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Sample records for julian day calendar

  1. Verification of the Calendar Days of the Joseon Dynasty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ki-Won; Ahn, Young Sook; Mihn, Byeong-Hee

    2012-08-01

    Astronomical data making such as forming a calendar, period of day, determining the time of rising/setting of the sun and the onset of twilight are essential in our daily lives. Knowing the calendar day of the past is particularly crucial for studying the history of a clan or a nation. To verify previous studies in the calendar day of the Joseon dynasty (1392 -- 1910), we investigate the sexagenary cycle of the new moon day (i.e., the first day in a lunar month) by using sources such as results of the calculations using the Datong calendar (a Chinese Calendar of the Ming Dynasty) and the data of Baekjungryeok (a Perpetual Calendar; literally, a one hundred-year almanac). Compared with the study of Ahn et al., we find that as many as 17 sexagenary cycles show discrepancies. In the cases of nine discrepancies, we find that the sexagenary cycles of this study are identical to those of the almanacs at that time. In addition, we study five sexagenary cycles by using the historical accounts of Joseon Wangjo Sillok (Annals of the Joseon Dynasty), Seungjeongwon Ilgi (Daily Reports of Royal Secretariat), Chungung Ilgi (Logs of Crown Prince), and so forth. For the remaining discrepancies, we present historical literature supporting the results of this study. This study will greatly contribute to the identification of the lunisolar calendar days during the Joseon dynasty as the dates of the modern (i.e., Gregorian) calendar.

  2. When Will It Be ...?: U.S. Naval Observatory Sidereal Time and Julian Date Calculators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizek Frouard, Malynda R.; Lesniak, Michael V.; Bartlett, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    Sidereal time and Julian date are two values often used in observational astronomy that can be tedious to calculate. Fortunately, the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) has redesigned its on-line Sidereal Time and Julian Date (JD) calculators to provide data through an Application Programming Interface (API). This flexible interface returns dates and times in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) that can be incorporated into third-party websites or applications.Via the API, Sidereal Time can be obtained for any location on Earth for any date occurring in the current, previous, or subsequent year. Up to 9999 iterations of sidereal time data with intervals from 1 second to 1095 days can be generated, as long as the data doesn’t extend past the date limits. The API provides the Gregorian calendar date and time (in UT1), Greenwich Mean Sidereal Time, Greenwich Apparent Sidereal Time, Local Mean Sidereal Time, Local Apparent Sidereal Time, and the Equation of the Equinoxes.Julian Date can be converted to calendar date, either Julian or Gregorian as appropriate, for any date between JD 0 (January 1, 4713 BCE proleptic Julian) and JD 5373484 (December 31, 9999 CE Gregorian); the reverse calendar date to Julian Date conversion is also available. The calendar date and Julian Date are returned for all API requests; the day of the week is also returned for Julian Date to calendar date conversions.On-line documentation for using all USNO API-enabled calculators, including sample calls, is available (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/api.php).For those who prefer using traditional data input forms, Sidereal Time can still be accessed at http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/siderealtime.php, and the Julian Date Converter at http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/JulianDate.php.

  3. The relation of 300-day and 360-day years in the oldest Armenian calendars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broutian, G. H.

    2016-09-01

    As we know the two oldest Armenian calendars - the Haykian and Protohaykian calendars have different durations of year. The year in the Haykian calendar consists of 360 days, while the year of Protohaykian calendar has only 300 days. Parallel to the astronomical explanation of this difference another - "ideological" explanation is suggested. These two canonic durations of the year may be developed as a result of comparison of 30-day lunar month and the solar year on the basis of two different calculation systems. The idea of 300-day year was a result of Moon/Sun relation on the basis of decimal system. On the other hand the 360-day year idea was developed as a result of the same relation on the basis of duodecimal notation system. This also means that the conversion from Protohaykian to Haykian calendar must be caused by a serious cultural - religious conversion.

  4. Ancient Greek Calendars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Robert

    Greek festival calendars were in origin lunar, eventually being aligned with the sun through various lunisolar intercalary cycles. Each city-state had its own calendar, whose month names have some, little, or no similarity with those of other city-states. These names often reflect gods or festivals held in their honor in a given month, so there is an explicitly sacred character to the calendar. New Year's Day could also differ from one state to another, but generally began with the sighting of the first new moon after one of the four tropical points. Even the introduction of the Roman Julian calendar brought little uniformity to the eastern Greek calendars. The calendar is one of the elements which can assist in understanding the siting of Greek sacred structures.

  5. "Tonalism": Name, Soul, Destiny and Identity Determined by the 260-Day Calendar in Mesoamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Kirkhusmo Pharo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In various Mesoamerican cultures, i.e. civilisations of Middle America, a calendar name is part of the antroponym. Besides having conventional personal names, both human beings and deities carry day-names from the 260-day calendar. In addition, world ages or world periods, periods of the traditional 365-day calendar and the 52-year calendar as well as the cardinal directions of the quadripartite world were categorised by day-names of the 260-day calendar. Thus not only human and divine beings but also space and time received designations from this calendar. Moreover, this onomastic practice of giving personal names from day signs of the 260-day calendar - called "tonalism" (from Nahuatl - is related to the Mesoamerican concepts of destiny and to what is known in history of religions as the "freesoul". Consequently, this anthropnymic tradition provides identity to human, divine beings and spatial-temporal phenomena.

  6. 38 CFR 10.50 - Section 601 and section 603 payments made on first day of calendar quarter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 603 payments made on first day of calendar quarter. 10.50 Section 10.50 Pensions, Bonuses, and... section 603 payments made on first day of calendar quarter. Cash payments and the first installment of... Compensation Act, as amended, will be made as of the first day of the calendar quarter following the finding...

  7. Calendars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Grönvall, Erik

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses how calendars and time coordination can be used across social and organizational borders, bridging between work and non-work, and between family coordination and external collaborators. The paper moves beyond family on-line calendars towards coordination and collaboration wit...

  8. Brief Report: Two Day-Date Processing Methods in an Autistic Savant Calendar Calculator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Matteo; Iavarone, Alessandro; Santoro, Giovanna; Carlomagno, Sergio

    2016-03-01

    Special ability in computing the day of week for given dates was observed in a 24 year-old male (FB) diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. FB performed almost flawlessly (98.2%) both with past and future dates, over a span of 40 years. Response latency was slower as temporal remoteness of future dates increased. Within the future timespan, FB's performance was consistent with the active use of calendar regularities. On the contrary, within the past timespan (for which no remoteness effect was seen), his performance was mainly linked to memory retrieval of personal events. The case presented here complements the existent literature on calendar calculators, as, for first time, two distinct day-date processing styles are described in the same individual.

  9. The Four-Day School Calendar: A Comparative Study of Student Performance Indicators in a Colorado School District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Cheryl L.

    2014-01-01

    Because there was a gap in the literature about the nuances of a four-day school week, it was not known if there was a difference in performance indicators in a school calendar with Monday off compared to a school calendar with Friday off. The purpose of this comparative descriptive study was to determine if there was a difference in achievement…

  10. Information system of rice planting calendar based on ten-day (Dasarian) rainfall prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susandi, Armi; Tamamadin, Mamad; Djamal, Erizal; Las, Irsal

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes information system of rice planting calendar to help farmers in determining the time for rice planting. The information includes rainfall prediction in ten days (dasarian) scale overlaid to map of rice field to produce map of rice planting in village level. The rainfall prediction was produced by stochastic modeling using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Non-Linier Least Squares methods to fit the curve of function to the rainfall data. In this research, the Fourier series has been modified become non-linear function to follow the recent characteristics of rainfall that is non stationary. The results have been also validated in 4 steps, including R-Square, RMSE, R-Skill, and comparison with field data. The development of information system (cyber extension) provides information such as rainfall prediction, prediction of the planting time, and interactive space for farmers to respond to the information submitted. Interfaces for interactive response will be critical to the improvement of prediction accuracy of information, both rainfall and planting time. The method used to get this information system includes mapping on rice planting prediction, converting the format file, developing database system, developing website, and posting website. Because of this map was overlaid with the Google map, the map files must be converted to the .kml file format.

  11. Information system of rice planting calendar based on ten-day (Dasarian) rainfall prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susandi, Armi, E-mail: armi@meteo.itb.ac.id [Department of Meteorology, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Labtek XI Building floor 1, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Tamamadin, Mamad, E-mail: mamadtama@meteo.itb.ac.id [Laboratory of Applied Meteorology, Institut Teknologi Bandung Ged. Labtek XI lt. 1, Jalan Ganesa 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Djamal, Erizal, E-mail: erizal-jamal@yahoo.com [Center for Agricultural Technology Transfer Management, Ministry of Agriculture Jl. Salak No. 22 Bogor (Indonesia); Las, Irsal, E-mail: irsallas@yahoo.com [Indonesian Agroclimate and Hydrology Research Institute, Ministry of Agriculture Jl. Tentara Pelajar 1a Bogor 16111 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    This paper describes information system of rice planting calendar to help farmers in determining the time for rice planting. The information includes rainfall prediction in ten days (dasarian) scale overlaid to map of rice field to produce map of rice planting in village level. The rainfall prediction was produced by stochastic modeling using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) and Non-Linier Least Squares methods to fit the curve of function to the rainfall data. In this research, the Fourier series has been modified become non-linear function to follow the recent characteristics of rainfall that is non stationary. The results have been also validated in 4 steps, including R-Square, RMSE, R-Skill, and comparison with field data. The development of information system (cyber extension) provides information such as rainfall prediction, prediction of the planting time, and interactive space for farmers to respond to the information submitted. Interfaces for interactive response will be critical to the improvement of prediction accuracy of information, both rainfall and planting time. The method used to get this information system includes mapping on rice planting prediction, converting the format file, developing database system, developing website, and posting website. Because of this map was overlaid with the Google map, the map files must be converted to the .kml file format.

  12. When Will It Be …?: U.S. Naval Observatory Religious Calendar Computers Expanded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Chizek Frouard, Malynda; Ziegler, Cross; Lesniak, Michael V.

    2017-01-01

    Reflecting increasing sensitivity to differing religious practices, the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) has expanded its on-line calendar resources to compute additional religious dates for specific years via an Application Programming Interface (API). This flexible method now identifies Christian, Islamic, and Jewish events in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) that anyone can use.Selected Christian Observances (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/easter.php) returns dates of eight events for years after 1582 C.E. (A.D. 1582): Ash Wednesday, Palm Sunday, Good Friday, Easter, Ascension, Whit Sunday, Trinity Sunday, and the first Sunday of Advent. The determination of Easter, a moveable feast, uses the method of western Christian churches.Selected Islamic Observances (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/islamic.php) returns approximate Gregorian dates of three events for years after 1582 C.E. (A.H. 990) and Julian dates for 622-1582 C.E. (A.H. 1-990) along with the corresponding Islamic year (anno Hegirae). Ramadân, Shawwál, and the Islamic year begin at sunset on the preceding Gregorian or Julian date. For planning purposes, the determination of these dates uses a tabular calendar; in practice, observation of the appropriate waxing crescent Moon determines the actual date, which may vary.Selected Jewish Observances (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/passover.php) returns Gregorian dates of six events for years after 1582 C.E. (A.M. 5342) and Julian dates for the years 360-1582 C.E. (A.M. 4120-5342) along with the corresponding Jewish year (anno Mundi). Passover, Shavuot, Rosh Hashanah, Yom Kippur, and Hanukkah begin at sunset on the preceding Gregorian or Julian date.On-line documentation for using the API-enabled calendar computers, including sample calls, is available (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/api.php). The webpage also describes how to use the API with the Complete Sun and Moon Data for One Day, Phases of the Moon, Solar Eclipse Computer, Day and Night

  13. Julian Schwinger — Personal Recollections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Paul C.

    We're gathered here today to salute Julian Schwinger, a towering figure of the golden age of physics — and a kind and gentle human being. Even at our best universities, people with Julian's talent and his passion for discovery and perfection are rare — so rare that neither they nor the rest of us know how to take best advantage of their genius. The failure to find a happier solution to this dilemma in recent years has concerned many of us. It should not becloud the fact that over their lifetimes, few physicists, if any, have surmounted this impedance mismatch more effectively than Julian, conveying not only knowledge but lofty values and aspirations directly and indirectly to thousands of physicists…

  14. Astronomy and calendar reform at the curia of Pope Clement VI: a new source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothaft, C Philipp E

    2017-01-01

    The article introduces a previously unknown fourteenth-century treatise on computus and calendrical astronomy entitled Expositio kalendarii novi, whose author proposed elaborate solutions to the technical flaws inherent in the calendar used by the Roman Church. An analysis of verbal parallels to other contemporary works on the same topic makes it possible to establish that the Expositio was produced in the context of a calendar reform initiative led by Pope Clement VI in 1344/45 and that this anonymous text is probably identical to a 'great and laborious work' on the calendar that the monk Johannes de Termis prepared for the pope around this time. Its author strove to make an original contribution by extracting new astronomical parameters from both ancient and contemporary data, which made him arrive at an estimate of the length of the tropical year that was independent of the then-current Alfonsine Tables. With its suggestion to remove eleven days from the Julian calendar and to correct the calendar through modified leap-year rhythms and periodically adjusted sequences of lunar epacts, the proposal enshrined in the Expositio exhibits some remarkable similarities to the Gregorian reform of the calendar promulgated in 1582. Although its influence on the latter must remain a matter of speculation, the newly discovered text sheds a revealing light on the history of medieval calendar reform debates and on the mathematical sciences practiced at the Avignon court of Clement VI.

  15. Brief Report: Two Day-Date Processing Methods in an Autistic Savant Calendar Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Matteo; Iavarone, Alessandro; Santoro, Giovanna; Carlomagno, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Special ability in computing the day of week for given dates was observed in a 24 year-old male (FB) diagnosed with Asperger syndrome. FB performed almost flawlessly (98.2%) both with past and future dates, over a span of 40 years. Response latency was slower as temporal remoteness of future dates increased. Within the future timespan, FB's…

  16. Julian Meltzoff (1921-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Presents an obituary for Julian Meltzoff, who died on December 22, 2015, in his La Jolla, California home. Meltzoff was a major architect of modern clinical psychology. His innovative contributions in the arena of human service delivery, his empirical evaluations of the efficacy of psychotherapy, and his creative strategy for training clinical psychologists were truly ground breaking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. In Memory of Julian Schwinger

    CERN Document Server

    Rabinowitz, M

    1994-01-01

    Although he was the recipient of a Nobel Prize and despite the greatness of his accomplishments, Julian Schwinger is almost an unsung hero of our age . He is relatively unknown to the general population, even though in the physics community he was a renowned theoretician and teacher of physics. He shared the 1965 Nobel Prize in physics with Richard P. Feynman and Shin'ichiro Tomonaga for their development of Quantum Electrodynamics (QED). Of these three extraordinary physicists, and even of all the physicists that worked on QED, his work was the most rigorous and mathematically exacting.

  18. When Will It Be …?: U.S. Naval Observatory Calendar Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Chizek Frouard, Malynda; Lesniak, Michael V.

    2016-06-01

    Sensitivity to religious calendars is increasingly expected when planning activities. Consequently, the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) has redesigned its on-line calendar resources to allow the computation of select religious dates for specific years via an application programming interface (API). This flexible interface returns dates in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) that can be incorporated into third-party websites or applications. Currently, the services compute Christian, Islamic, and Jewish events.The “Dates of Ash Wednesday and Easter” service (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/easter.php) returns the dates of these two events for years after 1582 C.E. (1582 A.D.) The method of the western Christian churches is used to determined when Easter, a moveable feast, occurs.The “Dates of Islamic New Year and Ramadan” service (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/islamic.php) returns the approximate Gregorian dates of these two events for years after 1582 C.E. (990 A.H.) and Julian dates are computed for the years 622-1582 C.E. (1-990 A.H.). The appropriate year in the Islamic calendar (anno Hegira) is also provided. Each event begins at 6 P.M. or sunset on the preceding day. These events are computed using a tabular calendar for planning purposes; in practice, the actual event is determined by observation of the appropriate new Moon.The “First Day of Passover” service (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/passover.php) returns the Gregorian date corresponding to Nisan 15 for years after 1582 C.E. (5342 A.M.) and Julian dates are computed for the years 360-1582 C.E. (4120-5342 A.M.). The appropriate year in the Jewish calendar (anno Mundi) is also provided. Passover begins at 6 P.M. or sunset on the preceding day.On-line documentation for using the API-enabled calendar computers, including sample calls, is available (http://aa.usno.navy.mil/data/docs/api.php). The same web page also describes how to reach the Complete Sun and Moon Data for One Day, Phases of

  19. Study ethnomathematics of aboge (alif, rebo, wage) calendar as determinant of the great days of Islam and traditional ceremony in Cirebon Kasepuhan Palace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahrin, Muhammad Alfi; Turmudi, Puspita, Entit

    2016-02-01

    This research attempts to show about the relationship between mathematics and culture. Paradigm that emerged currently, that mathematics is an abstract concept and difficult, therefore mathematics is not favored by most students. In the reality, indirectly mathematics is present in a culture of a society. Ethnomathematics study is a study to examine how does a group of people in a particular culture understand, express, and use the concepts and practices of culture that depicted mathematically. This research was conducted in Cirebon precisely in Kasepuhan Palace, which was in RW 04, Kasepuhan village, Lemah Wungkuk district, Cirebon city, West Java. The focus of the study and research purposes was the application of aboge (alif rebo wage) calendar as the calculation of days and the calendar rules determine the time of days, great days of Islam and traditional ceremony in Kasepuhan Palace. Qualitative methods with the principles of ethnography such as studies in ethnomathematics i.e observation, interviews, documentation and fieldnotes were used in this research. The findings of this ethnomathematics study show that the determining great days of Islam and the days of palace traditional ceremony have a close relationship with the counts and principles in mathematics. This study provides recommendations that mathematics is closely related to culture due to ethnomathematics.

  20. Kokino Calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenev, G.

    2008-10-01

    In 2001, in the northeast part of Macedonia, a site of impressive dimensions and with remarkable contents was discovered. Archaeological excavations in the following years have shown that the site represents a huge mountain sanctuary with enormous amount of artefact dated in XIX century B.C. In unison, performed archaeo-astronomical analysis exposed the fact that this site encompasses all characteristics of an ancient observatory built 3900 years ago as a result of which the site was called Megalithic Observatory Kokino. As any similar observatory, Megalithic Observatory Kokino was used for development of a calendar, by utilization of which, life in the community of ancient farmers was organized. By the end of 2006 and at the beginning of 2007, specially crafted stone markers for measurement of lunar month were discovered. This fact revealed that people of that time living in the area of Central Balkan Peninsula were familiar with the 19 years lunar cycle, according to which they prepared lunar calendar, today known as Kokino Calendar. In the course of 2007, additional evidences found verified that on the territory of the ancient observatory there is a specially crafted observation post and four stone markers used for observation of the Full Moon rise on the east horizon in the night of its total eclipse. These stone markers marked the cycles of eclipses in periods of 54 years and 34 days.

  1. Julian Schwinger (1918-1994)

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, K A

    2006-01-01

    Julian Schwinger's influence on Twentieth Century science is profound and pervasive. Of course, he is most famous for his renormalization theory of quantum electrodynamics, for which he shared the Nobel Prize with Richard Feynman and Sin-itiro Tomonaga. But although this triumph was undoubtedly his most heroic accomplishment, his legacy lives on chiefly through subtle and elegant work in classical electrodynamics, quantum variational principles, proper-time methods, quantum anomalies, dynamical mass generation, partial symmetry, and more. Starting as just a boy, he rapidly became the pre-eminent nuclear physicist in the late 1930s, led the theoretical development of radar technology at MIT during World War II, and then, soon after the war, conquered quantum electrodynamics, and became the leading quantum field theorist for two decades, before taking a more iconoclastic route during his last quarter century.

  2. The day of the week when you were born in 700 ms: calendar computation in an Autistic savant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thioux, Marc; Stark, David E; Klaiman, Cheryl; Schultz, Robert T

    2006-10-01

    Some individuals are able to determine the weekday of a given date in a few seconds (finding for instance that June 12, 1900, was a Tuesday). This ability has fascinated scientists for many years because it is predominantly observed in people with limited intelligence and may appear very early in life. Exceptional visual memory, exceptional concentration abilities, or privileged access to lower levels of information not normally available through introspection have been advanced to explain such phenomena. In the present article, the authors show that a simple cognitive model can explain all aspects of the performance of Donny, a young autistic savant who is possibly the fastest and most accurate calendar prodigy ever described.

  3. Calendar Reform: Bob McClenon's Calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, R. C.

    2003-12-01

    The world's presently-used Gregorian calendar is extremely clumsy, because the Gregorian calendar repeats only after 400 years (Seidelman 1961), and therefore organizations, including the AAS, have to re-work their calendar each and every year. This work is totally unnecessary. I propose that the American Astronomical Society advocate the world-wide adoption of the CCC&T calendar, which is an adaptation of Bob McClenon's Calendar, a brilliant fix which results in the calendar being identical every year. This calendar is far superior to previously suggested reformed calendars, in that it does not break the cycle of the days of the week, ever! Pragmatic (and more than adequate) synchronization with the seasons is achieved by the introduction of an extra week-long ``month" every four or five years at the end of June; I propose that this seven-day month be called Newton. The target for adoption is 2006 Jan 1, and at the same time, universal use of universal time should be adopted, making the date and time identical everywhere on Earth. Time zones remain as ``hours of work" zones, EST for example becoming ``14 o'clock to 22 o'clock" for a ``nine-to-five" job. The economic benefit that astronomers could provide the world through shepherding this simple reform would easily and indeed more than repay all that the world has kindly spent on astronomical research. This work was supported by NASA's Maryland Space Grant Consortium. Seidelman, K. 1961, Explanatory Supplement to ``The Astronomical Ephemeris" and ``The American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac," (London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office), p. 407

  4. National Calendar-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedrovici, Vera; Svet, Maria; Matvei, Valeria; Madan, Ion; Perju, Elena; Sargun, Maria; Netida, Maria

    The calendar represents a few hundreds of biographies of scientists, artists and writers from everywhere, printed in chronological order and adjusted to their birthdays. A number of international and national holydays, including some refering to science are included in the Calendar. A great defect of the calendar is the introduction of the "International day of astrology" in the list of holydays. Another defect is the absence of the indication on the membership to the Communist Party for persons cited from the former Soviet Union.

  5. National Calendar-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedrovici, Vera; Svet, Maria; Matvei, Valeria; Perju, Elena; Sargun, Maria; Netida, Maria

    2009-10-01

    The calendar represents a few hundreds of biographies of scientists, artists and writers from everywhere, printed in chronological order and adjusted to their birthdays. A number of international and national holydays, including some refering to science are included in the Calendar. A great deffect of the Calendar is the introduction in the list of holydays of the "international day of astrology". Another defect is the absence of the indication of the membership to Communist Parties for persons cited from the former USSR and former Communist Countries.

  6. Ancient Persian Skywatching and Calendars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sołtysiak, Arkadiusz

    The peoples of Iran used lunisolar calendars until the early fifth century BCE when the 365-day calendar with 30 months and 5 epagomenal days was introduced. This calendar was not corrected to the actual length of the tropical year, and therefore, seasonal festivals gradually moved away from their seasons. Finally, around the turn of the fifth century CE, a partially successful calendar reform was undertaken, and the feasts were restored to their original seasons. In that time, Sasanian kings were interested in astrology, and some Greek and Hindu astrological texts were translated into Persian, but there is no evidence of indigenous contributions to skywatching.

  7. Inca Calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowski, Mariusz

    The ritual, central Inca calendar, adapted to the ecological, cultural, and ethnic realities of the Cuzco valley, was the basis of the imperial calendar, used for the administration of the Inca Empire. According to the main historical sources, it was composed of 12 synodic months calculated from new moon to new moon. The correlation of this cycle with the tropical year was achieved by the intercalation of an additional 13th month, every 2 or 3 years. Tom Zuidema's thesis about the existence of the "stellar lunar calendar" or "quipu-calendar" is also analyzed.

  8. Simplified metrics for the identification of the Madden-Julian oscillation in models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sperber, Kenneth R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kim, Daehyun [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)

    2012-07-01

    We propose simplified metrics to evaluate the fidelity with which the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) is simulated in climate models. These metrics are based on lag correlation analysis of principal component time series (PCs). The PCs are obtained by projecting simulated 20–100 day bandpass filtered daily outgoing longwave radiation onto the two leading empirical orthogonal functions of observed MJO variability. The simplified MJO metrics, the maximum positive correlation and time lag at which it occurs, provide consistent information relative to more complex diagnostics developed by the Madden–Julian Oscillation Working Group (CLIVAR MJOWG) and by Kim et al.

  9. An Appreciation of Berni Julian Alder

    CERN Document Server

    Hoover, William Graham

    2015-01-01

    Berni Julian Alder profoundly influenced my research career at the Livermore Laboratory and the Davis Campus' Teller Tech, beginning in 1962 and lasting for over fifty years. I very much appreciate the opportunity provided by his Ninetieth Birthday Celebration to review some of the many high spots along the way.

  10. The Mayan Long Count Calendar

    OpenAIRE

    Chanier, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The Maya were known for their astronomical proficiency. This is demonstrated in the Mayan codices where ritual practices were related to astronomical events/predictions. Whereas Mayan mathematics were based on a vigesimal system, they used a different base when dealing with long periods of time, the Long Count Calendar (LCC), composed of different Long Count Periods: the Tun of 360 days, the Katun of 7200 days and the Baktun of 144000 days. There were two other calendars used in addition to t...

  11. On Three'Types of Days'in Wheel of Time Calendar Suolangsangmu,Gelang%浅析时轮历中的“三种日”理论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    索郎桑姆; 格朗

    2014-01-01

    Wheel of time calendar is the core of Tibetan almanac,the theory of'three types of days"are the foundation of wheel of time calendar.From three aspects of solar days and solar days move-ment,space year and solar years movement,and lunar months and lunar movement,the article dis-cusses the Tibetan astronomy and almanac embodied in the theory of'three types of days',analyzes the embodied planetary movement rules represented by the sun and the moon.Based on the relationship of solar days,lunar month and space years,the article analyzes the ideas behind extra days,skip days and 13th months (intercalary ones)in Tibetan calendar.The combination of solar days and lunar days produce the unique structure of extra days and skip days in Tibetan calendar,and the accumulation of extra days and skip days bring about big and small months.The 13th month is caused by the combina-tion of space month and lunar month,the intercalary cycle is the 24th intercalary month of 65th year.%时轮历是藏族天文历算的核心部分,“三种日”理论则是时轮历的基础。从太阳日与太阳的周日视运动、宫年与太阳的周年视运动、太阴月与月亮视运动三个方面论述“三种日”理论所体现的藏族天文历算之天文观,分析该理论所体现的以太阳和月亮为典型代表的天体运动规律,根据太阳日、太阴月和宫年之间的关系分析藏历历法中重日、缺日和闰月的设置思想。太阳日与太阴日之间日序的相互配合产生了重日与缺日这种藏历中独有的结构,重日与缺日的积累便形成大小月份,闰月则是按宫月与太阴月的配合关系产生,闰章为65年24闰。

  12. Julian B. Rotter (1916-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Bonnie R

    2014-01-01

    One of the most influential psychologists of the 20th century, Julian B. Rotter, died at the age of 97 on January 6, 2014, at his home in Mansfield, Connecticut. Jules was born on October 22, 1916, in Brooklyn, New York, the third son of Jewish immigrant parents. As noted in the citation for his American Psychological Association (APA) Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions, "his pioneering social learning framework...transformed behavioral approaches to personality and clinical psychology. He integrated the concepts of expectancy and reinforcement and built an enduring early bridge between the psychology of learning and its diverse social, clinical, and personality applications. His seminal studies of the variable of internal versus external locus of control provided the foundation for years of prolific research on choice and perceived control in several disciplines...Julian Rotter, by his writing, teaching, and personal example,...profoundly changed theory and practice in the field" (American Psychologist, 1989, p. 625). He was devoted to his family and shared his insights, his empathy, his compassion, and his admirable social conscience with them, as he did with his myriad friends and students.

  13. OLEM Calendar Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes the Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) Calendar Information, which comprises three OLEM Calendars: the OLEM Calendar, the OLEM...

  14. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Madden Julian Oscillation index (MJO) is a dataset that allows evaluation of the strength and phase of the MJO during the dataset...

  15. Monitoring the Madden-Julian oscillation with geopotential height

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jeremy Cheuk-Hin; Qian, Weihong

    2017-09-01

    This paper examines the three-dimensional geopotential height structure of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) and proposes that the MJO convection signals can be well reflected by upper-tropospheric zonal anomalous height gradient (ZAHG, \

  16. Algorithm for Generating Train Calendar Texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel Greiner

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The article describes a possibility of generating train calendar text for the needs of compiling the annual timetable in the conditions of the Czech Republic. Based on the analysis of the types of texts of calendars that appear in various print outputs, a heuristic algorithm was designed to generate a text from a set of calendar days. The algorithm is a part of an application that also provides a tool to define the text of the calendar by using a mask of sub-periods and calendars to be displayed in them. The algorithm was tested on real data of the timetable. In most cases, the algorithm shows the same or better results than the previously used tools. In several cases, however, a better result can be obtained by the user. The described algorithm to generate the text of the calendar is a part of a program that is used for compiling the timetable for trains in the Czech Republic.

  17. Ancient bronze disks, decorations and calendars

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it was published that some ancient bronze disks could had been calendars, that is, that their decorations had this function. Here I am discussing an example, the disk of the Trundholm Sun Chariot, proposing a new interpretation of it, giving a calendar of 360 days. Some geometric diagrams concerning the decoration layout are also proposed.

  18. The Mayan Long Count Calendar

    CERN Document Server

    Chanier, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The Maya had a very elaborate and accurate calendar. First, the Mayan Long Count Calendar (LCC) was used to point historical events from a selected "beginning of time". It is also characterized by the existence of a religious month Tzolk'in of 260 days and a civic year Haab' of 365 days. The LCC is supposed to begin on 11 August -3114 BC known as the Goodman-Martinez-Thompson (GMT) correlation to the Gregorian calendar based on historical facts and end on 21 December 2012 corresponding to a period of approximately 5125 years or 13 Baktun. We propose here to explain the origin the 13 Baktun cycle, the Long Count Periods and the religious month Tzolk'in.

  19. An epistemology of facilitation: A Julian M�ller story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Elmo Pienaar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article furthered an epistemology of facilitation. It was created through bringing into focus broad movements in Julian M�ller�s theoretical academic development. Rather than explaining at length the epistemological concepts characterising M�ller�s theoretical development � rightly because of the importance of narrative in Julian M�ller�s work � the article sought to link a social psychological dimension of both M�ller and the author to these concepts. Resulting from M�ller�s work, the author regarded a narrative approach, social constructionism and postfoundationalism as important epistemological conversational partners in practical theological facilitation.

  20. Dating of Mayan Calendar using Long-periodic Astronomical Phenomena in Dresden Codex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohm, V.; Bohm, B.; Klokocnik, J.; Vondrak, J.; Kostelecky, J.

    2013-06-01

    The relationship between Mayan and our calendar is expressed by a coefficient known as `correlation' which is a number of days that we have to add to the Mayan Long Count date to get Julian Date used in astronomy. There is a surprisingly large uncertainty in the value of the correlation, yielding a shift between both calendars (and thus between the history of Maya and of our world) of typically several hundred years. There are more than 50 diverse values of the correlation, some of them derived from historical, other by astronomical data. We test here (among others) the well established Goodman-Martínez-Thompson correlation (GMT) based on historical data, and the Böhms' one (B&B) based on astronomical data decoded from the Dresden Codex (DC); this correlation differs by about +104 years from the GMT. In our previous works we used several astronomical phenomena as recorded in the DC for a check. We clearly demonstrated that (i) the GMT was not capable to predict these phenomena that really happened in nature and (ii) that the GMT predicts them on the days when they did not occur. The phenomena used till now in the test are, however, short-periodic and the test then may suffer from ambiguity. Therefore, we add long-periodic astronomical phenomena, decoded successfully from the DC, to the testing. These are (i) a synchrony of Venusian heliacal risings with the solar eclipses, (ii) a synchrony of Venus and Mars conjunctions with eclipses, (iii) conjunctions of Jupiter and Saturn repeated in a rare way, and (iv) a synchrony of synodic and sideric periods of Mercury with the tropical year. Based on our analysis, we find that the B&B correlation yields the best agreement with the astronomical phenomena observed by the Maya. Therefore, we recommend to reject the GMT and support the B&B correlation.

  1. Military-geographic evaluation of the Julian Alps area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonimir Bratun

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The Julian Alps have been of military significance since Roman times in a military geographic sense because of its valleys, mountain passes and lines of defence on mountain ridges. They became especially important in the 19th and 20th century. The largest mountain front in World War I was located there,and evidence of that front is still visible today. The border between Italy and Yugoslavia in the heart of the Julian Alps was clearly a line of demarcation along the Soča and Sava watersheds and was reinforced with fortification, obstacles and trenches. During the Cold War, there was an ideological line of demarcation along the western edge of the Julian Alps as well. Military strategy in that area included the use of military geographic approaches in both westerly and easterly directions. After the geopolitical changes of 1991, the Julian Alps no longer had same military geographic significance in terms of Slovenian national security. Today other military activities are more important: training under mountains conditions for NATO soldiers, non-commissioned and commissioned officers takes place in the Pokljuka region and on the Triglav mountain chain. Military facilities have been taken on significance in the terms of tourism as well.

  2. Solution of the Mayan Calendar Enigma

    CERN Document Server

    Chanier, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The Mayan Codices, bark-paper books from the Late Postclassic period (1300 to 1521 CE) contain many tables correlating ritual practices to astronomical cycles. This demonstrates the achievements of Mayan mathematics as applied to time measurements characterized by the use of a unique time reckoning system: the Mayan Calendar. Despite many myths, the origin of the Mayan Calendar and its connection to Mayan religion remains unknown, due to the few clues left for us by the Maya. In this study, we propose a solution to this enigma. A pseudo-astronomical calendar supernumber is calculated by computing the least common multiple of 8 canonical astronomical periods. The three major calendar cycles are shown to derive from this supernumber: the Calendar Round (the 260-day religious year Tzolk'in and the 365-day civil year Haab'), the Long Count Calendar (the 360-day Tun, the 7200-day Katun and the 144000-day Baktun) and the 3276-day Kawil-direction-color cycle. My calculations explain certain aspect of Mayan religion ...

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Madden-Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Chuck [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.

    2016-07-01

    Every 30–90 days during the Northern Hemisphere winter, the equatorial tropical atmosphere experiences pulses of extraordinarily strong deep convection and rainfall. This phenomenon is referred to as the Madden–Julian Oscillation, or MJO, named after the scientists who identified this cycle. The MJO significantly affects weather and rainfall patterns around the world (Zhang 2013). To improve predictions of the MJO—especially about how it forms and evolves throughout its lifecycle—an international group of scientists collected an unprecedented set of observations from the Indian Ocean and western Pacific region from October 2011 through March 2012 through several coordinated efforts. The coordinated field campaigns captured six distinct MJO cycles in the Indian Ocean. The rich set of observations capturing several MJO events from these efforts will be used for many years to study the physics of the MJO. Here we highlight early research results using data from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Madden-Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment (AMIE), sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility.

  4. Chinese Lunar Calendar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方陵生

    2005-01-01

    @@ Background and Concept The Chinese animal signs2 are a 12-year cycle used for dating the years. They represent a cyclical concept of time, rather than the Western linear concept of time. The Chinese Lunar Calendar is based on the cycles of the moon, and is constructed in a different fashion than the Western solar calendar3. In the Chinese calendar, the beginning of the year falls somewhere between late January and early February. The Chinese have adopted the Western calendar since 1911,but the lunar calendar is still used for festive occasions such as the Chinese New Year. Many Chinese calendars will print both the solar dates and the Chinese lunar dates.

  5. Greek and roman calendars

    CERN Document Server

    Hannah, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The smooth functioning of an ordered society depends on the possession of a means of regularising its activities over time. That means is a calendar, and its regularity is a function of how well it models the more or less regular movements of the celestial bodies - of the moon, the sun or the stars. Greek and Roman Calendars examines the ancient calendar as just such a time-piece, whose elements are readily described in astronomical and mathematical terms. The story of these calendars is one of a continuous struggle to maintain a correspondence with the regularity of the seasons and the sun, d

  6. THE HÑAHÑU CALENDAR. AN EPISTEMIC AND SEMANTIC ANALYSIS TO ESTABLISH ITS STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dämixi Geraldine Patrick-Encina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This research has been carried out within the framework of a larger, deeper study in course, regarding the conception of time-space order of two cultures of otomangue linguistic filiation: the Maya and the Hñahñu-Otomi. Two premises have been considered: first, that both civilizations participated in the structuring of the 260 and the 365-day cycles, and that they perpetuated the cycle of 260 days in a synchronic manner, in spite of their geographic separation; second, that the Nahua culture may have introduced certain changes to the Hñahñu calendar in order to give it a character of its own, and that such changes may have been the slight out-phase of the cycle and the selection of another date for the beginning of the year, which was previous to the Hñahñu start of the year. Then a comparative study between Mexica and Hñahñu year-bearers has been done, using as a calendric support the 260-maya cycle Tzolk’in identified throughout the author‟s research (Patrick, Manuscripts 1-4. Thus, the following aspects have been elucidated: the Hñahñu-otomi year is structured to follow-up the Moon within the time-frame of an oriented solar year; the cycle of 365 days begins on 29th March (Gregorian date; the day that names the year (or year bearer is number 359, that is, the penultimate day of the eighteenth twenty-day-month, called Ambuoendaxi in Huichapan Codex, which corresponds to 22nd March, the Spring Equinox; the tradition to celebrate Hñahñu „New Year‟ on 19th March in Mexico State may be explained in terms of the transcendence of the Julian calendar date; and the closing of 100 Anuixuii (52-year-cycles represented in a 100-bead necklace called thebe, most probably occurred in 2006-2007, in the year 1 Anqua or 1-Rabbit.

  7. Autistic Savant Calendar Calculators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patti, Paul J.

    This study identified 10 savants with developmental disabilities and an exceptional ability to calculate calendar dates. These "calendar calculators" were asked to demonstrate their abilities, and their strategies were analyzed. The study found that the ability to calculate dates into the past or future varied widely among these…

  8. Ocean feedback to pulses of the Madden–Julian Oscillation in the equatorial Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moum, James N.; Pujiana, Kandaga; Lien, Ren-Chieh; Smyth, William D.

    2016-01-01

    Dynamical understanding of the Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO) has been elusive, and predictive capabilities therefore limited. New measurements of the ocean's response to the intense surface winds and cooling by two successive MJO pulses, separated by several weeks, show persistent ocean currents and subsurface mixing after pulse passage, thereby reducing ocean heat energy available for later pulses by an amount significantly greater than via atmospheric surface cooling alone. This suggests that thermal mixing in the upper ocean from a particular pulse might affect the amplitude of the following pulse. Here we test this hypothesis by comparing 18 pulse pairs, each separated by <55 days, measured over a 33-year period. We find a significant tendency for weak (strong) pulses, associated with low (high) cooling rates, to be followed by stronger (weaker) pulses. We therefore propose that the ocean introduces a memory effect into the MJO, whereby each event is governed in part by the previous event. PMID:27759016

  9. Julian Schwinger the physicist, the teacher, and the man

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    In the post-quantum-mechanics era, few physicists, if any, have matched Julian Schwinger in contributions to and influence on the development of physics. A deep and provocative thinker, Schwinger left his indelible mark on all areas of theoretical physics; an eloquent lecturer and immensely successful mentor, he was gentle, intensely private, and known for being "modest about everything except his physics". This book is a collection of talks in memory of him by some of his contemporaries and his former students: A Klein, F Dyson, B DeWitt, W Kohn, D Saxon, P C Martin, K Johnson, S Deser, R Fin

  10. 朱利安·赫胥黎%Julian Huxley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦玉洁

    2011-01-01

    @@ 朱利安·赫胥黎(Julian Huxley),1887年6月生于英国伦敦市,1975年2月去世,是英网著名的动物学家、哲学家、教育家和作家.他曾担任联合国教育科学文化组织第一届总干事,也是世界自然基金会(WWF)创始成员之一.作为生物学家,他提倡自然选择,是现代综合进化论领军人物.

  11. In search of lost time: Javanese and Balinese understandings of the Indic calendar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Proudfoot

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of calendars is best approached as a technical subject that has cultural and political dimensions. The functions of calendars – to enumerate days, months and years – can be achieved in a variety of ways. In broad terms Muslims expect their calendars to predict the phases of the moon, Christians expect their calendars to match the seasons of the year, and Hindus and Chinese expect their calendars to do both. These expectations can be met by different technical means, so that even among those who subscribe to a common set of expectations, there are invariably differences in the working calendars.

  12. Review of: Julian Rivers, The Law of Organized Religions. Between Establishment and Secularism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinding, Niels Valdemar

    2011-01-01

    Julian Rivers, The Law of Organized Religions. Between Establishment and Secularism, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. ISBN: 978-0-19-922610-8 (Hardback), pp. li + 368.......Julian Rivers, The Law of Organized Religions. Between Establishment and Secularism, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010. ISBN: 978-0-19-922610-8 (Hardback), pp. li + 368....

  13. Obituary: Thomas Julian Ahrens (1936-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanloz, Raymond; Asimow, Paul

    2011-12-01

    -bearing minerals, and applying the results to understanding the formation of oceans and atmospheres; conducting the first dynamic-compression experiments on molten silicates, with applications to characterizing the maximum depth of volcanism on terrestrial planets, as well as the crystallization sequence of magma oceans; performing the first thermodynamic calculations delineating the impact-shock conditions for melting and vaporization of planetary materials; carrying out the first smoothed particle hydrodynamic calculations to investigate energy partitioning upon impact in self-gravitating planetary systems; and conducting the first quantitative tensile failure studies for brittle media, relating crack-density to elastic velocity deficits and the onset of damage. Tom was also Co-Investigator on the NASA Cosmic Dust Analyzer Experiment, and the NASA/ESA Cassini Mission to Saturn. Honors included the AGU Hess Medal, Geological Society of America Day Medal, Meteoritical Society Barringer Medal, APS Shock Compression of Condensed Matter' Topical Groups's Duvall Medal and AAAS Newcomb-Cleveland Prize. He had been President of AGU's Tectonophysics Section, Editor of Journal of Geophysical Research, founding member of both the Mineral and Rock Physics and Study of Earth's Deep Interior focus groups, and Editor - more like key driving force - for AGU's Handbook of Physical Constants. He was a fellow of the AGU, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Association for the Advancement of Science, and Geochemical Society; and member of the U.S. National Academy of Sciences, as well as Foreign Associate of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Main-belt asteroid 4739 Tomahrens (1985 TH1) was named after him. Tom made it clear, however, that it was his students (more than 30), research associates (15 or more) and many collaborators who were the real mark of success. No doubt driven by the need to sustain a major, expensive research facility, as well as to satisfy an inner drive, he

  14. Herpetofaunal richness of San Julian Universitary Farm, Patulul, Suchitepequez, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Guerra-Centeno

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The herpetofaunal richness of San Julian Universitary Farm (FUSJ, in Patulul, Suchitepequez, Guatemala, was investigated using three methods: (1 Capture/sighting of specimens, (2 social inquiry and (3 desk research. The field work was distributed over a 10 year period (2003-2013 at a rate of six fieldwork sessions each year. A 4.5 km long transect extending through the agricultural landscape of the farm was run repeatedly. Each fieldwork session included diurnal and nocturnal travels. The accumulated search time was 420 hr-transect. The equivalent to 337.5 of accumulated miles were traveled, including elevations between 1490 and 1833 feet above sea level. Three former hunters were interviewed and asked to identify species they think are present at the FUSJ. Published data were reviewed to determine which species were expected to occur in San Julian. Two lists (amphibians andreptiles totaling 97 species (including 95 expected, 38 found and 2 not expected was generated. The quality and significance of our data is discussed.

  15. Reconstructing the Tengger calendar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Proudfoot

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The survival of an Indic calendar among the Tengger people of the Brama highlands in east Java opens a window on Java’s calendar history. Its hybrid form reflects accommodations between this non-Muslim Javanese group and the increasingly dominant Muslim Javanese culture. Reconstruction is challenging because of this hybridity, because of inconsistencies in practice, and because the historical evidence is sketchy and often difficult to interpret.

  16. On the origin of the different Mayan Calendars

    OpenAIRE

    Chanier, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The Maya were known for their astronomical proficiency. This is demonstrated in the Mayan codices where ritual practices were related to astronomical events/predictions. Whereas Mayan mathematics were based on a vigesimal system, they used a different base when dealing with long periods of time, the Long Count Calendar (LCC), composed of different Long Count Periods: the Tun of 360 days, the Katun of 7200 days and the Baktun of 144000 days. There were two other calendars used in addition to t...

  17. Calendars and Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Over the widest possible range of human cultures, calendars serve to synchronize events, to arrange events chronologically, to provide a temporal framework for referencing and enacting events, and to determine durations (time intervals) between events. They are typically, although not exclusively, linked to one or more astronomical cycles such as the phase cycle of the moon, the seasonal cycle of appearances and disappearances of stars and asterisms, and the seasonal movement of the position of sunrise or sunset to and fro along the horizon. Cultural diversity, together with the fact that the principal astronomical cycles do not fit neatly together, has led different communities to create an extraordinary range of calendars fitted to particular situations and social needs, often showing remarkable ingenuity. This brief survey, which cross-references many other articles in the Handbook, begins by exploring the nature and purpose of calendars in broad terms before proceeding to examine some of the general characteristics of different types of calendar. The next section identifies some of the theoretical and methodological issues facing those who attempt to reconstruct elements of prehistoric calendars from material evidence alone. The article finishes with some remarks concerning calendrical evolution and development.

  18. Bronze Inscription Calendar and Western Zhou Kings' Reigns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张长寿; 莫润先

    2003-01-01

    In the inscriptions of Western Zhou bronzes there are quantities of calendrical data recording years, months and days. Of them are those completely indicating the year of king's reign, the moon, the lunar phase, and the day designated by the Heavenly Stems and Earthly Branches system. These records are of great significance to studying the Western Zhou calendar, establishing the bronze inscription calendar, and identifying the reigning years of the Western Zhou kings.

  19. Madden-Julian Oscillation impacts on tropical African precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitchik, Benjamin F.

    2017-02-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the dominant mode of sub-seasonal climate variability in the global tropics. As such it represents an opportunity for intra-seasonal rainfall prediction and, perhaps, for explaining dynamics that underlie longer term variability and trends. This opportunity is of substantial interest for tropical Africa, where rainfall variability has significant impacts on agriculture, energy, and natural ecosystems. The objective of this review paper is to inventory and assess the state of knowledge of MJO influence on African rainfall. A number of studies have identified statistical links between MJO and sub-seasonal rainfall variability in West, East, and Southern Africa. The proposed mechanisms to explain this influence differ by region and by season, and they often involve multiscale interactions between local precipitation processes and MJO-associated atmospheric dynamics. Dynamically-based forecast systems have some skill in predicting MJO evolution to time horizons of 3-4 weeks, and some can capture teleconnections to Africa. On longer time scales, there is evidence that MJO activity both modulates and is modulated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation and the Indian Ocean Dipole. The implications of these interactions for MJO connections to Africa require further research, as does the potential for trends in MJO behavior and impacts on Africa under global climate change.

  20. Nonlinear traveling waves for the skeleton of the Madden-Julian oscillation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shengqian

    2015-01-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the dominant component of intraseasonal (30-90 days) variability in the tropical atmosphere. Here, traveling wave solutions are presented for the MJO skeleton model of Majda and Stechmann. The model is a system of nonlinear partial differential equations that describe the evolution of the tropical atmosphere on planetary (10,000-40,000 km) spatial scales. The nonlinear traveling waves come in four types, corresponding to the four types of linear wave solutions, one of which has the properties of the MJO. In the MJO traveling wave, the convective activity has a pulse-like shape, with a narrow region of enhanced convection and a wide region of suppressed convection. Furthermore, an amplitude-dependent dispersion relation is derived, and it shows that the nonlinear MJO has a lower frequency and slower propagation speed than the linear MJO. By taking the small-amplitude limit, an analytic formula is also derived for the dispersion relation of linear waves. To derive all of t...

  1. A concise review of the Iranian calendar

    CERN Document Server

    Heydari-Malayeri, M

    2004-01-01

    We present a general description of the Iranian calendar and Nowruz, which starts at the precise instant when the Sun coincides with the vernal equinox. Although the paper aims at the basic astronomical elements of the calendar, historical aspects are not ignored. Using the ephemeris provided by the French Institut de Mecanique Celeste et de Calcul des Ephemerides (IMCCE) for the period A.D. -4000 to +2500, we discuss the various definitions of the year and show that the Iranian calendar is based upon the vernal-equinox year and not on the ``tropical year'' of 365.2422 days formulated by researchers in the field of celestial mechanics. Neglecting the short-term fluctuations, the mean length of the Iranian year at the present epoch is 365.2424 solar days, corresponding to the mean interval between two successive passages of the Sun through the vernal equinox. There is now a widely spread confusion between the "tropical" and vernal-equinox years, leading to the erroneous value of 365.2422 days often given for t...

  2. Using Calendars to Teach Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric A. Kincanon

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the use of calendar construction as an activity for 5th through 8th graders to reinforce science and mathematics concepts. The fundamental cyclic nature of many processes makes it possible to posit alternatives to the modern calendar. Students, in constructing their own calendars, will better appreciate the scientific basis of the modern calendar as well as the cyclic nature of the processes considered in the construction of alternatives. This enhances STEM skills by requiring the students to apply creative mathematical and scientific solutions to a real world problem: tracking cyclic time.

  3. A Mechanism Denial Study on the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Sik Kang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO mechanism-denial experiments is performed using an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM. Daily climatological seasonal cycles of i surface latent heat flux, ii net radiative heating rate, and iii surface wind stress are obtained from a control simulation and prescribed in place of the normal interactive computations of these fields in order to turn off the i wind-induced surface heat exchange (WISHE, ii cloud-radiation interaction (CRI, and iii frictional wave-CISK (FWC mechanisms, respectively. Dual and triple mechanism denial experiments are also conducted by switching off multiple mechanisms together. The influence of each mechanism is assessed by comparing experiments with that mechanism turned off to those in which it is not. CRI and WISHE are both found to be important to the simulated MJO amplitude and propagation speed, while FWC has weaker and less systematic effects. The MJO is weakened when CRI is turned off, but strengthened when WISHE is turned off, indicating that CRI amplifies the MJO in the control simulation while WISHE weakens it. The negative influence of WISHE is shown to result from simulated phase relationships between surface winds, surface fluxes and convection which differ significantly from those found in observations, and thus is not interpreted as evidence against a positive role for WISHE in the development and maintenance of the observed MJO. The positive influence of CRI in the model is consistent with a strong simulated relationship between daily grid-point column-integrated radiative and convective heating; the mean ratio of the latter to the former exceeds 0.2 for rain rates less than 14 mm d-1. CRI is also shown to suppress an excessive excitation of the convectively coupled Kelvin wave so that the amplitude and frequency of the MJO is maintained.

  4. Memory Revisited in Julian Barnes's The Sense of an Ending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricel Oró Piqueras

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An accumulation of years brings with it an accumulation of experiences. The revision of such experiences usually becomes more recurrent after retirement, a transition time from one period of life to another and, as such, a time in which we, human beings, have a tendency to take stock of our lives. This is actually one of the main issues present in Julian Barnes's last novel The Sense of an Ending (2011. When the main protagonist, a retired man quite comfortable and contented with his present life, receives an unexpected inheritance from the mother of a girlfriend from his university years, he is forced to track down a part of his life that he had left at the back of his mind a long time ago. As he explains his story, the protagonist and narrator of the novel raises a number of questions related to the quality and function of memory as one gets into old age. He experiments the unreliability of memory and questions to what extent memory is constructed through the remembered emotions that invaded him over that episode of his life rather than through the events as they actually took place. On the other hand, the act of revisiting and revising that specific episode, brings with it feelings of guilt and remorse as the protagonist realises that his past acts were not as noble as he remembered them to be. However, these acts are part of the past and they cannot be changed; thus, another question that the novel raises is how to account for those actions of which one does not feel proud and, more importantly, how to manage those bad memories as one gets older

  5. The Madden-Julian Oscillation in NCEP Coupled Model Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanqiu Wang Kyong-Hwan Seo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study documents a detailed analysis on the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO simulated by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP using the Global Forecast System (GFS model version 2003 coupled with the Climate Forecast System model (CFS consisting of the 2003 version of GFS and the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL Modular Ocean Model V.3 (MOM3. The analyses are based upon a 21-year simulation of AMIP-type with GFS and CMIP-type with CFS. It is found that air-sea coupling in CFS is shown to improve the coherence between convection and large-scale circulation associated with the MJO. The too fast propagation of convection from the Indian Ocean to the maritime continents and the western Pacific in GFS is improved (slowed down in CFS. Both GFS and CFS produce too strong intraseasonal convective heating and circulation anomalies in the central-eastern Pacific; further, the air-sea coupling in CFS enhances this unrealistic feature. The simulated mean slow phase speed of east ward propagating low-wavenumber components shown in the wavenumber-frequency spectra is due to the slow propagation in the central-eastern Pacific in both GFS and CFS. Errors in model climatology may have some effect upon the simulated MJO and two possible influences are: (i CFS fails to simulate the westerlies over maritime continents and western Pacific areas, resulting in an unrealistic representation of surface latent heat flux associated with the MJO; and (ii vertical easterly wind shear from the Indian Ocean to the western Pacific in CFS is much weaker than that in the observation and in GFS, which may adversely affect the eastward propagation of the simulated MJO.

  6. Headache diaries and calendars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torelli, Paola; Jensen, Rigmor

    2010-01-01

    Headache is one of the most common types of pain and, in the absence of biological markers, headache diagnosis depends only on information obtained from clinical interviews and physical and neurological examinations. Headache diaries make it possible to record prospectively the characteristics...... of every attack and the use of headache calendars is indicated for evaluating the time pattern of headache, identifying aggravating factors, and evaluating the efficacy of preventive treatment. This may reduce the recall bias and increase accuracy in the description. The use of diagnostic headache diaries...

  7. Stratigraphy of Julian and Tuvalian Substage in the Oslica at Muljava Area (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevo Dozet

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The Julian and Tuvalian lithologic column in the Oslica area starts with dolomitic breccias with limonitic groundmass and with a bauxite giving evidence of areal expose on the boundary between Cordevolian and Julian. Afterwards, precepitation of carbonate rocks followed. In the lithological interval where the limestone breccias predominate, oncolitic horizons are most characteristic. The Carnian sedimentary succession in the Oslica is terminated by a dolomite with intercalations of marls, bedded micritic limestones and a darkgrey dolomite with a roundish disintegration. The lithological composition and sedimentological characteristics of the succession indicate an origin in the littoral environment.

  8. April Fool's Day

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄家财

    2005-01-01

    Unlike most of the other non-foolish holidays, the history of April Fool's Day, sometimes called All Fool's Day that can be pinpointed on the calendar. Some believe it sort of evolved simultaneously (同时地) in several cultures,started from celebrations involving the first day of spring.

  9. Archaeoastronomy and Calendar Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2016-02-01

    The use of astronomy for collective purposes, both religious and political, is apparent in the earliest astronomical records, from the evidence for Palaeolithic lunar calendars to megalithic monuments and Mesopotamian celestial-omen reports. This paper will consider the application of the heavens to the organisation of the ‘Cosmic State’, the human polity modelled on the assumption of a close relationship between society on the one hand and planetary and stellar patterns on the other. I will also examine the foundation of Baghdad within the tradition of celestial town planning and argue that the city may be seen as a ‘talisman’, designed to connect heaven to Earth and ensure peace, stability and political success by harmonising time and space.

  10. Calculation of the shangyuan jinian elapsed-year-since--grand-epoch of the kaixi calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. X.

    2007-01-01

    Gauss C.F. (1777-1855) pointed out in his Disquisitiones Arithmeticae (1801) that linear congruences came from the problems of calendars: ``This usage arose in the problem of chronology when we seek to determine what Julian year it is whose indiction, golden number, and solar cycle are given.'' The Problem of Zhili Yanji (Design for a Calendar by Means of the Sexagenary Cycle) in Qin Jiushao's Shushu Jiuzhang ( Mathematical Treatise in Nine Sections ) (A.D. 1247) recorded the design development of the Kaixi Calendar (1207-1251) which was the unique existent material recorded during this period of more than 1000 years when the algorithm of Shangyuan Jinian Elapsed-Year-since--Grand-Epoch used by ancient and medieval Chinese calendarists until A.D. 1280. It is devoted to restituting the full calculation of this data by analysising original thought on concept about linear congruences for the conditions of the Grand-Epoch, the cycle consonant principle, the concept of the Qiyuan Solar-period, the reason for the Ruyuansui Entry-of-Solar-period, the Dayan method and the counting process for the Yuansu Number-of-Solar-period.

  11. Da teoria da embalagem à transparência total de Julian Assange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA, Juremir Machado da

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the radical assumption of the supremacy of pack compared to packed. Relates this hyper-real possibility with the role of Julian Assange and his Wikileaks to overcome a journalism based on control of the information delivery - broadcast content - and, paradoxically, increasingly subjected to the logic of appearance (packaging and image.

  12. Impacts of the Madden-Julian oscillation on Australian rainfall and circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wheeler, M.C.; Hendon, H.H.; Cleland, S.; Meinke, H.B.; Donald, A.

    2009-01-01

    Impacts of the Madden¿Julian oscillation (MJO) on Australian rainfall and circulation are examined during all four seasons. The authors examine circulation anomalies and a number of different rainfall metrics, each composited contemporaneously for eight MJO phases derived from the real-time multivar

  13. Prediction of the Madden-Julian oscillation with the POAMA dynamical prediction system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Harun A.; Hendon, Harry H.; Wheeler, Matthew C.; Alves, Oscar

    2011-02-01

    Predictions of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) are assessed using a 10-member ensemble of hindcasts from POAMA, the Australian Bureau of Meteorology coupled ocean-atmosphere seasonal prediction system. The ensemble of hindcasts was initialised from observed atmosphere and ocean initial conditions on the first of each month during 1980-2006. The MJO is diagnosed using the Wheeler-Hendon Real-time Multivariate MJO (RMM) index, which involves projection of daily data onto the leading pair of eigenmodes from an analysis of zonal winds at 200 and 850 hPa and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) averaged about the equator. Forecasts of the two component (RMM1 and RMM2) index are quantitatively compared with observed behaviour derived from NCEP reanalyses and satellite OLR using the bivariate correlation skill, root-mean-square error (RMSE), and measures of the MJO amplitude and phase error. Comparison is also made with a simple vector autoregressive (VAR) prediction model of RMM as a benchmark. Using the full hindcast set, we find that the MJO can be predicted with the POAMA ensemble out to about 21 days as measured by the bivariate correlation exceeding 0.5 and the bivariate RMSE remaining below ~1.4 (which is the value for a climatological forecast). The VAR model, by comparison, drops to a correlation of 0.5 by about 12 days. The prediction limit from POAMA increases by less than 2 days for times when the MJO has large initial amplitude, and has little sensitivity to the initial phase of the MJO. The VAR model, on the other hand, shows a somewhat larger increase in skill for times of strong MJO variability and has greater sensitivity to initial phase, with lower skill for times when MJO convection is developing in the Indian Ocean. The sensitivity to season is, however, greater for POAMA, with maximum skill occurring in the December-January-February season and minimum skill in June-July-August. Examination of the MJO amplitudes shows that individual POAMA members

  14. Precursor Environmental Conditions Associated with the Termination of Madden-Julian Oscillation Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachnik, J. P.; Waliser, D. E.; Majda, A.

    2014-12-01

    Current generations of global climate models continue to struggle with simulating many of the observed features of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) and suffer from low skill regarding initiation forecasts. While recent work has focused on those mechanisms thought to be important for MJO initiation, fewer studies have examined the large-scale conditions associated with quiescent periods of the MJO and the decay of existing events. Understanding these mechanisms may provide a valuable context toward improving simulations of MJO initiation and propagation in climate and operational weather forecast models. This study presents an analysis of the precursor environmental conditions related to the termination of MJO events. A simple climatology is created using a real-time MJO monitoring index, documenting the locations and frequencies of MJO decay. Lead-lag composites of several atmospheric variables including temperature, moisture, and intraseasonal wind anomalies are generated from three reanalyses. Long-term, lower tropospheric moisture deficits over the local domain best identify terminating events over the Indian Ocean, with a northward shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and corresponding lead times as much as 20 days prior to MJO decay. Statistically significant differences are also identified more than 10 days in advance of MJO termination events in the west Pacific, though the vertical velocity and moisture anomalies are more symmetric about the equator. We also present results for those MJOs that terminate over the maritime continent. Unlike the Indian Ocean and west Pacific, the likelihood of an MJO to cross the maritime continent appears related to its own intensity, rather than the upstream environmental conditions, with only the strongest MJOs propagating into the warm pool region. Finally, a budget analysis is performed on the three-dimensional moisture advection equation in order to better elucidate what time-scales and physical

  15. Brief Report: Error Pattern in an Autistic Savant Calendar Calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavarone, Alessandro; Patruno, Maria; Galeone, Filomena; Chieffi, Sergio; Carlomagno, Sergio

    2007-01-01

    Special ability in computing the day of the week from given dates was observed in a 18 years old male, L.E., suffering from autism. Neuropsychological testing revealed severe deficits in all cognitive domains and poor explicit knowledge of calendar structure. The subject scored well above the chance level on dates of the past and future decades.…

  16. Processes controlling the surface temperature signature of the Madden–Julian Oscillation in the thermocline ridge of the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, A.; Vialard, J.; Lengaigne, M.; Gnanaseelan, C.; McCreary, J.P.; PraveenKumar, B.

    During boreal winter, there is a prominent maximum of intraseasonal sea-surface temperature (SST) variability associated with the Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO) along a Thermocline Ridge located in the southwestern Indian Ocean (5 degrees S–10...

  17. Implementation of Calendar Chart in CICS Mainframes for Business Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanthi Adilakshmi Visali

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a business solution to implement Calendar Chart in Mainframes for analysing the progress of a Bank by giving detailed report of number of new accounts created for the bank. A calendar chart is a visualization used to show activity over the course of a long span of time, such as months or years. They're best used when you want to illustrate how some quantity varies depending on the day of the week. This chart gives us the numerals so as to easily analyse the trends over time.

  18. Marking time the epic quest to invent the perfect calendar

    CERN Document Server

    Steel, Duncan

    2001-01-01

    ""If you lie awake worrying about the overnight transition from December 31, 1 b.c., to January 1, a.d. 1 (there is no year zero), then you will enjoy Duncan Steel's Marking Time.""--American Scientist ""No book could serve as a better guide to the cumulative invention that defines the imaginary threshold to the new millennium.""--Booklist A Fascinating March through History and the Evolution of the Modern-Day Calendar . . . In this vivid, fast-moving narrative, you'll discover the surprising story of how our modern calendar came about and how it has changed dramatically through the years.

  19. The ancient Armenian calendars' connection with the celestial bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broutian, G. H.

    2015-07-01

    The two oldest Armenian calendars - the Haykian and Protohaykian calendars were connected with observations of celestial bodies. Particularly since 2341 B.C. the heliacal rising of the first star of Orion was used to determine the day of the main holiday - Nawasard. Before that the observations of the same star were used in Protohaykian calendar to determine both the beginning and the end of the year. The year was determined as the duration of visibility of the star Betelgeuse. The year started with the heliacal rising of this star and ended with its heliacal setting. The remaining duration was considered to be out of the year. There are also evidences in Armenian medieval literary sources concerning the observations of heliacal rising and setting of Pleiades. An attempt was made to substantiate that the large symbol carved on the rock platform of the small hill in Metzamor also concerns to the Pleiades and shows the direction of heliacal rising of Pleiades.

  20. Pawukon: from incest, calendar, to horoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawan Admiranto, Agustinus

    2016-11-01

    Javanese calendar has several cycles, i.e. 5 days (pasaran), 6 days (paringkelan), 7 days (week), 8 days (padangon and padewan), 30 days (month), and 365 days (year). There is another 210- day cycle caled pawukon which divided into 30 part caled wuku. This cycle originated from an incest tale about a king named Prabu Watugunung which married his mother named Dewi Sinta and his aunt named Dewi Landep. In this marriage they had 27 sons and all of them are called wukus. In this tale it was told that this incestuous relationship caused some havoc in the world and the gods decided to kill this family. After some struggle, all of them are killed and then the gods brought them up to paradise one by one starting from Dewi Sinta and ended with Prabu Watugunung. This ascencion needs 30 weeks (210 days) because to be ascended one wuku had to wait for 7 days, and after one cycle is finished the cycle starts all over again. The establishment of a cycle of pawukon is regarded as an effort to create a cosmos out of chaos (incestuous relationship), and furthermore pawukon is used as a kind of horoscope to determine one"s fate in the future. It is because the cosmos is regarded as a clockwork in which each element of this clockwork works in a predetermined fashion.

  1. What It Feels Like To Hear Voices: Fond Memories of Julian Jaynes

    CERN Document Server

    Harnad, Stevan

    2008-01-01

    Julian Jaynes's profound humanitarian convictions not only prevented him from going to war, but would have prevented him from ever kicking a dog. Yet according to his theory, not only are language-less dogs unconscious, but so too were the speaking/hearing Greeks in the Bicameral Era, when they heard gods' voices telling them what to do rather than thinking for themselves. I argue that to be conscious is to be able to feel, and that all mammals (and probably lower vertebrates and invertebrates too) feel, hence are conscious. Julian Jaynes's brilliant analysis of our concepts of consciousness nevertheless keeps inspiring ever more inquiry and insights into the age-old mind/body problem and its relation to cognition and language.

  2. Fray Julian Garces. The Defender of the Indians (1527-1542

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Salazar Andreu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Julian Garcés was the first bishop of Puebla de los Ángeles, playing a fundamental role in the founding of the new city, in a territory where the indigenous population was considerable and where the evangelization was just beginning. Despite his advanced age, fray Julian Garcés managed not only to found one of the most important cities of New Spain, but assisting in the protection of the natives, against the abuses of greedy conquerors. This research aims to show, by the historical and legal analysis and documentary technique, part of the work of this eminent prelate, who not only shape the city of Puebla de los Ángeles, but the protection of indigenous natives of the new world.

  3. Head of all years astronomy and calendars at Qumran in their ancient context

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Dov, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Covering a wide array of sources from ancient Mesopotamia to the Dead Sea Scrolls, this volume offers a different perspective on Jewish apocalyptic time-reckoning during the Second Temple period, based on a calendar year of 364 days.

  4. Paleogeographic significance of Upper Triassic basinal succession of the Tamar Valley, northern Julian Alps (Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gale Luka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Julian Alps (western Slovenia structurally belong to the eastern Southern Alps. The Upper Triassic succession mostly consists of shallow water platform carbonates of the Dolomia Principale-Dachstein Limestone system and a deep water succession of the Slovenian Basin outcropping in the southern foothills of the Julian Alps. In addition to the Slovenian Basin, a few other intraplatform basins were present, but they remain poorly researched and virtually ignored in the existing paleogeographic reconstructions of the eastern Southern Alps. Herein, we describe a deepening-upward succession from the Tamar Valley (north-western Slovenia, belonging to the Upper Triassic Tarvisio Basin. The lower, Julian-Tuvalian part of the section comprises peritidal to shallow subtidal carbonates (Conzen Dolomite and Portella Dolomite, and an intermediate carbonate-siliciclastic unit, reflecting increased terrigenous input and storm-influenced deposition (Julian-lowermost Tuvalian shallow-water marlstone and marly limestone of the Tor Formation. Above the drowning unconformity at the top of the Portella Dolomite, Tuvalian well-bedded dolomite with claystone intercalations follows (Carnitza Formation. The latter gradually passes into the uppermost Tuvalian–lowermost Rhaetian bedded dolomite with chert and slump breccias, deposited on a slope and/or at the toe-of-slope (Bača Dolomite. Finally, basinal thin-bedded bituminous limestone and marlstone of Rhaetian age follow (Frauenkogel Formation. The upper part of the Frauenkogel Formation contains meter-scale platform-derived limestone blocks, which are signs of platform progradation. The Tarvisio Basin may have extended as far as the present Santo Stefano di Cadore area, representing a notable paleogeographic unit at the western Neotethys margin.

  5. MJO (Madden-Julian Oscillation) Analysis of the Chlorophyll-a Distribution in Western Waters Bengkulu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, Y. D.; Fitrianti, N.; Hartoko, A.; Anggoro, S.; Zainuri, M.

    2017-02-01

    The global phenomenon Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is one of the dominant oscillation in the equatorial region of the Indian Ocean that oscillates between 30-60 days and experience the process of convection movement from west to east. MJO has a correlation of high intensity rainfall of the area in its path. During his journey eastward, the MJO is influenced by the position of the sun. When the sun in the equatorial MJO moves straight east. Meanwhile, when the position of the sun in the south of the equator, MJO shifted slightly to the south of the equator, known as the propagation of the south-east (south-eastern propagation). When the position of the sun is in the north of the equator, MJO shifted slightly to the north of the equator, known as the propagation of the north-east (north-east of propagation). Waters west of Bengkulu has a huge potential in the fisheries sector, which is situated overlooking the Indian Ocean. The phenomenon MJO influence on rainfall, sea surface temperature, and the concentration of chlorophyll-a. This study aims to look at the temporal distribution of sea surface temperature and chlorophyll-a and decide how MJO relationship with SST and precipitation conditions and increasing the amount of chlorophyll during the phase of the MJO in Bengkulu waters. The dataset used is data of chlorophyll-a which download in oceancolor.gfsc.nasa.gov , sea surface temperature data is used is a model of Kaplan Extended V2, RMM1 index data and RMM2 on www.bom.gov.au and rainfall data of Bengkulu region. The method used is descriptive statistical methods, Conditional Probability and logistics regression. From the above explanation can be said that there is a relationship between the incidence of MJO by the number of chlorophyll-a. Odds the addition of chlorophyll-a have a linear relationship with the duration of the incident MJO in Bengkulu, odds increase the amount of chlorophyll-a in Bengkulu region reaches a threshold value of 0.5, it means that the

  6. Influence of Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on Rainfall Variability over West Africa at Intraseasonal Timescale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niang, C.

    2015-12-01

    Intraseasonal variability of rainfall over West Africa plays a significant role in the economy of the region and is highly linked to agriculture and water resources. This research study aims to investigate the relationship between Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) and rainfall over West Africa during the boreal summer in the the state-of-the-art Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP) type simulations performed by Atmosphere General Circulation Models (GCMs) forced with prescribed Sea Surface Temperature (SST). It aims to determine the impact of MJO on rainfall and convection over West Africa and identify the dynamical processes which are involved in the state-of-the-art climate simulations. The simulations show in general good skills in capturing its main characteristics as well as its influence on rainfall over West Africa. On the global scale, most models simulated an eastward spatio-temporal propagation of enhanced and suppressed convection similar to the observed. However, over West Africa the MJO signal is weak in few of the models although there is a good coherence in the eastward propagation. The influence on rainfall is well captured in both Sahel and Guinea regions thereby adequately producing the transition between positive and negative rainfall anomalies through the different phases as seen in the observation. Furthermore, the results show that strong active convective phase is clearly associated with the African Easterly Jet (AEJ) but the weak convective phase is associated with a much weaker AEJ particularly over coastal Ghana. In assessing the mechanisms which are involved in the above impacts the convectively equatorial coupled waves (CCEW) are analysed separately. The analysis of the longitudinal propagation of zonal wind at 850hPa and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) shows that the CCEW are very weak and their extention are very limited beyong West African region. It was found that the westward coupled equatorial Rossby waves are needed to

  7. An Investigation of the Calendar Calculation Ability of a Chinese Calendar Savant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Eric D. F.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A Chinese mentally retarded calendar savant (age 19) was evaluated for his exceptional proficiency in calendar calculation including converting the Gregorian calendar to the Chinese calendar. Results did not support hypotheses of use of eidetic imagery, high speed calculation, rote memorization, or keying-off (anchoring) strategies. (Author/DB)

  8. 7 CFR 1221.3 - Calendar year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calendar year. 1221.3 Section 1221.3 Agriculture... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Definitions § 1221.3 Calendar year. Calendar year means the 12-month period from January 1 through December 31. ...

  9. Maya Calendars in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cynthia E.; Rehm, Megan A.; Catepillán, Ximena

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a lesson in which least common multiples helps students not only develop a perspective on an ancient culture but also draw on the cultural background of classmates. The Maya calendar received a lot of attention in the years leading up to December 21, 2012, because of the mythological end of "creation." Co-author…

  10. Multireligious, Multicultural, and Multiethnic Calendar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korra, Herb, Comp.

    This guide features materials concerning ethnic and religious groups and the annual dates important to those groups. Specifically, the guide contains an index of religious holidays; a list of the historical dates important to Buddhism, Confucianism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism; and a calendar that lists, by month, cultural and…

  11. Maya Calendars in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Cynthia E.; Rehm, Megan A.; Catepillán, Ximena

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a lesson in which least common multiples helps students not only develop a perspective on an ancient culture but also draw on the cultural background of classmates. The Maya calendar received a lot of attention in the years leading up to December 21, 2012, because of the mythological end of "creation." Co-author…

  12. Multireligious, Multicultural, and Multiethnic Calendar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korra, Herb, Comp.

    This guide features materials concerning ethnic and religious groups and the annual dates important to those groups. Specifically, the guide contains an index of religious holidays; a list of the historical dates important to Buddhism, Confucianism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism; and a calendar that lists, by month, cultural and…

  13. Calendar anomalies in the Ukrainian stock market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guglielmo Maria Caporale

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a comprehensive investigation of calendar anomalies in the Ukrainian stock market. It employs various statistical techniques (average analysis, Student’s t-test, ANOVA, the Kruskal-Wallis test, and regression analysis with dummy variables and a trading simulation approach to test for the presence of the following anomalies: day-of-the-week effect; turn-of-the-month effect; turn-of-the-year effect; month-of-the-year effect; January effect; holiday effect; Halloween effect. The results suggest that in general calendar anomalies are not present in the Ukrainian stock market, but there are a few exceptions, i.e. the turn-of-the-year and Halloween effect for the PFTS index, and the month-of-the-year effect for UX futures. However, the trading simulation analysis shows that only trading strategies based on the turn-of-the-year effect for the PFTS index and the month-of-the-year effect for the UX futures can generate exploitable profit opportunities that can be interpreted as evidence against market efficiency.

  14. A calendar savant with episodic memory impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Ingrid R; Berryhill, Marian E; Drowos, David B; Brown, Lawrence; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2010-06-01

    Patients with memory disorders have severely restricted learning and memory. For instance, patients with anterograde amnesia can learn motor procedures and retain some restricted ability to learn new words and factual information. However, such learning is inflexible and frequently inaccessible to conscious awareness. Here we present a case of patient AC596, a 25-year-old male with severe episodic memory impairments, presumably due to anoxia during a preterm birth. In contrast to his poor episodic memory, he exhibits savant-like memory for calendar information that can be flexibly accessed by day, month, and year cues. He also has the ability to recollect the exact date of a wide range of personal experiences over the past 20 years. The patient appears to supplement his generally poor episodic memory by using memorized calendar information as a retrieval cue for autobiographical events. These findings indicate that islands of preserved memory functioning, such as a highly developed semantic memory system, can exist in individuals with severely impaired episodic memory systems. In this particular case, our patient's memory for dates far outstripped that of normal individuals and served as a keen retrieval cue, allowing him to access information that was otherwise unavailable.

  15. Folk Calendars in the Balkan Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolev, Dimiter

    Folk calendars are a good source for studying the knowledge and rituals of peoples from distant epochs. The turbulent history of the cultures in the Balkan Peninsula leads to a mixture of calendar traditions - different calendar types and naming systems of the calendar units (months and weekdays). Despite the differences, they share a common astronomical basis and the seasonal structure is of fundamental importance (i.e., dividing the year into two economic seasons - warm and cold). The Old Bulgarian 12-year calendar is also mentioned briefly.

  16. Adjusting for calendar effects of real retail trade turnover time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Arnerić

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuations in economic activity are often influenced by calendar-based various factors. Such factors are non-working (non-trading days, leap years, public holidays and the like. Most economic series are observed on a monthly or quarterly basis, but months (aggregated into quarters are not comparable due to the different number of working and non-working days (different number of Mondays, Tuesdays, etc.. If the calendar effects are not properly adjusted, the identification of the ARIMA model for a given time series might not be correct, and the quality of seasonal adjustment is poor. An inappropriate calendar adjustment can generate false signals and negatively affect interpretation of adjusted data, which is particularly important for time series of retail sales and industrial productions. However, there is no general or unique procedure for correcting calendar effects in a pre-adjustment process of a time series. Therefore, this paper compares various regression models using alternative explanatory variables that take into account calendar effects and applied them to the time series of real retail trade turnover (RRT in Croatia (monthly data observed from January 2001 to December 2013. The paper seeks to define a new explanatory variable (a regressor with time varying ratio between the average number of working days and the average number of non-working days providing the most accurate correction of a RRT time series influenced by calendar effects. In addition, the assumption is that Saturdays and Sundays are working days of the week.

  17. Time and the French revolution the Republican calendar, 1789-year XIV

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The French Republican Calendar was perhaps the boldest of all the reforms undertaken in Revolutionary France. Introduced in 1793 and used until 1806, the Calendar not only reformed the weeks and months of the year, but decimalised the hours of the day and dated the year from the beginning of the French Republic. This book not only provides a history of the calendar, but places it in the context of eighteenth-century time-consciousness, arguing that the French were adept at working within several systems of time-keeping, whether that of the Church, civil society, or the rhythms of the seasons.

  18. Get all the official CERN holidays automatically added to your CERN mailbox calendar

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Mail Services

    2013-01-01

    A new tool has been created that makes it easy to check the official CERN holidays. These holidays will appear automatically in your calendar. Currently, to check the official CERN holidays, you had to consult either the CERN website or EDH. Now you can see these holidays in your CERN calendar together with absences, meetings and other events. To take advantage of this feature: add yourself as member of the e-group “holidays-to-calendar” here. You can also use this link. Your calendar will be updated the very next day.

  19. Calendars and years astronomy and time in the ancient near east

    CERN Document Server

    Steele, John M

    2007-01-01

    Dates form the backbone of written history. But where do these dates come from? Many different calendars were used in the ancient world. Some of these calendars were based upon observations or calculations of regular astronomical phenomena, such as the first sighting of the new moon crescent that defined the beginning of the month in many calendars, while others incorporated schematic simplifications of these phenomena, such as the 360-day year used in early Mesopotamian administrative practices in order to simplify accounting procedures. Historians frequently use handbooks and tables for conv

  20. Electromagnetic Radiation : Variational Methods, Waveguides and Accelerators Including seminal papers of Julian Schwinger

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, Kimball A

    2006-01-01

    This is a graduate level textbook on the theory of electromagnetic radiation and its application to waveguides, transmission lines, accelerator physics and synchrotron radiation. It has grown out of lectures and manuscripts by Julian Schwinger prepared during the war at MIT's Radiation Laboratory, updated with material developed by Schwinger at UCLA in the 1970s and 1980s, and by Milton at the University of Oklahoma since 1994. The book includes a great number of straightforward and challenging exercises and problems. It is addressed to students in physics, electrical engineering, and applied mathematics seeking a thorough introduction to electromagnetism with emphasis on radiation theory and its applications.

  1. Simulated National Identity and Ascendant Hyperreality in Julian Barnes’s England, England

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Abootalebi H.; Niazi N.

    2015-01-01

    The paper sets out to analyze Julian Barnes’s novel England, England (1998) in the light of Jean Baudrillard’s concepts of simulation and hyperreality. According to Baudrillard, what we experience in today’s world is a simulation of reality superseded by signs and images, and therefore we are living in a hyperreal world. Barnes’s book offers a representative sample of hyperreal world in which Martha, the protagonist, finds herself troubled. Although initially she is impressed by the glamour o...

  2. A Spanish Bishop Remembers the Future: Oral Traditions and Purgatory in Julian of Toledo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy P. Stork

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Stork considers Bishop Julian of Toledo and his seventh-century creation of one of the most influential works on Purgatory, the _Prognosticon Futuri Saeculi_. Enormously popular in Western Europe, it provided a convenient compendium of source material used by preachers and theologians for centuries. Though the work itself consists of citations from Patristic authors, Julian’s preface and the titles to each section reveal how, in a sort of spiritual “convivium” with his friend Idalius, he initially composed the book from memory. Surviving manuscripts show how the text was studied and transmitted in early monastic school settings.

  3. Sustainable mobility in Slovenian Julian Alps = Trajnostna mobilnost v slovenskem delu Julijskih Alp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Ogrin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some mountainous areas, especially tourist areas, are facing traffic loads that exceed thecarrying capacity and bring problems to local residents, visitors, public services, etc. Trafficproblems can also cause a decrease of popularity of the tourist site and a decrease oftourist income; therefore, in some Alpine areas in Slovenia, measures have begun to betaken to decrease traffic loads, and to support measures of sustainable mobility. This articledeals with such measures and plans that have been taken in the Julian Alps of Slovenia todecrease the negative traffic impacts of tourism mobility in the municipalities of KranjskaGora, Bohinj and Bovec.

  4. Traffic control: nursing practice calendar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Linda; Cheesebro, Kathy; Nagra, Erica; Neff, Alaina

    2013-01-01

    Educating nurses on the multitude of new and updated best practices, changes in regulatory standards, new equipment, and enhanced technology creates an "information traffic jam." Multiple practice changes occurring simultaneously pose challenges for nurses to retain information to practice safely and effectively. An absence of coordination between various nursing and allied health teaching initiatives compounds this problem. A nursing practice calendar was developed to facilitate the prioritization, communication, and education of hospital-wide initiatives affecting nursing practice.

  5. Origins Rock Art and Calendar in Armenia and Anania Shirakatsi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokhatyan, Karen

    2014-10-01

    A review on the origin of rock art and calendars in Armenia, as well as Anania Shirakatsi's views are given. Astronomy and calendar, formation of the constellations, types of calendars, the Armenian ancient calendar, Armenian Hayk/Orion constellation and corresponding mythological heroes, and further phases of the Armenian calendar are discussed.

  6. Calendar effect on phase study in paleoclimate transient simulation with orbital forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Guang-Shan [Chinese Academy of Sciences, SKLLQG, Institute of Earth Environment, Xi' an (China); University of Wisconsin, Center for Climate Research, Madison, WI (United States); Kutzbach, J.E.; Gallimore, R.; Liu, Zhengyu [University of Wisconsin, Center for Climate Research, Madison, WI (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Several studies have shown that the use of different calendars in paleoclimate simulations can cause artificial phase shifts on insolation forcing and climatic responses. However, these important calendar corrections are still often neglected. In this paper, the phase shifts at the precession band is quantitatively assessed by converting the model data of the transient GCM climate simulation of Kutzbach et al. (Clim Dyn 30:567-579, 2008) from the ''fixed-day'' calendar to the ''fixed-angular'' calendar with a new and efficient approach. We find that insolation has a big phase shift in September-October-November (SON) when the vernal equinox (VE) is fixed to March 21. At high latitude, the phase bias is up to 60 (about 3650 years). The insolation phase bias in SON in Southern Hemisphere (SH) is especially important because it can influence the timing of the SH summer monsoon response due to the large heat capacity of ocean. The calendar correction has minor effect ({+-}2 ) on the phase relationships between forcing and precipitation responses of the six global summer monsoons studied in Kutzbach et al. (2008). After correcting the calendar effect, especial on SH ocean temperature, the new phase wheel results are more similar for both hemispheres. The results suggest that the calendar effect should be corrected before discussing the dynamics between orbital forcing and climatic responses in phase studies of transient simulations. (orig.)

  7. Folk Astronomy and Calendars in Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varisco, Daniel Martin

    A rich folk tradition of star lore evolved in the southwestern corner of the Arabian Peninsula, especially during the Islamic era. Some of this lore was recorded in Yemeni Arabic texts, especially during the 13th and 14th centuries. Among the calendars in use are solar, lunar, and stellar varieties. The most significant folk calendars are the system of agricultural marker stars, often correlated with the 28 lunar stations, and the Pleiades conjunction calendar.

  8. Cloud-Radiative Driving of the Madden-Julian Oscillation as Seen by the A-Train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Genio, Anthony; Chen, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    Cloud and water vapor radiative heating anomalies associated with convection may be an effective source of moist static energy driving the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). In this paper five years of radiative heating profiles derived from CloudSat radar and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation data are analyzed to document radiative heating anomalies during the MJO. Atmospheric shortwave absorption and surface longwave radiation anomalies are of opposite sign and 10-20% as large as top-of-atmosphere outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) anomalies, confirming that OLR provides a useful estimate of the total column radiative heating anomaly. Positive anomalies generally peak about one week before the MJO peak and are smallest over the Indian Ocean. Anomalies over the Maritime Continent are strongest, and coincident with the MJO peak. Shortwave heating profile anomalies are about half as large as longwave anomalies in the active region of the MJO but generally of opposite sign; thus shortwave heating damps the longwave destabilization of the lower troposphere. The exception is the onset phase of the MJO, where shortwave and longwave heating anomalies due to thin cirrus are both positive in the upper troposphere and exert a stabilizing influence. Specific humidity anomalies in the middle troposphere reach 0.5 g kg(exp. -1), but the associated clear sky heating anomaly is very small. Radiative enhancement of column moist static energy becomes significant about 10 days before the MJO peak, when precipitation anomalies are still increasing, and then remains high after the MJO peak after precipitation has begun to decline.

  9. Analysis of the sediments of the Julian Adame Alatorre dam by the INAA; Analisis de sedimentos de la presa Julian Adame Alatorre por la tecnica de AANI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva, J.E.; Lugo, J.F.; Mireles, F.; Quirino, L.L.; Davila, J.I.; Pinedo, J.L.; Rios, C. [UAZ, Cipres 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98068 Zacatecas (Mexico); Miller, W.H. [Nuclear Science and Engineering Institute, E2433 Engineering Building East, University of Missouri-Columbia, MO 65211 (United States)]. e-mail: jeolivag@yahoo.com.mx

    2003-07-01

    Its were taken eight samples of sediment of the Julian Adame Alatorre dam located in the Villanueva municipality, in the State of Zacatecas, Mexico; with the end of determining the presence of elements of anthropogenic origin, as well as the concentration of the same ones. It was used the Instrumental neutron activation analysis (AANI) with a flow of thermal neutrons of 8 x 10{sup 13} and 5 x 10{sup 13} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. With the purpose of determining the concentration of these elements at level of traces; finding presence of 32 elements among which its were find elements in greater concentrations and others at level of traces. Of these 32 elements, five of anthropogenic origin were identified which its were: Cr, Co, Zn, As and Mn; but that whose concentration is very low, in comparison with the one reported in other places of the world. In this work there are presented the obtained results of the elementary analysis of this samples. (Author)

  10. Is Julian Assange an International Version of Daniel Ellsberg and WikiLeaks the Modern Equivalent of the Pentagon Papers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freivogel, William H.

    2011-01-01

    History has placed the stamp of approval on the publication of the Pentagon Papers, the top-secret history of the Vietnam War. If WikiLeaks editor-in-chief Julian Assange is another Daniel Ellsberg, then it is possible the website's disclosures will be viewed over time as similarly in the public interest. A classroom discussion on the release of…

  11. 78 FR 37792 - Mario Julian Martinez-Bernache, Inmate Number #95749-279, CI Big Spring, Corrections Institution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-24

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Mario Julian Martinez-Bernache, Inmate Number 95749-279, CI Big Spring, Corrections Institution, 2001 Rickabaugh Drive, Big Spring, TX 79720; Order Denying Export Privileges On March... this provision may be for a period of up to 10 years from the date of the conviction. 15 CFR...

  12. Is Julian Assange an International Version of Daniel Ellsberg and WikiLeaks the Modern Equivalent of the Pentagon Papers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freivogel, William H.

    2011-01-01

    History has placed the stamp of approval on the publication of the Pentagon Papers, the top-secret history of the Vietnam War. If WikiLeaks editor-in-chief Julian Assange is another Daniel Ellsberg, then it is possible the website's disclosures will be viewed over time as similarly in the public interest. A classroom discussion on the release of…

  13. 76 FR 24496 - Reimbursement Rates for Calendar Year 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... Rate Calendar Year 2011 Lower 48 States 443 Alaska 756 Outpatient Surgery Rate (Medicare) Established Medicare rates for freestanding Ambulatory Surgery Centers. Effective Date for Calendar Year 2011...

  14. The development of Iranian calendar: historical and astronomical foundations

    CERN Document Server

    Akrami, Musa

    2011-01-01

    The official Iranian calendar is a solar one that both the length and the first day of its year are based not on convention, but on two natural / solar factors: a) the moment of coincidence of the centre of the Sun and the vernal equinox in apparent revolution of the Sun around the Earth (i.e. the transition moment); and b) the time length between two successive apparent passages of the center of the Sun through that point. These factors give this calendar the chance that 1) its beginning is the beginning of natural/solar year, 2) its length is the length of solar year, and 3) the length of its months is very close to the time of the transition of the Sun across twelve signs of the Zodiac from Farvardin/Aries to Esfand/Pisces. In this paper it would be shown that a) these facts have their own historical backgrounds, and b) up-to-date computations, being based on choosing the tropical year (i.e. 365.24219879 days) as the length of the calendar year, give the best possible intercalation with its specific system...

  15. Retrospective data collection using event history calendars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyn, Kristy K; Belli, Robert F

    2002-01-01

    Event history calendars are used to collect retrospective data about events and life transitions over short and long periods of time. Event history calendars are highly structured, but flexible, approaches to interviewing respondents about past events that use their own past experiences as cues to remembering. Event history calendars incorporate autobiographical memory retrieval mechanisms to assist respondents in reconstructing past events and experiences accurately and completely. A sample event history calendar and experiences from an ongoing study of adolescent risk behavior are described to illustrate event history calendar methodology application in nursing research. Event history calendar design, recording, interviewing, and interviewer training descriptions are included. Event history calendars have been used extensively for retrospective data collection of occurrence, timing, and sequencing of a variety of life events in population studies, psychology, and sociology research, but not in nursing research. Because event history calendars improve recollection of complex sequences of personal events, they would be ideal for retrospective data collection in quantitative and qualitative nursing studies. Nursing expertise in history-taking make this a natural method of choice for retrospective data collection and as a means of stimulating communication during interviewing.

  16. Integrating multiple calendars using tau ZAMAN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Urgun, B; Dyreson, C. E.

    2007-01-01

    Programmers world-wide are interested in developing applications that can be used internationally. Part of the internationalization effort is the ability to engineer applications to use dates and times that conform to local calendars yet can inter-operate with dates and times in other calendars...

  17. Templo Mayor, Tenochtitlan - Calendar and Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo Trejo, Jesús

    The Templo Mayor of Tenochtitlan was the principal symbol of political power and religious control of the Mexicas. Its orientation was chosen according to ancestral calendrical traditions that considered the Mesoamerican calendar as a sacred concern. The solar alignments incorporated into this emblematic building symbolized moments that divided the solar year according to basic properties of the Mesoamerican calendar.

  18. The lost Roman calendars of ancient Macedonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, E.; Mantarakis, P.

    2006-08-01

    As a result of the conquests of Alexander the Great, the lunisolar Macedonian calendar became the most widely circulated among all the lunisolar Greek calendars. However, despite its spread, two Roman calendars, generally unknown in the scientific community, were developed and used inside Macedonia itself during the Roman occupation of Greece. The older calendar used the so-called ‘Macedonian year’. This system started in 148 BC to emphasize the importance of the victory of the Roman general Quintus Caecilius Metellus Macedonicus against Pseudo-Philippus Andriscus, King of Macedonia. The newer calendrical system, which absorbed the older system, used the ‘Augustian or respectable year’ bearing its name from Octavius Augustus; its starting point was the date of the catalytic victory of Octavius over Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra at Actium (31 BC). The solar Octavian calendar survived until the sixth or seventh century in the Macedonian Territory.

  19. Calendar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This afternoon, the Cultural Appreciation Conference of Taihu Snow Brand was held by Suzhou Baoying Co., Ltd., in Suzhou Silk Museum. The company, located in Wujiang, also signed a contract with the Art Institute of Suzhou University to build the industrialization base of design achievements. Government leaders of Suzhou City attended the ceremony.

  20. Calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    MAY 2004 GARP's 3rd Credit & Counterparty Risk Summit, London, UK 21-23 May 2004 Andreas Simou (andreas.simou@garp.com), +44 (0)20 7626 9301, www.garp.com/events/3rdcred IMA Workshop 9: Financial Data Analysis and Applications, University of Minnesota, MN, USA 24-28 May 2004 www.ima.umn.edu/complex/spring/c9.html Global Derivatives & Risk Management 2004, NH Eurobuilding, Madrid, Spain 25-28 May 2004 Aden Watkins, ICBI (awatkins@iirltd.co.uk), +44 (0)20 7915 5198, www.icbi-uk.com/globalderivatives/ WEHIA'04 9th Workshop on Economics and Heterogeneous Interacting Agents, Kyodai-Kaikan, Kyoto, Japan 27-29 May 2004 www.nda.ac.jp/cs/AI/wehia04/ JUNE 2004 Semimartingale Theory and Practice in Finance, Pacific Institute for the Mathematical Sciences, Vancouver, BC, Canada 5-10 June 2004 www.pims.math.ca/birs/workshops/2004/04w5032/ MC2QMC 2004 International Conference on Monte Carlo and Quasi-Monte Carlo Methods, Juan-les-Pins, Côte d'Azur, France 7-10 June 2004 Monique Simonetti (Monique.Simonetti@sophia.inria.fr), +33 4 92 38 78 64, www-sop.inria.fr/omega/MC2QMC2004/ GAIM'04 10th Annual Global Alternative Investment Management Forum, The Beaulieu Centre, Lausanne, Switzerland 8-11 June 2004 +44 (0)20 7915 5103, www.icbi-uk.com/gaim/ 3rd Annual Conference Ri$k Management 2004, Fairmont Hotel, Dubai, United Arab Emirates 12-15 June 2004 www.iirme.com/risk/ 10th Annual Risk USA Congress, Boston, MA, USA 21-24 June 2004 Aristotle Liu (aliu@riskwaters.com), +44 (0)207 484 9700, www.riskusa.com Mannheim Empirical Research Summer School, Mannheim University, Germany 22 June-2 July 2004 oliver@kirchkamp.de, www.sfb504.uni-mannheim.de/merss 9th Annual Conference on Econometric Modelling for Africa, Cape Town, South Africa 30 June-2 July 2004 aesinfo@commerce.uct.ac.za, www.commerce.uct.ac.za/economics/AES2004Conference/ 4th Congress of Nonlinear Analysts. Special Session on Mathematical Methods in Theoretical Finance, Hyatt Grand Cypress Resort, Orlando, FL, USA 30 June-7 July 2004 dkermani@fit.edu, +1 321 674 7412, http://kermani.math.fit.edu/ JULY 2004 2nd World Congress of the Game Theory Society, Faculty of Luminy, Marseille, France 5-9 July 2004 Europa Organisation (europa@europa-organisation.com), +33 5 34 45 26 45, www.gts2004.org Budapest Workshop on Behavioral Economics, Central European University, Budapest, Hungary 5-10 July 2004 Eva Dotzi (behavecon@ceu.hu), www.iza.org/en/calls_conferences/CallCEU_04.pdf FDA'04 1st IFAC Workshop on Fractional Differentiation and its Applications, Bordeaux, France 19-20 July 2004 IFAC secretariat (fda04@lap.u-bordeaux1.fr), www.lap.u-bordeaux.fr/fda04/ Bachelier Finance Society Third World Congress, InterContinental Hotel, Chicago, IL, USA 21-24 July 2004 bfs2004@uic.edu, www.uic.edu/orgs/bachelier/ BS/IMS 2004 6th World Congress of the Bernoulli Society for Mathematical Statistics and Probability, Barcelona, Spain 26-31 July 2004 wc2004@pacifico-meetings.com, +34 93 402 13 85, www.imub.ub.es/events/wc2004 AUGUST 2004 Summer School in Econometrics. The Cointegrated VAR Model: Econometric Methodology and Macroeconomic Applications, Institute of Economics, University of Copenhagen, Denmark 2-22 August 2004 Summerschool@econ.ku.dk, www.econ.ku.dk/summerschool SEPTEMBER 2004 First Bonzenfreies Colloquium on Market Dynamics and Quantitative Economics, Alessandria, Palazzo Borsalino, Italy 9-10 September 2004 colloquium@unipmn.it, www.mfn.unipmn.it/~colloqui/ Risk Analysis 2004. 4th International Conference on Computer Simulation in Risk Analysis and Hazard Mitigation, Aldemar Paradise Royal Mare Hotel, Rhodes, Greece 27-29 September 2004 enquiries@wessex.ac.uk, +44 (0)238 029 3223, www.wessex.ac.uk/conferences/2004/risk04/ OCTOBER 2004 IRC Hedge 2004, InterContinental Hotel, London, UK 10, 11 October 2004 enquiries@irc-conferences.com, www.irc-conferences.com/show_conference.php?id=10 NOVEMBER 2004 IRC DICE 2004, InterContinental Hotel, London, UK 22, 23 November 2004 enquiries@irc-conferences.com, www.irc-conferences.com/show_conference.php?id=13 DECEMBER 2004 Quantitative Methods in Finance 2004, Sydney, Australia 15-18 December 2004 Andrea Schnaufer (qmf@uts.edu.au), +61 2 9514 7737, www.business.uts.edu.au/finance/resources/qmf2004/

  1. Calendar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    10th, Sep The 2012 China (Dalian) International Garment & Textile Fair, as one of the 23rd Dalian International Fashion Festival and Carnival theme activities, was recently held in Dalian World Expo Center and Dalian Xinghai Convention & Exhibition Center at the same time. The exhibition area reached 40,000 square meters with 1400 standard booths.

  2. Calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    JULY 2004 2nd World Congress of the Game Theory Society, Faculty of Luminy, Marseille, France 5-9 July 2004 Europa Organisation (europa@europa-organisation.com), +33 5 34 45 26 45, www.gts2004.org Budapest Workshop on Behavioral Economics, Central European University, Budapest, Hungary 5-10 July 2004 Eva Dotzi (behavecon@ceu.hu), www.iza.org/en/calls_conferences/CallCEU_04.pdf FDA'04. 1st IFAC Workshop on Fractional Differentiation and its Applications, Bordeaux, France 19-20 July 2004 IFAC secretariat (fda04@lap.u-bordeaux1.fr), www.lap.u-bordeaux.fr/fda04/ Bachelier Finance Society Third World Congress, InterContinental Hotel, Chicago, IL, USA 21-24 July 2004 bfs2004@uic.edu, www.uic.edu/orgs/bachelier/ BS/IMS 2004. 6th World Congress of the Bernoulli Society for Mathematical Statistics and Probability, Barcelona, Spain 26-31 July 2004 wc2004@pacifico-meetings.com, +34 93 402 13 85, www.imub.ub.es/events/wc2004 AUGUST 2004 Summer School in Econometrics. The Cointegrated VAR Model: Econometric Methodology and Macroeconomic Applications, Institute of Economics, University of Copenhagen, Denmark 2-22 August 2004 Summerschool@econ.ku.dk, www.econ.ku.dk/summerschool SEPTEMBER 2004 First Bonzenfreies Colloquium on Market Dynamics and Quantitative Economics, Alessandria, Palazzo Borsalino, Italy 9-10 September 2004 colloquium@unipmn.it, www.mfn.unipmn.it/~colloqui/ Risk Analysis 2004. 4th International Conference on Computer Simulation in Risk Analysis and Hazard Mitigation, Aldemar Paradise Royal Mare Hotel, Rhodes, Greece 27-29 September 2004 enquiries@wessex.ac.uk, +44 (0)238 029 3223, www.wessex.ac.uk/conferences/2004/risk04/ OCTOBER 2004 IRC Hedge 2004, InterContinental Hotel, London, UK 10, 11 October 2004 enquiries@irc-conferences.com, www.irc-conferences.com/show_conference.php?id=10 NOVEMBER 2004 IRC DICE 2004, InterContinental Hotel, London, UK 22, 23 November 2004 enquiries@irc-conferences.com, www.irc-conferences.com/show_conference.php?id=13 DECEMBER 2004 Quantitative Methods in Finance 2004, Sydney, Australia 15-18 December 2004 Andrea Schnaufer (qmf@uts.edu.au), +61 2 9514 7737, www.business.uts.edu.au/finance/resources/qmf2004/ JANUARY 2005 Developments in Quantitative Finance, Isaac Newton Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Cambridge, UK 24 January-22 July 2005 www.newton.cam.ac.uk/programmes/DQF/index.html

  3. Calendar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    4th. Oct The opening ceremony of the 2012 China (Jimo) International Fashion Season was held on October 4, 2012 in Jimo Metropark Hotel of Ao Shanwan, Qingdao. This Fashion Season was organized by Shandong Provincial Economic and Information Technology Commission, Shandong Textile Industry Association, CNTAC, China Garment Industry Association and China Knitting Industry Association. At the same time,

  4. The Extratropical Influence of the Madden-Julian Oscillation on Wintertime Blocking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, S. A.; Maloney, E. D.; Barnes, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    Wintertime atmospheric blocking is associated with severe long-lasting weather conditions in the Northern Hemisphere. Studies have shown that the primary mode of tropical intraseasonal variability, the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), significantly influences important factors for blocking, including the North Atlantic Oscillation and Rossby wave breaking. However, the extent to which the MJO impacts the occurrence of winter blocking is not yet fully understood. The occurrence of North Pacific, North Atlantic, and European blocking is examined during the lifecycle of the MJO. Findings demonstrate a significant MJO influence on atmospheric blocking in all three regions, with a near doubling in east Pacific, Atlantic, and European blocking frequency following certain MJO phases. It is suggested that the increase in European blocking is a result of two conditions: 1) a pre-existing anomalous anticyclone in the North Atlantic, and 2) a preceding negative Pacific-North American (PNA) pattern triggered and influenced by MJO convection.

  5. Simulated National Identity and Ascendant Hyperreality in Julian Barnes’s England, England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Abootalebi H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper sets out to analyze Julian Barnes’s novel England, England (1998 in the light of Jean Baudrillard’s concepts of simulation and hyperreality. According to Baudrillard, what we experience in today’s world is a simulation of reality superseded by signs and images, and therefore we are living in a hyperreal world. Barnes’s book offers a representative sample of hyperreal world in which Martha, the protagonist, finds herself troubled. Although initially she is impressed by the glamour of the theme park named England, England later on she loses interest in it when she comes to realization that everything about it is fake. This condition, making her think of her own identity and true self, finally leads her to leave the theme park and settle in the village of Anglia where she hopes to discover her true nature and regain her lost happiness.

  6. Multiscale asymptotics for the Skeleton of the Madden-Julian Oscillation and Tropical-Extratropical Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shengqian; Stechmann, Samuel N

    2015-01-01

    A new model is derived and analyzed for tropical-extratropical interactions involving the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO). The model combines (i) the tropical dynamics of the MJO and equatorial baroclinic waves and (ii) the dynamics of barotropic Rossby waves with significant extratropical structure, and the combined system has a conserved energy. The method of multiscale asymptotics is applied to systematically derive a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) for three-wave resonant interactions. Two novel features are (i) a degenerate auxiliary problem with overdetermined equations due to a compatibility condition (meridional geostrophic balance) and (ii) cubic self-interaction terms that are not typically found in three-wave resonance ODEs. Several examples illustrate applications to MJO initiation and termination, including cases of (i) the MJO, equatorial baroclinic Rossby waves, and barotropic Rossby waves interacting, and (ii) the MJO, baroclinic Kelvin waves, and barotropic Rossby waves inter...

  7. The "bicameral mind" 30 years on: a critical reappraisal of Julian Jaynes' hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanna, Andrea Eugenio; Trimble, Michael; Cinti, Federico; Monaco, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    In 1976 Julian Jaynes published his controversial book The Origins of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind, introducing the hypothesis of a two-chambered brain-mind model that preceded the evolutionary development of the conscious mind. Jaynes' speculative model gave rise to a huge debate, which has reverberated throughout the current neuroscientific and neurophilosophical literature. Has the bicameral mind stood the test of time? To answer this question, the present paper adopts a multidisciplinary perspective and, after briefly summarizing Jaynes' hypothesis, addresses two main critical issues: the neurological basis of the bicameral model and the philological accuracy of Jaynes' arguments. Finally, the concept of a non-unitary Self is presented as one of the most relevant contemporary legacies of the bicameral mind.

  8. Global association of the Madden-Julian Oscillation with monsoon lows and depressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haertel, Patrick; Boos, William R.

    2017-08-01

    Previous research has revealed that monsoon lows and depressions are modulated on intraseasonal time scales in a few regions, including India, Australia, and the East Pacific. This study examines whether such modulation occurs on a global scale and, in particular, how the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is associated with changes in synoptic-scale vortices across all monsoon regions. The spatial climatology of monsoon disturbances is largely insensitive to MJO amplitude. However, monsoon disturbance frequency (MDF) varies substantially with MJO phase, with regional perturbations of 25 to 90% of the seasonal mean value across the tropics. In off-equatorial locations, MDF maxima occur in locations where the MJO enhances low level cyclonic vorticity, typically near the western edge of midlevel moisture perturbations. In contrast, equatorial MDF perturbations are in phase with MJO moisture and rainfall anomalies, with maxima in regions with strong low level zonal wind convergence.

  9. Disruptions of El Niño–Southern Oscillation teleconnections by the Madden–Julian Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoell, Andrew; Barlow, Mathew; Wheeler, Mathew; Funk, Christopher C.

    2014-01-01

    The El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the leading mode of interannual variability, with global impacts on weather and climate that have seasonal predictability. Research on the link between interannual ENSO variability and the leading mode of intraseasonal variability, the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), has focused mainly on the role of MJO initiating or terminating ENSO. We use observational analysis and modeling to show that the MJO has an important simultaneous link to ENSO: strong MJO activity significantly weakens the atmospheric branch of ENSO. For weak MJO conditions relative to strong MJO conditions, the average magnitude of ENSO-associated tropical precipitation anomalies increases by 63%, and the strength of hemispheric teleconnections increases by 58%. Since the MJO has predictability beyond three weeks, the relationships shown here suggest that there may be subseasonal predictability of the ENSO teleconnections to continental circulation and precipitation.

  10. A Madden-Julian oscillation event realistically simulated by a global cloud-resolving model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Hiroaki; Satoh, Masaki; Nasuno, Tomoe; Noda, Akira T; Oouchi, Kazuyoshi

    2007-12-14

    A Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is a massive weather event consisting of deep convection coupled with atmospheric circulation, moving slowly eastward over the Indian and Pacific Oceans. Despite its enormous influence on many weather and climate systems worldwide, it has proven very difficult to simulate an MJO because of assumptions about cumulus clouds in global meteorological models. Using a model that allows direct coupling of the atmospheric circulation and clouds, we successfully simulated the slow eastward migration of an MJO event. Topography, the zonal sea surface temperature gradient, and interplay between eastward- and westward-propagating signals controlled the timing of the eastward transition of the convective center. Our results demonstrate the potential making of month-long MJO predictions when global cloud-resolving models with realistic initial conditions are used.

  11. Using AMIE data to study cloud processes within the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houze, Robert A. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences

    2015-12-17

    This study uses AMIE data to show how the small clouds in the Madden-Julian Oscillation first organize into lines and other patterns, how they develop the first rainshowers, how those showers deposit cool air over the ocean surface, how this cool air spreads and triggers deeper convection, how the deep convection develops into mesoscale systems, how the mesoscale systems modify the heating profile through the depth of the troposphere, and how the development of the clouds responds to and interacts with large-scale waves circumnavigating the globe at upper levels, and how equatorial trapped waves at lower levels modulates the development of the cloud population. The techniques used to analyze the radar and sounding data collected in AMIE to achieve the above results are innovative, and to obtain more general results we have used regional modeling with a variety of cloud microphysical schemes in combination with the data analyses.

  12. Interpreting the upper level structure of the Madden-Julian oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Joy M.; Adames, Ángel F.; Wallace, John M.; Sukhatme, Jai S.

    2014-12-01

    The nonlinear response of a spherical shallow water model to an imposed heat source in the presence of realistic zonal mean zonal winds is investigated numerically. The solutions exhibit elongated, meridionally tilted ridges and troughs indicative of a poleward dispersion of wave activity. As the speed of the jets is increased, the equatorial Kelvin wave is unaffected but the global Rossby wave train coalesces to form a compact, amplified quadrupole structure that bears a striking resemblance to the observed upper level structure of the Madden-Julian oscillation. In the presence of strong subtropical westerly jets, the advection of planetary vorticity by the meridional flow and relative vorticity by the zonally averaged background flow conspire to create the distinctive quadrupole configuration of flanking Rossby waves.

  13. Deep ocean impact of a Madden-Julian oscillation observed by Argo floats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Adrian J; Singhruck, Patama; Heywood, Karen J

    2007-12-14

    Using the new Argo array of profiling floats that gives unprecedented space-time coverage of the upper 2000 meters of the global ocean, we present definitive evidence of a deep tropical ocean component of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). The surface wind stress anomalies associated with the MJO force eastward-propagating oceanic equatorial Kelvin waves that extend downward to 1500 meters. The amplitude of the deep ocean anomalies is up to six times the amplitude of the observed annual cycle. This deep ocean sink of energy input from the wind is potentially important for understanding phenomena such as El Niño-Southern Oscillation and for interpreting deep ocean measurements made from ships.

  14. Visualizing and verifying probabilistic forecasts of the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Andrew G.; Hendon, Harry H.; Hudson, Debra

    2016-12-01

    We describe a new approach for presenting probabilistic forecasts of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) based on the community standard Real-time Multivariate MJO (RMM) index, using forecasts from version 2 of the Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia. This new display overcomes the difficulty of interpreting a dispersive ensemble plume and directly quantifies the probability for the MJO to occur in each of its eight RMM-defined phases as well as the weak phase. Beyond monitoring and interpreting predictions of the MJO, this new approach also provides a basis for forecast verification using probability-based skill scores. Here we present a clear and concise quantitative summary of this innovative method for accessing probability of the state of the MJO in an ensemble forecast. This new method compliments the traditional MJO ensemble forecast display and verification and will benefit global forecasting centers, international MJO working groups, and the World Meteorological Organization Subseasonal to Seasonal Project.

  15. Julian Schwinger: Nuclear Physics, the Radiation Laboratory, Renormalized QED, Source Theory, and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Milton, K A

    2006-01-01

    Julian Schwinger's influence on twentieth century science is profound and pervasive. Of course, he is most famous for his renormalization theory of quantum electrodynamics, for which he shared the Nobel Prize with Richard Feynman and Sin-itiro Tomonaga. But although this triumph was undoubtedly his most heroic work, his legacy lives on chiefly through subtle and elegant work in classical electrodynamics, quantum variational principles, proper-time methods, quantum anomalies, dynamical mass generation, partial symmetry, and more. Starting as just a boy, he rapidly became the pre-eminent nuclear physicist in the late 1930s, led the theoretical development of radar technology at MIT during World War II, and then, soon after the war, conquered quantum electrodynamics, and became the leading quantum field theorist for two decades, before taking a more iconoclastic route during his last quarter century.

  16. Atmospheric deposition chemistry in a subalpine area of the Julian Alps, NW Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Muri

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Wet-only precipitation was collected in Rateče, a remote village in the outskirts of the Julian Alps (Nort-West Slovenia during 2003-2011, in order to characterise atmospheric deposition chemistry. The samples were collected on a daily basis and combined into weekly samples that were analysed for pH, conductivity and major anions and cations. Ammonium, nitrate and sulphate were the most abundant ions, exhibiting volume-weighted mean values (2003-2011 of 22, 17 and 17 µeq L–1, respectively. Furthermore, the trends of the major parameters in the precipitation were assessed using a simple linear regression. A significant downward trend of both nitrate and sulphate was observed, explained by evident reductions in NOx and SOx emissions in the region. The decline of nitrate and sulphate was also reflected in a significant and downward trend of conductivity. While the trend of ammonium could also be downward, the trends of other major ions were not significant. Atmospheric nitrogen deposition, representing inorganic forms of nitrogen (i.e., ammonium and nitrate, was calculated to examine potential threats that the deposition of nitrogen may cause on lake ecosystems. Nitrogen deposition in Rateče ranged from 5.5 to 9.5 kg N ha–1 yr–1. Although this was below the critical threshold that might cause an impact on surface waters, nitrogen deposition in the nearby Julian Alps, where sensitive mountain lakes are situated, might be higher and its impact on the ecosystem greater. In fact, several studies performed on water chemistry, sedimentary organic matter and stable isotopes in Slovenian mountain lakes have shown progressive changes in their water columns and sediments that can be attributed to nitrogen deposition.

  17. The Evidence From Knossos On The Minoan Calendar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, G.; Blomberg, M.

    From the early results of our archaeoastronomical investigations at the peak sanctuaries on Petsophas and Mt Juktas, we inferred that the Minoans had a lunisolar calendar that began at a particular phase of the moon on or following the autumn equinox. We used classical archaeoastronomical methods: a digital theodolite with observations of the sun to determine the orientation of the coordinate system, measuring the orientations of foundations to celestial bodies, and determining the positions of celestial bodies at the appropriate times in the past using our own programs. In our later investigation of the palace at Knossos, we found further evidence including the impressive use of a reflection in the central palace sanctuary to determine the beginning of the Minoan year and for knowing when to intercalate a lunar (synodic) month in the lunisolar calendar. The reflection occurred at the precise moment of sunrise at the equinoxes and also during the eleven days before the spring equinox and after the autumn equinox. We also discovered that the non-integral length of the solar year would have been revealed by the unique shift of the reflection during a series of four years. Later results at three other Minoan sites underscored the probability that the Minoans had a solar calendar and twelve solar months.

  18. AMIE (ARM MJO Investigation Experiment): Observations of the Madden-Julian Oscillation for Modeling Studies Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, C; Del Genio, A; Gustafson, W; Houze, R; Jakob, C; Jensen, M; Klein, S; Leung, L Ruby; Liu, X; Luke, E; May, P; McFarlane, S; Minnis, P; Schumacher, C; Vogelmann, A; Wang, Y; Wu, X; Xie, S

    2010-03-22

    Deep convection in the tropics plays an important role in driving global circulations and the transport of energy from the tropics to the mid-latitudes. Understanding the mechanisms that control tropical convection is a key to improving climate modeling simulations of the global energy balance. One of the dominant sources of tropical convective variability is the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), which has a period of approximately 30–60 days. There is no agreed-upon explanation for the underlying physics that maintain the MJO. Many climate models do not show well-defined MJO signals, and those that do have problems accurately simulating the amplitude, propagation speed, and/or seasonality of the MJO signal. Therefore, the MJO is a very important modeling target for the ARM modeling community geared specifically toward improving climate models. The ARM MJO Investigation Experiment (AMIE) period coincides with a large international MJO initiation field campaign called CINDY2011 (Cooperative Indian Ocean experiment on intraseasonal variability in the Year 2011) that will take place in and around the Indian Ocean from October 2011 to January 2012. AMIE, in conjunction with CINDY2011 efforts, will provide an unprecedented data set that will allow investigation of the evolution of convection within the framework of the MJO. AMIE observations will also complement the long-term MJO statistics produced using ARM Manus data and will allow testing of several of the current hypotheses related to the MJO phenomenon. Taking advantage of the expected deployment of a C-POL scanning precipitation radar and an ECOR surface flux tower at the ARM Manus site, we propose to increase the number of sonde launches to eight per day starting in about mid-October of the field experiment year, which is climatologically a period of generally suppressed conditions at Manus and just prior to the climatologically strongest MJO period. The field experiment will last until the end of the MJO

  19. Day to day with COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    COPD - day to day; Chronic obstructive airways disease - day to day; Chronic obstructive lung disease - day to ... Having COPD can sap your energy. These simple changes can make your days easier and preserve your strength. Ask ...

  20. Narrative report for calendar year 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Devils Lake Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments for the calendar year of 1968. The report begins by summarizing the...

  1. Windom Wetland Management District : Calendar Year 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2005 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  2. Windom Wetland Management District : Calendar Year 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2004 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  3. Windom Wetland Management District : Calendar Year 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2007 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  4. Narrative report for calendar year 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Devils Lake Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments for the calendar year of 1966. The report begins by summarizing...

  5. Windom Wetland Management District : Calendar Year 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2006 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  6. Windom Wetland Management District : Calendar Year 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes activities during the 2008 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  7. Shared Calendars for Home Health Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eschler, Jordan; Kendall, Logan; O'Leary, Katie; Vizer, Lisa M; Lozano, Paula; McClure, Jennifer B; Pratt, Wanda; Ralston, James D

    2015-03-01

    What is the role of shared calendars for home health management? Utilizing a maximum variation sampling method, we interviewed 20 adult individuals with diabetes and 20 mothers of children with asthma to understand calendar use in the context of chronic disease home health management. In comparing the experiences of these two groups, we explore participants' use of tools for organizing tasks and appointments, their strategies for capturing health and non-health events in the family calendar system, the ecology of artifacts that intersect with their scheduling tools, and the failures they experienced while managing their calendar systems. Through this work, we offer a context-specific perspective of schedule management strategies for individuals and families who must integrate their handling of chronic illnesses with everyday living.

  8. Narrative report for calendar year 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Devils Lake Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments for the calendar year of 1970. The report begins by summarizing...

  9. Narrative report for calendar year 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Des Lacs National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  10. Revisiting Noah’S Ark in Julian Barnes’ A History of the World in 10 ½ Chapters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthu Liana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering that intertextuality is the text’s property of being connected to other previous texts, Julian Barnes’ novel, “A History of the World in 10 ½ Chapters”, rewrites the Biblical story of Noah’s Ark. Besides the narration accounted in the Bible, new elements are encountered here: e.g. the Ark wasn’t a simple vessel, but a small fleet; Noah butchered the animals from the Ark, animals selected initially to be saved from the Deluge; the woodworms, creatures that symbolize decay, were also present on the Ark, etc. Then, new versions of the Biblical story, all having connections with Noah, the Ark and the Sea are present. Therefore, Julian Barnes fructifies Noah’s story, readjusting it to other spaces and historic times.

  11. A Note on the Rapanui Lunar Calendar

    CERN Document Server

    Rjabchikov, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the research of secrets of Easter Island (Rapa Nui), a remote plot of land in the Pacific; the article contains not only ethnological data, but also some results on the archaeoastronomy. This author examines both lunar calendar lists presented on the Mamari tablet as well as on a panel at Ahu Raai. Calendar records on different tablets have been investigated, too.

  12. A Note on the Rapanui Lunar Calendar

    OpenAIRE

    Rjabchikov, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the research of secrets of Easter Island (Rapa Nui), a remote plot of land in the Pacific; the article contains not only ethnological data, but also some results on the archaeoastronomy. This author examines both lunar calendar lists presented on the Mamari tablet as well as on a panel at Ahu Raai. Calendar records on different tablets have been investigated, too.

  13. Medieval Karelian Calendar Names: A Cognitive Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A. Kyurshunova

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on calendar personal names recorded in the 15–17th centuries Russian and Swedish manuscripts written in Karelia. Revealing the cognitive potential of this historical stratum of names, the author analyzes the frequency of full (official and modified forms of calendar names, the regional peculiarities of their linguistic adaptation, their ethnolinguisitic and social status, as well as the functioning of calendar names in the regional onomastic system. The analysis shows that the calendar onomasticon holds the leading positions, which reflects important axiological and mental shifts in the people’s culture. The list of most frequent Christian names of the region generally coincides with the onomastic data related to other Russian territories of the same period. The conservation of the name nomenclature is due to family traditions, namely, to familial practices of naming. However, the adaptation and distribution of names display some regional features, particularly in the frequency of different groups of anthroponyms. The peripheral situation of the region and the presence of Balto-Fennic population which adapted the Russian calendar athroponymicon determined the “conservatism” of the calendar names nomenclature: for naming, they selected the names which were better adapted and more extensively used among Russians. The formation of modified names depended mostly on the morphemic structure of the Russian language, regional features being relatively insignificant. The frequency of modified forms of names correlates with the genre of the manuscript and the scribe’s arbitrariness.

  14. Dynamics of Large-Scale Convective Onset in the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Scott Wayne

    The role of large-scale circulation anomalies in the convective onset of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) over the Indian Ocean during the Dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) field campaign, conducted Oct. 2011--Feb. 2012, is explained using radar and rawinsonde observations, reanalysis, and regional model simulations. Convective onset was characterized by two episodic and rapid increases in the vertical growth of the cumuliform cloud population over the Indian Ocean: First, the areal coverage of moderately deep (~5 km) convection increased; about 1 week later, the areal coverage of deep (up to the tropopause) convection increased rapidly. Deep tropospheric wavenumber 1 anomalies in zonal wind and vertical velocity circumnavigated the tropics repeatedly during DYNAMO. MJO convective onset occurred when the upward branch of this wavenumber 1 circulation arrived over the Indian Ocean because a reduction in large-scale subsidence cooled the troposphere and steepened the lapse rate below 500 hPa. This made the environment more conducive to development of moderately deep convection. The moderately deep convection moistened the environment during week-long transition periods by transporting moisture vertically from the boundary layer to the free troposphere and detraining it into the clear-air environment, particularly between 650--850 mb. Regional cloud-permitting model simulations of convection during MJO onsets reproduced the distinct transition periods. The modeling results confirmed that rapid cooling of the environment enhanced the areal coverage of, and thus total vertical transport of water within, moderately deep convection at the beginning of transition periods. Evaporation of cloud condensate via entrainment or dissipation of clouds was directly responsible for environmental moistening. Cooling of the climatologically stable layer between 700--850 mb was particularly important because it allowed a greater number of cumulus elements growing

  15. Sensitivity to Madden-Julian Oscillation variations on heavy precipitation over the contiguous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Charles; Carvalho, Leila M. V.

    2014-10-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the most prominent mode of tropical intraseasonal variability in the climate system and has worldwide influences on the occurrences and forecasts of heavy precipitation. This paper investigates the sensitivity of precipitation over the contiguous United States (CONUS) in a case study (boreal 2004-05 winter). Several major storms affected the western and eastern CONUS producing substantial economic and social impacts including loss of lives. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is used to perform experiments to test the significance of the MJO amplitude. The control simulation uses the MJO amplitude observed by reanalysis, whereas the amplitude is modified in perturbation experiments. WRF realistically simulates the precipitation variability over the CONUS, although large biases occur over the Western and Midwest United States. Daily precipitation is aggregated in western, central and eastern sectors and the frequency distribution is analyzed. Increases in MJO amplitude produce moderate increases in the median and interquartile range and large and robust increases in extreme (90th and 95th percentiles) precipitation. The MJO amplitude clearly affects the transport of moisture from the tropical Pacific and Gulf of Mexico into North America providing moist rich air masses and the dynamical forcing that contributes to heavy precipitation.

  16. Essential-Oil Variability in Natural Populations of Pinus mugo Turra from the Julian Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojović, Srdjan; Jurc, Maja; Ristić, Mihailo; Popović, Zorica; Matić, Rada; Vidaković, Vera; Stefanović, Milena; Jurc, Dušan

    2016-02-01

    The composition and variability of the terpenes and their derivatives isolated from the needles of a representative pool of 114 adult trees originating from four natural populations of dwarf mountain pine (Pinus mugo Turra) from the Julian Alps were investigated by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In total, 54 of the 57 detected essential-oil components were identified. Among the different compound classes present in the essential oils, the chief constituents belonged to the monoterpenes, comprising an average content of 79.67% of the total oil composition (74.80% of monoterpene hydrocarbons and 4.87% of oxygenated monoterpenes). Sesquiterpenes were present in smaller amounts (average content of 19.02%), out of which 16.39% were sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and 2.62% oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The most abundant components in the needle essential oils were the monoterpenes δ-car-3-ene, β-phellandrene, α-pinene, β-myrcene, and β-pinene and the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene. From the total data set of 57 detected compounds, 40 were selected for principal-component analysis (PCA), discriminant analysis (DA), and cluster analysis (CA). The overlap tendency of the four populations suggested by PCA, was as well observed by DA. CA also demonstrated similarity among the populations, which was the highest between Populations I and II.

  17. Two new pioneer communities of Sorbus aucuparia and Sorbus aria in the southern Julian Alps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakskobler Igor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the southern Julian Alps we described two communities whose tree layer is dominated by species from the genus Sorbus and noted two successional stages in the overgrowing of abandoned agricultural land (pastures, hay meadows. In the secondary succession on former subalpine pastures above the alp Planina Razor und under the Breginjski Stol ridge, where potential natural vegetation consists of subalpine beech forest, dwarf pine has been overgrown with mountain ash (Sorbus aucuparia whose stands are classified into the new association Rhododendro hirsuti-Sorbetum aucupariae. Whitebeam (Sorbus aria has established itself on steep former hay meadows in the belt of altimontane beech forests under Mts. Jalovnik and Krikov Vrh, on gullied slopes on mixed geological bedrock dominated by chert, and these stands are classified into the association Calamagrostio arundinaceae-Sorbetum ariae. While occupying only small areas these two pioneer stages, as the sites of some rare or protected species, are nevertheless important biotopes and play a vital role in protection against avalanches.

  18. Destabilization of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in Present and Future Climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolding, B.; Maloney, E. D.; Branson, M.; Henderson, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    A weak temperature gradient (WTG) balance framework is used to investigate the destabilization of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) in SP-CESM and ERA-interim. It is shown that the strength and vertical structure of intraseasonal variations in large-scale vertical moisture advection can be accurately diagnosed from apparent heating. The role that various apparent heating processes (e.g. radiative heating, microphysical processes) play in driving large-scale vertical moisture advection is assessed, and their individual contributions to the destabilization of the MJO examined. The reduction of longwave radiative cooling during the enhanced convective phase is shown to play a crucial role in allowing the ensemble cloud population to further grow moisture anomalies associated with the MJO. The WTG balance framework is then applied to a 4×CO2 simulation of SP-CESM, in which a marked increases in MJO activity occurs. The role that changes in the static stability, the vertical moisture gradient, and the strength of the radiative feedback may play in increasing MJO activity is discussed.

  19. The boreal winter Madden-Julian Oscillation's influence on summertime precipitation in the greater Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Scott; Gamble, Douglas W.

    2016-07-01

    Precipitation totals in the greater Caribbean are known to be affected by interannual variability. In particular, dry conditions in the spring-summer have been physically linked to the positive phase of North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in the literature. In this study, it was found through regression analysis that an active Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) in winter geographically focused over the Maritime Continent contributes to a positive NAO in March via the generation of Rossby waves in the Northern Hemisphere. Specifically, a negative Pacific-North American pattern develops in the winter and transitions to an Atlantic pattern in spring. The positive NAO is a transient feature of this evolving wave train, but a center of significant positive 200 hPa geopotential heights is entrenched over the southeast U.S. throughout the February to May time period and is manifested as high pressure at the surface. The southern flank of this system increases the speeds of the trade winds and leads to a cooling of the Caribbean sea surface temperatures and, thus, convection suppression and reduced precipitation. Thus, this study advances our understanding of the climate of the greater Caribbean by using climate teleconnections to relate the MJO to rainfall in the region.

  20. A general theoretical framework for understanding essential dynamics of Madden-Julian oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Chen, Guosen

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by observed structure of Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO), a general theoretical model framework is advanced for understanding fundamental aspects of MJO dynamics. The model extends the Matsuno-Gill theory by incorporating (a) moisture feedback to precipitation, (b) a trio-interaction among equatorial waves, boundary layer (BL) dynamics, and precipitation, and (c) a simplified Betts-Miller (B-M) cumulus parameterization. The general model with B-M scheme yields a frictionally coupled dynamic moisture mode, which produces an equatorial planetary-scale, unstable system moving eastward slowly with coupled Kelvin-Rossby wave structure and BL moisture convergence leading major convection. The moisture feedback in B-M scheme reinforces the coupling between precipitation heating and Rossby waves and enhances the Rossby wave component in the MJO mode, thereby slowing down eastward propagation and resulting in a more realistic horizontal structure. It is, however, the BL frictional convergence feedback that couples equatorial Kelvin and Rossby waves with convective heating and selects a preferred eastward propagation. The eastward propagation speed in the model is inversely related to the relative intensity of the equatorial "Rossby" westerly versus "Kelvin" easterly associated with the MJO. The cumulus parameterization scheme may affect propagation speed through changing MJO horizontal structure. The SST or basic-state moist static energy has a fundamental control on MJO propagation speed and intensification/decay. Model sensitivity to BL and cumulus scheme parameters and ramifications of the model results to general circulation modeling are discussed.

  1. Calendar Life Studies of Advanced Technology Development Program Gen 1 Lithium Ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Randy Ben; Motloch, Chester George

    2001-03-01

    This report presents the test results of a special calendar-life test conducted on 18650-size, prototype, lithium-ion battery cells developed to establish a baseline chemistry and performance for the Advanced Technology Development Program. As part of electrical performance testing, a new calendar-life test protocol was used. The test consisted of a once-per-day discharge and charge pulse designed to have minimal impact on the cell yet establish the performance of the cell over a period of time such that the calendar life of the cell could be determined. The calendar life test matrix included two states of charge (i.e., 60 and 80%) and four temperatures (40, 50, 60, and 70°C). Discharge and regen resistances were calculated from the test data. Results indicate that both discharge and regen resistance increased nonlinearly as a function of the test time. The magnitude of the discharge and regen resistance depended on the temperature and state of charge at which the test was conducted. The calculated discharge and regen resistances were then used to develop empirical models that may be useful to predict the calendar life or the cells.

  2. Expectation or Sensorial Reality? An Empirical Investigation of the Biodynamic Calendar for Wine Drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Wendy V; Valentin, Dominique; Reedman, Phil; Grose, Claire; Green, James A

    2017-01-01

    The study's aim was to investigate a central tenet of biodynamic philosophy as applied to wine tasting, namely that wines taste different in systematic ways on days determined by the lunar cycle. Nineteen New Zealand wine professionals tasted blind 12 Pinot noir wines at times determined within the biodynamic calendar for wine drinkers as being favourable (Fruit day) and unfavourable (Root day) for wine tasting. Tasters rated each wine four times, twice on a Fruit day and twice on a Root day, using 20 experimenter-provided descriptors. Wine descriptors spanned a range of varietal-relevant aroma, taste, and mouthfeel characteristics, and were selected with the aim of elucidating both qualitative and quantitative aspects of each wine's perceived aromatic, taste, and structural aspects including overall wine quality and liking. A post-experimental questionnaire was completed by each participant to determine their degree of knowledge about the purpose of the study, and their awareness of the existence of the biodynamic wine drinkers' calendar. Basic wine physico-chemical parameters were determined for the wines tasted on each of a Fruit day and a Root day. Results demonstrated that the wines were judged differentially on all attributes measured although type of day as determined by the biodynamic calendar for wine drinkers did not influence systematically any of the wine characteristics evaluated. The findings highlight the importance of testing experimentally practices that are based on anecdotal evidence but that lend themselves to empirical investigation.

  3. Simulations of the Madden-Julian oscillation in four pairs of coupled and uncoupled global models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chidong; Dong, Min [RSMAS, University of Miami, Miami, FL (United States); Gualdi, Silvio [National Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology, Bologna (Italy); Hendon, Harry H. [BMRC, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Maloney, Eric D. [Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR (United States); Marshall, Andrew [Monash University, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Sperber, Kenneth R. [PCMDI, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Wang, Wanqiu [CPC/NCEP/NOAA, Camp Springs, MD (United States)

    2006-11-15

    The status of the numerical reproduction of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) by current global models was assessed through diagnoses of four pairs of coupled and uncoupled simulations. Slow eastward propagation of the MJO, especially in low-level zonal wind, is realistic in all these simulations. However, the simulated MJO suffers from several common problems. The MJO signal in precipitation is generally too weak and often eroded by an unrealistic split of an equatorial maximum of precipitation into a double ITCZ structure over the western Pacific. The MJO signal in low-level zonal wind, on the other hand, is sometimes too strong over the eastern Pacific but too weak over the Indian Ocean. The observed phase relationship between precipitation and low-level zonal wind associated with the MJO in the western Pacific and their coherence in general are not reproduced by the models. The seasonal migration in latitude of MJO activity is missing in most simulations. Air-sea coupling generally strengthens the simulated eastward propagating signal, but its effects on the phase relationship and coherence between precipitation and low-level zonal wind, and on their geographic distributions, seasonal cycles, and interannual variability are inconsistent among the simulations. Such inconsistency cautions generalization of results from MJO simulations using a single model. In comparison to observations, biases in the simulated MJO appear to be related to biases in the background state of mean precipitation, low-level zonal wind, and boundary-layer moisture convergence. This study concludes that, while the realistic simulations of the eastward propagation of the MJO are encouraging, reproducing other fundamental features of the MJO by current global models remains an unmet challenge. (orig.)

  4. Realistic initiation and dynamics of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in a coarse resolution aquaplanet GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayamohan, R. S.; Khouider, Boualem; Majda, Andrew J.

    2013-12-01

    The main mechanisms for the initiation and propagation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) are still widely debated. The capacity of operational global climate models (GCMs) to correctly simulate the MJO is hindered by the inadequacy of the underlying cumulus parameterizations. Here we show that a coarse resolution GCM, coupled to a simple multicloud model parameterization mimicking the observed dynamics and physical structure of organized tropical convection, simulates the MJO in an idealized setting of an aquaplanet without ocean dynamics. We impose a fixed nonhomogeneous sea-surface temperature replicating the Indian Ocean/Western Pacific warm pool. This results in a succession of MJOs with realistic phase speed, amplitude, and physical structure. Each MJO event is initiated at a somewhat random location over the warm pool and dies sometimes near the eastern boundary of the warm pool and sometimes at a random location way beyond the warm pool. Also occasionally the MJO events stall at the center of maximum heating. This is reminiscent of the fact that in nature some MJOs stall over the maritime continent while others reach the central Pacific Ocean and beyond. The initiation mechanism in the model is believed to be a combination of persistent intermittent convective events interacting with observed large-scale flow patterns and internal tropical dynamics. The large-scale flow patterns are associated with planetary-scale dry Kelvin waves that are triggered by preceding MJO events and circle the globe, while congestus cloud decks on the flanks of the warm pool are believed to force Rossby gyres which then funnel moisture toward the equatorial region.

  5. Interactions of river discharge parameterizations with the Madden Julian oscillation in the CESM

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMott, C. A.; Tseng, Y. H.; Bryan, F.

    2016-12-01

    River discharge in the tropical Warm Pool is a source of fresh water to the upper ocean, which can help stabilize the upper ocean, reduce ocean mixing, and promote radiation-driven surface warming. Large rivers, such as the Ganges, that drain large land masses provide quasi-steady freshening during certain seasons. Freshening from rivers that drain smaller land masses, such as islands within the Maritime Continent, is more regulated by rainfall. The Madden Julian oscillation (MJO) regulates instraseasonal rainfall, SST, and surface salinity across the Warm Pool, and is sensitive to the ocean response to this forcing. The effects of estuarine river discharge on upper ocean stratification and interactions with the MJO are explored using two different estuary parameterizations in the Community Earth System Model (CESM). In the control simulation (CTR), river discharge is spread uniformly onto the ocean surface over an artificially chosen length scale using the virtual salt flux approach. In the experimental configuration, river discharge is confined to the ocean model grid point containing the river delta, and mixed vertically with a two-layer estuary box model (EBM). In EBM, the temperature and salinity distribution is driven mainly by oceanic mixing and advection without ad-hoc horizontal spreading. Compared to EBM, over-dispersal of river runoff in CTR leads to fresher surface waters, shallower ocean mixed layers, and more variable SSTs throughout the Warm Pool. In CTR, river discharge is transported to a larger area by surface currents. Specifically, fresh water from the Ganges contributes to a low salinity, warm SST band near 10N in the central Indian Ocean; in the Indonesian Seas, overly dispersed runoff contributes to a shallower mixed layer and larger SST increases during the MJO suppressed phase. MJO convection and propagation characteristics suggest that the MJO in CTR benefits from the overly dispersed river discharge, while the MJO in EBM is less impacted.

  6. Late Quaternary glaciation of the Upper Soca River Region (Southern Julian Alps, NW Slovenia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavec, Milos; Tulaczyk, Slawek M.; Mahan, Shannon; Stock, Gregory M.

    2004-01-01

    Extent of Late Quaternary glaciers in the Upper Soc??a River Region (Southern Julian Alps, SE Europe) has been analyzed using a combination of geological mapping, glaciological modeling, and sediment dating (radiocarbon, U/Th series and Infrared Stimulated Luminescence-IRSL). Field investigations focused mainly on relatively well preserved Quaternary sequences in the Bovec Basin, an intramontane basin located SW of the Mediterranean/Black Sea divide and surrounded by mountain peaks reaching from approximately 2100 up to 2587 m a.s.l. Within the Basin we recognized two Late Quaternary sedimentary assemblages, which consist of the same facies association of diamictons, laminated lacustrine deposits and sorted fluvial sediments. Radiocarbon dating of the upper part of the lake sediments sequence (between 12790??85 and 5885??60 14C years b.p.) indicates that the younger sedimentary assemblage was deposited during the last glacial maximum and through early Holocene (Marine Isotope Stage 21, MIS 2-1). Sediment ages obtained for the older assemblage with U/Th and IRSL techniques (between 154.74??22.88 and 129.93??7.90 ka b.p. for selected samples) have large errors but both methods yield results consistent with deposition during the penultimate glacial-interglacial transition (MIS 6-5). Based on analyses of field data combined with glaciological modeling, we argue that both sediment complexes formed due to high sediment productivity spurred by paraglacial conditions with glaciers present in the uplands around the Bovec Basin but not extending down to the basin floor. Our study shows that the extent and intensity of direct glacial sedimentation by Late Quaternary glaciers in the region was previously significantly overestimated. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Modulation of the Convectively Coupled Kelvin Waves by the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y.; Jiang, X.; Waliser, D. E.

    2013-12-01

    As one of the major tropical wave modes, the convectively-coupled equatorial Kelvin wave (CCKW) plays a critical role in tropical climate / weather variability. CCKW activity exhibits strong variation on both seasonal and intraseasonal time scales. In this study, evidence of the strong modulation of the CCKW activity by the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) will be presented, with a particular focus over South America and tropical Atlantic region. The primary modulation of CCKWs over this region, as noted in anomalous fields of rainfall as well as vertical profiles of wind, moisture and temperature, is found to be a modulation of wave activity - namely amplitude, with secondary effects on vertical structure, and very little impact on wavenumber. CCKW activity is enhanced during MJO phases 8, 1, and 2, and damped during MJO phases 4, 5, and 6. Further analyses reveal that the strong modulation of the MJO on the CCKW activity could be largely through two factors, namely, the vertical zonal wind shear and the lower-middle troposphere specific humidity. The CCKW activity tends to be enhanced during MJO phases when the westward vertical wind shear and positive lower to mid-troposphere moisture anomalies are evident, and vice versa. These two physical processes associated with the MJO are found to have positively (negatively) reinforcing influences in the CCKW activity in phase 1 (4, and 5), while counteracting influences in phases 2, 3, 6, 7, and 8, leading to the observed MJO cycle of the CCKW activity anomalies in the study region. The results presented in this study may have important implications for extended-range prediction of tropical wave activity, and possibly initiation of the MJO further downstream in the Indian Ocean.

  8. Thermodynamics in the Suppressed Phase of the Madden-Julian Oscillation Using a Multiplatform Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J. Brent; Robertson, Franklin R.; Clayson, Carol Anne; Taylor, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) represents a prominent mode of intraseasonal tropical variability. It is manifest by coherent large-scale changes in atmospheric circulation, convection, and thermodynamic processes. Preconditioning of the environment prior to the active phase of the MJO has been noted, but the balance of theorized mechanisms to accomplish this process remains unresolved. Further, there is a lack of consensus on the means by which primary initiation of an MJO event occurs. Observational and modeling efforts have recently been undertaken to advance our understanding of the physical underpinnings governing MJO development. However these intensive studies are often limited in space and/or time and are potentially subject to model deficiencies. Satellite observations, especially those providing vertical resolution of temperature and moisture, provide an opportunity to expand our knowledge of processes critical to MJO initiation and preconditioning. This work will provide an analysis of suppressed phase thermodynamics with an emphasis on the use of a complementary suite of satellite observations including AIRS/AMSU-A profiles, CERES radiative fluxes, and cloud properties observed by MODIS. Emphasis of this work will regard the distribution of cloud regimes, their radiative-convective effects, and their relationship to moist static energy during the recharge and suppressed stages of MJO initiation and eastward propagation. The analyses will make use of cloud regimes from MODIS observations to provide a compositing technique that enables the identification of systematic connections between different cloud regimes and the larger scale environment. Within these cloud regimes, the relationship between the associated cloud-radiative effects observed by CERES, vertically-resolved and vertically-integrated thermodynamics using AIRS/AMSU-A observations, and atmospheric boundary layer fluxes will be demonstrated.

  9. Most Dominated Problems of Mass Media Dialogism in National Dailies during the Trial Process of Wikileaks Grounder Julian Assange

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines media mediation, media effects and their impact on the literacy of the public sphere. To examine the medial text and media mediation's impact on various journalistic fields in different countries, I analyse during the current moment of ¡°the global hunting¡± around WikiLeaks¡¯ founder Julian Assange. As the source, I use 764 published articles in newspapers and online media from six different countries: Sweden, UK, Ecuador, Russia, Latvia and Malaysia. The objective was to...

  10. May Day

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2009-01-01

    For Teacher: May Day occurs in May 1 and refers to any of several public holidays.In many countries, May Day is synonymous(同义词的)with International Workers' Day, or Labor Day, which celebrates the social and economic achievements(成就)of the labor movement.

  11. Annual Site Environmental Report. Calendar Year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes the environmental status of Ames Laboratory for calendar year 1997. It includes descriptions of the Laboratory site, its mission, the status of its compliance with applicable environmental regulations, its planning and activities to maintain compliance, and a comprehensive review of its environmental protection, surveillance and monitoring programs.

  12. Calendar Year 2016 Stationary Source Emissions Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evelo, Stacie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The City of Albuquerque (COA) Environmental Health Department Air Quality Program has issued stationary source permits and registrations the Department of Energy/Sandia Field Office for operations at the Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. This emission inventory report meets the annual reporting compliance requirements for calendar year (CY) 2016 as required by the COA.

  13. May Day

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳

    2009-01-01

    For Teachers: May Day occurs on May 1 and refers to any of several public holidays. In many coun- tries, May Day is synonymous (同义词的) with International Workers' Day, or Labor Day, which celebrates the social and economic achievements (成就) of the labor movement. As a day of celebration, the holiday has an- cient origins (起源), and it can relate to many customs that have survived into modem times.

  14. A political-culture case from late antiquity: the emperor julian and his concept of education - doi: 10.4025/actascieduc.v32i1.9488

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida Maria de Carvalho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabela normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} In this article, I propose to appraise Emperor Julian's conception of Paidéia or education. To this end, I will work from the meanings of the Christian Logos and the Greek Logos making use also of Gregory Nazianzen's Against Julian, verifying whether the clash that occurred between Gregory Nazianzen and Julian was not only religious but politico-religious, taking into account that at that point of the 4th century AD no separation of these spheres had yet existed. The text is divided into Preliminary Considerations, where I argue that the conflict between the two authors is political-cultural; The Emperor Julian and the Historiography about his times, in which I demonstrate that since the Emperor Julian's own time there was a myth built around him, and finally about Nazianzen's purpose of writing Against Julian. All of these interlinked points lead to the comprehension of this specific political moment of Late Antiquity.

  15. Da Satis House a Newgate: manipolazione e repressione nell’adattamento di Great Expectations di Julian Jarrold From Satis House to Newgate: Manipulation and Repression in the Adaptation of Great Expectations by Julian Jarrold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Cao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Oggetto d’analisi di questo articolo è la miniserie di Great Expectations in due puntate diretta da Julian Jarrold per la BBC nel 1999. Sulla base della proposta metodologica elaborata da Nicola Dusi all’interno del suo saggio Il cinema come traduzione. Da un medium all’altro (2003, il presente lavoro mira a mettere in luce le strategie traduttive che il testo d’arrivo aziona nel confronto con il testo di partenza. Scopo di questo contributo sarà pertanto illustrare in che modo le due isotopie dominanti del testo – la manipolazione e la repressione del protagonista Pip – si figurativizzino nell’adattamento attraverso la rappresentazione dei principali luoghi del potere: Satis House, Little Britain e Newgate.This article analyzes a serial of Great Expectations in two parts directed by Julian Jarrold for the BBC in 1999. Through the semiotic approach proposed by Nicola Dusi in his essay Il cinema come traduzione. Da un medium all’altro (2003, this paper wants to highlight the translation strategies employed in the target text in comparison with the hypotext. The aim of this article is to show how the dominant isotopies – Pip’s repression and manipulation – are figurativized in the representation of the main places of power in the adaptation: Satis House, Little Britain and Newgate.

  16. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Period of HD 19356 recorded in the Cairo Calendar? (Jetsu+, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetsu, L.; Porceddu, S.; Lyytinen, J.; Kajatkari, P.; Lehtinen, J.; Markkanen, T.; Toivari-Viitala, J.

    2016-08-01

    Ancient Egyptian Scribes (AES) wrote Calendars of Lucky and Unlucky Days that assigned good and bad prognoses for the days of the year. These prognoses were based on mythological and astronomical events considered influential for everyday life. The best preserved calendar is the Cairo Calendar (CC) in papyrus Cairo 86637 dated to 1271-1163B.C. Here, we concentrate on statistics, astrophysics, and astronomy. We show that n~200 good prognoses would induce PMoon and PAlgol in CC, even if the remaining n~700 good and bad prognoses had aperiodic origins. The connections between Algol and AES are discussed in detail in S. Porceddu et al. (2013, in preparation, Paper III), where we date CC to 1224 B.C. (2 data files).

  17. Substance use and violence among youth: a daily calendar analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Sarah A; Epstein-Ngo, Quyen; Walton, Maureen A; Zimmerman, Marc A; Chermack, Stephen T; Blow, Frederic C; Booth, Brenda M; Cunningham, Rebecca M

    2015-02-01

    While researchers have identified factors that contribute to youth violence, less is known about the details of violent incidents. In addition, substance use has been linked to youth violence; however, little is known about actual substance use on days in which violence occurs. This study examined reasons for peer violence and the association between substance use and violence using daily calendar-based analyses among at-risk urban youth. Data were collected from Emergency Department (ED) patients (ages 14-24; n = 599; 59% male, 65% African American) who screened positive for substance use in the past 6 months. Daily data regarding past 30-day substance use and violence and reasons for violent incidents were obtained via semi-structured interviews. Multi-level multinomial regression models were conducted to test the associations between substance use and peer violence incidents (i.e., none, moderate and severe). Conflict over 'personal belongings' was a common reason for violence among males; 'jealousy'/'rumors' were common reasons among females. Moderate victimization was more likely to be reported on days in which participants reported alcohol and cocaine use. Severe victimization was more likely to be reported on days in which participants reported alcohol use. Moderate or severe aggression was more likely to be reported on days in which participants reported alcohol and non-medical sedative use. RESULTS suggest that youth violence prevention that addresses differential reasons for violence among males and females as well as substance use would be beneficial.

  18. Effects of moisture feedback in a frictional coupled Kelvin-Rossby wave model and implication in the Madden-Julian oscillation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Wang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The authors extend the original frictional wave dynamics and implement the moisture feedback (MF) to explore the effects of planetary boundary layer (PBL) process and the MF on the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). This new system develops the original frictional wave dynamics by including the moisture tendency term (or the MF mode), along with a parameterized precipitation based on the Betts-Miller scheme. The linear instability analysis of this model provides solutions to elucidate the behaviors of the "pure" frictional convergence (FC) mode and the "pure" MF mode, respectively, as well as the behaviors of the combined FC-MF mode or the dynamical moisture mode. These results show that without the PBL frictional moisture convergence, the MF mode is nearly stationary and damped. Not only does the PBL frictional feedback make the damping MF mode grow with preferred planetary scale but it also enables the nearly stationary MF mode to move eastward slowly, resulting in an oscillation with a period of 30-90 days. This finding suggests the important role of the frictional feedback in generating eastward propagating unstable modes and selecting the preferred planetary scales. The MF process slows down the eastward-propagating short-wave FC mode by delaying the occurrence of deep convection and by enhancing the Rossby wave component. However, the longest wave (wavenumber one) is insensitive to the MF or the convective adjustment time, indicating that the unstable longest wave is primarily controlled by PBL frictional feedback process. Implications of these theoretical results in MJO simulation in general circulation models are discussed.

  19. Toward an Understanding of the Madden-Julian Oscillation: With a Mesoscale-Convection-Resolving Model of 0.2 Degree Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Yamasaki

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes results from numerical experiments which have been performed as the author's first step toward a better understanding of the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO. This study uses the author's mesoscale-convection-resolving model that was developed in the 1980s to improve parametrization schemes of moist convection. Results from numerical experiments by changing the SST anomaly in the warm pool area indicate that the period of the MJO does not monotonously change with increasing SST anomaly. Between the two extreme cases (no anomaly and strong anomaly, there is a regime in which the period varies in a wide range from 20 to 60 days. In the case of no warm pool, eastward-propagating Kelvin waves are dominant, whereas in the case of a strong warm pool, it produces a quasi-stationary convective system (with pronounced time variation. In a certain regime between the two extreme cases, convective activities with two different properties are strongly interacted, and the period of oscillations becomes complicated. The properties and behaviors of large-scale convective system (LCS, synoptic-scale convective system (SCS, mesoscale convective system (MCS, and mesoscale convection (MC, which constitute the hierarchical structure of the MJO, are also examined. It is also shown that cloud clusters, which constitute the SCS (such as super cloud cluster SCC, consist of a few MCS, and a new MCS forms to the west of the existing MCS. The northwesterly and southwesterly low-level flows contribute to this feature. In view of recent emphasis of the importance of the relative humidity above the boundary layer, it is shown that the model can simulate convective processes that moisten the atmosphere, and the importance of latent instability (positive CAPE, which is a necessary condition for the wave-CISK, is emphasized.

  20. Korean Festival: Hanshik- A Festive Day in April%韩国的寒食节

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lucy Zhang

    2004-01-01

    @@ The 105th day from the winter solstice1. It is on Chung Myung day or the day after and it usually falls on the second month and occasionally third month of the lunar calendar. (Chung Myung Day usually falls on approximately the 5th of April of the solar calendar, and it is a day before or after Hanshik day. )On this day, on most of the farms, the preparations for rice paddies2 are begun and the soil is turned over of paddy fields and dry fields banks is begun.

  1. The Category of Time in Fairy Tales: Searching for Folk Calendar Time in the Estonian Fairy Tale Corpus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairi Kaasik

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines how folk calendar holidays are represented in Estonian fairy tales. It introduces some views presented in folklore studies about the concept of time in fairy tales and finds parallels with them in the Estonian context. The analysis relies on the digital corpus of Estonian fairy tales (5400 variants, created from the texts found in the Estonian Folklore Archives by the Fairy Tale Project of the Department of Estonian and Comparative Folklore, University of Tartu. Folk calendar holidays occur in Estonian fairy tales relatively seldom; most often these are holidays that occupy a significant place in the Estonian folk calendar (Christmas, St. John’s Day, Easter, St. George’s Day. Calendar holidays are notably mentioned more often in tale types which remain on the borderline between the fairy tale and the legend or the fairy tale and the religious tale. In Estonian fairy tales, calendar holidays are used on three levels of meaning: (1 the holiday is organically associated with the tale type; it has an essential role in the plot of the tale; (2 to a certain extent, the holiday could be replaced by another holiday having an analogous meaning; (3 the holiday forms an unimportant or occasional addition to the tale.

  2. Neural mechanisms of savant calendar calculating in autism: an MEG-study of few single cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubischar-Krivec, Anna Milena; Bölte, Sven; Braun, Christoph; Poustka, Fritz; Birbaumer, Niels; Neumann, Nicola

    2014-10-01

    This study contrasted the neurological correlates of calendar calculating (CC) between those individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and typically developing individuals. CC is the ability to correctly and quickly state the day of the week of a given date. Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we presented 126 calendar tasks with dates of the present, past, and future. Event-related magnetic fields (ERF) of 3000ms duration and brain activation patterns were compared in three savant calendar calculators with ASD (ASDCC) and three typically developing calendar calculators (TYPCC). ASDCC outperformed TYPCC in correct responses, but not in answering speed. Comparing amplitudes of their ERFs, there was a main effect of group between 1000 and 3000ms, but no further effects of hemisphere or sensor location. We conducted CLARA source analysis across the entire CC period in each individual. Both ASDCC and TYPCC exhibited activation maxima in prefrontal areas including the insulae and the left superior temporal gyrus. This is in accordance with verbal fact retrieval and working memory as well as monitoring and coordination processes. In ASDCC, additional activation sites at the right superior occipital gyrus, the right precuneus, and the right putamen point to visual-spatial strategies and are in line with the preference of autistic individuals for engaging posterior regions relatively more strongly in various reasoning and problem solving tasks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Modeling lunar calendar effects in taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Jin-Lung Lin; Tian- Syh Liu

    2003-01-01

    The three most important Chinese holidays, Chinese New Year, the Dragon- boat Festival, and Mid-Autumn Holiday have dates determined by a lunar calendar and move between two solar months. Consumption, production, and other economic behavior in countries with large Chinese population including Taiwan are strongly affected by these holidays. For example, production accelerates before lunar new year, almost completely stops during the holidays and gradually rises to an average level after the ho...

  4. Environmental releases for calendar year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greager, E.M.

    1997-07-31

    This report presents data on radioactive and nonradioactive materials released into the environment during calendar year 1996 from facilities and activities managed by the Fluor Daniel Hanford, Incorporated (formerly the Westinghouse Hanford Company) and Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated. Fluor Daniel Hanford, Incorporated provides effluent monitoring services for Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated, which includes release reporting. Both summary and detailed presentations of the environmental releases are provided. When appropriate, comparisons to data from previous years are made.

  5. Environmental releases for calendar year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diediker, L.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-30

    This report presents data on radioactive and nonradioactive materials released into the environment during calendar year 1995 from facilities managed by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and monitored by Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated (BHI). WHC provides effluent monitoring services for BHI, which includes release reporting. Both summary and detailed presentations of the environmental releases are provided. When appropriate,comparisons to data from previous years are made.

  6. CEMI Days

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-07-01

    CEMI Days are an important channel of engagement between DOE and the manufacturing industry to identify challenges and opportunities for increasing U.S. manufacturing competitiveness. CEMI Days that are held at manufacturing companies’ facilities can include tours of R&D operations or other points of interest determined by the host company.

  7. Dinosaur Day!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Sandra; Baptiste, H. Prentice

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe how they capitalized on their first-grade students' love of dinosaurs by hosting a fun-filled Dinosaur Day in their classroom. On Dinosaur Day, students rotated through four dinosaur-related learning stations that integrated science content with art, language arts, math, and history in a fun and time-efficient…

  8. Evaluation of the impacts of the Madden-Julian Oscillation on rainfall and hurricanes in Central and South America and the Atlantic Ocean using ICI-RAFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannettone, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    Based on the method of Regional Frequency Analysis (RFA) and L-moments (Hosking & Wallis, 1997), a tool was developed to estimate the frequency/intensity of a rainfall event of a particular duration using ground-based rainfall observations. Some of the code used to develop this tool was taken from the FORTRAN code provided by Hosking & Wallis and rewritten in Visual Basic 2010. This tool was developed at the International Center for Integrated Water Resources Management (ICIWaRM) and is referred to as the ICIWaRM Regional Analysis of Frequency Tool (ICI-RAFT) (Giovannettone & Wright, 2012). In order to study the effectiveness of ICI-RAFT, three case studies were selected for the analysis. The studies take place in selected regions within Argentina, Nicaragua, and Venezuela. Rainfall data were provided at locations throughout each country; total rainfall for specific periods were computed and analyzed with respect to several global climate indices using lag times ranging from 1 to 6 months. Each analysis attempts to identify a global climate index capable of predicting above or below average rainfall several months in advance, qualitatively and using an equation that is developed. The index that had the greatest impact was the MJO (Madden-Julian Oscillation), which is the focus of the current study. The MJO is considered the largest element of intra-seasonal (30 - 90 days) variability in the tropical atmosphere and, unlike other indices, is characterized by the eastward propagation of large areas of convective anomalies near the equator, propagating from the Indian Ocean east into the Pacific Ocean. The anomalies are monitored globally using ten different indices located on lines of longitude near the equator, with seven in the eastern hemisphere and three in the western hemisphere. It has been found in previous studies that the MJO is linked to summer rainfall in Southeast China (Zhang et al., 2009) and southern Africa (Pohl et al., 2007) and to rainfall patterns

  9. Convective moisture adjustment time scale as a key factor in regulating model amplitude of the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xianan; Zhao, Ming; Maloney, Eric D.; Waliser, Duane E.

    2016-10-01

    Despite its pronounced impacts on weather extremes worldwide, the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) remains poorly represented in climate models. Here we present findings that point to some necessary ingredients to produce a strong MJO amplitude in a large set of model simulations from a recent model intercomparison project. While surface flux and radiative heating anomalies are considered important for amplifying the MJO, their strength per unit MJO precipitation anomaly is found to be negatively correlated to MJO amplitude across these multimodel simulations. However, model MJO amplitude is found to be closely tied to a model's convective moisture adjustment time scale, a measure of how rapidly precipitation must increase to remove excess column water vapor, or alternately the efficiency of surface precipitation generation per unit column water vapor anomaly. These findings provide critical insights into key model processes for the MJO and pinpoint a direction for improved model representation of the MJO.

  10. Phytosociological analysis of alpine swards and heathlands (pioneer patches on ridges and peaks in the Julian Alps (NW Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dakskobler Igor

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a phytosociological analysis of more than 250 relevés in the Julian Alps and compared them with similar communities elsewhere in the Alps and in the Dinaric Alps to describe the following new syntaxa of alpine swards and heathlands from the alliance Caricion firmae (class Elyno-Seslerietea: Saxifrago squarrosae-Caricetum mucronatae, Saussureo pygmaeae-Caricetum rupestris, Seslerio sphaerocephalae-Dryadetum octopetalae, Homogyno discoloris-Vaccinietum gaultherioidis, Saxifrago paniculatae-Caricetum fuliginosae and Homogyno discoloris-Loiseleurietum caricetosum firmae, the new association Achilleo clavennae-Elynetum myosuroidis from the alliance Oxytropido-Elynion and two new syntaxa from the alliance Loiseleurio-Vaccinion (class Loiseleurio-Vaccinietea: Homogyno alpinae-Vaccinietum gaultherioidis and Empetro-Vaccinietum gaultherioidis rhododendretosum hirsuti. Many species that are rare, of conservation concern or protected in Slovenia occur in the newly described communities.

  11. A mechanism-denial study on the Madden-Julian Oscillation with reduced interference from mean state changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, D.; Kuang, Z.

    2016-03-01

    Mechanism-denial experiments using Superparameterized Community Atmosphere Model are conducted to investigate the importance of extratropical and circumnavigating waves, wind-evaporation feedback, and radiative-convective feedback to the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). A common issue with mechanism-denial studies is the interference from mean state changes when processes are turned off in the model. Here time-invariant forcing and nudging on effective timescales longer than the intraseasonal timescale are implemented to maintain the mean state. The MJO activity remains largely unchanged with suppressed extratropical and circumnavigating waves when the mean state is maintained to be close to that of the control run, suggesting that excitation of MJO by extratropical and circumnavigating waves is not necessary for the existence of MJO in this model. It is also shown that the wind-evaporation feedback slows down eastward propagation of the MJO, and the radiative-convective feedback amplifies the MJO.

  12. Calendars with Olympiad display and eclipse prediction on the Antikythera Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeth, Tony; Jones, Alexander; Steele, John M; Bitsakis, Yanis

    2008-07-31

    Previous research on the Antikythera Mechanism established a highly complex ancient Greek geared mechanism with front and back output dials. The upper back dial is a 19-year calendar, based on the Metonic cycle, arranged as a five-turn spiral. The lower back dial is a Saros eclipse-prediction dial, arranged as a four-turn spiral of 223 lunar months, with glyphs indicating eclipse predictions. Here we add surprising findings concerning these back dials. Though no month names on the Metonic calendar were previously known, we have now identified all 12 months, which are unexpectedly of Corinthian origin. The Corinthian colonies of northwestern Greece or Syracuse in Sicily are leading contenders-the latter suggesting a heritage going back to Archimedes. Calendars with excluded days to regulate month lengths, described in a first century bc source, have hitherto been dismissed as implausible. We demonstrate their existence in the Antikythera calendar, and in the process establish why the Metonic dial has five turns. The upper subsidiary dial is not a 76-year Callippic dial as previously thought, but follows the four-year cycle of the Olympiad and its associated Panhellenic Games. Newly identified index letters in each glyph on the Saros dial show that a previous reconstruction needs modification. We explore models for generating the unusual glyph distribution, and show how the eclipse times appear to be contradictory. We explain the four turns of the Saros dial in terms of the full moon cycle and the Exeligmos dial as indicating a necessary correction to the predicted eclipse times. The new results on the Metonic calendar, Olympiad dial and eclipse prediction link the cycles of human institutions with the celestial cycles embedded in the Mechanism's gearwork.

  13. The IYA 365 Days of Astronomy Podcast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelman, Michael; Gay, P. L.; Atkinson, N.; Flateau, D.; Lakdawalla, E.

    2009-01-01

    The 365 Days of Astronomy Podcast is a community project that brings the voices of the global astronomy community to the public over the Internet. We are publishing 1 podcast per day, 5 to 10 minutes in duration, for all 365 days of 2009. The podcast is made available through an RSS feed. The podcast episodes are recorded and listened to by people around the world. Topics covered include astronomy inspired art and literature, historic discoveries, spacecraft, IYA events as well as interviews and discussions about the science of astronomy. Some podcasts have a specific topic or theme based on The 365 Days of Astronomy Calendar, a daily calendar of astronomical events, themes and ideas created by the IYA. Although all the episodes will have a common intro and outtro that ties into the overall theme, each episode is completely different. Are you willing to contribute to the 365 Days of Astronomy podcast?We are looking for individuals, schools, companies and clubs to provide 5 - 10 minutes of audio for our daily podcast. Our goal is to encourage people to sign up for a particular day (or days) of 2009. We have a calendar of astronomical events to give ideas but the podcasts can be about virtually any astronomical topic. We are seeking a wide range of contributions, from simple concepts or how-tos to more in-depth discussions of complex concepts. We are expecting a wide range of contributions, from simple at-home "first light” podcasts to highly polished and professional recordings. We hope to sign up a wide range of participants including professional astronomers, K-12 classrooms, college students, science bloggers, podcasters and media companies. Visit 365DaysOfAstronomy.org for more information.

  14. 77 FR 33470 - Reimbursement Rates for Calendar Year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ... Ancillary Per Diem Rate Calendar Year 2012 Lower 48 States: $477 Alaska: $811 Outpatient Surgery Rate (Medicare) Established Medicare rates for freestanding Ambulatory Surgery Centers. Effective Date...

  15. Danish TV Christmas calendars: Folklore, myth and cultural history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2013-01-01

    in which this traditional genre has succeeded in renewing itself. The so-called Pyrus series, TV 2’s Christmas calendars during the mid-1990s, exhibited folklore, myth and cultural history in a combination of entertainment and information. They were succeeded by calendars such as Jul i Valhal......This article aims at characterizing the Danish Christmas calendar as a TV institution and a meeting place for the traditions of the almanac, folklore and the history of culture. Against the background of a brief outline of the history of Danish Christmas calendars, the article explores ways...

  16. Airborne pollen in Funchal city, (Madeira Island, Portugal) - First pollinic calendar and allergic risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Irene Câmara

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, pollen calendars are useful tools for clinical guidance intended for allergy sufferers, because they can be used to prevent and manage allergic respiratory diseases, thus improving the quality of life. An aeropalinological study was performed in the city of Funchal with the purpose of establishing a pollen calendar and determining allergic risk, based on a seven year study (2003-2009). The airborne pollen monitoring was carried out with a Hirst type volumetric spore trap, following well-established guidelines. The mean annual pollen index was 1,635.09 and comprised 42 different pollen types. Airborne pollen levels were higher between March - June, accounting for 57.9% of the annual counts. Arboreal pollen grains (52.72%) prevailed in the atmosphere together with herbs and grasses (44.64%), while fern spores (2.29%) and unidentified pollen (0.35%) were scarce. The main pollen types were Urticaceae (20.64%), Poaceae (16.02%), Cupressaceae (13.61%), Pinaceae (9.07%), Myrtaceae (5.93%) and Ericaceae (5.02%). The pollen calendar comprised a total of 14 taxa and is similar to Mediterranean regions, with the exception of Olea europaea, Quercus sp., Betula sp. and Alnus sp. pollen types which are rare or absent. The main pollen season of major pollen taxa is significantly longer in Funchal (on average 239 days) than other European sites, especially for Urticaceae and Poaceae, but the pollen peaks were substantially lower. The pollen calendar for Funchal is the first ever created for Madeira region. Taking into account the low pollen index and number of allergy-risk days recorded (39 days in 7 years), the air quality of Funchal can be considered good.

  17. MAY DAY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳

    2009-01-01

    @@ May 1 is Intemational Labour Day.It is a great holiday for the working class.On this day working people all over the world demonstrate(显示)their power and solidarity(团结).It has its origins(起因,起源)in the struggle for shorter working hours.In 1884,eight Labour Unions of the United States and Canada held a convention(集会)in Chicago(芝加哥).Here it was decided to wage(开展)a united struggle to win the eight-hour day.A resolution(决议) was adopted (通过)fixing May1,1886,for a great nationwide(全国性的)demonstration(示威).

  18. Steve Boardman and Julian Goodare, eds., Kings, Lords and Men in Scotland and Britain, 1300–1625: Essays in Honour of Jenny Wormald. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2014. Pp. 368. ISBN: 9780748691500. £75.00.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda Dean

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Steve Boardman and Julian Goodare, eds., Kings, Lords and Men in Scotland and Britain, 1300–1625: Essays in Honour of Jenny Wormald. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2014. Pp. 368. ISBN: 9780748691500. £75.00.

  19. Calendar Time for Young Children: Good Intentions Gone Awry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneke, Sallee; Ostrosky, Michaelene; Katz, Lilian

    2008-01-01

    True understanding of time, dates, and the calendar comes with maturity. Given the level of thinking required to grasp time concepts and the developmental abilities of young children, the authors suggest alternatives to calendar routines for preschool and kindergarten children. Suggested activities include picture schedules, classroom journals,…

  20. 46 CFR 280.6 - Calendar year accounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calendar year accounting. 280.6 Section 280.6 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING SUBSIDIZED VESSELS AND... Calendar year accounting. Except as provided in § 280.9 (relating to the final year of an ODS...

  1. Mesyatsy "knizhnye" i "nebesnye": ikh sootnoshenie na stranitsakh letopisej %t "Literary" and "heavenly" months: their correlations in Russian chronicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravel', A. V.

    The overwhelming majority of Old-Russian dates are Julian, and this fact seems to prove that the Julian calendar gained a foothold after the baptism of Rus'. However, there are also about 10 lunar datings (mainly from the XV c.) in Russian chronicles. This fact corresponds to the words of Kirik (the Novgorod mathematician of the XII c.) who distinguished "heavenly" months from "literary" ones. The research shows that Kirik's words are true for the entire Medieval period of Russian history: the Julian calendar was really the "literary" one and people continued to count days by the Moon in their day-to-day life. Thus, lunar dating came up in Russian chronicles again and again. That is why attempts of recalculation into the Julian manner generated many mistakes (variant readings). If we take into account these "traces", we can reconstruct the initial lunar dating and determine more precisely the course of historical events.

  2. Substance use and Violence among Youth: A Daily Calendar Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Sarah A.; Epstein-Ngo, Quyen M.; Walton, Maureen; Zimmerman, Marc; Chermack, Stephen; Blow, Frederic C; Booth, Brenda M; Cunningham, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Background While researchers have identified factors that contribute to youth violence, less is known about the details of violent incidents. In addition, substance use has been linked to youth violence; however, little is known about actual substance use on days in which violence occurs. Objective This study examined reasons for peer violence and the association between substance use and violence using daily calendar-based analyses among at-risk urban youth. Methods Data were collected from Emergency Department (ED) patients (ages 14–24; n=599; 59% male, 65% African American) who screened positive for substance use in the past 6 months. Daily data regarding past 30-day substance use and violence and reasons for violent incidents were obtained via semi-structured interviews. Multi-level multinomial regression models were conducted to test the associations between substance use and peer violence incidents (i.e., none, moderate and severe). Results Conflict over ‘personal belongings’ was a common reason for violence among males; ‘jealousy’/’rumors’ were common reasons among females. Moderate victimization was more likely to be reported on days in which participants reported alcohol and cocaine use. Severe victimization was more likely to be reported on days in which participants reported alcohol use. Moderate or severe aggression was more likely to be reported on days in which participants reported alcohol and non-medical sedative use. Conclusions Results suggest that youth violence prevention that addresses differential reasons for violence among males and females as well as substance use would be beneficial. PMID:25493643

  3. Site environmental report for calendar year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This Annual Site Environmental Report presents information pertaining to environmental activities conducted during calendar year 1996 at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Grand Junction Office (GJO) facility in Grand Junction, Colorado. WASTREN-Grand Junction, the Facility Operations and Support contractor for the GJO, prepared this report in accordance with the requirements of DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and supplemental guidance from DOE Headquarters. This report applies specifically to the GJO facility; the Monticello Mill Tailings Site Environmental Summary for Calendar Year 1996 was prepared as a separate document. Primary GJO activities involve laboratory analysis of environmental samples from GJO and other DOE sites and site remediation of contamination caused by previous uranium mill operations. Activities at the GJO are conducted in compliance with applicable Federal, State, and local regulations and requirements and as directed by applicable DOE orders. Environmental monitoring is performed on air emissions, sewer effluent, surface water and groundwater, and wetlands restoration. Wastes are generated from the Analytical Laboratory, site remediation, and facility operation.

  4. Improved calendar time approach for measuring long-run anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Dutta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although a large number of recent studies employ the buy-and-hold abnormal return (BHAR methodology and the calendar time portfolio approach to investigate the long-run anomalies, each of the methods is a subject to criticisms. In this paper, we show that a recently introduced calendar time methodology, known as Standardized Calendar Time Approach (SCTA,, controls well for heteroscedasticity problem which occurs in calendar time methodology due to varying portfolio compositions. In addition, we document that SCTA has higher power than the BHAR methodology and the Fama–French three-factor model while detecting the long-run abnormal stock returns. Moreover, when investigating the long-term performance of Canadian initial public offerings, we report that the market period (i.e. the hot and cold period markets does not have any significant impact on calendar time abnormal returns based on SCTA.

  5. Thanksgiving Day

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙刚

    2004-01-01

    Fourth Thursday in November almost every culture in the world has held celebrations of thanks for a plentiful harvest.The American thanksgiving in the early days of the American colonies almost four hundred years ago.On that date in 1621,the European settlers in Plymouth,Massachusetts,gave their thanks to god for letting them survive their first year in the new world.They celebrated by having a large feast or dinner.

  6. May Day

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙继山

    2005-01-01

    May Day is of course the traditional worldwide holiday for workers. Be sure, even though the market economy is by now the prevalent economic modus operandi in sodalist as well as capitalist countries, the workers movement has not lost a bit of its importance. The workers are those who keep the economy on track. And the workers are also the consumers, Without consumers, as every first term economy student at any university knows by now, there is no national economic growth. Therefore, the second long holiday of the year will certainly- be conducive to the economy.

  7. Routine environmental monitoring schedule, calendar year 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, J.W.; Markes, B.M.; McKinney, S.M.

    1994-12-01

    This document provides Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) a schedule of monitoring and sampling routines for the Operational Environmental Monitoring (OEM) program during calendar year (CY) 1995. Every attempt will be made to consistently follow this schedule; any deviation from this schedule will be documented by an internal memorandum (DSI) explaining the reason for the deviation. The DSI will be issued by the scheduled performing organization and directed to Near-Field Monitoring. The survey frequencies for particular sites are determined by the technical judgment of Near-Field Monitoring and may depend on the site history, radiological status, use and general conditions. Additional surveys may be requested at irregular frequencies if conditions warrant. All radioactive wastes sites are scheduled to be surveyed at least annually. Any newly discovered wastes sites not documented by this schedule will be included in the revised schedule for CY 1995.

  8. Environmental Releases Report for Calendar Year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROKKAN, D.J.

    1999-08-27

    This report fulfills the annual reporting requirements of US. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program. It presents summaries of air emissions and liquid effluents released to the environment as well as nonroutine releases during calendar-year 1998 from facilities and activities managed by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH), and Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI). Besides the summaries, the report also has extensive data on those releases and the radioactive and hazardous substances they contained. These data were obtained from direct sampling and analysis and from estimations deriving from approved release factors. This report further serves as a supplemental resource to the Hanford Site Environmental Report (HSER, PNNL-12088), which gives a yearly accounting of the major activities and environmental status of the Hanford Site. The HSER documents the Hanford Site's state of compliance with applicable environmental regulations as well as describing the impacts of activities on the Site to the surrounding populace and environment.

  9. Environmental releases for calendar year 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-07-01

    This report fulfills the annual environmental release reporting requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders. This report provides supplemental information to the Hanford Site Environmental Report. The Hanford Site Environmental Report provides an update on the environmental status of the entire Hanford Site. The sitewide annual report summarizes the degree of compliance of the Hanford Site with applicable environmental regulations and informs the public about the impact of Hanford operations on the surrounding environment. Like the Hanford Site Environmental Report, this annual report presents a summary of the environmental releases from facilities managed by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and monitored by Bechtel Hanford, Incorporated (BHI). In addition to the summary data, this report also includes detailed data on air emissions, liquid effluents, and hazardous substances released to the environment during calendar year 1994 from these facilities.

  10. Intraseasonal response of the northern Indian Ocean coastal waveguide to the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vialard, J.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; McCreary, J.P.; Shankar, D.; Durand, F.; Fernando, V.; Shetye, S.R.

    . These observations can be interpreted within the framework of linear wave theory. At 15 degrees N, the minimum period for planetary waves is approx. 90 day, meaning that intraseasonal energy is largely trapped at the coast in the form of poleward-propagating Kelvin...

  11. Extended-range forecast of spring rainfall in southern China based on the Madden-Julian Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenkai; Hsu, Pang-chi; He, Jinhai; Zhu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Wenjun

    2016-06-01

    Spring (March-May) rainfall after a dry period in winter has a substantial impact on agriculture and water management in populous southern China. The occurrence of low-frequency spring rainfall anomalies has been linked with the tropical Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) through its modulation of large-scale circulation and moisture supply over southern China. Using the spatial and temporal information of the MJO as a predictor, an empirical model for extended-range forecasting of spring rainfall in southern China was constructed. We first obtained the coupled patterns between the preceding MJO evolutions (real-time multivariate MJO index) and the succeeding rainfall variability in southern China based on singular value decomposition analysis. Then, a prediction was carried out by projecting the predictor onto the spatiotemporal coupled patterns. Useful skill, in terms of the temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) between the predicted and observed rainfall over southern China, persisted up to a forecast lead-time of six pentads. The forecast amplitude bias in terms of root-mean-square error was around 1.0 standard deviation. Also, the forecast skill was highly dependent on the strength of the MJO signal. During active MJO periods, the TCC skill was around twofold larger than that during weak MJO periods. The current statistical model shows encouraging ability, but additional work is required to improve its forecasting skill.

  12. [The celebrity of Polish and French medicine--Józef Julian Franciszek Feliks Babiński (1857-1932)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalski, Janusz H; Gładki, Marcin; Pypłacz, Dariusz

    2007-07-01

    The paper presents a biography of Polish and French medical scientist, Józef Julian Franciszek Feliks Babiński (1857-1932), a son of Polish exiles to France after the unsuccessful insurrection against the Russian occupants. Born in Paris, Babiński considered Poland as his own home-country, being faithful and grateful citizen of France, his adopted country. He made his neurological department in Paris a world famous medical centre at the turn of the 20th century. Currently for every student of medicine or physician practitioner, the name of Babiński immediately associates with the "toe phenomenon" (phénomène des orteils). The discovery of this "sign" (1896) is the crowning point of Babiński's work in semiology. He was a co-author of discoveries known under eponym names of syndromes: Babinski-Nageotte, Babinski-Fröhlich, Anton-Babinski and many others. Babiński emphasized his Polish origins, expressing his feeling towards two home countries (1922): "I am proud to have two countries--to one, I owe the knowledge, to the other, the country of my ancestors, the elements of my Polish soul...".

  13. Impact of Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) on global distribution of total water vapor and column ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathurochman, Irvan; Lubis, Sandro W.; Setiawan, Sonni

    2017-01-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) is the leading mode of intra-seasonal variability in the tropical troposphere, characterized by an eastward moving ‘pulse’ of cloud and rainfall near the equator. In this study, total precipitable water (TPW) and total column ozone (TCO) datasets from ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalysis were used to analyse the impact of the MJO on the distribution of water vapor and column ozone in the tropics from 1979 to 2013. The results show that seasonal variations of TPW modulated by the MJO are maximized in the tropics of about 10°S-10°N during boreal winter, while the variation in TCO is maximized in the mid-latitudes of about 30°S - 40°N in the same season. The composite analysis shows that MJO modulates TPW and TCO anomalies eastward across the globe. The underlying mechanism of the MJO’s impact on TPW is mainly associated with variation of tropical convection modulated by the MJO, while the underlying mechanism of the MJO’s impact on TCO is mainly associated with an intra-seasonal variability of tropopause height modulated by the MJO activity. This knowledge helps to improve the prediction skill of the intra-seasonal variation of water vapor and column ozone in the tropics during boreal winter.

  14. Moist Process Biases in Simulations of the Madden–Julian Oscillation Episodes Observed during the AMIE/DYNAMO Field Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagos, Samson M.; Feng, Zhe; Burleyson, Casey D.; Zhao, Chun; Martini, Matus N.; Berg, Larry K.

    2016-02-01

    Two Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) episodes observed during the 2011 AMIE/DYNAMO field campaign are simulated using a regional cloud-permitting model, a regional model with various cumulus parameterizations, and a global variable-resolution model with a high-resolution region centered over the tropical Indian Ocean. Model biases associated with moisture mode instability, wind-induced surface heat exchange (WISHE), and convective momentum transport (CMT) are examined and their relative contributions to the overall model errors are quantified using a linear statistical model. Linear relationships are found among the normalized root mean square errors of precipitation, saturation fraction, evaporation, and surface wind speed suggesting that errors may propagate across the processes involving these variables. Analysis using a linear statistical model shows the relationship between convection and local surface wind speed (related to CMT processes) is the source of the largest uncertainty. In comparison, WISHE processes in the simulations tend to be biased consistently, with excess evaporation for the same wind speeds as the observations, which suggests they are likely related to biases in boundary layer and/or surface schemes. The relationship between precipitation and saturation fraction (which is associated with moisture mode instability) is captured relatively well with slightly larger model precipitation in the simulations in comparison to observations for the same saturation fraction, especially for weak rain rates. By linking developments in theoretical understanding of MJO processes and cumulus parameterizations, this study provides guidance to future improvements of MJO simulation by in high-resolution regional and global models.

  15. Effective control parameters in a deep convection scheme for improved simulation of the Madden-Julian oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin-Ho; Seo, Kyong-Hwan

    2016-07-01

    This work seeks to find the most effective parameters in a deep convection scheme (relaxed Arakawa-Schubert scheme) of the National Centers of Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System model for improved simulation of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). A suite of sensitivity experiments are performed by changing physical components such as the relaxation parameter of mass flux for adjustment of the environment, the evaporation rate from large-scale precipitation, the moisture trigger threshold using relative humidity of the boundary layer, and the fraction of re-evaporation of convective (subgrid-scale) rainfall. Among them, the last two parameters are found to produce a significant improvement. Increasing the strength of these two parameters reduces light rainfall that inhibits complete formation of the tropical convective system or supplies more moisture that help increase a potential energy to large-scale environment in the lower troposphere (especially at 700 hPa), leading to moisture preconditioning favorable for further development and eastward propagation of the MJO. In a more humid environment, more organized MJO structure (i.e., space-time spectral signal, eastward propagation, and tilted vertical structure) is produced.

  16. Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 1979: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1979 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  17. Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge and Round Lake Waterfowl Production Area outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1978 calendar...

  18. Roanoke River National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative : Calendar year 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative for Roanoke River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2010 calendar year. The report begins with a forward,...

  19. Rydell National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rydell National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the...

  20. Mingo National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mingo National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1983 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction...

  1. Erie National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Erie National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments for the 1996 calendar year. The report begins by giving a brief introduction...

  2. Erie National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Erie National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments for the 1989 calendar year. The report begins by giving a brief introduction...

  3. Mingo National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mingo National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction...

  4. Mingo National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mingo National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1982 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction...

  5. Mingo National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mingo National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1984 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction...

  6. Kanuti National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Kanuti NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  7. Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1967 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  8. Narrative report Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge Calendar year - 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Monomoy National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the...

  9. Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  10. Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : Calendar year 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Tewaukon NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1967 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  11. Narrative report : Benson Wetland Management District : Calendar year 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Benson WMD outlines District accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  12. Tinicum National Environmental Center: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Tinicum National Environmental Center outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1982 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  13. Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  14. Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Kodiak NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1984 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  15. Presquile National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar Year 1976

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Presquile National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1976 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  16. Audubon National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Audubon National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1984 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  17. National Elk Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for National Elk Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  18. Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Trempealeau NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1987 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  19. Steigerwald Lake National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 1991: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Steigerwald Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  20. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1988 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  1. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1977 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge and...

  2. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1978 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge and...

  3. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  4. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1986 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  5. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1996 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  6. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1976

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1976 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge and...

  7. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1979 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge and...

  8. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1983 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  9. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1984 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  10. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1997 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  11. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1982 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  12. Arctic National Wildlife Range : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic National Wildlife Range outlines Range accomplishments during the 1970 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the...

  13. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  14. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  15. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1987 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  16. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1980 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge and...

  17. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  18. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  19. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  20. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  1. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arctic NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  2. Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar Year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1996 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  3. Mingo National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mingo National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction...

  4. Santee National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Santee National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the...

  5. Audubon National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Audubon National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  6. Santee National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Santee National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1996 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the...

  7. Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  8. Erie National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Erie National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments for the 1997 calendar year. The report begins by giving a brief introduction...

  9. Santee National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Santee National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1985 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the...

  10. Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the...

  11. Rydell National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rydell National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the...

  12. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  13. Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  14. Santee National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Santee National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the...

  15. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins by giving a...

  16. Litchfield Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Litchfield Wetland Management District outlines accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  17. Rydell National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Rydell National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the...

  18. Audubon National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Audubon National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  19. Santee National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Santee National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the...

  20. Mingo National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mingo National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1987 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction...

  1. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1998 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  2. Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1988 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  3. Santee National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Santee National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the...

  4. Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1988 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  5. Santee National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Santee National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1981 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the...

  6. Santee National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Santee National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1987 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the...

  7. Litchfield Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Litchfield Wetland Management District outlines accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  8. Santee National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Santee National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the...

  9. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  10. James Campbell National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 1989: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for James Campbell NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  11. Desoto National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Desoto National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the...

  12. Desoto National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Desoto National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1996 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the...

  13. Desoto National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Desoto National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the...

  14. Desoto National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Desoto National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the...

  15. Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  16. Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  17. Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  18. Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1996 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  19. Quivira National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative reports: Calendar year 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Quivira NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1988 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  20. Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  1. National Elk Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for National Elk Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  2. Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1997 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  3. Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Flats National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1982 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  4. Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1990 : Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Muscatatuck NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  5. Selawik National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Selawik National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  6. Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1989 : Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Muscatatuck NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  7. Koyukuk National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Koyukuk NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  8. Becharof National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Becharof NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1982 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  9. Lostwood Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Lostwood Wetland Management District outlines accomplishments during the 1983 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  10. Ouray National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ouray National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1966 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the...

  11. Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1969 : Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Great Meadows National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1969 calendar year. The report begins by...

  12. Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1964

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments for calendar year 1964. The report begins by summarizing the weather...

  13. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  14. Shiawasee National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1986 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  15. National Bison Range Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for the National Bison Range outlines Refuge accomplishments for the 1983 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  16. Ninepipe National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ninepipe NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1983 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  17. Ninepipe National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ninepipe National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  18. Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1984 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  19. Ouray National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Ouray National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1979 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  20. [Waubay Wetland Management District: Narrative report - Calendar year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Waubay Wetland Management District outlines district accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  1. National Elk Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year, 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for National Elk Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1978 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  2. Quivira National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Quivira National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  3. Ouray National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ouray National Wildife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2001 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the...

  4. Togiak National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Togiak National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1986 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  5. Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Chincoteague NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1983 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  6. Alamosa National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Alamosa NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1977 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge and...

  7. National Bison Range Annual narrative report: Calendar year: 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for the National Bison Range outlines Refuge accomplishments for the 1979 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  8. National Bison Range Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for the National Bison Range outlines Refuge accomplishments for the 1984 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  9. Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Lacreek NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1984 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  10. Becharof National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Becharof NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  11. Innoko National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Innoko NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  12. Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Agassiz NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1977 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge and...

  13. Kanuti National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Kanuti NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  14. Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Nowtina NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  15. Becharof National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Becharof NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1983 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  16. Kanuti National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Kanuti NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  17. Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report: Calendar year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the...

  18. Seatuck National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Seatuck NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1984 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  19. Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Kodiak NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  20. Madison Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Madison WMD outlines accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights and...

  1. Madison Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Madison WMD outlines accomplishments during the 1988 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights and...

  2. Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Sherburne NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  3. Necedah National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Necedah National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  4. Necedah National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Necedah National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  5. Lostwood Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Lostwood WMD and Shell Lake NWR outlines accomplishments during the 1978 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to...

  6. Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Tewaukon NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1978 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge and...

  7. Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Iroquois NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1986 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  8. Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Iroquois NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1983 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  9. Kenai National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Kenai NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  10. Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Iroquois NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1984 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  11. Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Iroquois NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  12. Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Iroquois NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1987 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  13. Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Iroquois NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  14. Grasslands Wildlife Management Area : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Grasslands WMA outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  15. Iroquois National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Iroquois NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  16. Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Agassiz NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  17. Santee National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Santee National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1982 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the...

  18. Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  19. Horicon National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Horicon National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  20. Horicon National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Horicon National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  1. Mingo National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mingo National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction...

  2. Kirwin National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Kirwin National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1996 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the...

  3. Mingo National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mingo National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction...

  4. Mingo National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Mingo National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1988 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction...

  5. Kirwin National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Kirwin National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1997 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the...

  6. Quivira National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Reports : Calendar Year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Quivira National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the...

  7. Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  8. Kenai National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Kenai NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  9. Kirwin National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Kirwin National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1998 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the...

  10. Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1996 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the...

  11. Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments for the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  12. Presquile National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Presquile NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1987 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge...

  13. Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments for the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  14. Presquile National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Presquile NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge...

  15. Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  16. Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments for the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  17. Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  18. Quivira National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Quivira NWR summarizes Refuge activities during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year’s highlights...

  19. Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments for the 1988 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  20. Kenai National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Kenai NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1982 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  1. Windom Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes District activities during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  2. Quivira National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Reports : Calendar Year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Quivira National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the...

  3. Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  4. Kirwin National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Kirwin National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the...

  5. Quivira National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Quivira National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1998 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the...

  6. Erie National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Erie National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments for the 1984 calendar year. The report begins by giving a brief introduction...

  7. Izembek National Wildlife Range : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Izembek, Eastern Aleutians, Semidi, and Simeonof NWRs outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1977 calendar year. The report begins with...

  8. Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1979 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction...

  9. Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Okefenokee NWR and Banks Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2006 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  10. Roanoke River National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative : Calendar year 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative for Roanoke River National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2006 calendar year. The report begins with a forward,...

  11. Erie National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Erie National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments for the 1995 calendar year. The report begins by giving a brief introduction...

  12. Erie National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Erie National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments for the 1986 calendar year. The report begins by giving a brief introduction...

  13. Presquile National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Presquile NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1983 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge...

  14. Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1977 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction...

  15. Santee National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Santee NWR outlines activities and accomplishments during the 2004 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  16. Kirwin National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Kirwin NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1980 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge and...

  17. Horicon National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Horicon NWR and Wisconsin WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1979 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  18. National Bison Range Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for the National Bison Range outlines Refuge accomplishments for the 1987 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  19. Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 1995: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Midway Atoll NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  20. Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  1. Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  2. Hastings Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Hastings WMD outlines District accomplishments during the 1980 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the WMD and...

  3. Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  4. Presquile National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Presquile NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1984 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge...

  5. Valentine National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Valentine NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  6. Quivira National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Quivira National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during the 1999 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the...

  7. Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Tamarac National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  8. Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Trempealeau NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  9. Tewaukon National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative report : Calendar year 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Tewaukon NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  10. Narrative report Benson Wetland Management District : Calendar year, 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Benson WMD outlines District accomplishments during the 1972 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  11. Benson Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for the Benson Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1979 calendar year. The report begins by...

  12. Narrative report : Benson Wetland Management District : Calendar year 1967

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Benson WMD outlines District accomplishments during the 1967 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  13. Benson Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for the Benson Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1977 calendar year. The report begins by...

  14. Benson Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for the Benson Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1978 calendar year. The report begins by...

  15. Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  16. Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  17. Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Trempealeau National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  18. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins by giving a...

  19. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  20. Arrowwood Wetland Management District : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood WMD, Chase Lake, Johnson Lake, and Halfway Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The...

  1. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins by giving a...

  2. [Arrowwood Water Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood Water Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1978 calendar year. The report begins by...

  3. Arrowwood Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood Water Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report begins by...

  4. Arrowwood Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood Water Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1980 calendar year. The report begins by...

  5. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1979 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  6. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins by giving a...

  7. Arrowwood Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1979

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood Water Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1979 calendar year. The report begins by...

  8. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1980 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  9. Arrowwood Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood Water Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1982 calendar year. The report begins by...

  10. Arrowwood Wetland Management District : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood WMD, Chase Lake, Johnson Lake, and Halfway Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The...

  11. Arrowwood Water Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood Water Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1977 calendar year. The report begins by...

  12. Narrative report Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge Calendar year 1966

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1966 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  13. Narrative report Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge Calendar year 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1965 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  14. Hastings Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Hastings Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments for the 1977 calendar year. The report begins by giving District...

  15. Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative: Calendar year 1998

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Cypress Creek National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities during calendar year 1998. The report begins with an...

  16. Valentine National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Valentine NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1984 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  17. Windom Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes District activities during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  18. Tewaukon Wetland Management District : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Tewaukon WMD outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1983 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  19. Lostwood Wetland Management District Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Lostwood Wetland Management District outlines accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the...

  20. Windom Wetland Management District : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Windom Wetland Management District summarizes District activities during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  1. Meredosia National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Meredosia National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1982 calendar year. The report begins with Refuge...

  2. Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1972

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities from calendar year 1972. The report begins with a summary of the weather...

  3. Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1970

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge summarizes refuge activities from calendar year 1970. The report begins with a summary of the weather...

  4. Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 1970: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Hawaiian Islands NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1970 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  5. Alamosa National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1971

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Alamosa National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1971 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the...

  6. National Bison Range: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for the National Bison Range outlines Refuge accomplishments for the 1977 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  7. Muscatatuck National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1976

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Muscatatuck NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1976 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge...

  8. Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1980 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  9. Ninepipe National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ninepipe National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1977 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  10. Shiawassee National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Shiawassee NWR, Michigan Islands NWR, and Wyandotte NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report...

  11. Horicon National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1976

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Horicon NWR, Green Bay NWR, and Gravel Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1976 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  12. [Seney National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Seney NWR and Huron Islands NWR outlines activities and accomplishments during the 1999 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  13. Seney National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Seney National Wildlife Refuge and Huron Island National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1982 calendar...

  14. [Seney National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Seney NWR outlines activities and accomplishments during the 2001 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  15. Seney National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Seney NWR, Huron Islands and Harbor Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1984 calendar year. The report begins with...

  16. [Seney National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Seney NWR outlines activities and accomplishments during the 2000 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  17. Seney National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Seney NWR, Huron Islands and Harbor Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1986 calendar year. The report begins with...

  18. Seney National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Seney NWR, Huron Islands and Harbor Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report begins with...

  19. Seney National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Seney National Wildlife Refuge and Huron Islands National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1983 calendar...

  20. Seney National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1976

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Seney National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1976 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction...

  1. Seney National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Seney NWR, Huron Islands and Harbor Island NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1987 calendar year. The report begins with...

  2. Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1980 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction...

  3. Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report includes a planning...

  4. Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1977

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1977 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction...

  5. Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1984 calendar year. The report includes a planning...

  6. Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report includes a planning...

  7. Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1983 calendar year. The report includes a planning...

  8. Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1982 calendar year. The report includes a planning...

  9. Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1978 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction...

  10. Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Chautauqua National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1986 calendar year. The report includes a planning...

  11. Kulm Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Kulm WMD, Bonehill NWR, Maple River NWR, and Dakota Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The...

  12. Kulm Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Kulm WMD, Bonehill NWR, Maple River NWR, and Dakota Lake NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1984 calendar year. The...

  13. Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1987

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Missisquoi National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments for the 1987 calendar year. The report begins with an...

  14. Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  15. Madison Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Madison WMD outlines accomplishments during the 1985 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights and...

  16. Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge annual narrative report: Calendar year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  17. Selawik National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Selawik National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  18. Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar Year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1983 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  19. Merced National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Merced NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  20. Litchfield Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Litchfield Wetland Management District outlines District accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report begins with a...

  1. Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Yukon Delta National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  2. Lacreek National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Lacreek NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1986 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  3. Wertheim National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1982

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Wertheim National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1982 calendar year. The report begins by giving a brief...

  4. Morris Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Morris Wetland Management District outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  5. Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Monte Vista National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1986 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  6. Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Arrowwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1999 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing...

  7. Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Seedskadee National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  8. Litchfield Wetland Management District: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1983

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Litchfield WMD outlines District accomplishments during the 1983 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  9. Valentine National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report, Calendar Year 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Valentine National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2010 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  10. Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of...

  11. Valentine National Wildlife Refuge: Annual Narrative Report, Calendar Year 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Valentine National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 2007 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  12. Ouray National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ouray National Wildife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1980 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the...

  13. Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1997

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Okefenokee NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1997 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge....

  14. Ouray National Wildlife Refuge : Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Ouray National Wildlife Refuge outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1978 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the...

  15. Innoko National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Innoko NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  16. Kenai National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Kenai NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  17. Nowitna National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1989

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Nowtina NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1989 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  18. Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge: Annual narrative report: Calendar year 1980

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This narrative report for Agassiz NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1980 calendar year. The report begins with an introduction to the Refuge and...

  19. Kenai National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Kenai NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1990 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's highlights...

  20. Becharof National Wildlife Refuge : Annual narrative report : Calendar year 1981

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Becharof NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1981 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...