sallie Shaffer

  16. Anterior Chamber Angle Measurements Using Schwalbe's Line with High Resolution Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Bing; Francis, Brian A.; Li, Yan; Tang, Maolong; Zhang, Xinbo; Jiang, Chunhui; Cleary, Catherine; Huang, David

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To use Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) to measure the angle opening distance at Schwalbe's line (AOD-SL) and determine its value in anterior chamber angle assessment. Methods Horizontal scans of the nasal and temporal anterior chamber angles in glaucoma subjects were performed by 830 nm wavelength Fourier-domain OCT. Images were graded by two ophthalmologists who assessed the visibility of Schwalbe’s line (SL), anterior limbus (AL), scleral spur (SS), and angle recess (AR). AOD-SL was measured with computer calipers. SL was manually identified by the termination of the corneal endothelium. Gonioscopy was used to classify anterior chamber angles according to a modified Shaffer system. Spearman's rho analysis was performed to assess correlation between AOD-SL and modified Shaffer grade. A cut-off value of AOD-SL for diagnosing occludable angles (modified Shaffer grade ≤1) was determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Results Thirty-five glaucoma subjects (65 eyes) were enrolled. SL, AL, AR, and SS were visible by OCT in 97.7%, 99.2%, 87.3%, and 80.8% of eyes, respectively. Nasal and temporal AOD-SLs were 322.6 ± 200.2 µm and 341.4 ± 197.4 µm, respectively. Correlation coefficients between AOD-SL and modified Shaffer grade were 0.80 (nasal) and 0.81 (temporal). The diagnostic cut-off value of AOD-SL for occludable angles was 290 µm. The areas under the ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity values were 0.90, 0.80, 0.87 (nasal) and 0.90, 0.85, 0.77 (temporal). Conclusions The measurement of AOD-SL by Fourier-domain OCT is highly correlated with gonioscopy and may be a useful noncontact method of assessing angle closure risk. PMID:22827999

  17. Mapping, Awareness, And Virtualization Network Administrator Training Tool Virtualization Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    bike rides. I learned so much from you all, and will miss each and every one of you. To Mr. John Gibson and Dr. Alan Shaffer: thank you for your...guidance, your long-leash approach to thesis advising, and for the laughs we shared during our meetings. I appreciate the enthusiasm you both had for the...Conclusion and Future Work. This chapter discusses the successes and limitations of the MAVNATT Virtualization Module’s prototype and identifies

  18. Nootropic dipeptide noopept enhances inhibitory synaptic transmission in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povarov, I S; Kondratenko, R V; Derevyagin, V I; Ostrovskaya, R U; Skrebitskii, V G

    2015-01-01

    Application of nootropic agent Noopept on hippocampal slices from Wistar rats enhanced the inhibitory component of total current induced by stimulation of Shaffer collaterals in CA1 pyramidal neurons, but did not affect the excitatory component. A direct correlation between the increase in the amplitude of inhibitory current and agent concentration was found. The substance did not affect the release of inhibitory transmitters from terminals in the pyramidal neurons, which indicated changes in GABAergic interneurons.

  19. Muusikauudiseid maailmast / Ia Remmel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remmel, Ia, 1965-

    2016-01-01

    Lühisõnumeid maailmast: New Yorgi Metropolitan Opera muusikajuhiks saab Yannick Nézet-Séguin. Santtu-Matias Rouvali Göteborgi sümfooniaorkestri peadirigendiks. Tšehhi pianist Lukáš Vondráček võitis kuninganna Elisabethi konkursi. Curtise muusikainstitutsioon sai kingituseks 55 miljonit dollarit. Uus klaverimudel opus 102. Sheku Kanneh-Mason pälvis BBC noore muusiku tiitli. Suri briti näitekirjanik Sir Peter Shaffer. Jne.

  20. Different Interfacial Behaviors of N- and C-Terminus Cysteine-Modified Cecropin P1 Chemically Immobilized onto Polymer Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    Anderson, G. P.; Ligler, F. S.; Shaffer, K. M.; Taitt, C. R. Antimicrobial peptides: New recognition molecules for detecting botulinum toxins ...as a biosensor for rapid detection of pathogens and toxins . Lab. Invest. 2007, 88 (2), 196−206. (20) Jonkheijm, P.; Weinrich, D.; Schröder, H...optics; Wiley-Interscience: New York, 1984; Vol. 575, p 1. (43) Shen, Y. R. Surface properties probed by second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation

  1. Influence of nickel doping on oxygen-ionic conductivity of the n = 1 Ruddlesden-Popper Phases La{sub 1.85}Ca{sub 0.15}(Cu{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x})O{sub 4−δ} (δ = 0.0905)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midouni, Adnene [Useful Materials Valorization Laboratory, National Centre of Research in Materials Science, Technologic Park of Borj Cedria, B.P. 73, 8027 Soliman (Tunisia); Université de Tunis El Manar, Campus Universitaire Farhat Hached, B.P. No 94- Rommana, 1068 Tunis (Tunisia); Houchati, Mohamed Ikbal, E-mail: ikb_med@yahoo.fr [Useful Materials Valorization Laboratory, National Centre of Research in Materials Science, Technologic Park of Borj Cedria, B.P. 73, 8027 Soliman (Tunisia); Unité de Recherche Catalyse et Matériaux pour l’Environnement et les Procédés URCMEP (UR11ES85), Faculté des Sciences de Gabès/Université de Gabès, Campus Universitaire Cité Erriadh, Gabès 6072 (Tunisia); Othman, Walid Belhaj [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie des Matériaux Minéraux et leurs Applications, CNRSM, Technopole de Borj Cedria, B.P. 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Chniba-Boudjada, Nassira [Laboratoire de Cristallographie, CNRS, 25 Avenue des Martyrs, BP 166, 3804 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Ceretti, Monica; Paulus, Werner [Institut de Chimie Moléculaire et des Matériaux – UMR 5253 – ICG C2M: Chimie et Cristallochimie des Matériaux, Université de Montpellier 2, Case courrier 01504 Place Eugène Bataillon, Bat 15, F-34095 Montpellier cedex 5 (France); and others

    2016-08-15

    The results of the synthesis and characterization of the optimally doped La{sub 1.85}Ca{sub 0.15}(Cu{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x})O{sub 4-δ} solid solution with x = 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 are reported. The versatility of these La{sub 1.85}Ca{sub 0.15}(Cu{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x})O{sub 4−δ} materials is explained on the basis of structural features and the ability to accommodate oxygen nonstoichiometry. According to powder X-ray and neutron diffraction data, La{sub 1.85}Ca{sub 0.15}(Cu{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x})O{sub 4−δ} adopts the tetragonal structure with oxygen vacancies occurring preferentially at the O{sub ap} sites within the {(La/Ca)O} layers of the perovskite blocks and the oxygen deviation from stoichiometry δ was found to be δ=0.0905(6). The bulk conductivity indicated an Arrhenius-type thermally activated process and oxygen vacancies are the possible ionic charge carriers at T=270 °C. An increase of the conductivity was detected when Ni was introduced. With nickel ratio variation, a strong correlation was observed between the Cu(Ni)-O{sub ap} apical bond length variation and the conductivity variation through controlling the O{sup 2−} ion migration. - Highlights: • We report the synthesis and structure of the La{sub 1.85}Ca{sub 0.15}(Cu{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x})O{sub 4−δ} (0≤x≤0.3; δ=0.0905) compounds. • La{sub 1.85}Ca{sub 0.15}(Cu{sub 1−x}Ni{sub x})O{sub 4−δ} (x=0.0, 0.2, 0.3) doped with Ni{sup 2+} have a higher conductivity than undoped La{sub 1.85}Ca{sub 0.15}CuO{sub 4−δ}. • At T=270 °C, sample x=0.3 has the highest conductivity (0.2915 sm{sup −1}).

  2. 艺术史与"情境分析"--波普尔的客观理解理论在艺术史研究中的意义%Art History and Situational Analysis:The Significance of Karl Popper's Theory of Objective Knowledge for the Study of Art History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高士明

    2001-01-01

    @@ 一 E·H·贡布里希在结束其的导论部分时,论及艺术欣赏中的一种"脑力短路"现象①,从而提示了面对一件往昔之作我们时常会陷入的那种矛盾境地:一方面,随着时间的流逝,随着艺术品原本历史关系的丧失,其本然涵义渐趋隐没,因而我们知之甚少;

  3. On Poverty of Poverty of Historicism Authored by Karl Popper ——Arguing in Favor of Marx's Historicism%论波普《历史决定论的贫困》之贫困——为马克思历史决定论辩护

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎庶乐; 杨述刚

    2010-01-01

    波普在一书中,着重批驳了马克思的历史决定论,认为马克思历史决定论存在着明显的"反自然主义"与"泛自然主义"的错误理论倾向.虽然这一批评建立在严密的逻辑论证之上,但波普本人对马克思历史决定论的认识极为肤浅,不仅没有认识到马克思哲学的辩证法精华,而且还将其与机械决定论等相混淆,如此一来,建立在这一"臆测"的混淆之上的批判理据也就显得极为匮乏,难以成为证伪马克思历史决定论的依据.波普本人对马克思历史决定论的精华(辩证法)的忽视,致使他把事物与事物间的关系完全隔离开来,丧失了领悟马克思哲学理论真谛的机会.

  4. Several Viewpoints on the Regular of Social History--Reflecting Karl Popper's The Poverty of Historicism%对社会历史规律的几点认识--反思波普的《历史主义贫困论》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭琰

    2002-01-01

    卡尔·波普的阐发了他的历史哲学思想,即对历史决定论展开了批驳,其观点对当时马克思主义唯物史观构成了最大的诘难.反思其思想,使我们认识到:(一)导致波普得出历史非决定论错误观点的制约因素;(二)把握它与马克思主义历史决定论的根本分歧之处.从而达到合理理解和认识社会历史规律的目的.

  5. Effect of Falsification on Traditional Formal Logic and Premised Knowledge--For Karl Popper's 100th Birthday%证伪主义对传统形式逻辑学前提性知识的影响--纪念卡尔·波普尔诞辰100周年

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李春泰

    2003-01-01

    传统形式逻辑的前提性知识曾被认为其真已由实践所证实,波普尔的分析显示,这种知识并不可靠,它不具有必然性;因此,依据证伪主义,我们必须不断地审视它.

  6. Reflection on the Laws of History --My comment on the censure of historical determinism from Karl Raimund Popper%重思历史规律——评卡尔·波普尔对历史决定论的诘难

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任洁

    2002-01-01

    20世纪以来,马克思主义的历史决定论受到以卡尔@波普尔为代表的西方哲学家的诘难.卡尔@波普尔以证伪主义为其方法论支撑,否认社会历史有规律可循,倡导自由意志论;否认人们进行历史预言的可能性,进而取消了理论历史学存在的理由.波普尔没有正确认识马克思主义的历史决定论是决定性与选择性、必然性与偶然性、可能性与现实性的辩证统一.

  7. On the Scientificity of History: A Comparative Study of Edward Carr and Karl Popper's Methodology in History Research%历史的科学性辨疑——爱德华·卡尔与卡尔·波普历史科学方法论比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李硕

    2014-01-01

    著名的历史学家爱德华·卡尔与哲学家卡尔·波普从不同的研究视角,对历史的科学性问题提出了极富创见性和启发性的理论思考.他们都认同历史学与自然科学在方法论的意义上存在同一性,但是在关于如何将科学研究方法中的“检验”与“预测”运用于历史学,即一方面如何通过证实或证伪对历史假设问题进行验证,另一方面如何通过经验获取可以作为对一般知识的预测,两人仍存在分歧.由于这一分歧,两人走向了相互背离的两种不同历史哲学.

  8. On Marxist Historical Determinism——Criticizing Karl Popper's The Poverty of Historicism%论马克思主义历史决定论——兼评卡尔·波普尔《历史决定论的贫困》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超

    2014-01-01

    马克思的历史决定论不同于以往的历史决定论,是建立在历史唯物主义和辩证法之上的历史决定论.它不是机械的,而是辩证的.它既承认历史发展的规律性,也承认人的主观能动性.我们要明确马克思主义历史决定论的本质内涵和主要特点,这对于我们正确认识和批判地看待各种历史非决定论,具有十分重要的意义.

  9. Entering into the World Ⅲ: Commemorating the 40th Anniversary of Karl Popper's Theory of World Ⅲ%走进世界3——纪念波普尔提出"世界3"理论40周年

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕乃基

    2007-01-01

    "世界3"是波普尔提出的重要理论.之所以至今未受到学界重视,主要原因在于传统哲学排斥,中国传统文化遗弃,后现代批判,新事物层出不穷,以及理论本身的不完善.马克思的"两条道路"理论由认识论揭示走进世界3的必要性,知识社会的到来在实际层面提示走进世界3的重要性.哲学由关注物质--世界1,转向主体--世界2,再到心物作用的产物--世界3,这是合乎逻辑的发展历程.本体论,将提供走进世界3的钥匙.仿照自然哲学,从本体论视角研究客观知识可以从知识的存在方式、知识的演化方式、知识与人和社会的关系等方面入手.

  10. New Explanation of A Teaching Case And Optimizing assessment in current new curriculum reform——Based on the Theory of Knowledge of R. G. Collingwood and Karl Popper%教学案例"新解"与"新课改"评估体系的改良——基于柯林武德、波普尔的知识论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志发

    2007-01-01

    本文从探讨新课改过程中出现的具体教学案例入手,在解读柯林武德、波普尔的知识论的基础上,提出了两类基本知识:第一类基本知识是"问题以及支持问题为真的理由"整个构成知识;第二类基本知识是"问题以及提出解决该问题的经过辩护的假设"整个构成知识.并将两类基本知识统一成"准"波普尔的知识概念:"知识是围绕问题提出的经过辩护的假设."通过准波普尔的知识概念对教学案例给出了新颖的解答,并指出了当前新课改过程中第一类基本知识评估的缺失,为如何改良作为评估载体之一的"成绩单"提供了理论依据.

  11. 卡尔·波普尔思想精华的解读--北京卡尔·波普尔百年学术研讨会会议综述%One Hundred Years Memorial Meeting of Karl Popper Held in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云

    2003-01-01

    @@ 2002年9月24日-25日,由中国自然辩证法研究会、山西大学、中英澳暑期哲学学院和乔治@索罗斯先生联合主办的"北京卡尔@波普尔百年学术研讨会"在北京大观园酒店隆重举行.

  12. 波普尔的试错渐进理论及其对解读马克思哲学的启示%Karl R ·Popper's Theory of Gradual Advance with Trying Mistakes and Its Enlightenedness to Marx's Philosophy Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆剑杰

    2006-01-01

    卡尔·波普尔的哲学以"否证论"为其整体标识和理论旗帜,从中引出他的"否证技术"即"试错渐进"的理论和方法.波普尔的此论以研究人的实际活动为要旨,其观点一元地贯彻在他的认识论、自然观和历史政治哲学之中.马克思的哲学也以此为要旨,但他的活动论却是实践论.应该以实践论为核心,一元地理解和阐释马克思的哲学.波普尔的试错渐进理论,揭示了人的认识的和社会的具体活动的机理,这对于理解马克思实践论中关于具体实践的原理,进而理解全部马克思哲学具有很大的启示价值;但这种试错渐进理论,不承认人类总体性实践及其规律,更看不到这些规律通过"实践标准"、"生产力标准"的检验作用制约着相对规律的形成和展开,这又是片面的.波普尔只承认"趋势"而不承认"规律",只承认"科学预测"而不承认"历史预见",这仍然是由于他不了解人类生活的实践本质,离开了马克思的实践论来"批判"马克思的历史观.

  13. Long-term nitrite inhalant exposure and cancer risk in MSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Anupriya; Uno, Hajime; Holman, Alex; Lorenz, David R.; Wolinsky, Steven M.; Gabuzda, Dana

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Nitrite inhalants (poppers) are commonly used recreational drugs among MSM and were previously associated with elevated rates of high-risk sexual behavior, HIV and human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8) seroconversion, and transient immunosuppressive effects in experimental models. Whether long-term popper use is associated with cancer risk among MSM in the HAART era is unclear. Design: Prospective cohort study of cancer risk in 3223 HIV-infected and uninfected MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study from 1996–2010. Methods: Poisson regression models were used to examine the association between heavy popper use (defined as daily or weekly use for at least 1 year) and risk of individual cancers or composite category of virus-associated cancers. Results: Among all participants, heavy popper use was not associated with increased risk of any individual cancers. Among HIV-uninfected men aged 50–70, heavy popper use was associated with increased risk of virus-associated cancer with causes linked to human papillomavirus, HHV-8, and Epstein–Barr virus in models adjusted for demographics, number of sexual partners, immunological parameters (CD4+ cell counts or CD4+/CD8+ ratios), and hepatitis B and C viruses [incidence rate ratio (IRR), 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.24, 1.05–9.96], or sexually transmitted infections (IRR 3.03, 95% CI, 1.01–9.09), as was cumulative use over a 5-year period (IRR 1.012, 95% CI 1.003–1.021; P = 0.007). There was no significant association between heavy popper use and virus-associated cancer in HIV-infected men. Conclusions: Long-term heavy popper use is associated with elevated risk of some virus-associated cancers with causes related to human papillomavirus, HHV-8, and Epstein–Barr virus infections in older HIV-uninfected MSM independent of sexual behavior and immunological parameters. PMID:28441176

  14. Should we assess climate model predictions in light of severe tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzav, Joel

    2011-06-01

    According to Austro-British philosopher Karl Popper, a system of theoretical claims is scientific only if it is methodologically falsifiable, i.e., only if systematic attempts to falsify or severely test the system are being carried out [Popper, 2005, pp. 20, 62]. He holds that a test of a theoretical system is severe if and only if it is a test of the applicability of the system to a case in which the system's failure is likely in light of background knowledge, i.e., in light of scientific assumptions other than those of the system being tested [Popper, 2002, p. 150]. Popper counts the 1919 tests of general relativity's then unlikely predictions of the deflection of light in the Sun's gravitational field as severe. An implication of Popper's above condition for being a scientific theoretical system is the injunction to assess theoretical systems in light of how well they have withstood severe testing. Applying this injunction to assessing the quality of climate model predictions (CMPs), including climate model projections, would involve assigning a quality to each CMP as a function of how well it has withstood severe tests allowed by its implications for past, present, and nearfuture climate or, alternatively, as a function of how well the models that generated the CMP have withstood severe tests of their suitability for generating the CMP.

  15. Community pharmacy-based case finding for COPD in urban and rural settings is feasible and effective

    OpenAIRE

    Fathima, Mariam; Saini, Bandana; Foster, Juliet M; Armour, Carol L

    2017-01-01

    Mariam Fathima,1 Bandana Saini,1,2 Juliet M Foster,1 Carol L Armour1,3 1Woolcock Institute of Medical Research, Sydney Medical School, 2Faculty of Pharmacy, The University of Sydney, 3Central Sydney Area Health Service, Sydney, NSW, Australia Background and objective: Case finding of patients at risk of COPD by community pharmacists could identify a substantial number of people with undiagnosed COPD, but little is known about the feasibility and effectiveness of pharmacy-based COPD case fin...

  16. TODAY WITH TROIKA; WHICH IS THE NATURAL ORDER OF THINGS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Correia de Sá

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Juliet, the main female figure of the Ordem Natural das Coisas, oscillates in two interpenetrated narrative movements: the extreme representation of a simulated existence and an ironic deployment of an author that sees the novel as a self-reflective puzzle. The cohesion between these two symbolic systems is given by setting the diegesis in a depressive universe, through a poetics of death and silence with unparalleled lyrical effects. In this essay we seek light in some of these cases, crossing them, in some way, with the state of siege experienced by portuguese society in 2013. 

  17. O racjonalną krytykę racjonalizmu krytycznego - teoria postępu naukowego w ujęciu Popperowskiego racjonalizmu krytycznego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisław Hanuszewicz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the position of David C. Stove who accuses Popper, Kuhn, Feyerabend and Lakatos of being irrationalists. We concentrate on the subject whether this accusation is correct as far as Popper is concerned. In Stove's opinion, putting some words - like 'knowledge', 'discovery' or 'solution of a problem' - into quotation marks is irrational because our knowledge constantly grows, and we know more and more. Stove's position should be qualified as a foundationalism. He refuses Popper's fallibilism and, for this reason, cannot accept the view that all our knowledge is tentative and hypothetical. From the critical rationalism point of view, although our knowledge progresses, we are not justified in believing that we possess safe foundations for our knowledge, just because there are no such foundations. This position justifies our putting some success-words into quotation marks. If we accept fallibilism, formulated within framework of critical rationalism, there are good reasons for the neutralization procedure.

  18. Field testing of behavioral barriers for cooling water intake structures -test site 1 - Pickering Nuclear Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patrick, P.H.; McKinley, R.S.; Micheletti, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    A multi-year research program was developed by the Electric Power Research Institute to evaluate the effectiveness of selected behavioral systems for fish exclusion at sites representative of different aquatic environments. The first test site was the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (NGS) located on Lake Ontario which represented the Great Lakes environment. A single pneumatic popper, a low frequency, high amplitude sound deterrent, was found to effectively exclude adult alewife, the principal species impinged at Pickering NGS. An air bubble curtain, used either alone or combined with strobe lights, was not a consistent deterrent. Effectiveness of air bubbles was only enhanced when used in association with a popper. Strobe lights were the least effective of the three devices tested. Operation of all three devices together did not surpass the effectiveness of the popper when used alone. Sound deterrents show promise for fish exclusion at generating stations located on the Great Lakes

  19. nomalous Interface and Surface Strontium Segregation in (La1-ySry)2CoO4 /La1-xSrxCoO3- Heterostructured Thin Films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Zhenxing [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Yacoby, Yuzhak [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Gadre, Milind [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Lee, Yueh-Lin [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Hong, W. [Harvard University; Zhou, Hua [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Biegalski, Michael D [ORNL; Christen, Hans M [ORNL; Adler, Stuart [University of Washington; Morgan, Dane [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Shao-Horn, Yang [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

    2014-01-01

    Heterostructured materials have shown unusual physiochemical properties at the interfaces such as two dimensional electron gas systems, high-temperature superconductivity, and enhanced catalysis. Here we report the first atomic-scale evidence of the microscopic structure of a perovskite/Ruddlesden-Popper heterostructure (having La1-xSrxCoO3- /(La1-ySry)2CoO4 ), and anomalous strontium segregation at the interface and in the Ruddlesden-Popper structure using direct X-ray methods combined with ab initio calculations. The remarkably enhanced activity of such heterostructured surfaces relative to bulk perovskite and Ruddlesden-Popper oxides previously shown for oxygen electrocatalysis at elevated temperatures can be attributed to reduced thermodynamic penalty of oxygen vacancies in the oxide structure associated with Sr segregation observed in the heterostructure. Our findings provide insights for the design of highly active catalysts for energy conversion and storage applications.

  20. Sobre o problema da demarcação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Barbosa de Oliveira

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde sua publicação, não têm faltado ataques ao critério da refutabilidade - a solução proposta por Popper para seu problema da demarcação. A crítica do presente artigo é mais fundamental: seu alvo é o próprio problema da demarcação. Como preliminar, mostra-se haver na obra de Popper não apenas um, mas dois problemas da demarcação, distintos e incompatíveis. Uma análise do antiessencialismo de Popper é o ponto de partida para a demonstração da tese central do artigo, a saber, a tese de que o problema da demarcação deve ser abandonado, por ser parte de uma abordagem cientificista da questão do valor das ciências.

  1. Lies, Damned Lies, and Statistics (in Geology)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeesch, Pieter

    2009-11-01

    According to Karl Popper's epistemology of critical rationalism, scientists should formulate falsifiable hypotheses rather than produce ad hoc answers to empirical observations. In other words, we should predict and test rather than merely explain [Popper, 1959]. Sometimes, statistical tests such as chi-square, t, or Kolmogorov-Smirnov are used to make deductions more “objective.” Such tests are used in a wide range of geological subdisciplines [see Reimann and Filzmoser, 2000; Anderson and Johnson, 1999; Lørup et al., 1998; Sircombe and Hazelton, 2004].

  2. Structural defects in multiferroic BiMnO3 studied by transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, H.; Chi, Z. H.; Yao, L. D.; Zhang, W.; Li, F. Y.; Jin, C. Q.; Yu, R. C.

    2006-01-01

    The multiferroic material BiMnO 3 synthesized under high pressure has been systematically studied by transmission electron microscopy and electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and some important structural defects are revealed in this multiferroic material. The frequently observed defects are characterized to be Σ3(111) twin boundaries, Ruddlesden-Popper [Acta Crystallogr. 11, 54 (1958)] antiphase boundaries, and a p p superdislocations connected with a small segment of Ruddlesden-Popper defect. These defects are present initially in the as-synthesized sample. In addition, we find that ordered voids (oxygen vacancies) are easily introduced into the multiferroic BiMnO 3 by electron-beam irradiation

  3. Of the crystal chemistry of Ruddlesden-Porter type structures in high Tc ceramic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, A.; Cormack, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on atomistic computer simulation employed to examine the energetics and crystal chemistry of some Ruddlesden-Popper type oxide superconductors. Similar structural patterns have been noticed in the superconducting oxides. The formation of Ruddlesden-Popper type layers (alternating slabs of rocksalt and perovskite structures) is similar in many respects to that seen in the system Sr-Ti-O. However, there are some significant differences, for example, the rocksalt and perovskite blocks in the new superconducting compounds are not necessarily electrically neutral unlike in the Sr-Ti-O system and this may well lead to significant differences in their structural chemistry

  4. Teoría de las restricciones: Una estructura conceptual para mejorar la práctica de la actividad gerencial

    OpenAIRE

    Hurtado Pimienta, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    Este trabajo se presenta con la intensión optar por el título de magister en filosofía. En él se analiza el concepto contemporáneo de la gerencia desde la perspectiva propia de la filosofía de la sociedad de Searle y Popper, y la perspectiva de la filosofía de la ciencia de Nagel y Popper. Como resultado se contraponen dos visiones diferentes de la gerencia, una que viene de Peter Drucker y otra que pretende solucionar los problemas de la primera: La Teoría de las Restricciones de El...

  5. Pearce element ratios: A paradigm for testing hypotheses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, J. K.; Nicholls, Jim; Stanley, Clifford R.; Pearce, T. H.

    Science moves forward with the development of new ideas that are encapsulated by hypotheses whose aim is to explain the structure of data sets or to expand existing theory. These hypotheses remain conjecture until they have been tested. In fact, Karl Popper advocated that a scientist's job does not finish with the creation of an idea but, rather, begins with the testing of the related hypotheses. In Popper's [1959] advocation it is implicit that there be tools with which we can test our hypotheses. Consequently, the development of rigorous tests for conceptual models plays a major role in maintaining the integrity of scientific endeavor [e.g., Greenwood, 1989].

  6. Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Technology to Study Vector-Pathogen-Host Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    OG, et al. (2009) Spatial evaluation and modeling of Dengue seroprevalence and vector density in Rio de Janeiro , Brazil. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3: e545. 38...haemorrhagic fever. Bull World Health Organ 44: 651–657. 34. De Benedictis J, Chow-Shaffer E, Costero A, Clark GG, Edman JD, et al. (2003) Identification of the...shaded area is the Nai Mueang Subdistrict, and the Ping River is depicted in light blue. Tropical Medicine and International Health volume 17 no 9 pp 1076

  7. European Science Notes. Volume 40, Number 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Mass Spectrometry mers and copolymers of polyacrylate salt series edited by Professor J.F.J. Todd latex) rather than an inorganic or or- (University...changes in the popu- cy with two potassium dihydrogen phos- lation of a vibrational manifold were phate (KDP) crystals. Following a fil- determined by...AD-A162 235 EUROPEAN SCIENCE NOTES VOLUME 48 NUMBER I(U) OFFICE OF i/1 NAVAL RESEARCH LONDON (ENGLAND) L E SHAFFER JAN 86 UNCLASSIFIED F/G 5/2

  8. Creencias, inseguridad subjetiva y percepción de contexto social

    OpenAIRE

    Muratori, Marcela; Zubieta, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Numerosos estudios han explorado la relación entre las creencias, el posicionamiento ideológico, la amenaza y la percepción de inseguridad (Amaya López, 2010; Cohrs, 2013; Norris & Reeves, 2013; Onraet, Dhont & Van Hiel, 2014; Shaffer & Duckitt, 2013). Di Tella y Schargrodsky (2009) plantean la importancia de estudiar el impacto del crimen sobre las creencias, dado que la victimización puede generar cambios en la mirada de las personas acerca de cómo funciona el mundo y esto puede causar dife...

  9. SHAKESPEARE AO QUADRADO NA WEBQUEST: UMA PROPOSTA DE REFLEXÃO A PARTIR DO GÊNERO HQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Espuri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma proposta didática para ensino de língua inglesa no Ensino Médio por meio de uma Webquest, elaborada em torno das inter-relações entre a peça Romeo and Juliet de Shakespeare e sua versão adaptada para gênero história em quadrinhos (SOUZA; SILVA, 1997.  Mais especificamente, essa proposta objetiva refletir sobre diferentes significados que subjazem a uma versão contemporânea adaptada para o gênero história em quadrinhos de Romeo and Juliet em comparação com outras adaptações da obra, que contam com diferentes contextos de produção e sistemas semióticos. As potencialidades apresentadas nesta proposta indicam que é possível propiciar novas possibilidades para o ensino de língua inglesa, de modo a contextualizá-lo a partir dos recursos oferecidos pelas TIC.

  10. Kill Shakespeare – This Bard contains graphic language!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Gentile

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Today, adapting Shakespearean plays into comic books or graphic novels appears to be a well-established literary practice in contemporary storytelling. One of the most interesting examples is ÒKill ShakespeareÓ, a graphic novel written by Anthony Del Col and Conor McCreery and illustrated by Andy Belanger. In ÒKill ShakespeareÓ, the authors abandon the idea of adapting a single play to create a Shakespearian mashup in which Hamlet and Juliet fight such villains as Richard III and Lady Macbeth who try to kill a wizard named William Shakespeare.This is the premise for a compelling narration that intertwines various elements of the Shakespearean tradition and attempts to convey an idea of Elizabethan language to contemporary readers. While the characters are familiar, the quest is wholly new and triggers a series of transformations in the narrative, turning upside down the well-established images of Hamlet, Juliet and Othello. Beside the intriguing depictions of the female characters, especially Lady Macbeth,whose image poses questions about the representation of women in comic books, one of the most fertile narrative elements in Kill Shakespeare is the actual presence of William Shakespeare as a character. In conclusion, Del Col and McCreery prove they know their Shakespeare, surprising readers with a fresh approach which, hopefully, will enlarge the Shakespearean audience.

  11. Shakespeare arean hypertexts in communist Bulgaria Shakespeare arean hypertexts in communist Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Shurbanov

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the first days of the reception of Shakespeare’s work in Bulgaria during the second half of the nineteenth century down to the present time two of his tragedies, Romeo and Juliet and Hamlet, have held an unrivalled sway on the national stage and over the people’s minds. Another one, Othello, was produced very frequently in the beginning, though often by non-Bulgarian troupes, and yet another, Macbeth, was a set text at the schools for many decades but rarely took the fancy of theatre directors and audiences. Since the first days of the reception of Shakespeare’s work in Bulgaria during the second half of the nineteenth century down to the present time two of his tragedies, Romeo and Juliet and Hamlet, have held an unrivalled sway on the national stage and over the people’s minds. Another one, Othello, was produced very frequently in the beginning, though often by non-Bulgarian troupes, and yet another, Macbeth, was a set text at the schools for many decades but rarely took the fancy of theatre directors and audiences.

  12. A Dialectic for Network Centric Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    scientific realism through Salmon (1966), Popper (1934) and Kuhn (1962) to the epistemological anarchism of Feyerabend (1975). In this paper, we use an...Factors Society. Feyerabend , P. (1975), Against Method, Verso, London. Fischer, K., Muller, J.P. and Pischel, M. (1996). Cooperative

  13. Enhancement of SOFC Cathode Electrochemical Performance Using Multi-Phase Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, Dane [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This work explored the use of oxide heterostructures for enhancing the catalytic and degradation properties of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathode electrodes. We focused on heterostructures of Ruddlesden-Popper and perovskite phases. Building on previous work showing enhancement of the Ruddlesden-Popper (La,Sr)2CoO4 / perovskite (La,Sr)CoO3 heterostructure compared to pure (La,Sr)CoO3 we explored the application of related heterostructures of Ruddlesden-Popper phases on perovskite (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3. Our approaches included thin-film electrodes, physical and electrochemical characterization, elementary reaction kinetics modeling, and ab initio simulations. We demonstrated that Sr segregation to surfaces is likely playing a critical role in the performance of (La,Sr)CoO3 and (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3 and that modification of this Sr segregation may be the mechanism by which Ruddlesden-Popper coatings enhance performances. We determined that (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3 could be enhanced in thin films by about 10× by forming a heterostructure simultaneously with (La,Sr)2CoO4 and (La,Sr)CoO3. We hope that future work will develop this heterostructure for use as a bulk porous electrode.

  14. Scientific method, analyzed by means of examples from weak interaction physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietschmann, H.

    1975-01-01

    Following K. POPPER, the logic of science is briefly reviewed. The decay of the long lived K meson into muon pairs is considered and limits for its branching ratio are computed. It is used - together with the discovery of weak neutral currents - to demonstrate the logic of scientific discovery on special examples. (Auth.)

  15. RESONANCE--INOVembe-r

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The refutations will help to modify the original conjecture and lead to a better approximation. Empirical tests are therefore used to weed out falsehoods (not prove truths!). In fact, Popper believed, the truth could never be conclusively achieved; only closer and closer approximations to the truth are realised. A single counter-.

  16. The Scientific Value of Cognitive Load Theory: A Research Agenda Based on the Structuralist View of Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerjets, Peter; Scheiter, Katharina; Cierniak, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, two methodological perspectives are used to elaborate on the value of cognitive load theory (CLT) as a scientific theory. According to the more traditional critical rationalism of Karl Popper, CLT cannot be considered a scientific theory because some of its fundamental assumptions cannot be tested empirically and are thus not…

  17. Kennis, geschiedenis, objectiviteit : een filosofische reflectie op enkele ontwikkelingen in de wetenschapstheorie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Jeroen Joseph Alphons

    1987-01-01

    According to Popper's hypothetico-deductive conception of science, scientific knowledge starts not from experience, nor from collecting 'facts', but from problems. The edifice of science is not erected upon a solid foundation or reliable facts; it is rather raised on piles above a swamp: we can only

  18. Kritisk-rationel pædagogik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydegaard, Torbjørn

    ’Kritisk-rationel pædagogik’ er baseret på Karl Poppers erkendelses- og dannelsesteoretiske tanker. Bogen bygger derfor i lige grad på den kritisk-rationelle metode og på Poppers arbejde imod de totalitære regimer og tendenser i de moderne og senmoderne samfund. Forudsætningen for ethvert...... pædagogisk arbejde med den lærendes erkendelse er den grundlæggende forståelse af læringens natur, det vil sige af hvordan læring foregår inde i hovedet på den lærende. Popper vover at sætte denne proces på formel! Sideløbende med det erkendelsesmæssige arbejde er der et dannelsesmæssigt perspektiv, der...... blandt andet afhænger af den måde undervisningen tilrettelægges på. I denne bog trækkes der især på Poppers arbejde med begreberne individualisme og altruisme som modvægt til den totalitære praksis i fascismen og socialismen. Det er praksisformer, der igen begynder at vise sig i et økonomisk svækket...

  19. Lidt om billeder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widell, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Artiklen kritiserer to af de mest udbredte billedteorier i dag, nemlig dels Ernst Hans Gombrichs Popper-inspirerede teori om billeder som gisninger, dels Nelson Goodmans teori om billeder som symboler (den semiotiske billedteori). Billeder er hverken gisninger eller symboler, og de refererer ikke...

  20. New Hypothesis for SOFC Ceramic Oxygen Electrode Mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg; Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Graves, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    A new hypothesis for the electrochemical reaction mechanism in solid oxide cell ceramic oxygen electrodes is proposed based on literature including our own results. The hypothesis postulates that the observed thin layers of SrO-La2O3 on top of ceramic perovskite and other Ruddlesden-Popper...

  1. Videnskabsteori - en grundbog til de pædagogiske fag

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Kirsten

    for at kunne genkende og diskutere variationer over disse problemstillinger i den aktuelle pædagogiske forsknings positioner. Bogen fremstiller dels den fænomenologisk/hermeneutiske versus den strukturalistiske tradition, dels Poppers kritiske rationalisme versus Kuhns paradigmetænkning. Endvidere vil...

  2. Myths and the evolution ot science | Otu | Sophia: An African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper used the hermeneutic and analytical methods to x-ray the views of Claude Levi-Straus, Karl Popper, including the extremely complex knowledge of astronomy of the Dogon people of Mali to arrive at the conclusion that myths remain pivotal categories for the development of science especially for developing ...

  3. Confucianism and Critical Rationalism: Friends or Foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chi-Ming

    2017-01-01

    According to Karl Popper's critical rationalism, criticism is the only way we have of systematically detecting and learning from our mistakes so as to get nearer to the truth. Meanwhile, it is arguable that the emphasis of Confucianism on creating a hierarchical and harmonious society can easily lead to submission rather than opposition, producing…

  4. Sobre nubes y relojes: aproximación al problema de la racionalidad y libertad del hombre* /About clouds and clocks: approach to the problem of rationality and human freedom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A. Restrepo-Ochoa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available La presente reseña tiene como propósito discutir el texto “Sobre Nubes y Relojes” de Karl Popper, en el cual el autor expone sus planteamientos en torno al problema del determinismo y el indeterminismo. En primer lugar, se presenta la discusión sobre el determinismo y el indeterminismo a partir de tres categorías de análisis: lo ontológico, lo metodológico y lo ético; seguidamente se analiza la propuesta evolucionista de Popper con relación al problema del determinismo y, finalmente, se plantean algunas consecuencias epistemológicas y éticas del determinismo en el campo de la salud This review discusses the text “On clouds and Clocks” by Karl Popper, in which the author presents his views on the issue of determinism and indeterminism. First, a discussion on determinism and indeterminism is presented from three analysis categories: ontological, methodological and ethical. Then, Popper's evolutionist approach regarding the issue of determinism is analyzed. Finally, some of the epistemological and ethical consequences of determinism on the field of health are presented.

  5. M G Narasimhan

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Volume 2 Issue 2 February 1997 pp 4-4 Article-in-a-Box. The Popper-Kuhn Debate on the Nature of Scientific Development · M G Narasimhan · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 16 Issue 6 June 2011 pp 529-539 General Article. Kosambi's Vision of Science - A Critical Appreciation · M G Narasimhan · More Details Fulltext ...

  6. Does the Truth Matter in Science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipton, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Is science in the truth business, discovering ever more about an independent and largely unobservable world? Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn, two of the most important figures in science studies in the 20th century, gave accounts of science that are in some tension with the truth view. Their central claims about science are considered here, along with…

  7. Liberalism, Radicalism, and Self-Governing Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Ronald

    1978-01-01

    Contrasts Karl Popper's theory of social reform with a Marxist theory of reform. Concludes that a liberal approach to educational reform, as exemplified by A.S. Neill's self-governing school at Summerhill, is generally more satisfactory. (Author/DB)

  8. Analogy and Intersubjectivity: Political Oratory, Scholarly Argument and Scientific Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Alan G.

    1983-01-01

    Focuses on the different ways political oratory, scholarly argument, and scientific reports use analogy. Specifically, analyzes intersubjective agreement in Franklin D. Roosevelt's First Inaugural address, the scholarly argument between Sir Karl Popper and Thomas S. Kuhn, and the scientific reports of various mathematicians and scientists. (PD)

  9. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | News

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 11. Issue front cover thumbnail Issue back cover thumbnail. Volume 1, Issue 11. November 1996, pages 1-98. pp 1-1 Editorial. Editorial · N Mukunda · More Details Fulltext PDF. pp 2-3 Article-in-a-Box. Karl Popper · G Prathap · More Details ...

  10. The Controlling Self and Self-Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, William C.

    1988-01-01

    A supplemental curriculum based on the philosophies of Karl Popper, John Eccles, and Jean Piaget in which the self is seen as actively constructing its own reality was developed. Examples of learning activities used with emotionally disturbed preadolescents and adolescents are offered as is information on goals/objectives, methodology, materials,…

  11. The (Even) Bolder Model: The Clinical Psychologist as Metaphysician-Scientist-Practitioner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donohue, William

    1989-01-01

    Examines the roles of metaphysics in science and psychotherapy. Examines the views of Karl Popper and Imre Lakatos. Concludes that psychotherapy involves metaphysics in the following ways: (1) problem choice; (2) research and therapy design; (3) observation statements; (4) resolving the Duhemian problem; and (5) including anomalous results in…

  12. Learning: An Evolutionary Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Joanna

    2009-01-01

    This paper draws on the philosophy of Karl Popper to present a descriptive evolutionary epistemology that offers philosophical solutions to the following related problems: "What happens when learning takes place?" and "What happens in human learning?" It provides a detailed analysis of how learning takes place without any direct transfer of…

  13. The Rhetoric of a Reform: The Construction of "Public", "Management" and the "New" in Norwegian Education Reforms of the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trippestad, Tom Are

    2011-01-01

    This article presents a critical rhetorical analysis of the governing and reform ideology of the Norwegian school system of the 1990s. It uses Karl Popper's "The Open Society and its Enemies" as a critical resource in the reading of the reforms, and discusses some of the consequences of the regime's models of leadership and public…

  14. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ndianefo, I. Vol 15, No 2 (2014) - Articles The Quest for a Sure Foundation of Cognitive Beliefs: Karl Popper's Fallibilist Critique of Rationalism and Empirisism Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1595-1413. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's ...

  15. The Role of Evaluation in Course and Curriculum Design. Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellington, Henry

    This booklet begins by examining the role played by evaluation in course and curriculum development, and then shows how the basic "error elimination" approach advocated by the philosopher Karl Popper can be used as a basis for the on-going evaluation of instructional systems. Next, two contrasting paradigms of evaluation are described,…

  16. 教你正确用(十三)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Ge

    2006-01-01

    @@ How Simple Can It Be?--可以省略吗? One of my favorite philosophers,Karl Popper,once said anyone who cannot say things simply and clearly should say nothing and continue to study until he can do so."

  17. Experimental investigation of Popper’s proposed ghost-diffraction experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, Eliot; Karimi, Ebrahim; Piché, Kevin; Leach, Jonathan; Boyd, Robert W.

    2017-10-01

    In an effort to challenge the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, Karl Popper proposed an experiment involving spatially separated entangled particles. In this experiment, one of the particles passes through a very narrow slit, and thereby its position becomes well-defined. This particle therefore diffracts into a large divergence angle; this effect can be understood as a consequence of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Popper further argued that its entangled partner would become comparably localized in position, and that, according to his understanding of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, the ‘mere knowledge’ of the position of this particle would cause it also to diffract into a large divergence angle. Popper recognized that such behavior could violate the principle of causality in that the slit could be removed and the partner particle would be expected to respond instantaneously. Popper thus concluded that it was most likely the case that, in an actual experiment, the partner photon would not undergo increased diffractive spreading and thus that the Copenhagen interpretation is incorrect. Here, we report and analyze the results of an implementation of Popper’s proposal. We find that the partner beam does not undergo increased diffractive spreading. Our work helps to clarify the issues raised in Popper’s proposal, and it provides further insight into the nature of entanglement and its relation to the uncertainty principle as applied to correlated particles.

  18. G Prathap

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. G Prathap. Articles written in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 1 Issue 11 November 1996 pp 2-3 Article-in-a-Box. Karl Popper · G Prathap · More Details Fulltext PDF ...

  19. Problems in the Science and Mathematics of 'The Logic of Scientific Discovery'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan B. Whiting

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Professor Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994 was one of the most influential philosophers of science of the twentieth century. However, in his most famous work 'The Logic of Scientific Discovery' he displays troubling misunderstandings of science and mathematics at a basic level. These call into question his conclusions concerning the philosophy of science. Quanta 2012; 1: 13–18.

  20. Diagnosis, Dogmatism, and Rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Efron, Noah J.

    1997-01-01

    Presents findings suggesting that misdiagnoses frequently stem from flaws in human information processing, particularly in collecting and using information. Claims that improved diagnostic tools will not remedy the problem. Drawing on the work of Karl Popper and Robin Collingwood, proposes operational principles to ensure a rational diagnostic…

  1. What Doesn't Happen in Teaching and Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Joanna

    1998-01-01

    Outlines the transmission theory of teaching explaining that the theory is criticized in terms of its implied acceptance of theory-free observation, learning by inductive process, and secure knowledge. Discusses Karl Popper's alternative theories of learning and the growth of knowledge and outlines some of the implications for educational…

  2. Knowledge and Its Enemies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, Miroslav

    2007-01-01

    As libraries are the physical manifestations of knowledge, some refection about the concept of knowledge would not be unjustified. In modern societies, knowledge plays such a central role that it requires some effort and imagination to understand on what grounds knowledge could be rejected. Karl Popper wrote about the open society and its enemies.…

  3. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 201 - 250 of 263 ... Vol 11, No 1 (2010), The Phonological Problems Encountered by Igbo Students in Chinese Language Learning. Abstract PDF. IS Odinye. Vol 15, No 2 (2014), The Quest for a Sure Foundation of Cognitive Beliefs: Karl Popper's Fallibilist Critique of Rationalism and Empirisism, Abstract PDF. I Ndianefo.

  4. Reality: How To Make It Better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, Joanna

    2002-01-01

    Seeks to persuade doubting educational researchers that there is practical value in pursuing truth, thereby opposing non-realist and relativist accounts of educational research. Reiterates Karl Popper's account of truth as a standard at which to aim, and offers a defense of the correspondence theory of truth as a guiding principle for educational…

  5. Truth in Packaging: Teaching Controversial Topics to Undergraduates in the Human Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredericks, Marcel; Miller, Steven I.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that the behavioral or "human" sciences are fundamentally different in scope and intent from the natural sciences. Describes the use of controversial topics in undergraduate courses and provides a four-step process. Recommends using Karl Popper's falsification theory to help students think critically about issues. (CFR)

  6. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Karl Popper, the philosopher of science, has laid down this criterion for a scientific theory: it should be testable and in principle disprovable. In other words we should be able to think of a test whose outcome could rule out the theory. If the outcome does not disprove it the theory survives - until somebody can think of another ...

  7. Hegelova teorie mravního státu

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chotaš, Jiří

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2003), s. 275-291 ISSN 0015-1831 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA401/03/0863 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z9009908 Keywords : state * ethical state * Hegel * Popper Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  8. Temperature dependence of microwave and THz dielectric response in Srn.sub.+1./sub.TinO.sub.3./sub.n.sub.+1./sub. (n=1-4)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Noujni, Dmitri; Kamba, Stanislav; Pashkin, Alexej; Bovtun, Viktor; Petzelt, Jan; Axlesson, A. K.; McN Alford, N.; Wise, P. L.; Reaney, I. M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 62, - (2004), s. 199-203 ISSN 1058-4587 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1010104 Keywords : Ruddlesden. Popper * MW dielectric properties * infrared and THz spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.427, year: 2004

  9. Idiopathic perinatal hepatic infarct as a cause of liver mass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aRecanati-Miller Transplantation Institute, bDivision of Liver Pathology, The Lillian and Henry Stratton - Hans Popper Department of Pathology and cDepartment of. Radiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York, USA. Correspondence to Josep Marti, MD, PhD, Recanati-Miller Transplantation.

  10. Coexistence of ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism in the L.sub.0.08./sub.Ca.sub.1.92./sub.MnO.sub.4./sub. series

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Autret, C.; Martin, C.; Retoux, R.; Maignan, A.; Raveau, B.; André, G.; Bourée, F.; Jirák, Zdeněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 284, - (2004), s. 172-180 ISSN 0304-8853 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) HPRN-CT-2002-00293 - SCOOTMO Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : manganites * Ruddlesden popper phases * phase separation * neutron diffraction Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.031, year: 2004

  11. Calculated optical absorption of different perovskite phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castelli, Ivano E. [Center for Atomic-scale Materials Design; Department of Physics; Technical University of Denmark; DK 2800, Kongens Lyngby; Denmark; Thygesen, Kristian S. [Center for Atomic-scale Materials Design; Department of Physics; Technical University of Denmark; DK 2800, Kongens Lyngby; Denmark; Jacobsen, Karsten W. [Center for Atomic-scale Materials Design; Department of Physics; Technical University of Denmark; DK 2800, Kongens Lyngby; Denmark

    2015-01-01

    We present calculations of the optical properties of a set of around 80 oxides, oxynitrides, and organometal halide cubic and layered perovskites (Ruddlesden–Popper and Dion–Jacobson phases) with a bandgap in the visible part of the solar spectrum.

  12. International Journal of Science and Technology (STECH) Bahir Dar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    According to Karl Popper, all we require of sciences by way of test is that they should make possible exact predictions. It means the theory of science called the theory of verification cannot verify itself and this is a mystery. However, in this work, we are establishing that we live in the middle of mysteries if we care to notice it ...

  13. Boeke/Books

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ed. by H. Popper and F. Schaffner. Pp. xv + 750. [1l0. London: WB Saunders. 1990.. The Merck Manual of Geriatrics. Ed. by W. B. Abrams and. R. Berkow. Pp. xxii + 1267. £14,50. Rahway, N.J.: Merck & Co. 1990. Evaluation of Certain Food Additives and Contaminants. WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Pp. I + 48.

  14. Corpora and Data Preparation for Information Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    technical publications in fields such as communications, airline transportation, rubber & plas- tics, and food marketing . The Japanese-language...types in the U. S., for example, avocado farms, electric popcorn popper sales, management consulting. The template-filling task required that products

  15. Imre Lakatos's Use of Dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greig, Judith Maxwell

    This paper uses a book, "Proofs and Refutations: The Logic of Mathematical Discovery," as an example of Lakatos's use of dialogue. The book was originally adapted from his dissertation and influenced by Polya and Popper. His discussion of the Euler conjecture is summarized. Three purposes for choosing the dialogue form for the book were…

  16. The Allure of Rationalism in Educational Thought: The Case of Imre Lakatos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Anthony R.

    1985-01-01

    Considers the influence of rationalism on educational research and philosophy, highlighting the theories of Imre Lakatos and Karl Popper. Discusses the concept of methodological falsification, Lakatos's appraisal of the growth of knowledge, the consequences of the rationalists' proselytizing of scientific methodology, and Lakatos's appeal for…

  17. A critical rationalist approach to organizational learning: testing the theories held by managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faran, Doron; Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    The common wisdom is that Popper's critical rationalism, a method aimed at knowledge validation through falsification of theories, is inadequate for managers in organizations. This study falsifies this argument in three phases: first, it specifies the obstructers that prevent the method from being

  18. Morphology, antigenicity, and nucleic acid content of the Bacteroides sp. used in the culture of Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albach, R A; Shaffer, J G; Watson, R H

    1965-10-01

    Albach, Richard A. (Lutheran General Hospital, Park Ridge, Ill.), James G. Shaffer, and Robert H. Watson. Morphology, antigenicity, and nucleic acid content of the Bacteroides sp. used in the culture of Entamoeba histolytica. J. Bacteriol. 90:1045-1053. 1965.-Certain changes in morphology, antigenicity, and nucleic acid content that occur in a culture of Bacteroides sp. in the presence of penicillin G in CLG medium are described. This "variant" is one of seven recovered in several laboratories, all of which are descendants of the original Bacteroides isolated by Shaffer and Frye. Penicillin-inhibited cells of this culture are currently being used in the routine propagation of Entamoeba histolytica in CLG medium. Evidence is presented for the loss of ability to react with antibody in these penicillin-inhibited bacteria in CLG medium, when studied by fluorescent-antibody techniques. The implications of the antigenic changes observed as they pertain to similar antigenic studies of the amoebas are discussed. A pronounced reduction in the ribonucleic acid (RNA) content of such penicillin-inhibited cells was also observed. The potential importance of the changes that occur in the RNA of these cells with respect to considerations of the growth requirements of the amoebas is also discussed.

  19. Measurement of Submerged Oil/Gas Leaks using ROV Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Franklin; de Vera, Giorgio; Lee, Kenneth; Savas, Ömer

    2013-11-01

    Drilling for oil or gas in the Gulf of Mexico is increasing rapidly at depths up to three miles. The National Commission on the Deepwater Horizon Oil Leak concluded that inaccurate estimates of the leak rate from the Deepwater Horizon caused an inadequate response and attempts to cap the leak to fail. The first response to a submerged oil/gas leak will be to send a Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) down to view the leak. During the response to the Deepwater Horizon crisis, the authors Savas and Shaffer were members of the Flow Rate Technical Group's Plume Team who used ROV video to develop the FRTG's first official estimates of the oil leak rate. Savas and Shaffer developed an approach using the larger, faster jet features (e.g., turbulent eddies, vortices, entrained particles) in the near-field developing zone to measure discharge rates. The authors have since used the Berkeley Tow Tank to test this approach on submerged dye-colored water jets and compressed air jets. Image Correlation Velocimetry has been applied to measure the velocity of visible features. Results from tests in the Berkeley Tow Tank and submerged oil jets in the OHMSETT facility will be presented.

  20. Assessment of the anterior chamber parameters after laser iridotomy in primary angle close suspect using Pentacam and gonioscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Alireza; Barazandeh, Behzad; Ahmadi, Sina; Haghi, Alireza; Ahmadi Hosseini, Seyed Mahdi; Abolbashari, Fereshteh

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the changes in the anterior segment parameters of the subjects with primary angle closure suspect (PACS) before and after laser iridotomy (LI) using the Pentacam and gonioscopy. Forty-eight eyes of 48 PACS were included. Anterior chamber angle (ACA), central anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber volume (ACV) and central corneal thickness (CCT) were recorded from the Pentacam before and one month after LI. ACA was graded according to Shaffer classification using the Goldmann gonioscopy. ACA increased significantly from 25.59±4.41 to 26.46±4.33 degrees (P=0.009) and ACV changed from 85.97±16.07mm(3) to 99.25±15.83mm(3) (P=0.000). The changes in ACD, CCT and intraocular pressure were non-significant (P>0.05). Gonioscopy showed significant widening of the Shaffer angle in 4 quadrants (P<0.001). Pentacam can serve as the objective instrument in assessing the efficacy of LI.