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Sample records for juliet popper shaffer

  1. Profiles in Research: Juliet Popper Shaffer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Robinson interviews Juliet Popper Shaffer, a scientist, who graduated from Swarthmore College in 1953 and Stanford in 1957 with degrees in psychology and concentrations in math, philosophy, and statistics. In 2004 she received the second Florence Nightingale David award given biannually by the Committee of Presidents of Statistical Societies to a…

  2. Popper's Fallibilism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkinson, Henry

    1978-01-01

    Describes the theories of Karl Popper regarding scientific knowledge and scientific methodology; tells how the Popper-Darwinian theory of growth of knowledge offers an alternative nonauthoritarian conception of the educational process, and thus an alternative conception of the functions of the teacher and the school. (GT)

  3. Bouncing Poppers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollmer, Michael; Möllmann, Klaus-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Toys are known to attract interest in physics and they are therefore often used in physics teaching of various topics. The present paper deals with a simple toy, the so-called "hopper popper," which, similar to superballs, can be used when teaching mechanics. We suggest some experiments and describe the basic physics of this toy, also…

  4. "Romeo and Juliet": The Movie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Sarah L.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the 1996 film of "Romeo and Juliet" (starring Leonardo Di Caprio and Claire Danes, and transposed to inner-city gang culture) is a gripping presentation of Shakespeare's story of star-crossed lovers in an impulsive, hot-headed, violent world. Suggests that the film is practically guaranteed to make students love Shakespeare.…

  5. "Romeo and Juliet": The Movie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Sarah L.

    1998-01-01

    Argues that the 1996 film of "Romeo and Juliet" (starring Leonardo Di Caprio and Claire Danes, and transposed to inner-city gang culture) is a gripping presentation of Shakespeare's story of star-crossed lovers in an impulsive, hot-headed, violent world. Suggests that the film is practically guaranteed to make students love Shakespeare. (SR)

  6. Signing Shakespeare: Romeo Loves Juliet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Liz; Cambridge, Terry

    1995-01-01

    A language arts teacher of junior high students with deafness or hearing impairments familiarized her students with "Romeo and Juliet" by telling the story in speech and signs, exploring the characters's personalities, reviewing vocabulary, putting the characters into contemporary situations, and directing the students in a full-scale production…

  7. Popper's Thought Experiment Reinvestigated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Chris; Dowling, Jonathan

    2012-02-01

    Karl Popper posed an interesting thought experiment in 1934. With it, he meant to question the completeness of quantum mechanics. He claimed that the notion of quantum entanglement leads to absurd scenarios that cannot be true in real life and that an implementation of his thought experiment would not give the results that QM predicts. Unfortunately for Popper, it has taken until recently to perform experiments that test his claims. The results of the experiments do not refute QM as Popper predicted, but neither do they confirm what Popper claimed QM predicted. Kim and Shih implemented Popper's thought experiment in the lab. The results of the experiment are not clear and have instigated many interpretations of the results. The results show some correlation between entangled photons, but not in the way that Popper thought, nor in the way a simple application of QM might predict. A ghost-imaging experiment by Strekalov, et al. sheds light on the physics behind Popper's thought experiment, but does not try to directly test it. I will build the physics of Popper's thought experiment from the ground up and show how the results of both of these experiments agree with each other and the theory of QM, but disprove Popper.

  8. Popper's Thought Experiment Reinvestigated

    CERN Document Server

    Richardson, Chris D

    2011-01-01

    Popper's original thought experiment probed some fundamental and subtle rules of quantum mechanics. Two recent experiments have tested Popper's hypothesis, but they seem to give contrasting results and one suggests a violation of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The equations governing these two experiments and Popper's thought experiment will be derived from basic principles. The experimental constants will be inputted and it will show that the two experiments agree with each other. It will be shown that no uncertainty relations are violated and that Popper's thought experiment was fundamentally flawed.

  9. Understanding Popper's experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Tabish

    2005-06-01

    An experiment proposed by Karl Popper is considered by many to be a crucial test of quantum mechanics. Although many loopholes in the original proposal have been pointed out, they are not crucial to the test. We use only the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics to point out what is fundamentally wrong with the proposal, and demonstrate that Popper's basic premise was faulty.

  10. Problems with Popper

    CERN Document Server

    Whiting, Alan B

    2012-01-01

    Professor Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994) was one of the most influential philosophers of science of the twentieth century. However, in his most famous work he displays misunderstandings of science and mathematics at a basic level.

  11. Pop in a Popper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article describes Pop in a Popper, an effective lesson for teaching students how to choose and use words to give their writing fluency and flair. Pop in a Popper introduces the appositive: a group of words inserted after a noun to modify that noun. In simplest terms, writers pop this group of words into a sentence to tell more about a noun.…

  12. Understanding Popper's Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, T

    2004-01-01

    An experiment, proposed by Karl Popper, is considered by many, to be a crucial test of quantum mechanics. While many loop holes have been pointed out in the original proposal, it turned out that they are not crucial to the test. We point out what is fundamentally wrong with the proposal. Using just the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics, we demonstrate that Popper's basic premise was faulty.

  13. Pop in a Popper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading Teacher, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This article describes Pop in a Popper, an effective lesson for teaching students how to choose and use words to give their writing fluency and flair. Pop in a Popper introduces the appositive: a group of words inserted after a noun to modify that noun. In simplest terms, writers pop this group of words into a sentence to tell more about a noun.…

  14. Studying Characters in "Romeo and Juliet."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinhawa, Wilhelmina

    1994-01-01

    Describes an activity in which high school students who are reading "Romeo and Juliet" compile information on major characters and create a collection of cards similar to sports cards, to help them understand each character and that character's motives. (SR)

  15. Mixing It Up with "Romeo and Juliet."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    Presents a variety of reading, writing, art, and discussion activities to keep students interested in studying "Romeo and Juliet." Describes using the film version of the play as a companion piece to unify the oral reading. (RS)

  16. A Tragedy of Love-Romeo and Juliet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱燕

    2016-01-01

    Romeo and Juliet is one of the most famous dramas of William Shakespeare. I like the novel very much and will give some ideas and comments from the three points: first, the difference between Romeo and Juliet & Butterfly Lovers; Second, the analysis of Romeo and Juliet's characters; Third, the great significance of the novel.

  17. 'Popper'-induced vision loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krilis, Matthew; Thompson, Julia; Atik, Alp; Lusthaus, Jed; Jankelowitz, Stacey

    2013-05-01

    Amyl nitrite 'poppers' are recreational drugs, which are a potent source of nitric oxide. The use of 'poppers' can cause psychoactive stimulation, reduced blood pressure, tachycardia and involuntary muscle relaxation. Their use is becoming increasingly common around the world, including approximately 60% of Australia's male homosexual community. We report the first case of 'popper'-induced vision loss in Australasia.

  18. Karl Popper's Quantum Ghost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, William

    2004-05-01

    Karl Popper, though not trained as a physicist and embarrassed early in his career by a physics error pointed out by Einstein and Bohr, ultimately made substantial contributions to the interpretation of quantum mechanics. As was often the case, Popper initially formulated his position by criticizing the views of others - in this case Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg. Underlying Popper's criticism was his belief that, first, the "standard interpretation" of quantum mechanics, sometimes called the Copenhagen interpretation, abandoned scientific realism and second, the assertion that quantum theory was "complete" (an assertion rejected by Einstein among others) amounted to an unfalsifiable claim. Popper insisted that the most basic predictions of quantum mechanics should continue to be tested, with an eye towards falsification rather than mere adding of decimal places to confirmatory experiments. His persistent attacks on the Copenhagen interpretation were aimed not at the uncertainty principle itself and the formalism from which it was derived, but at the acceptance by physicists of an unclear epistemology and ontology that left critical questions unanswered. In 1999, physicists at the University of Maryland conducted a version of Popper's Experiment, re-igniting the debate over quantum predictions and the role of locality in physics.

  19. Popper and Free Will

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Frederick

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Determinism seems incompatible with free will. However, even indeterminism seems incompatible with free will, since it seems to make free actions random. Popper contends that free agents are not bound by physical laws, even indeterministic ones, and that undetermined actions are not random if they are influenced by abstract entities. I argue that Popper could strengthen his account by drawing upon his theories of propensities and of limited rationality; but that even then his account would not fully explain why free actions are not random. I offer a solution to this problem which draws on Hornsby's analysis of action. I then borrow an idea of Kant about self-consciousness to distinguish free agents from sub-human animals. I make a brief evaluation of Popper's contribution.

  20. 16 CFR 1507.11 - Party poppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Party poppers. 1507.11 Section 1507.11... FIREWORKS DEVICES § 1507.11 Party poppers. Party poppers (also known by other names such as “Champagne Party Poppers,” and “Party Surprise Poppers,”) shall not contain more than 0.25 grains of...

  1. Chemistry and Popperism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeroyd, F. Michael

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the relationship of Karl Popper's theories to chemistry, examining scientific statements and verisimilitude (which indicates that newer theories should have a higher degree of truth content compared with older theories). Also provides examples illustrating the use of Agassi's criteria for assessing currently fashionable theories. (JN)

  2. Prokofiev. "Romeo and Juliet" - Suites / Iran March

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    March, Iran

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Prokofiev. "Romeo and Juliet" - Suites: N 1 Op. 64 bis a; N 2 Op. 64 ter b; N 3 Op. 101 c. Royal Scottish National Orchestra /Neeme Järvi" Chandos cassette ABTD 1536; CD CHAN 8940 (78 minutes) etc

  3. "Romeo and Juliet" and the ESL Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straughan, June

    1996-01-01

    Discusses an English teacher's approaches to introducing English-as-a-second-language students to Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet." Notes that the students responded with more enthusiasm than they had to any other selection they had read, and that the teacher had underestimated her students' ability to understand Shakespeare. (RS)

  4. Understanding "Romeo and Juliet": A Thematic Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koveleski, Erin

    This curriculum unit for Grade 9 combines the classic Shakespeare play "Romeo and Juliet" with three young adult novels: "The Outsiders" (S.E. Hinton), "Summer of My German Soldier" (Bette Greene), and "The Witch of Blackbird Pond" (Elizabeth George Speare). To complete the unit, all students will be required to read the Shakespeare play; however,…

  5. "Romeo and Juliet" in One Hour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monthie-Doyum, Judy; Öztürk, Gülay

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the use of drama activities to motivate students, to teach vocabulary and pronunciation, and to enhance cooperative learning. The author describes in five steps the classroom procedure of an activity based on the play of "Romeo and Juliet." The author discusses the results of the activity and its implications. Play…

  6. Prokofiev. "Romeo and Juliet" - Suites / Iran March

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    March, Iran

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Prokofiev. "Romeo and Juliet" - Suites: N 1 Op. 64 bis a; N 2 Op. 64 ter b; N 3 Op. 101 c. Royal Scottish National Orchestra /Neeme Järvi" Chandos cassette ABTD 1536; CD CHAN 8940 (78 minutes) etc

  7. Sir Karl Popper and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Sir Karl Popper is one of England's most distinguished contemporary philosophers and it is surprising that his thought has not permeated and informed educational discussion. This paper suggests that educationists have much to learn from Karl Popper's writings and explores ways in which his ideas can illuminate and advance discussion about…

  8. Popper's Experiment and Superluminal Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Gerjuoy, E; Gerjuoy, Edward; Sessler, Andrew M.

    2005-01-01

    We comment on Tabesh Qureshi, "Understanding Popper's Experiment," AJP 73, 541 (June 2005), in particular on the implications of its section IV. We show, in the situation envisaged by Popper, that analysis solely with conventional non-relativistic quantum mechanics suffices to exclude the possibility of superluminal communication.

  9. Popper's experiment and the Copenhagen interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Peres, A

    1999-01-01

    Popper conceived an experiment whose analysis led to a result that he deemed absurd. Popper wrote that his reasoning was based on the Copenhagen interpretation and therefore invalidated the latter. Actually, Popper's argument involves counterfactual reasoning and violates Bohr's complementarity principle. The absurdity of Popper's result only confirms Bohr's approach.

  10. Applying Popper's Probability

    CERN Document Server

    Whiting, Alan B

    2014-01-01

    Professor Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994) was one of the most influential philosophers of science of the twentieth century, best known for his doctrine of falsifiability. His axiomatic formulation of probability, however, is unknown to current scientists, though it is championed by several current philosophers of science as superior to the familiar version. Applying his system to problems identified by himself and his supporters, it is shown that it does not have some features he intended and does not solve the problems they have identified.

  11. Popper's Experiment: A Modern Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabish Qureshi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Karl Popper had proposed an experiment to test the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics. The proposal survived for many year in the midst of no clear consensus on what results it would yield. The experiment was realized by Kim and Shih in 1999, and the apparently surprising result led to lot of debate. We review Popper's proposal and its realization in the light of current era when entanglement has been well studied, both theoretically and experimentally. We show that the "ghost-diffraction" experiment, carried out in a different context, conclusively resolves the controversy surrounding Popper's experiment.Quanta 2012; 1: 19–32.

  12. Popper's test of Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Bramon, A

    2005-01-01

    A test of quantum mechanics proposed by K. Popper and dealing with two-particle entangled states emitted from a fixed source has been criticized by several authors. Some of them claim that the test becomes inconclusive once all the quantum aspects of the source are considered. Moreover, another criticism states that the predictions attributed to quantum mechanics in Popper's analysis are untenable. We reconsider these criticisms and show that, to a large extend, the `falsifiability' potential of the test remains unaffected.

  13. Popper's experiment, Copenhagen Interpretation and Nonlocality

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, T

    2003-01-01

    A thought experiment, proposed by Karl Popper, which has been experimentally realized recently, is critically examined. A basic flaw in Popper's argument which has also been prevailing in subsequent debates, is pointed out. It is shown that Popper's experiment can be understood easily within the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. An alternate experiment, based on discrete variables, is proposed, which constitutes Popper's test in a clearer way. It refutes the argument of absence of nonlocality in quantum mechanics.

  14. The Second Law and Karl R. Popper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Guenri E.

    2002-11-01

    Popper's ideas are briefly presented on philosophy of Science hierarchy of particular sciences and his emergence principle. Main points of Popper's cognition theory are emphasized. Popper's thoughts are given in connection with struggle of scientific ideas in the XX century. The projection on the Second Law is done.

  15. Prokofiev: Romeo and Juliet - Suite N1 / Ivan March

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    March, Ivan

    1990-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Prokofiev: Romeo and Juliet - Suite N1, Op.64b, N2, Op.64c. Philharmonia Orchestra, Barry Wordsworth" Collins Classics cassette 1116-4. CD. Võrreldud Neeme Järvi plaadistustega 1116-2

  16. Prokofiev: Romeo and Juliet - Suite N1 / Ivan March

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    March, Ivan

    1990-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Prokofiev: Romeo and Juliet - Suite N1, Op.64b, N2, Op.64c. Philharmonia Orchestra, Barry Wordsworth" Collins Classics cassette 1116-4. CD. Võrreldud Neeme Järvi plaadistustega 1116-2

  17. Godiva and Juliet Diagnostics CED-1 (IER-176)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scorby, J C

    2011-12-21

    A suite of diagnostics are being proposed for use in the Juliet experiment (IER-128). In order to calibrate and test the diagnostics prior to use, the LLNL calibration facility and Godiva pulsed reactor will be used to provide intense sources of neutrons and gammas. Due to the similarities of the Godiva and Juliet radiation fields, the diagnostics being developed and tested for Juliet can also play an on-going role in diagnostics for Godiva as well as, perhaps, other critical assembly experiments. Similar work is also being conducted for IER-147 for the purpose of characterizing the Godiva radiation field in support of an upcoming international nuclear accident dosimetry exercise. Diagnostics developed and fielded under IER-147 can provide valuable data with respect to the neutron and gamma energy spectrums in the vicinity of Godiva which is relevant to the calibration of Juliet diagnostics.

  18. On the Realization of Popper's Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, T

    2005-01-01

    An experiment proposed by Karl Popper to test the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics was realized by Kim and Shih. We use a quantum mechanical calculation to analyze Popper's proposal, and find a surprising result for the location of the virtual slit. We also analyze Kim and Shih's experiment, and demonstrate that although it ingeneously overcomes the problem of temporal spreading of the wave-packet, it is inconclusive about Popper's test. We point out that another experiment which implements Popper's test in a conlcusive way, has actually been carried out. Its results are in contradiction with Popper's prediction, and agree with our analysis.

  19. Karl Popper and the Copenhagen interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Asher

    Popper conceived an experiment whose analysis led to a result that he deemed absurd. Popper wrote that his reasoning was based on the Copenhagen interpretation and therefore invalidated it. Many authors who have examined Popper's analysis have found in it various technical flaws which are briefly summarized here. However, the aim of the present article is not technical. My concern is to redress logical flaws in Popper's argument: the terminology he uses is ambiguous, his analysis involves counterfactual hypotheses, and it violates Bohr's complementarity principle. Therefore, the absurdity of Popper's result only confirms Bohr's approach.

  20. Analysis of Popper's Experiment and Its Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, T.

    2012-04-01

    An experiment proposed by Karl Popper to test the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics was realized by Kim and Shih. We use a quantum mechanical calculation to analyze Popper's proposal, and find a surprising result for the location of the virtual slit. We also analyze Kim and Shih's experiment, and demonstrate that although it ingeniously overcomes the problem of temporal spreading of the wave-packet, it is inconclusive about Popper's test. We point out that another experiment which (unknowingly) implements Popper's test in a conclusive way, has actually been carried out. Its results are in contradiction with Popper's prediction, and agree with our analysis.

  1. Michael Shaffer, 6th July 1936 to 23rd March 2009: A heartfelt tribute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mr. Michael Shaffer, Retired Pyraloidea Curator, at the Natural History Museum, London, England, passed away on March 23, 2009. He was an acknowledged world expert on Pyraloidea, a group of agriculturally important moths. He was curator of the largest Pyraloidea type collection in the world, and a...

  2. Potocki-Shaffer syndrome: comprehensive clinical assessment, review of the literature, and proposals for medical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarr, Daniel T; Bloom, Douglas; Lewis, Richard Alan; Elenberg, Ewa; Friedman, Ellen M; Glotzbach, Caron; Wissman, Scott D; Shaffer, Lisa G; Potocki, Lorraine

    2010-03-01

    Potocki-Shaffer syndrome is a rare contiguous gene deletion syndrome due to haploinsufficiency of the 11p11.2p12 region and is characterized by craniofacial abnormalities, developmental delay, intellectual disability, multiple exostoses, and biparietal foramina. In this study, six patients with the Potocki-Shaffer syndrome were identified and evaluated using a multidisciplinary protocol that included assessments by a geneticist, ophthalmologist, otolaryngologist, orthopedist, nephrologist, audiologist, and neuropsychologist. Diagnostic studies included skeletal survey, magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, renal ultrasound, complete blood count, comprehensive metabolic panel, thyroid studies, and urinalysis. Using array comparative genomic hybridization, we further characterized the deletion in five of these patients. The results of these evaluations were combined with a comprehensive review of reported cases. Our data highlight the characteristic facial features, biparietal foramina, moderate-to-severe developmental delay and intellectual disability, myopia and strabismus, and multiple exostoses seen with this disorder. We also identify for the first time an association of Potocki-Shaffer syndrome with sensorineural hearing loss and autistic behaviors. Finally, we provide recommendations for the health maintenance of patients with Potocki-Shaffer syndrome.

  3. Constructivism, Socioculturalism, and Popper's World 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereiter, Carl

    1994-01-01

    Examines the concept of learning from both constructivist and sociocultural perspectives and introduces a third perspective based on K. R. Popper's philosophy of science. It is argued that constructivism cannot adequately account for the immaterial objects that Popper located in his World 3--abstract mathematical and scientific objects. (GLR)

  4. Teaching "Romeo and Juliet" in the Nontracked English Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Pamela E.

    1995-01-01

    Uses "Romeo and Juliet" to show how high school teachers can teach complex literary texts in nontracked classrooms by building background knowledge and teaching self-monitoring strategies. Explains strategies such as text previews, story impressions, prereading plan, thinking aloud, self-questioning based on story grammar, and reciprocal teaching.…

  5. Exploring Shakespeare: Dynamic Drama Conventions in Teaching "Romeo and Juliet."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sophie

    1999-01-01

    Outlines a Year 10 unit on teaching "Romeo and Juliet" based on standard experiential conventions which include the following: (1) Teacher in Role, (2) Soundscaping, (3) Freeze Frames, (4) Alter Egos, (5) Hot Seating, and (6) Role Playing. Suggests that these conventions can be applied to the study of any Shakespearean play. (NH)

  6. Stratford Studios Proudly Liberates Romeo & Juliet [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997

    This CD-ROM product is an interactive supplement to Shakespeare's text of "Romeo and Juliet." It contains an interactive cast of characters and the entire script of the play with an accessible audio performance. Other features include: "Dr. Wacko"--a feature that calls the student's attention to the more subtle nuances of the plot by asking…

  7. Baz, the Bard and Borrowing: "Romeo and Juliet" on Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Rhonda; Guest, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Outlines a unit of study of Baz Luhrmann's 1997 film version of "Romeo and Juliet" for Year 10 students in Australia. Includes a series of lessons/questions and activities that include directing students (1) to consider speed and editing and character analysis; (2) to engage in language comparison; and (3) to generate extended responses. (NH)

  8. Street Signs: Semiotics, Romeo and Juliet, and Young Adult Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, John Noell

    1998-01-01

    Presents basic working principles and a vocabulary of semiotics for classroom teachers; interprets semiotically a story from the teaching of "Romeo and Juliet" that reveals the literary and nonliterary texts of students' lives; and demonstrates semiotic approaches to two texts that illustrate how to locate literature in the context of the culture…

  9. The Sixty-Minute Shakespeare: "Romeo and Juliet."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Cass

    Developed for theaters or classrooms that wish to present abbreviated versions of Shakespeare's plays without changing the language, this book presents an edited version of "Romeo and Juliet" suitable for presentation in one hour. The book also presents an affordable set design, sound and prop requirements, costume suggestions, definitions and…

  10. Tights vs. Tattoos: Filmic Interpretations of "Romeo and Juliet."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jennifer L.

    2002-01-01

    Suggests students will view film adaptations of Shakespeare plays more critically by carefully analyzing the same scene from several different film versions. Discusses relevant scenes from "Romeo and Juliet" for classroom interpretation. Suggests that by providing students the vocabulary to discuss the film, educators can encourage them to look…

  11. Shakespeare for Children: The Story of "Romeo and Juliet."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Cass

    Written for adults who wish to read to children and children able to read on their own, this book presents an edited version of William Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet." The book includes selections of the original text of the play, prose passages explaining what occurs between selections of the play, numerous full-page illustrations, and…

  12. In memoriam : Karl R. Popper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Tohăneanu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dedicated to Karl Popper’s memory, this essay aims at following the echo of his critical rationalism and how it has been received by Mario Bunge, one of the most prominent contemporary philosopher of science – an admirer, later a critic of Popper’s social and political philosophy. The main goal of such an endeavor is to find out where could have been Popper wrong – from Bunge’s view point – and take note of the arguments of both of them, thus hoping to get closer to the truth, as Sir Karl said.

  13. The Rejectability of Karl Popper: Why Popper's Ideas Have Had So Little Influence on Social Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Tyrrell; Swann, Joanna

    2003-01-01

    Addresses the question of why Karl Popper's work has been disregarded or rejected for educational improvement and suggests a series of impediments to an acceptance of Popper's ideas. Outlines a set of principle which if adopted as a basis for practice could lead to significant improvement. (EV)

  14. For better and for worst: Romeo and Juliet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaber, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Shakespeare's famous young lovers, however "star-crossed," contribute crucially to their tragic fate. From a period between before "adolescence" was conceptualized or named, they offer vivid evidence of what we recognize as early adolescent passions, yearnings, and connections, their evocativeness and their dangers. Juliet especially is presented as eloquent in her remarkable awareness of powerful and unfamiliar feelings. The play exemplifies the useful bearings of imaginative literature and psychoanalysis on one another

  15. The Impact of the Tyrannical Use of Power in Family in Romeo and Juliet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冬梅

    2012-01-01

    This essay seeks to examine the tyrannical use of power in family in Romeo and Juliet, and discuss how this tyrannical use of power in family leads Juliet to despair, and to die in the end. It also analyses whether the impact of family power has contributed to making the play more tragic and accelerating the process of tragedy.

  16. "You Kiss by the Book": Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet." [Lesson Plan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    This lesson plan complements study of plot and characterization in "Romeo and Juliet" by focusing on Shakespeare's use of lyric forms and conventions to spotlight moments in the drama and thereby heightens the impact of the action on the stage. Students look first at the sonnet in which Romeo and Juliet meet, analyzing the imagery to gain insight…

  17. Exploring Romeo and Juliet. ArtsEdge Curricula, Lessons and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullard, Barbara Lois; Karsten, Jayne

    This curriculum unit examines William Shakespeare's tragic play, "Romeo and Juliet." The unit calls the play "one of the greatest and saddest love stories of all time," and notes that artists across centuries and oceans have retold the tale of "Romeo and Juliet" in various forms and incarnations. It first presents…

  18. The Reference Process and the Philosophy of Karl Popper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, S. D.

    1985-01-01

    Two aspects of Karl Popper's philosophy are applied to reference process: process is viewed as series of problem-solving situations amenable to analysis using Popper's problem-solving schema. Reference interview is analyzed in context of Popper's postulate that books contain autonomous world of ideas existing apart from mind of knower. (30…

  19. "Pop" psychoanalysis, kitsch, and the "as if" theater: further notes on Peter Shaffer's Equus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, S

    1976-01-01

    This paper is intended as an examination of Dr. Stamm's (1975) paper and of Dr. Jules Glenn's discussion of Peter Shaffer's previous work. Its premise is the futility of subjecting Equus to a traditional psychoanalytic investigation, as a product of the playwright's unconscious, when the play represents a skillful, highly conscious use of analytic cliches to manipulate the audience. This phenomenon, however, and the play's great popularity prompt some reflections on the nature of kitsch, or false art, and its differences from authentic drama. The experience of kitsch can be identified when the spectator feels coerced by exaggerated, unconvincing theatrical devices, and fails to experience genuine empathy with the characters in a play. In the experience of authentic tragedy there is some element of voluntary surrender, of suspension of disbelief with full consent of will, as in the Aristotelian concept of catharsis. Shaffer's play is discussed as an illustration of this distinction and its relation to pseudoemotionality, the impostor syndrome, and the "as if" personality. In conclusion, the play's failure to evoke a genuine emotional response is explained by interpreting Equus as an "as if" tragedy.

  20. An Analysis of Puns in Romeo and Juliet by Shakespeare

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Changrui; Wang Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    The play Romeo and Juliet written by Shakespeare is one of the most great tragedies in the world.Even through it is not in the Four Great Tragedies of Shakespeare,the play had won many readers' and audience's tear.Shakespeare is such a great writer that he used many writing techniques to model his characters.The most obvious technique is the use of pun.This thesis is going to make a simple research of the puns in the play.

  1. Between autobiography and reality : Popper's inductive years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Hark, M.R.M.

    On the basis of his unpublished thesis 'Gewohnheit und Gesetzerlebnis in der Erziehung' (1926-7) a historical reconstruction is given of the genesis of Popper's ideas on induction and demarcation which differs radically from his own account in Unended quest. It is shown not only that he

  2. A critical analysis of Popper's experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ghirardi, G C; de Stefano, F; Ghirardi, GianCarlo; Marinatto, Luca; Stefano, Francesco de

    2007-01-01

    An experiment which could decide against the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics has been proposed by K. Popper and, subsequently, it has been criticized by M.J. Collett and R. Loudon. Here we show that both the above mentioned arguments are not correct because they are based on a misuse of basic quantum rules.

  3. [Popper's critical rationalism and the biomedical sciences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlícek, J

    1993-11-08

    Popper's rationalism makes an important contribution of the 20th century philosophy to the methodology of natural sciences. Through its criterion of falsification, it enabled the scientists to take a critical but constructive view on hypotheses, conjectures and theories. This attitude found its application also in medicine.

  4. Alan Strange as an adolescent: a discussion of Peter Shaffer's Equus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, J

    1976-01-01

    Psychoanalytic knowledge of adolescence helps us to understand the protagonists of Peter Shaffer's play Equus. Alan Strang, the seventeen-year-old who maimed six horses, had undergone a retreat from oedipal wishes to narcissism typical of teenagers. His fragile attempts at achieving a sound sense of identity are undermined when his seeking of a noninestuous object produces panic and impotence. Dr. Dysart, the psychiatrist who envies his patient's passion, and fears hurting him through treatment, displays in an exaggerated way countertransferences often seen in therapists of adolescents. In addition, his doubts have some foundation in that the treatment he employs, catharsis, can encourage primitive defenses and the outpouring of uncontrolled, unneutralized drive derivatives. This is more likely to prevent adaptive creativity than the cure the doctor dreads. Finally, some technical problems in dealing with sublimations in psychoanalysis (which is not Dr. Dysart's form of treatment) are discussed.

  5. Sir Karl Popper and his philosophy of physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammer, Max

    1991-12-01

    The eminent mathematical physicist Sir Hermann Bondi once said: “There is no more to science than its method, and there is no more to its method than Popper has said.” Indeed, many regard Sir Karl Raimund Popper the greatest philosopher of science in our generation. Much of what Popper “has said” refers to physics, but physicists, generally speaking, have little knowledge of what he has said. True, Popper's philosophy of science and, in particular, his realistic interpretation of quantum mechanics deviates considerably from the generally accepted doctrine. But as Popper, rightly I think, points out, it is precisely the proliferation of divergent theories which promotes the growth of scientific knowledge; it would be a danger for physics if physicists were dogmatically tied to a single theory or would not test their theory against alternatives. It is for this purpose that, on the occasion of the nonagenarian celebration of Popper's birthday, the present essay has been written.

  6. Karl Popper: antes y después de Kyoto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanotti, Gabriel

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Not available.En su último libro sobre Karl Popper, Mariano Artigas plantea una hermenéutica revolucionaria: muestra que la ética de Popper es el fundamento de su epistemología, y que el fundamento de esa ética está lejos del «conjeturalismo» que suele atribuirse a Popper. Artigas analiza qué significa en Popper la «fe irracional en la razón» y utiliza, como fuente inédita, el dramático relato que hace Popper de su relación con W. W. Bartley, por primera vez, en Kyoto, en 1992. Sea cual fuere la opinión del lector, el libro de Artigas divide la hermenéutica de Popper en un antes y un después.

  7. Realism in the Realized Popper's Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, G

    2005-01-01

    The realization of Karl Popper's EPR-like experiment by Shih and Kim (published 1999) produced the result that Popper hoped for: no ``action at a distance'' on one photon of an entangled pair when a measurement is made on the other photon. This experimental result is interpretable in local realistic terms: each photon has a definite position and transverse momentum most of the time; the position measurement on one photon (localization within a slit) disturbs the transverse momentum of that photon in a non-predictable way in accordance with the uncertainty principle; however, there is no effect on the other photon (the photon that is not in a slit) no action at a distance. The position measurement (localization within a slit) of the one photon destroys the entanglement between the photons; i.e. decoherence occurs.

  8. Popper's Experiment and the Uncertainty Principle

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, António

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we look at a particular realization of Popper's thought experiment with correlated quantum particles and argue that, from the point of view of a nonlinear quantum physics and contrary to the orthodox interpretation, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is violated. Moreover, we show that this kind of experiments can easily be explained in an intuitive manner if we are willing to take a nonlinear approach.

  9. Truth, Representation and Interpretation: The Popper Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Stan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine several points of reference regarding the way in which Karl Popper built up his philosophical discourse. I locate two specific ways in which Popper interpreted and used ideas belonging to other philosophers. Thus I distinguish in Popper between a projective hermeneutics (where the author uses a thesis that forms a part of his own philosophy in order to reconstruct and understand the ideas of another philosopher and anideological hermeneutics (where he uses a statement expressing an interest of the community whereof he is a member in order to interpret and reconstruct the text of another philosopher. In so doing I also highlight the considerable asymmetry between a representationalist hermeneutics, and a projective and, respectively, an ideological one. Whereas in the first case the interpreter wishes to unveil a truth about the philosophical text, in the other two he israther expressing a desire to talk about himself, his own beliefs and convictions, or about the beliefs of his community of reference.

  10. National Theatre of China's Romeo and Juliet and Its Rituals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny Lim

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the “Chinese-ness” of this brand new production of Romeo and Juliet by the National Theatre of China, from a ritual perspective. Three main areas were discussed. Firstly, this play has got several religious connotations. The absence of religion in this play’s setting is relevant to China’s current high percentage of atheists. Despite that, several religions, such as Buddhism, Daoism and Christianity, are mentioned in this play. Secondly, the play has also incorporated several Chinese culture and traditions. The use of bicycles as one of the main props can be linked to the cultural significance of bicycles in China. The play also incorporated other cultural and traditional elements such as wedding customaries in China, Xinjiang dance, as well as the Chinese tongue twisters. Finally, the play has incorporated multiple Brechtian moments. Perhaps the Brechtian moments can lead audience to think about the current religious and cultural developments in modern China.

  11. Karl Popper and Jean Piaget: A Rationale for Constructivism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Steve; Cummings, Rhoda; Aberasturi, Suzanne M.

    2006-01-01

    The current faddish use of the term constructivism has taken on as many different definitions as the number of people attempting to define it. This essay clarifies the meaning of constructivism through an examination of Karl Popper's and Jean Piaget's theories. The authors provide a rationale for the use of Popper's paradigm of "Three Worlds" and…

  12. Falsifications and corroborations: Karl Popper's influence on systematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfenbein, Kevin G; DeSalle, Rob

    2005-04-01

    Over the last three decades, the philosophy of Karl Raimund Popper has had a strong influence on the field of systematic biology. Unequivocally, no other philosopher's work has had such an influence during this formative period in systematics. Much, but not all, of the early discourse on Popper and systematics dealt with the philosophical basis of systematics as a science. More recently Popper's work has been discussed in the systematics literature in relation to specific methodologies such as parsimony and maximum likelihood. In this paper, we provide the reader with a concise summary of Popper's ideas relevant to systematics, review the systematic literature invoking or declining Popper's importance to the field, and make a recommendation for the future course of philosophical thinking in systematics. We try to make clear various authors' interpretations of Popper's work and how those interpretations have impacted systematic thought. Although the reader may come away from this review with a clearer idea of Popper's relevance or lack thereof, our primary hope is that the reader will be compelled to question him- or herself about the philosophical basis of the systematic work that he or she does, and to delve into the literature herein cited. We begin by presenting a synopsis of Popper's philosophical views to allow those views to be placed in the context of systematics.

  13. Popper, laws, and the exclusion of biology from genuine science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamos, David N

    2007-01-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to argue that biologists should stop citing Karl Popper on what a genuinely scientific theory is. Various ways in which biologists cite Popper on this matter are surveyed, including the use of Popper to settle debates on methodology in phylogenetic systematics. It is then argued that the received view on Popper--namely, that a genuinely scientific theory is an empirically falsifiable one--is seriously mistaken, that Popper's real view was that genuinely scientific theories have the form of statements of laws of nature. It is then argued that biology arguably has no genuine laws of its own. In place of Popperian falsifiability, it is suggested that a cluster class epistemic values approach (which subsumes empirical falsifiability) is the best solution to the demarcation problem between genuine science and pseudo- or non-science.

  14. Popper e o "efeito Édipo" Popper and the Oedipus effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Barbosa de Oliveira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O tópico do trabalho é o fenômeno denominado por Popper "efeito Édipo", e suas implicações para a epistemologia analítico-positivista, em particular para o Princípio de Unidade da Ciência. Com referência a Popper, a tese defendida é a de que ele não teve sucesso na tentativa de resolver as inconsistências geradas em sua obra pelo reconhecimento da possibilidade do "efeito Édipo" nas ciências humanas.The theme of the paper is the phenomenon which Popper labelled `Oedipus effect', and its implications for the anlytical-positivist epistemology, especially for the Principle of the Unity of Science. As far as Popper is concerned, it is claimed that he was unsuccessful in his attempt to overcome the inconsistencies generated in his work by the acknowledgement of the possibility of the Oedipus effect in the human sciences.

  15. Rheumatoid arthritis, Proteus, anti-CCP antibodies and Karl Popper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebringer, Alan; Rashid, Taha; Wilson, Clyde

    2010-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a crippling joint disease affecting over 20 million people worldwide. The cause of RA is most probably linked to the triad of microbial trigger, genetic association and autoimmunity and can be explained using the philosophical method of Karl Popper or Popperian sequences. Ten "Popper sequences" have been identified which point to the urinary microbe Proteus mirabilis as the cause of RA: Popper sequence 1 establishes that HLA-DR4 lymphocytes injected into a rabbit evoke specific antibodies against Proteus bacteria. Popper sequence 2 establishes that antibodies to Proteus bacteria are present in RA patients from 14 different countries. Popper sequence 3 establishes that antibodies to Proteus bacteria in RA patients are disease specific since no such antibodies are found in other conditions. Popper sequence 4 establishes that when RA patients have high titres of antibodies to Proteus such bacteria are found in urinary cultures. Popper sequence 5 establishes that only Proteus bacteria and no other microbes evoke significantly elevated antibodies in RA patients. Popper sequence 6 establishes that the "shared epitope" EQR(K)RAA shows "molecular mimicry" with the sequence ESRRAL found in Proteus haemolysin. Popper sequence 7 establishes that Proteus urease contains a sequence IRRET which has "molecular mimicry" with LRREI found in collagen XI of hyaline cartilage. Popper sequence 8 establishes that sera obtained from RA patients have cytopathic properties against sheep red cells coated with the cross-reacting EQR(K)RAA and LRREI self-antigen peptides. Popper sequence 9 establishes that Proteus sequences in haemolysin and urease as well as the self antigens, HLA-DR1/4 and collagen XI, each contain an arginine doublet, thereby providing a substrate for peptidyl arginine deiminase (PAD) to give rise to citrulline, which is the main antigenic component of CCP, antibodies to which are found in early cases of RA. Popper sequence 10 establishes that

  16. Realism in the Realized Popper's Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Hunter, G

    2005-01-01

    The realization of Karl Popper's experiment by Shih and Kim (published 1999) produced the result that Popper hoped for: no ``action at a distance'' on one photon of an entangled pair when a measurement is made on the other photon. This experimental result is interpretable in local realistic terms: each photon has a definite position and transverse momentum most of the time; the position measurement on one photon (localization in a slit) disturbs the transverse momentum of that photon in a non-predictable way in accordance with the uncertainty principle; however, there is no effect on the other photon (the photon that is not in a slit) no action at a distance. The position measurement (localization within a slit) of the one photon destroys the coherence (entanglement) between the photons; i.e. decoherence occurs. This can be understood physically as an electromagnetic interaction between the photon in the slit and the electrons of the atoms in the surface of the solid that forms the slit.

  17. A proposed optical test for Popper's challenge to quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reintjes, J.; Bashkansky, Mark

    2016-05-01

    We describe an optical configuration that is predicted to exhibit the behavior described by Popper in his challenge to conventional quantum mechanics. Popper rejected this behavior on the grounds that it was unphysical because it relied on observer knowledge as a causative agent. We offer an interpretation in which the behavior arises simply out of the mode properties of an entangled system. In this interpretation the observer knowledge reveals in which mode an excitation occurs, but does not affect future behavior as asserted by Popper. We also discuss the relation of our system to the quantum eraser.

  18. Realism in the Realized Popper's Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Geoffrey

    2002-12-01

    The realization of Karl Popper's EPR-like experiment by Shih and Kim (published 1999) produced the result that Popper hoped for: no ``action at a distance'' on one photon of an entangled pair when a measurement is made on the other photon. This experimental result is interpretable in local realistic terms: each photon has a definite position and transverse momentum most of the time; the position measurement on one photon (localization within a slit) disturbs the transverse momentum of that photon in a non-predictable way in accordance with the uncertainty principle; however, there is no effect on the other photon (the photon that is not in a slit) no action at a distance. The position measurement (localization within a slit) of the one photon destroys the coherence (entanglement) between the photons; i.e. decoherence occurs. This realistic (albeit retrodictive) interpretation of the Shih-Kim realization of what Popper called his ``crucial experiment'' is in accord with Bohr's original concept of the nature of the uncertainty principle, as being an inevitable effect of the disturbance of the measured system by the measuring apparatus. In this experiment the impact parameter of an incident photon with the centerline of the slit is an uncontrollable parameter of each individual photon scattering event; this impact parameter is variable for every incident photon, the variations being a statistical aspect of the beam of photons produced by the experimental arrangement. These experimental results are also in accord with the proposition of Einstein, Podolski and Rosen's 1935 paper: that quantum mechanics provides only a statistical, physically incomplete, theory of microscopic physical processes, for the quantum mechanical description of the experiment does not describe or explain the individual photon scattering events that are actually observed; the angle by which an individual photon is scattered is not predictable, because the photon's impact parameter with the

  19. Exploring "Extreme" Physics with an Inexpensive Plastic Toy Popper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapp, David R.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an activity that can be performed with an inexpensive plastic toy popper. The activity builds skill at analysing motion and results in the calculation of a surprisingly extreme acceleration. (Contains 1 figure.)

  20. Karl Popper at ninety: Highlights of a lifelong intellectual quest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleri, Franco; van der Merwe, Alwyn

    1991-12-01

    On the occasion of his ninetieth birthday, Karl Popper's lifelong pursuit of answers in several areas of scientific and philosophical thinking is briefly traced, mainly with reference to excerpts from his own writings.

  1. L'influenza di Einstein sul pensiero di Popper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Veronesi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In a BBC radio programme Popper acknowledged his debt to Einstein saying that Einstein’s influence on his thinking was immense and that he mainly made explicit certain points that were implicit in the work of Einstein. In fact, in various writings Einstein presents his critical attitude toward any scientific theory: of particular interest is Einstein’s article «Induktion und Deduktion in der Physik» (1919 that can be considered a concentrate of Popper’s views of science. In the second part of the paper are presented the views of Popper on quantum mechanics and his defense of objectivity and realism. Popper opposes the idea, which he associates with the Copenhagen interpretation, that the theories describing quantum phenomena are about the subjective states of the human observers. Following the lead of Einstein, Popper emphasizes that scientific theories should be interpreted as attempts to describe a mind‐independent reality.

  2. Karl R. Popper, 1992: About the EPR controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combourieu, Marie-Christine

    1992-10-01

    Sir K. R. Popper's experimental schemes challenge the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum theory, principally Heisenberg's indeterminacy relations and the EPR paradox. “The so-called Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox is not a paradox. It is a theoretical statement in expectation of an interpretation,” says K. R. Popper in this interview. “My experiment ought to be a classical experiment. It is very simple and free from any additional assumption. It should really be done.”

  3. "Romeo and Juliet" in the Minneapolis Public Schools: Accurate Text or Bowdlerized Text?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Margaret A.

    In 1984, parents of a Minneapolis, Minnesota, ninth grader came before the school district's "Students' Right to Learn Committee" to object to what they described as a bowdlerized version of "Romeo and Juliet" in the Scott, Foresman text, and the publisher's failure to acknowledge in the text that the play was abridged. The committee concurred…

  4. "Romeo and Juliet." A Play Packet To Accompany "Elementary, My Dear Shakespeare."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engen, Barbara; Campbell, Joy

    Intended for use by elementary school teachers as a supplement to the book, "Elementary, My Dear Shakespeare," or for use by itself to produce a Shakespeare play, this play packet contains ready-to-reproduce materials for the production of "Romeo and Juliet." Materials include: staging suggestions for scenery, props, lighting, and costumes; a…

  5. Shake Up Your Shakespeare: Creative Drama Activities for "Romeo and Juliet."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hett, Dorothy; Haring, Dana

    This paper presents creative drama activities based on Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" for use in ninth-grade English classrooms. The activities are divided into sections on improvisation, pantomime, image-making and creative drama, reader's theater, drama scenes, interior monologue, and producing plays. Each section of the paper presents…

  6. "Music with Her Silver Sound": An Introduction to "Romeo and Juliet."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheaffer, Lloyd E.

    1992-01-01

    Asserts that the key to incorporating music effectively into the English classroom is to provide a context for the music. Describes a teacher's introduction to Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" that demonstrates one way to use music and which helps accomplish the goals of the literary unit. (PRA)

  7. Challenging Normative Sexual and Gender Identity Beliefs through Romeo and Juliet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressler, Paula

    2005-01-01

    Paula Ressler, an English teacher, suggests unconventional ways to work with William Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" in the secondary school English curriculum to challenge normative sexual and gender identity beliefs. Reading queerly to explore non-normative sex and gender identities and reading for social justice have the potential to include…

  8. Nd: Yag laser iridotomy in Shaffer-Etienne grade 1 and 2: angle widening in our case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlesimo, Sandra Cinzia; Di Santo, Luigi; Bruni, Pietro; Librando, Aloisa; Falace, Antonietta Pompea; Barbato, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    AIM To obtain widening of a potentially occludable angle, in according to Kanski's indications, through preventive Nd:Yag laser iridotomy. The observational study was performed by using gonioscopy for the selection and follow-up of 1165 treated eyes and exploiting Shaffer-Etienne gonioscopic classification as a quality/quantity test of the angle recession. METHODS Between September 2000 and July 2012, 586 patients were selected at the Outpatients' Ophthalmological Clinic of the Policlinico Umberto I of Rome in order to undergo Nd: Yag laser iridotomy. A Goldmann type contact lens, Q-switched mode, 2-3 defocus, and 7-9 mJ intensity with 2-3 impulse discharges were used for surgery. RESULTS From as early as the first week, a whole 360° angle widening were evident in the patients, thus showing the success of Nd:Yag laser iridotomy in solving relative pupil block. The angle remained narrow by 270° in 14 eyes only, despite repetitions of further treatment with laser iridotomy in a different part of the iris, twice in 10 eyes and three times in 4 eyes. CONCLUSION Nd:Yag laser iridotomy revealed itself as being a safe and effective treatment in widening those critical Shaffer-Etienne grade 1 and 2 potentially occludable angles. PMID:26309867

  9. Nd: Yag laser iridotomy in Shaffer-Etienne grade 1 and 2: angle widening in our case studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandra; Cinzia; Carlesimo; Luigi; Di; Santo; Pietro; Bruni; Aloisa; Librando; Antonietta; Pompea; Falace; Andrea; Barbato

    2015-01-01

    ·AIM: To obtain widening of a potentially occludable angle, in according to Kanski’s indications, through preventive Nd:Yag laser iridotomy. The observational study was performed by using gonioscopy for the selection and follow-up of 1165 treated eyes and exploiting Shaffer-Etienne gonioscopic classification as a quality/quantity test of the angle recession.·METHODS: Between September 2000 and July 2012,586 patients were selected at the Outpatients’ Ophthalmological Clinic of the Policlinico Umberto I of Rome in order to undergo Nd: Yag laser iridotomy. A Goldmann type contact lens, Q-switched mode, 2-3defocus, and 7-9 m J intensity with 2-3 impulse discharges were used for surgery.·RESULTS: From as early as the first week, a whole360° angle widening were evident in the patients, thus showing the success of Nd:Yag laser iridotomy in solving relative pupil block. The angle remained narrow by 270° in 14 eyes only, despite repetitions of further treatment with laser iridotomy in a different part of the iris, twice in 10 eyes and three times in 4 eyes.·CONCLUSION: Nd:Yag laser iridotomy revealed itself as being a safe and effective treatment in widening those critical Shaffer-Etienne grade 1 and 2 potentially occludable angles.

  10. Nd:Yag laser iridotomy in Shaffer-Etienne grade 1 and 2:angle widening in our case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Cinzia Carlesimo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To obtain widening of a potentially occludable angle, in according to Kanski’s indications, through preventive Nd:Yag laser iridotomy. The observational study was performed by using gonioscopy for the selection and follow-up of 1165 treated eyes and exploiting Shaffer-Etienne gonioscopic classification as a quality/quantity test of the angle recession.METHODS:Between September 2000 and July 2012, 586 patients were selected at the Outpatients’ Ophthalmological Clinic of the Policlinico Umberto I of Rome in order to undergo Nd:Yag laser iridotomy. A Goldmann type contact lens, Q-switched mode, 2-3 defocus, and 7-9 mJ intensity with 2-3 impulse discharges were used for surgery.RESULTS:From as early as the first week, a whole 360° angle widening were evident in the patients, thus showing the success of Nd:Yag laser iridotomy in solving relative pupil block. The angle remained narrow by 270° in 14 eyes only, despite repetitions of further treatment with laser iridotomy in a different part of the iris, twice in 10 eyes and three times in 4 eyes.CONCLUSION:Nd:Yag laser iridotomy revealed itself as being a safe and effective treatment in widening those critical Shaffer-Etienne grade 1 and 2 potentially occludable angles.

  11. 76 FR 315 - Sisters Ranger District; Deschutes National Forest; Oregon; Popper Vegetation Management Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... comments-pacificnorthwest-deschutes-sisters@fs.fed.us . Please put ``Popper Vegetation Management Project... effects will take place. The Popper Vegetation Management Project decision and the reasons for the... Forest Service Sisters Ranger District; Deschutes National Forest; Oregon; Popper Vegetation Management...

  12. Re-writing Popper's philosophy of science for systematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieppel, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the use of Popper's philosophy of science by cladists in their battle against evolutionary and numerical taxonomy. Three schools of biological systematics fiercely debated each other from the late 1960s: evolutionary taxonomy, phenetics or numerical taxonomy, and phylogenetic systematics or cladistics. The outcome of that debate was the victory of phylogenetic systematics/cladistics over the competing schools of thought. To bring about this "cladistic turn" in systematics, the cladists drew heavily on the philosopher K.R. Popper in order to dress up phylogenetic systematics as a hypothetico-deductivist, indeed falsificationist, research program that would put an end to authoritarianism. As the case of the "cladistic revolution" demonstrates, scientists who turn to philosophy in defense of a research program read philosophers with an agenda in mind. That agenda is likely to distort the philosophical picture, as happened to Popper's philosophy of science at the hands of cladists.

  13. Experimental Realization of Popper's Experiment: Violation of Uncertainty Principle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoon-Ho; Yu, Rong; Shih, Yanhua

    An entangled pair of photon 1 and 2 are emitted in opposite directions along the positive and negative x-axis. A narrow slit is placed in the path of photon 1 which provides precise knowledge about its position along the y-axis and because of the quantum entanglement this in turn provides precise knowledge of the position y of its twin, photon 2. Does photon 2 experience a greater uncertainty in its momentum, i.e., a greater Δpy, due to the precise knowledge of its position y? This is the historical thought experiment of Sir Karl Popper which was aimed to undermine the Copenhagen interpretation in favor of a realistic viewpoint of quantum mechanics. Thispaper reports an experimental realization of the Popper's experiment. One may not agree with Popper's position on quantum mechanics; however, it calls for a correct understanding and interpretation of the experimental results.

  14. Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos and Aim-Oriented Empiricism

    CERN Document Server

    Maxwell, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    In this paper I argue that aim-oriented empiricism (AOE), a conception of natural science that I have defended at some length elsewhere, is a kind of synthesis of the views of Popper, Kuhn and Lakatos, but is also an improvement over the views of all three. Whereas Popper's falsificationism protects metaphysical assumptions implicitly made by science from criticism, AOE exposes all such assumptions to sustained criticism, and furthermore focuses criticism on those assumptions most likely to need revision if science is to make progress. Even though AOE is, in this way, more Popperian than Popper, it is also, in some respects, more like the views of Kuhn and Lakatos than falsificationism is. AOE is able, however, to solve problems which Kuhn's and Lakatos's views cannot solve.

  15. "What is it else?" Love's (Con-Text in Romeo and Juliet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliakbari H.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reading Romeo and Juliet from Jacques Derrida's perspective provides us with new insight to Shakespeare's portrayal of love. As an early tragedy, Romeo and Juliet is a study of the nature of love. Many believe that the play still follows the lead of the comedies in presenting its major theme. However, drawing upon Derrida's deconstruction of the play, we have shown that love as an idea, a word, or a nomenclature, follows the same aporetic law of the proper name in that it is split, not unified, contradictory, not lucidly meaningful. We have demonstrated the multiplicity of love's identity despite the universally unifying attributes attached to it by the individual characters inside the play. In short, this reading reveals that identity in general, and the identity of love in particular, is not fixed, that they are products of textuality.

  16. Godiva IV and Juliet Diagnostics CED-1, Rev. 1 (IER-176)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scorby, J C; Myers, W L

    2012-04-11

    The Juliet experiment is currently in preliminary design (IER-128). This experiment will utilize a suite of diagnostics to measure the physical state of the device (temperature, surface motion, stress, etc.) and the total and time rate of change of neutron and gamma fluxes. A variety of potential diagnostics has been proposed in this CED-1 report. Based on schedule and funding, a subset of diagnostics will be selected for testing using the Godiva IV pulsed reactor as a source of neutrons and gammas. The diagnostics development and testing will occur over a two year period (FY12-13) culminating in a final set of diagnostics to be fielded for he Juliet experiment currently proposed for execution in FY15.

  17. Du Liniang And Juliet-On Shakespeare's Play from the Perspective of Tang Xianzu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭蕾吟; 郭峘

    2013-01-01

    Shakespeare and Tang Xianzu, who totally do not affect each, actually have two love plays. According to this feature, in this paper, I analyze these two plays in the changing subject matter, the theme, characters, the structure, play conflicts, tragedy styles and so on which are approximate in the external form——Romeo And Juliet and The Peony Pavilion, and discuss the differ⁃ences of these two plays and the characteristics and rules of east and west plays.It objectively describes the similarities and differ⁃ences on the conflict and rhythm. Romeo And Juliet and The Peony Pavilion are different in structural style and rhythm, because of different artistic character for each type of drama they belong to. It emphasizes similarities and differences of the tragedy style and the end. Chinese classical tragedy and the Shakespeare tragedy. This paper analyzes and contrasts Romeo and Juliet and The Peo⁃ny Pavilion by the methods of comparison and contrast, and demonstrates different characteristics and styles of east and west plays as well as studies the profoundly historical culture behind the plays.

  18. Popper's Third World: Moral Habits, Moral Habitat and Their Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolins, Janis Talivaldis

    2010-01-01

    If we accept Popper's idea that the human habitat is described in terms of three worlds, and that there are overlaps between these three worlds, our moral actions and values will also be subject to the same kinds of consideration as a repertoire of behaviours exhibited in a physical environment. We will develop moral habits in a moral habitat and…

  19. Popper's Fact-Standard Dualism Contra "Value Free" Social Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidlin, Fred H.

    1983-01-01

    Noncognitivism, the belief that normative statements (unlike empirical statements) do not convey objective knowledge is contrasted to Karl Popper's "critical dualism," which maintains that science is imbued with values and value judgments. Noncognitivism impedes the development of a social scientific method which would integrate empirical research…

  20. The dangerous misconceptions of Sir Karl Raimund Popper

    CERN Document Server

    Svozil, K

    2002-01-01

    Insofar as Sir Karl Raimund Popper's writings deal with political statements, they are evident; yet insofar as they deal with scientific issues, they are incorrect and misleading. If applied to the concrete implementation of science, such as distribution of research funds and (peer) review, they would seriously hamper progress.

  1. Popper's Fact-Standard Dualism Contra "Value Free" Social Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidlin, Fred H.

    1983-01-01

    Noncognitivism, the belief that normative statements (unlike empirical statements) do not convey objective knowledge is contrasted to Karl Popper's "critical dualism," which maintains that science is imbued with values and value judgments. Noncognitivism impedes the development of a social scientific method which would integrate…

  2. Popper e a investigação: a metodologia hipotética - dedutiva

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    O objectivo deste artigo é debater o contributo de Popper e da sua metodologia hipotético - dedutiva para a lógica positivista. Traçamos as diferenças entre o racionalismo de Descartes e Popper e o empirismo de Comte e interrogamo-nos como é que um racionalista como Popper poderia aproximar-se em termos científicos de um empirista como Comte. Vamos ao encontro do curso de acção de investigação hipotético - dedutiva com base em Popper e das suas principais influências, nomeadamente David Hume....

  3. O pensamento epistemológico de Karl Popper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz dos Santos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Desde a antiguidade, o critério de demarcação entre o que é ciência e o que não é ciência tem sido discutido. A noção que então se tinha de ciência coincidia com a busca do saber absoluto. Tornava-se necessária, para os pensadores gregos, entre eles, Aristóteles, Pitágoras e Descartes, a consolidação de uma distinção precisa entre o saber contingente e o saber necessário, pois o único discurso que poderia satisfazer às exigências do rigor científico era aquele que apontasse, nos fenômenos, conexões causais cuja necessidade pudesse ser demonstrada. Antes de Popper, o pensamento filosófico ocidental atravessou séculos tentando explicar por que nossas teorias frequentemente estavam erradas. Em sua obra fundamental, A Lógica da Pesquisa Científica, Karl Popper coloca em novos termos a discussão epistemológica ao demonstrar que o erro, em vez de ser um mal que pode ser evitado através do recurso a algum procedimento metodológico específico, constitui componente inevitável de qualquer teoria científica, sendo o motor pelo qual a ciência se move. Buscando captar a lógica do desenvolvimento da ciência, Popper inicia sua exposição destruindo aquele que talvez fosse, de todos os princípios filosóficos, o mais caro aos cientistas e à boa parte dos filósofos de seu tempo: o princípio da indução como método de procedimento científico. Neste artigo, abordam-se alguns dos principais tópicos do pensamento popperiano, como o princípio da indução, a concepção de ciência e a falseabilidade. Também se intenta aduzir alguns debates filosóficos, justapondo às opiniões de Popper e de críticos ao seu pensamento. A contestação aludida ao pensamento popperiano advém do professor Thomas S. Kuhn, da Princeton University. Kuhn objeta à opinião de Popper quando este afirma que o cientista é um solucionador de problemas. Para Kuhn, os cientistas são solucionadores de enigmas e não de problemas. Essa posi

  4. THE MARXISM DECOLONIZED AS DECREASE A CRITICISM OF POPPER HISTORICISM

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    DANIEL ALBERTO SICERONE

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is intended to address the critique of Popper towards historicism, developed from his perspective on philosophy of science, conceiving the link between techno-scientific rationality and instrumental rationality in Popperian philosophy. Methodologically, this works reflects on the hermeneutic of Popper on Marxism as historicism, and the way it affects the question of the category of irrationality in the predictive and controlling analysis of historicism. In this sense, a review and a theoretical contrasting are conducted, and the principal postulates are analyzed. It concludes by doing a deconstruction of the mechanistic interpretation of Marxism and it is established the pertinence of a decolonized Marxism from the rupture of Marx with the Eurocentrism and the critique to the techno-scientific rationality.

  5. Considerations on an Optical Test of Popper's Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Reintjes, J

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of a previously published realization of Popper's experiment using entangled ghost imaging. Our analysis, which is based on optical diffraction integrals, shows that, for the configuration previously described, the transverse spread of an unmeasured particle (the signal photon here) does not increase in inverse proportion to the width of its virtual confinement when its entangled twin is confined in transverse dimension by a physical slit. Rather we show that the spread of the unmeasured particle carries no dependence on the width of its virtual confinement in the published configuration. Instead, it spreads geometrically at a rate determined by the numerical aperture of the ghost imaging system. We further propose an alternative configuration for which the spread of the unmeasured particle does increase in inverse proportion to the width of its virtual confinement. We discuss the relation of these results to the predictions of Popper.

  6. Considerations on an optical test of Popper's experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reintjes, J.; Bashkansky, Mark

    2016-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of a previously published realization of Popper's experiment using entangled ghost imaging. Our analysis, which is based on optical diffraction integrals, shows that, for the configuration previously described, the transverse spread of an unmeasured particle (the signal photon here) does not increase in inverse proportion to the width of its virtual confinement when its entangled twin (the idler photon) is confined in a transverse dimension by a physical slit. Rather, we show that the spread of the unmeasured particle carries no dependence on the width of its virtual confinement in the published configuration. Instead, it spreads geometrically at a rate determined by the numerical aperture of the ghost imaging system. We further propose an alternative configuration for which the spread of the unmeasured particle does increase in inverse proportion to the width of its virtual confinement. We discuss the relation of these results to the predictions of Popper.

  7. Progresso Científico e Verdade em Popper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth de Assis Dias

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho pretende mostrar que, para solucionar a questão da possibilidade do progresso científico, Popper precisou introduzir a ideia de verdade no âmbito de sua teoria da ciência. Essa concepção de progresso, em termos da noção de verdade, só será delineada na obra Conjectura e refutações (1963, pois a ideia de que o alvo da ciência é a verdade ainda não aparece teorizada em suas primeiras obras. Quando Popper escreveu sua A lógica da pesquisa científica(1934, a ciência era definida em termos de regras lógico-metodológicas e não de suas metas. O avanço científico é concebido a partir das noções de testabilidade e de corroborabilidade das teorias, exigências lógicometodológicas para que uma teoria seja considerada como científica. Popper não relacionou a questão do progresso científico à noção de verdade, nessa obra, porque, quando a escreveu, não dispunha de uma consistente teoria da verdade. Foi somente após Tarski ter escrito seu artigo sobre a concepção semântica da verdade que Popper, tendo por base essa concepção de verdade, pôde complementar as suas teses sobre o progresso da ciência, expostas em sua A lógica da pesquisa cientifica, com uma teoria acerca do conteúdo de verdade e da aproximação da verdade.

  8. Le radici dell'epistemologia evoluzionistica: Popper, Campbell e Lorenz

    OpenAIRE

    Debernardi,, C

    2015-01-01

    Il presente lavoro intende tracciare un’analisi storico-critica dell’epistemologia evoluzionistica, prendendo in esame le opere di Konrad Lorenz, Karl Raimund Popper e Donald T. Campbell, dopo averle inserite all’interno di una linea storica che risale al pensiero ed all’opera di Charles Darwin. L’epistemologia evoluzionistica, secondo la quale la conoscenza deve essere intesa primariamente come un prodotto dell’evoluzione biologica e considera quindi l’evoluzione biologica come la precond...

  9. Stability of Ruddlesden–Popper-structured oxides in humid conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtimäki, M.; Yamauchi, H.; Karppinen, M., E-mail: maarit.karppinen@aalto.fi

    2013-08-15

    Some of layered transition-metal oxides are known to react with atmospheric humidity to form through topotactic intercalation reactions new water-containing layered structures. Here we investigate the influence of oxygen content (7−δ) of the Ruddlesden–Popper-structured Sr{sub 3}FeMO{sub 7−δ} (M=Ni, Mn, Ti) oxides on the water-intercalation reaction. It is found that their oxygen contents influence greatly the reactivity of the phases with water. Other factors possibly affecting the reactivity are discussed on the basis of the present data in combination with a comprehensive review of previous works on Ruddlesden–Popper and related layered oxide phases. - Graphical abstract: Many of the Ruddlesden–Popper-structured A{sub 3}B{sub 2}O{sub 7−δ} oxides readily react with water via intercalation reactions. Three possible factors affecting the water intercalation are identified: oxygen content of the phase, ionic radius of cation A and valence state of cation B. The resultant layered water-derivative phases can be categorised into two groups, depending on the crystal symmetry of the phase. Highlights: • Ruddlesden–Popper oxides A{sub 3}B{sub 2}O{sub 7−δ} often accommodate water via intercalation reaction. • The lower the oxygen content 7−δ is the more readily the intercalation reaction occurs. • The second factor promoting the reaction is the large size of cation A. • The third possible factor is the high valence state of cation B. • Resultant water-derivatives can be categorised into two groups depending on symmetry.

  10. Claire Danes's Star-Body, Teen Female Viewers and the Pluralisation of Authorship in Baz Luhrmann's "William Shakespeare's Romeo + Juliet"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keam, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Teaching William Shakespeare's canonical tragedy "Romeo and Juliet" to teenagers in the context of the English classroom in Australia is not a particularly new pedagogical practice. In the year 2008, when many teachers (particularly those with a feminist bent such as I) are intent on guiding their students to decipher the ideological…

  11. Claire Danes's Star-Body, Teen Female Viewers and the Pluralisation of Authorship in Baz Luhrmann's "William Shakespeare's Romeo + Juliet"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keam, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Teaching William Shakespeare's canonical tragedy "Romeo and Juliet" to teenagers in the context of the English classroom in Australia is not a particularly new pedagogical practice. In the year 2008, when many teachers (particularly those with a feminist bent such as I) are intent on guiding their students to decipher the ideological motivations…

  12. Claire Danes's Star-Body, Teen Female Viewers and the Pluralisation of Authorship in Baz Luhrmann's "William Shakespeare's Romeo + Juliet"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keam, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Teaching William Shakespeare's canonical tragedy "Romeo and Juliet" to teenagers in the context of the English classroom in Australia is not a particularly new pedagogical practice. In the year 2008, when many teachers (particularly those with a feminist bent such as I) are intent on guiding their students to decipher the ideological…

  13. luz de la filosofía de Popper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Harada Olivares

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se sostiene que Karl R. Popper planteó la ‘tesis de la carga teórica de la observación’ antes que algunos de los filósofos de la ciencia considerados ‘pospositivistas’ (Hanson, Kuhn y Feyerabend, pues en Lógica de la investigación (1934 presenta argumentos a favor de esta tesis basados en la práctica científica real y de tipo lógico-lingüístico. De hecho, esta tesis se puede encontrar desde Los dos problemas fundamentales de la teoría del conocimiento (1930-1933, pues en ese manuscrito, apoyado en psicólogos biologicistas, Popper presenta algo semejante a su posterior ‘epistemología evolutiva’. Se explica que Popper al plantear un enfoque pragmático y biológico del conocimiento llega a la conclusión de que existe una ‘carga valorativa en la observación’ y que, por tanto, no es posible una ‘neutralidad valorativa’ en el conocimiento o la ciencia, pues los valores son, precisamente, su condición de posibilidad.

  14. Popper's Theory of the Searchlight : A Historical Assessment of Its Significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Hark, Michel; Parusnikova, Z; Cohen, R

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of a correspondence between Karl Popper and the Dutch psychologist Adriaan de Groot, it is argued that the former's epistemology of the searchlight is historically rooted in early cognitive psychology of Otto Selz. It is furthermore argued that Popper's later critique of information

  15. Over de werkelijkheid van drie werelden : een pleidooi voor en een herziening van Poppers Driewereldentheorie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veening, Eite Pieter

    1998-01-01

    This book is an attempt to present a coherent and relevant reconstruction, expansion and revision of Karl Popper's Three-World-Theory (abbreviated to 3Wt). This theory is part of Popper's (rare) metaphysical work; he developed it in the sixties and he referred to it in a number of his later publicat

  16. The Work of Popper and Kuhn on the Nature of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, James

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the work of T. S. Kuhn and Sir Karl Popper. Current views on the nature of science and some current ideology of scientific education are also analyzed with regard to the views of science due to Kuhn and Popper. (HM)

  17. Popper's Theory of the Searchlight : A Historical Assessment of Its Significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Hark, Michel; Parusnikova, Z; Cohen, R

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of a correspondence between Karl Popper and the Dutch psychologist Adriaan de Groot, it is argued that the former's epistemology of the searchlight is historically rooted in early cognitive psychology of Otto Selz. It is furthermore argued that Popper's later critique of information pro

  18. El racionalismo crítico de Karl Popper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis María Delio Machado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo, pretende acercar algunos de los aspectos más importantes del pensamiento de uno de los filósofos más destacados de nuestro tiempo: Sir Karl Popper. Su presencia atraviesa nuestro siglo, presentándose como una de las voces visionarias y anticipadoras que se alzaron críticamente, contra toda actitud o acción que estuviese fundada en lo dogmático y que tuviese como finalidad, el olvido o la superación del individuo, aunque dicho olvido estuviese "justificado" por oraculares "bienes o fines superiores". (... 

  19. Experimental realization of Popper's Experiment Violation of the Uncertainty Principle?

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y H; Kim, Yoon-Ho; Shih, Yanhua

    1999-01-01

    An entangled pair of photons (1 and 2) are emitted to opposite directions. A narrow slit is placed in the path of photon 1 to provide precise knowledge of its position on the $y$ axis and this also determines the precise $y$ position of its twin, photon 2, due to quantum entanglement. Is photon 2 going to experience a greater uncertainty in momentum, i.e., a greater $\\Delta p_{y}$, due to the precise knowledge of its position $y$? The experimental data shows historical thought experiment of Karl Popper signal a violation of the uncertainty principle?

  20. Una interpretación milenarista de Karl Popper

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Vives, Jaume

    2002-01-01

    En Este Artículo Propongo Una Relectura De Las Dos Primeras Obras De Popper Enmateria De Filosofía Política (La Sociedad Abierta Y Sus Enemigos Y La Miseriadel Historicismo) En Clave Historicista Y Milenarista. A Pesar De Sus Críticas Alos Intentos De Atribuir Un Carácter Teleológico A La Historia, Se Puedeninterpretar Estas Dos Obras Como Una Nueva Versión De La Promesa Mesiánica Deladvenimiento De Un Mundo Mejor. La Fundamentación Ética De Su Filosofía Estápresente En Esta Nueva Lectura De ...

  1. Popper, Rationality and the Possibility of Social Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Frederick

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Social science employs teleological explanations which depend upon the rationality principle, according to which people exhibit instrumental rationality. Popper points out that people also exhibit critical rationality, the tendency to stand back from, and to question or criticise, their views. I explain how our critical rationality impugns the explanatory value of the rationality principle and thereby threatens the very possibility of social science. I discuss the relationship between instrumental and critical rationality and show how we can reconcile our critical rationality with the possibility of social science if we invoke Popper’s conception of limited rationality and his indeterminism.

  2. “By Looking Liking”: Baz Luhrmann’S William Shakespeare’S Romeo+Juliet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinpoeş Nicoleta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty years since its release onto the big screen, Baz Luhrmann’s William Shakespeare’s Romeo + Juliet continues to attract viewers, divide critics and remain unchallenged, in a league of its own, when it comes to film adaptation of Shakespeare’s plays. This article begins with taking stock of reception directions which still dispute the field of film adaptation. Cued by Worthen’s “Performance Paradigm”, my argument positions Luhrmann’s film (his second at the time and the one to propel the Australian director into Hollywood fame firmly in the cinematic and sees the film narrative not as opposed to the textual and/or spoken one, but as a complex citational practice developed at the level of oral, visual and written discourse.

  3. Hard Love-The Comparison between Romeo and Juliet and Under the Hawthorn Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张倩; 张露

    2013-01-01

    Although the two stories occurred under distinctive era with different social background, both of Romeo and Juliet and Under the hawthorn tree are, to some extent, regarded as tragic romance. From the perspective of humanism, the essay at⁃tempts to analyze the inevitability of the tragic love. At the background of European Renaissance, who declared that human born with right of pursuing happiness, freedom and equality; Chinese Cultural Revolution was an era which constrained the humanity by morality and law. Love is thought to be as an eternal topic. Under the circumstances of European Renaissance and Chinese Cultural Revolution, flipping the new chapters of arts’renovation, became the thruster of these two hard love stories.

  4. Parody and the gas station in William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avital G. Cykman

    2017-01-01

    Baz Luhrmann’s 1996 film, William Shakespeare'sRomeo and Juliet, is a pop-culture adaptation of the late sixteenth-century play. The cross-references and transgression of allusions and their postmodern subversive statement along with the extreme intensity with which these elements appear in act one, scene one, and especially in the scene placed at a gas station produce a self-directed irony, a cutting-edge, if playful combination of references that define it as parody in the postmodern sense. Hence, this article examines act one, scene one with a special attention to the gas station sequence, and analyzes it in the light of scholarly definitions of postmodern parody by Linda Hutcheon, John W. Duvall and Douglas Lanier, and of pastiche by Fredric Jameson. Once the hypothesis of parody is established, the article analyzes what the film parodies and in what ways, and what the objective and the impact of the applied humor are.

  5. The European Herbal Medicines Directive: could it have saved the lives of Romeo and Juliet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Philip A

    2008-01-01

    need to be aware that 'natural' does not necessarily mean 'safe' in all circumstances. They should be fully informed about all medicines they take. Consideration also needs to be given to effective regulation of herbal medicines practitioners, so that they are identifiable in law, are governed by professional codes of practice and have agreed standards of training and competency. There are many references to herbal medicines in Shakespeare's tragedy, Romeo and Juliet, which was written around 1595. A herbal medicine (distilled liquor) was almost certainly used to put Juliet into a deep sleep. A poison, possibly of herbal origin, was used by Romeo to take his own life when he thought his beloved Juliet was dead, rather than sleeping. While European herbal medicines regulation seeks to protect the public health by ensuring the necessary guarantees of quality, safety and efficacy, it was poor communication that appears to have triggered the chain of events leading to the death of Romeo and Juliet. Good communication between regulators, practitioners, patients and the public is necessary so that those who choose to take herbal medicines can do so with acceptable safety.

  6. Poppers use and risky sexual behaviors among men who have sex with men in Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heng; Teng, Tao; Lu, Hongyan; Zhao, Yuejuan; Liu, Hongjie; Yin, Lu; Sun, Zheya; He, Xiong; Qian, Han-Zhu; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming; Vermund, Sten H.

    2017-01-01

    Background Although poppers are increasingly popular among MSM in China, little is known about the patterns of poppers use. The objectives of this study were to describe the patterns of poppers use and examine its association with sexual behaviors and HIV infection among MSM in Beijing, China. Methods As part of a multi-component HIV intervention trial, 3588 MSM were surveyed between March 2013 and March 2014 in Beijing, China. Blood samples were collected and tested for HIV and syphilis. The questionnaire collected information about socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the correlates of poppers use. Results Over a quarter of men (27.5%) reported having used at least one type of drugs in the past three months. Poppers were the most popular one (26.8%). Poppers use was correlated with a higher HIV prevalence [odds ratio (OR): 1.38, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11–1.70]. Demographic and sexual behavioral factors associated with poppers use included: younger age [adjusted OR (AOR): 1.56, 95% CI: 1.25–1.94], higher education (AOR: 1.61, 95% CI: 1.33–1.96), alcohol use (AOR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.10–1.60), seeking male partners mainly via the internet (AOR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.28–2.00), multiple male sex partnership (AOR: 2.22, 95% CI: 1.90–2.60), and unprotected receptive anal intercourse (AOR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.28–1.81). Conclusions In this study, poppers use was positively associated with HIV infection and unprotected anal intercourse. Intervention efforts should be devoted to promote safer sex and HIV testing and counseling among MSM who use poppers. PMID:26796594

  7. Testing the null hypothesis: the forgotten legacy of Karl Popper?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Mick

    2013-01-01

    Testing of the null hypothesis is a fundamental aspect of the scientific method and has its basis in the falsification theory of Karl Popper. Null hypothesis testing makes use of deductive reasoning to ensure that the truth of conclusions is irrefutable. In contrast, attempting to demonstrate the new facts on the basis of testing the experimental or research hypothesis makes use of inductive reasoning and is prone to the problem of the Uniformity of Nature assumption described by David Hume in the eighteenth century. Despite this issue and the well documented solution provided by Popper's falsification theory, the majority of publications are still written such that they suggest the research hypothesis is being tested. This is contrary to accepted scientific convention and possibly highlights a poor understanding of the application of conventional significance-based data analysis approaches. Our work should remain driven by conjecture and attempted falsification such that it is always the null hypothesis that is tested. The write up of our studies should make it clear that we are indeed testing the null hypothesis and conforming to the established and accepted philosophical conventions of the scientific method.

  8. Fishy Hearing: A Short Biography of Arthur N. Popper, PhD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, Allison B

    2016-01-01

    Biologist Dr. Arthur Popper's career spans decades, from his early work on comparative inner ear morphology in fishes to his recent interest in how underwater noise impacts aquatic vertebrates. Along the way Dr. Popper's research subjects span at least 19 vertebrate taxa, from lamprey to lungfish to humans, and he's had a profound influence in the field of fish bioacoustics. This brief biography describes some of Dr. Popper's many contributions to fish hearing research and highlights both some of his major discoveries and some of the biological mysteries he has yet to solve.

  9. Popper and Dingle on special relativity and the issue of symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Allen Clark

    2012-02-01

    Karl Popper and Herbert Dingle engaged in a fascinating debate concerning the kind of theory the special theory of relativity is. One of the issues was whether applications of the theory could be made consistent with the principle of relativity, a cornerstone of the theory itself. The principle of relativity seems to imply some sort of symmetry in results obtained for similar experiments as observed in two different inertial reference frames. Peter Hayes has recently dealt with the Dingle-Popper debate on this matter, as well as other issues. The present paper seeks to clarify what kind of symmetry is appropriate in a situation discussed by Popper, Dingle, and Hayes.

  10. A soul of truth in things erroneous: Popper's "amateurish" evolutionary philosophy in light of contemporary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchi, Davide; Baravalle, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    This paper will critically assess Popper's evolutionary philosophy. There exists a rich literature on the topic with which we have many reservations. We believe that Popper's evolutionary philosophy should be assessed in light of the intriguing theoretical insights offered, during the last 10 years or so, by the philosophy of biology, evolutionary biology and molecular biology. We will argue that, when analysed in this manner, Popper's ideas concerning the nature of selection, Lamarckism and the theoretical limits of neo-Darwinism can be appreciated in their full biological and philosophical value.

  11. La Délinquance Idéologique: Sony Labou Tansi and the Political Love Story of Romeo and Juliet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebekah Bale

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses an adaptation of William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet, (La Résurrection Rouge et Blanche de Romeo et Juliette- 'The Red and White Revival of Romeo and Juliet' by the Congolese writer Sony Labou Tansi. It examines the consequences of a focus on the political frame of the narrative. Sony's version is an indictment of a monstrous and hyper-violent political system in which the only choice left is the manner of one’s death. Sony uses the play as a means to interrogate a society that focuses on the political fetishization of violent dictatorships and nihilistic choices. With a radical shift in focus, Sony’s work also requires the audience / reader to consider the necessity of theatre and, by extension, the power under which it operates. Sony’s language in this adaptation gives the story of Romeo and Juliet, a post-colonial framework as well as an urgent political message. The analysis concludes that the adaptation presents the conventional love story as a political tragedy of the post-colonial condition.

  12. Some epistemology ́s elements of Social Science by Karl PopperAlguns elementos da Epistemolgia da Ciências Sociais de Karl Popper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Rodrigues Pereira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the main elements of the epistemology of human sciences of Karl Popper. It was organized as follows. First, we positioned ourselves in the Popper-Adorno controversy. Then weestablished the parameters of discussion, particularly in regards to the idea of “scientific explanation”. Some elements of Popper’s Theory of Knowledge are then analyzed. The final part discusses thescientific parameters of Social Sciences.Este artigo discute os principais elementos da epistemologia das ciências humanas de Karl Popper. Foi organizado como segue. Em primeiro lugar, nos posionamos sobre a  polêmica Popper-Adorno. Então, nós estabelecemos os parâmetros de discussão, nomeadamente no que respeita a idéia de "explicação científica". A seguir são analisados alguns elementos da Teoria do Conhecimento de Popper. A parte final discute os parâmetros científicos de Ciências Sociais

  13. Popper's Epistemology as a Pedagogic and Didactic Principle, or: Let Them Make More "Mistakes."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkse, W.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the relationship of Popper's theory of knowledge to chemistry instruction. Suggests that students be allowed to learn from their mistakes and presents five experiments with an implicit falsification purpose. (JN)

  14. "Bewitching" or confusing methaphysics? The demarcation between science and metaphysics according to Karl Popper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elaine Botha

    1986-03-01

    Full Text Available The problems of both classical and modern theory of knowledge, according to Popper, reside in the problem of demarcation: a problem closely re­ lated to the problem of induction. The paper argues the view that Popper's view of metaphysics is ambiguous, requiring another criterion to distinguish between "good " and "bad " metaphysics. The sources of the problem are pinpointed, and Popper's distinction between three types of theory outlined. The article then explores the distinction between types of theories and the issues of falsification, testability and refutation, before going on to a consideration of the relationship between science and metaphysics, and w eighing up the issue of good ancid metaphysics. From this emerges clearly that the second "criterionot demarcation" is needed to make precisely this distinction; also in view of Popper's u n ­ clear, even ambiguous, view of metaphysics.

  15. The \\c{hi}2-test, the Muon AMM and Karl R. Popper

    CERN Document Server

    Iurato, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    In this very brief note, we only wish to identify a simple but notable epistemological basis, concerning the Karl R. Popper philosophy of science thought, into the realm of the experimental proves of Fundamental Physics.

  16. El nacimiento de "La sociedad abierta y sus enemigos", de Karl Popper

    OpenAIRE

    Kieseweter, H. (Hubert)

    2005-01-01

    This paper, relying in particular upon the correspondence from Popper to Gombrich, deals with the history of the publication of The Open Society and its Enemies in Routledge. Special attention is paid to the history of the tittle.

  17. FILSAFAT ILMU KARL R. POPPER DAN THOMAS S. KUHN SERTA IMPLIKASINYA DALAM PENGAJARAN ILMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slamet Subekti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses about philosophy of science according to Karl R. Popper and Thomas S. Kuhn. There are similarities and differences between their views about how progress and what function of science.Apparently both Popper and Kuhn agree that science does not proceed by induction. However Kuhn disagrees with the view that science progresses by falsifiability through conjectures and refutations, but occurance by paradigm shift. Popper and Kuhn’s disagreement amounted to a distinction between two functions within the practice of science, one of criticism (Popper and one of puzzle solving (Kuhn.Science education implies the teaching and learning of science interesting and fruitful in one hand, and teachers should be role models to students in the other hand

  18. Subjetividad y Neurofisiología en la perspectiva biológica de Karl Popper

    OpenAIRE

    Pavón Rodríguez, Manuel

    1998-01-01

    El Tratamiento De Popper Acerca Del Problema Mente-Cerebro, Se Centra En Dosaspectos: Defensa De La Realidad De La Mente; Oposicion Al Materialismo. Laoposicion De Popper A La Reduccion De Lo Subjetivo A Cerebro (Y Por Lo Tanto Surechazo Del Fisicalismo Y Del Monismo Psicofisico) Se Debe A Que Considera Almaterialismo Una Mala Metafisica Para La Biologia. Una Metafisica Con La Que Nopuede Comprenderse Lo Biologico. Para El, Es Esencial Introducir En Laconcepcion Biologica La Nocion De Lo Exos...

  19. Karl Raimund Popper: Problem Neopositivistik dan Teori Kritis Falsifikasi

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    M. Syamsul Huda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Karl Popper once criticizes the positivistic paradigm by means of what he calls the theory of falsification. To him, the positivistic paradigm constitutes a failure simply because it cannot distinguish between science and prude science, that is, between empirical method and non-empirical method. In the scientific knowledge, empirical science, mathematics and logic must be differentiated, something that the positivistic paradigm has failed to do. This paradigm furthermore, did not have a clear picture what logic-based science is, empirical knowledge and psychology of knowledge. It also fails to properly understand knowledge that springs from tradition, emotion, authority and so forth. All positivistic paradigms such as that of Karl Max’s Historicism, Freud’s theory of Psycho Analysis, Adler’s theory of Individual Analysis and Newton’s theory of Gravitation fall into this trap of failure.

  20. The psychology of thinking, animal psychology, and the young Karl Popper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Hark, Michel

    2004-01-01

    In the 1920s, Karl Popper wrote two large manuscripts on psychology that he never published. In his autobiography, Unended Quest, he attempts to reduce the importance of his work in psychology as much as possible, and in his philosophical work he is an antipsychologist. However, in this article, it is argued that Popper's early psychology has been pivotally important for the development of his philosophy. In particular, it is shown that Popper's views on psychology underwent a radical shift, one that paved the way for his characteristic deductive stance in philosophy. Popper's views shifted from an inductive and associationistic psychology toward a noninductive psychology of problem solving. Tracing the historical background of Popper's early work reveals how he integrated various parts of the psychology of Karl Groos into his analysis of the childish phenomenon of dogmatic thinking and how he shortly after appropriated various elements of the animal psychology of Hans Volkelt and Herbert Jennings in his biological approach to (dogmatic) thinking. In the monumental works of Otto Selz, however, Popper finally found the roots of a noninductive and biological approach to the growth of individual and scientific knowledge.

  1. Translating Proper Names in the Vietnamese Translation of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet

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    Nhan V. Luong,

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cultural differences are always the great challenges for translators in the translation process. When dealing with cultural barrier, metaphor is a typical struggle, in which Proper names necessitate consideration because the translation might cause confused and misunderstood as well as negative feelings of the readers to the original text. A name can be popular used in a source culture (SC or a country but too strange or the taboo in a target culture (TC. This study, by applying both qualitative and quantitative research methods, has described and compared the translations of proper names in the Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet and its Vietnamese translation by Dang The Binh. The findings reveal that besides similarities, when using popular proper names, English and Vietnamese cultures have many different names that require careful analysis and understanding of the translator. It is concluded that foreignization and domestication should be applied flexibly in order to introduce a friendly translation that honors both the SC and the TC.

  2. Equivalence in the Vietnamese Translation of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet

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    Van Nhan Luong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Equivalence has been the central concern in Translation Studies and always challenges the translator’s abilities. Equivalence is also the factor determining the closeness of target text (TT to the source text (ST. By applying the theories suggested by Vinay and Darbelnet, Nida and Taber, Catford, Baker, House and Pym, as well as the qualitative method to describe the semantic features of the ST and the TT, this study has investigated and compared the Shakespeare’s English and the Vietnamese translation of Romeo and Juliet by Dang The Binh to find out the levels of equivalence in regards to semantic features. It has been found that both objective and subjective factors, in which language differences, culture and the translator’s ability are the keys affecting the orientation of choosing equivalents of the translator. It is, therefore, no unique type of equivalence in the Vietnamese translation, but the mixture of dynamic equivalence and formal equivalence. As a result, the translation is partly covert and also partly overt.

  3. Research on Poppers Used as Electrical Connectors in High Speed Textile Transmission Lines

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    Leśnikowski Jacek

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results of research on poppers used as electrical connectors connecting fragments of textile signal lines. These lines can be used in intelligent clothing for connecting electronic modules implemented in it. Intelligent (smart clothing can be used, among others, in the health monitoring of the elderly, newborn babies, or people working in hazardous conditions, for example, firefighters and soldiers. The aim of the present study was to examine the usefulness of poppers, widely used in clothing, as electrical connectors connecting parts of the textile signal lines designed for transmission of high-speed digital signals. The paper presents examples of measured parameters characterizing transmission properties of two fragments of the coplanar, textile transmission line connected to each other using conventional poppers. The presented measurement results contain the so-called s parameters, characteristic impedance of the poppers, and eye measurements characterizing distortions of digital signals passing through the tested line. In the article, the effect of temperature and humidity of air surrounding the tested poppers on their characteristic impedance was also presented. This property and its stability are important in signal lines designed for high-speed data transmission.

  4. Learning within the Worlds of Reifications, Selves, and Phenomena: Expanding on the Thinking of Vygotsky and Popper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, David Wei Loong; Chen, Der-Thanq

    2008-01-01

    A framework, termed the RSP, is proposed. It is mainly for analyzing and explaining how learning occurs. This framework is grounded in the social-cultural perspective, in particular, in the thinking of both Vygotsky and Popper. Although the thinking of Popper is generally not referred to as having a social-cultural orientation, mostly due to…

  5. Thermoelectric behavior of Ruddlesden-Popper series iridates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallecchi, I; Buscaglia, M T; Buscaglia, V; Gilioli, E; Lamura, G; Telesio, F; Cimberle, M R; Marré, D

    2016-02-17

    The goal of this work is to study the evolution of thermoelectric transport across the members of the Ruddlesden-Popper series iridates [Formula: see text], where a metal-insulator transition driven by bandwidth change occurs, from the strongly insulating Sr2IrO4 to the metallic non Fermi liquid behavior of SrIrO3. Sr2IrO4 ([Formula: see text]), Sr3Ir2O7 ([Formula: see text]) and SrIrO3 ([Formula: see text]) polycrystals are synthesized at high pressure and characterized by structural, magnetic, electric and thermoelectric transport analyses. We find a complex thermoelectric phenomenology in the three compounds. Thermal diffusion of charge carriers accounts for the Seebeck behavior of Sr2IrO4, whereas additional drag mechanisms come into play in determining the Seebeck temperature dependence of Sr3Ir2O7 and SrIrO3. These findings reveal a close relationship between magnetic, electronic and thermoelectric properties, strong coupling of charge carriers with phonons and spin fluctuations as well as the relevance of multiband description in these compounds.

  6. Creating Ruddlesden-Popper phases by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haislmaier, Ryan C.; Stone, Greg; Alem, Nasim; Engel-Herbert, Roman

    2016-07-01

    The synthesis of a 50 unit cell thick n = 4 Srn+1TinO3n+1 (Sr5Ti4O13) Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phase film is demonstrated by sequentially depositing SrO and TiO2 layers in an alternating fashion using hybrid molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), where Ti was supplied using titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). A detailed calibration procedure is outlined for determining the shuttering times to deposit SrO and TiO2 layers with precise monolayer doses using in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) as feedback. Using optimized Sr and TTIP shuttering times, a fully automated growth of the n = 4 RP phase was carried out over a period of >4.5 h. Very stable RHEED intensity oscillations were observed over the entire growth period. The structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that a constant periodicity of four SrTiO3 perovskite unit cell blocks separating the double SrO rocksalt layer was maintained throughout the entire film thickness with a very little amount of planar faults oriented perpendicular to the growth front direction. These results illustrate that hybrid MBE is capable of layer-by-layer growth with atomic level precision and excellent flux stability.

  7. Creating Ruddlesden-Popper phases by hybrid molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haislmaier, Ryan C.; Stone, Greg; Alem, Nasim; Engel-Herbert, Roman, E-mail: rue2@psu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2016-07-25

    The synthesis of a 50 unit cell thick n = 4 Sr{sub n+1}Ti{sub n}O{sub 3n+1} (Sr{sub 5}Ti{sub 4}O{sub 13}) Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phase film is demonstrated by sequentially depositing SrO and TiO{sub 2} layers in an alternating fashion using hybrid molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), where Ti was supplied using titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP). A detailed calibration procedure is outlined for determining the shuttering times to deposit SrO and TiO{sub 2} layers with precise monolayer doses using in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) as feedback. Using optimized Sr and TTIP shuttering times, a fully automated growth of the n = 4 RP phase was carried out over a period of >4.5 h. Very stable RHEED intensity oscillations were observed over the entire growth period. The structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy revealed that a constant periodicity of four SrTiO{sub 3} perovskite unit cell blocks separating the double SrO rocksalt layer was maintained throughout the entire film thickness with a very little amount of planar faults oriented perpendicular to the growth front direction. These results illustrate that hybrid MBE is capable of layer-by-layer growth with atomic level precision and excellent flux stability.

  8. A tale of three theories: Feyerabend and Popper on progress and the aim of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambolo, Luca

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, three theories of progress and the aim of science are discussed: (i) the theory of progress as increasing explanatory power, advocated by Popper in The logic of scientific discovery (1935/1959); (ii) the theory of progress as approximation to the truth, introduced by Popper in Conjectures and refutations (1963); (iii) the theory of progress as a steady increase of competing alternatives, which Feyerabend put forward in the essay "Reply to criticism. Comments on Smart, Sellars and Putnam" (1965) and defended as late as the last edition of Against method (1993). It is argued that, contrary to what Feyerabend scholars have predominantly assumed, Feyerabend's changing attitude towards falsificationism-which he often advocated at the beginning of his career, and vociferously attacked in the 1970s and 1980s-must be explained by taking into account not only Feyerabend's very peculiar view of the aim of science, but also Popper's changing account of progress.

  9. Karl R. Popper'ın Tarihsicilik Eleştirisi

    OpenAIRE

    Rıza Bakış; Eyüp Alsancak

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Karl R. Popper is an important philosopher of science of 20th Century and is known in this field through his theory of falsification. But the critical theory of rationality is indeed his basic theory and it can be seen in his whole idea.  Critique of historicism also contains his views on the social and political philosophy in a systematic context in relation to them. Popper embodied his views about the historicism through human-centered thoughts of philosophers such as Plato, Arist...

  10. Una lectura de la crítica de Popper al psicoanálisis

    OpenAIRE

    Azcona, Maximiliano

    2015-01-01

    Enmarcado en una investigación sobre aspectos epistemológicos del psicoanálisis, este escrito comunica algunos resultados parciales sobre un sub-tema específico de la misma: las críticas de Karl Popper al psicoanálisis. El objetivo de este trabajo es argumentar a favor de la siguiente tesis: la objeción de pseudociencia antepuesta por Popper al psicoanálisis ha sido, desde su formulación original, enteramente desacertada; y su razón de ser obedece a intereses no epistémicos que deben ubicarse...

  11. REALISMO E PLURALISMO: A FILOSOFIA DA CIÊNCIA DE KARL R. POPPER

    OpenAIRE

    Mateus Romanini

    2012-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem por objetivo principal apresentar uma interpretação da obra de Karl Raimund Popper que leva em consideração dois problemas e suas respectivas soluções propostas pelo autor. Primeiramente buscar-se-á tratar do problema que emerge do debate sobre que entidades podem ser consideradas reais, a saber, se e como entidades abstratas interagem com o mundo físico. Popper não aceita as posições monistas e dualistas porque ambas levam ao determinismo. Assim, para r...

  12. [Popper and the problem of induction in epidemiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banegas, J R; Rodríguez Artalejo, F; del Rey Calero, J

    2000-01-01

    In this article we are discussing a few of the contributions by the Austro-British philosopher Karl R. Popper, one of our most influential contemporary thinkers, whose epistemological and socio-political theories have also penetrated the sphere of epidemiology. We are focusing mainly on the so-called problem of induction. We sustain, in line with Popper, that the scientific method does not use inductive reasoning, but rather hypothetical-deductive reasoning. Although the movement from the data evaluating a hypothesis to a conclusion on the latter goes from the specific to the general, that is, in an inductive direction, the induction does not exist as a reasoning process or inference. That is, there is no method that enables us to infer or to verify hypotheses or theories (we cannot explore all of the possible situations to see whether the theory stands up), or even to render them very probable. Besides, scientists look for highly informative theories, not highly probable ones. What we actually do is to propose a hypothesis as a tentative solution to a problem, to confront the prediction deduced from the hypothesis with actual experience, and evaluate whether the hypothesis is rejected or not by the facts. As theories cannot be verified, we can only accept them if they withstand an attempt to reject them. Consequently, the test of a theory consists of criticism or a serious attempt at falsification, that is, the elimination of error within a theory, in order to reject it if it is false. The objective is, thus, the search for true theories. For this purpose, the scientific method uses a systematic set of methodological (not logical) rules, that is, decisions. These methodological rules or principles can be summed up in two: [symbol: see text]be inventive and critical!, that is, propose bold hypotheses and subject them to severe tests of experience. Logic plays its role mainly by allowing us to deduce from a hypothesis the predictions to be confronted with the facts

  13. Philosophy and phylogenetic inference: a comparison of likelihood and parsimony methods in the context of Karl Popper's writings on corroboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, K; Poe, S

    2001-06-01

    Advocates of cladistic parsimony methods have invoked the philosophy of Karl Popper in an attempt to argue for the superiority of those methods over phylogenetic methods based on Ronald Fisher's statistical principle of likelihood. We argue that the concept of likelihood in general, and its application to problems of phylogenetic inference in particular, are highly compatible with Popper's philosophy. Examination of Popper's writings reveals that his concept of corroboration is, in fact, based on likelihood. Moreover, because probabilistic assumptions are necessary for calculating the probabilities that define Popper's corroboration, likelihood methods of phylogenetic inference--with their explicit probabilistic basis--are easily reconciled with his concept. In contrast, cladistic parsimony methods, at least as described by certain advocates of those methods, are less easily reconciled with Popper's concept of corroboration. If those methods are interpreted as lacking probabilistic assumptions, then they are incompatible with corroboration. Conversely, if parsimony methods are to be considered compatible with corroboration, then they must be interpreted as carrying implicit probabilistic assumptions. Thus, the non-probabilistic interpretation of cladistic parsimony favored by some advocates of those methods is contradicted by an attempt by the same authors to justify parsimony methods in terms of Popper's concept of corroboration. In addition to being compatible with Popperian corroboration, the likelihood approach to phylogenetic inference permits researchers to test the assumptions of their analytical methods (models) in a way that is consistent with Popper's ideas about the provisional nature of background knowledge.

  14. Bühler and Popper: Kantian therapies for the crisis in psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    I analyze the historical background and philosophical considerations of Karl Bühler and his student Karl Popper regarding the crisis of psychology. They share certain Kantian questions and methods for reflection on the state of the art in psychology. Part 1 outlines Bühler's diagnosis and therapy for the crisis in psychology as he perceived it, leading to his famous theory of language. I also show how the Kantian features of Bühler's approach help to deal with objections to his crisis diagnosis and to aspects of his linguistic theory. Part 2 turns to Popper's dissertation, completed in 1928 under Bühler. I analyze Popper's disapproval of Schlick's physicalism in psychology, as well as Popper's attempt to extend Bühler's Kantian strategy to the domain of the psychology of thinking. In conclusion, I indicate how these approaches to the crisis in psychology differ from Thomas Kuhn's notions of crisis and revolution, which are still all too popular in current philosophical discussions of psychology.

  15. The Psychology of Thinking, Animal Psychology, and the Young Karl Popper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Hark, M.R.M.

    2004-01-01

    In the 1920s, Karl Popper wrote two large manuscripts on psychology that he never published. in his autobiography, Unended Quest, he attempts to reduce the importance of his work in psychology as much as possible, and in his philosophical work he is an antipsychologist. However, in this article, it

  16. De emergentie en evolutie van drie werelden : tweede revisie van Poppers driewereldentheorie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, André de

    2009-01-01

    De driewereldentheorie (3Wt) van Karl Popper is een metafysische theorie die de pretentie heeft alle entiteiten uit de werkelijkheid op een geordende manier een plaats te geven. De ordening komt tot stand op basis van de fysische, mentale of abstracte status die entiteiten bezitten. Deze status is k

  17. Is Popper's Falsificationist Heuristic a Helpful Resource for Developing Critical Thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Chi-Ming

    2007-01-01

    Based on a rather simple thesis that we can learn from our mistakes, Karl Popper developed a falsificationist epistemology in which knowledge grows through falsifying, or criticizing, our theories. According to him, knowledge, especially scientific knowledge, progresses through conjectures (i.e. tentative solutions to problems) that are controlled…

  18. A Historical Survey of Sir Karl Popper's Contribution to Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M. Shields

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994, though not trained as a physicist and embarrassed early in his career by a physics error pointed out by Einstein and Bohr, ultimately made substantial contributions to the interpretation of quantum mechanics. As was often the case, Popper initially formulated his position by criticizing the views of others - in this case Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg. Underlying Popper's criticism was his belief that, first, the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics abandoned scientific realism and second, the assertion that quantum theory was complete (an assertion rejected by Einstein among others amounted to an unfalsifiable claim. Popper insisted that the most basic predictions of quantum mechanics should continue to be tested, with an eye towards falsification rather than mere adding of decimal places to confirmatory experiments. His persistent attacks on the Copenhagen interpretation were aimed not at the uncertainty principle itself and the formalism from which it was derived, but at the acceptance by physicists of an unclear epistemology and ontology that left critical questions unanswered.Quanta 2012; 1: 1–12.

  19. Scientific Paradigms and Falsification: Kuhn, Popper, and Problems in Education Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyslop-Margison, Emery James

    2010-01-01

    By examining the respective contributions of Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn to the philosophy of science, the author highlights some prevailing problems in this article with the methods of so-called scientific research in education. The author enumerates a number of reasons why such research, in spite of its limited tangible return, continues to gain…

  20. Comment on "Experimental realization of Popper's experiment Violation of the uncertainty principle?"

    CERN Document Server

    Short, A J

    2000-01-01

    Application of the uncertainty principle to conditional measurements is investigated, and found to be valid for measurements on separated sub-systems. In light of this, an apparent violation of the uncertainty principle obtained by Kim and Shih in their realization of Popper's experiment (quant-ph/9905039) is explained through analogy with a simple optical system.

  1. The Analysis of Differences and Similarities of Eastern and Western Women’s Images in Liang Sanbo Yu Zhu Yingtai and Romeo and Juliet Novel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny Yenny

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sanpek Engtay and Romeo Juliet are the two famous classic love novels from Eastern and Western countries. They are liked by many generation of eastern and western readers. Both novels describe the image of women at each decade. Engtay represents the image of women at feudalism era while Juliet represents it Renainsance era. In this article, the writer did research at education, marriage, love, women's personality, and women's position at each decade. Library research was done in this study with the purpose of letting people know the differences and similarities of women's images between those two decades It can be concluded that in both writings, they have some similarities when describing love, mindset, and women's personality. The differences are about education, marriage, and women's position at feudalism and Renainsance decades.

  2. Science and Politics in the Philosophy of Science of Popper, Polanyi, and Kuhn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Mary Jo

    2006-05-01

    The names of Karl Popper, Michael Polanyi, and Thomas Kuhn are well-known among scientists and among historians and philosophers of science. Around 1960 they published books that excited considerable discussion because of their independent rejection of the philosophical tradition that uses simple empiricism or positivism to differentiate science from religion, metaphysics, ideology, or pseudo-science. Popper's original field of expertise was scientific education and psychology. Polanyi had a distinguished career in physical chemistry and chemical physics, while Kuhn worked briefly in solid-state physics before turning to the philosophy of science. Their descriptions of scientific practices and values have roots not only in their scientific educations and experiences, but also in the political questions of their time. This paper focuses on political dimensions in the philosophical work of these three twentieth-century figures.

  3. An extension of "Popper's experiment" can test interpretations of quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Plaga, R

    2000-01-01

    Karl Popper proposed a way to test whether a proposed relation of a quantum-mechanical state to perceived reality in the Copenhagen interpretation (CI) of quantum mechanics - namely that the state of a particle is merely an expression of ``what is known'' about the system - is in agreement with all experimental facts. A conceptual flaw in Popper's proposal is identified and an improved version of his experiment (called ``Extension step 1'') - which fully serves its original purpose - is suggested. The main purpose of this paper is to suggest to perform this experiment. The results of this experiment predicted under the alternative assumptions that the CI - together with the above connection of the state function with reality - or the ``many-worlds'' interpretation (MWI) is correct are shown to be identical. Only after a further modification (called ``Extension step 2'') - the use of an ion isolated from the macroscopic environment as particle detector - the predictions using the respective interpretations bec...

  4. No more than conjectures: Popper and the ethics of scientific enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doria, Nilson Guimarães

    2009-06-01

    Karl Popper dealt with both problems Yurevich (Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 43(2), 2009, doi: 10.1007/s12124-008-9082-7 ) deals: the crisis in Psychology and in the discourse about the nature of science. Although he failed to provide a complete response for both problems, his proposals can yet be fruitful to the reflection on these matters in the context of the present discussion. He offers some tentative answers to what could be considered a healthy epistemic activity, something Yurevich does not provide. More interestingly, some of the Popper proposals seem to fit, and in some extent correct, the quest for "collaborative work" proposed by Zittoun et al. (Integrative Psychological and Behavioral Science, 43(2), 2009, doi: 10.1007/s12124-008-9082-7 ) as a way of transforming crisis in development.

  5. Rationalism and traditionalism in politics. The correspondence between Karl R. Popper and Michael Oakeshott

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    Spartaco Pupo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The correspondence of 1948 between Karl Popper and Michael Oakeshott, translated for the first time in Italian and published in the appendix to this paper, demonstrates the existence of two different ways of thinking about politics: the rationalist approach, founded on the “argumentation” as a rational means for the non-violent solution of problems (Popper, and the traditionalist mode, inspired by the method of “conversation” as a guarantee of constant openness to the diversity of identities (Oakeshott. To rise from the letters is a mutual influence on the interpretation of the key concepts that characterize the thought of the two authors, which however does not cancel the fundamental divergence of their political orientation.

  6. ¿Qué tan racional es el principio de racionalidad de Popper?

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    Salazar , Boris

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo muestra la pertinencia del principio de racionalidad de Popper para entender la reciente oleada de investigaciones, libros y artículos en los campos de la racionalidad, el aprendizaje y los juegos evolutivos. A diferencia de los rígidos preceptos del Popper falsacionista, este principio cubre una amplia gama de comportamientos compatibles con la idea mínima de ¿actuar en forma adecuada a la situación¿. Se argumenta en forma amplia la relevancia de entender los procesos mediante los cuales se forman convenciones sociales o los agentes aprenden a ¿jugar un equilibrio de Nash¿.

  7. Os Fundamentos do Conhecimento na Modernidade: o Método Científico em Popper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexcina Oliveira Cirne Vieira da Cunha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo apresentar os postulados teóricos, em especial o conceito de falseacionismo, do racionalismo crítico de Popper. Inicia com suas críticas ao positivismo lógico, bem como a sua recusa de fornecer cientificidade aos princípios do historicismo e seu entendimento sobre a posição da metafísica na construção dos postulados científicos. Conclui com a crítica de Popper ao método indutivo e com reflexões sobre a importância das refutações e conjecturas na busca por um equilíbrio nas conclusões científicas, que não devem ser definitivas e dogmáticas.

  8. Popper's test of quantum mechanics and two-photon "ghost" diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Bramon, A

    2005-01-01

    A test on quantum mechanics proposed long ago by Karl Popper is reconsidered with further detail and new insight. An ambiguity in the proposal, which turns out to be essential in order to make the test conclusive, is identified and taken into account for the first time. Its implications for recently performed photon experiments [such as in D. V. Strekalov \\textit{et al.}, Phys. Rev.\\ Lett. {\\bf 74}, 3600 (1995)] are briefly analyzed.

  9. Karl Popper: a propósito de La sociedad abierta y sus enemigos

    OpenAIRE

    Tobón Sanín , Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    Este texto pretende llevar a cabo una crítica al racionalismo extremo de Karl Popper, a veces rayano en el subjetivismo, pues racionalismo e irracionalismo en las sociedades son momentos de una totalidad más amplia de la realidad histórica, como quiera que la sociedad se mueve es por los conflictos y las contradicciones, y no por los consensos efímeros de las partes en conflicto. 

  10. Sir Karl Popper (1902-1994): in memoriam, 15 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notturno, Mark Amadeus

    2009-12-01

    September 17th, 2009 marks the 15th anniversary of Sir Karl Popper's death. Popper was an outspoken champion of critical rationalism, and a constant critic of authoritarian tendencies in science and society. He was also one of the spiritual founders of this journal and served on its first editorial advisory board. Popper was recognized around the world as one of the 20th century's greatest philosophers of science and one of its most articulate and influential critics of Marxism and closed society. When he died, the contemporary wisdom among professional philosophers was that his philosophy was generally right-but somehow obsolete. Some commentators said that it was now obvious that scientific theories cannot be shown to be true. Others said that we had witnessed the end of history and that his critique of closed societies, while no doubt important in its day, had been fully assimilated into Western thinking and still had meaning, if at all, only for the democracies in transition that were trying to emerge from the former Soviet Union. But 15 years after his death, a look at science and society around the world gives us good reason to remember his philosophy.

  11. The role of Acinetobacter in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis examined by using Popper sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebringer, Alan; Rashid, Taha; Wilson, Clyde

    2012-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune neurological disorder. The role of 'Acinetobacter' has been examined using the method of Karl Popper and involves nine "Popper sequences". (1) The frequency of MS increases with latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, and the reverse is found in the Southern Hemisphere. (2) Sinusitis is found frequently at colder latitudes. (3) Sinusitis occurs frequently in patients with MS. (4) Specific sequences of bovine myelin when injected into experimental animals will produce a neurological disorder resembling MS which is called "experimental allergic encephalomyelitis". (5) Computer analysis of myelin shows molecular mimicry with sequences found in Acinetobacter. (6) Antibodies to Acinetobacter bacteria are found in MS patients. (7) Acinetobacter bacteria are located on human skin and in the nasal sinuses. (8) IgA antibodies are preferentially elevated in the sera of MS patients, thereby suggesting the trigger microbe is acting across a mucosal surface probably located in the nasal sinuses. (9) Only Acinetobacter bacteria and no other microbes evoke statistically significant titres of antibodies in MS patients. These nine Popper sequences suggest that MS is most probably caused by infections with Acinetobacter bacteria in the nasal sinuses, and this could have therapeutic implications.

  12. Karl Popper versus Theodor Adorno: lições de um confronto histórico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Ganem

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Karl Popper versus Theodor Adorno: Lessons from a historical confrontation. In 1961, during the Congress of the German Society of Sociology, two great theoretical references of the XX century faced in a historical debate about the logic of the social sciences. In addition to methodological issues strict sense, the confrontation became known as a debate between positivism and dialectic. The article first deals with the theoretical trajectories of Popper and Adorno and the relation of their theories with their political and ideological certainties. On one hand, the trajectory of the Popperian epistemology is examined, its contributions and vigorous attacks on Marx in what he called 'poverty of historicism" and false predictive Marxist world, and, on the other hand, the role of Adorno in the Frankfurt School, his criticism of totalitarianism and the defense of a critical emancipatory reason. The article also deals with the confrontation itself, the exposure of Popper's twenty-seven theses that culminate with the situation logic and the method of the economy as exemplary for the social sciences and Adorno's critical perspective of sociology and society as non-separable objects. In conclusion we show how the articulation of theory with the weltanschauung of each author helps to clarify the terms of the debate and how the confrontation contributed unequivocally to the dynamics of scientific progress and for the critical history of the ideas.

  13. A pluralist challenge to "integrative medicine": Feyerabend and Popper on the cognitive value of alternative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Ian James

    2013-09-01

    This paper is a critique of 'integrative medicine' as an ideal of medical progress on the grounds that it fails to realise the cognitive value of alternative medicine. After a brief account of the cognitive value of alternative medicine, I outline the form of 'integrative medicine' defended by the late Stephen Straus, former director of the US National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Straus' account is then considered in the light of Zuzana Parusnikova's recent criticism of 'integrative medicine' and her distinction between 'cognitive' and 'opportunistic' engagement with alternative medicine. Parusnikova warns that the medical establishment is guilty of 'dogmatism' and proposes that one can usefully invoke Karl Popper's 'critical rationalism' as an antidote. Using the example of Straus, I argue that an appeal to Popper is insufficient, on the grounds that 'integrative medicine' can class as a form of cognitively-productive, critical engagement. I suggest that Parusnikova's appeal to Popper should be augmented with Paul Feyerabend's emphasis upon the role of 'radical alternatives' in maximising criticism. 'Integrative medicine' fails to maximise criticism because it 'translates' alternative medicine into the theories and terminology of allopathic medicine and so erodes its capacity to provide cognitively-valuable 'radical alternatives'. These claims are then illustrated with a discussion of 'traditional' and 'medical' acupuncture. I conclude that 'integrative medicine' fails to exploit the cognitive value of alternative medicine and so should be rejected as an ideal of medical progress.

  14. A análise situacional de Karl Popper: alguma analogia com a lógica da situação na economia? Karl Popper's social analysis: some analogy with the logic of situation in economics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Regina Marin

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A contribuição metodológica de Popper se estende para a aplicação do seu método crítico nas práticas científicas e sociais, ou seja, vai além do falsificacionismo e do diálogo socrático como mostrado nas diferentes interpretações dos metodólogos da economia. Com o objetivo de descrever a prática científica e social de Popper, como resultado de sua ênfase na busca e no crescimento do conhecimento, e investigar se existe alguma analogia entre ela e a lógica da situação na economia, este artigo apresenta: i a prática científico-social popperiana na forma da análise situacional (seção 1, ii as discussões de alguns críticos e comentadores que identificam problemas na proposta de Popper (seção 2, iii argumentos sobre a análise situacional de Popper e a lógica da situação na economia (seção 3 e iv as considerações finais.Popper's methodological contribution could be extended in order to include the use of his critical method in social and scientific practices, that is, it is not related only to falsificationism and socratic dialogue as it has been presented by different economic methodologists. With the aim of describing Popper's social and scientific practice, as a result of his emphasis on search and growth of knowledge, and investigating whether exists some analogy between this practice and the logic of situation in Economics, this paper presents: i Popper's social-scientific practice represented by his situational analysis (section 1, ii discussions of some researchers who identify problems in Popper's proposal (section 2, iii arguments about Popper's situational analysis and the situational logic of Economics (section 3 and iv final comments.

  15. Atomic mapping of Ruddlesden-Popper faults in transparent conducting BaSnO3-based thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W Y; Tang, Y L; Zhu, Y L; Suriyaprakash, J; Xu, Y B; Liu, Y; Gao, B; Cheong, S-W; Ma, X L

    2015-11-03

    Doped BaSnO3 has arisen many interests recently as one of the promising transparent conducting oxides for future applications. Understanding the microstructural characteristics are crucial for the exploration of relevant devices. In this paper, we investigated the microstructural features of 0.001% La doped BaSnO3 thin film using both conventional and aberration corrected transmission electron microscopes. Contrast analysis shows high densities of Ruddlesden-Popper faults in the film, which are on {100} planes with translational displacements of 1/2a  . Atomic EELS element mappings reveal that the Ruddlesden-Popper faults are Ba-O layer terminated, and two kinds of kink structures at the Ruddlesden-Popper faults with different element distributions are also demonstrated. Quantitative analysis on lattice distortions of the Ruddlesden-Popper faults illustrates that the local lattice spacing poses a huge increment of 36%, indicating that large strains exist around the Ruddlesden-Popper faults in the film.

  16. The Relationship between Popper's Philosophy and the Acceptance of the Vitamin Theory: A Case Study of the Methodology of Scientific Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akeroyd, F. Michael

    1985-01-01

    Analyzes the relationship between Karl Popper's philosophy and a 1912 paper by F. G. Hopkins which was instrumental in convincing scientists about merits of the vitamin theory. Concludes that Hopkins' work was convincing because it subjected a theory (which was the center of attention) to the severest possible tests, supporting Popper's position.…

  17. [Cross-sectional surveys on the use of recreational drug nitrous-acid-ester rush-poppers in men who have sex with men, Nanjing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Z P; Zhang, M; Xu, Y Y; Xu, W J; Liu, L; Wu, S S; Guo, L; Li, X

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To investigate the situation of recreational drug nitrous acid ester inhaler-rush poppers use in men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods: From April to June in 2014, October to December in 2014, April to June in 2015, three round cross-sectional surveys were conducted in MSM recruited in Nanjing by means of serum test and questionnaire survey. Results: Of the 1 721 MSM surveyed in three round, 19.3% (332/1 721) had ever used rush poppers, the proportions of MSM who used rush poppers in three round surveys showed an increasing trend (liner by liner χ(2)= 14.879, P=0.000), which was 12.6% (86/681), 27.6% (121/439) and 20.8% (125/601) respectively. Rush poppers use was associated with HIV infection significantly (OR=1.676, 95%CI: 1.201-2.339, P=0.002). Compared with MSM without rush poppers use, the MSM with rush poppers use were mainly aged drugs were the risk factors associated with rush poppers use. Conclusion: Rush poppers use was related with HIV infection in MSM in Nanjing.

  18. A Comparison of the English and Vietnamese Translation of Romeo and Juliet in Terms of Rhythm and Speech Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhan V. Luong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Translation is the bridge connecting languages, cultures, and people around the world throughout history, from past to present, in time and space. The quality of translation affects the closeness and tightness of those connections. A translation can cause misconceptions, contort tone, and misinterpret cultural references, while a translation can also bring a positive impression to foreign readers not only of the text, but also of the country, people, and culture of origin. In Translation Studies, faithfulness is the central concern of philological theories that focus on literary genres, stylistics, and rhetoric between the Source Language (SL and Target Language (TL. Translating literary and dramatic texts for stage performance, especially Shakespeare’s plays, always requires specific criteria to convey the original meanings as well as the performability, in which the poetic feature is the most difficult task for any translator. This study, based on this fundamental principle, compares and contrasts the original text of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet with its Vietnamese translation by Dang The Binh to examine how much the translator has done to maintain the rhythmic and speech patterns. It is concluded that the Vietnamese translation was unable to maintain the Iambic Pentameter of the Source Text (ST while other rhythmic syllables were conveyed randomly.

  19. The Mother, Who Is Not One: Reflections Of Motherhood In Shakespeare's Romeo And Juliet, The Tempest, And The Taming Of The Shrew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARAMAN HATICE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The lack of proper motherhood in Shakespeare's plays has been a point of attraction for many feminist critics actively engaged in emphasizing the patriarchal aspect of Shakespeare's plays. This paper aims to analyze motherhood and the lack of mother/mother-figure in The Tempest, Romeo and Juliet and The Taming of the Shrew through Luce Irigaray's theory of gender and the work of other feminist critics. The issues of gender, father-daughter relations and the reflections of the absent mothers will be discussed. Male/Female Subjectivity will also be questioned, in view of Irigaray's conceptualization of gender by relating it to Subject.

  20. Popper e o processo de ensino-aprendizagem pela resolução de problemas Popper and the teaching-learning process for troubleshooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horácio Wanderlei Rodrigues

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo propõe um método de ensino e uma estrutura curricular construídos com base na obra epistemológica de Karl Popper e também em elementos presentes no Problem Based Learning (PBL. O processo de Ensino-Aprendizagem pela Resolução de Problemas (EARP apresentado neste trabalho está divido em método EARP e projeto pedagógico EARP. No plano do método a proposta está centrada em uma estratégia composta de quatro etapas, todas elas envolvendo o estudo de problemas, buscando a sua solução por meio de tentativas e eliminação de erros. No plano do projeto pedagógico a proposta inclui a eliminação da tradicional organização do currículo por disciplinas e apresenta uma estrutura modular por grandes temas interdisciplinares. O texto contém, para melhor visualização da proposta, uma grade hipotética e as possibilidades de organização do quadro de horários.The paper proposes a method of teaching and a curriculum structure constructed on the epistemological work of Karl Popper and also elements in Problem Based Learning (PBL. the Teaching-Learning Process for Troubleshooting (EARP presented in this paper is divided into Method and Pedagogical Project (EARP. the proposed method focuses on a strategy consisting of four stages, all involving the study of issues, seeking a solution through trial and elimination of errors. The Pedagogical Project includes the elimination of traditional disciplines by organizing the curriculum and has a modular structure for interdisciplinary topics. The text contains, for better visualization of the proposal, a hypothetical grade and the possibilities of organizing time frame.

  1. Bärbel Inhelder procura falsear o modelo piagetiano; antes da teoria de Popper (? Bärbel Inhelder tries to falsify the piagetian model; prior to Popper's theory (?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelia Ramozzi-Chiarottino

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo, buscamos trazer à luz um dos aspectos desconhecidos do trabalho de uma das maiores psicólogas do século XX: Bärbel Inhelder. Até hoje apenas reconhecida como a maior colaboradora de Piaget, tem sido ignorada como a criadora de um método científico capaz de refutar (em vez de confirmar um modelo hipotético-dedutivo na área da Psicologia, antes ou simultaneamente à idéia de Popper. Partiu do modelo matemático de Piaget, o agrupamento, e realizou seu estudo com oligofrênicos. Demonstra que quanto mais severo o comprometimento cerebral menor a presença de esboços dos agrupamentos subjacentes às ações e ao discurso das crianças e vice-versa.In this article we search to bring to light one of the unknown aspects of the work of one of the 20th century's greatest psychologists: Bärbel Inhelder. Thus far recognized only as the most remarkable Piaget collaborators, she has been ignored as the creator of a scientific method apt to refute (instead of corroborating a hypothetical-deductive model in the realm of Psychology, prior or simultaneously to Popper's idea. Based on Piaget's mathematical model, the grouping, she did her study on oligophrenics. She demonstrates that the more severe the brain lesions, the lesser the presence of the groupings' structural sketches underlying the children's actions and speech, and vice-versa.

  2. On Some Implications of the Local Theory Th(ℊ) and of Popper'Sexperiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidis, Thomas D.

    Writing this paper in honour of Jean-Pierre Vigier's 80th birthday, brings to mind the time when I was first introduced to him by my late friend Karl Popper in 1979 at a seminar. Since then I found in Vigier not only a most captivating person, but also a thinker utterly devoted to his problems. We both, I trust, belong to the fraternity of critical rationalists, the fraternity of those who are eager to argue, to learn from one another, and who have the intellectual courage in changing their mind, under the influence of criticism, even on points of fundamental importance to their cherished conjectures and beliefs.

  3. Rheumatoid arthritis is caused by Proteus: the molecular mimicry theory and Karl Popper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebringer, Alan; Rashid, Tasha

    2009-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a crippling and disabling joint disease affecting over 20 million people. It occurs predominantly in women and smokers, and affects the HLA-DR1/4 individuals who carry the "shared epitope" of amino acids EQRRAA. The cause of this disease was investigated by the methods of the philosopher of science Karl Popper who suggested that scientific research should be based on bold conjectures and critical refutations. The "Popper sequences" generate new facts which then change or alter the original problem. The new facts must then be explained by any new theory. Using the "molecular mimicry" model, it was found that Proteus bacteria possess an amino acid sequence ESRRAL in haemolysin which resembles the, shared epitope, and another sequence in urease which resembles type XI collagen. Antibodies to Proteus bacteria have been found in 14 different countries. It would appear that rheumatoid arthritis is caused by an upper urinary tract infection by Proteus bacteria. Anti-Proteus therapy should be assessed in the management of this disease separately or in conjunction with existing modalities of therapy.

  4. Popper y Darwin: Evolucionismo Bio-Cosmológico y Epistemología Evolucionista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Arana

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available La capacidad de generalizar es uno de los rasgos más característicos de Popper como filósofo. Propone un lamarckismo sin Lamarck, un vitalismo sin principios vitales ni entelequias, y un animismo sin alma. En el fondo, es lo mismo que hizo Darwin con la teleología gracias a la selección natural: patrocinar un finalismo sin fines. La especulación es atrevida pero en modo alguno rechazable. El problema de Popper es que a veces no sabe contenerse y se implica demasiado en el debate científico de primera línea. Le ocurrió algo parecido con las discusiones que siguieron al desarrollo de la mecánica cuántica: en lugar de moverse con cautela en el terreno de la reflexión metateórica, tuvo que proponer un «experimento mental» para mediar en la controversia Einstein-Bohr.

  5. Popper's realism%波普尔的实在论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄正华

    2001-01-01

    一般来说,实在论的含义比较模糊,但实在能通过真理、可检验性等概念在语义学中得到严格的规定。波普尔并没有很好地理解塔尔斯基的真理定义和语义学方法,他的第三世界理论建立在一些语义学概念的误用之上。实际上,从波普尔确认的哲学前提出发,语义学要求他应该是"内部实在论"者,而形而上学实在论却是他所信奉的先验教条。%Reality can be defined in semantics by the conception of truth、 testability etc, though themeaning of realism is vague. Popper didn't fully comprehended the definition of truth and the semanticmethods that was put out by Tarski, and his theory of the Third World was built on the misusing of someconcepts in semantics. Actually, Popper should be an inner realist according to semantics, but he insistedon the prior dogmas of metaphysical realism.

  6. Thoughts on Popper' s Theory of Three Worlds%波普世界3理论反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆安民; 陈文

    2001-01-01

    The paper analyzes Popper's Theory of Three Worlds, points out that its essence is the three basic concepts, that is, information, intelligence and knowledge, and calls on that we should insist on Marxism's dialectical materialism in researches on the basic theory of information studies.

  7. Negative thermal expansion in hybrid improper ferroelectric Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites by symmetry trapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, M S; Bombardi, A; Murray, C A; Vecchini, C; Scherillo, A; Luo, X; Cheong, S W

    2015-01-23

    We present new results on the microscopic nature of the ferroelectricity mechanisms in Ca3 Mn2O7 and Ca3Ti2O7. To the first approximation, we confirm the hybrid improper ferroelectric mechanism recently proposed by Benedek and Fennie for these Ruddlesden-Popper compounds. However, in Ca3Mn2O7 we find that there is a complex competition between lattice modes of different symmetry which leads to a phase coexistence over a large temperature range and the "symmetry trapping" of a soft mode. This trapping of the soft mode leads to a large uniaxial negative thermal expansion (NTE) reaching a maximum between 250 and 350 K (3.6×10^(-6)  K^{-1}) representing the only sizable NTE reported for these and related perovskite materials to date. Our results suggest a systematic strategy for designing and searching for ceramics with large NTE coefficients.

  8. Thermodynamic guiding principles in selective synthesis of strontium iridate Ruddlesden-Popper epitaxial films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Nishio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the selective fabrication of Ruddlesden-Popper (RP type SrIrO3, Sr3Ir2O7, and Sr2IrO4 epitaxial thin films from a single SrIrO3 target using pulsed laser deposition (PLD. We identified that the growth conditions stabilizing each phase directly map onto the phase diagram expected from thermodynamic equilibria. This approach allows precise cation stoichiometry control as evidenced by the stabilization of single phase Sr3Ir2O7 for the first time, overcoming the close thermodynamic stability between neighboring RP phases. Despite the non-equilibrium nature of PLD, these results highlight the importance of thermodynamic guiding principles to strategically synthesize the targeted phase in complex oxide thin films.

  9. Objective knowledge as a basis for education according to Karl R. Popper

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    Ivonne Patricia Piñeros Veloza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The book entitled Objective Knowledge, was published in 1972. There, Popper collects a series of articles where he deals with the theory of knowledge. From these, it is possible to reconstruct the foundation for a critical education. This text aims to identify conceptual elements that relate to the increase of knowledge from the method of approach and problem solving, the role of language, the meaning of freedom, the development of a critical spirit and their implications of for political life. This is related to the educational process, so that students can approach the truth, appropriating their environment and pose increasingly optimal solutions to face the obstacles of everyday life and thus favoring the improvement of society

  10. Popper, o historicismo, e o mÃtodo das ciÃncias sociais

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Alberto Viana da Costa

    2011-01-01

    A partir da crÃtica do historicismo e do holismo, busca apresentar o mÃtodo das ciÃncias sociais como proposto por Karl Popper. ApÃs uma breve exposiÃÃo do mÃtodo das ciÃncias naturais e discussÃo sobre alguns de seus componentes, a saber os conceitos de mÃtodo dedutivo, falseabilidade, e corroboraÃÃo, o historicismo à definido e criticado. Por meio do uso de certos exemplos baseados na fÃsica do sÃculo XX, mostra como à possÃvel refutar o historicismo por provar que uma teoria em prima facie...

  11. Pop goes the O2: a case of popper-induced methaemoglobinamia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCabe, Aileen

    2012-01-01

    A 39-year-old man presented to the emergency department after falling downstairs after he consumed a large quantity of alcohol. On examination, he had altered mental state (GCS 14), central cyanosis and low oxygen saturation of 86%, despite 100% oxygen being administered. His arterial blood gas confirmed diagnosis of methaemoglobinaemia with a methaemoglobin percentage of 14.08. He was treated successfully with methylthioninium chloride. The patient later admitted to use of recreational poppers (amyl nitrates) the previous evening. The emergency physician is challenged by the presentation of a patient with altered mental state and unexplained low oxygen saturation with concurrent alcohol intoxication but must have a high index of suspicion for methaemoglobinaemia particularly with a history of recreational drug ingestion.

  12. Karl Popper: La explicación en la disciplina histórica

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    Holbein Giraldo-Paredes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available En el siguiente artículo se revisan los argumentos enunciados en la obra La miseria del historicismo, en la cual Karl Popper realiza una crítica a la concepción historicista emanada de la filosofía de autores como Platón, Hegel y Marx. Crítica que realiza aludiendo a argumentos de orden epistemológico, para demostrar que el modelo nomológico deductivo de la explicación no aplica a la disciplina histórica, y en este sentido negando una de las tesis más fuertes que él había defendido toda su vida: la del monismo metodológico o unificacionismo metodológico de la ciencia, heredada del positivismo lógico.

  13. A Generalized Information Formula as the Bridge between Shannon and Popper

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Chenguang

    2007-01-01

    A generalized information formula related to logical probability and fuzzy set is deduced from the classical information formula. The new information measure accords with to Popper's criterion for knowledge evolution very much. In comparison with square error criterion, the information criterion does not only reflect error of a proposition, but also reflects the particularity of the event described by the proposition. It gives a proposition with less logical probability higher evaluation. The paper introduces how to select a prediction or sentence from many for forecasts and language translations according to the generalized information criterion. It also introduces the rate fidelity theory, which comes from the improvement of the rate distortion theory in the classical information theory by replacing distortion (i.e. average error) criterion with the generalized mutual information criterion, for data compression and communication efficiency. Some interesting conclusions are obtained from the rate-fidelity fu...

  14. A Review of Scientific Approach in the Methodology of Social Science Research: Contributions of Kuhn, Popper and Lakatos

    OpenAIRE

    George, Justine

    2016-01-01

    Methodological understanding of the theory is as important as the theory itself, and must show the relationship between theoretical concepts used in the study and its expected conclusions. Measuring scientificity of each theory and then to categorie on the basis of its relative merit often difficult given available theories are concerned. However, theoretical contributions of Thomas Kuhn, Karl Popper and then Imre Lakatos are best to develop a framework to evaluate the progress of social scie...

  15. On Popper's Historical Non-determinism%试论波普尔的历史非决定论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马勇

    2001-01-01

    波普尔的历史非决定论曾在西方社会产生过很大影响.波普尔反对和否认历史发展规律,否认历史发展的必然性,进而否认对历史进程的预言.正确认识波普尔的历史非决定论,有助于我们自觉地维护、发展和运用马克思主义历史决定论,使这一科学的历史哲学体系更加富有生命力和战斗力。%Popper' s Historical Non-determinism is formed and reflected in the process ofcritiizing Maxist Historical Determinism and once evoked great repercussion in Western soci-ety. Popper opposes and denies the law of the development of history and the inevitability ofthe development of history and the prophercy of the course of history. To have a correct un-derstanding of popper' s Historical Non-determinism helps us consciously defend, developand use Maxist historicel determinism and make this scientific and historical philosophy sys-tem full of vitality and combat effectiveness.

  16. K. Popper: racionalismo crítico, metafísica y metodología de lo inverificable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Ruiz Velasco N.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a survey of a series of fundamental notions on the philosophy of Karl Popper that enable to understand the quid and the status of metaphysics towards the critiques of the Vienna Circle in a post-kantian epoch. Elemental concerns of the philosophy of science of Popper are traced out, highlighting the importance of kantian influence, the reformulation of critique as the rational process of testing and finding errors, the grievance of theories as interpretations of facts, the modification of traditional methodology, the dimenssions of compatibility and validity regarding scientific knowledge in is empirical or speculative flavors, among others. At the same time, it is pointed out a series of throughly philosophical errors, particularly regarding the inconcruity of vage and neglected use of language that Popper, formerly severe on this topic, employed. The paper concludes with an analysis of popperian metaphysics understood as a rational knowledge of a non-verifiable, non-refutable, yet argumentable type which belongs to the sphere of science, though in a special and subordinate way: as the methodology of the unverifiable.

  17. Failed refutations: further comments on parsimony and likelihood methods and their relationship to Popper's degree of corroboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Kevin; Poe, Steven

    2003-06-01

    Kluge's (2001, Syst. Biol. 50:322-330) continued arguments that phylogenetic methods based on the statistical principle of likelihood are incompatible with the philosophy of science described by Karl Popper are based on false premises related to Kluge's misrepresentations of Popper's philosophy. Contrary to Kluge's conjectures, likelihood methods are not inherently verificationist; they do not treat every instance of a hypothesis as confirmation of that hypothesis. The historical nature of phylogeny does not preclude phylogenetic hypotheses from being evaluated using the probability of evidence. The low absolute probabilities of hypotheses are irrelevant to the correct interpretation of Popper's concept termed degree of corroboration, which is defined entirely in terms of relative probabilities. Popper did not advocate minimizing background knowledge; in any case, the background knowledge of both parsimony and likelihood methods consists of the general assumption of descent with modification and additional assumptions that are deterministic, concerning which tree is considered most highly corroborated. Although parsimony methods do not assume (in the sense of entailing) that homoplasy is rare, they do assume (in the sense of requiring to obtain a correct phylogenetic inference) certain things about patterns of homoplasy. Both parsimony and likelihood methods assume (in the sense of implying by the manner in which they operate) various things about evolutionary processes, although violation of those assumptions does not always cause the methods to yield incorrect phylogenetic inferences. Test severity is increased by sampling additional relevant characters rather than by character reanalysis, although either interpretation is compatible with the use of phylogenetic likelihood methods. Neither parsimony nor likelihood methods assess test severity (critical evidence) when used to identify a most highly corroborated tree(s) based on a single method or model and a

  18. On Romeo and Juliet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付景波

    1999-01-01

    本文通过对莎士比亚悲剧中罗密欧与朱丽叶的人物分析以及对其诸剧人物。情节安排的对比,试图揭示莎士比亚对悲剧效果的特殊处理和对人物描写的特殊风格。《罗密欧与朱丽叶》虽属悲剧,但从精神上说它具有喜剧特征。莎翁一改传统模式,塑造了悲喜双重人物性格。

  19. Atomic scale imaging of competing polar states in a Ruddlesden-Popper layered oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Greg; Ophus, Colin; Birol, Turan; Ciston, Jim; Lee, Che-Hui; Wang, Ke; Fennie, Craig J.; Schlom, Darrell G.; Alem, Nasim; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2016-08-01

    Layered complex oxides offer an unusually rich materials platform for emergent phenomena through many built-in design knobs such as varied topologies, chemical ordering schemes and geometric tuning of the structure. A multitude of polar phases are predicted to compete in Ruddlesden-Popper (RP), An+1BnO3n+1, thin films by tuning layer dimension (n) and strain; however, direct atomic-scale evidence for such competing states is currently absent. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy with sub-Ångstrom resolution in Srn+1TinO3n+1 thin films, we demonstrate the coexistence of antiferroelectric, ferroelectric and new ordered and low-symmetry phases. We also directly image the atomic rumpling of the rock salt layer, a critical feature in RP structures that is responsible for the competing phases; exceptional quantitative agreement between electron microscopy and density functional theory is demonstrated. The study shows that layered topologies can enable multifunctionality through highly competitive phases exhibiting diverse phenomena in a single structure.

  20. POPPER, a simple programming language for probabilistic semantic inference in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Our previous reports described the use of the Hyperbolic Dirac Net (HDN) as a method for probabilistic inference from medical data, and a proposed probabilistic medical Semantic Web (SW) language Q-UEL to provide that data. Rather like a traditional Bayes Net, that HDN provided estimates of joint and conditional probabilities, and was static, with no need for evolution due to "reasoning". Use of the SW will require, however, (a) at least the semantic triple with more elaborate relations than conditional ones, as seen in use of most verbs and prepositions, and (b) rules for logical, grammatical, and definitional manipulation that can generate changes in the inference net. Here is described the simple POPPER language for medical inference. It can be automatically written by Q-UEL, or by hand. Based on studies with our medical students, it is believed that a tool like this may help in medical education and that a physician unfamiliar with SW science can understand it. It is here used to explore the considerable challenges of assigning probabilities, and not least what the meaning and utility of inference net evolution would be for a physician.

  1. Preparation of niobium based oxynitride nanosheets by exfoliation of Ruddlesden-Popper phase precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Maia, Ary; Cheviré, François; Demange, Valérie; Bouquet, Valérie; Pasturel, Mathieu; Députier, Stéphanie; Lebullenger, Ronan; Guilloux-Viry, Marylline; Tessier, Franck

    2016-04-01

    A new oxynitride Ruddlesden-Popper phase K1.6Ca2Nb3O9.4N0.6.1.1H2O was synthesized by the topochemical ammonolysis reaction at 700 °C from the oxide Dion-Jacobson phase KCa2Nb3O10 in the presence of K2CO3. The oxynitride showed good stability with a little loss of nitrogen, even after a few months of exposure to air. Its crystal structure was solved by Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction data in space group P4/mmm and considering a two-phase mixture, due to the difference in the degree of hydration, with a = 3.894(2) Å and c = 17.90(8) Å for the most hydrated phase and a = 3.927(6) Å and c = 17.09(2) Å for the less one. Optical band gaps were measured by diffuse reflectance in the UV-Visible range indicating a red shift of Eg to the visible region. The oxynitride layered perovskite was then protonated and exfoliated into nanosheets. TEM images and SAED patterns of the nanosheets proved that exfoliation was successful, showing lattice parameters quite compatible with the Rietveld refinement.

  2. Atomic scale imaging of competing polar states in a Ruddlesden–Popper layered oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Greg; Ophus, Colin; Birol, Turan; Ciston, Jim; Lee, Che-Hui; Wang, Ke; Fennie, Craig J.; Schlom, Darrell G.; Alem, Nasim; Gopalan, Venkatraman

    2016-01-01

    Layered complex oxides offer an unusually rich materials platform for emergent phenomena through many built-in design knobs such as varied topologies, chemical ordering schemes and geometric tuning of the structure. A multitude of polar phases are predicted to compete in Ruddlesden–Popper (RP), An+1BnO3n+1, thin films by tuning layer dimension (n) and strain; however, direct atomic-scale evidence for such competing states is currently absent. Using aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy with sub-Ångstrom resolution in Srn+1TinO3n+1 thin films, we demonstrate the coexistence of antiferroelectric, ferroelectric and new ordered and low-symmetry phases. We also directly image the atomic rumpling of the rock salt layer, a critical feature in RP structures that is responsible for the competing phases; exceptional quantitative agreement between electron microscopy and density functional theory is demonstrated. The study shows that layered topologies can enable multifunctionality through highly competitive phases exhibiting diverse phenomena in a single structure. PMID:27578622

  3. A falseabilidade de Popper nas pesquisas em contabilidade no Brasil de 2009-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara Vigo de Lima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las publicaciones brasileñas en Ciencias Contables en el período 2009- 2014. Por lo tanto, se discute teóricamente la Contabilidad como ciencia conforme a la visión de desarrollo científico de Karl Popper. La metodología del estudio es el análisis de los artículos publicados en revistas nacionales clasificadas como Qualis/Capes en el estrato "A" en el área de Administración, Contabilidad y Turismo, contenida en la Base de Scielo - Ciencias Sociales Aplicadas. La selección de artículos se lleva a cabo con las siguientes palabras clave y frases: contabilidad, teoría de la contabilidad, contabilidad de gestión, contabilidad de costes, contabilidad pública/gubernamental, contabilidad corporativa, contabilidad financiera, contabilidad ambiental y contraloría, que implica el período comprendido entre años 2009 y 2014. Se concluye que no se usan los preceptos popperianos del cientificismo y que teorías y estudios previos han conducido las investigaciones en las ciencias contables en Brasil.

  4. [Note on the epistemology of clinical pharmacology: comparison with the approach of Karl Popper].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissel, J P

    1999-01-01

    Is clinical pharmacology a science or only an application of science? Karl Popper suggested a method to identify science and to sort it out from other logical activities such as metaphysics, whereby the falsification criterion he proposed can apply to the theory in such a way that the theory could be refuted. The clinical pharmacologist's approach requires the build-up of a therapeutic model on the basis of two other models: the physiopathologic and the pharmacological. The three-model construct is a theory. Is it scientific in the Popperian sense? From the therapeutic model, one can predict the efficacy of a drug, and the corresponding statement is tested by a clinical trial. Whatever the original statement, it is modified into a refutable one because of the use of the statistical approach in clinical trials. Furthermore, the predicate represents a hypothesis of the model validity, which will then be confronted with 'reality' through clinical experiment. As the therapeutic model is refutable, clinical pharmacology is a science in the Popperian sense.

  5. Crystal-chemistry guidelines for noncentrosymmetric A2BO4 Ruddlesden-Popper oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Prasanna V; Puggioni, Danilo; Rondinelli, James M

    2014-01-01

    Noncentrosymmetric (NCS) phases are seldom seen in layered A2BO4 Ruddlesden-Popper (214 RP) oxides. In this work, we uncover the underlying crystallographic symmetry restrictions that enforce the spatial parity operation of inversion and then subsequently show how to lift them to achieve NCS structures. Simple octahedral distortions alone, while impacting the electronic and magnetic properties, are insufficient. We show using group theory that the condensation of two distortion modes, which describe suitable symmetry unique octahedral distortions or a combination of a single octahedral distortion with a "compositional" A or B cation ordering mode, is able to transform the centrosymmetric aristotype into a NCS structure. With these symmetry guidelines, we formulate a data-driven model founded on Bayesian inference that allows us to rationally search for combinations of A- and B-site elements satisfying the inversion symmetry lifting criterion. We describe the general methodology and apply it to 214 iridates with A(2+) cations, identifying RP-structured Ca2IrO4 as a potential NCS oxide, which we evaluate with density functional theory. We find a strong energetic competition between two closely related polar and nonpolar low-energy crystal structures in Ca2IrO4 and suggest pathways to stabilize the NCS structure.

  6. Karl R. Popper'ın Tarihsicilik Eleştirisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yrd.Doç.Dr. Rıza Bakış

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Karl R. Popper XX. yüzyılın önemli bir bilim felsefecisidir ve bu alandaki temel savı yanlışlamacılık kuramı olarak bilinmektedir. Fakat düşüncesinin bütün uzanımlarında kendini ele veren ve onun sistemini oluşturan ise esasında eleştirel akılcılık kuramıdır. Tarihsicilik eleştirisi de bunlarla sistematik bağlamda ilintili olarak toplum ve siyaset felsefesi konusundaki görüşlerini ihtiva etmektedir. Birey olarak insanı merkeze alan Popper’ın, tarihsicilik konusundaki düşüncelerini Platon, Aristoteles, Marx ve Hegel gibi büyük sistem kurucu düşünürler üzerinden somutlaştırdığı, bütüncü yapılara karşı birtakım eleştiriler getirdiği görülmektedir. Biz bu makalemizde Popper’ın tarihsicilik eleştirisini özellikle Platon, Aristoteles, Hegel ve Karx’la ilintili eleştirilerini ele alıp tartıştık.

  7. Del historicismo al bipartidismo. Algunos elementos de la filosofía política de Popper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Osorio Ballesteros

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo repasa algunas de las ideas centrales de la filosofía política de Karl Popper, para tratar de evidenciar su riqueza y su apuesta por la libertad y el realismo. En este sentido aborda ciertos temas que ocuparon al autor en vida: el historicismo, el método del racionalismo crítico, la democracia y los partidos políticos. Se concluye señalando la necesidad que se tiene de revisarla para comprender algunos aspectos políticos del presente.

  8. Conjeturas y modelos: acerca de K. Popper y la teoría económica

    OpenAIRE

    García Bermejo Ochoa, Juan Carlos; Universidad Autónoma de Madrid

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo se comparan con la perspectiva falsacionista tres formas de entender y de hacer la teoría económica. Desde una concepción empirista y realista como la de Popper, la falta de realismo de los escenarios descritos por las hipótesis teóricas, solo puede significar una deficiencia a corregir o, en el peor de los casos, un mal necesario. Sin embargo, la teoría no solo ha seguido manteniendo las hipótesis y las nociones de racionalidad y deequilibrio, sino que ha llegado a convertir ...

  9. Structural phase transitions in Ruddlesden-Popper phases of strontium titanate: {\\em ab initio} and inhomogeneous Ginzburg-Landau approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jeehye

    2010-01-01

    We present the first systematic {\\em ab initio} study of anti-ferrodistortive (AFD) order in Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases of strontium titanate, Sr$_{1+n}$Ti$_n$O$_{3n+1}$, as a function of both compressive epitaxial strain and phase number $n$. We find all RP phases to exhibit AFD order under a significant range of strains, recovering the bulk AFD order as $\\sim 1/n^2$. A Ginzburg-Landau Hamiltonian generalized to include inter-octahedral interactions reproduces our {\\em ab initio} results well, opening a pathway to understanding other nanostructured perovskite systems.

  10. Three-dimensional electronic structures and the metal-insulator transition in Ruddlesden-Popper iridates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, A.; Fujiwara, H.; Tachibana, S.; Iwasaki, D.; Higashino, Y.; Yoshimi, C.; Nakagawa, K.; Nakatani, Y.; Yamagami, K.; Aratani, H.; Kirilmaz, O.; Sing, M.; Claessen, R.; Watanabe, H.; Shirakawa, T.; Yunoki, S.; Naitoh, A.; Takase, K.; Matsuno, J.; Takagi, H.; Sekiyama, A.; Saitoh, Y.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we systematically investigate three-dimensional (3D) momentum (ℏ k )-resolved electronic structures of Ruddlesden-Popper-type iridium oxides Srn +1IrnO3 n +1 using soft-x-ray (SX) angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Our results provide direct evidence of an insulator-to-metal transition that occurs upon increasing the dimensionality of the IrO2-plane structure. This transition occurs when the spin-orbit-coupled jeff=1 /2 band changes its behavior in the dispersion relation and moves across the Fermi energy. In addition, an emerging band along the Γ (0,0,0)-R (π ,π ,π ) direction is found to play a crucial role in the metallic characteristics of SrIrO3. By scanning the photon energy over 350 eV, we reveal the 3D Fermi surface in SrIrO3 and kz-dependent oscillations of photoelectron intensity in Sr3Ir2O7 . In contrast to previously reported results obtained using low-energy photons, folded bands derived from lattice distortions and/or magnetic ordering make significantly weak (but finite) contributions to the k -resolved photoemission spectrum. At the first glance, this leads to the ambiguous result that the observed k -space topology is consistent with the unfolded Brillouin zone (BZ) picture derived from a nonrealistic simple square or cubic Ir lattice. Through careful analysis, we determine that a superposition of the folded and unfolded band structures has been observed in the ARPES spectra obtained using photons in both ultraviolet and SX regions. To corroborate the physics deduced using low-energy ARPES studies, we propose to utilize SX-ARPES as a powerful complementary technique, as this method surveys more than one whole BZ and provides a panoramic view of electronic structures.

  11. Sobre o estatuto epistemológico da racionalidade econômica segundo Karl Popper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brena Paula Magno Fernandez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Três tipos de críticas são comumente levantadas contra a utilização do postulado da racionalidade na ciência econômica. A primeira delas associa-se ao argumento da circularidade, a segunda diz respeito à blindagem da teoria contra a refutação e a terceira - e mais importante delas - refere-se à inadequação empírica. O presente artigo busca encaminhar esta última, à luz do tratamento dado por Popper ao longo de sua carreira para a questão de qual seria o estatuto epistemológico do princípio da racionalidade nas teorias econômicas. Três possíveis respostas a esta questão são aqui examinadas, explicitando-se suas respectivas estruturas lógicas. A primeira delas propõe que o postulado da racionalidade desempenhe o papel de lei geral do comportamento humano. A segunda requer que ele funcione como um axioma da teoria. Finalmente, a terceira proposta sugere que o postulado da racionalidade seja entendido como regra metodológica. Conclui-se o artigo sugerindo que esta última solução satisfaz ao apelo que o tipo de crítica aqui examinada faz ao conceito de racionalidade. Não obstante, ao situar-se no contexto metateórico, o postulado da racionalidade mantém importância inegável na teoria econômica. Sem ele, não se disporia de instrumentos que conduzissem à seleção de dados empíricos voltados ao teste das teorias.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: Potocki-Shaffer syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Romeike BF, Wuyts W. Proximal chromosome 11p contiguous gene deletion syndrome phenotype: case report and review of the literature. Clin Neuropathol. 2007 Jan-Feb;26(1):1-11. Review. Citation on PubMed Swarr DT, Bloom D, Lewis RA, Elenberg E, Friedman EM, Glotzbach C, Wissman ...

  13. Popper's Critique of Heraclitus%论波普尔对赫拉克利特的批判

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈智勇

    2015-01-01

    波普尔将赫拉克利特当作历史主义早期理论家之一,他对历史主义的批判即是从赫拉克利特开始。波普尔将赫拉克利特的辩证法思想归结为两个主观点“宇宙的变化和隐藏的命运”,却不从哲学史发展角度来分析这两个观点,完全曲解了赫拉克利特辩证法的重要意义。%Popper believes that Heraclitus is one of the early theorists of historicism.His critique of historicism is starting from Heraclitus.Popper thinks Heraclitus’ dialectic includes two main aspects____the change of the universe and the hidden fate.but his analysis is not from the philosophical perspective of the history, and it completely misinterprets the significance of Heraclitus’ dialectic.

  14. High-efficiency two-dimensional Ruddlesden-Popper perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsinhan; Nie, Wanyi; Blancon, Jean-Christophe; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Asadpour, Reza; Harutyunyan, Boris; Neukirch, Amanda J.; Verduzco, Rafael; Crochet, Jared J.; Tretiak, Sergei; Pedesseau, Laurent; Even, Jacky; Alam, Muhammad A.; Gupta, Gautam; Lou, Jun; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Bedzyk, Michael J.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Mohite, Aditya D.

    2016-08-01

    Three-dimensional organic-inorganic perovskites have emerged as one of the most promising thin-film solar cell materials owing to their remarkable photophysical properties, which have led to power conversion efficiencies exceeding 20 per cent, with the prospect of further improvements towards the Shockley-Queisser limit for a single-junction solar cell (33.5 per cent). Besides efficiency, another critical factor for photovoltaics and other optoelectronic applications is environmental stability and photostability under operating conditions. In contrast to their three-dimensional counterparts, Ruddlesden-Popper phases—layered two-dimensional perovskite films—have shown promising stability, but poor efficiency at only 4.73 per cent. This relatively poor efficiency is attributed to the inhibition of out-of-plane charge transport by the organic cations, which act like insulating spacing layers between the conducting inorganic slabs. Here we overcome this issue in layered perovskites by producing thin films of near-single-crystalline quality, in which the crystallographic planes of the inorganic perovskite component have a strongly preferential out-of-plane alignment with respect to the contacts in planar solar cells to facilitate efficient charge transport. We report a photovoltaic efficiency of 12.52 per cent with no hysteresis, and the devices exhibit greatly improved stability in comparison to their three-dimensional counterparts when subjected to light, humidity and heat stress tests. Unencapsulated two-dimensional perovskite devices retain over 60 per cent of their efficiency for over 2,250 hours under constant, standard (AM1.5G) illumination, and exhibit greater tolerance to 65 per cent relative humidity than do three-dimensional equivalents. When the devices are encapsulated, the layered devices do not show any degradation under constant AM1.5G illumination or humidity. We anticipate that these results will lead to the growth of single-crystalline, solution

  15. Popper y el problema de la inducción en epidemiología

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banegas José R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo discutimos algunas aportaciones del filósofo austro-británico Karl R. Popper, uno de los más influyentes pensadores contemporáneos, cuyas teorías epistemológicas y sociopolíticas han llegado también al ámbito de la epidemiología. Nos centramos principalmente en el llamado problema de la inducción. Sostenemos, siguiendo a Popper, que el método científico no usa un razonamiento inductivo, sino hipotético-deductivo. Aunque el paso desde los datos que evalúan una hipótesis a una conclusión sobre ésta va de lo particular a lo general, e.d., en dirección inductiva, no existe la inducción como razonamiento o inferencia. Es decir, no existe un método que permita inducir o verificar las hipótesis o teorías (no es posible explorar todas las situaciones posibles para ver si la teoría se mantiene, ni siquiera hacerlas muy probables. Además, los científicos buscan teorías altamente informativas, no altamente probables. Lo que se hace realmente es proponer una hipótesis como solución tentativa de un problema, confrontar la predicción deducida de la hipótesis con la experiencia, y evaluar si la hipótesis queda rechazada o no por los hechos. Al no poder verificarse las teorías sólo podemos aceptarlas si resisten el intento de rechazarlas. Por tanto, la contrastación consiste en la crítica o intento serio de falsación, es decir, la eliminación de error dentro de una teoría, para rechazarla si es falsa. El objetivo es, pues, la búsqueda de teorías verdaderas. Para ello, el método científico utiliza un conjunto sistemático de reglas metodológicas (no lógicas, es decir, decisiones. Estas reglas o principios metodológicos se resumen en dos: ¡sea inventivo y crítico!, e.d., proponga hipótesis audaces y sométalas a tests rigurosos de la experiencia. La lógica juega principalmente su papel al permitir deducir de la hipótesis las predicciones que se confrontarán con los hechos o evidencias. Esto es

  16. Effect of Cu doping on the magnetic and electrical properties of n=2 Ruddlesden-Popper manganates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si Ji-Wei; Cao Qing-Qi; Gu Ben-Xi; Du You-Wei

    2005-01-01

    A series of polycrystalline Cu-doped n=2 Ruddlesden-Popper manganates La1.2Sr1.sCuxMn(2-x)O7 (x=0, 0.04,0.13) were synthesized by the solid state reaction method. The effect of Cu doping on the magnetic and transport properties has been studied. It is found that Cu substitution for Mn greatly affects the magnetic and electrical properties of the parent phase La1.2Sr1.8Mn2O7. With the increase of Cu content, the system undergoes a transition from longrange ferromagnetic order to the spin glass state and further to an antiferromagnetic order. A little of Cu dopant can lead to the samples showing semiconductor or insulator behaviour in the whole observed temperature range while the parent phase has a metal-insulator transition. These samples show colossal magnetoresistance at low temperatures and the value of it decreases with increasing Cu content.

  17. Inversion symmetry breaking by oxygen octahedral rotations in the Ruddlesden-Popper NaRTiO4 family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Hirofumi; Fujita, Koji; Kuge, Toshihiro; Sen Gupta, Arnab; Togo, Atsushi; Lei, Shiming; Xue, Fei; Stone, Greg; Rondinelli, James M; Chen, Long-Qing; Tanaka, Isao; Gopalan, Venkatraman; Tanaka, Katsuhisa

    2014-05-01

    Rotations of oxygen octahedra are ubiquitous, but they cannot break inversion symmetry in simple perovskites. However, in a layered oxide structure, this is possible, as we demonstrate here in A-site ordered Ruddlesden-Popper NaRTiO4 (R denotes rare-earth metal), previously believed to be centric. By revisiting this series via synchrotron x-ray diffraction, optical second-harmonic generation, piezoresponse force microscopy, and first-principles phonon calculations, we find that the low-temperature phase belongs to the acentric space group P42(1)m, which is piezoelectric and nonpolar. The mechanism underlying this large new family of acentric layered oxides is prevalent, and could lead to many more families of acentric oxides.

  18. La teoría de la ciencia de Karl Popper y la econometría

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redman Deborah A.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available En este ensayo mostraré que la teoría de la falsación ejerció su principalimpacto en los primeros desarrollos de la macroeconomía, quein fortunadamente su impacto a largo plazo no ha sido productivo y que el seguimiento de este desarrollo ayuda a explicar muchos de los actuales escándalos en la econometría y la macroeconomía. Dado que la literatura ha difundido muchos mitos sobre la teoría de la ciencia de Popper, primero revisaré sus teorías de las ciencias naturales y sociales y explicaré por qué la falsación fracasa en ambas ramas antes de exponer la conexión con la econometría.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) type phase LaSr2MnCrO7

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Devinder Singh; Rajinder Singh

    2010-11-01

    New Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) type phase LaSr2MnCrO7 has been synthesized by ceramic method. Rietveld profile analysis shows that the phase crystallizes with tetragonal unit cell in the space group I4/mmm. The electrical resistivity of the phase has been measured in the temperature range of 10-300 K using Leybold closed cycle helium cryostat. The phase shows insulator-metal (I-M) transition at low temperature, the phenomenon often associated with giant magnetoresistance. 3D variable range hopping governs the electrical conduction in the insulator region above the I-M transition temperature. Magnetic susceptibility of the phase has been measured in the temperature range of 100-300 K. Magnetic studies suggest that the phase is ferromagnetic.

  20. Effective J = 1/2 insulating state in Ruddlesden-Popper iridates: An LDA+DMFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongbin; Haule, Kristjan; Vanderbilt, David

    2014-03-01

    Using ab-initio methods, we[1] investigate the metal-insulator transition across the Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) iridates and explore the robustness of the effective J = 1 / 2 insulating state[2] against band effects due to itineracy, tetragonal distortion, octahedral rotation and Coulomb interaction. The electronic structures we obtained are in good agreement with recent ARPES measurements.[3,4,5] We predict the effects of epitaxial strain on the optical conductivity, magnetic moments and effective J = 1 / 2 ground-state wave functions in the RP series. We demonstrate that the deviation from the ideal effective J = 1 / 2 state is negligible at short time scales for both Sr2IrO4 and Sr3Ir2O7, while it becomes quite significant for Sr3Ir2O7 at long times and low energy, leading to a reconciliation of previous contradictory experimental results.

  1. Is the surface oxygen exchange rate linked to bulk ion diffusivity in mixed conducting Ruddlesden-Popper phases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkiewicz, Alex C; Tamimi, Mazin A; Huq, Ashfia; McIntosh, Steven

    2015-01-01

    The possible link between oxygen surface exchange rate and bulk oxygen anion diffusivity in mixed ionic and electronic conducting oxides is a topic of great interest and debate. While a large body of experimental evidence and theoretical analyses support a link, observed differences between bulk and surface composition of these materials are hard to reconcile with this observation. This is further compounded by potential problems with simultaneous measurement of both parameters. Here we utilize separate techniques, in situ neutron diffraction and pulsed isotopic surface exchange, to examine bulk ion mobility and surface oxygen exchange rates of three Ruddlesden-Popper phases, general form A(n-1)A(2)'B(n)O(3n+1), A(n-1)A(2)'B(n)X(3n+1); LaSrCo(0.5)Fe(0.5)O(4-δ) (n = 1), La(0.3)Sr(2.7)CoFeO(7-δ) (n = 2) and LaSr3Co(1.5)Fe(1.5)O(10-δ) (n = 3). These measurements are complemented by surface composition determination via high sensitivity-low energy ion scattering. We observe a correlation between bulk ion mobility and surface exchange rate between materials. The surface exchange rates vary by more than one order of magnitude with high anion mobility in the bulk of an oxygen vacancy-rich n = 2 Ruddlesden-Popper material correlating with rapid oxygen exchange. This is in contrast with the similar surface exchange rates which we may expect due to similar surface compositions across all three samples. We conclude that experimental limitations lead to inherent convolution of surface and bulk rates, and that surface exchange steps are not likely to be rate limiting in oxygen incorporation.

  2. ELNES study of chemical solution deposited SrO(SrTiO(3))(n) Ruddlesden-Popper films: experiment and simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, T; Gemming, T; Weissbach, T; Seifert, G; Gutmann, E; Zschornak, M; Meyer, D C; Gemming, S

    2009-12-01

    This article analyzes electron energy-loss near-edge fine structures of the SrO(SrTiO(3))(n=1) Ruddlesden-Popper system and of the parent compounds SrTiO(3) and SrO by comparison with first principles calculations. For that, the fine structures of chemical solution deposited Ruddlesden-Popper films have been experimentally recorded by means of transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, density of states computations using an all-electron density-functional code have been performed. It is shown that the appearance and shape of the experimental O-K and Ti-L(2,3) fine structure features result from the crystallography-dependent electronic structure of the investigated oxides, which display technologically interesting dielectric as well as lattice-structural properties.

  3. ELNES study of chemical solution deposited SrO(SrTiO{sub 3}){sub n} Ruddlesden-Popper films: Experiment and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riedl, T., E-mail: Thomas.Riedl@tu-dresden.de [IFW Dresden, PF 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Gemming, T. [IFW Dresden, PF 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Weissbach, T. [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Institut fuer Strukturphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Seifert, G. [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Gutmann, E. [Institut fuer Strukturphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Zschornak, M. [Institut fuer Strukturphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PF 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Meyer, D.C. [Institut fuer Strukturphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Gemming, S. [Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, PF 510119, D-01314 Dresden (Germany)

    2009-12-15

    This article analyzes electron energy-loss near-edge fine structures of the SrO(SrTiO{sub 3}){sub n=1} Ruddlesden-Popper system and of the parent compounds SrTiO{sub 3} and SrO by comparison with first principles calculations. For that, the fine structures of chemical solution deposited Ruddlesden-Popper films have been experimentally recorded by means of transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, density of states computations using an all-electron density-functional code have been performed. It is shown that the appearance and shape of the experimental O-K and Ti-L{sub 2,3} fine structure features result from the crystallography-dependent electronic structure of the investigated oxides, which display technologically interesting dielectric as well as lattice-structural properties.

  4. Formation mechanism of Ruddlesden-Popper-type antiphase boundaries during the kinetically limited growth of Sr rich SrTiO3 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chencheng; Du, Hongchu; van der Torren, Alexander J H; Aarts, Jan; Jia, Chun-Lin; Dittmann, Regina

    2016-12-06

    We elucidated the formation process for Ruddlesden-Popper-type defects during pulsed laser deposition of Sr rich SrTiO3 thin films by a combined analysis of in-situ atomic force microscopy, low energy electron diffraction and high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. At the early growth stage of 1.5 unit cells, the excess Sr results in the formation of SrO on the surface, resulting in a local termination change from TiO2 to SrO, thereby forming a Sr rich (2 × 2) surface reconstruction. With progressive SrTiO3 growth, islands with thermodynamically stable SrO rock-salt structure are formed, coexisting with TiO2 terminated islands. During the overgrowth of these thermodynamically stable islands, both lateral as well as vertical Ruddlesden-Popper-type anti-phase boundaries are formed, accommodating the Sr excess of the SrTiO3 film. We suggest the formation of thermodynamically stable SrO rock-salt structures as origin for the formation of Ruddlesden-Popper-type antiphase boundaries, which are as a result of kinetic limitations confined to certain regions on the surface.

  5. Formation mechanism of Ruddlesden-Popper-type antiphase boundaries during the kinetically limited growth of Sr rich SrTiO3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chencheng; Du, Hongchu; van der Torren, Alexander J. H.; Aarts, Jan; Jia, Chun-Lin; Dittmann, Regina

    2016-12-01

    We elucidated the formation process for Ruddlesden-Popper-type defects during pulsed laser deposition of Sr rich SrTiO3 thin films by a combined analysis of in-situ atomic force microscopy, low energy electron diffraction and high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. At the early growth stage of 1.5 unit cells, the excess Sr results in the formation of SrO on the surface, resulting in a local termination change from TiO2 to SrO, thereby forming a Sr rich (2 × 2) surface reconstruction. With progressive SrTiO3 growth, islands with thermodynamically stable SrO rock-salt structure are formed, coexisting with TiO2 terminated islands. During the overgrowth of these thermodynamically stable islands, both lateral as well as vertical Ruddlesden-Popper-type anti-phase boundaries are formed, accommodating the Sr excess of the SrTiO3 film. We suggest the formation of thermodynamically stable SrO rock-salt structures as origin for the formation of Ruddlesden-Popper-type antiphase boundaries, which are as a result of kinetic limitations confined to certain regions on the surface.

  6. “Dreamers Often Lie”: On “Compromise”, the subversive documentation of an Israeli- Palestinian political adaptation of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Munk

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Is Romeo and Juliet relevant to a description of the Middle-East conflict? This is the question raised in Compromise, an Israeli documentary that follows the

  7. On the Legitimacy of Popper's “Open Society”%论波普“开放社会”的正当性问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伟

    2014-01-01

    Normally in the political philosophy ,legitimacy refers to moral justification .But according to Karl Popper's critical rationalism , its value and facts are dualistic . T hus in Popper's theories , the justification of open society goes to be a problem . As for this , Popper thought that the open society is the logic extension of his critical rationalism . Popper tried to justify the open society with non-moral method . T his paper points out that the essence of the critical rationalism is some kind of faith . T herefore , the open society is a sort of choice of value and has to be justified with his own effectiveness and extrinsic purposes . From this sense , Popper can be considered as a utilitarian .%正当性就是在道德上被证成。由于波普坚持事实与价值两分的“二元论”,波普“开放社会”的证成性就成为问题,即不能以设定某种外在目的的方式来论证“开放社会”的合理。波普“开放社会”理论是其批判理性主义在社会政治领域的逻辑引申,并以非道德评价的方式来论证“开放社会”的正当性。波普的批判理性主义的实质依然是信仰,“开放社会”本身就是一种价值选择的结果,波普论证“开放社会”的正当性也只能诉诸外在的目的与自身的效用,这就意味着被其所批判的功利主义的“效果原则”依然构成波普“开放社会”的正当性依据。

  8. Effective J=1/2 insulating state in Ruddlesden-Popper iridates: an LDA+DMFT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongbin; Haule, Kristjan; Vanderbilt, David

    2013-12-13

    Using ab initio methods for correlated electrons in solids, we investigate the metal-insulator transition across the Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) series of iridates and explore the robustness of the Jeff=1/2 state against band effects due to itineracy, tetragonal distortion, octahedral rotation, and Coulomb interaction. We predict the effects of epitaxial strain on the optical conductivity, magnetic moments, and Jeff=1/2 ground-state wave functions in the RP series. To describe the solution of the many-body problem in an intuitive picture, we introduce a concept of energy-dependent atomic states, which strongly resemble the atomic Jeff=1/2 states but with coefficients that are energy or time dependent. We demonstrate that the deviation from the ideal Jeff=1/2 state is negligible at short time scales for both single- and double-layer iridates, while it becomes quite significant for Sr3Ir2O7 at long times and low energy. Interestingly, Sr2IrO4 is positioned very close to the SU(2) limit, with only ∼3% deviation from the ideal Jeff=1/2 situation.

  9. Kinetics of Oxygen Surface Exchange on Epitaxial Ruddlesden-Popper Phases and Correlations to First-Principles Descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yueh-Lin; Lee, Dongkyu; Wang, Xiao Renshaw; Lee, Ho Nyung; Morgan, Dane; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2016-01-21

    Through alignment of theoretical modeling with experimental measurements of oxygen surface exchange kinetics on (001)-oriented La2-xSrxMO4+δ (M = Co, Ni, Cu) thin films, we demonstrate here the capability of the theoretical bulk O 2p-band centers to correlate with oxygen surface-exchange kinetics of the Ruddlesden-Popper oxide (RP214) (001)-oriented thin films. In addition, we demonstrate that the bulk O 2p-band centers can also correlate with the experimental activation energies for bulk oxygen transport and oxygen surface exchange of both the RP214 and the perovskite polycrystalline materials reported in the literature, indicating the effectiveness of the bulk O 2p-band centers in describing the associated energetics and kinetics. We propose that the opposite slopes of the bulk O 2p-band center correlations between the RP214 and the perovskite materials are due to the intrinsic mechanistic differences of their oxygen surface exchange kinetics and bulk anionic transport.

  10. DFT modelling of SrO(SrTiO{sub 3}){sub n} Ruddlesden-Popper surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zschornak, Matthias; Weissbach, Torsten [Nachwuchsgruppe Nanostrukturphysik, Institute of Structural Physics, TU Dresden (Germany); Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, FZ Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Gutmann, Emanuel; Leisegang, Tilmann [Nachwuchsgruppe Nanostrukturphysik, Institute of Structural Physics, TU Dresden (Germany); Meyer, Dirk C. [Nachwuchsgruppe Nanostrukturphysik, Institute of Structural Physics, TU Dresden (Germany); Institute of Experimental Physics, TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany); Gemming, Sibylle [Institute of Ion Beam Physics and Materials Research, FZ Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Strontium titanate (SrTiO{sub 3}) is an oxide crystallizing with cubic perovskite-type of structure that exhibits a high tunability of dielectric, electric, mechanical and optical properties by means of defects. Apart from dopants, also intrinsic oxygen vacancies or ordered stacking faults, e.g. Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases SrO(SrTiO{sub 3}){sub n}, may influence these properties. We have investigated the surface energy, relaxation and electronic properties of such RP surfaces up to n=3 in comparison to 'pure' SrTiO{sub 3} by means of density-functional theory for left angle 001 right angle and left angle 100 right angle directions and with all possible perfect crystal terminations. We find a significant influence of the surface-near SrO-OSr stacking fault on surface energies and rumpling. Migrating surface states decrease the band gap of TiO{sub 2} terminations but all terminations show insulating character. A detailed discussion of surface-near relaxations is presented.

  11. Surface modeling of SrO(SrTiO{sub 3}){sub n} Ruddlesden-Popper phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zschornak, M. [Ionenstrahlphysik u. Materialforschung, HZ Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Strukturphysik, TU Dresden (Germany); Experimentelle Physik, TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany); Gemming, S. [Ionenstrahlphysik u. Materialforschung, HZ Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Gutmann, E. [Strukturphysik, TU Dresden (Germany); Weissbach, T. [Strukturphysik, TU Dresden (Germany); Theoretische Physik, TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany); Stoecker, H. [Strukturphysik, TU Dresden (Germany); Experimentelle Physik, TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany); Leisegang, T. [Ionenstrahlphysik u. Materialforschung, HZ Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Strukturphysik, TU Dresden (Germany); Riedl, T.; Traenkner, M. [IFW Dresden (Germany); Werkstoffwissenschaft, TU Dresden (Germany); Gemming, T. [IFW Dresden (Germany); Meyer, D.C. [Experimentelle Physik, TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Strontium titanate (STO) is a preferred substrate material for functional oxide growth, whose surface properties can be adjusted through the presence of Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases. In this work, density functional theory (DFT) is used to model the (100) and (001) surfaces of SrO(SrTiO{sub 3}){sub n} RP phases. Relaxed surface structures, electronic properties and stability relations have been determined. In contrast to pure STO, the near-surface SrO-OSr stacking fault can be employed to control surface roughness by adjusting SrO and TiO{sub 2} surface rumpling, to stabilize SrO termination in an SrO-rich surrounding or to increase the band gap in the case of TiO{sub 2} termination. RP thin films have been epitaxially grown on (001)STO substrates by chemical solution deposition. In agreement with DFT results, the fraction of particular RP phases n=1-3 changes with varying heating rate and molar ratio Sr:Ti. This is discussed in terms of bulk formation energy.

  12. Cómo usar la epistemología crítica de Popper para mejorar los procesos pedagógicos en la enseñanza del derecho

    OpenAIRE

    Mónica Aristizábal Botero; Carlos Emilio García Duque

    2012-01-01

    En este artículo se muestra la manera de aprovechar ciertas tesis de la epistemología de Popper para construir una propuesta de enseñanza-aprendizaje destinada a mejorar estos procesos en los programas de Derecho. Se argumentará que las sentencias de inexequibilidad de la Corte Constitucional constituyen un caso especial del uso del principio de falsabilidad de Popper y que es posible trasladar las nociones centrales de su epistemología a la didáctica y la pedagogía. En la parte central del a...

  13. Expanding the Ruddlesden-Popper manganite family: the N = 3 La(3.2)Ba(0.8)Mn3O10 member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadermann, Joke; Abakumov, Artem M; Tsirlin, Alexander A; Rozova, Marina G; Sarakinou, Eleni; Antipov, Evgeny V

    2012-11-01

    La(3.2)Ba(0.8)Mn(3)O(10), a representative of the rare n = 3 members of the Ruddlesden-Popper manganites A(n+1)Mn(n)O(3n+1), was synthesized in an evacuated sealed silica tube. Its crystal structure was refined from a combination of powder X-ray diffraction (PXD) and precession electron diffraction (PED) data, with the rotations of the MnO(6) octahedra described within the symmetry-adapted mode approach (space group Cccm, a = 29.068(1) Å, b = 5.5504(5) Å, c = 5.5412(5) Å; PXD R(F) = 0.053, R(P) = 0.026; PED R(F) = 0.248). The perovskite block in La(3.2)Ba(0.8)Mn(3)O(10) features an octahedral tilting distortion with out-of-phase rotations of the MnO(6) octahedra according to the (Φ,Φ,0)(Φ,Φ,0) mode, observed for the first time in the n = 3 Ruddlesden-Popper structures. The MnO(6) octahedra demonstrate a noticeable deformation with the elongation of two apical Mn-O bonds due to the Jahn-Teller effect in the Mn(3+) cations. The relationships between the octahedral tilting distortion, the ionic radii of the cations at the A- and B-positions, and the mismatch between the perovskite and rock-salt blocks of the Ruddlesden-Popper structure are discussed. At low temperatures, La(3.2)Ba(0.8)Mn(3)O(10) reveals a sizable remnant magnetization of about 1.3 μ(B)/Mn at 2 K, and shows signatures of spin freezing below 150 K.

  14. La lógica situacional de Karl Popper y la metodología de la investigación social y educativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluís Ballester

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The reflection on the methodology of the investigation can not forget the contributions to Popper, especially by his formulation to a specific model for the educational and social sciences, that of the situational logic. It is considered a form of methodology based on detailed explanations of the initial conditions (analysis of the social situation: context and subject, the theoretical and empirical models elaboration, and the consideration of the rationality principle. A methodology based in the situational logic is able of rationalising the methodology of the educational theories, as well as recognize the paradigms not positivists so important in the educational investigation

  15. Preferential orientation relationships in Ca{sub 2}MnO{sub 4} Ruddlesden-Popper thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacotte, M.; David, A.; Prellier, W., E-mail: wilfrid.prellier@ensicaen.fr [Laboratoire CRISMAT, CNRS UMR 6508, ENSICAEN, Université de Basse-Normandie, 6 Bd Maréchal Juin, F-14050 Caen Cedex 4 (France); Rohrer, G. S.; Salvador, P. A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

    2015-07-28

    A high-throughput investigation of local epitaxy (called combinatorial substrate epitaxy) was carried out on Ca{sub 2}MnO{sub 4} Ruddlesden-Popper thin films of six thicknesses (from 20 to 400 nm), all deposited on isostructural polycrystalline Sr{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} substrates. Electron backscatter diffraction revealed grain-over-grain local epitaxial growth for all films, resulting in a single orientation relationship (OR) for each substrate-film grain pair. Two preferred epitaxial ORs accounted for more than 90% of all ORs on 300 different microcrystals, based on analyzing 50 grain pairs for each thickness. The unit cell over unit cell OR ([100][001]{sub film} ∥ [100][001]{sub substrate}, or OR1) accounted for approximately 30% of each film. The OR that accounted for 60% of each film ([100][001]{sub film} ∥ [100][010]{sub substrate}, or OR2) corresponds to a rotation from OR1 by 90° about the a-axis. OR2 is strongly favored for substrate orientations in the center of the stereographic triangle, and OR1 is observed for orientations very close to (001) or to those near the edge connecting (100) and (110). While OR1 should be lower in energy, the majority observation of OR2 implies kinetic hindrances decrease the frequency of OR1. Persistent grain over grain growth and the absence of variations of the OR frequencies with thickness implies that the growth competition is finished within the first few nm, and local epitaxy persists thereafter during growth.

  16. Epitaxial thin-film growth of Ruddlesden-Popper-type Ba3Zr2O7 from a BaZrO3 target by pulsed laser deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Shariqa Hassan; Rafique, M. S.; Siraj, K.; Latif, A.; Afzal, Amina; Awan, M. S.; Bashir, Shazia; Iqbal, Nida

    2016-07-01

    Ruddlesden-Popper Ba3Zr2O7 thin films have been synthesized via pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The optimization of deposition parameters in PLD enables the formation of thin film of metastable Ba3Zr2O7 phase from BaZrO3 target. In order to see the post-annealing effects on the structural and optical properties, the deposited Ba3Zr2O7 thin films were annealed at 500, 600 and 800 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals the formation of Ba3Zr2O7 phase with tetragonal structure. The changes in the surface of the deposited films were analysed by FE-SEM and AFM. The thin film post-annealed at 500 °C exhibited the best structural, optical and surface properties. Furthermore, the chemical states and chemical composition of the films were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) near the surface. The XPS results show that Ba, Zr and O exist mainly in the form of Ba3Zr2O7 Ruddlesden-Popper-type perovskite structure.

  17. CÓMO USAR LA EPISTEMOLOGÍA CRÍTICA DE POPPER PARA MEJORAR LOS PROCESOS PEDAGÓGICOS EN LA ENSEÑANZA DEL DERECHO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica Aristizábal Botero

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se muestra la manera de aprovechar ciertas tesis de la epistemología de Popper para construir una propuesta de enseñanza-aprendizaje destinada a mejorar estos procesos en los programas de Derecho. Se argumentará que las sentencias de inexequibilidad de la Corte Constitucional constituyen un caso especial del uso del principio de falsabilidad de Popper y que es posible trasladar las nociones centrales de su epistemología a la didáctica y la pedagogía. En la parte central del artículo, se sugiere aprovechar el principio de la epistemologíacrítica en acción, implícito en algunas sentencias de inexequibilidad de la Corte Constitucional –período 1993-2000–, para introducir cambios que promuevan una actitud crítica en los estudiantes de los programas de Derecho.

  18. La2SrCr2O7: Controlling the Tilting Distortions of n = 2 Ruddlesden-Popper Phases through A-Site Cation Order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ronghuan; Abbett, Brian M; Read, Gareth; Lang, Franz; Lancaster, Tom; Tran, T Thao; Halasyamani, P Shiv; Blundell, Stephen J; Benedek, Nicole A; Hayward, Michael A

    2016-09-06

    Structural characterization by neutron diffraction, supported by magnetic, SHG, and μ(+)SR data, reveals that the n = 2 Ruddlesden-Popper phase La2SrCr2O7 adopts a highly unusual structural configuration in which the cooperative rotations of the CrO6 octahedra are out of phase in all three Cartesian directions (ΦΦΦz/ΦΦΦz; a(-)a(-)c(-)/a(-)a(-)c(-)) as described in space group A2/a. First-principles DFT calculations indicate that this unusual structural arrangement can be attributed to coupling between the La/Sr A-site distribution and the rotations of the CrO6 units, which combine to relieve the local deformations of the chromium-oxygen octahedra. This coupling suggests new chemical "handles" by which the rotational distortions or A-site cation order of Ruddlesden-Popper phases can be directed to optimize physical behavior. Low-temperature neutron diffraction data and μ(+)SR data indicate La2SrCr2O7 adopts a G-type antiferromagnetically ordered state below TN ∼ 260 K.

  19. Cognitive Research on the Systematicity of Love Metaphors in Shakespeare's Play of Romeo and Juliet%《罗密欧与朱丽叶》中“爱情”隐喻的系统性认知研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车明明; 陈瑞敏

    2015-01-01

    Based on the three types of conceptual metaphor from Shakespeare's play ofRomeo and Juli-et ,namely,love is fire,love is a journey and love is light,this paper analyzes the systematicity of the love metaphors from the cognitive perspective.The paper holds the belief that it is the systematicity of conceptual metaphor and the selective feature of the cognitive subject that lead to the openness and multidimensionality of metaphor,thus,it is hoped that the cognitive analysis from the perspective of systematicity will entail full cognition of the openness and multidimensionality of the love metaphors in the play.%基于《罗密欧与朱丽叶》中“爱情是火”、“爱情是旅程”及“爱情是光”三种概念隐喻,文章从认知视角对其爱情隐喻的系统性特征进行了剖析和论证。认为概念隐喻的系统性和认知主体的主体选择性决定了隐喻具有开放性和多维性,因此,基于对该剧中爱情隐喻系统性的了解便可全面认知其隐喻的开放性和多维性。

  20. Oxygen nonstoichiometry, the defect equilibrium model and thermodynamic quantities of the Ruddlesden-Popper oxide Sr3Fe2O(7-δ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Yihan; Wang, Fang; Budiman, Riyan Achmad; Nakamura, Takashi; Amezawa, Koji

    2015-03-21

    Oxygen nonstoichiometry of the Ruddlesden-Popper oxide Sr3Fe2O7-δ was measured at intermediate temperatures (773-1073 K) by coulometric titration and high temperature gravimetry. The oxygen nonstoichiometric behavior was analyzed using the defect equilibrium model with localized electrons. From the defect chemical analysis, estimated oxygen vacancy concentration at the O3 sites increases and at the O1 sites decreases with the increasing temperature. This characteristic behavior is considered to be caused by the redistribution of oxygen and vacancies between the O1 and O3 sites. The obtained thermodynamic quantities of the partial molar enthalpy of oxygen, h(O) - h°(O), and the partial molar entropy of oxygen, s(O) - s°(O), calculated from the Gibbs-Helmholtz equation are in good agreement with those from the statistical thermodynamic calculation based on the defect equilibrium model, indicating that the proposed defect equilibrium model is reasonable.

  1. Sr7Co4(CO3)O(13-δ) (δ = 1.64), an original cobaltite derivative of the Ruddlesden-Popper series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demont, A; Pelloquin, D; Hébert, S; Hervieu, M; Höwing, J; Maignan, A

    2013-05-01

    The oxycarbonate Sr7Co4(CO3)O11.36 exhibits a peculiar structure that has been characterized by combining transmission electron microscopy analyses and neutron diffraction. It consists of a regular intergrowth between the m = 2 and carbonated m = 3 members of the Sr(m+1)Co(m)O3(m+1) Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) series, Sr3Co2O5.87 and Sr4Co2(CO3)O5.49, respectively. A description of the structure is proposed to provide identification of the different building blocks. This material is semiconducting and presents a complex magnetic behavior, characteristic of what is observed for the RP(2) or RP(3) series, with a cobalt valency close to 2.7.

  2. The proposals that perhaps Karl Popper had propelled facing the enemies the open society of nowadays: for the XXI century, the reformism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Guillermo Estay Sepúlveda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available During his complete work, the philosopher Karl Popper criticized in a strongly way the totalitarianism of the XX century, which was lived by him directly. We do not have any doubt that nowadays, he would speak with a louder tone in front of the other bad situation in politics which is observed in the horizon ad portas of the third decade of the new millennium, that is to say the fundamentalism. Although it is true, the Austrian philosopher attacks the political totalitarian regimes with the democracy, he is also a critic of it and at the same time, being a defender to the death of dialogue, he does not doubt in putting in front of the tyranny, the principles of tyrannicide.

  3. Production and structural characterization of nanolayers of Ruddlesden-Popper phases SrO(SrTiO{sub 3}){sub n} with n=1, 2 und 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karsch, Diana; Gutmann, Emanuel; Stoecker, Hartmut; Mehner, Erik; Meyer, Dirk-Carl [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Inst. fuer Experimentelle Physik (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The strontium titanate Ruddlesden-Popper phases (STO-RP) represent ordered compounds of strontium oxide and strontium titanate with prominent piezoelectric, dielectric and photocatalytic properties. Two different methods for manufacturing nanolayers consisting these compounds are analyzed. The first method follows the citrate route while the second aimes at additional networking using a modified Pechini route. The prepared sols were characterized by their molecular structure with magnetic resonance spectroscopy and regarding their wetting behavior with viscosity measurements. The films, produced using both methods with different process parameters, were characterized by reflected light microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray reflectometry, X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic ellipsometry. It turns out that the modified Pechini route results in no additional networking. The annealed films possess a thickness of 75..180 nm and contain solely STO-RP phase n=1 only by adapting the tempering parameters, all STO-RP phases n=1,2 and n=3 occur together.

  4. 波普尔科学哲学思想对科学教育的影响%On the Influence of Popper's Philosophy toward Science Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘发茂; 林长春

    2012-01-01

    Popper's falsificationism replaced the logical positivism as the dominant philosophy of science successfully in the last century.It was not only a revolution in philosophy of science but also great affects in science education,including the essential views on science,objectives and ideas of science education,operating models of science education.%以"证伪主义"为核心的波普尔科学哲学在上个世纪成功替代了逻辑实证主义成为科学哲学上的主导,这不仅是科学哲学的一次革命,还对科学教育的科学本质观、科学教学目标和理念,以及科学教育模式等都产生了深远的影响。

  5. Democracia y relativismo: un estudio crítico de la filosofía política de Karl Popper

    OpenAIRE

    Crespo, R F

    1995-01-01

    Como cualquier actividad humana, la política, aunque no es sólo ética, tiene su aspecto moral, que no es otra cosa que su valoración en relación a las normas que conciernen al fin último del hombre. Si la política no es éticamente buena, es degradante. La teoría de Popper adolece entonces de defectos en dos planos: el teórico, en cuanto que provee una ética, arbitraria -que no es ética- como principio supremo que llevaría de suyo a una aniquilación del hombre; el práctico...

  6. An investigation of the electronic, structural and magnetic properties of the ruddlesden-popper phase Sr3RuCoO7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, H. A.; Wildman, E. J.; Macphee, D. E.; Sher, F.; Ritter, C.; Lledos, M.; Stenning, G.; McLaughlin, A. C.

    2017-09-01

    The structural, magnetic and electronic properties of the Ruddlesden-Popper material Sr3CoRuO7 have been investigated. Examination of the dc and ac magnetic susceptibility demonstrates that Sr3CoRuO7 exhibits a spin glass transition at 40 K and a magnetic transition at 140 K. Variable-temperature neutron powder diffraction experiments showed no evidence of magnetic diffraction peaks down to 5 K. This suggests the transition at 140 K is a result of short range magnetic order or magnetic clustering of the Co/Ru spins. Sr3CoRuO7 is semiconducting and Mott variable range hopping behaviour is observed below 240 K.

  7. Poppering the Newell Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taatgen, Niels A.

    2003-01-01

    The Newell Test as it is proposed by Anderson & Lebiere (A&L) has the disadvantage of being too positivistic, stressing areas a theory should cover, instead of attempting to exclude false predictions. Nevertheless, Newell's list can be used as the basis for a more stringent test with a stress on the

  8. Popper en Madrid

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    Aún en nuestros días es fácil comprobar la existencia de filósofos, y también de científicos, que creen que los límites de la razón se identifican con los de su propia concepción del mundo. Desgraciadamente, el ocultamiento y la tergiversación de datos es, todavía hoy, una práctica usual. Actitud que no es más que la vertiente práctica de una postura intelectual dogmática e intolerable. Por eso resulta estimulante encontrar un hombre cuya vida y pensamiento podría definirse como la antítesis ...

  9. A Brief Analysis of Characteristics of Pun in Romeo and Juliet%《罗密欧与朱丽叶》中双关语特点浅析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈艳; 徐慧

    2014-01-01

    Pun as a figure of speech uses a word or phrase to have two meanings:literal meaning and connotation meaning. What's more, as a one of the very important figure of speech, pun occupies a great place in Chinese and English rhetoric figure. However, if we want to make future understanding of pun, we first have to understand the characteristics of pun. The thesis will make a brief analysis of characteristics of pun from phonetic correlation, semantic ambiguity and double context with the aid of Romeo and Juliet.%双关语作为“言在此而意在彼”的一种修辞方式,利用一个词语或词组所关涉的表里两层意思来达到一箭双雕的修辞功能。作为一种重要的修辞方式,无存在汉语修辞还是在英语修辞中,都起着举足轻重的重要地位,然而要想进一步了解双关语,我们不得不首先对其特点做一了解。本文乃借助莎士比亚戏剧作品之一《罗密欧与朱丽叶》从语音上的相关性;语义上的多歧义性以及双重语境三个方面来对英语中的双关语特点作一浅要分析。

  10. Popper's scientific philosophy and its revelation for the research methods on jurisprudence%波普尔的科学哲学及其对法学研究方法的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛玉兵

    2013-01-01

    波普尔的哲学思想在西方科学主义思潮的演化脉络中处于过渡性地位。波普尔的哲学早期是经验主义的,但在后期逐步经由经验证伪主义转向了理性批判主义。波普尔提出的科学始于问题而非经验、证伪主义、猜想与反驳的科学发展模式等思想,不仅对科学哲学本身,而且对法学等社会科学的研究也具有启示意义。重视问题及其境况、证伪主义视角、猜想与反驳的批判方法等都在法学研究中有着广阔的用武之地。%Popper's scientific philosophy plays a transitional role in the evolution of the western scientific socialist ideo-logical trend.In his early philosophy, Popper holds the thought of empiricism.However, Popper shifted his ideas from empirical to rational criticism , and opened a new situation of western philosophy .Popper's ideas including“science be-gins with the problem”,“falsificationism”,“guess and refute”, are instructive not only in philosophy of science itself , but also for law and other social science research has implications .Attaching great importance to the problems and situa-tion, falsificationism, guess and rebut criticism ,all of these methods have broad use in the study of law .

  11. „Amadeusz”. Miloš Forman i Peter Shaffer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Choczaj

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The study is devoted to Miloš Forman’s film, a story about Mozart’s life, taken from Peter Shaffer’s drama. The author proposes a detailed analysis of Forman’s film as an autonomous work in the production of which the film was a medium. The film was an effect of collaboration between the author of the play and the director. The effect of the work is a film which is an example of a close connection of the form and the content – harmony between picture and music, which becomes almost one of the main characters. Individual compositions of Mozart form a network of motives closely connected with the visual aspect and make its sense deeper according to several rules of showing music as a part of the film medium, such as musical motives, explaining the music by the composer or music which uses media. Connecting the music and the aesthetics of the film make Amadeus a harmonious audio-visual performance.

  12. A New n = 4 Layered Ruddlesden-Popper Phase K(2.5)Bi(2.5)Ti4O13 Showing Stoichiometric Hydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Samuel; Avdeev, Maxim; Liu, Yun; Johnson, Mark R; Ling, Chris D

    2016-02-15

    A new bismuth-containing layered perovskite of the Ruddlesden-Popper type, K(2.5)Bi(2.5)Ti4O13, has been prepared by solid-state synthesis. It has been shown to hydrate to form stoichiometric K(2.5)Bi(2.5)Ti4O13·H2O. Diffraction data show that the structure consists of a quadruple-stacked (n = 4) perovskite layer, with potassium ions occupying the rock salt layer and its next-nearest A site. The hydrated sample was shown to remove the offset between stacked perovskite layers relative to the dehydrated sample. Computational methods show that the hydrated phase consists of intact H2O molecules in a vertical "pillared" arrangement bridging across the interlayer space. Rotations of H2O molecules about the c axis were evident in molecular dynamic calculations, which increased in rotation angle with increasing temperature. In situ diffraction data for the dehydrated phase point to a broad structural phase transition from orthorhombic to tetragonal at ∼600 °C. The relative bismuth-rich composition in the perovskite block results in a higher transition temperature compared to related perovskite structures. Water makes a significant contribution to the dielectric constant, which disappears after dehydration.

  13. Oxygen Point Defect Chemistry in Ruddlesden-Popper Oxides (La1-xSrx)2MO4±δ (M = Co, Ni, Cu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wei; Lee, Yueh-Lin; Shao-Horn, Yang; Morgan, Dane

    2016-05-19

    Stability of oxygen point defects in Ruddlesden-Popper oxides (La1-xSrx)2MO4±δ (M = Co, Ni, Cu) is studied with density functional theory calculations to determine their stable sites, charge states, and energetics as functions of Sr content (x), transition metal (M), and defect concentration (δ). We demonstrate that the dominant O point defects can change between oxide interstitials, peroxide interstitials, and vacancies. In general, increasing x and atomic number of M stabilizes peroxide over oxide interstitials as well as vacancies over both peroxide and oxide interstitials; increasing δ destabilizes both oxide interstitials and vacancies but barely affects peroxide interstitials. We also demonstrate that the O 2p-band center is a powerful descriptor for these materials and correlates linearly with the formation energy of all defects. The trends of formation energy versus x, M, and δ and the correlation with O 2p-band center are explained in terms of oxidation chemistry and electronic structure.

  14. Phase Transitions in the Ruddlesden-Popper Phase Li2CaTa2O7: X-ray and Neutron Powder Thermodiffraction, TEM, Raman, and SHG Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galven, Cyrille; Mounier, Denis; Bouchevreau, Boris; Suard, Emmanuelle; Bulou, Alain; Crosnier-Lopez, Marie-Pierre; Le Berre, Françoise

    2016-03-01

    The structure of the Ruddlesden-Popper layered perovskite Li2CaTa2O7, known for its high photocatalytic water activity since its discovery in 2008, is reinvestigated. This oxide has been characterized by powder X-ray and neutron thermodiffraction, TEM, second harmonic generation (SHG), and Raman experiments on powders and single crystals. It is shown that it undergoes two structural phase transitions (i) around 220 °C, mainly characterized by the progressive emergence of SHG signal at low temperatures, and (ii) at 660 °C, mainly characterized by changes of the temperature behavior of lattice parameters and by the emergence of Raman signals that linearly increase on decreasing temperature. It is shown by powder neutron diffraction profile refinements at RT, 400, and 800 °C that the space groups of the successive phases of Li2CaTa2O7 are the acentric Pna21 (RT ≤ T ≤ 220 °C), Pnma (220 °C ≤ T ≤ 660 °C), and Cmcm (T ≥ 660 °C). A soft mode associated with the transition to the highest symmetry for this structural arrangement (I4/mmm) is also found in the Raman spectra. All these transitions appear continuous: the high temperature ones can be attributed to progressive vanishings of the octahedra tiltings (displacives) while the transition in the vicinity of 220 °C from Pna21 to Pnma exhibits order-disorder character.

  15. La2SrCr2O7F2: A Ruddlesden-Popper Oxyfluoride Containing Octahedrally Coordinated Cr(4+) Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ronghuan; Read, Gareth; Lang, Franz; Lancaster, Tom; Blundell, Stephen J; Hayward, Michael A

    2016-03-21

    The low-temperature fluorination of the n = 2 Ruddlesden-Popper phase La2SrCr2O7 yields La2SrCr2O7F2 via a topochemical fluorine insertion reaction. The structure-conserving nature of the fluorination reaction means that the chromium centers of the initial oxide phase retain an octahedral coordination environment in the fluorinated product, resulting in a material containing an extended array of apex-linked Cr(4+)O6 units. Typically materials containing networks of octahedrally coordinated Cr(4+) centers can only be prepared at high pressure; thus, the preparation of La2SrCr2O7F2 demonstrates that low-temperature topochemical reactions offer an alternative synthesis route to materials of this type. Neutron diffraction, magnetization, and μ(+)SR data indicate that La2SrCr2O7F2 undergoes a transition to an antiferromagnetic state below TN ≈ 140 K. The structure-property relations of this phase and other Cr(4+) oxide phases are discussed.

  16. Structural, optical and vibrational properties of self-assembled Pbn+1(Ti1-x Fex)nO(3n+1)-δ Ruddlesden-Popper superstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, K I; Peters, J J P; Nawaz, S; Walker, D; Walker, M; Lees, M R; Beanland, R; Sanchez, A M; McConville, C F; Palkar, V R; Lloyd-Hughes, J

    2015-01-16

    Bulk crystals and thin films of PbTi(1-x)FexO3(-δ) (PTFO) are multiferroic, exhibiting ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism at room temperature. Here we report that the Ruddlesden-Popper phase Pbn+1(Ti(1-x)Fex)nO3(n+1)-δ forms spontaneously during pulsed laser deposition of PTFO on LaAlO3 substrates. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy were utilised to perform a structural and compositional analysis, demonstrating that n ≃ 8 and x ≃ 0.5. The complex dielectric function of the films was determined from far-infrared to ultraviolet energies using a combination of terahertz time-domain spectroscopy, Fourier transform spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The simultaneous Raman and infrared activity of phonon modes and the observation of second harmonic generation establishes a non-centrosymmetric point group for Pbn+1(Ti0.5Fe0.5)nO3(n+1)-δ, a prerequisite for (but not proof of) ferroelectricity. No evidence of macroscopic ferromagnetism was found in SQUID magnetometry. The ultrafast optical response exhibited coherent magnon oscillations compatible with local magnetic order, and additionally was used to study photocarrier cooling on picosecond timescales. An optical gap smaller than that of BiFeO3 and long photocarrier lifetimes may make this system interesting as a ferroelectric photovoltaic.

  17. Karl Popper Y Friedrich Hayek: una luz sobre la naturaleza, objeto y método de la administración

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco López Gallego

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Con base en el reconocimiento de la existencia de un conocimiento objetivo sin sujeto cognoscente, propio del llamado “tercer mundo” poperiano, en primera instancia se intenta someter a examen el discurso administrativo –en tanto sistema de conocimientos– para determinar hasta qué punto es susceptible de ser construido mediante un método válido, con lo cual se aspira a establecer una discusión en torno a su naturaleza. En un segundo momento, se continúa con la presentación del método que Popper reclama para las ciencias sociales en general, devenido de la economía, el cual sería también el apropiado para nuestra disciplina. Finalmente, se pretende delimitar un objeto de estudio propio de dicho sistema de conocimientos, a partir de la diferencia que F. Hayek establece entre los órdenes sociales artificiales y espontáneos.

  18. Beyond Popper and Polanyi: Leonor Michaelis, a critical and passionate pioneer of research at the interface of medicine, enzymology, and physical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deichmann, Ute

    2012-01-01

    The biochemist and biophysicist Leonor Michaelis (1875-1949) was a renowned pioneer who worked at the interface of physical chemistry and biochemistry. He is best known for his work on the physical chemistry of proteins and enzymes and for the mathematical derivation, together with Maud Menten, of the affinity constant of the enzyme substrate bond, now known as the Michaelis-Menten constant. His thorough experimentation and careful theorizing made him critical of his contemporaries in medical biochemistry, whose work did not withstand scrutiny. His strong influence resulted from combining new concepts and approaches with traditional ones, thus bridging conceptual gaps. Most importantly, his success was brought about because he combined a critical and sharp mind with competence, passion, and determination. A review of Michaelis's approach and achievements shows that critical theory testing, as suggested by Popper, cannot explain scientific advance if taken alone; the existence of a passionate commitment to scientific beliefs, as emphasized by Polanyi, is another necessary prerequisite for the development of science.

  19. Crystal Structure and Magnetic Properties of an oxygen deficient n = 2 Ruddlesden-Popper phase Sr3Co2O5.67

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Julienne M.; Mitchell, John F.; Dabrowski, Bogdan

    2006-03-01

    Interest in charge, orbital, and spin state phenomena in perovskite and related cobalt oxides is a growing area of transition metal oxide physics. Recently, J. Matsuno et al. have found that epitaxial films of the n = 1 Ruddlesden-Popper (R-P) phase Sr2CoO4 are metallic ferromagnets with relatively high TC ˜ 250 K. This is particularly interesting in light of the formal oxidation state of Co, Co^4+, offering no clear source of carriers. To extend the materials chemistry and physics of the R-P series of cobaltites, we have synthesized the n = 2 R-P phase Sr3Co2O7-δ in bulk form. The crystal structure [from neutron powder diffraction (NPD) data] of our most oxygen-deficient sample, Sr3Co2O5.67 is orthorhombic Immm with a = 3.94025(9) å, b = 3.67479(9) å and c = 20.6642(5) å. The magnetization versus temperature data show two antiferromagnetic transitions at approximately 170 K and 220 K. To further elucidate the magnetic properties of this material, we have conducted a temperature-dependent NPD study. The low temperature magnetic structure is surprisingly complex and suggestive of an incommensurate ordering wave vector. Full details and results of the NPD study will be given. J. Matsuno et al., PRL 93, 167202 (2004).

  20. Falsification in Popper Science and Its Meaning%浅谈波普尔科学的证伪及其意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆锦龙

    2012-01-01

    本文旨在通过对波普尔所提出的证伪模式的科学论证方法进行分析,力求使读者了解科学理论产生方法的演变过程。之所以要单独对证伪模式看成一个独立的研究对象,主要是这样的一个方法模式产生了后来新的科学研究思维,同时也使科学理论有了突飞猛进的发展,可以说这种方法是后来科学理论发展的一个重要基石。%According to analyze the falsification in Popper science, this paper aims to know the progress of scientific theory. Being one separate research object, falsification mode brought out scientific thought, meanwhile, the development of scientific theory. That is the base of scientific theory.

  1. Irradiation study on Sr{sub n+1}Ti{sub n}O{sub 3n+1} Ruddlesden-Popper phases synthesized by hot-forging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Ming; Fu, Engang [Materials Science and Technology Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Fuierer, Paul; Dickens, Peter [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    The hot-forging technique was used to obtain both the n = 2 (Sr{sub 3}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}) and n = {infinity} (SrTiO{sub 3}) members of Ruddlesden-Popper phase Sr{sub n+1}Ti{sub n}O{sub 3n+1}. Pure phase and high density (>95% theoretical) materials were achieved using this technique. These polycrystalline samples were irradiated with 200 keV He ions to a fluence of 2 x 10{sup 21} ion/m{sup 2} (corresponding to a peak dose at 5 dpa) at room temperature to study radiation damage effects. Microstructural investigation on pristine and irradiated samples was performed using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Three phenomena are revealed upon comparing prisXtine versus irradiated samples. First, both compounds interplanar lattice spacings increased after irradiation. Second, peak broadening possibly suggests incredibly small grain due to irradiation. Third, experiment results revealed an amorphization in the irradiated Sr{sub 3}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}, while no amorphization was observed in irradiated SrTiO{sub 3}. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Atomic layer epitaxy of Ruddlesden-Popper SrO(SrTiO{sub 3}){sub n} films by means of metalorganic aerosol deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungbauer, M.; Hühn, S.; Moshnyaga, V. [Erstes Physikalisches Institut, Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Egoavil, R.; Tan, H.; Verbeeck, J.; Van Tendeloo, G. [EMAT, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2014-12-22

    We report an atomic layer epitaxial growth of Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) thin films of SrO(SrTiO{sub 3}){sub n} (n = ∞, 2, 3, 4) by means of metalorganic aerosol deposition (MAD). The films are grown on SrTiO{sub 3}(001) substrates by means of a sequential deposition of Sr-O/Ti-O{sub 2} atomic monolayers, monitored in-situ by optical ellipsometry. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) reveal the RP structure with n = 2–4 in accordance with the growth recipe. RP defects, observed by TEM in a good correlation with the in-situ ellipsometry, mainly result from the excess of SrO. Being maximal at the film/substrate interface, the SrO excess rapidly decreases and saturates after 5–6 repetitions of the SrO(SrTiO{sub 3}){sub 4} block at the level of 2.4%. This identifies the SrTiO{sub 3} substrate surface as a source of RP defects under oxidizing conditions within MAD. Advantages and limitations of MAD as a solution-based and vacuum-free chemical deposition route were discussed in comparison with molecular beam epitaxy.

  3. Surface modeling and chemical solution deposition of SrO(SrTiO{sub 3}){sub n} Ruddlesden-Popper phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zschornak, M., E-mail: matthias.zschornak@physik.tu-dresden.de [Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, FZ Dresden-Rossendorf, D-01314 Dresden (Germany)] [Institut fuer Strukturphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Gemming, S. [Institut fuer Ionenstrahlphysik und Materialforschung, FZ Dresden-Rossendorf, D-01314 Dresden (Germany); Gutmann, E. [Institut fuer Strukturphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Weissbach, T. [Institut fuer Strukturphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)] [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, D-09596 Freiberg (Germany); Stoecker, H.; Leisegang, T. [Institut fuer Strukturphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Riedl, T.; Traenkner, M. [IFW Dresden, PF 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany)] [Institut fuer Werkstoffwissenschaft, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Gemming, T. [IFW Dresden, PF 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Meyer, D.C. [Institut fuer Strukturphysik, Technische Universitaet Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)] [Institut fuer Experimentelle Physik, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, D-09596 Freiberg (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Strontium titanate (STO) is a preferred substrate material for functional oxide growth, whose surface properties can be adjusted through the presence of Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) phases. Here, density functional theory (DFT) is used to model the (1 0 0) and (0 0 1) surfaces of SrO(SrTiO{sub 3}){sub n} RP phases. Relaxed surface structures, electronic properties and stability relations have been determined. In contrast to pure STO, the near-surface SrO-OSr stacking fault can be employed to control surface roughness by adjusting SrO and TiO{sub 2} surface rumpling, to stabilize SrO termination in an SrO-rich surrounding or to increase the band gap in the case of TiO{sub 2} termination. RP thin films have been epitaxially grown on (0 0 1) STO substrates by chemical solution deposition. In agreement with DFT results, the fraction of particular RP phases n = 1-3 changes with varying heating rate and molar ratio Sr:Ti. This is discussed in terms of bulk formation energy.

  4. New mechanistic insight into the oxygen reduction reaction on Ruddlesden-Popper cathodes for intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyuan; Guan, Bo; Zhang, Xinxin; Yan, Jianhua; Zhou, Yue; Liu, Xingbo

    2016-03-28

    Ruddlesden-Popper (R-P) phase materials have been investigated widely as cathode candidates for IT-SOFCs. However, widespread application of R-P phase cathodes demands further improvement in electrode activity whose progress is hindered by the limited information in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The ORR mechanism for the R-P phase is therefore investigated in this paper using (LaSr)2NiO(4±δ) as an example. Accurate characterization of the surface oxygen exchange process is realized by developing thin and dense polycrystalline LSNO layers via a versatile spray-modified pressing method we invented before to avoid perceptible bulk diffusion contribution, surface enrichment and geometry complication. The governing factors of the ORR are identified as oxygen adsorption and incorporation based on the findings in reaction orders from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), stoichiometry-related chemical capacitance and intrinsic anisotropic properties. The incorporation rate is proven to drastically depend on the amount of interstitial oxygen (O(i)"). Since the unfilled interstitial sites(V(i)(×)) in the R-P phase serve to accommodate the adsorbed oxygen during incorporation, like vacancies in the perovskite structure (V(O)(••)), more O(i)" would seem to suppress the kinetics of this process. In regards to this, for the first time, a physical model is proposed to reconcile the discrepancy between the experimental results and intuitive reasoning. Based on supporting evidence, this model illustrates a possibility of how O(i)" works to regulate the exchange rate, and how the contradiction between V(O)(••) and O(i)" is harmonized so that the latter in the R-P structure also positively promotes the incorporation rate in the ORR.

  5. Growth of Ca{sub 2}MnO{sub 4} Ruddlesden-Popper structured thin films using combinatorial substrate epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacotte, M.; David, A.; Pravarthana, D.; Prellier, W., E-mail: wilfrid.prellier@ensicaen.fr [Laboratoire CRISMAT, CNRS UMR 6508, ENSICAEN, Université de Basse-Normandie, 6 Bd Maréchal Juin, F-14050 Caen Cedex 4 (France); Grygiel, C. [Laboratoire CIMAP, CEA, CNRS UMR 6252, ENSICAEN, Université de Basse-Normandie, 6 Bd Maréchal Juin, F-14050 Caen Cedex 4 (France); Rohrer, G. S.; Salvador, P. A. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Velazquez, M. [CNRS, Université de Bordeaux, ICMCB, UPR 9048, F-33600 Pessac (France); Kloe, R. de [AMETEK B.V, EDAX Application Laboratory, Tilburg (Netherlands)

    2014-12-28

    The local epitaxial growth of pulsed laser deposited Ca{sub 2}MnO{sub 4} films on polycrystalline spark plasma sintered Sr{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} substrates was investigated to determine phase formation and preferred epitaxial orientation relationships (ORs) for isostructural Ruddlesden-Popper (RP) heteroepitaxy, further developing the high-throughput synthetic approach called Combinatorial Substrate Epitaxy (CSE). Both grazing incidence X-ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction patterns of the film and substrate were indexable as single-phase RP-structured compounds. The optimal growth temperature (between 650 °C and 800 °C) was found to be 750 °C using the maximum value of the average image quality of the backscattered diffraction patterns. Films grew in a grain-over-grain pattern such that each Ca{sub 2}MnO{sub 4} grain had a single OR with the Sr{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} grain on which it grew. Three primary ORs described 47 out of 49 grain pairs that covered nearly all of RP orientation space. The first OR, found for 20 of the 49, was the expected RP unit-cell over RP unit-cell OR, expressed as [100][001]{sub film}||[100][001]{sub sub}. The other two ORs were essentially rotated from the first by 90°, with one (observed for 17 of 49 pairs) being rotated about the [100] and the other (observed for 10 of 49 pairs) being rotated about the [110] (and not exactly by 90°). These results indicate that only a small number of ORs are needed to describe isostructural RP heteroepitaxy and further demonstrate the potential of CSE in the design and growth of a wide range of complex functional oxides.

  6. Epitaxial thin-film growth of Ruddlesden-Popper-type Ba{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} from a BaZrO{sub 3} target by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butt, Shariqa Hassan; Rafique, M.S.; Siraj, K.; Latif, A.; Afzal, Amina [University of Engineering and Technology, Laser and Optronics Centre, Department of Physics, Lahore (Pakistan); Awan, M.S. [Ibn-e-Sina Institute of Science and Technology (ISIT), Islamabad (Pakistan); Bashir, Shazia [Government College University, Centre for Advanced Studies in Physics, Lahore (Pakistan); Iqbal, Nida [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Medical Devices and Technology Group (MEDITEG), Faculty of Biosciences and Medical Engineering, Johor Bahru, Johor (Malaysia)

    2016-07-15

    Ruddlesden-Popper Ba{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} thin films have been synthesized via pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. The optimization of deposition parameters in PLD enables the formation of thin film of metastable Ba{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} phase from BaZrO{sub 3} target. In order to see the post-annealing effects on the structural and optical properties, the deposited Ba{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} thin films were annealed at 500, 600 and 800 C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals the formation of Ba{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} phase with tetragonal structure. The changes in the surface of the deposited films were analysed by FE-SEM and AFM. The thin film post-annealed at 500 C exhibited the best structural, optical and surface properties. Furthermore, the chemical states and chemical composition of the films were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) near the surface. The XPS results show that Ba, Zr and O exist mainly in the form of Ba{sub 3}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} Ruddlesden-Popper-type perovskite structure. (orig.)

  7. Why Popper can't resolve the debate over global warming: Problems with the uses of philosophy of science in the media and public framing of the science of global warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercer, David

    2016-05-05

    A notable feature in the public framing of debates involving the science of Anthropogenic Global Warming are appeals to uncritical 'positivist' images of the ideal scientific method. Versions of Sir Karl Popper's philosophy of falsification appear most frequently, featuring in many Web sites and broader media. This use of pop philosophy of science forms part of strategies used by critics, mainly from conservative political backgrounds, to manufacture doubt, by setting unrealistic standards for sound science, in the veracity of science of Anthropogenic Global Warming. It will be shown, nevertheless, that prominent supporters of Anthropogenic Global Warming science also often use similar references to Popper to support their claims. It will also be suggested that this pattern reflects longer traditions of the use of Popperian philosophy of science in controversial settings, particularly in the United States, where appeals to the authority of science to legitimize policy have been most common. It will be concluded that studies of the science of Anthropogenic Global Warming debate would benefit from taking greater interest in questions raised by un-reflexive and politically expedient public understanding(s) of the philosophy of science of both critics and supporters of the science of Anthropogenic Global Warming. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Epitaxial growth of mixed conducting layered Ruddlesden–Popper La{sub n+1}Ni{sub n}O{sub 3n+1} (n = 1, 2 and 3) phases by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Kuan-Ting; Soh, Yeong-Ah; Skinner, Stephen J., E-mail: s.skinner@imperial.ac.uk

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • High quality epitaxial thin films of layered Ruddlesden–Popper nickelates were prepared. • For the first time this has been achieved by the PLD process. • n = 1, 2 and 3 films were successfully deposited on SrTiO{sub 3} and NdGaO{sub 3} substrates. • c-Axis oriented films were confirmed by XRD analysis. • In-plane and out-of-plane strain effects on lattice are discussed. - Abstract: Layered Ruddlesden–Popper phases of composition La{sub n+1}Ni{sub n}O{sub 3n+1} (n = 1, 2 and 3) have been epitaxially grown on SrTiO{sub 3} (0 0 1) or NdGaO{sub 3} (1 1 0) single crystal substrates using the pulsed laser deposition technique. X-ray diffraction analyses (θ/2θ, rocking curves, and φ-scans) and atomic force microscopy confirms the high-quality growth of the series of films with low surface roughness values (less than 1 nm). In particular, epitaxial growth of the higher order phases (n = 2 and 3) of lanthanum nickelate have been demonstrated for the first time.

  9. Duhem como precursor de Popper, Kuhn e Lakatos sobre a metodologia da escolha racional de teorias: da dualidade à trialidade metodológica = Duhem as forerunner of Popper, Kuhn and Lakatos on the Theory of Rational Choice: from methodological duality to triality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiappin, José Raymundo Novaes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A tese é de que a concepção de Duhem da ciência antecipa, entre outros elementos, o modelo de escolha de teorias científicas associado com as concepções de Popper, Lakatos e Kuhn. No contexto do seu debate com Poincaré, Duhem propõe um modelo metodológico de escolha racional de teorias formado, também, de componentes extralógicos. O modelo substitui a metodologia bipartida, teoria e natureza, por uma tripartida, confrontação entre duas teorias e natureza. Tal metodologia verifica-se adequada para descrever o processo de escolha de teoria formado das etapas da refutação e rejeição. Ambas as propostas revelam seu enfoque histórico-crítico cuja tese é a interdependência entre história e teoria da ciência. A interdependência configura-se num laboratório para a elaboração, a avaliação e teste das propostas metafísicas e metodológicas para a construção de uma teoria da ciência

  10. Topochemical fluorination of Sr3(M(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7 (M = Ti, Mn, Fe), n = 2, Ruddlesden-Popper phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Fabio Denis; Bingham, Paul A; Forder, Susan D; Hayward, Michael A

    2013-03-18

    Reaction of the appropriate Sr3(M(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7 (M = Ti, Mn, Fe), n = 2, Ruddlesden-Popper oxide with CuF2 under flowing oxygen results in formation of the oxide-fluoride phases Sr3(Ti(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7F2, Sr3(Mn(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7F2, and Sr3(Fe(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O(5.5)F(3.5) via a topochemical anion insertion/substitution process. Analysis indicates the titanium and manganese phases have Ti(4+), Ru(6+) and Mn(4+), Ru(6+) oxidation state combinations, respectively, while Mössbauer spectra indicate an Fe(3+), Ru(5.5+) combination for the iron phase. Thus, it can be seen that the soft fluorination conditions employed lead to formation of highly oxidized Ru(6+) centers in all three oxide-fluoride phases, while oxidation states of the other transition metal M cations remain unchanged. Fluorination of Sr3(Ti(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7 to Sr3(Ti(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7F2 leads to suppression of magnetic order as the fluorinated material approaches metallic behavior. In contrast, fluorination of Sr3(Mn(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7 and Sr3(Fe(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7 lifts the magnetic frustration present in the oxide phases, resulting in observation of long-range antiferromagnetic order at low temperature in Sr3(Mn(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7F2 and Sr3(Fe(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O(5.5)F(3.5). The influence of the topochemical fluorination on the magnetic behavior of the Sr3(M(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O(x)F(y) phases is discussed on the basis of changes to the ruthenium oxidation state and structural distortions.

  11. A Comparative Study on The Peony Pavilion and Romeo and Juliet from the Aspect of Chinese and Western Cultures%中西文化互观下的《牡丹亭》与《罗密欧与朱丽叶》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹

    2014-01-01

    Tang Xianzu ,the writer of The Peony Pavilion ,and Shakespeare of Romeo and Juliet both lived in the later half of the 16th century enjoying fame as great playwright similarly in the Orient and the West .There is hardly any connection between the creation of the two great works ,however ,they surpris-ingly share some sparkling ideas .Du Liniang and Juliet are almost the same in their pursuit of ideal love , rebellion against restriction and bandage as well as seeking of spiritual liberation and freedom .In this es-say ,a comparative study is made on the two works from the perspectives of cultural differences between the Orient and the West and a deep and through analysis is presented .%《牡丹亭》的创作者汤显祖与《罗密欧与茱丽叶》的作者莎士比亚共处于16世纪后期,也是这个时期分别在东西方享有盛誉的戏剧文学艺术家。在两人的这两部文学成就的制作上虽然不存在任何的关联,却不约而同地在某些闪光点上存在着一种相似的思想。朱丽叶和杜丽娘这两人在追求理想的爱情、反对束缚和枷锁、寻求思想解放和自由等方面而言,几乎是如出一辙。因此,作为文学的研究者之一,笔者将从中西文化的差异方面着手对两部著作进行比较,并进行深入的分析和探讨。

  12. Analysis of the Similarities and Dissimilarities between Chinese and Western Tragedies with "Romeo and Juliet"and"Butterfly Love"as an Example%以《罗密欧与朱丽叶》和《梁祝》为例分析中西方悲剧的异同

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚羚羚

    2013-01-01

      《梁山伯与祝英台》是我国四大民间传说之一,是世界非物质文化遗产,《罗密欧与朱丽叶》是欧洲文艺复兴时期英国剧作家莎士比亚的名作,二者虽然历史环境与文化背景不同,但是都描绘了惊世骇俗的爱情,讲述了一对年轻人相识相爱,最后殉情而死的悲剧故事。本文从人物塑造、社会背景、文化差异、结局构建等几个方面对两部爱情著作进行对比分析,比较中西方悲剧文化的异同。%"Butterfly Love"is one of China's four major folklores, and is also a world intangible cultural heritage."Romeo and Juli-et" is the British playwright Shakespeare's masterpiece in the European Renaissance period. The two are based on different historical and cultural background, but they all described the love shocking the common customs. From several aspects, this paper compares and analyzes the two masterpieces, and compares the similarities and dissimilarities between Chinese and Western cultures.

  13. 从《罗密欧与朱丽叶》和《哈姆雷特》看朱生豪译者风格%On Zhu Shenghao’s Translator’s Style in Romeo and Juliet and Hamlet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙瑞

    2012-01-01

      莎士比亚的戏剧流传至今与它的思想、语言艺术有着紧密的联系。作为莎剧翻译中的一员,朱生豪显示了他天才的才情与手段。他的译本至今仍然深受广大的读者的欢迎。该文旨在通过对《罗密欧与朱丽叶》《哈姆雷特》两本译作的分析来研究朱生豪的译者风格。文章采用了宏观和微观的视角,运用翻译问题学理论从语言学各个层面探讨了译文的风格特征,并且宏观上分析了译本中对原文主题和语气的风格的把握。最后总结归纳了朱生豪的译者风格特征。%  Zhu Shenghao rendered Shakespeare’s plays in the form of prose in vernacular Chinese. This thesis intends to take a descriptive view and find the overall style he shows in his translations. This thesis chooses two of his works Romeo and Juliet and Hamlet and the theory of Translation Stylistics and the method of quantitative, comparative qualitative analysis are utilized. After comparison and analysis, the author has located several features of his translation style.

  14. Cognitive Interpretation of Love Metaphors inRomeo and Juliet Based on the Conceptual Integration Theory%概念整合理论框架下《罗密欧与朱丽叶》中“爱情”隐喻的认知阐释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈瑞敏; 车明明

    2015-01-01

    Conceptual integration, which reveals the dynamic process of on-line meaning construction and that of understanding the cognitive subject, is the most fundamental and universal cognitive means of human beings. Based on the four conceptual integration networks of CIT, this paper analyzes the love metaphors in Shakespeare’s play ofRomeo and Juliet, explorestheir construction processes and cognitive mechanisms, expounds the constructions of the emergent structures of metaphorical meanings, and illustrates the strong explanatory power of CIT to love metaphors. The analysis based on CIT not only enriches the cognitive research of metaphors, but provides a new perspective to the research of love metaphors as well.%概念整合是人类最基本和最普遍的认知方式,它揭示了意义的实时动态构建过程以及认知主体对意义的理解过程。以概念整合的四种网络模型为基础,对莎剧《罗密欧与朱丽叶》中爱情隐喻的意义构建过程和认知机制进行探析,阐释产生隐喻意义之层创结构的运演过程,展示概念整合理论对爱情隐喻的强大阐释力。概念整合的认知分析丰富了隐喻的认知研究,同时也为爱情隐喻的研究提供了新的视角。

  15. Synthesis and characterisation of the n = 2 Ruddlesden–Popper phases Ln{sub 2}Sr(Ba)Fe{sub 2}O{sub 7} (Ln = La, Nd, Eu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurusinghe, Nicola N.M. [School of Chemistry, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Figuera, Juand de la; Marco, José F. [Instituto de Quimica-Fisica “Rocasolano”, CSIC, Serrano 119, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Thomas, Michael F. [Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool. L69 3BX (United Kingdom); Berry, Frank J., E-mail: f.j.berry.1@bham.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Greaves, Colin [School of Chemistry, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Some Ruddlesden–Popper phases have been characterised. • Substitution on the A site influences cationic order. • The magnetic moment redirects with temperature - Abstract: A series of n = 2 Ruddlesden–Popper phases A{sub 2}B{sub 2}O{sub 7} of composition Ln{sub 2}Sr(Ba)Fe{sub 2}O{sub 7} (Ln = La, Nd, Eu) have been prepared. La{sub 2}SrFe{sub 2}O{sub 7} and La{sub 2}BaFe{sub 2}O{sub 7} crystallise in the tetragonal space group I4/mmm. The structures of Eu{sub 2}SrFe{sub 2}O{sub 7} and Nd{sub 2}SrFe{sub 2}O{sub 7} are best described in space group P4{sub 2}/mnm. Substitution on the A site with smaller lanthanide- and larger alkaline metal- ions leads to enhanced cationic order in these phases and reflects increasing differences in cationic radii. All the compounds are antiferromagnetically ordered between 298 and 2 K. In La{sub 2}SrFe{sub 2}O{sub 7} the magnetic moment lies along [1 1 0] at all temperatures between 298 and 2 K whereas in La{sub 2}BaFe{sub 2}O{sub 7} the magnetic moment at 298 K lies along the crystallographic x-axis but redirects from the [1 0 0] to the [1 1 0] direction between 210 and 190 K and is retained in this direction until 2 K. In Nd{sub 2}SrFe{sub 2}O{sub 7} the magnetic moment at 298 K lies along [1 1 0] but rotates from [1 1 0] to [0 0 1] between 17 and 9 K. A series of {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectra recorded from La{sub 2}SrFe{sub 2}O{sub 7} between 290 and 600 K indicate a magnetic ordering temperature of T{sub N} ≥ 535 K.

  16. Activity and Stability of Ruddlesden-Popper-Type La(n+1) Ni(n) O(3n+1) (n=1, 2, 3, and ∞) Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction and Evolution Reactions in Alkaline Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Sunarso, Jaka; Zhu, Yinlong; Xu, Xiaomin; Ran, Ran; Zhou, Wei; Shao, Zongping

    2016-02-18

    Increasing energy demands have stimulated intense research activity on cleaner energy conversion such as regenerative fuel cells and reversible metal-air batteries. It is highly challenging but desirable to develop low-cost bifunctional catalysts for both the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER), the lack of which is currently one of the major limiting components towards commercialization of these technologies. Here, we have conducted a systematic study on the OER and ORR performances of the Ruddlesden-Popper family of La(n+1)Ni(n) O(3n+1) (n=1, 2, 3, and ∞) in an alkaline medium for the first time. It is apparent that the Ni-O bond lengths and the hyperstoichiometric oxides in the rock-salt layers correlate with the ORR activities, whereas the OER activities appear to be influenced by the OH(-) content on the surface of the compounds. In our case, the electronic configuration fails to predict the electrocatalytic activity of these compounds. This work provides guidelines to develop new electrocatalysts with improved performances.

  17. Fluorine insertion into the Ruddlesden-Popper phase La2BaFe2O7: the structure and magnetic properties of La2BaFe2O5F4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurusinghe, Nicola N M; Fones, Julia C; Marco, Jose F; Berry, Frank J; Greaves, Colin

    2014-02-01

    Fluorination of the n = 2 Ruddlesden-Popper phase La2BaFe2O7 occurs at ~300 °C in flowing 10% F2 in N2 to form La2BaFe2O5F4. This oxide fluoride contains 2F(-) ions in interstitial sites within the rocksalt regions and 2F(-) ions that have substituted for O(2-) ions in apical sites within the rocksalt layers. The fluorination results in an expansion along c of 7.6% to yield a tetragonal unit cell of dimensions a = 3.96237(7) Å, c = 22.3972(5) Å. The structure and magnetic properties have been examined by Mössbauer spectroscopy, neutron powder diffraction and magnetic susceptibility measurements. La2BaFe2O5F4 becomes antiferromagnetically ordered at temperatures below ~500 K, and the magnetic order shows a striking resemblance to that observed in La2BaFe2O7. The magnetic moments on Fe(3+) are perpendicular to [001] and aligned along ±{100} directions above 300 K, but at temperatures below 200 K, they rotate by 45° to lie along ±{110}. Mössbauer spectroscopy suggests the presence of Fe(3+) within the primary phase, but also indicates that fluorination results in some particle fragmentation to form a paramagnetic component of the fluorinated material.

  18. Topochemical reduction of the Ruddlesden-Popper phases Sr2Fe(0.5)Ru(0.5)O4 and Sr3(Fe(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis Romero, Fabio; Gianolio, Diego; Cibin, Giannantonio; Bingham, Paul A; d'Hollander, Jeanne-Clotilde; Forder, Susan D; Hayward, Michael A

    2013-10-01

    Reaction of the Ruddlesden-Popper phases Sr2Fe(0.5)Ru(0.5)O4 and Sr3(Fe(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O7 with CaH2 results in the topochemical deintercalation of oxide ions from these materials and the formation of samples with average compositions of Sr2Fe(0.5)Ru(0.5)O(3.35) and Sr3(Fe(0.5)Ru(0.5))2O(5.68), respectively. Diffraction data reveal that both the n = 1 and n = 2 samples consist of two-phase mixtures of reduced phases with subtly different oxygen contents. The separation of samples into two phases upon reduction is discussed on the basis of a short-range inhomogeneous distribution of iron and ruthenium in the starting materials. X-ray absorption data and Mössbauer spectra reveal the reduced samples contain an Fe(3+) and Ru(2+/3+) oxidation state combination, which is unexpected considering the Fe(3+)/Fe(2+) and Ru(3+)/Ru(2+) redox potentials, suggesting that the local coordination geometry of the transition metal sites helps to stabilize the Ru(2+) centers. Fitted Mössbauer spectra of both the n = 1 and n = 2 samples are consistent with the presence of Fe(3+) cations in square planar coordination sites. Magnetization data of both materials are consistent with spin glass-like behavior.

  19. Pursuing Reason with Critique --A Discussion on Karl Popper's Methodology of Scientific Discovery%在批判中追求理性——谈波普的科学发现方法论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨成光

    2012-01-01

    Karl Popper's methodology of scientific discovery is a school of philosophy of science based on the critique of logical positivism, and its core is conjectures and refutations. His "deductive method" and "four phase formula" of scientific discovery has some theoretical value, and his methodology of science plays positive role in the development of science. And of course, it has obvious deficiencies because of many limitations.%波普的科学发现方法论是在批判逻辑实证主义基础上建立起来的科学哲学流派之一,其核心是猜测与反驳。他提出的“演绎法”和科学发现的“四段图式”具有一定的理论价值,他的科学方法论在科学发展中有一定的积极作用,又因为种种局限又表现出明显的不足。

  20. 略论波普尔和库恩科学哲学的影响%On the Impact of Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn's Philosophies of Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗力群

    2011-01-01

    本文考察了波普尔和库恩科学哲学在科学哲学界、科学界及人文社科界的影响。本文的情境分析根据波普尔和库恩作品的特点、社会联系、社会情境、个性因素来解释他们的影响。文章的考察实际上触及了思想史上的社会建构因素,而此因素应该广泛作用于各学科的历史。%This article examines the impact of Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn's philosophies of science in the communities of philosophy of science, natural sciences, and arts and social sciences. The situational analysis has recourse to the characteristics of their works, their social ties and personalities, and social context, to explain their influences. This paper actually catches hold of the social construction factor in the history of thought, which should widely act upon a variety of disciplines.

  1. 从波普尔到索罗斯--论心理学对西方当代经济学的意义%From Popper to Soros:On Influence of Psychology on Contemporary Western Economics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱金娣

    2014-01-01

    Psychology and economics are important disciplines in modern and contemporary society. They are linked to each other to a large extent. In recent years, the breakthrough in psychology has offered substantive promotion for the development of economics. In this paper, the philosophical theory of Popper and Soros and their contribution to the contemporary western economics are introduced. The influence and significance of psychology for contemporary western economics is discussed in detail, looking forward to a new direction for the development of economics as well as exploring the relationship between psychology and economics.%心理学和经济学为现当代重要的学科门类,两者在很大程度上存在关联,相互交叉。近年来,心理学的新发现对经济学的发展有了实质性的推动。本文就波普尔和索罗斯的哲学理论及其对当代西方经济学的贡献作进一步的完善和梳理,深入探讨心理学对西方当代经济学的影响及意义,在探寻心理学与经济学两者关系的同时,展望经济学发展的新方向。

  2. 长沙市男男性行为人群rush poppers使用与HIV感染情况及其影响因素%Status and influencing factors of rush poppers use and HIV infection among men who have sex with men in Changsha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷云霄; 王红红; 肖雪玲; 陈嘉; 李现红

    2016-01-01

    均较高,此外,最近6个月肛交时安全套使用频率低者感染HIV的可能性较高。%Objective To explore the relationship between use of rush poppers and HIV infection, and associated factors among men who have sex with men in Changsha. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Changsha from April to December, 2014. Men who have sex with men who came for HIV counseling and testing services were invited to fill out a survey. A total of 608 MSM were finally recruited. The survey included socio-demographic characteristics, sexual roles, sexual behaviors in last 6 months and rush poppers use, HIV infection among MSM. After finishing the questionnaire, 5 ml blood was also drawn for HIV testing. Chi-square test or Fisher probabilities was used to compare usage of rush poppers and HIV antibody positive rate among MSM who had different characteristics and sexual behaviors. Multi-factor unconditioned logistic regression model was used to explore related factors about rush poppers use and HIV infection of MSM. Results Among 608 MSM, 29.8% (181) said they ever used rush poppers, and 13.3%(81 cases) were HIV positive. Among MSM who ever used rush poppers, 18.8%(34/181) were HIV positive;While among those who never used rush poppers, 10.5% (45/427) were HIV positive (χ2=7.65, P=0.006). Compared with MSM who had no For One Night sex in the last 6 months, OR (95%CI) value of MSM who had 6-10 times For One Night sexes in last 6 months to use rush poppers was 4.32 (1.77-10.57). Compared with MSM who self-identified as top, OR (95%CI) value of MSM who self-identified as bottom or versatile using rush poppers were 2.99 (1.53-5.86), or 3.60 (2.13-6.09). Compared with MSM who self-identified as top, OR (95%CI) value of MSM who self-identified as bottom or versatile to infect HIV were 3.19 (1.35-7.58), or 2.33 (1.12-4.85). Compared with MSM who used condoms at every anal sex, OR (95%CI) value of MSM who used condoms sometimes or never used to infect HIV were 1.93 (1.12-3.35) or 1.87 (0

  3. The Earliest Transmission and Influence of Karl Popper' s Doctrine in China%波普尔学说在中国的早期传播与影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王公

    2016-01-01

    卡尔·波普尔(Karl R Popper)是20世纪著名的科学哲学家,其学说曾引起世界学术界轰动,对当代社会产生了重要影响.关于中国学界早期引介波普尔学说的科学思想史研究中,一直延续着大量的模糊说法,对于波普尔学说引介入中国的时间、路径、领域和影响等问题尚缺乏了解.查找到的文献证据表明:第一,在时间上,波普尔学说进入中国始于“文革”之前,而不是“文革”之后、改革之初;第二,在数量上,“文革”前至少有近20篇文章引介波普尔学说,并非“仅有几篇”;第三,波普尔哲学的核心内容“分界问题”和“证伪主义”早在1959年就被完整地介绍到中国;第四,波普尔学说最初进入中国学界的领域是历史哲学而不是西方哲学;第五,波普尔学说最初在中国是作为反马克思主义历史哲学的反面教材进行批判的对象.

  4. 介于科学和哲学之间的科学哲学--基于对波普尔和费耶阿本德的思想比较%The Philosophy of Science between Science and Philosophy:Comparing the Thoughts of Popper and Feyerabend

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛

    2015-01-01

    波普尔与费耶阿本德均是科学哲学的代表人物,但经过哲学社会学的考察发现,这两位学者均不是专业的科学家。波普尔在讨论科学划界时所关注的“科学”更接近于人文社会科学,他所坚持的“猜想与反驳”的严格演绎逻辑其实是“普遍怀疑”的变种,因此他更多是从哲学的角度来看待科学。波普尔的严格证伪主义是缺乏内容和历史性的,费耶阿本德则把波普尔的这种逻辑推向极致,得出了怎么都行的方法论。通过梳理发现,两者所持有的社会态度和政治立场对他们的思想都产生了根本性的影响。通过对两者思想的比较,可以发现科学哲学中所存在的科学倾向和哲学倾向,这种结论迫使科学哲学重新反思自身的适用范围、目的和意义。%Karl R. Popper and Paul Feyerabend are both important scholars in the history of philosophy of science. After the inspection of their knowledge backgrounds in the view of philosophical sociology, it is found that neither of them are professional scientists. The science that Popper concerns in the discussion of the demarcation of science is much similar to humanity and social science. Strict deductive logic of"conjecture and refutations"that he adhered to is actually a"general suspicion"variant, and therefore his idea is more of a philosophical perspective on science. Popper's falsificationism lacks rigorous content and historic;while Feyerabend put this logic to the extreme and obtained a"whatever"methodology. Discussion has found that both their social attitudes and political positions had a fundamental impact on their ideas. Comparison of their respective ideas has revealed that in the philosophy of science there are scientific and philosophic tendencies, which forces the philosophy of science to rethink its scope, purpose and meaning.

  5. In situ X-ray and neutron diffraction of the Ruddlesden–Popper compounds (RE2–xSrx)₀.₉₈(Fe₀.₈Co₀.₂)1–yMgyO4–δ (RE=La, Pr): Structure and CO₂ stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatzichristodoulou, C., E-mail: ccha@dtu.dk [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Hauback, B.C. [Institute for Energy Technology, P.O. Box 40, Kjeller NO-2027 (Norway); Hendriksen, P.V. [Department of Energy Conversion and Storage, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark)

    2013-05-01

    The crystal structure of the Ruddlesden–Popper compounds (La₁.₀Sr₁.₀)₀.₈Fe₁.₀Co₀.₂O4–δ and (La₁.₂Sr₀.₈)₀.₉₈(Fe₀.₈Co₀.₂)₀.₈Mg₀.₂O4–δ was investigated at 1000 °C in N₂ (aO₂=1×10₋₄ by in-situ powder neutron diffraction. In-situ powder X-ray diffraction (PXD) was also employed to investigate the temperature dependence of the lattice parameters of the compounds in air and the oxygen activity dependence of the lattice parameters at 800 °C and 1000 °C. The thermal and chemical expansion coefficients, determined along the two crystallographic directions of the tetragonal unit cell, are highly anisotropic. The equivalent pseudo-cubic thermal and chemical expansion coefficients are in agreement with values determined by dilatometry. The chemical stability in CO₂ containing environments of various Ruddlesden–Popper compounds with chemical formula (RE2-xSrx)₀.₉₈(Fe₀.₈Co₀.₂)1-yMgyO4–δ (RE=La, Pr), as well as their stability limit in H₂/H₂O=4.5 were also determined by in-situ PXD for x=0.9, 1.0 and y=0, 0.2. - Graphical abstract: Influence of electronic configuration on bond length, lattice parameters and anisotropic thermal and chemical expansion. Highlights: • The thermal and chemical expansion coefficients are largely anisotropic. • The expansion of the perovskite layers is constrained along the a direction. • The studied compositions show remarkable thermodynamic stability upon reduction. • The thermal and chemical expansion coefficients are lower than related perovskites. • The investigated materials decompose in CO₂ containing atmospheres.

  6. Re-teaching Shakespeare (III); Zeffirelli's "Romeo and Juliet."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Suggests that Shakespeare's intense self-consciousness of the theatrical conventions within which he was working, associated with an emphasis on studying the text as produced, has to be an important starting point for any classroom study of Shakespeare on film. Offers ideas for teaching such films, such as the Zeffirelli production of "Romeo and…

  7. Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet" Meets Draper's "Romiette and Julio."

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Lisa; Fisher, Jessica

    This unit is designed for a high school English class and can be used with students in 10th through 12th grade. The lessons are made for classes that are 50 minutes long. The unit is based on classes that have about 25 students, and the small group activities will consist of five groups of five students. The unit prior to this one will have been a…

  8. 魔兽世界的爱情ROMEO&JULIET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ "自从联盟和部落并肩作战,共同抵抗燃烧军团的入侵,已经过去了四年.尽管成功地挽救了艾泽拉斯大陆,部落和联盟之间脆弱的协议,却早已荡然无存.如今,震天的战鼓,再一次响起………"

  9. "Facebooked: Romeo and Juliet" as Educational Theatre: An Improbable Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zdriluk, Helen

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses intersections of digital technology and Drama Education, with attention to an undergraduate playbuilding project focused on digital citizenship. It explores the challenges involved in structuring a technologically interactive presentation, as well as the positive impact of the piece achieved through the interplay of two…

  10. The Theme of Death in Romeo and Juliet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建春; 刘莉

    2013-01-01

      Shakespeare is the greatest poet, Playwright in English Renaissance period. His plays include comedy, tragedy and his⁃torical plays, which shows a humanistic attitude toward world. His play Romeo and Julie appeals to the world for its abundant themes and poetic language which arouse many comments upon it. In this essay, the author tries to analyze the theme of death from the western philosophy:Christian world view and Existentialism philosophy about death.

  11. Alka Seltzer Poppers: An Interactive Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarquis, A. M.; Woodward, L. M.

    1999-01-01

    Using questioning strategies to involve students in actually doing and analyzing experimental design can offer useful insights to instructors and students alike. Describes an interactive exploration of Alka Seltzer. (CCM)

  12. Karl Popper and the English Teacher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingworth, Brian

    1974-01-01

    Analyzes the role of the English teacher in the open society, suggesting a need for greater awareness of wider issues which could inform debate about curriculum development and future patterns of education in a changing society. (RB)

  13. Information Systems Foundations - Karl Popper's third world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig McDonald

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The various information professions have matured separately over the years, developing different bodies of theory and practice to meet their evolving purposes and needs. A problem arises however, when different information professions address the same knowledge domain and there is no explicit correspondence between the conceptual structures embedded independently in each. In this situation, a knowledge worker involved in the domain is faced with a range of possibly incompatible structures presented in different forms by a range of information professions. This is a common problem that is being exacerbated by the explosion in information production and the widening access to information distribution technology, notably the World Wide Web. Information Systems now need to combine the best of what the information professions in a domain have to offer the domain’s knowledge workers. This paper examines the problem by exploring one of the foundations of the information disciplines - Karl Popper’s 3 Worlds theory, applying it to a case study and suggesting that the Information Systems discipline alone has a sufficiently broad agenda to integrate the various Informatics themes needed to support today’s knowledge workers.

  14. Karl Popper and Evolutionary Concept of Epistemology

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim Ashni Alvandi; Majid Akbari Dehagi

    2008-01-01

    Epistemology and its formational trend have been always one of the discussions in various parts of science; and nowadays modern sciences have plentiful effects on the process of epistemological studies. Different men of letters from various fields have also studied and scrutinized it. Among these researches, evolutionary epistemology wants to explain the process of formation of epistemology by modeling it through evolution theory. Here I do effort to investigate Karl Poppers’ view point of ep...

  15. Crystal structure and magnetic properties of La{sub 2−x}(Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}){sub 1+x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7} (x=0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) Ruddlesden–Popper manganites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raju, K.; Song, M.S.; Lee, J.Y., E-mail: jylee@yu.ac.kr

    2014-05-01

    Double layer perovskite (Ruddlesden–Popper) manganites with the nominal composition of La{sub 2−x}(Sr{sub 0.5}Ca{sub 0.5}){sub 1+x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7} (x=0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) were synthesized via a solid state reaction route. X-ray and neutron diffraction were performed at room temperature and the crystal structure was refined using the Rietveld method based on the space group, I4/mmm. The temperature variation of the susceptibility revealed a spin glass transition at 28 K for x=0.6, a charge ordering transition at 245 K and a Neel transition at 170 K for x=1.0. - Highlights: • Lanthanum based double layered manganites were prepared by doping with the same amounts of Sr and Ca. • X-ray and neutron diffraction were performed and the crystal structure was refined using the Rietveld method. • Different magnetic transitions were observed depending upon the doping concentration. • Qualitative explanation for the various observed phenomena was given.

  16. In situ X-ray and neutron diffraction of the Ruddlesden-Popper compounds (RE2-xSrx)0.98(Fe0.8Co0.2)1-yMgyO4-δ (RE=La, Pr): Structure and CO2 stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzichristodoulou, Christodoulos; Hauback, B.C.; Hendriksen, Peter Vang

    2013-01-01

    the temperature dependence of the lattice parameters of the compounds in air and the oxygen activity dependence of the lattice parameters at 800 °C and 1000 °C. The thermal and chemical expansion coefficients, determined along the two crystallographic directions of the tetragonal unit cell, are highly anisotropic....... The equivalent pseudo-cubic thermal and chemical expansion coefficients are in agreement with values determined by dilatometry. The chemical stability in CO2 containing environments of various Ruddlesden-Popper compounds with chemical formula (RE2-xSr x)0.98(Fe0.8Co0.2) 1-yMgyO4-δ (RE=La, Pr), as well...

  17. Crystal structure and high-temperature properties of the Ruddlesden–Popper phases Sr{sub 3−x}Y{sub x}(Fe{sub 1.25}Ni{sub 0.75})O{sub 7−δ} (0≤x≤0.75)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samain, Louise; Amshoff, Philipp [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Biendicho, Jordi J. [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); The ISIS Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot OX11 0QX, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Tietz, Frank [Institute of Energy and Climate Research, IEK-1, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Mahmoud, Abdelfattah [Jülich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS and Peter Grünberg Institut PGI, JARA-FIT, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Hermann, Raphaël P. [Jülich Centre for Neutron Science JCNS and Peter Grünberg Institut PGI, JARA-FIT, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Faculty of Science, University of Liège, B-4000 Liège (Belgium); Istomin, Sergey Ya. [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Chemistry, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Grins, Jekabs [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Svensson, Gunnar, E-mail: gunnar.svensson@mmk.su.se [Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-07-15

    Ruddlesden–Popper n=2 member phases Sr{sub 3−x}Y{sub x}Fe{sub 1.25}Ni{sub 0.75}O{sub 7−δ}, 0≤x≤0.75, have been investigated by X-ray and neutron powder diffraction, thermogravimetry and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Both samples as-prepared at 1300 °C under N{sub 2}(g) flow and samples subsequently air-annealed at 900 °C were studied. The as-prepared x=0.75 phase is highly oxygen deficient with δ=1, the O1 atom site being vacant, and the Fe{sup 3+}/Ni{sup 2+} ions having a square pyramidal coordination. For as-prepared phases with lower x values, the Mössbauer spectral data are in good agreement with the presence of both 5- and 4-coordinated Fe{sup 3+} ions, implying in addition a partial occupancy of the O3 atom sites that form the basal plane of the square pyramid. The air-annealed x=0.75 sample has a δ value of 0.61(1) and the structure has Fe/Ni ions in both square pyramids and octahedra. Mössbauer spectroscopy shows the phase to contain only Fe{sup 3+}, implying that all Ni is present as Ni{sup 3+}. Air-annealed phases with lower x values are found to contain both Fe{sup 3+} and Fe{sup 4+}. For both the as-prepared and the air-annealed samples, the Y{sup 3+} cations are found to be mainly located in the perovskite block. The high-temperature thermal expansion of as-prepared and air-annealed x=0.75 phases were investigated by high-temperature X-ray diffraction and dilatometry and the linear thermal expansion coefficient determined to be 14.4 ppm K{sup −1}. Electrical conductivity measurements showed that the air-annealed samples have higher conductivity than the as-prepared ones. - Highlights: • Ruddlesden–Popper, n=2, Sr{sub 3−x}Y{sub x}Fe{sub 1.25}Ni{sub 0.75}O{sub 7−δ}, 0≤x≤0.75, have been synthesised. • The crystal structures of the phases have been determined. • Sr{sub 2.25}Y{sub 0.75}Fe{sub 1.25}Ni{sub 0.75}O{sub 6}, made in N{sub 2}(g) has Fe{sup 3+}/Ni{sup 2+} in square pyramides. • Sr{sub 2.25}Y{sub 0.75}Fe{sub 1.25}Ni

  18. Translocations disrupting PHF21A in the Potocki-Shaffer-syndrome region are associated with intellectual disability and craniofacial anomalies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Hyung-Goo; Kim, Hyun-Taek; Leach, Natalia T

    2012-01-01

    development, and suppression of the latter led to both craniofacial abnormalities and neuronal apoptosis. Along with lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), PHF21A, also known as BHC80, is a component of the BRAF-histone deacetylase complex that represses target-gene transcription. In lymphoblastoid cell lines...... from two translocation subjects in whom PHF21A was directly disrupted by the respective breakpoints, we observed derepression of the neuronal gene SCN3A and reduced LSD1 occupancy at the SCN3A promoter, supporting a direct functional consequence of PHF21A haploinsufficiency on transcriptional...

  19. Rethinking Critically Reflective Research Practice: Beyond Popper's Critical Rationalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Werner

    2006-01-01

    We all know that ships are safest in the harbor; but alas, that is not what ships are built for. They are destined to leave the harbor and to confront the challenges that are waiting beyond the harbor mole. A similar challenge confronts the practice of research. Research at work cannot play it safe and stay in whatever theoretical and…

  20. Learning according to Karl Popper and Thomas Kuhn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Borja-Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The author presents in a short introduction the organization of this paper. Then he refers, in the first chapter, the popperian model of learning and its implications in the austrian philosopher's ideas about scientific evolution. Secondly, the author presents the kuhnian model with a special focus in the theories about paradigms and scientific evolution. Finally, there is a short chapter about the main similarities and differences between the two philosophers in these matters.

  1. [Diuretics in heart failure and Karl Popper's turkey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cice, Gennaro

    2015-12-01

    Heart failure and renal failure often coexist in the same patient. This condition is commonly referred to as cardiorenal syndrome. When this occurs, patient survival worsens significantly with increasing degree of renal dysfunction. Management of this complex patient poses treatment challenges because of unstable hemodynamics (the problem is to reduce congestion without affecting organ perfusion) and very high mid-term in-hospital mortality. Congestion is a typical feature of this syndrome, and use of diuretics is mandatory. Loop diuretics should be administered first. However, poor attention to pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of loop diuretics may contribute to the development of diuretic resistance leading to iatrogenic hyponatremia. Accordingly, emphasis is given to the importance of sequential nephron blockade to reduce the number of non-responder patients to diuretics and to recognize a possible role for acquaretics.

  2. Karl Popper's Conception of Metaphysics and its Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Ribeiro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I intend to thoroughly analyse Karl Popper’s relation to metaphysics. I start with his first writings, where he states the differences between science, pseudoscience and metaphysics. I then describe how his thoughts on the subject evolved to culminate in his reflection on metaphysical research programmes and the need for a revival of natural philosophy. A major concern is Popper’s famous testability criterion to set apart science from non-science. I point at the problems of the conception of metaphysics as non-testable theories (which are similar to the problems of the conception of metaphysics as theories involving unobservables and, in order to avoid these problems, I propose to retain nothing but the traditional conception of metaphysics as the general theories about the nature of the world. This leads me to the conclusion that science is not only an empirical task but also, and in a very important sense, a speculative one.

  3. SYNTHESIS OF Ca_(1+x)Mn_xO_(1+3x)(x=1, 2, 3) COMPOUNDS WITH THE RUDDLESDEN-POPPER STRUCTURES AND EXTRACTION OF THEIR INTERLAYER Ca~(2+) IONS%具有Ruddlesden-Popper结构的Ca_(1+x)Mn_xO_(1+3x)(x=1,2,3)的合成及层间Ca~(2+)的抽出

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林双妹; 黄侦勇; 孙妍; 王晓蓉; 汤睿昆; 马淑兰; 杨晓晶

    2009-01-01

    采用溶胶凝胶法合成前驱体,然后在氧气气氛下加热合成了具有层状钙钛矿Ruddlesden-Popper结构的化合物Ca_(1+x)Mn_xO_(1+3x)(x=1,2,3),尝试采用酸溶液对其层间Ca~(2+)离子进行抽出.实验发现HCl处理单层Ca_2MnO_4,层状结构遭到破坏;而用(NH_4)_2S_2O_8与HCl的混合溶液处理则能维持其层状结构,且Ca~(2+)离子抽出率大于60%,其抽出机制为氧化还原和离子交换.用HCl能够抽出双层Ca_3Mn_2O_7的层间Ca~(2+),并保持较好的结构.%Ca_(1+x)Mn_xO_(1+3x)(x=1, 2, 3) compounds with a layered perovskite Ruddlesden-Popper structures were synthesized. First a precursor was prepared by a sol-gel process, this was followed by heating in an oxygen atmosphere. Extraction of Ca~(2+) ions in the interlayer was carried out by acid treatment. Mono-layered Ca_2MnO_4 after going through a HC1 solution had the layered structure demolished; whereas going through a mixed solution of (NH_4)_2S_2O_8 and HCl had the Ca~(2+) ions extracted at a rate larger than 60% whilst retaining the layered structure, through redox reaction and ion-exchange. HCl solution can extract interlayer Ca~(2+) ions from bilayered Ca_3Mn_2O_7 without disrupting the layered structure.

  4. Audrey Juliet Arnott (1901-1974): the legacy of an artist in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Reuben D; Sainsbury, Willow J

    2009-01-01

    Audrey Arnott, a graduate of the Royal College of Art, was first employed as an artist by Hugh Cairns at the London Hospital. Cairns arranged for Arnott to be trained as a medical illustrator under Max Brödel, a close friend of Harvey Cushing and founder of the first 'Department of Art as Applied to Medicine' at Johns Hopkins University. During her time at John Hopkins Arnott developed a close friendship with Dorcas Padget, medical illustrator to Walter Dandy. Arnott was a highly accomplished artist and trained numerous other British medical illustrators and was one of the founders of the Medical Artists Association. Arnott's training and friendship with Brödel and Padget enabled her to pass on a legacy of neurosurgical illustration to the United Kingdom.

  5. Self-archiving of Our Own Articles: Romeo and Juliet Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Reza Kachooei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ree access to the articles is becoming more popular since it gives thousands of researchers access to millions of publications resulting in higher visibility and receiving much more citations, which often times might be the ultimate goal. For this reason, authors may seek a way to make the papers easily accessible to other researchers via uploading the full text to their personal website and/or scientific social networks such as the ResearchGate, which is legally considered a personal website of the users (1. This looks simple and naïve, but on the other hand it seems to be in contrast to the policy of the subscription-based journals, which may violate the granted signed copyright to the publisher (2. There are two concerns with letting others access the article for free: 1 A friend or a colleague may request the paper and the author is going to send the article via email. 2 The author uploads the full text on to a personal or scientific website available to every researcher. Regarding the first issue, do not hesitate to do so. It is accepted ethically and legally to send a requested paper to a researcher who is asking for it. As far as there is no commercial advantage by having the paper, any scientific use is encouraged and permitted. The second concern is currently a hot topic. On the bright side, providing free access to every paper might endanger the monetary benefits of the publishers. However, on the flip side of the coin, publishers are also gaining greater income, although indirect but significant via receiving more visibility and subsequent citations to the exposed papers. Having said that, to create a balance between the appeals for free access while avoiding the breach to the copyright system, publishers have come up with new policies in this regards, which is different from the Copyright without violating the subscription-based journals. The publisher copyright policies for self-archiving is called SHERPA/RoMEO. Within this, the copyright agreement policies and the retained author rights are obviated. SHERPA established in the UK universities as the SHERPA project to support open access institutional repositories, which further grew and is now comprised of fairly all research institutions as the partners. SHERPA is involved in full or advisory partner of some projects including the SHERPA/RoMEO (3. Self-archiving permissions vary between publishers and journals. Details about publisher and journal can be found onhttp://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/(4. For most of the journals and publishers, Resaerchgate pages are linked to the correct publisher condition and can be seen by clicking ‘show self-archiving restrictions’. Permission is classified using colors: green means you can generally upload a full-text, blue or yellow means you should check your individual article conditions, and white means self-archiving is generally not permitted. It is the author’s responsibility to check for the RoMEO color and make sure he/she is not breaching the copyright conditions. However, do not forget that in case you are not permitted to post the full text to public, you are always allowed to send the article in a private message to another researcher or colleague.

  6. The Kama Sutra, Romeo and Juliet, and Mathematics: Studying Mathematics for Pleasure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padula, Janice

    2005-01-01

    The motivation of students is of great import to mathematics teachers. Such an abstract powerful language needs to be valued or students will not wish to study it. This article argues that mathematics may be better appreciated through the beauty of the language in which problems are written, respect for the cultures of others and through relevance…

  7. Roméo et / and Juliet. Les paysages amoureux de Patrice Desbiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Simard

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Le poète franco-ontarien Patrice Desbiens représente fréquemment l’être aimé dans un cadre paysager. Ces paysages amoureux prennent notamment comme décors des villes, des lieux clos ou encore des espaces abstraits, qui apparaissent de manière successive dans la poésie amoureuse de l'écrivain. À partir d’une analyse de poèmes tirés de quatre recueils de Desbiens, cet article montre la transformation de la ville en lieu clos, puis en espace abstrait, chacun de ces déplacements rendant compte d’une métamorphose du discours amoureux et plus spécifiquement du rapport à l’être aimé. The Franco-Ontarian poet Patrice Desbiens frequently represents the loved one in a landscape setting. These landscapes adopt many forms: sometimes they are cities, enclosed places or abstract spaces. These three types of landscapes appear successively in the Franco-Ontarian writer’s love poetry. Through an analysis of poems from four of Desbiens’ books, this article shows the transformation of the city into an enclosed space and then into an abstract space, each of these transformations reflecting a change in the lover’s discourse and, more specifically, in the relationship with the loved one.

  8. Statement Testimony of Mr. Alan Shaffer, Principal Deputy, Defense Research and Engineering, Before the Subcommittee on Readiness of the House Armed Services Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-03

    paradigm shift from stove -piped power generation to integrated power management. The architecture could provide a modular power grid and intelligent...May to Aug 2008, using a dual bio- reactor and gasifier . These prototype systems validated the concept, but there are a number of challenges for

  9. Neyman

    CERN Document Server

    Reid, Constance

    1998-01-01

    This book is the result of a suggestion made to me by Erich Lehmann of the Department of Statistics of the University of California at Berkeley. Throughout the writing of it I have enjoyed his assistance and companion­ ship and that of his wife, Juliet Shaffer. In the beginning, writing about a man like Neyman, who was alive and still very active, I planned to limit myself to his recollections and records and to my personal observations of him during his eighty-fifth year. It soon became apparent, however, that I would need to supplement these with the recollections of his colleagues and former students. With his consent I consulted them. I am most grateful for the time and effort which so many people expended in talking and writing to me. I would like to mention especially the assistance I received from Lucien Le Cam and Elizabeth Scott and the very friendly cooperation of Egon S. Pearson. Without the latter's careful preservation of Neyman's early letters I would have found it impossible to write in any de...

  10. 周恩来智慧荐《梁祝》%Premier Recommends Chinese Romeo and Juliet in Geneva

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾育豹

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1954年4月20日,周恩来率领中国代表团参加日内瓦会议.在大会期间,中国代表团为外国官员、记者举行电影招待会.在出国之前,周总理特意点名让工作人员带上国内刚刚拍出不久的彩色越剧片.

  11. Religion and Cultural Identity in Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet and the Musical Works it Inspired

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottez Alina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Protean Shakespeare thrives not only in the theatre, but also through what Bolter and Grusin call remediation. This article analyses the religious stances in the play and then shows how opera, symphony and musical have been adapting the veteran Elizabethan drama since the 18th century. Its main approach is comparative and relies on the history of mentalities. Adaptation is dictated by cultural context, the conventions of the lyrical theatre, social and political factors, and reception. The confusing religious configuration of Shakespeare’s England is reinterpreted kaleidoscopically. The article demonstrates, for instance, that Berlioz and Gounod reread it according to staunch Catholicism in 19th century France, while Bernstein’s West Side Story moves the action to New York in the mid- 50’s, the Capulets and Montagues are replaced with rival Polish and Puerto Rican gangs and religion with cultural identity.

  12. Comparing source of agricultural contact water and the presence of fecal indicator organisms on the surface of 'juliet' grape tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Donna M; Telias, Adriana; Newell, Michael; Ottesen, Andrea R; Walsh, Christopher S

    2013-06-01

    Consumption of fresh tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum) has been implicated as the cause of several foodborne illness outbreaks in the United States, most notably in cases of salmonellosis. How the levels of fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) in water relate to the counts of these microorganisms on the tomato fruit surface is unknown, although microbial water quality standards exist for agricultural use. This study utilized four types of FIOs currently and historically used in microbial water quality standards (Enterobacteriaceae, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli) to monitor the water quality of two surface ponds and a groundwater source. The groundwater tested contained significantly lower counts of all FIOs than the two surface water sources (P tomatoes treated with overhead applications of the different water sources over the 2009 and 2010 growing seasons. The type of water source and time of year significantly affected the populations of FIOs in irrigation water (P E. coli between the water sources, there was little difference in the populations measured in washes taken from tomato fruits. This lack of association between the aforementioned FIOs present in the water samples and on the tomato fruit surface demonstrates the difficulty in developing reliable metrics needed for testing of agricultural water to ensure the effectiveness of food safety programs.

  13. Evolution of electronic correlations across the rutile, perovskite, and Ruddelsden-Popper iridates with octahedral connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Jason K.; Uchida, Masaki; Paik, Hanjong; Schlom, Darrell G.; Shen, Kyle M.

    2016-09-01

    The confluence of electron correlations and spin-orbit interactions is critical to realizing quantum phases in 5 d transition metal oxides. Here, we investigate how the strength of the effective electron correlations evolve across a series of d5 iridates comprised of IrO6 octahedra, ranging from the layered correlated insulator Sr2IrO4 , to the three-dimensional perovskite semimetal SrIrO3, to metallic rutile IrO2 in which the octahedra are arranged in a mixed edge and corner sharing network. Through a combination of reactive oxide molecular-beam epitaxy, in situ angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, core level photoemission, and density functional theory, we show how the effective electron correlations weaken as a function of increasing connectivity of the IrO6 network and p -d hybridization. Our results demonstrate how structure and connectivity can be used to control the strength of correlations in the iridates.

  14. The Development of Adult and Community Education Policy in New Zealand: Insights from Popper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Gloria

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the process by which all post-compulsory education in New Zealand has become integrated under one administrative structure, the Tertiary Education Commission (TEC), with the intention of developing a single coordinated system of tertiary education. In particular, adult and community education (ACE), the least formal and…

  15. 波普尔的社会哲学%On Karl Popper's social philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖辉亮

    2002-01-01

    在社会哲学方面,波普尔把他的科学方法应用于分析社会问题,指出了历史主义与乌托邦社会工程的内在联系,并加以批判,提出了零星社会工程,阐发了他的民主社会的重建原则,倡导一种自由的开放社会.

  16. Karl Popper's Open Society%论波普尔的开放社会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾肃

    2002-01-01

    波普尔从批判理性主义和试错法出发,批评了乌托邦主义和完美主义的虚妄和危害,指出人们无法预测社会的长期发展规律,而应立足于逐步的社会改良工程.封闭社会是巫术的部落的禁忌的社会,而开放社会则是向批评和个人判断开放、提倡理性、反对盲从的社会.政治自由主义的一个基本原则不是奢望完美的好人统治,而是通过自由的批评限制政府权力,通过合理的权力制衡来防止坏人做坏事.

  17. 波普历史哲学评析%Comment on Karl Popper's Historical Phylosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄开华; 周统权

    2001-01-01

    对波普历史观的代表作中的历史哲学进行了评价.简述了波普历史哲学的基本观点,即历史无规律、历史不可预测、责难整体主义、推崇"渐进社会工程”;剖析了波普的逻辑论证;从历史规律问题、整体主义问题及人的能动性问题等三个方面对波普的理论论述作了评析.总的看来,波普的历史哲学是错误的,但从反面也给我们某些启示.

  18. What would Karl Popper say? Are current psychological theories of ADHD falsifiable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuntsi Jonna

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a common and highly heritable neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder. Here, we critically review four major psychological theories of ADHD – the Executive Dysfunction, the State Regulation, the Delay Aversion and the Dynamic Developmental – on their abilities to explain all the symptoms of ADHD, their testability and their openness to falsification. We conclude that theoreticians should focus, to a greater extent than currently practiced, on developing refutable theories of ADHD.

  19. What would Karl Popper say? Are current psychological theories of ADHD falsifiable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katherine A; Wiersema, Jan R; Kuntsi, Jonna

    2009-03-03

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common and highly heritable neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorder. Here, we critically review four major psychological theories of ADHD - the Executive Dysfunction, the State Regulation, the Delay Aversion and the Dynamic Developmental - on their abilities to explain all the symptoms of ADHD, their testability and their openness to falsification. We conclude that theoreticians should focus, to a greater extent than currently practiced, on developing refutable theories of ADHD.

  20. Sobre os paradigmas de Kuhn, o problema da incomensurabilidade e o confronto com Popper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenner Barretto Bastos Filho

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Discutimos o relato kuhniano sobre o desenvolvimento da ciência. Dedicamos atenção especial aos conceitos de paradigma, ciência normal, ciência extraordinária, incompatibilidade e incomensurabilidade. Ao compararmos as mecânicas newtoniana e relativista nós chegamos à conclusão de que o processo revolucionário correspondente contém ambos, tanto elementos de continuidade quanto elementos de descontinuidade. Os elementos de continuidade justificam o princípio de correspondência que conecta ambas as tradições e, consequentemente, também justificam a comensurabilidade entre as duas tradições. Por outro lado, a existência de elementos de descontinuidade implica também uma ruptura conceitual drástica, a qual não pode ser adequadamente compreendida simplesmente se nos ativermos ao limite matemático envolvido no processo de correspondência. Por exemplo, na mecânica newtoniana, diferentemente do que se dá para a mecânica relativista, massa e energia são conceitos dicotômicos, não convertíveis entre si. Argumentamos que ambos, tanto o relato kuhniano quanto o relato popperiano, este último constituído por revoluções permanentes através de conjecturas e refutações, não são completamente adequados para dar conta do empreendimento científico real. A ciência é mais complexa do que aquilo que ambas as abordagens podem dar conta

  1. Værdi er ikke noget, der popper op i en pop-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toldbod Jakobsen, Anne; Pico Larsen, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Et kvalitativt studie af hvordan værdi skabes gennem konsumering af kommercielle pop-up aktiviteter set fra moderne forbrugeres synspunkt.......Et kvalitativt studie af hvordan værdi skabes gennem konsumering af kommercielle pop-up aktiviteter set fra moderne forbrugeres synspunkt....

  2. 波普尔诠释学思想浅析%On Popper's Hermeneutics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴炜

    2007-01-01

    波普尔的"客观主义诠释学"在诠释学研究中独树一帜:既不同于传统的主观主义诠释学,也不同于实证主义对诠释学问题的理解.它将诠释和理解问题放在"三个世界"理论的背景下,紧紧抓住"第三世界"与"第二世界"之间的关系展开分析,开创了"正统"诠释学之外的另一种诠释学.

  3. Dealing "Competently with the Serious Issues of the Day": How Dewey (and Popper) Failed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D.C.

    2012-01-01

    In "Reconstruction in Philosophy," John Dewey issued an eloquent call for contemporary philosophy to become more relevant to the pressing problems facing society. Historically, the philosophy of a period had been appropriate to social conditions (indeed, this is why it had developed as a discipline), but despite the vast changes in the…

  4. La macroeconomía ortodoxa a la luz de Popper

    OpenAIRE

    Iván H. AYALA; Alfonso Palacio Vera

    2014-01-01

    La macroeconomía ortodoxa ha estado dominada durante las últimas cuatro décadas por la llamada “hipótesis de expectativas racionales” (HER) que conlle-va el supuesto implícito de que las economías de mercado son inherentemente estables. A su vez, la HER constituye un elemento esencial de la llamada “Nueva Síntesis Neoclásica” en macroeconomía que también ha desempeñado un papel dominante tanto en la teoría macroeconómica como en la política económica durante las últimas dos décadas. En este t...

  5. Statement Testimony of Mr. Alan R. Shaffer, Principal Deputy, Defense Research and Engineering Before the United States House of Representatives Committee on Armed Services, Subcommittee on Terrorism, Unconventional Threats and Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-20

    opportunity that underpins innovation in the US along with several other key characteristics of our free market society. This is evident in two...uncomfortable immersive situations/environment); olfactory system (smell generator); individual position and weapon tracking system (to provide...review and 6 being pursued. Usage and impact are expected to grow as marketing efforts increase awareness and DoD barriers to participating in social

  6. THE ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENCES AND SIMILARITIES OF EASTERN AND WESTERN WOMENS IMAGES IN LIANG SANBO YU ZHU YINGTAI AND ROMEO AND JULIET NOVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenny

    2010-10-01

    images between those two decades It can be concluded that in both writings, they have some similarities when describing love, mindset, and women's personality. The differences are about education, marriage, and women's position at feudalism and Renainsance decades.

  7. Cultural Comparison between the Finales of "The Peony Pavilion" and "Romeo and Juliet"%中西戏剧结局背后的文化意蕴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志平; 王秀琴

    2004-01-01

    通过对与这两部戏剧不同结局的比较,揭示出中西戏剧结局不同的表现及原因是因为中西方的思维方式、文化源流、价值取向、审美追求的不同,从而为在全球经济一体化、各国文化的交流和碰撞日益频繁的背景下,继承中外文化遗产,吸收外来文化,发展民族新文化创造条件.

  8. Shakespeare Redux, or Romeo and Juliet Revisited: Embedding a Terminology and Name Change in a New Agenda for the Field of Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, Rud; Turnbull, Ann; Warren, Steve; Eidelman, Steve; Marchand, Paul

    2002-01-01

    This commentary discusses whether the American Association on Mental Retardation should change its name. It argues that changing the name would not change the stigma, and would harm advocacy efforts by allowing legislators to use a terminology change to narrow eligibility for supports. (Contains one reference.) (CR)

  9. The Translation into Chinese of Puns in Romeo and Juliet%《罗密欧与朱丽叶》中双关语的汉译

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳峰

    2008-01-01

    莎剧中使用了大量的双关语.这些双关语一方面起到了画龙点睛的作用,给人以艺术的享受;但另一方面又给理解带来一定的困难,难以完美翻译.结合该剧中的一些经典例句及其相关汉语翻译.对这一特殊的语言现象进行探讨.

  10. An Analysis of Feud in Romeo and Juliet%《罗密欧与朱丽叶》中世仇的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜晓燕

    2011-01-01

    是莎士比亚的杰作,也是全世界最有名的戏剧之一.世仇是这部剧的主要主题之一,在这部剧中,世仇象征了封建主义的思想意识,最后两个家族的和解暗示了封建主义的衰落.

  11. Appreciation of Comments on Romeo and Juliet%《罗密欧与朱丽叶》评论赏析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗华珍

    2011-01-01

    (1595)是莎士比亚(1564-1616)早期创作的著名悲剧.它诗意盎然,热情充沛,洋溢着浓郁的浪漫气息和喜剧氛围.其艺术风格与作家早期创作的大多数喜剧相一致,被人们称为抒情悲剧.本文试图通过剧中的几个片段进行评论赏析,感受莎士比亚在作品中体现的爱情的力量--爱战胜一切.

  12. Impact of the competition between mating types on the cultivation of Tuber melanosporum: Romeo and Juliet and the matter of space and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubini, Andrea; Riccioni, Claudia; Belfiori, Beatrice; Paolocci, Francesco

    2014-04-01

    Major breakthroughs in our understanding of the life cycles of the symbiotic ascomycetes belonging to the genus Tuber have occurred over the last several years. A number of Tuber species produce edible fruiting bodies, known as truffles, that are marketed worldwide. A better understanding of the basic biological characteristics of Tuber spp. is likely to have tremendous practical relevance for their cultivation. Tuber melanosporum produces the most valuable black truffles and its genome has been recently sequenced. This species is now serving as a model for studying the biology of truffles. Here, we review recent progress in the understanding of sexual reproduction modalities in T. melanosporum. The practical relevance of these findings is outlined. In particular, the discoveries that T. melanosporum is heterothallic and that strains of different mating types compete to persist on the roots of host plants suggest that the spatial and temporal distributional patterns of strains of different mating types are key determinants of truffle fructification. The spatial segregation of the two mating types in areas where T. melanosporum occurs likely limits truffle production. Thus, host plant inoculation techniques and agronomic practices that might be pursued to manage T. melanosporum orchards with a balanced presence of the two mating partners are described.

  13. A Comparison of Two Chinese Versions of Romeo and Juliet%《罗密欧与朱丽叶》两译本的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王程熹

    2008-01-01

    是莎士比亚以素韵体的诗体形式、并运用了序诗这种独特的体例写作而成的,如何在翻译中对其其音韵、修辞、文化符码等进行恰当处理,历来是该文本翻译的关键问题.对此,比较曹禺和朱生豪的译本,曹禺的译本贵在"形似",朱生豪的译本重在"神似".

  14. 论《罗米欧与朱丽叶》中的双关语及翻译%On the Pun and Translation of Romeo and Juliet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晋宇

    2004-01-01

    中的双关语很多,本文对剧中的双关语的构成方式及翻译方式作出分类与分析.剧中的双关语可分为三类:贵族书面化的双关语、下等人的俚语性的双关语和情景双关语.针对不同种类的双关语的翻译方式也有所不同.各类双关语不同的风格背后蕴涵着剧中人物文化心理背景的差异.

  15. On the Moral Conflicts in Romeo and Juliet%试析《罗密欧与朱丽叶》中的道德冲突

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景飞龙

    2009-01-01

    本文通过对道德冲突这一概念的引入和分析,揭示了莎士比亚的古典爱情悲剧中主人公罗密欧和朱丽叶所面临的来自封建旧生活与文艺复兴新生活以及两个封建家族之间的历史恩怨所带来的矛盾冲突;并试图探寻欧洲文艺复兴时期人们的人生观、价值观和审美取向,以及作为这个历史时代先进的人文主义者莎士比亚的个性解放、自由平等的资产阶级新思想.

  16. Love Tragedy Analysis in "Romeo and Juliet"%《罗密欧与朱丽叶》中的爱情悲剧分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金宏秋

    2015-01-01

    《罗密欧与朱丽叶》是莎士比亚早期创作的一部浪漫主义爱情悲剧.这部剧作反映了文艺复兴时期,英国资本主义浪漫爱情与传统的社会阶层之间的矛盾,具有深刻的历史意义.本文针对《罗密欧与朱丽叶》中的爱情悲剧进行了有效的分析与探讨.

  17. Disillusion and Comfort of Liang Shanbo and Zhu Yingtai, Romeo and Juliet%梁祝、罗朱之恋的幻灭与慰藉

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶晶

    2013-01-01

    爱情是古老而又年轻的话题.《梁山伯与祝英台》和《罗密欧与朱丽叶》中的主人公的爱情故事见证了古往今来人们对真爱的不懈追求.由于社会、时代、家庭等观念的束缚,他们的爱情经历了此岸之恋的梦想、此岸之恋的幻灭、彼岸之恋的慰藉的历程,进一步诠释了爱情的永恒性和真爱的跨时空性.

  18. Shakespeare's heroines: woman as the main character in William Shakespeare’s doublenamed tragedies Antony and Cleopatra and Romeo and Juliet

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanova Malenkina, Nadezhda

    2014-01-01

    Mi trabajo de fin de grado se centra en las tragedias de Shakespeare Romeo y Julieta y Antonio y Cleopatra, las cuales constituyen un cambio en la interpretación del personaje femenino en la literatura. El hombre pierde importancia para permitir que la figura femenina se convierta en la principal. El contexto (estado de la cuestión) de mi ensayo introduce Shakespeare como dramaturgo, sus tragedias junto con los principales motivos de los dos dramas analizados y una breve des...

  19. Interpreting Popper's Theory with the Inner Logic of Popper's Scientific Developing Mode%用波普尔科学发展模式的内在逻辑解读波普尔学说

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许一飞

    2006-01-01

    科学知识增长的问题是波普尔科学哲学的中心问题.其科学发展的四段论模式,即:问题→猜测→反驳→新的问题.其逻辑同时也体现着波普尔的科学哲学学说发展的内在逻辑,是他的学说的走向与归宿.

  20. The determining factor for interstitial oxygen formation in Ruddlesden-Popper type La2NiO4-based oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Takashi; Oike, Ryo; Ling, Yihan; Tamenori, Yusuke; Amezawa, Koji

    2016-01-21

    The interstitial oxygen formation mechanism in La2NiO4-based oxides was studied using soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy. When the interstitial oxygen concentration increased, the pre-edge peak of O K-edge spectra increased while Ni L-edge spectra was almost invariant. These spectral changes strongly suggest the significant contribution of ligand oxygen to interstitial oxygen formation by providing/accepting electronic charge carriers. The variation of the integrated peak intensity of the O K-edge strongly suggests that interstitial oxygen formation is determined by the equilibrium unoccupied pDOS of ligand oxygen. From this hypothesis, we propose that modulating the electronic structure is the key to control the capability of interstitial oxygen formation in La2NiO4-based oxides.

  1. Oxygen Evolution at Manganite Perovskite Ruddlesden-Popper Type Particles: Trends of Activity on Structure, Valence and Covalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Ebrahimizadeh Abrishami

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An improved understanding of the correlation between the electronic properties of Mn-O bonds, activity and stability of electro-catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER is of great importance for an improved catalyst design. Here, an in-depth study of the relation between lattice structure, electronic properties and catalyst performance of the perovskite Ca1−xPrxMnO3 and the first-order RP-system Ca2−xPrxMnO4 at doping levels of x = 0, 0.25 and 0.5 is presented. Lattice structure is determined by X-ray powder diffraction and Rietveld refinement. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of Mn-L and O-K edges gives access to Mn valence and covalency of the Mn-O bond. Oxygen evolution activity and stability is measured by rotating ring disc electrode studies. We demonstrate that the highest activity and stability coincidences for systems with a Mn-valence state of +3.7, though also requiring that the covalency of the Mn-O bond has a relative minimum. This observation points to an oxygen evolution mechanism with high redox activity of Mn. Covalency should be large enough for facile electron transfer from adsorbed oxygen species to the MnO6 network; however, it should not be hampered by oxidation of the lattice oxygen, which might cause a crossover to material degradation. Since valence and covalency changes are not entirely independent, the introduction of the energy position of the eg↑ pre-edge peak in the O-K spectra as a new descriptor for oxygen evolution is suggested, leading to a volcano-like representation of the OER activity.

  2. Discussing the Karl Popper's Thought About Truth%波普尔真理思想探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭扬芳

    2004-01-01

    波普尔真理思想主要包括:1.坚持真理的客观性,强调真理不以人的主观意志为转移.2.不仅真理不可知,而且谈论真理也没有给予我们任何寻求真理的方法.3.其中最重要、最有价值的则是"逼真性"真理观.因此,在他看来,科学的任务是探索真理,但真理并不是科学的唯一目标.

  3. Exploring into Karl Popper's Historical Methodology%波普尔历史方法论探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宝祥

    2009-01-01

    英国著名的历史哲学家波普尔提出了证伪标准论,这一科学与非科学的划界标准,成为其历史方法论的哲学基石.由此延伸开来,波普尔以猜想-反驳法为历史研究方法,其具体表现是问题境况分析法,并与柯林武德的主观重演法进行了对比.波普尔还把"试错法"的自然科学方法运用于历史研究,产生了"零碎工程学"理论.关于历史因果关系问题,波普尔主张它由普遍规律和初始条件共同作出说明.

  4. Comment on Karl Popper's Theory of Democracy%卡尔·波普尔民主理论述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢广宽

    2011-01-01

    波普尔不仅是著名的科学哲学家,也是一位具有广泛影响的政治哲学家。波普尔在他的民主理论中贯彻了批判理性主义和证伪主义思想,善于站在批判的立场从反面来思考问题,对民主问题提出了许多令人耳目一新的论述。他把政治学的基本问题由“谁应当统治”转换为如何“通过制度设计防止坏的或无能的统治者带来太多的伤害”,揭示了传统民主理论的悖论,提出民主的本质特征是能够不流血地实现政府更替,民主的价值主要体现在对自由的保护;在政治实践方面,波普尔认为英美的民主模式比西欧的比例代表制更为可取,两党制可能是最好的民主形式。

  5. 论波普尔对马克思的批评%Karl Popper's Criticism on Karl Marx

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪琛

    2010-01-01

    英国现代哲学家卡尔·波普尔从批判理性主义角度,对马克思主义的理论与实践展开了令人耳目一新的分析与批判.他认为,马克思主义的理论贡献之一在于它的历史主义.但事实上,历史主义只是一种致力于对社会实践进行整体规划与长远安排的不可证伪的教条式科学.我们应该倡导一种“零星社会工程”理念,在“猜想—反驳”的基础上遵循社会演进的本来规律.不过,波普尔同时又区别了马克思主义与马克思本人的理论,并对后者表达了自己由衷的敬佩之情.在思想史的意义上,这是审慎的理性对“理性的自负”的一次胜出,富于积极的理论价值,值得我们加以关注.

  6. Commentary on Karl Popper's historical epistemology%卡尔·波普尔历史认识论述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张白

    2009-01-01

    在历史认识论方面,波普尔解答了历史学的性质;提出了历史学的任务--解释和描述;指出了历史学的选择性和历史认识的相对性;阐述了历史的客观性和历史意义.波普尔的历史认识论内涵丰富,有不少有益的见解,也存在不足之处.

  7. Exploration to Karl Popper's Historical Methodology%波普尔历史方法论探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宝祥; 张业兵

    2008-01-01

    一、证伪标准论证伪标准论是波普尔哲学逻辑的基础,也是其历史方法论的前提。波普尔的伪证理论是与他的"划界"理论密切联系的。波普尔所说的"划界"是指科学与非科学的划界。他说:"找到一个标准,使我们能够做到以实验科学为一方,以数学、逻辑、形而上学系统为另一方而区分开来。这个问题我称之为划界问题。"[1](p11)

  8. 论波普概率的倾向解释%On Popper's Propensity Interpretation of Probability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤本顺

    2005-01-01

    哲学家对概率的基础给出了不同的解释.波普通过分析逻辑解释和主观解释的困难,提出了倾向解释.波普的倾向性解释扬弃了早期的频率解释,但是倾向性解释就单一事件的解释方面还有些问题.

  9. On Popper's the Metaphysical Turn%评波普尔的形而上学转向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施展旦

    2005-01-01

    后期波普尔更多地关注知识进步中的形而上学问题,从而区别于其前期思想.结合波普尔对逻辑经验主义的批判以及理性主义的发展背景,研究和分析波普尔思想中的这一转向,对于更好地认识西方科学哲学的发展将不无裨益.

  10. 波普尔与库恩思想比较研究%A Comparison between Popper and Kuhn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万丹

    2002-01-01

    作为证伪主义者,波普尔相对于逻辑经验主义体现出激进的一面.但是,本文力图通过波普尔与库恩两者语言观的比较,展示出波普尔思想的保守性.并以此为参照,指出库恩提出的与世界观转换相联系的"不可通约性"观念表现了在语言观上的新转向.

  11. UM TOQUE CANADENSE PARA CLÁSSICOS SHAKESPEAREANOS.

    OpenAIRE

    Bento, Carlos Henrique

    2012-01-01

    Este texto analisa o livro Goodnight Desdemona (Good Morning Juliet), da escritora Ann-Marie MacDonald, lendo-o como uma revisão de duas obras shakespereanas: Romeu e Julieta e Otelo. Abstract: This text analyses the plot of Goodnight Desdemona (Good Morning Juliet), by Ann-Marie MacDonald, reading it as a review of two Shakespearean works: Romeo and Juliet and Othelo.

  12. 75 FR 31812 - Receipt of Applications for Endangered Species Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    .... Applicant: Stanley Rudzinski, Law Engineering and Environmental Services, Mt. Juliet, Tennessee, TE021030... beetle while conducting presence/absence surveys in Crawford, Sebastian, Franklin, Logan, and Scott...

  13. O True Apothecary: How Forensic Science Helps Solve a Classic Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper-Leatherman, Amanda S.; Miecznikowski, John R.

    2012-01-01

    As part of a university-wide project to explore Shakespeare's classic play, "Romeo and Juliet," from a variety of perspectives, an interdisciplinary talk was presented to the university community on the chemistry of the potions and poisons referenced in "Romeo and Juliet." To draw the multidisciplinary audience in and to teach about forensics as…

  14. O True Apothecary: How Forensic Science Helps Solve a Classic Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper-Leatherman, Amanda S.; Miecznikowski, John R.

    2012-01-01

    As part of a university-wide project to explore Shakespeare's classic play, "Romeo and Juliet," from a variety of perspectives, an interdisciplinary talk was presented to the university community on the chemistry of the potions and poisons referenced in "Romeo and Juliet." To draw the multidisciplinary audience in and to teach…

  15. O True Apothecary: How Forensic Science Helps Solve a Classic Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper-Leatherman, Amanda S.; Miecznikowski, John R.

    2012-01-01

    As part of a university-wide project to explore Shakespeare's classic play, "Romeo and Juliet," from a variety of perspectives, an interdisciplinary talk was presented to the university community on the chemistry of the potions and poisons referenced in "Romeo and Juliet." To draw the multidisciplinary audience in and to teach…

  16. Destructive Deconstruction of Film on Romeo and Juliet%影视作品对经典的毁灭性解构——谈1996版的《罗密欧+朱丽叶》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁菲菲

    2010-01-01

    巴兹·鲁尔曼1996年电影版(后现代激情版)对莎剧进行了全方位解构,通过旧瓶装新酒的方式,一方面再次印证出莎剧的经典地位,另一方面影片对暴力、性、枪支、复仇的渲染,消解了原剧中的悲剧意义、宗教作用以及婚姻的神圣,对读者在阅读中产生巨大美感和净化产生毁灭性的影响,也为兰姆对莎士比亚的悲剧是否适宜于舞台演出的怀疑作了恰当的注脚.

  17. 《牡丹亭》与《罗密欧与朱丽叶》之比较%The comparision between Romeo and Juliet and The Peony Pavilion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海锦霞

    2003-01-01

    和作为中西方文学史上的经典爱情名著,以不同方式阐释相似的爱情故事.文中试从多个角度对这两部作品进行比较,以揭示中西方文学在处理相同题材时文学形式的异同源于各自的民族文化和民族心理的差异.

  18. How Shakespeare Made the Golden Touch:Comparative Studies of Romeo and Juliet%莎翁怎样点铁成金——有关《罗密欧与朱丽叶》的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪忠煌

    2014-01-01

    莎士比亚早期悲剧《罗密欧与朱丽叶》取材于意大利短篇小说,关键处作了微妙的重大改动,扩大加深了戏剧冲突并提高了悲剧主人公形象,凸显出人文主义的悲剧主题.本文附带比较了莎剧与越剧“梁祝”之异同.

  19. The interpretation of Romeo and Juliet and its strategy in the context of China%中国语境:莎士比亚的《罗密欧与朱丽叶》阐释策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟民

    2007-01-01

    透视在中国传播过程中的"中国阐释"的不同侧面,以此分析在中国的传播特点及批评者不同的阐释策略及主要倾向.认为在莎学研究中,中国批评者已经从最初的介绍,政治层面的解读发展为从人性、爱情与中国戏曲主题和艺术特点进行比较的多元化解读.

  20. 《罗密欧与朱丽叶》与电影改编的关键元素%The Important Fact in the Adaptation of Romeo and Juliet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张世君

    2004-01-01

    电影改编在世界影片的生产中占了很大比重.要把老故事拍成新电影,一个重要的关节就是抓住作品的关键元素进行创新,做出新的诠释.电影改编依据原作,又跳出原作的窠臼,使古老的文学名著在现代文化语境中焕发出新的思想光辉.根据莎士比亚戏剧《罗密欧与朱丽叶》改编的4部影片一致地突出了原作的3种关键元素爱情、死亡与暴力,表现了跨时代的母题意义和全人类性的普遍现象.

  1. 《梁山伯与祝英台》与《罗密欧与朱丽叶》调式比较%Differences and Similarity Between LiangShanbo and ZhuYingtai and Romeo and Juliet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦伟

    2007-01-01

    与两部作品的内容都取材于民间故事,都属于标题性音乐作品,作品曲式结构基本相同.不同之处是对造成悲剧原因的展示有着明显区别,主、副部主题的表现和运用截然相反,音乐的主基调有较大差异,作品的整体风格迥异.

  2. Eastern and Western Psychology of Tragedy in "Liangzhu" and "Romeo and Juliet"%从《梁祝》和《罗密欧与朱丽叶》看中西方悲剧心理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关华

    2007-01-01

    和都是描写贵族男女冲破世俗观念和封建礼教,并争取自由恋爱的催人泪下的浪漫悲剧,但折射出中西方在思想意识领域悲剧审美情趣的差异.本文就这两部剧作所展示的中西方悲剧心理作对比阐述.

  3. The Repetition of Image in Romeo and Juliet%和谐之光——《罗密欧与朱丽叶》中的意象分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓英

    2009-01-01

    在中,"光明"意象反复出现,与"黑暗"意象和"死亡"意象相对照,构成了戏剧的深层结构,表达了爱情战胜仇恨和死亡,光明战胜黑暗的内涵,该剧深刻反映了莎士比亚"美在和谐"的伦理道德思想及和谐美的美学创作原则.

  4. 《牡丹亭》和《罗密欧与朱丽叶》之爱情比较%Comparison of Loves between Peony Pavilion and Romeo and Juliet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚文振

    2006-01-01

    汤显祖的《牡丹亭》和莎士比亚的《罗密欧与朱丽叶》都是出现在16世纪60年代的爱情戏剧,两部作品都是表达了追求爱情反对封建的主题,本文拟就两部作品异同做一比较.

  5. Indeterminacy or determinacy: the Textual Indeterminacy in Romeo and Juliet%"确定"抑或"未确定"——简论《罗密欧与朱丽叶》中文本之不确定性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宗会; 左淑华

    2010-01-01

    在研读的过程中,借助伊塞尔的文本"不确定性"概念,可以发现,莎士比亚在剧情安排上留给世人一系列困惑之处,而这些困惑之处与"文本间性"或"不确定性"有异曲同工之妙,留给后世无限的阐释、建构以及解构空间.

  6. The U-type Structure of Romeo and Juliet and the Redemption Function of Its Characters%《罗密欧与朱丽叶》的U形结构及人物的救赎功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蓓蓓

    2006-01-01

    文艺复兴时期欧洲文学的杰出代表莎士比亚,深受希伯来经典著作--《圣经》的影响.他的早期剧作《罗密欧与朱丽叶》的情节结构与《圣经》的U形结构颇为相似,其主人公在此结构的构建过程中起到了救赎作用,饰演了小型基督的角色.

  7. Comparing the Characteristics of Tragic Aestherics between "The Peony Pavilion" and "Romeo and Juliet"%《牡丹亭》、《罗密欧与朱丽叶》悲剧美学特征之比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佟迅

    2010-01-01

    与分别是中国著名剧作家汤显祖、英国戏剧大师莎士比亚杰出的古典悲剧作品.两位作者生活年代接近,时间跨度接近,表达了同样的反封建的爱情主题,但却在戏剧冲突、结构、人物以及结局方面各显异调,表现了中西方不同的思维方式、价值取向、审美追求.

  8. 《罗密欧与朱丽叶》和《梁山伯与祝英台》的差异分析%An Analysis on the Differences between Romeo and Juliet and Butterfly Lovers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭宗燕

    2007-01-01

    《罗密欧与朱丽叶》和《梁山伯与祝英台》存在着许多相似之处的同时,也在主人公性格描写及情节设置上有诸多不同,本文将对此作一探讨并揭示两部作品所体现出的不同的文化和价值取向性.

  9. On the Ballet "Romeo and Juliet" Tragedy of the United States%谈芭蕾舞剧《罗密欧与朱丽叶》的艺术美

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢丽萍

    2009-01-01

    原来是由文艺复兴时代英国人文主义剧作家莎士比亚于1595年根据一个民间流传的动人的爱情故事所创作的话剧,后来由俄罗斯作曲家普罗科菲耶夫谱曲,使其变成世界著名的芭蕾儋舞剧.该文主要从音乐和舞蹈两大方面进行简要的叙述,让读者更直接的感受给人们带来的无限魅力.

  10. 罗密欧与朱丽叶爱情同我国古代经典爱情故事之比较%A Comparison between Romeo and Juliet and Chinese Feudal Classic Love Story

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张书丽

    2013-01-01

    《罗密欧与朱丽叶》爱情同我国封建时代经典爱情故事在故事情节、人物塑造、审美志趣、主题、表现手法等方面有着异曲同工之妙,体现着中西方文化的类同和相通之处.将《罗密欧与朱丽叶》爱情同我国古代经典爱情故事予以比较,为我们充分理解英语文学提供了有益帮助.

  11. The Comparison Between The Peony Pavilion (Youth Edition) and Romeo and Juliet%青春版《牡丹亭》与《罗密欧与朱丽叶》之比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蕊; 卜玉伟

    2006-01-01

    青春版在情节设置,人物塑造和主题表现等方面与莎士比亚的经典悲剧有很多相似之处,同时它又保持了中国的传统文化精髓,两者的比较对我们促进中西文化交流,传承中华文明大有裨益.

  12. 《罗密欧与朱丽叶》与《牡丹亭》之比较%A Comparison between "Romeo and Juliet" and "The Peony Pavilion"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    计晗

    2009-01-01

    莎士比亚的名剧和汤显祖的代表作都出现在16世纪90年代.相差只有三年.两个剧本在题材流变、戏剧冲突、人物形象、文化要义等方面,有许多共同之处.通过对这两个剧本的对比分析,可以进一步了解汤显祖戏曲和莎士比亚戏剧的异同,从而促进东西方文化交流.

  13. 《西厢记》与《罗密欧与朱丽叶》之比较阅读%The Comparation between The Western Chamber and Romeo and Juliet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范文斌

    2002-01-01

    与是著名的中西两大爱情戏剧.一个是中国市民文学的经典,一个是西方文化的杰作.两部戏既体现了中西方民族文化和审美心理的巨大差异以及作家戏剧技巧的不同,同时又可找出东西方文心的相通之处.

  14. 《牡丹亭》与《罗密欧与朱丽叶》 戏剧冲突之比较%Comparison of the Dramatic Conflicts in The Peony Pavilion and Romeo and Juliet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔丽

    2005-01-01

    与两剧的情节都是围绕着自由爱情与封建势力的戏剧冲突展开,在"情"与"理"的矛盾中发展,主人公的自由意志通过自觉行动表现出来.但主人公所处的规定情境不同,戏剧冲突在规定情境具体化过程中的发展方式就不同,情节就有缓急之别.由于戏剧冲突发展方式的不同,导致两剧结局的不同.

  15. A Mirror of the Cultural Trends: A Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet%文化潮流的一面镜子--《罗密欧与朱丽叶》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓芳

    2004-01-01

    英国文艺复兴时期的大戏剧家、诗人威廉·莎士比亚(1616-1654)所创作的最早的一部爱情悲剧,以其进步的思想和优美的语言艺术,至今仍倍受大众推崇.本文通过研究剧中富有代表性的语句,探讨了这部作品的语言所反映出的西方文化的典型特色.

  16. Reperusing Romeo and Juliet through the Perspective of the Chinese Golden Mean%从中庸的视角重新解读《罗密欧与朱丽叶》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海娇; 郑慧静

    2010-01-01

    用中庸的眼光来看,主要可以得出这样的结论:剧中人物喜欢走极端.不能够找到最为正确的中间道路,他们的壮举虽然轰轰烈烈,却是难而易的短暂行为,难以具有持续性,戏剧的冲突违背了和而不同的原则,必然付出惨重的代价.

  17. The Comparative Study on the Linguistic Characteristics in The Peony Pavilion and Romeo and Juliet%《牡丹亭》与《罗密欧与朱丽叶》语言特点之比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨深林

    2010-01-01

    文章通过把汤显祖的与莎士比亚的的语言特点进行比较后得出与语言特点最主要的差异在于前者语言呈现出整体诗性,而后者呈现出局部诗性.而造成这种差异的主要原因是由于中西基础文类和剧作者创作心态的差异,尤其是中西基础文类的差异所造成的.所以这种差异使我们进一步了解了中西戏剧语言特点差异的深层原因,从而增进了对中西不同的戏剧传统与不同文化的了解.

  18. 波普哲学在中国的早期境遇%The Earliest Experience of Karl Popper's Philosophy in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏宏晋

    2006-01-01

    在中国学界译介波普哲学的早期历史研究中,存在着大量流传甚广的史实错误和似是而非的说法.本文依据文献证据,发现:第一,波普哲学进入中国始于"文革"之前而不是"文革"之后;第二,波普哲学最初进入中国学界的领域是西方哲学而不是自然辩证法;第三,波普哲学最初在中国被错归入了逻辑实证主义而非批判理性主义;第四,在中国出版的第一部有波普署名的著作并不是其科学方法论著作,而是他与马库塞合著的;第五,波普思想进入中国的进程是从政治哲学到科学哲学而不是相反.

  19. On Karl Popper's social technology outlook%试论卡尔·波普尔的社会技术观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田鹏颖

    2005-01-01

    卡尔·波普尔不仅是一位科学(自然科学)哲学家,而且是一位社会科学(技术)哲学家.波普尔从"封闭社会"向"开放社会"转化视角提出"逐步的社会工程"理论;从社会科学"有限理性"视角提出"社会技术"范畴,并把"社会技术"视为"政治的科学基础";从社会本体的主体际性视角分析了"社会技术"(社会工程)与"物理技术"(物理工程)的关系.

  20. 对波普尔反本质主义的方法论反思%Methodological Reflection on Karl Popper's Anti-Essentialism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎平

    2011-01-01

    本文从方法论角度,对波普尔的反本质主义进行了反思.首先介绍了渡普尔如何通过对本质主义的批判,进而把马克思等人的思想归为本质主义予以否定.其次,提出如何在理论上正确认识本质主义,分析了本质的词源和历史上探讨本质和本质主义的典型观点.最后,指出现实中如何正确判断本质主义.对柏拉图、马克思等人在重要理论的建立中所用方法进行了分析,提出波普尔的不当之处和如何正确对待社会历史观的新看法.

  1. On Karl· Popper's Viewpoint of Opposing Historical Determinism%评卡尔·波普尔的反历史决定论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄世虎; 赵建梅

    2002-01-01

    在历史哲学中,卡尔·波普尔针对马克思的历史决定论提出了"反历史决定论"的观点.本文主要对波普尔反历史决定论中的历史规律虚无论和科技决定论两个主要观点加以批判,并进一步指出了其理论错误的根源之所在.

  2. 波普尔量子力学的倾向性解释%Survey of Karl Popper's Propensity Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵伟

    2007-01-01

    波普尔的量子力学的倾向性解释是波普尔对物理学哲学的重大贡献.首先介绍波普尔量子理论产生的依托哥本哈根学派对于量子理论的正统的解释,然后阐述波普尔是如何形成他对于量子理论的倾向性解释及波普尔理论受到的批判.

  3. 卡尔·波普尔的反乌托邦思想批判%Critique on Karl Popper's Anti-utopian Thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈庆超

    2011-01-01

    进入20世纪以后,反乌托邦思想得到了极大的发展,卡尔·波普尔对乌托邦思想的批判尤其激烈.他认为:乌托邦工程的哲学基础和立足点是站不住脚的"本质主义",它蕴涵着通往极权主义的危险因素.卡尔·波普尔对乌托邦思想的批判存在诸多问题,他对乌托邦思想也存在一些误会.事实上,卡尔·波普尔仅仅是对极权主义进行批判而已,它并不能构成人们去反对乌托邦的充分理由.甚至,在他的思想里,依然存有着浓厚的乌托邦色彩.

  4. Comments on Karl Popper's viewpoint of Anti- Historical Determinism%评卡尔·波普尔的反历史决定论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄世虎; 赵建梅

    2001-01-01

    在历史哲学中,卡尔·波普尔针对马克思的历史决定论提出了"反历史决定论"的观点.波普尔认为,社会历史不存在客观发展规律.波普尔试图从自然过程和历史过程的差异性,社会现象非重复性、人为性特点入手来否定社会历史规律的存在,这是片面地、机械地来理解规律性.波普尔把科学知识视为历史进程的决定因素,颠倒了社会实践与科学知识的关系.波普尔的历史规律虚无论和科技决定论的错误根源在于它是唯心主义的认识论.

  5. 卡尔·波普尔的民主理论及当代启示%Karl Popper's Theory of Democracy and its Contemporary Revelation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖洪莉

    2007-01-01

    西方传统的民主理论把民主定义为大多数人或全体人民的统治.波普尔对此进行了否定,他强调民主是一种被统治者能够有效地控制统治者,从而防止滥用权力,以实现权力制衡的制度或程序.民主制度的真正重要可取之处不在于其政策比专制政体下的政策更完美无缺,而在于民主的方法,主要体现为能有效地牵制权力的制度、程序和技术.

  6. Karl Popper's falsificationism technological alienation revelation%卡尔·波普尔的证伪主义对技术异化的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原亚纳

    2012-01-01

    卡尔·波普尔的技术观试图通过对问题否定式的思考,进而拿起证伪的工具进行反思和批判.卡尔·波普尔把科学技术发展看作一个永无止境、不断完善的过程,认为科学的发展是从大胆的怀疑开始,然后提出问题,通过证伪与反驳,不断革命,形成新的科学技术.科学技术的发展促使我们重新认识世界,推动社会发展.

  7. Karl Raimund Popper's "Open Society" Theory%卡尔·波普尔的"开放社会"思想述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴翔

    2006-01-01

    卡尔·波普尔力主人类应当从批判理性的角度建立一个民主、自由的"开放社会".在这样的社会中,人们通过制定和执行一系列制度来阻止极权及其不良后果的出现.

  8. 评波普尔《历史主义的贫困》%On Karl Popper's The Poverty of Historicism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何兆武

    2011-01-01

    波普尔把历史主义严格地限定为历史决定论,而他本人是反对这种历史主义的.波普尔认为,历史是没有规律可循的,因而也是无法预言的,历史的解释不是科学,因为它是不可检验的,历史主义的错误就在于它把历史的解释误认为是科学.他力图把自然科学和社会人文打通,其方法论也被称为"证伪标准论".波普尔反历史主义的理论有很多疏漏和缺陷,其中主要论点虽大部分是可疑的,但其贡献在于提出了一个新问题和一种新的思想方法.

  9. Methodology Analysis Relevant to Karl Popper's Anti-historical Determinism%对波普尔反历史决定论的方法论评析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢德友

    2010-01-01

    波普尔对各种历史决定论所做的批评,有着先在性的方法论因由.在波普尔看似严谨的论证过程中,仍然存在着诸多可被"证伪"之处.深入到波普尔论证的方法与过程之中,指出其存在的缺陷及其导致的反历史决定论观点,进而重申马克思主义历史决定论的科学性,是每个马克思主义研究者义不容辞的责任.

  10. Evolutionism and the Philosophy System of Karl Popper%卡尔·波普尔与生物进化论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋功成

    2003-01-01

    与其它自然科学理论相比较,生物进化论在卡尔 * 波普尔哲学体系中占据着特别重要的位置.波普尔既继承了达尔文进化论的基本观念,又试图通过把进化引入人类认知领域来进一步发展它.波普尔总是试图对进化论的性质作出特定的解释和评价,不同时期他的解释策略是不同的,这些解释总是引起人们在生物学哲学研究中的广泛争论,这种现象的存在足以说明波普尔进化论思想在当代哲学认知中的重要性.

  11. A Review of Karl Popper's Theory of Democracy%现代化背景下对中国文化转型的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温素丽

    2011-01-01

    中国要实现现代化,这就需要塑造具有现代意识的现代人。人的思想意识受到文化的影响,要实现中国文化的现代化,最根本的是必须将中国传统文化与西方文化有机融合。

  12. Analysis of the Theory of Karl Popper's Three Worlds%"三个世界"理论:波普尔的本体论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱高建

    2002-01-01

    关于"三个世界"的理论是西方当代著名哲学家--英国人卡尔·波普尔在本体论问题上的一个宣言.我们不仅要看到波普尔的"三个世界"理论在本体论方面的意义,而且应同时重视它在认识论方面的价值.我相信,从这个理论本身的矛盾和和局限性中,我们可以得到不少有益的启示.

  13. 波普尔的证伪主义和进化认识论%K.Popper's Falsificationism and Evolutionary Epistemology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华夏

    2003-01-01

    波普尔在上世纪完成他的证伪主义的逻辑学和方法论论证及其在政治哲学中的应用研究之后,从60年代中期开始,重点转向三个世界的本体论、进化哲学和生物学哲学的研究,其中对进化认识论研究占着一个突出的地位.他将猜测与反驳的知识增长过程看作是一个多样性的试探性解决、变异和自然选择过程,阐明了知识进步的达尔文机制,他提出和阐明一般进化论的原则,并将它应用于动物行为、生命世界的认识的发展、人类技术与文化的进步以及世界3的自主发展中去.尽管当代许多哲学家认为,证伪主义已被"证伪",我却认为,她是一只火凤凰,经过被批判的烈火的洗礼,却在进化认识论中获得重生.

  14. Hybrid improper ferroelectricity in Ruddlesden-Popper Ca{sub 3}(Ti,Mn){sub 2}O{sub 7} ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X. Q., E-mail: xqliu@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: xmchen59@zju.edu.cn; Wu, J. W.; Shi, X. X.; Zhao, H. J.; Zhou, H. Y.; Chen, X. M., E-mail: xqliu@zju.edu.cn, E-mail: xmchen59@zju.edu.cn [Laboratory of Dielectric Materials, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, 38 Zheda Road, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Qiu, R. H.; Zhang, W. Q. [Department of Physics, Shanghai University, 99 Shangda Road, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2015-05-18

    The hybrid improper ferroelectricity (HIF) has been proposed as a promising way to create multiferroic materials with strong magnetoelectric coupling by the first-principle calculation, and the experimental evidences of HIF in Ruddlesden-Poper Ca{sub 3}(Ti{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}){sub 2}O{sub 7} (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.15) ceramics have been shown in the present work. The room temperature ferroelectric hysteresis loops are observed in these ceramics, and a polar orthorhombic structure with two oxygen tilting modes has been confirmed by the X-ray powder diffraction. A first-order phase transition around 1100 K in Ca{sub 3}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} was evidenced, and the temperatures of phase transitions decrease linearly with increasing of the contents of Mn{sup 4+} ions. Based on the result of first-principle calculations, the polarization should be reversed by switching through the mediated Amam phase in Ca{sub 3}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7} ceramics.

  15. 证伪原则:波普尔科学哲学的精华%False Theories: the Soul of Popper's Philosophy of Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨易

    2005-01-01

    对波普尔的科学哲学来说,提出证伪原则无疑是最引人注目的所在.尽管在对自己的观点进行阐述的时候,波普尔在思想方法上确实存在着明显的片面性,但不可否认,其在认识论方面,还是做出了自己的贡献的.

  16. 地震预报与波普尔时代的终结%Earthquake Prediction and the Ending of Popper's Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永明; 苏青

    2008-01-01

    20世纪对人类科学理念产生重大影响的哲学家卡尔·波普尔(KarI Popper)打过一个著名的比方。设想有一个命题提出“所有的天鹅都是白色的”.那么为了证明这一理论是正确的,你不能仅仅考察了一部分天鹅,发现它们的确都是白的.就宣布这个命题是正确的。你必须穷尽世界上存在的所有天鹅,但显然.

  17. 波普尔关于科学与非科学划界的理论%Popper's Theory of Demarcation Between Science and Nonscience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林定夷

    2007-01-01

    通过分析波普尔证伪主义划界理论的内容和特点、划界标准及其特点, 以及波普尔所强调的作为证伪之依据的基础陈述的性质及其特点, 提出了波普尔划界理论面临的困难, 为进一步研究划界问题提供思考.

  18. `Refsdal' meets Popper: comparing predictions of the re-appearance of the multiply imaged supernova behind MACS1149.5+2223

    CERN Document Server

    Treu, T; Diego, J M; Grillo, C; Kelly, P L; Oguri, M; Rodney, S A; Rosati, P; Sharon, K; Zitrin, A; Balestra, I; Bradac, M; Broadhurst, T; Caminha, G B; Ishigaki, M; Kawamata, R; Johnson, T L; Halkola, A; Hoag, A; Karman, W; Mercurio, A; Schmidt, K B; Strolger, L G; Suyu, S H

    2015-01-01

    Supernova `Refsdal', multiply imaged by cluster MACS1149.5+2223, represents a rare opportunity to make a true blind test of model predictions in extragalactic astronomy, on a time scale that is short compared to a human lifetime. In order to take advantage of this event, we produced seven gravitational lens models with five independent methods, based on Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Hubble Frontier Field images, along with extensive spectroscopic follow-up from HST and from the Very Large Telescope. We compare the model predictions and show that they agree reasonably well with the measured time delays and magnification ratios between the known images, even though these quantities were not used as input. This agreement is encouraging, considering that the models only provide statistical uncertainties, and do not include additional sources of uncertainties such as structure along the line of sight, cosmology, and the mass sheet degeneracy. We then present the model predictions for the other appearances of SN `Re...

  19. 析波普尔社会科学方法论的建构%An Analysis of the Construction of Social Science Methodology of Popper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李怀涛; 周小结

    2010-01-01

    波普尔在对马克思主义批判的促动下,立足于其社会科学的方法,对社会科学的本质主义、历史主义等方法论进行批判,构建了自己的社会科学方法一情境逻辑方法,以解决社会科学研究的窘境.

  20. 论波普尔对柏拉图理念论的批判%On Popper' s Critique of Plato' s Idea Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    司玉兰

    2009-01-01

    波普尔把柏拉图看作是极权主义思想的始作俑者.他对柏拉图的批判主要集中在柏拉图的理念论上,他认为:柏拉图的理念论有着明显的本质主义和历史主义因子,这是导致现代政治领域极权主义的最终根源,它属于"封闭社会"的意识形态,是"开放社会"的敌人.

  1. Briefly Criticizing Popper's Criticism of Historicism——Rethink Popper's Idea of Society from Philosophical Perspectives%刍议波普对历史主义的批判——兼谈波普社会观的哲学反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李先敏

    2008-01-01

    波普批判历史主义传统,通过历史主义和开放社会的对立分析,把历史主义赶出开放社会体系,然而开放社会同样需要历史,同样需要历史内在的权威的支配作用,这是波普在构建开放社会的时候未想到的理论悖论,也使得波普只能巧妙地避开对该问题的讨论,从而避免开放社会的历史主义本质匮乏而导致的理论困境.

  2. 浅析波普尔的证伪主义——波普尔对"分界问题"与"归纳问题"的解决%An Analysis of Popper's Falsificationism——Popper's solutions to "the problem of demarcation" and "hume's question"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙明湘; 陈娜

    2008-01-01

    证伪主义是波普尔在批判归纳主义与证实原则的基础上建立起来的.证伪原则既是波普尔解决"分界问题"与"归纳问题"的关键,也是他的科学认识论与方法论的基础.波普尔的证伪主义为科学与哲学的发展提供了重要经验,但也面临许多困难.

  3. 75 FR 67697 - Membership of the Performance Review Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-03

    ... Pennett Joseph Angello Ronald Pontius Leigh Bradley Susan Yarwood David Fisher Joseph Bonnet III Dennis...Michael Lydia Moschkin Linda Oliver Thomas Milks Matice Wright Alan Shaffer Mark Easton Craig...

  4. 75 FR 47891 - Notice of Intent to Rule on Request to Release Airport Property at the Dubois Regional Airport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-09

    ... Dubois Regional Airport, Reynoldsville, Pennsylvania AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... public comment on the release of land at the Dubois Regional Airport, Reynoldsville, Pennsylvania under... to the following address: Robert W. Shaffer, Manager, Dubois Regional Airport, 377 Aviation Way...

  5. Hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014;370(20):1889-1898. PMID: 24725239 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24725239 . Ghany MG, Strader ... 2009;49(4):1335-1374. PMID: 19330875 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19330875 . Kohli A, Shaffer ...

  6. Image Understanding. Proceedings of a Workshop Held in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on 11-13 September, 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-09-01

    Shaffer et al., to appear] C.A. Shaffer, t1. Samet, and vergence control. In Proc., IEEE Conference on Coin- Randal C. Nelson. QUILT: A geographic ...ically shaped "primitives," and segemented regions sible matches is relatively smaller at lower resolutions. are sometimes used. Coarse matching can...containing a mix imagery. Given an area of interest in terms of geographic of buildings and open terrain. However, for complex urban coverage, our

  7. Defense Science Board 2005 Summer Study on Transformation: A Progress Assessment. Volume 2. Supporting Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    2005 SUMMER STUDY ON APPENDIX B. GUEST BRIEFERS Name Affiliation Topic Mr. Paul Brinkley Deputy Undersecretary for Business Transformation DoD...Cartwright USSTRATCOM Disruptive Technologies Study Mr. Alan Shaffer DDR&E Joint Net-Centric Operations LtCol Steve Waller AF/XI 15 FEBRUARY 2005 JROC...Nadolski J-2/JFCOM Analytic Agenda LtCol Bruce Hollywood J-8/SAMD 27 JUNE 2005 DDR&E Perspectives Mr. Alan Shaffer DDR&E WMD Matters Mr. Dick

  8. The Relationship Between Air Force Anesthesia Provider’s Job Satisfaction and Anticipated Turnover

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-14

    thesis. My eternal thanks for their love and support, their sacrifice of time and work, and without whose support this project could not have been...are anesthesiologists. Chan, Sunshine , Owen, and Shaffer (1995), looked at the job satisfaction of 2,804 U.S. radiologists. 65% of these physicians...Chan, W. C, Sunshine , J.H., Owen, J.B., & Shaffer, K. A. (1995). U.S. radiologists’ satisfaction in their profession. Radiology. 194. 649-656. Chaney

  9. Immortal Melody

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China celebrates 50 years of the Butterfly Lovers violin concerto The legend of Liang Shanbo and Zhu Yingtai, known as China’s Romeo and Juliet, has moved generations of Chinese. The doleful and romantic story of

  10. Sweet Sorrow's Son.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Deborah

    1997-01-01

    Presents an award-winning essay about a teacher's relationship with a troubled student placed in his alternative classroom. Shows how the two worked together on science, math, and "Romeo and Juliet." (TB)

  11. Changing Minds by Reasoning About Belief Revision: A Challenge for Cognitive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Consider the following paraphrased example adapted from (Schwitzgebel, 2010): Juliet the implicit racist . “Many Caucasians in academia profess that all races...the point repeatedly in the past. And yet Juliet is systematically racist in most of her spontaneous reactions, her unguarded behavior, and her...directly argue for the honey-badger logo and against the mantis shrimp. Jane’s tone of voice, facial expressions and body language may seem to indicate

  12. Operational Assessment of Space: Toward Efficiency and Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    operations. In the 1930s, Karl Popper argued that scientists should be looking for black swans. He believed scientist should test theories with the intent...framework to explain his own “art of war.” Clausewitz believed that 12 Alioto, 164. 13 Karl Popper , The Logic of Scientific Discovery (London...Raising Concerns: Arms Experts Worried at Pentagon Push for Superiority,” Washington Post, 29 March, 2005. Popper , Karl . The Logic of Scientific

  13. The Evolution of the Trinity: A 21st Century Hybrid War Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    theory nor the problem which it was intended to solve.1 —Sir Karl Raimund Popper Whether studying the classical teachings of Antoine Henri...a valuable tool to the tool kit of the next generation of strategic leaders. Endnotes 1 The European Graduate School, ― Karl Raimund Popper ...Biography‖, http://www.egs.edu/ library/ karl -raimund- popper /biography/ (accessed September 18, 2010) 2 ―Legal definition of War,‖ search from The

  14. The Simulation of Sensemaking and Knowledge Management within a Joint Effects-Based Planning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    writings of Sir Karl Popper , a British philosopher of the early and middle 20th century, whose most significant contribution was the argument that...experimental trials. Additionally, Popper sought to reconcile the objective nature of the physical world with the subjective nature of the internal mental world...2004, Vol. 2. pp 1218-1230. 12 Popper , K.R. (1972). Objective Knowledge: An Evolutionary Approach. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. 13 Kuhn, T. (1962

  15. Modeling Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport in Fractured Aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    2004). 2.4 Model Validation Karl Popper (2002) once said that “scientific theory cannot be validated; only invalidated.” This speaks to...second approach, which is related to the first, is based on the philosophical discussions of Karl Popper and states that models, as true...policy and remediation decisions. Popper (2002) argues that scientific theories can never be proven, merely tested and corroborated. In 34 this

  16. Setting the Context: Suppression of Enemy Air Defenses and Joint War Fighting in an Uncertain World

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    the pertinent variables are held relatively constant. As Karl Popper points out in his book, The Poverty of Historicism , "For strictly logical reasons...approach as a result of Desert Storm; it is a classic example of what Popper would call "the poverty of historicism " : we have no way of knowing whether...development. 2. Karl R. Popper, The Poverty of Historicism (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1976), v. 3. Ibid . 4. US Air Force Operational Test and

  17. Influence of nickel doping on oxygen-ionic conductivity of the n = 1 Ruddlesden-Popper Phases La1.85Ca0.15(Cu1-xNix)O4-δ (δ = 0.0905)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midouni, Adnene; Houchati, Mohamed Ikbal; Othman, Walid Belhaj; Chniba-Boudjada, Nassira; Ceretti, Monica; Paulus, Werner; Jaouadi, Mouna; Hamzaoui, Ahmed Hichem

    2016-08-01

    The results of the synthesis and characterization of the optimally doped La1.85Ca0.15(Cu1-xNix)O4-δ solid solution with x = 0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 are reported. The versatility of these La1.85Ca0.15(Cu1-xNix)O4-δ materials is explained on the basis of structural features and the ability to accommodate oxygen nonstoichiometry. According to powder X-ray and neutron diffraction data, La1.85Ca0.15(Cu1-xNix)O4-δ adopts the tetragonal structure with oxygen vacancies occurring preferentially at the Oap sites within the {(La/Ca)O} layers of the perovskite blocks and the oxygen deviation from stoichiometry δ was found to be δ=0.0905(6). The bulk conductivity indicated an Arrhenius-type thermally activated process and oxygen vacancies are the possible ionic charge carriers at T=270 °C. An increase of the conductivity was detected when Ni was introduced. With nickel ratio variation, a strong correlation was observed between the Cu(Ni)-Oap apical bond length variation and the conductivity variation through controlling the O2- ion migration.

  18. First-principles energy band calculation of Ruddlesden–Popper compound Sr{sub 3}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} using modified Becke–Johnson exchange potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamimura, Sunao, E-mail: kamimura-sunao@che.kyutech.ac.jp [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 1-1 Sensuicho, Tobata, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8550 (Japan); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 807-1 Shuku-machi, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga Kouen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 Japan (Japan); Obukuro, Yuki [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Agriculture and Engineering, University of Miyazaki, 1-1 Gakuenkibanadai-nishi, Miyazaki 889-2192 (Japan); Matsushima, Shigenori, E-mail: smatsu@kct.ac.jp [Department of Creative Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu College, 5-20-1 Shii, Kokuraminami-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 802-0985 (Japan); Nakamura, Hiroyuki [Department of Creative Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu College, 5-20-1 Shii, Kokuraminami-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 802-0985 (Japan); Arai, Masao [Computational Materials Science Unit (CMSU), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Xu, Chao-Nan, E-mail: cn-xu@aist.go.jp [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 807-1 Shuku-machi, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Department of Molecular and Material Sciences, Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Science, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga Kouen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 Japan (Japan); International Institute for Carbon Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    The electronic structure of Sr{sub 3}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} is evaluated by the scalar-relativistic full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW+lo) method using the modified Becke–Johnson potential (Tran–Blaha potential) combined with the local density approximation correlation (MBJ–LDA). The fundamental gap between the valence band (VB) and conduction band (CB) is estimated to be 3.96 eV, which is close to the experimental value. Sn 5s states and Sr 4d states are predominant in the lower and upper CB, respectively. On the other hand, the lower VB is mainly composed of Sn 5s, 5p, and O 2p states, while the upper VB mainly consists of O 2p states. These features of the DOS are well reflected by the optical transition between the upper VB and lower CB, as seen in the energy dependence of the dielectric function. Furthermore, the absorption coefficient estimated from the MBJ–LDA is similar to the experimental result. - Graphical abstract: Calculated energy band structure along the symmetry lines of the first BZ of Sr{sub 3}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} crystal obtained using the MBJ potential. - Highlights: • Electronic structure of Sr{sub 3}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} is calculated on the basis of MBJ–LDA method for the first time. • Band gap of Sr{sub 3}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} is determined accurately on the basis of MBJ–LDA method. • The experimental absorption spectrum of Sr{sub 3}Sn{sub 2}O{sub 7} produced by MBJ–LDA is more accurate than that obtained by GGA method.

  19. Does Crucial,Experiment Exist?——Lakatos' criticisms of Popper%判决性实验存在么?——拉卡托斯对波普尔的批判

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田秋丽

    2008-01-01

    "判决性实验"是现代科学方法论中的一个重要问题.波普尔坚持"判决性实验"的一次性证伪,而拉卡托斯对此进行了批判,并认为即时性的"判决性实验"是不存在的,在科学史中也不能把反常等同于"判决性实验".因此,对"判决性实验"是否存在应进行哲学反思.

  20. Comparison and Contrast of Scientific Development Model——based on the Philosophy of Popper and Lakatos%波普尔与拉卡托斯的科学发展模式比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨颖春

    2014-01-01

    在西方科学哲学发展过程中,波普尔的证伪主义和拉卡托斯的科学研究纲领方法论是两个重要的发展阶段.波普尔是批判理性主义的创始人物,而他的学生拉卡托斯却代表着新历史主义,通过对他们师生二人的哲学思想进行比较,对于理解科学哲学发展的进程和发展科学哲学的理论有着重要意义.

  1. 波普、库恩、拉卡托斯科学哲学思想之比较%A Comparative Study on Scientific Philosophy of Popper, Kuhn, Lakatos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱煜; 全锐

    2006-01-01

    在西方科学哲学从逻辑经验主义向历史主义演变的过程中,批判理性主义起了纽带的作用.波普、库恩、拉卡托斯是当代西方科学哲学发展进程中批判理性主义和历史主义的代表人物.本文从比较和分析的角度出发,从科学的划界问题、科学方法论和科学发展模式三方面分析了三位科学哲学家的批判与继承关系,并试图对当代西方科学哲学的发展进程作一描述.

  2. Cause of the Effect Produced by Karl Popper's Historic Indeterminism%波普尔"历史非决定论"思想产生影响的原因探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易杰雄

    2008-01-01

    作为批判理性主义最著名的代表人物卡尔·波普尔,其一生主要的精力都放在批判马克思主义的唯物史观特别是他的历史决定论上.波普尔对马克思主义历史决定论的驳斥,即他的"历史非决定论"思想从总体上讲是站不住脚的.但他的这些错误思想在世界上却产生了广泛的影响,在人们中间得到了相当广泛的认同.究其原因,我认为这首先与国际共产主义运动的理论与实践本身存在严重问题有关;其次与他批判的特点有关--用貌似纯科学的方法作纯学术的批判;三是其批判锋芒所指虽然也包括马克思主义的唯物史观,但主要是指17-18世纪历史决定论,特别是指被教条化、庸俗化和曲解了的马克思主义的社会历史理论;更深层的原因是,马克思主义的历史决定论是在实践中运用辩证逻辑概括出来的,而波普尔的批判主要运用的是形式逻辑和自然科学的方法,这样的逻辑和方法是人们通常比较容易理解和接受的方法.

  3. The prejudice of "open society"--Comments on Karl Popper's Open Society%"开放社会"的偏见--卡尔·波普《开放社会及其敌人》评析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海平; 刘保春

    2002-01-01

    是当代西方哲学家卡尔·波普的政治哲学的主要代表作.它向人们展现了一幅"开放社会"的美好蓝图.然而,透过现象我们却发现,其中有许多歪曲和偏见,当然也有某些可取之处.

  4. 卡尔·波普尔的第三世界理论及现代意义%The Third World Theory of Karl Popper and Its Modern Sense

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔诚亮

    2008-01-01

    卡尔·波普尔是现代西方最伟大的科学哲学家之一,他提出的第三世界理论在西方哲学界和科学界引起了强烈的反响.文章试图从第三世界理论的内涵、客观性、自主性、实在性等特征对其进行透视,从认识论、知识经济等方面揭示其理论创新和现实意义.

  5. Dualism of "Fact" and "Value" in Karl Popper's Critical Reason%波普尔的批判理性主义的"事实"与"价值"二元论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云鹏

    2005-01-01

    波普尔认为,以柏拉图、黑格尔、马克思为代表的历史决定论把"是"与"应当"混在一起,是事实与价值一元论,在理论方法上是错误的.波普尔本人主张事实与价值的二元论,认为无论历史还是外在自然都不能替我们决定什么、选择什么,道德决定不可能从社会事实或对这些事实的描述中推导出来,而是源于我们的自由选择.对"休谟问题"中的"事实"与"应当",马克思持一元论和二元论的辩证观点,由此坚持了历史决定论中的辩证法.

  6. On the Philosophical Meanings of "Virtual Technology"--Based on the Analysis of Karl. Poppers 'Theree Worlds Theory'%“虚拟技术”在“三个世界”中的位置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷

    2003-01-01

    本文总结和分析了几种对虚拟技术的主要定义,认为:卡尔@波普尔的"三个世界"理论,可以用来认识和把握技术的涵义,虚拟技术作为一种特殊的技术存在形态,其本身不是虚拟的,它是以网络技术、多媒体技术等具有物理实体的信息技术为物质基础,建构虚拟场域的技术中介手段.我们应该从多角度、全面地认识虚拟技术的哲学意蕴.

  7. On the academic innovation in the viewpoint of Karl Popper's critical idealism%波普尔批判理性主义视域中的学术创新

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐松林; 王静

    2007-01-01

    波普尔批判理性主义把理论系统的可证伪性作为科学与非科学的划界标准,主张科学知识依靠人的批判理性而发展,猜测和反驳成为学术的基本方法.其所具有的学术创新功能是:信奉怀疑与批判是研究过程的本质,消解迷信学术权威的教条主义,还原人人都是研究主体的学术生态环境;其所引发的学术价值取向是:实用与创新是学术的逻辑起点,学术自觉与学者自立是学术的基本人格,"批判问题"与"容忍错误"是学术的基本范式.

  8. 卡尔·波普的科学哲学对进化生物学的影响%Evaluating Karl Popper's Philosophy of Science Influence on Evolutionary Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    傅静

    2002-01-01

    卡尔·波普是为数不多的对科学界有重大影响的科学哲学家之一.但是,他从早期到晚年的关于进化生物学的言论严重阻碍了进化生物学的发展,他把进化论作为一个形而上学的研究纲领导致了许多科学家对进化论的误解,他否认进化定律的存在从而否认了进化生物学的科学地位.同时,我们指出了他关于进化论的新见解并没有任何新意.

  9. 波普历史非决定论思想的证立逻辑及其批判%On the Logic of Argumentation and its Criticism of Karl Popper's Non-Historicism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵庆元; 姜惠莉

    2008-01-01

    波普以证伪主义科学知识增长模式为逻辑支柱的历史非决定论思想是现代西方历史哲学中独具特色的一支.通过对猜测-反驳方法极端否定证实的逻辑学分析和对科学知识内在规律的科学揭示,深刻地批判了波普的历史非决定论思想,说明了历史决定论的深刻基础只能是人们的"实际生活过程".

  10. Historical explanation and Historicism——Popper's Criticism on Historicism%历史解释与历史规律——波普对历史决定论的批评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢江平

    2007-01-01

    波普认为,不存在历史规律,只存在对历史的各种解释,历史解释不具备客观性,历史规律说只是神学史观的现代翻版.历史规律说与一元论真理观的密切相关,并可能因此而演变成一种专制主义的理论.波普对历史规律说的批评有其合理之处,但波普的历史解释说最终陷入了相对主义.

  11. The Comparison Of Popper's Epistemology And Polanyi Evolutionary Epistemology%波兰尼默会认识论与波普尔进化认识论之比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余达淮; 程广丽

    2012-01-01

    科学的发展使得纯粹认识论的研究范式发生了改变,认知科学将传统的认识论研究日益推向技术化的向度.在研究论域上,波兰尼的默会认识论与波普尔的进化认识论都特色鲜明,内容丰富.同属于当代认识论范畴的波兰尼与波普尔的认识论,都是20世纪物理学革命的产物.在哲学的研究范式发生转向的背景下,二者消解传统认识论的同时,怀着深切的人文情怀,建构起新的科学认识论,但在认识论模式的具体建构和话语表达上,他们的分歧是明显的.默会认识论与进化认识论的思想价值是不容忽视的,但也存在一些局限.

  12. 波普尔科学方法论对高校工科教学改革的启迪%Popper's Science Methodology Enlighten to Teach Reform for the Course of Engineering College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏雄; 先礼琼

    2005-01-01

    通过对波普尔科学方法论的认识,探讨该思想对高校工科教学改革的启示,指出其假说模式对于培养高校创新型人才的积极意义,结合教学实践给出了教学改革的几点建议.

  13. Quantum theory and the schism in physics from the postscript to the logic of scientific discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Popper, Karl Raimund

    1982-01-01

    Quantum Theory and the Schism in Physics is one of the three volumes of Karl Popper's Postscript to the Logic of scientific Discovery. The Postscript is the culmination of Popper's work in the philosophy of physics and a new famous attack on subjectivist approaches to philosophy of science.Quantum Theory and the Schism in Physics is the third volume of the Postscript. It may be read independently, but it also forms part of Popper's interconnected argument in the Postscript. It presents Popper's classic statement on quantum physics a

  14. Simply Discuss the Impoverishment about the Idea of Popper's Anti-determinism in the Politics——Several Query about Popper's Interrogation to History Determinism from the View of Politics%浅论波普反历史决定论观念政治上的贫困——从政治的视角对波普诘难历史决定论的几点质疑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志勇

    2008-01-01

    文章有两大基本特点:对波普诘难历史决定论的质疑是从政治学这个独特视角进行的;对波普诘难历史决定论的质疑主要是针对哲学界较少关注的几个观点.这些观点包括渡普过分推崇证伪的方法,贬低和轻视证实方法的观点;波普认为整体主义不能建设一个适合于人们生活的新社会,只能建设一个使人适合于他的新社会的观点;波普认为渐进工程工程师在改革范围内可以不抱成见提出自己问题的观点.对于这些观点,文章借用罗尔斯、阿尔蒙德、伊斯顿、科恩、熊彼得、林尚立等的观点和理论对其进行了深入的剖析.

  15. The Sun and the Moon——the Differences and Their Cultural Reasons between Romeo and Juliet and Liang Shanbo and Zhu Yingtai%太阳与月亮之美——《罗密欧与朱丽叶》和《梁山伯与祝英台》之差异及其文化成因

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林富丽

    2009-01-01

    和尽管母题相同,但在人物性格、悲剧精神和结局这三方面仍呈现出明显差异.无疑,这两部悲剧的不同特色与孕育它们的文化背景密切相关.本文对两部悲剧这三方面的差异作了粗浅的分析并从文化角度探讨了这些差异的成因.

  16. The Golden Mean of the Translation: Analyzing the Translation Strategies of Domestication and Foreignization Through the Comparison of Two Chinese Versions of Romeo and Juliet%翻译的中庸之道——从《罗密欧与朱丽叶》的两个中译本看归化与异化策略的运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芳

    2008-01-01

    归化与异化两种翻译策略的争论在翻译史上一直相持不下,通过对朱生豪和梁实秋两位翻译大家的译本的比较,可以看出这一对互为矛盾的翻译策略的优劣,以及中庸之道的有机结合是缓解二者矛盾的可行之策.

  17. A Melodic and Harmonic Study on Second Cento of Romeo and Juliet%普罗科菲耶夫《罗密欧与朱丽叶》第二组曲的和声手法研究——调式思维与和声手法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆慧敏

    2006-01-01

    调式思维作为和声手法的原动力之一,一直对其产生着潜在的影响.从调式混合的手法、主和弦的模糊法、大小调体系内的半音化、其他特种调式的渗入等四个方面对普罗科菲耶夫的第二组曲的调式思维与和声手法进行分析研究,有利于进一步理解普氏的作品内涵.

  18. 爱情之道止于至善--赏心乐事《牡丹亭》与悲情伤怀《罗密欧与朱丽叶》之比较%The Essence of Love Exists in the Most Complete State--A Comparison of Peony Pavilion and Romeo and Juliet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张林; 刘须明

    2006-01-01

    和作为中西方文学史上的经典爱情名著,都出现在16世纪90年代,都以不同方式阐释相似的爱情故事.文章试图对这两部作品进行比较,以揭示两个剧本在描写至真爱情方面的相似之处.通过对这两个剧本的对比分析,可以进一步了解汤显祖和莎士比亚爱情观的异同,他们的爱情观的许多方面直至今天都有其现实意义.

  19. 悲壮与凄美——《罗密欧与朱丽叶》和《梁山伯与祝英台》之悲剧美学比较研究%Stirring and Plaintive——A Comparative Study on Tragedy Aesthetics of Romeo and Juliet and Butterfly Lovers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏咪娜

    2009-01-01

    和这两部经典爱情悲剧在展现悲剧母题上有着惊人的相似之处.从悲剧美学的角度入手,运用中西悲剧理论分析这两部名著悲剧人物,悲剧情节结构和悲剧意象,这将有助于中西悲剧文化的交流与思考.

  20. 以文学和以舞台表演为取向的剧本翻译的差异——对比《罗密欧与朱丽叶》的两个中译本%Stage-Oriented Translations of Drama: a Contrastive Study of Two Chinese Versions of Romeo and Juliet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢满兰

    2008-01-01

    朱生豪和曹禺分别以文学和舞台为取向翻译了莎士比亚的一剧.两者在人名、称谓语、旁白、委婉语和禁忌语,乃至押韵等的翻译决策上表现了明显的差异.这是两人翻译时代背景和译者主体意识差异的结果,也是戏剧文本的综合性的体现.在多元媒体时代,两种翻译策略和实践都具有很高价值.

  1. Diversity and Complementation Between Love Tragedies——A Contrastive Analysis Between Butterfly Lovers and Romeo and Juliet%爱情绝唱中的审美差异与互补——《梁山伯与祝英台》和《罗密欧与朱丽叶》之比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈慧君; 吴冠群

    2006-01-01

    中国的和英国的,两者同为爱情悲剧,却存在较大的差异.本文试从两者文本的比较中,探求中西审美在主观善美与客观真美、伦理与个性等方面的不同及原因.并从动画版的评析中,探讨中西审美的同质化倾向及中西审美的互补问题.

  2. A Contrastive Study of Romeo and Juliet and The Peony Pavilion%丽娘何如朱丽叶不让莎翁有故村--《牡丹亭》与《罗密欧与朱丽叶》之比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹自振

    2005-01-01

    汤显祖的代表作和莎士比亚的名剧都出现在16世纪90年代,相差只有三年.两个剧本在故事情节、主题思想、人物形象、戏剧结构、戏剧冲突与节奏、悲剧风格与结局等方面,有许多共同之处.通过对这两个剧本的对比分析,可以进一步了解汤显祖戏曲和莎士比亚戏剧的异同,也有助于探讨东西方古典戏剧的特点和规律.

  3. Misplaced Love and City Justice New Understanding on the Love Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet%爱情与城邦正义的错置——《罗密欧与朱丽叶》爱情悲剧新解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林富丽

    2009-01-01

    通过波澜起伏的戏剧冲突,众多性格鲜明的人物形象,优美抒情的人物语言,描绘了一场惊心动魄的爱情.罗密欧和朱丽叶两人的爱情虽然换来了两大家族的和解,但这恰恰是爱情的悲剧性所在,即爱情在本不该取胜的地方获得了胜利,爱情与城邦正义错置.

  4. 《罗密欧与朱丽叶》和《孔雀东南飞》之女性悲剧比较研究%A Comparative Study on Female Characters' Tragedy in Romeo and Juliet and The Peacock Flying Southeast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁玉莹

    2010-01-01

    通过对两个文本中的朱丽叶和中的刘兰芝的生活背景、人物性格以及命运结局等方面进行对比分析,本文得出结论:虽然所处的社会文化背景不同,作为弱势群体的女性,在现实中苦苦挣扎却终究不能摆脱殊途同归的悲剧命运.

  5. Two Chinese Versions of Shakespeare Viewed from the Perspective of Reception Theory A Case Study of Romeo and Juliet%从接受理论看莎剧的两种中译本——以《罗密欧与朱丽叶》为个案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄泽英

    2009-01-01

    接受理论启示我们,译者对读者的选择和立体关照是读者接受译作的关键.读者的介入为评价朱生豪和梁实秋对莎士比亚戏剧的翻译提供了新的视角:正是两人选择了不同的读者群体,并对他们进行了立体关照,从而获得了不同读者的青睐.

  6. 从《红楼梦》与《罗密欧与朱丽叶》看中西方悲剧的异同%From the Dream of Red Mansions and Romeo and Juliet Tragedy of the Similarities and Differences between Chinese and Western

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乐

    2011-01-01

    This article compares the "Dream of Red Mansions" and "Romeo and Juliet" to analyze the similarities and differences between Chinese and Western tragedy.The theme of conflict and struggle is the tragedy of the similarities between Chinese and Western;there differences between destruction and preservation,is the difference between Chinese and Western tragedy.%中西方悲剧的异同在各自的代表作品《红楼梦》与《罗密欧与朱丽叶》中得到了很好的体现。以冲突和抗争为主题,是中西悲剧的相同之处;中西悲剧的不同之处在于中国的悲剧是悲而不伤,主人公往往是继续生存在悲剧中,是对悲剧情愫的保存,而西方则是通过悲剧主角的彻底毁灭,以生命的终结来成全悲剧的审美快感。对悲剧精神的解读,其实践价值在于指导人们更好地面对人生中的逆境与悲剧。

  7. Different Cultural Characteristics from Love Stories in Dance Dramas——Comparative Study on "A Handful of Wild Jujubes" and "Romeo and Juliet"%舞中情尽显不同文化特色——舞剧《一把酸枣》与《罗密欧与朱丽叶》之比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫雪清

    2010-01-01

    、都属于舞剧,但是一个舞出了民族特色,一个舞出了人文精神.两部舞剧虽然都演绎了人间的爱情悲剧,但两部舞剧通过题材与情节、主人公的死因与结局和不同的表现形式充分地展现了不同的民族精神和地域特色.这两部艺术经典,对世人处理爱情与财富、亲情与权势的关系,有着深刻的启迪作用.

  8. 《罗密欧与朱丽叶》:闹剧和舞台运用作为漠视伊丽莎白时代风尚的手段%Romeo and Juliet: Farce and Stage Usage as Ways of Overriding Elizabethan Mores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李普罗

    2015-01-01

    本文旨在探讨莎士比亚如何运用文学手段和舞台手段来克服伊丽莎白时代风尚中对恋爱男女的偏见.伊丽莎白时代的人们对于男女私情与秘密婚姻都有着与生俱来的偏见,因而需要戏剧作品更多的说理成分.为了避免观众聚焦在朱丽叶父母的困境,从而导致作者意图受挫,莎士比亚采用了一些隐秘的手法使其实现意图的本质被误解或被掩盖.

  9. 生则同衾死则同穴--《孔雀东南飞》与《罗密欧与朱丽叶》的比较研究%The song of life-and-death lovers--A comparison between "the bride of Jiao Zhongqing" and "Romeo and Juliet"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑青虬

    2005-01-01

    和都通过男女主人公的爱情悲剧,控诉了封建礼教,赞扬了男女主人公争取个性解放和爱情幸福的人文主义,这两部作品虽出自不同作家之手,文化背景、时代氛围也各不相同,却有惊人的相似之处.文章主要从文化背景、审美意趣、人物塑造三个方面,对两部作品进行对比.

  10. Different Background and Same Characteristics Have Their Own Exquisite Fragrance--On the Similarities and Differences Between The West Chamber and Romeo and Juliet%异域同质各芬芳--《西厢记》《罗密欧与朱丽叶》异同论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李克

    2005-01-01

    与处于同质异域的状态.同质即在主题意蕴、艺术基调、创作流程、展示人性魅力方面相同.异域即不同地域、不同民族、不同时代的作家在艺术表现方式上的差异,包括叙事方式、对主人公的性格刻画、剧情发展线索、主人公表情达意的方式与结尾处理.本文从美学和心理学的角度对两剧进行比较分析,试图研究其异同.

  11. 偶然的事件还是命运的预兆——莎士比亚《罗密欧与朱丽叶》欣赏%An Accidental Occurrence or An Omen of Destiny——Appreciation of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺阿丽

    2008-01-01

    莎士比亚早期的戏剧是世界文学史、戏剧史上的著名悲剧之一.这部剧虽然不同于他中期创作的那些著名的悲剧,但同样是对于人类社会和人类本性当中的必然性悲剧因素的思考.在这部剧中,是一系列偶然性的情节导致了最终必然的毁灭.罗密欧与朱丽叶注定的命运,在整部剧中人物的对话中都有预兆.

  12. A Comparative Study Between Tibetan Love Tragedy "Tea and Salt Story" and "Romeo and Juliet"%中外民族文学作品中的爱情悲剧异同比较——以藏族《茶和盐的故事》与《罗密欧与朱丽叶》为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏深义

    2015-01-01

    爱情是文学的一个永恒主题,无论东方西方,当然亦包括少数民族文学.藏族《茶和盐的故事》,是广泛流传在我国西藏、云南和四川康巴等藏族地区的民间爱情悲剧.而《罗密欧与朱丽叶》,则是英国莎士比亚以文艺复兴为背景的著名爱情悲剧.二者在内容和形式上有颇多类同之处,当然也有一些差异的存在.这与人类情感需求因素、地理环境因素、时代主流思潮和东西方的文化基调有关.

  13. An Eternal Song of Love Theme——Artistic Properties of the Film Romeo and Juliet (1968 Version)%永恒的主题爱情的颂歌——论1968年版《罗密欧与朱丽叶》影片的艺术特色

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张祝祥; 王玉文

    2007-01-01

    莎士比亚的爱情悲剧已被搬上银幕12次,其中,1968年由弗兰克·杰弗瑞里导演的电影,自问世以来就一直被视为典范之作,这不仅因为该片严格忠实于原著,更在于它合理地发展了原著,谱写出一首探讨人类永恒主题的爱情颂歌.

  14. 从《梁山伯与祝英台》《罗密欧与朱丽叶》看中西民族文化心理%View Chinese and Western National Cultural Psychology from Liang Shanbo and Zhu Yingtai , Romeo and Juliet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳雪浩

    2001-01-01

    人类文化学原理告诉我们,不同的历史背景和文化氛围会形成不同的民族文化心理结构和文化现象.本文从文化学的角度,认为体现了内陆型农业文化心理,折射了海洋型商业文化心理.

  15. 序曲还是交响诗?——柴科夫斯基《罗密欧与朱丽叶》的体裁属性论说%Overture or symphonic poem?——Music form argument on Tchaikovsky'S "Romeo and Juliet"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林荣华

    2009-01-01

    是柴科夫斯基的一部重要的标题音乐作品,作曲家在出版该曲时明确称作"幻想序曲",但在国内学术界的讨论中,它常被置于"交响诗"的名下,有时甚至同时出现在"序曲"和"交响诗"两个类目之中.本文从深层剖析了这一歧见的根源以及它可能引发的误导,并从作品本体上检视了"幻想序曲"这一体裁标签的实现状况.

  16. Popperi ärkamine / Marju Lepajõe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepajõe, Marju, 1962-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Popper, Karl. Avatud ühiskond ja selle vaenlased. [I, Platoni lummus]. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2010 ; Popper, Karl. Avatud ühiskond ja selle vaenlased. II köide, Prohvetluse kõrgaeg: Hegel, Marx ja järellainetused. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2011

  17. The Precautionary Principle and Statistical Approaches to Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Niels; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2005-01-01

    Bayesian model averaging; Benchmark approach to safety standars in toxicology; dose-response relationships; environmental standards; exposure measurement uncertainty; Popper falsification......Bayesian model averaging; Benchmark approach to safety standars in toxicology; dose-response relationships; environmental standards; exposure measurement uncertainty; Popper falsification...

  18. The Precautionary Principle and statistical approaches to uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Niels; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2003-01-01

    Bayesian model averaging; Benchmark approach to safety standards in toxicology; dose-response relationship; environmental standards; exposure measurement uncertainty; Popper falsification......Bayesian model averaging; Benchmark approach to safety standards in toxicology; dose-response relationship; environmental standards; exposure measurement uncertainty; Popper falsification...

  19. Mendelian Genetics: Paradigm, Conjecture, or Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, V.; Brouwer, W.

    1984-01-01

    Applies Kuhn's model of the structure of scientific revolutions, Popper's hypothetic-deductive model of science, and Lakatos' methodology of competing research programs to a historical biological episode. Suggests using Kuhn's model (emphasizing the nonrational basis of science) and Popper's model (emphasizing the rational basis of science) in…

  20. Integrating Critical Thinking in the Curriculum of the Command and General Staff College

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-13

    institution as well. Indeed Karl Popper , renowned philosopher of science, explains that this is truly the only way for a discipline – or institution - to... Popper will be interrogated with regard to the production of knowledge and the general enlightenment of man. The roots of western philosophy are found

  1. Behavioural science in general practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, D R

    1979-10-01

    Dr Peter Sowerby has written an important criticism of Michael Balint's work based on his understanding of Karl Popper's writings. I dispute Sowerby's interpretation of Popper and disagree with his conclusions, which I suggest would lead general practice into a retreat. I believe Balint made a major contribution to general practice and has helped us towards practising whole-person medicine.

  2. Operations Assessment in Afghanistan is Broken: What Is to Be Done?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    plication as to the effects of the glass’s state of emptiness on the success of an endeavor. 12. See, for example, Karl R. Popper , The Logic of Scientific...Discovery (New York: Basic Books, 1959), and Stanford Encyclopedia of Philoso- phy, s.v. “ Karl Popper ,” plato.stanford.edu/. 13. See Richards J. Heuer

  3. Falsification and Demarcation in Astronomy and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovacool, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    This work inaugurates a critical inquiry into whether the ideas of Karl Popper, a philosopher of science, are used by astronomers and astrophysicists, a practicing community of scientists. It examines four basic components of Karl Popper's philosophy falsification, prohibition, simplicity, and risk taking and the extent that these themes become…

  4. Beaked and Baleen Whale Hearing: Modeling Responses to Underwater Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Jeffrey Paduan Karl Van Bibber Department of Oceanography...In: The Evolutionary Biology of Hearing. Webster D. B., R. R. Fay, and A. N. Popper (eds.). Springer-Verlag. 229-267. Finneran, J. J., C. E... Popper (eds.). Springer-Verlag, New York. Saunders, J. C. and R. M. Summers. 1982. Auditory structure and function in the mouse middle ear

  5. Mendelian Genetics: Paradigm, Conjecture, or Research Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, V.; Brouwer, W.

    1984-01-01

    Applies Kuhn's model of the structure of scientific revolutions, Popper's hypothetic-deductive model of science, and Lakatos' methodology of competing research programs to a historical biological episode. Suggests using Kuhn's model (emphasizing the nonrational basis of science) and Popper's model (emphasizing the rational basis of science) in…

  6. Information er sølv ..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brier, Søren

    del 2: Træk af moderne naturvidenskabsteori med særlig vægt på forholdet mellem Popper og Kuhn......del 2: Træk af moderne naturvidenskabsteori med særlig vægt på forholdet mellem Popper og Kuhn...

  7. Popperi ärkamine / Marju Lepajõe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Lepajõe, Marju, 1962-

    2011-01-01

    Arvustus: Popper, Karl. Avatud ühiskond ja selle vaenlased. [I, Platoni lummus]. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2010 ; Popper, Karl. Avatud ühiskond ja selle vaenlased. II köide, Prohvetluse kõrgaeg: Hegel, Marx ja järellainetused. Tallinn : Eesti Keele Sihtasutus, 2011

  8. Counter-Narcoterrorism Operations in the Eastern Pacific and Caribbean Operations Areas from 1970 through 1990

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    The Marihuana Tax Act of 1937,” http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/hemp/taxact/mjtaxact.htm (accessed 27 April 2010). The Tax Act actually taxed...Shaffer Library of Drug Policy. “The Marihuana Tax Act of 1937.” http://www.drug library.org/schaffer/hemp/taxact/mjtaxact.htm (accessed 27 April 2010

  9. University ESL Teachers' Socialization in School Workplace toward Teaching Culturally Diverse Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiang-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Employing interpretive theory, this study investigated 331 university ESL teachers' socialization in language programs for international students. Looking beyond teacher preparatory education, in-service teachers' workplace experiences are essential to study because experience is instrumental in the shaping of belief systems (Wu and Shaffer,…

  10. Evidence-Centered Design of Epistemic Games: Measurement Principles for Complex Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Andre A.; Gushta, Matthew; Mislevy, Robert J.; Shaffer, David Williamson

    2010-01-01

    We are currently at an exciting juncture in developing effective means for assessing so-called 21st-century skills in an innovative yet reliable fashion. One of these avenues leads through the world of "epistemic games" (Shaffer, 2006a), which are games designed to give learners the rich experience of professional practica within a discipline.…

  11. Studio Mathematics: The Epistemology and Practice of Design Pedagogy as a Model for Mathematics Learning. WCER Working Paper No. 2005-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, David Williamson

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines how middle school students developed understanding of transformational geometry through design activities in Escher's World, a computationally rich design experiment explicitly modeled on an architectural design studio. Escher's World was based on the theory of pedagogical praxis (Shaffer, 2004a), which suggests that preserving…

  12. The ‘taking place’ of learning in computer games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel; Løfgreen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    In the long-standing tradition for discounting digital technologies as a learning resource within the formal educational setting, computer games have often either been marked as distraction or totally ignored. However, as argued in the paradigmatic text by Shaffer, Squire, Halverson and Gee, Video...

  13. Integrating Game-Based Learning Initiative: Increasing the Usage of Game-Based Learning within K-12 Classrooms through Professional Learning Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, André R.; Mayben, Robert; Boman, Terri

    2016-01-01

    In the past 15 to 20 years there has been an increased interest in the use of games for learning. A considerable amount of work has already been done by educational researchers and theorists (Gee, Squire, Malone, Lepper, Shaffer, etc.) to identify and to operationalize the native affordances of games that make them good for learning. Unfortunately…

  14. Evaluation of the Military Utility of Employing an Angle of Arrival Payload Hosted on a CubeSat as an Augmentation to Existing Geolocation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    E., Roth , L., Seal, D., Shaffer, S., Shimada, J., Umland, J., Werner, M., Oskin, M., Burbank, D., and Alsdorf, D., “The Shuttle Radar Topography...Press, 2011. 72. Romero, L. A. and Mason , J., “Evaluation of Direct and Iterative Methods for Overdetermined Systems of TOA Geolocation Equations

  15. Understanding Apex Predator and Pelagic Fish Habitat Utilization in the California Current System by Integrating Animal Tracking with in situ Oceanographic Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    in Press Benoit-Bird, K. J., Gilly, W. F., Au, W. W. L. and Mate, B. 2008. Controlled and in situ target strengths of the jumbo squid Dosidicus ... gigas and identification of potential acoustic scattering sources. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., in Press. Costa, D.P. and Shaffer. S.A. 2008. Physiological

  16. Reducing Costs and Increasing Productivity in Ship Maintenance Using Product Lifecycle Management, 3D Laser Scanning and 3D Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Program, especially RADM James Greene , USN (Ret), Ms. Karey Shaffer, and Ms. Tera Yoder, for providing resources and assistance to ensure the success of...information modeling guide series: 03—GSA BIM guide for 3D imaging (Ver. 1). Retrieved from http://www.gsa.gov/graphics/pbs/GSA_BIM_Guide_Series_03

  17. hiv prevention among drug and alcohol users: models of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Few programs have been implemented in Africa to deal specifically ... INTRODUCTION. The abuse of ... Identification Test (AUDIT) (Shaffer et al. 2004). .... actual diagnosis meeting the DSM-IV-TR ..... effective entry point for screening clients ... also manage the HIV care of the drug and .... perspective, it is still an essential.

  18. 11p Microdeletion including WT1 but not PAX6, presenting with cataract, mental retardation, genital abnormalities and seizures: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baekgaard Peter

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract WAGR syndrome (Wilms' tumor, aniridia, genitourinary abnormalities and mental retardation and Potocki-Shaffer syndrome are rare contiguous gene deletion syndromes caused by deletions of the 11p14-p12 chromosome region. We present a patient with mental retardation, unilateral cataract, bilateral ptosis, genital abnormalities, seizures and a dysmorphic face. Cytogenetic analysis showed a deletion on 11p that was further characterized using FISH and MLPA analyses. The deletion (11p13-p12 located in the area between the deletions associated with the WAGR and Potocki-Shaffer syndromes had a maximum size of 8.5 Mb and encompasses 44 genes. Deletion of WT1 explains the genital abnormalities observed. As PAX6 was intact the cataract observed cannot be explained by a deletion of this gene. Seizures have been described in Potocki-Shaffer syndrome while mental retardation has been described in both WAGR and Potocki-Shaffer syndrome. Characterization of this patient contributes further to elucidate the function of the genes in the 11p14-p12 chromosome region.

  19. 11p Microdeletion including WT1 but not PAX6, presenting with cataract, mental retardation, genital abnormalities and seizures: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almind, Gitte J; Brøndum-Nielsen, Karen; Bangsgaard, Regitze

    2009-01-01

    a maximum size of 8.5 Mb and encompasses 44 genes. Deletion of WT1 explains the genital abnormalities observed. As PAX6 was intact the cataract observed cannot be explained by a deletion of this gene. Seizures have been described in Potocki-Shaffer syndrome while mental retardation has been described...

  20. The Efficacy of the Theory of Reasoned Action to Explain Gambling Behavior in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrasher, Robert G.; Andrew, Damon P. S.; Mahony, Daniel F.

    2007-01-01

    Shaffer and Hall (1997) have estimated college student gambling to be three times as high as their adult counterparts. Despite a considerable amount of research on gambling, researchers have struggled to develop a universal theory that explains gambling behavior. This study explored the potential of Ajzen and Fishbein's (1980) Theory of Reasoned…

  1. Positive Youth Development and School Capacity Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Cassandra; Sanders, Margaret; Wroblewski, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    In all settings, the social work profession thrives on multilevel (macro, mezzo, and micro practice), however recent data from a benchmark study of school social work professionals (Kelly, Berzin, Frey, Alvarez, Shaffer & O'Brien, 2010a) asserts that school social workers do not frequently practice macro level practice in the form of capacity…

  2. Positive Youth Development and School Capacity Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Cassandra; Sanders, Margaret; Wroblewski, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    In all settings, the social work profession thrives on multilevel (macro, mezzo, and micro practice), however recent data from a benchmark study of school social work professionals (Kelly, Berzin, Frey, Alvarez, Shaffer & O'Brien, 2010a) asserts that school social workers do not frequently practice macro level practice in the form of capacity…

  3. An Internet Version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC-IV) : Correspondence of the ADHD Section With the Paper-and-Pencil Version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Mark-Peter; Serra, Marike; Minderaa, Rudolf Boudewijn; Hartman, Catharina Annette

    2009-01-01

    The authors recently developed an Internet version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children-Version 4 (DISC-IV), parent version (D. Shaffer, P. Fisher, C. P. Lucas, M. K. Dulcan, & M. E. Schwab-Stone, 2000), with the main purpose of using it at home without an interviewer. This offers many

  4. 76 FR 37111 - Environmental Impacts Statements; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... accordance with Section 309(a) of the Clean Air Act, EPA is required to make its comments on EISs issued by.... 20110195, Draft EIS, BOP, 00, Criminal Alien Requirement (CAR) 12 Procurement Project, To Award a Contract... County, CA, Contact: Allison Shaffer 760- 833-7104 The U.S. Department of Energy, has ADOPTED the U.S...

  5. University ESL Teachers' Socialization in School Workplace toward Teaching Culturally Diverse Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsiang-Ling

    2011-01-01

    Employing interpretive theory, this study investigated 331 university ESL teachers' socialization in language programs for international students. Looking beyond teacher preparatory education, in-service teachers' workplace experiences are essential to study because experience is instrumental in the shaping of belief systems (Wu and Shaffer,…

  6. The Dual-Factor Model of Mental Health in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, Beth

    2008-01-01

    In their article, Suldo and Shaffer (2008) join other researchers in proposing that subjective well-being might be a reliable, valid, and practical index of the positive dimensions of "health" in mental health. They appropriately indicate that, to date, there are only a few empirical tests of the relations that exist between the presence of…

  7. Differential Sandwich Theorems for some Subclasses of Analytic Functions Involving a Linear Operator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sivasubramanian

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available By making use of the familiar Carlson-Shaffer operator,the authors derive derive some subordination and superordination results for certain normalized analytic functions in the open unit disk. Relevant connections ofthe results, which are presented in this paper, with various other known results are also pointed out.

  8. 76 FR 77842 - Announcement of Funding Awards; Indian Community Development Block Grant Program; Fiscal Year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    ...), Dave Shaffer, Executive Director, 27740 Jefferson Ave, Temecula, CA 92590, (951) 760- 7390. Bay Mills.... Distribution System. Citizen Potawatomi Nation, Honorable 800,000 Microenterprise Microenterprise Project. John... Brule Sioux Tribe, Stuart 900,000 Housing Rehabilitation.... Rehabilitation of 18 Langdeau, Grants...

  9. Integrating Game-Based Learning Initiative: Increasing the Usage of Game-Based Learning within K-12 Classrooms through Professional Learning Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, André R.; Mayben, Robert; Boman, Terri

    2016-01-01

    In the past 15 to 20 years there has been an increased interest in the use of games for learning. A considerable amount of work has already been done by educational researchers and theorists (Gee, Squire, Malone, Lepper, Shaffer, etc.) to identify and to operationalize the native affordances of games that make them good for learning. Unfortunately…

  10. Student Voices: How Has Performing Shakespeare Helped You Appreciate His Work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almansouri, Orubba; Balian, Aram S.; Sawdy, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    In this article, three students share how performing in Shakespearean plays have helped them appreciate his work. Orubba Almansouri describes how acting out the play "Romeo and Juliet" allowed him to understand the whole story better. While rehearsing and performing "A Midsummer Night's Dream," Aram S. Balian became a true Shakespeare fan,…

  11. General Aviation Pilot and Aircraft Activity Survey. Triannual Summary Report 1990 Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    816-374-2160 Retail Sales Outlet, 8660 Cherry Lane, Laurel, MD 20707; Los Angeles Bookstore, Arco Plaza, Level (C), 505 South 301-953-7974. Order...RICO BERRY FIELD COMPOSITE SQUADRON GROUP 4 PUERTO RICO WING MT. JULIET, TENNESSEE PONCE, PUERTO RICO CLEVELAND COMPOSITE SQUADRON JUANA DIAZ HIGH

  12. 75 FR 29201 - Changes in Flood Elevation Determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... (09-05-1227P). Bulletin. County Administration, 151 4th Street Southeast, Rochester, MN 55904. Olmsted... 275246 1063). 05-1227P). 2, 2009; Post- Brede, Mayor, City of Bulletin. Rochester, 201 4th Street..., P.O. Box 413, Deadwood, SD 57732. Tennessee: Wilson (FEMA Docket No: City of Mt. Juliet June...

  13. The Dialogue of Disciplines: An Arts Approach to Shakespeare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashian, Kathleen Ryniker

    1996-01-01

    Describes using a "dialogue of disciplines", a teaching method which traces a particular theme across artistic disciplines, to present Shakespeare's play "Romeo and Juliet" in a comprehensive way. Suggests that exposing students to paintings, films, stage performances, and operas creates a multidimensional experience and encourages exploration of…

  14. Starting with Shakespeare: Successfully Introducing Shakespeare to Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Pauline; Daubert, Todd

    By immersing young learners in the life and times of Shakespeare and his characters, this book motivates students and helps them learn. It contains everything teachers need to introduce elementary students to four plays: "A Midsummer Night's Dream,""Macbeth,""Hamlet," and "Romeo and Juliet." For each play, there is a complete historical…

  15. Decision Making Activities for the Grade 9 English Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Barbara; And Others

    In order to incorporate the elements of personal decision making directly into a ninth grade English curriculum, the decision making lessons presented in this paper were written for literature commonly taught in junior high schools. The paper suggests activities for the following works: "Romeo and Juliet,""Flowers for Algernon,""The Martian…

  16. Who Are These People?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Tom; Austell, Jan

    1968-01-01

    Franco Zeffirelli's film "Romeo and Juliet" is appropriate for classroom study because of its relevance to today's youthful rebellion, to current social pressures, and to the generation gap. After viewing the film and seeing the images and moods of the performers, the students are better prepared to read the play imaginatively. (Numerous questions…

  17. Shakespeare among Schoolchildren: Approaches for the Secondary Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygiel, Mary Ann

    Making connections for teachers between Shakespeare and his historical context on the one hand and secondary students on the other, this book presents background information, commentary, resources, and classroom ideas to enliven students' encounters with Shakespeare. The book concentrates on "Romeo and Juliet,""Julius Caesar,""Macbeth," and…

  18. Professional Writing in the English Classroom: Literature-Based Professional Writing: An Oxymoron Whose Time Has Come

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newhouse, Kelley R.; Propper, Michele L.; Riedel, Ruth M.; Teitelzweig, Barbara S.

    2012-01-01

    An oxymoron is a simple contradiction, a juxtaposition of two inharmonious terms, such as "fiend angelical" in Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet." At first glance, literature and professional writing seem to be polar opposites; however, when one views them together, one can see unique, often interesting possibilities that add depth and richness to…

  19. Including Parents in the Fun: Sharing Literary Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciotti, Holly

    2001-01-01

    Investigates whether parent participation could improve student achievement in one of the author's ninth-grade sheltered English classes. Describes how parents wrote essays with their children, participated in a goal-setting conference, and took part in a literary correspondence discussing "Romeo and Juliet." Discusses the benefits for the…

  20. Mini-portfolio on the Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lea J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Seven articles offer ideas for teaching the arts. Topics include strategies for teaching "Romeo and Juliet," art projects geared to the needs of middle school students, a music listening club that involves parents, tips to help students write better, publishing student authors' work, an art project for at-risk students, and easing test-taking…